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Sample records for marked gastric distension

  1. Mechanism of UES relaxation initiated by gastric air distension.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Shaker, Reza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of initiation of transient upper esophageal sphincter relaxation (TUESR) caused by gastric air distension. Cats (n = 31) were decerebrated, EMG electrodes were placed on the cricopharyngeus, a gastric fistula was formed, and a strain gauge was sewn on the lower esophageal sphincter (n = 8). Injection of air (114 ± 13 ml) in the stomach caused TUESR (n = 18) and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR, n = 6), and this effect was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by thoracotomy. Free air or bagged air (n = 6) activated TLESR, but only free air activated TUESR. Closure of the gastroesophageal junction blocked TUESR (9/9), but not TLESR (4/4), caused by air inflation of the stomach. Venting air from distal esophagus during air inflation of the stomach prevented TUESR (n = 12) but did not prevent air escape from the stomach to the esophagus (n = 4). Rapid injection of air on the esophageal mucosa always caused TUESR (9/9) but did not always (7/9) cause an increase in esophageal pressure. The time delay between the TUESR and the rapid air pulse was significantly more variable (P < 0.05) than the time delay between the rapid air pulse and the rise in esophageal pressure. We concluded that the TUESR caused by gastric air distension is dependent on air escape from the stomach, which stimulates receptors in the esophagus, but is not dependent on distension of the stomach or esophagus, or the TLESR. Therefore, the TUESR caused by gastric air distension is initiated by stimulation of receptors in the esophageal mucosa.

  2. [Effect of metoclopramide on gastric distension and lethal toxicity of cisplatin in mice].

    PubMed

    Lee, K E; Kubota, T; Sawamura, M; Kadowaki, K

    1986-05-01

    Mice treated with cisplatin (cDDP), were found to have considerably bloated stomachs presumably resulting from paralysis of gastric emptying without appetite suppression and emesis. Repeated administration of metoclopramide (MCP) not only reduced gastric distension, but also the number of toxic deaths after 13 mg/kg of cisplatin i.p. The mechanism of action by which MCP increased the resistance of mice to cDDP seemed to be alleviation of systemic dehydration by means of enhanced gastric emptying. PMID:3707151

  3. Repeated Gastric Distension Alters Food Intake and Neuroendocrine Profiles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave, Sara L.; Kinzig, Kimberly P.

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of a large food bolus leads to stomach distension. Gastric distension potently signals the termination of a meal by stimulating gastric mechanoreceptors and activating neuroendocrine circuitry. The ability to terminate a meal is altered in disorders such as bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED) and certain subtypes of obesity in which large quantities of food are frequently ingested. When a large meal is consumed, the stomach is rapidly stretched. We modeled this rapid distension of the stomach in order to determine if the neuroendocrine abnormalities present in these disorders, including increased gastric capacit3y, leptin dysregulation, and alterations in neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression, were influenced by the rapid stretch aspect of repeatedly consuming a large meal. To test the effects of repeated gastric distension (RGD) on neuroendocrine factors involved in energy homeostasis, a permanent intra-gastric balloon was implanted in rats, and briefly inflated daily for 4 weeks. Though body weights and daily food intakes remained equivalent in RGD and control rats, a significant delay in the onset of feeding was present during the first and second, but not the third and fourth weeks of inflations. Despite equivalent body weights and daily caloric consumption, RGD animals had significantly decreased leptin levels (p < 0.05), and tended to have increased fasting arcuate NPY levels (p = 0.08), which were suppressed more than control animals following food intake (control and RGD decreases from baseline were 184.95% and 257.42%, respectively). NPY expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract followed a similar pattern. These data demonstrate that the act of regularly distending the stomach can have effects on the regulation of energy balance that are independent from those related to caloric consumption, and may be related to disorders such as BN, BED, and certain types of obesity in which meal termination

  4. Underwater-seal nasogastric tube drainage to relieve gastric distension caused by air swallowing.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A W; Bramall, J C; Ball, J

    2011-02-01

    Air swallowing can occur as a psychogenic phenomenon, because of abnormal anatomy, or during non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Gross distension of the stomach with air can have severe consequences for the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with severe dynamic hyperinflation due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who developed respiratory failure requiring intubation a few hours after radical prostatectomy. Following a percutaneous tracheostomy and weaning of sedation on day six, his abdomen began to enlarge progressively. X-rays revealed massive gastric distension due to air swallowing, which continued despite all efforts to optimise therapy. The use of an underwater seal drainage system on a nasogastric tube improved ventilation and ultimately aided weaning from mechanical support.

  5. Neurohumoral inhibitory mechanism initiated by antral distension.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, T; Debas, H T

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the effect of graded antral distension with acid (0.1 M HCl) or alkali (0.1 M NaHCO3) on pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion in two groups of dogs. Group A consisted of six dogs provided with innervated antral pouch. In these dogs, the vagal branches to the fundus, as well as the extragastric vagal divisions (hepatic and celiac), were preserved. All of these animals had a gastric fistula in the main stomach, and in two a denervated fundic pouch or Heidenhain pouch was constructed in addition. Group B consisted of four dogs with an innervated antral pouch and gastric fistula. In this latter group, however, parietal cell vagotomy as well as extragastric vagotomy (division of the hepatic and celiac branches) was performed so that the only vagal communication was between the antrum and the CNS. Antral distension with acid caused significant inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion from both the gastric fistula and the Heidenhain pouch in Group A dogs. Antral acidification without distension did not inhibit. Alkaline antral distension in this group caused much less inhibition of acid secretion, but did cause significant increase in circulating immunoreactive gastrin. In Group B dogs, antral distension with neither acid nor alkali caused inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion, indicating that intact vagal supply to the oxyntic mucosa and/or to the extragastric abdominal organs is necessary for the inhibitory mechanism to operate. The results of this study suggest that: a) antral acidification per se does not inhibit pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion; and b) antral distension with acid, and to a lesser extent with alkali, is inhibitory only if vagal innervation to the fundus and other abdominal viscera is preserved. The observations are compatible with the hypothesis that antral distension activates a neurohumoral inhibitory mechanism releasing the inhibitor reflexly from sites other than the antrum or CNS. PMID

  6. Computer-Simulated Biopsy Marking System for Endoscopic Surveillance of Gastric Lesions: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J.; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy. PMID:25954747

  7. Computer-simulated biopsy marking system for endoscopic surveillance of gastric lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy. PMID:25954747

  8. Widespread osteoblastic metastases and marked elevation of CA19-9 as a presentation of signet ring cell gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Asaf; Bejar, Jacob; Schiff, Elad; Dotan, Yaniv

    2016-01-01

    Widespread osteoblastic metastases, as well as marked elevations of CA19-9 and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), are the initial manifestations of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. CT Imaging revealed diffuse sclerotic metastases in the axial skeleton. It was only following gastric biopsy that the primary site of metastatic bone tumor was identified. Recent studies suggest that early diagnosis of cancer origin, including tumor molecular profiling, may dictate specific therapy, improve prognosis and increase patient survival rates. PMID:27034800

  9. GABAA receptors expression pattern in rat brain following low pressure distension of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, M; Molinari, C; Grossini, E; Piffanelli, V; Mary, D A S G; Vacca, G; Cannas, M

    2008-03-18

    It is known that gastric mechanoreceptor stimuli are widely integrated into neuronal circuits that involve visceral nuclei of hindbrain as well as several central brain areas. GABAergic neurons are widely represented in hindbrain nuclei controlling gastric motor functions, but limited information is available specifically about GABA(A)-responding neurons in brain visceral areas. The present investigation was designed to determine the central sensory neuronal pathways and their GABA(A)-alpha1 and -alpha3 receptor presenting neurons that respond to gastric mechanoreceptor stimulation within the entire rat brain. Low pressure gastric distension was used to deliver physiological mechanical stimuli in anesthetized rats, and different protocols of gastric distension were performed to mimic different stimulation patterns with and without sectioning vagal and/or splanchnic afferent nerves. Mapping of activated neurons was investigated using double colorimetric immunohistochemistry for GABA(A)-alpha1 or -alpha3 subunits and c-Fos. Following stomach distension, neurons expressing GABA(A) receptors with alpha1 or alpha3 subunits were detected. Low frequency gastric distension induced c-Fos expression in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) only, whereas in the high frequency gastric distension c-Fos positive nuclei were found in lateral reticular nucleus and in NTS in addition to some forebrain areas. In contrast, during the tonic-rapid gastric distension the neuronal activation was found in hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain areas. Moreover different protocols of gastric stimulation activated diverse patterns of neurons presenting GABA(A)-alpha1 or -alpha3 receptors within responding brain nuclei, which may indicate a probable functional significance of differential expression of GABA(A)-responding neurons. The same protocol of gastric distension performed in vagotomized rats has confirmed the primary role of the vagus in the response of activation of gastric brain areas, whereas

  10. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2+ cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5+ stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5+ stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2+ cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2+ cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program. PMID:26989172

  11. Lineage-specific RUNX3 hypomethylation marks the preneoplastic immune component of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kurklu, B; Whitehead, RH; Ong, EK; Minamoto, T; Fox, JG; Mann, JR; Judd, LM; Giraud, AS; Menheniott, TR

    2015-01-01

    Runt domain transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is widely regarded as a tumour-suppressor gene inactivated by DNA hypermethylation of its canonical CpG (cytidine-phosphate-guanidine) island (CGI) promoter in gastric cancer (GC). Absence of RUNX3 expression from normal gastric epithelial cells (GECs), the progenitors to GC, coupled with frequent RUNX3 overexpression in GC progression, challenge this longstanding paradigm. However, epigenetic models to better describe RUNX3 deregulation in GC have not emerged. Here, we identify lineage-specific DNA methylation at an alternate, non-CGI promoter (P1) as a new mechanism of RUNX3 epigenetic control. In normal GECs, P1 was hypermethylated and repressed, whereas in immune lineages P1 was hypomethylated and widely expressed. In human GC development, we detected aberrant P1 hypomethylation signatures associated with the early inflammatory, preneoplastic and tumour stages. Aberrant P1 hypomethylation was fully recapitulated in mouse models of gastric inflammation and tumorigenesis. Cell sorting showed that P1 hypomethylation reflects altered cell-type composition of the gastric epithelium/tumour microenvironment caused by immune cell recruitment, not methylation loss. Finally, via long-term culture of gastric tumour epithelium, we revealed that de novo methylation of the RUNX3 canonical CGI promoter is a bystander effect of oncogenic immortalization and not likely causal in GC pathogenesis as previously argued. We propose a new model of RUNX3 epigenetic control in cancer, based on immune-specific, non-CGI promoter hypomethylation. This novel epigenetic signature may have utility in early detection of GC and possibly other epithelial cancers with premalignant immune involvement. PMID:25088199

  12. Photonic sensing of arterial distension

    PubMed Central

    Ruh, Dominic; Subramanian, Sivaraman; Sherman, Stanislav; Ruhhammer, Johannes; Theodor, Michael; Dirk, Lebrecht; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Most cardiovascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and hypertension, are directly linked to pathological changes in hemodynamics, i.e. the complex coupling of blood pressure, blood flow and arterial distension. To improve the current understanding of cardiovascular diseases and pave the way for novel cardiovascular diagnostics, innovative tools are required that measure pressure, flow, and distension waveforms with yet unattained spatiotemporal resolution. In this context, miniaturized implantable solutions for continuously measuring these parameters over the long-term are of particular interest. We present here an implantable photonic sensor system capable of sensing arterial wall movements of a few hundred microns in vivo with sub-micron resolution, a precision in the micrometer range and a temporal resolution of 10 kHz. The photonic measurement principle is based on transmission photoplethysmography with stretchable optoelectronic sensors applied directly to large systemic arteries. The presented photonic sensor system expands the toolbox of cardiovascular measurement techniques and makes these key vital parameters continuously accessible over the long-term. In the near term, this new approach offers a tool for clinical research, and as a perspective, a continuous long-term monitoring system that enables novel diagnostic methods in arteriosclerosis and hypertension research that follow the trend in quantifying cardiovascular diseases by measuring arterial stiffness and more generally analyzing pulse contours. PMID:27699095

  13. Photonic sensing of arterial distension

    PubMed Central

    Ruh, Dominic; Subramanian, Sivaraman; Sherman, Stanislav; Ruhhammer, Johannes; Theodor, Michael; Dirk, Lebrecht; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Most cardiovascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and hypertension, are directly linked to pathological changes in hemodynamics, i.e. the complex coupling of blood pressure, blood flow and arterial distension. To improve the current understanding of cardiovascular diseases and pave the way for novel cardiovascular diagnostics, innovative tools are required that measure pressure, flow, and distension waveforms with yet unattained spatiotemporal resolution. In this context, miniaturized implantable solutions for continuously measuring these parameters over the long-term are of particular interest. We present here an implantable photonic sensor system capable of sensing arterial wall movements of a few hundred microns in vivo with sub-micron resolution, a precision in the micrometer range and a temporal resolution of 10 kHz. The photonic measurement principle is based on transmission photoplethysmography with stretchable optoelectronic sensors applied directly to large systemic arteries. The presented photonic sensor system expands the toolbox of cardiovascular measurement techniques and makes these key vital parameters continuously accessible over the long-term. In the near term, this new approach offers a tool for clinical research, and as a perspective, a continuous long-term monitoring system that enables novel diagnostic methods in arteriosclerosis and hypertension research that follow the trend in quantifying cardiovascular diseases by measuring arterial stiffness and more generally analyzing pulse contours.

  14. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  15. A Case of Refractory Gastric Cardia Ulcer in Which Marked Elevation of the Surrounding Mucosa was Observed During the Clinical Course

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Tateki; Umeda, Akira; Shimao, Hitoshi; Ishii, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old man visited our department because of epigastric pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a small, undermined ulcer in the gastric cardia. He had no history of taking NSAIDs, and was positive for Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. After Hp eradication therapy followed by 8 weeks of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) administration, re-endoscopy showed that the ulcer had slightly shrunk without scarring, and the surrounding mucosa was markedly elevated, like in a submucosal tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonography, performed at the same time, showed thickening of the submucosal and muscular layers around the ulcer. After continuous PPI administration, the mucosal elevation disappeared, and the ulcer shrunk and later scarred. However, when the dose of PPI was reduced with the aim of discontinuing it after the confirmation of successful Hp eradication, the ulcer recurred. We report this case of gastric ulcer because of its peculiar clinical presentation.

  16. Immature Gastric Teratoma in a Newborn: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, Hemant; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Srivastava, Divya; Chandana, Abha; Prakash, Sant

    2016-01-01

    A case of immature gastric teratoma in a neonate is being reported here. The neonate was presented with abdominal mass and distension and managed with excision of mass; the patient is doing fine postoperatively. PMID:27123405

  17. Arterial Distensibility in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV), as an indicator of arterial distensibility, may play an important role in the stratification of patients based on the cardiovascular risk. PWV inversely correlates with arterial distensibility and relative arterial compliance. Decreased arterial distensibility alters arterial blood pressure and flow dynamics, and disturbes coronary perfusion. Systemic immune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, predominantly due to adverse cardiovascular events. Systemic inflammation in these disorders may alter arterial compliance and arterial distensibility and, through this effect, lead to accelerated atherosclerosis. We have demonstrated an increase in the carotid-femoral (aortic) PWV that is a technique in which large artery elasticity is assessed from analysis of the peripheral arterial waveform, in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions such as RA, SLE, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG), sarcoidosis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis except Behçet’s disease (BD). In this review, the issue of arterial stiffness in RA, SLE, as well as WG, psoriasis, FMF, BD, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis (SS) and Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is overviewed. PMID:20461114

  18. Esophagogastric junction distensibility in hiatus hernia.

    PubMed

    Lottrup, C; McMahon, B P; Ejstrud, P; Ostapiuk, M A; Funch-Jensen, P; Drewes, A M

    2016-07-01

    Hiatus hernia is known to be an important risk factor for developing gastroesophageal reflux disease. We aimed to use the endoscopic functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP) to evaluate the functional properties of the esophagogastric junction. EndoFLIP assessments were made in 30 patients with hiatus hernia and Barrett's esophagus, and in 14 healthy controls. The EndoFLIP was placed straddling the esophagogastric junction and the bag distended stepwise to 50 mL. Cross-sectional areas of the bag and intra-bag pressures were recorded continuously. Measurements were made in the separate sphincter components and hiatus hernia cavity. EndoFLIP measured functional aspects such as sphincter distensibility and pressure of all esophagogastric junction components and visualized all hiatus hernia present at endoscopy. The lower esophageal sphincter in hiatus hernia patients had a lower pressure (e.g. 47.7 ± 13.0 vs. 61.4 ± 19.2 mm Hg at 50-mL distension volume) and was more distensible (all P < 0.001) than the common esophagogastric junction in controls. In hiatus hernia patients, the crural diaphragm had a lower pressure (e.g. 29.6 ± 10.1 vs. 47.7 ± 13.0 mm Hg at 50-mL distension volume) and was more distensible (all P < 0.001) than the lower esophageal sphincter. There was a significant association between symptom scores in patients and EndoFLIP assessment. Conclusively, EndoFLIP was a useful tool. To evaluate the presence of a hiatus hernia and to measure the functional properties of the esophagogastric junction. Furthermore, EndoFLIP distinguished the separate esophagogastric junction components in hiatus hernia patients, and may help us understand the biomechanics of the esophagogastric junction and the mechanisms behind hiatal herniation. PMID:25789842

  19. Uterine distension differentially affects remodelling and distensibility of the uterine vasculature in non-pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Barron, Carolyn; Mandalà, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy the mammalian uterine circulation undergoes significant expansive remodelling necessary for normal pregnancy outcome. The underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that myometrial stretch actively stimulates uterine vascular remodelling by developing a new surgical approach to induce unilateral uterine distension in non-pregnant rats. Three weeks after surgery, which consisted of an infusion of medical-grade silicone into the uterine lumen, main and mesometrial uterine artery and vein length, diameter and distensibility were recorded. Radial artery diameter, distensibility and vascular smooth muscle mitotic rate (Ki67 staining) were also measured. Unilateral uterine distension resulted in significant increases in the length of main uterine artery and vein and mesometrial segments but had no effect on vessel diameter or distensibility. In contrast, there were significant increases in the diameter of the radial arteries associated with the distended uterus. These changes were accompanied by reduced arterial distensibility and increased vascular muscle hyperplasia. In summary, this is the first report to show that myometrial stretch is a sufficient stimulus to induce significant remodelling of uterine vessels in non-pregnant rats. Moreover, the results indicate differential regulation of these growth processes as a function of vessel size and type.

  20. Decrease of 5hmC in gastric cancers is associated with TET1 silencing due to with DNA methylation and bivalent histone marks at TET1 CpG island 3′-shore

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Eun-Hye; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Lim, Byungho; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Yong Sung

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that the level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in chromosomal DNA is aberrantly decreased in a variety of cancers, but whether this decrease is a cause or a consequence of tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we show that, in gastric cancers, the 5hmC decrease correlates with a decrease in ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) expression, which is strongly associated with metastasis and poor survival in patients with gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, TET1-targeted siRNA induced a decrease in 5hmC, whereas TET1 overexpression induced an increase in 5hmC and reduced cell proliferation, thus correlating decreased 5hmC with gastric carcinogenesis. We also report the epigenetic signatures responsible for regulating TET1 transcription. Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Sequencing and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing identified unique CpG methylation signatures at the CpG island 3′-shore region located 1.3 kb from the transcription start site of TET1 in gastric tumor cells but not in normal mucosa. The luciferase activity of constructs with a methylated 3′-shore sequence was greatly decreased compared with that of an unmethylated sequence in transformed gastric cancer cells. In gastric cancer cells, dense CpG methylation in the 3′-shore was strongly associated with TET1 silencing and bivalent histone marks. Thus, a decrease in 5hmC may be a cause of gastric tumorigenesis owing to a decrease in TET1 expression through DNA methylation coupled with bivalent marks in the 3′-shore of TET1. PMID:26462176

  1. [Gastric emptying and functional dyspepsia].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Aros, S

    2006-01-01

    Dyspeptic syndrome includes symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, nausea and/or vomiting. These symptoms are common to highly diverse processes such as duodenal ulcer, pancreatitis and even intestinal ischemia, among many others. However, most patients who consult for this syndrome do not have any of these well known processes. New mechanisms have been proposed that could explain the symptoms presented by these patients. Among these mechanisms are those relating to an alteration of normal gastroduodenal motor function, such as alterations of gastric compliance, antral distension, gastric accommodation to anomalous ingestion, and alterations of gastric emptying. The present review evaluates the role of gastric emptying in producing dyspeptic symptoms according to the evidence available to date. We discuss gastric emptying in patients with functional or idiopathic dyspepsia compared with that in the healthy population, the correlation between gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms, and the response of dyspeptic symptoms to the prokinetic therapies carried out to date.

  2. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described. PMID:24975870

  3. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Julia L.; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A.

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described. PMID:24975870

  4. Antinociceptive action against colonic distension by brain orexin in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-02-19

    Increasing evidence has suggested that brain orexins are implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions. With regard to gastrointestinal functions, orexin-A acts centrally to regulate gastrointestinal functions such as gastric and pancreatic secretion, and gastrointestinal motility. Visceral sensation is also known as one of key gastrointestinal functions which are controlled by the central nervous system. Little is, however, known about a role of central orexin in visceral sensation. This study was therefore performed to clarify whether brain orexin may be involved in the process of visceral sensation. Visceral sensation was evaluated by colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternally administered orexin-A dose-dependently increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR. In contrast, neither intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A nor intracisternal orexin-B altered the threshold volume. While intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, by itself failed to change the threshold volume, SB334867 injected centrally completely blocked the morphine-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that orexin-A specifically acts centrally in the brain to enhance antinociceptive response to colonic distension. We would furthermore suggest that endogenous orexin-A indeed mediates the antinociceptive effect of morphine on visceral sensation through the orexin 1 receptors. All these evidence might indicate that brain orexin plays a role in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome because visceral hypersensitivity of the gut is considered to play a vital role in the diseases.

  5. Increased distensibility in dependent veins following prolonged bedrest.

    PubMed

    Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2009-07-01

    Displacement of blood to the lower portion of the body that follows a postural transition from recumbent to erect is augmented by a prolonged period of recumbency (bedrest). Information is scarce as to what extent this augmented blood-volume shift to dependent veins is attributable to increased distensibility of the veins. Accordingly, we studied the effect of 5 weeks of horizontal bedrest on the pressure-distension relationship in limb veins. Elevation of venous distending pressure was induced by exposure of the body except the tested limb to supra-atmospheric pressure with the subject seated in a pressure chamber with one arm, or supine with a lower leg, protruding through a hole in the chamber door. Diameter changes in response to an increase of intravenous pressure (distensibility) from 60 to about 140 mmHg were measured in the brachial and posterior tibial veins using ultrasonographic techniques. Prior to bedrest, the distensibility was substantially less in the tibial than in the brachial vein. Bedrest increased (P < 0.01) pressure distension in the tibial vein by 86% from 7 +/- 3% before to 13 +/- 3% after bedrest. In the brachial vein, bedrest increased (P < 0.05) pressure distension by 36% from 14 +/- 5% before to 19 +/- 5% after bedrest. Thus, removal of the gravity-dependent pressure components that act along the blood vessels in erect posture increases the distensibility of dependent veins.

  6. Management Strategies for Abdominal Bloating and Distension

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Anna; Burgell, Rebecca; Barrett, Jacqueline S.

    2014-01-01

    Bloating and distension are among the most common gastrointestinal complaints reported by patients with functional gut disorders and by the general population. These 2 complaints are also among the most prevalent of the severe symptoms reported by patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Nonetheless, only a limited number of published studies have specifically addressed bloating; it is infrequently studied as a primary endpoint, and what little systematic information exists has often been garnered from the assessment of secondary endpoints or the dissection of composite endpoints. This lack of data, and our consequent limited understanding of the pathophysiology of bloating, had hampered the quest for effective and targeted therapies until recently. Advances in the knowledge of underlying mechanisms, particularly with regard to the roles of diet, poorly absorbed fermentable carbohydrates, dysbiosis of the gut bacteria, alterations in visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal viscerosomatic reflexes, have enabled the development of improved treatment options. The most significant recent advance has been a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which significantly reduces patients’ symptoms and improves quality of life. Given the prevalence of bloating and its perceived severity, it is clear that further studies regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of this problem are needed. PMID:27551250

  7. Aortic stiffness and distensibility among hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Meenakshisundaram, R; Kamaraj, K; Murugan, S; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P

    2009-09-01

    Hypertension is one among many factors that contribute to aortic stiffness, which has repercussions mainly on the heart. To assess aortic stiffness among essential hypertensives of South India and its relationship with gender. An analytical study was designed to assess aortic stiffness among 60 nonobese, nonalcoholic, nonsmoking, and non-caffeine consuming essential hypertensives without any overt illness or infection, and compared with 30 healthy age- and sex-matched nonhypertensives. They were assessed clinically and also by laboratory means. Their left ventricular mass (LV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured using Transthoracic echocardiogram. Aortic systolic and diastolic diameters were measured by using M-mode echocardiography during consecutive beats and averaged for each case. Finally, aortic stiffness was calculated. The data were analyzed statistically. Hypertensives were divided into Group I, consisting of patients with hypertension at least for 5 years, who were not adherent to medication, and Group II, consisting of patients with hypertension of duration between 6 months and 1 year. There were 20 males and 10 females in each group. There was no significant difference between the hypertensive groups and a control, normotensive, group with regard to BMI or total cholesterol. The means of LV mass (in grams), systolic BP (in mmHg), diastolic BP (in mmHg), aortic systolic diameter (in mm), aortic diastolic diameter (in mm), aortic distensibility (in mm), and aortic stiffness found in Group I, Group II, and controls were 105.8 +/- 23.8, 101.5 +/- 21, and 84 +/- 9.8; 138 +/- 14.2, 153 +/- 17.1, and 120 +/- 8.3; 90.5 +/- 11.6, 101.7 +/- 17.1, and 76.5 +/- 5; 30.85 +/- 2.6, 28.7 +/- 2.6, and 27.7 +/- 2.4; 28.7 +/- 2.2, 25.8 +/- 2.5, and 24.2 +/- 2.5; 2.14 +/- 0.3, 2.84 +/- 0.5, and 3.5 +/- 0.6; and 1.31 +/- 0.09, 1.14 +/- 0.1, and 1.04 +/- 0.08, respectively. The differences between the hypertensive groups and the control group were

  8. Feasibility of esophagogastric junction distensibility measurement during Nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Ilczyszyn, A; Botha, A J

    2014-01-01

    Increased esophagogastric junction distensibility has been implicated in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Previous authors have demonstrated a reduction in distensibility following anti-reflux surgery, but the changes during the operation are not clear. Our study aimed to ascertain the feasibility of measuring intraoperative distensibility changes and to assess if this would have potential to modify the operation. Seventeen patients with GERD were managed in a standardized manner consisting of preoperative assessment with symptom scoring, endoscopy, 24 hours pH studies, and manometry. Patients then underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with intraoperative distensibility measurement using an EndoFLIP EF-325 functional luminal imaging probe (Crospon Ltd, Galway, Ireland). This device utilizes impedance planimetry technology to measure cross-sectional area and distensibility within a balloon-tipped catheter. This is inflated at the esophagogastric junction to fixed distension volumes. Thirty-second median cross-sectional area and intraballoon pressure measurements were recorded at 30 and 40 mL balloon distensions. Measurement time points were initially after induction of anesthesia, after pneumoperitoneum, after hiatal mobilization, after hiatal repair, after fundoplication, and finally pre-extubation. Postoperatively, patients continued on protocol and were discharged after a two-night stay tolerating a sloppy diet. Patients with a hiatus hernia on high-resolution manometry had a significantly higher initial esophagogastric junction distensibility index (DI) than those without. Hiatus repair and fundoplication resulted in a significant overall reduction in the median DI from the initial to final recordings (30 mL balloon distension reduction of 3.26 mm(2) /mmHg (P = 0.0087), 40 mL balloon distension reduction of 2.39 mm(2) /mmHg [P = 0.0039]). There was also a significant reduction in the DI after pneumoperitoneum, hiatus

  9. Gastric Duplication Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome. PMID:22953249

  10. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  11. Gastric volvulus and associated gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, M; Burge, D M; Griffiths, D M

    1995-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1994, 10 neurologically normal children between 2 and 24 months were diagnosed as having gastric volvulus with associated gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). The common features at presentation were episodic colicky abdominal pain, non-bilious vomiting, upper abdominal distension, haematemesis, and failure to thrive. Anterior gastropexy and conservative management of GOR was curative. Images Figure 2 PMID:8554369

  12. Analysis of detergent-resistant membranes of Helicobacter pylori infected gastric adenocarcinoma cells reveals a role for MARK2/Par1b in CagA-mediated disruption of cellular polarity.

    PubMed

    Zeaiter, Zaher; Cohen, David; Müsch, Anne; Bagnoli, Fabio; Covacci, Antonello; Stein, Markus

    2008-03-01

    Detergent-resistant membranes of eukaryotic cells are enriched in many important cellular signalling molecules and frequently targeted by bacterial pathogens. To learn more about pathogenic mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori and to elucidate novel effects on host epithelial cells, we investigated how bacterial co-cultivation changes the protein composition of detergent-resistant membranes of gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) tissue culture cells. Using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) analysis we identified several cellular proteins, which are potentially related to H. pylori virulence. One of the proteins, which showed a significant infection-dependent increase in detergent resistance, was the polarity-associated serine/threonine kinase MARK2 (EMK1/Par-1b). We demonstrate that H. pylori causes the recruitment of MARK2 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where it colocalizes with the bacteria and interacts with CagA. Using Mardin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) monolayers and a three-dimensional MDCK tissue culture model we showed that association of CagA with MARK2 not only causes disruption of apical junctions, but also inhibition of tubulogenesis and cell differentiation. PMID:18005242

  13. [Noticeable clinical response to S-1/CDDP combination therapy for Virchow node recurrence after surgery for advanced gastric carcinoma with marked involvement of the esophagus - report of a case].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hiromitsu; Ichiki, Masataka; Sai, Keijyou; Kamata, Keisuke; Ansai, Makoto; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Kawamura, Masashi; Ichinose, Azusa; Miyazaki, Shukichi

    2009-05-01

    We have recently experienced a case in which S-1/CDDP combination therapy proved remarkably efficacious for a rapid, extensive lymph node recurrence with metastasis into a Virchow node that had developed after resection of advanced gastric carcinoma accompanied with a marked invasion of the esophagus. The patient, a woman aged 73, underwent a total gastrectomy upon left thoracolaparotomy for a gastric carcinoma at the cardia with a 5-cm involvement of the esophagus. On day 65 post-operation, a diagnosis of Virchow node and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was made on the basis of CT scan findings. Of tumor markers checked, CEA and CA19-9 were noted to be increased to as high as 37.55 ng/mL and 3,235 U/mL, respectively. The patient received three courses of S-1/CDDP combination therapy, with a consequent noticeable contraction of the Virchow node and enlarged para-aortic lymph node. Further, she was given two courses of S-1 therapy, which resulted in normalization of tumor markers. The patient has since been on continued chemotherapy without any sign of recurrence.

  14. Vessel distensibility and flow distribution in vascular trees.

    PubMed

    Krenz, Gary S; Dawson, Christopher A

    2002-04-01

    In a class of model vascular trees having distensible blood vessels, we prove that flow partitioning throughout the tree remains constant, independent of the nonzero driving flow (or nonzero inlet to terminal outlet pressure difference). Underlying assumptions are: (1) every vessel in the tree exhibits the same distensibility relationship given by D/D(0) = f(P) where D is the diameter which results from distending pressure P and D(0) is the diameter of the individual vessel at zero pressure (each vessel may have its own individual D(0). The choice of f(P) includes distensibilities often used in vessel biomechanics modeling, e.g., f(P) = 1 + alpha P or f(P) = b + (1-b) exp(-c P), as well as f(P) which exhibit autoregulatory behavior. (2) Every terminal vessel in the tree is subjected to the same terminal outlet pressure. (3) Bernoulli effects are ignored. (4) Flow is nonpulsatile. (5) Blood viscosity within any individual vessel is constant. The results imply that for a vascular tree consistent with assumptions 2-5, the flow distribution calculations based on a rigid geometry, e.g., D=D(0), also gives the flow distribution when assuming the common distensibility relationships.

  15. [Start of mastication by esophageal distension in sheep].

    PubMed

    Boivin, R; Bost, J; Peralta, F E

    1985-01-01

    Oesophageal wall distension was performed on standing conscious sheep by inflating a rubber balloon at four different levels inside the cervical and thoracic oesophagus. Although no retrograde oesophageal peristalsis was ever recorded, these stimulations were always followed by a conspicuous increase of parotid saliva secretion. They frequently induced the onset of chewing movements, whatever the level of the oesophageal distension. The cyclical reticular activity does not bear any relationship to the occurrence of the chewing movements. The masticatory response could be either of the "ON" or "ON - OFF" type, but most often of the "OFF" type. The response to thoracic oesophageal distension was suppressed by mid-cervical anaesthetic blockage of vagal conduction. A possible involvement of any sort of stimulation of the oral cavity was thus ruled out. The masticatory response to oesophageal distension is a reflex mechanism whose afferent pathway from the distal part lies in the vagal trunk. Such a reflex may participate early in the initiation of chewing movements during rumination, prior to the arrival of the regurgitated bolus into the mouth.

  16. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  17. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in Two Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Akalonu, Amaka; Yasrebi, Mona; Rios, Zarela Molle

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: Female, 11 • Male, 15 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous gastric perforation Symptoms: Abdominal pain • distention • vomiting • leukocytosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Both patients had surgery Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare etiology Background: Spontaneous gastric perforation is a rare clinical disorder. The majority of the available data have been reported in the neonatal age group. There are a few cases of spontaneous gastric perforation in preschool children. To our knowledge, there is no published information on spontaneous gastric perforation in older children and adolescents. Case Report: We describe the presentation and clinical course of two adolescent children who presented with spontaneous gastric perforation. Both children presented with acute onset abdominal pain, which progressively worsened. In both cases, the patient were taken urgently to the operating room after imaging studies had shown pneumoperitoneum. In both cases, surgery revealed gastric perforation with no obvious etiology, specifically no ulcer, inflammation, or other pathology. Conclusions: These two cases highlight the importance of including spontaneous gastric perforation, not just the typical duodenal/gastric ulcer, in the differential of a patient with severe abdominal pain and distension, who has imaging showing pneumoperitoneum. PMID:27686129

  18. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  19. Using computed tomography scans to develop an ex-vivo gastric model

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Jerome A; O’Sullivan, Gerard; Pandit, Abhay S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to use abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans to non-invasively quantify anthropometrical data of the human stomach and to concomitantly create an anatomically correct and distensible ex-vivo gastric model. Thirty-three abdominal CT scans of human subjects were obtained and were imported into reconstruction software to generate 3D models of the stomachs. Anthropometrical data such as gastric wall thickness, gastric surface area and gastric volume were subsequently quantified. A representative 3D computer model was exported into a selective laser sintering (SLS) rapid prototyping machine to create an anatomically correct solid gastric model. Subsequently, a replica wax template of the SLS model was created. A negative mould was offset around the wax template such that the offset distance was equivalent to that of the gastric wall thickness. A silicone with similar mechanical properties to the human stomach was poured into the offset. The lost wax manufacturing technique was employed to create a hollow distensible stomach model. 3D computer gastric models were generated from the CT scans. A hollow distensible silicone ex-vivo gastric model with similar compliance to that of the human stomach was created. The anthropometrical data indicated that there is no significant relationship between BMI and gastric surface area or gastric volume. There were inter- and intra-group differences between groups with respect to gastric wall thickness. This study demonstrates that abdominal CT scans can be used to both non-invasively determine gastric anthropometrical data as well as create realistic ex-vivo stomach models. PMID:17457968

  20. Determination of membrane tension during balloon distension of intestine.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, H; Kassab, G S; Fung, Y C

    2004-09-01

    During the last decades, it has become increasingly common to make balloons distension in visceral organs in vivo. In particular this is true for studies of gastrointestinal motor function and biomechanics. Balloon distension is often used for assessment of small intestinal compliance and tension based on Laplace's law for cylindrical pressure pipes. This commonly used law is valid only when the balloon-distended intestine is cylindrical. Experimentally, it is seen that the diameter of the balloon-distended intestine is not a constant, but variable in the axial direction. Hence, it is necessary to improve Laplace's law for intestinal investigation. In this paper we develop the framework for determination of the tension distribution in circumferential and longitudinal direction during balloon distension. When the radii of curvature are measured from a photograph of the intestinal profile, then the membrane stress resultants can be computed everywhere in the intestine in contact with the balloon from the equations of equilibrium. The experimental data were obtained from small intestinal segments from five pigs and three guinea pigs. Papaverine was injected before the animals were sacrificed to relax the intestinal smooth muscle. The segments were immersed in a bath with calcium-free Krebs solution with dextran and EGTA. A balloon was distended in the lumen with pressures up to 15 cmH2O in the pigs and 10 cmH2O in the guinea pigs and radii were measured along the z-axis. The tension in circumferential direction had its maximum approximately 25% away from the middle of the balloon. The circumferential tension was 2-3 times higher than the longitudinal tension. In conclusion when we know the shape of the intestine, we can compute the circumferential and longitudinal components of tension. The large variation in tensions along the z axis must be considered when performing balloon distension studies in the gastrointestinal tract for studying physiological and

  1. Functional oesophago-gastric junction imaging

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Barry P; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Gregersen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Despite its role in disease there is still no definitive method to assess oesophago-gastric junction competence (OGJ). Traditionally the OGJ has been assessed using manometry with lower oesophageal sphincter pressure as the indicator. More recently this has been shown not to be a very reliable marker of sphincter function and competence against reflux. Disorders such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and to a lesser extend achalasia still effects a significant number of patients. This review looks at using a new technique known as impedance planimetry to profile the geometry and pressure in the OGJ during distension of a bag. The data gathered can be reconstructed into a dynamic representation of OGJ action. This has been shown to provide a useful representation of the OGJ and to show changes to the competence of the OGJ in terms of compliance and distensibility as a result of endoluminal therapy. PMID:16718804

  2. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat

  3. Pathologic aerophagia: a rare cause of chronic abdominal distension

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Cestari, Ana Beatriz C.S.S.; da Silva, Orli Carvalho; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Firme, Livia Honorato

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adolescent with pathologic aerophagia, a rare condition caused by excessive and inappropriate swallowing of air and to review its treatment and differential diagnoses. Case description: An 11-year-old mentally impaired blind girl presenting serious behavior problems and severe developmental delay with abdominal distension from the last 8 months. Her past history included a Nissen fundoplication. Abdominal CT and abdominal radiographs showed diffuse gas distension of the small bowel and colon. Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. The distention was minimal at the moment the child awoke and maximal at evening, and persisted after control of constipation. Audible repetitive and frequent movements of air swallowing were observed. The diagnosis of pathologic aerophagia associated to obsessive-compulsive disorder and developmental delay was made, but pharmacological treatment was unsuccessful. The patient was submitted to an endoscopic gastrostomy, permanently opened and elevated relative to the stomach. The distention was resolved, while maintaining oral nutrition. Comments: Pathologic aerophagia is a rare self-limiting condition in normal children exposed to high levels of stress and may be a persisting problem in children with psychiatric or neurologic disease. In this last group, the disease may cause serious complications. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments are ill-defined. Severe cases may demand surgical strategies, mainly decompressive gastrostomy. PMID:26100594

  4. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  5. Perineal Distensibility Using Epi-no in Twin Pregnancies: Comparative Study with Singleton Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Kubotani, Juliana Sayuri; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Soares, Vanessa Cardoso Marques; Elito Júnior, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare perineal distensibility between women with twin and singleton pregnancies and to correlate these women's perineal distensibility with anthropometric data. This prospective cross-sectional case-control study was conducted among nulliparous women, of whom 20 were pregnant with twins and 23 with a single fetus. Perineal distensibility was evaluated in the third trimester by means of Epi-no, which was introduced into the vagina and inflated up to the maximum tolerable limit. It was then withdrawn while inflated and its circumference was measured. The unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare perineal distensibility in the two groups and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to correlate the pregnant women's perineal distensibility with their anthropometric data. There was no difference in perineal distensibility between the twin group (16.51 ± 2.05 cm) and singleton group (16.13 ± 1.67 cm) (P = 0.50). There was a positive correlation between perineal distensibility and abdominal circumference (r = 0.36; P = 0.01). The greater the abdominal circumference was, the greater the perineal distensibility was, regardless of whether the pregnancy was twin or singleton. PMID:25006476

  6. Magnetic sensor for arterial distension and blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ruhhammer, Johannes; Herbstritt, Tamara; Ruh, Dominic; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Seifert, Andreas; Woias, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A novel sensor for measuring arterial distension, pulse and pressure waveform is developed and evaluated. The system consists of a magnetic sensor which is applied and fixed to arterial vessels without any blood vessel constriction, hence avoiding stenosis. The measurement principle could be validated by in vitro experiments on silicone tubes, and by in vivo experiments in an animal model, thereby indicating the non-linear viscoelastic characteristics of real blood vessels. The sensor is capable to provide absolute measurements of the dynamically varying arterial diameter. By calibrating the sensor, a long-term monitoring system for continuously measuring blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters could be developed based on the method described. This will improve diagnostics for high risk patients and enable a better, specific treatment.

  7. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  8. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  9. Evaluation of regional aortic distensibility using color kinesis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshimasa; Kotoh, Keiju; Yamashita, Akio; Furuta, Hidetoshi; Shimazu, Chikasi; Misaki, Takurou

    2003-01-01

    Regional aortic stiffness cannot be evaluated by conventional methods. Regional aortic wall velocity during systole in the descending aorta was evaluated by using transesophageal echocardiography with color kinesis. The authors defined regional aortic distensibility (RAD) by considering pulse pressure, with RAD (microm/s/mm Hg) = (regional aortic wall velocity)/(pulse pressure). RAD was evaluated in 38 patients who had coronary artery disease (CAD) and 10 who did not. RAD decreased depending on aging (partial regression coefficient was -5.39 x 10(-1), p<0.001), and RAD was lower in the CAD group than that in the no-CAD group (p<0.05). In the CAD group, 19 patients had a single fixed plaque (4 calcified and 15 noncalcified plaques). RAD in the calcified plaque was lower than that in the noncalcified plaque (p<0.01), and RAD was lower in the noncalcified plaque than that in the no-plaque region (p<0.05). In noncalcified plaques, the relation between RAD and maximum intimal thickness had a significant correlation, r=0.7, p<0.001. The residual of RAD from the regression line was significantly larger in the calcified plaque than that in the noncalcified plaque (p<0.001). In conclusion, RAD can express increasing regional aortic wall stiffness brought about by arteriosclerosis quantitatively. Color kinesis provides information on characteristic difference between calcified and noncalcified plaque.

  10. Pressure distension in leg vessels as influenced by prolonged bed rest and a pressure habituation regimen.

    PubMed

    Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Kölegård, Roger

    2016-06-15

    Bed rest increases pressure distension in arteries, arterioles, and veins of the leg. We hypothesized that bed-rest-induced deconditioning of leg vessels is governed by the removal of the local increments in transmural pressure induced by assuming erect posture and, therefore, can be counteracted by intermittently increasing local transmural pressure during the bed rest. Ten men underwent 5 wk of horizontal bed rest. A subatmospheric pressure (-90 mmHg) was intermittently applied to one lower leg [pressure habituation (PH) leg]. Vascular pressure distension was investigated before and after the bed rest, both in the PH and control (CN) leg by increasing local distending pressure, stepwise up to +200 mmHg. Vessel diameter and blood flow were measured in the posterior tibial artery and vessel diameter in the posterior tibial vein. In the CN leg, bed rest led to 5-fold and 2.7-fold increments (P < 0.01) in tibial artery pressure-distension and flow responses, respectively, and to a 2-fold increase in tibial vein pressure distension. In the PH leg, arterial pressure-distension and flow responses were unaffected by bed rest, whereas bed rest led to a 1.5-fold increase in venous pressure distension. It thus appears that bed-rest-induced deconditioning of leg arteries, arterioles, and veins is caused by removal of gravity-dependent local pressure loads and may be abolished or alleviated by a local pressure-habituation regimen. PMID:27079693

  11. Pressure distension in leg vessels as influenced by prolonged bed rest and a pressure habituation regimen.

    PubMed

    Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Kölegård, Roger

    2016-06-15

    Bed rest increases pressure distension in arteries, arterioles, and veins of the leg. We hypothesized that bed-rest-induced deconditioning of leg vessels is governed by the removal of the local increments in transmural pressure induced by assuming erect posture and, therefore, can be counteracted by intermittently increasing local transmural pressure during the bed rest. Ten men underwent 5 wk of horizontal bed rest. A subatmospheric pressure (-90 mmHg) was intermittently applied to one lower leg [pressure habituation (PH) leg]. Vascular pressure distension was investigated before and after the bed rest, both in the PH and control (CN) leg by increasing local distending pressure, stepwise up to +200 mmHg. Vessel diameter and blood flow were measured in the posterior tibial artery and vessel diameter in the posterior tibial vein. In the CN leg, bed rest led to 5-fold and 2.7-fold increments (P < 0.01) in tibial artery pressure-distension and flow responses, respectively, and to a 2-fold increase in tibial vein pressure distension. In the PH leg, arterial pressure-distension and flow responses were unaffected by bed rest, whereas bed rest led to a 1.5-fold increase in venous pressure distension. It thus appears that bed-rest-induced deconditioning of leg arteries, arterioles, and veins is caused by removal of gravity-dependent local pressure loads and may be abolished or alleviated by a local pressure-habituation regimen.

  12. Effects of octreotide on responses to colorectal distension in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Su, X; Burton, M; Gebhart, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—It has been suggested that the analgesic effect of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in visceral pain involves peripheral mechanisms. We evaluated the effect of octreotide on responses to noxious colorectal distension in rats.
METHODS—In a behavioural study, pressor and electromyographic responses to colorectal distension were evaluated before and after intravenous or intrathecal administration of octreotide. In pelvic nerve afferent fibre recordings, responses of mechanosensitive fibres innervating the colon to noxious colorectal distension (80 mm Hg, 30 seconds) were tested before and after octreotide.
RESULTS—Octreotide was ineffective in attenuating responses to colorectal distension in either normal or acetic acid inflamed colon when administered intravenously but attenuated responses when given intrathecally. Administration of octreotide over a broad dose range (0.5 µg/kg to 2.4 mg/kg) did not alter responses of afferent fibres to noxious colorectal distension in untreated, or acetic acid or zymosan treated colons.
CONCLUSIONS—In the rat, octreotide has no peripheral (pelvic nerve) modulatory action in visceral nociception. The antinociceptive effect of octreotide in this model of visceral nociception is mediated by an action at central sites.


Keywords: octreotide; colorectal distension; electromyographic responses; afferent fibres; visceral pain; analgesic effect; rat PMID:11302968

  13. The influence of intraluminal thrombus on noninvasive abdominal aortic aneurysm wall distensibility measurement.

    PubMed

    Metaxa, Eleni; Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Tzirakis, Konstantinos; Ioannou, Christos V; Papaharilaou, Yannis

    2015-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm wall distensibility can be estimated by measuring pulse pressure and the corresponding sac volume change, which can be obtained by measuring wall displacement. This approach, however, may introduce error if the role of thrombus in assisting the wall in bearing the pulse pressure loading is neglected. Our aim was to introduce a methodology for evaluating and potentially correcting this error in estimating distensibility. Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography images of eleven patients were obtained, and the volume change between diastole and systole was measured. Using finite element procedures, we determined the equivalent pulse pressure loading that should be applied to the wall of a model where thrombus was digitally removed, to yield the same sac volumetric increase caused by applying the luminal pulse pressure to the model with thrombus. The equivalent instead of the measured pulse pressure was used in the distensibility expression. For a relative volumetric thrombus deposition (V ILT) of 50 %, a 62 % distensibility underestimation resulted when thrombus role was neglected. A strong linear correlation was observed between distensibility underestimation and V ILT. To assess the potential value of noninvasive wall distensibility measurement in rupture risk stratification, the role of thrombus on wall loading should be further investigated. PMID:25548097

  14. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes that can go with bodybuilding. People who use steroid-containing skin creams or ointments (such as hydrocortisone) for more than a few weeks may also get stretch marks. So might people who have to ... surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual ...

  15. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Y gastric bypass; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... Weight-loss surgery may be an option if you are very obese and have not been able to ...

  16. Overexpression of neuritin in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, MING; LI, YONGJUN; ZHONG, CHEN; LI, YONGKANG; NIU, JIANHUA; GONG, JIANPING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues, in order to explore the association between the expression of neuritin and the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Tissue specimens were collected from 58 patients with gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine the expression of neuritin in the gastric cancer and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues. The expression rate of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues was 96.55% (56/58), demonstrating no statistically significant difference from the expression rate in the adjacent normal tissues (94.83%) (P>0.05). However, the rate of strong neuritin expression in gastric cancer tissues (82.76%) was significantly increased compared with the rate in the adjacent normal tissues (15.52%) (P<0.05). Neuritin expression exhibited no correlation with the gender or age of patients, tumor-node-metastasis staging, tumor depth, presence of lymph node metastasis, histological or pathological type of the tumor or presence of distant metastasis (P>0.05). As determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the mRNA expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues was markedly increased compared with the expression in the adjacent normal tissues. In conclusion, neuritin is highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues, suggesting that neuritin may act as a novel potential target for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26788217

  17. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) . 2013;51(3); 140-146. ... 2012:chap 49. Zeringe M, Fowler GC. Gastrointesinal decontamination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger & Fowler's ...

  19. Effect of ageing on left ventricular compliance and distensibility in healthy sedentary humans

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Naoki; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Bhella, Paul S; Shibata, Shigeki; Gandhi, Nainesh K; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Palmer, Dean; Levine, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    Healthy, but sedentary ageing leads to marked atrophy and stiffening of the heart, with substantially reduced cardiac compliance; but the time course of when this process occurs during normal ageing is unknown. Seventy healthy sedentary subjects (39 female; 21–77 years) were recruited from the Dallas Heart Study, a population-based, random community sample and enriched by a second random sample from employees of Texas Health Resources. Subjects were highly screened for co-morbidities and stratified into four groups according to age: G21−34: 21–34 years, G35−49: 35–49 years, G50−64: 50–64 years, G≥65: ≥65 years. All subjects underwent invasive haemodynamic measurements with right heart catheterization to define Starling and left ventricular (LV) pressure–volume curves. LV end-diastolic volumes (EDV) were measured by echocardiography at baseline, −15 and −30 mmHg lower-body negative pressure, and 15 and 30 ml kg−1 saline infusion with simultaneous measurements of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. There were no differences in heart rate or blood pressures among the four groups at baseline. Baseline EDV index was smaller in G≥65 than other groups. LV diastolic pressure–volume curves confirmed a substantially greater LV compliance in G21−34 compared with G50−64 and G≥65, resulting in greater LV volume changes with preload manipulations. Although LV chamber compliance in G50−64 and G≥65 appeared identical, pressure–volume curves were shifted leftward, toward a decreased distensibility, with increasing age. These results suggest that LV stiffening in healthy ageing occurs during the transition between youth and middle-age and becomes manifest between the ages of 50 to 64. Thereafter, this LV stiffening is followed by LV volume contraction and remodelling after the age of 65. PMID:22331419

  20. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  1. The clinical effect of hydraulic distension plus manual therapy on patients with frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kwang-Il; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to develop a clinical protocol for the treatment of frozen shoulder using applied hydraulic distension plus manual therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 60 patients in group A were treated with hydraulic distension plus manual therapy, and 61 in group B were treated with hydraulic distension alone. Treatment effects were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (pain and satisfaction), and active range of motion of the shoulder (forward flexion, internal and external rotation) before treatments and at 2, 6, 12, 24 weeks, and 1 year after the last injections. [Results] Patients in group A achieved faster pain relief and better satisfaction than patients in group B during the 6 weeks after treatment. However, no significant difference in VAS was observed between the groups at final follow-up. AROM of the shoulder was improved at final follow-up in both groups. [Conclusion] Hydraulic distension plus manual therapy provided faster pain relief, a higher level of patient satisfaction, and an earlier improvement in AROM of the shoulder than hydraulic distension alone in patients with frozen shoulder. PMID:27630441

  2. Rectal reservoir and sensory function studied by graded isobaric distension in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Akervall, S; Fasth, S; Nordgren, S; Oresland, T; Hultén, L

    1989-01-01

    The rectal expansion and concomitant sensory function on graded, isobaric, rectal distension within the interval 5-60 cm H2O was investigated in 36 healthy young volunteers. Anal pressure and electromyography (EMG) from the external anal sphincter were simultaneously recorded. Rectal distension caused an initial rapid expansion followed by transient, often repeated, reflex rectal contractions and a slow gradual increase of rectal volume. The maximal volume displaced by the first reflex rectal contraction was 18 (13) ml, which was less than 10% of the volume at 60 s. The pressure threshold for appreciation of rectal filling was 12 cm H2O (95% CL 5-15 cm H2O) and coincided with the threshold for rectoanal inhibition. Urge to defecate was experienced at 28 cm H2O (15-50 cm H2O) distension pressure, which was close to the threshold for maximal rectal contraction, also coinciding with the appearance of the external anal sphincter reflex. The interindividual variation of rectal volume on distension with defined pressures varied widely, indicating a considerable variation of rectal compliance in normal man. No correlation was found between rectal volume and sex or anthropometric variables. The relative variations in pressure thresholds for eliciting rectal sensation and rectoanal reflexes were less than the corresponding threshold volumes. It was concluded that the dynamic rectal response to distension reflects a well graded reflex adjustment ideal for a reservoir. PMID:2714682

  3. The clinical effect of hydraulic distension plus manual therapy on patients with frozen shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Kwang-Il; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to develop a clinical protocol for the treatment of frozen shoulder using applied hydraulic distension plus manual therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 60 patients in group A were treated with hydraulic distension plus manual therapy, and 61 in group B were treated with hydraulic distension alone. Treatment effects were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (pain and satisfaction), and active range of motion of the shoulder (forward flexion, internal and external rotation) before treatments and at 2, 6, 12, 24 weeks, and 1 year after the last injections. [Results] Patients in group A achieved faster pain relief and better satisfaction than patients in group B during the 6 weeks after treatment. However, no significant difference in VAS was observed between the groups at final follow-up. AROM of the shoulder was improved at final follow-up in both groups. [Conclusion] Hydraulic distension plus manual therapy provided faster pain relief, a higher level of patient satisfaction, and an earlier improvement in AROM of the shoulder than hydraulic distension alone in patients with frozen shoulder. PMID:27630441

  4. Local and remote lesions in horses subjected to small colon distension and decompression

    PubMed Central

    Faleiros, Rafael R.; Macoris, Delphim G.; Alves, Geraldo Eleno S.; Souza, Danielle G.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Moore, Rustin M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe and characterize colonic and lung lesions in horses subjected to experimental distension and decompression of the small colon. Sixteen healthy adult horses were divided into 2 groups: 9 horses that were subjected to distension of the small colon by means of a latex balloon surgically implanted in the lumen and inflated to a pressure of 40 mm Hg for 4 h, and 7 horses in which the balloon was implanted but not inflated. Colonic biopsy specimens were collected before balloon implantation, at the end of the period of obstruction, and 1.5 and 12 h after decompression and were examined for hemorrhage, edema, and neutrophil infiltration; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and hemoglobin concentration were measured as well. At the end of the experiment, lung samples were also collected and examined for neutrophil accumulation and MPO activity. The mucosa was not affected by luminal distension; lesions were restricted to the seromuscular layer. Neutrophil accumulation and edema were observed in the samples from both groups of horses but were greater in those from the distension group, in which there was also hemorrhage, fibrin deposition, and increased MPO activity in the seromuscular layer. Similarly, there was greater accumulation of neutrophils in the lung samples from the distension group than in those from the sham-operated group, as determined by histologic evaluation and MPO assay. These findings provide new evidence of reperfusion injury and a systemic inflammatory response, followed by remote lesions, in horses with intestinal obstruction. PMID:18214165

  5. The clinical effect of hydraulic distension plus manual therapy on patients with frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kwang-Il; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to develop a clinical protocol for the treatment of frozen shoulder using applied hydraulic distension plus manual therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 60 patients in group A were treated with hydraulic distension plus manual therapy, and 61 in group B were treated with hydraulic distension alone. Treatment effects were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (pain and satisfaction), and active range of motion of the shoulder (forward flexion, internal and external rotation) before treatments and at 2, 6, 12, 24 weeks, and 1 year after the last injections. [Results] Patients in group A achieved faster pain relief and better satisfaction than patients in group B during the 6 weeks after treatment. However, no significant difference in VAS was observed between the groups at final follow-up. AROM of the shoulder was improved at final follow-up in both groups. [Conclusion] Hydraulic distension plus manual therapy provided faster pain relief, a higher level of patient satisfaction, and an earlier improvement in AROM of the shoulder than hydraulic distension alone in patients with frozen shoulder.

  6. The clinical effect of hydraulic distension plus manual therapy on patients with frozen shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Kwang-Il; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to develop a clinical protocol for the treatment of frozen shoulder using applied hydraulic distension plus manual therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 60 patients in group A were treated with hydraulic distension plus manual therapy, and 61 in group B were treated with hydraulic distension alone. Treatment effects were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (pain and satisfaction), and active range of motion of the shoulder (forward flexion, internal and external rotation) before treatments and at 2, 6, 12, 24 weeks, and 1 year after the last injections. [Results] Patients in group A achieved faster pain relief and better satisfaction than patients in group B during the 6 weeks after treatment. However, no significant difference in VAS was observed between the groups at final follow-up. AROM of the shoulder was improved at final follow-up in both groups. [Conclusion] Hydraulic distension plus manual therapy provided faster pain relief, a higher level of patient satisfaction, and an earlier improvement in AROM of the shoulder than hydraulic distension alone in patients with frozen shoulder.

  7. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension.

    PubMed

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. PMID:14634782

  8. Polar Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02155 Polar Markings

    These bright and dark markings occurred near the end of summer in the south polar region. The dark material is likely dust that has been freed of frost cover.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -76.3N, Longitude 84.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Distensibility and pain of the uterine cervix evaluated by novel techniques.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Hans; Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2016-07-01

    The article serves to review the literature on the human uterine cervix based on a new distension technology named functional luminal imaging probe. This technology was originally developed to study the biomechanical competence of the gastro-esophageal junction where it provides a geometric profile of the lumen during distension, which can be related to sensory data. We searched and reviewed publications on cervical distention from 2002. The functional luminal imaging probe technology has been used for studying the mechanical and mechano-sensory properties of the cervix in non-pregnant women. In early pregnant women and in term pregnant women, the technique provides geometric measurements from the whole cervical canal during distension, which changes dramatically during pregnancy. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the technique predicts the outcome of labor induction better than the Bishop score does. The functional luminal imaging probe technology has potential as a research tool as well as for clinical use in gynecology and obstetrics. PMID:26946059

  10. Association of parity with carotid diameter and distensibility: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Dhananjay; Bennett, Wendy L; Sibley, Christopher T; Polak, Joseph F; Herrington, David M; Ouyang, Pamela

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with hemodynamic changes and vascular remodeling. It is not known whether parity is associated with later adverse vascular properties such as larger arterial diameter, wall thickness, and lower distensibility. We used baseline data from 3283 women free of cardiovascular disease aged 45 to 84 years enrolled in the population-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants self-reported parity status. Ultrasound-derived carotid artery lumen diameters and brachial artery blood pressures were measured at peak-systole and end-diastole. Common carotid intima-media thickness was also measured. Regression models to determine the association of carotid distensibility coefficient, lumen diameter, and carotid intima-media thickness with parity were adjusted for age, race, height, weight, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, blood pressure medication use, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The prevalence of nulliparity was 18%. In adjusted models, carotid distensibility coefficient was 0.09×10−5 Pa−1 lower (P=0.009) in parous versus nulliparous women. Among parous women, there was a nonlinear association with the greatest carotid distensibility coefficient seen in women with 2 live births and significantly lower distensibility seen in primiparas (P=0.04) or with higher parity >2 (P=0.005). No such pattern of association with parity was found for lumen diameter or carotid intima-media thickness. Parity is associated with lower carotid artery distensibility, suggesting arterial remodeling that lasts beyond childbirth. These long-term effects on the vasculature may explain the association of parity with cardiovascular events later in life.

  11. Influence of trimebutine on inflammation- and stress-induced hyperalgesia to rectal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lacheze, C; Coelho, A M; Fioramonti, J; Buéno, L

    1998-08-01

    The effects of trimebutine and its major metabolite, N-desmethyltrimebutine on inflammation- and stress-induced rectal hyperalgesia have been evaluated in rats fitted with electrodes implanted in the longitudinal striated muscle of the abdomen. Intermittent rectal distension was performed before and 3 days after induction of rectal inflammation by local infusion of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (in ethanol). Stress consisted of 2h partial restraint and rectal distension was performed before and 30min after the end of the partial restraint session. The animals were treated intraperitoneally with trimebutine or desmethyltrimebutine (5, 10 or 20mgkg(-1)) or vehicle 15min before rectal distension. Naloxone (1mgkg(-1)) or saline was injected subcutaneously before trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine. Before treatment trimebutine at the highest dose (20mgkg(-1)) reduced the abdominal response to rectal distension for the highest volume of distension (1.6mL) whereas desmethyltrimebutine was inactive. After rectocolitis the abdominal response to rectal distension was enhanced and trimebutine at 5mgkg(-1) reduced and at 10 mgkg(-1) suppressed inflammation-induced hyperalgesia, an effect reversed by naloxone. Desmethyltrimebutine was inactive. Stress-induced hypersensitivity was attenuated or suppressed, or both, by trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine at doses of 5, 10 or 20mgkg(-l); greater efficacy was observed for desmethyltrimebutine and the effects were not reversed by naloxone. It was concluded that trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine are active against inflammation- and stress-induced rectal hyperalgesia but act differently. The effect of trimebutine on inflammation-induced hyperalgesia is mediated through opioid receptors. PMID:9751458

  12. Renal clearance studies of effect of left atrial distension in the dog.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the water diuresis of left atrial distension in 16 dogs on the basis of clearance studies employing hydration, chronic and acute salt loading, deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess, and distal tubular nephron blockade with diuretics. The diuresis was found in hydrated and salt-loaded dogs and was independent of DOCA and presumed renin depletion. It was not found in five dogs after distal tubular blockade. No significant reproducible saluresis was ever documented. The water diuresis was always stopped by exogenous vasopressin (seven dogs). Antidiuretic hormone inhibition with distal tubular nephron water permeability changes appears to be the sole mechanism of the diuresis of left atrial distension in the dog.

  13. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  14. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  15. Gastric mycosis following gastric resection and vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Rehnberg, O; Faxen, A; Haglund, U; Kewenter, J; Stenquist, B; Olbe, L

    1982-01-01

    In a prospective five-year follow-up study of 289 consecutive patients subjected to antrectomy and gastroduodenostomy with or without vagotomy, 130 patients underwent gastroscopy. Gastric mycosis was present almost exclusively in patients subjected to combined antrectomy and vagotomy (36%). Gastric acidity seemed to be of only minor or no importance in the development of the mycosis. The residual volume in the gastric remnant was significantly higher in patients with gastric mycosis. The impaired emptying of the gastric remnant is most likely a vagotomy effect and may be the main reason for the development of gastric mycosis. A simple but effective method was developed to evacuate gastric yeast cell aggregates. Gastric mycosis seems to give rise to only slight symptoms, mainly nausea and foul-smelling belching, whereas the reflux of duodenal contents that often occurred in combination with gastric mycosis was more likely to cause gastritis and substantial discomfort. PMID:7092348

  16. Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge; Obesity gastric banding discharge; Weight loss - gastric banding discharge ... as your body gets used to your weight loss and your weight becomes stable. Weight loss may be slower after ...

  17. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity gastric bypass discharge; Weight loss - gastric bypass discharge ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  18. Surrounding Gastric Mucosa Findings Facilitate Diagnosis of Gastric Neoplasm as Gastric Adenoma or Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miike, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Miyata, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Tomoya; Noda, Yuko; Noda, Takaho; Suzuki, Sho; Takeda, Sachiko; Natsuda, Shuichiro; Sakaguchi, Mai; Maemura, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Kanna; Yamaji, Takumi; Abe, Hiroo; Iwakiri, Hisayoshi; Tahara, Yoshihiro; Hasuike, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Kitanaka, Akira; Shimoda, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. It is difficult to master the skill of discriminating gastric adenoma from early gastric cancer by conventional endoscopy or magnifying endoscopy combined with narrow-band imaging, because the colors and morphologies of these neoplasms are occasionally similar. We focused on the surrounding gastric mucosa findings in order to determine how to discriminate between early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma by analyzing the characteristics of the gastric background mucosa. Methods. We retrospectively examined 146 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasm between October 2009 and January 2015. The boundary of atrophic gastritis was classified endoscopically according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification system. Of 146 lesions, 63 early gastric cancers and 21 gastric adenomas were ultimately evaluated and assessed. Results. Almost all gastric adenomas were accompanied by open-type gastritis, whereas 47 and 16 early gastric cancers were accompanied by open-type and closed-type gastritis, respectively (p = 0.037). Conclusions. The evaluation of the boundary of atrophic gastritis associated with gastric neoplasms appears to be useful for discrimination between early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma. When gastric neoplasm is present in the context of surrounding localized gastric atrophy, gastric cancer is probable but not certain. PMID:26858751

  19. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  20. Quantification of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility using parameters extracted from volumetric micro-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roger H.; Karau, Kelly L.; Molthen, Robert C.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    1999-09-01

    Stiffening, or loss of distensibility, of arterial vessel walls is among the manifestations of a number of vascular diseases including pulmonary arterial hypertension. We are attempting to quantify the mechanical properties of vessel walls of the pulmonary arterial tree using parameters derived from high-resolution volumetric x-ray CT images of rat lungs. The pulmonary arterial trees of the excised lungs are filled with a contrast agent. The lungs are imaged with arterial pressures spanning the physiological range. Vessel segment diameters are measured from the inlet to the periphery, and distensibilities calculated from diameters as a function of pressure. The method shows promise as an adjunct to other morphometric techniques such as histology and corrosion casting. It possesses the advantages of being nondestructive, characterizing the vascular structures while the lungs are imaged rapidly and in a near-physiological state, and providing the ability to associate mechanical properties with vessel location in the intact tree hierarchy.

  1. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model. PMID:27573785

  2. Gastric leiomyoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Candy, J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes two cases of gastric leiomyoblastoma (bizarre smooth muscle tumour), one of them having evidence of metastases. Both patients remain well after seven years and three and a half years respectively. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. The histological appearances are described in detail and an attempt is made to assess the criteria for the diagnosis of malignancy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5485837

  3. The aging process modifies the distensibility of elastic but not muscular arteries.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, L A; Hanon, O; Franconi, G; Boutouyrie, P; Legrain, S; Girerd, X

    1999-10-01

    Aging decreases the distensibility of large elastic arteries; however, the effects of age on the functional parameters of muscular, medium-sized arteries are not well determined. This study evaluated the consequences of aging on the functional parameters of the carotid and radial arteries in normotensive men. A total of 62 elderly subjects (aged 74+/-2 years) were compared with 87 young subjects (aged 35+/-3 years). Internal diameter and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured by a high-resolution echo-tracking system to calculate distensibility and incremental elastic modulus (Einc). Although in the normal range, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were statistically different in the 2 groups at 128+/-19 and 74+/-13 mm Hg versus 121+/-27 and 71+/-18 mm Hg in the young and elderly subjects, respectively (P<0.05). At the carotid artery level, elderly subjects exhibited a greater IMT (742+/-144 versus 469+/-132 microm; P<0.01) and internal diameter (7067+/-828 versus 6062+/-1026 microm; P<0.01) than young subjects; elderly subjects also had lower distensibility (12+/-2 versus 21+/-2 kPa(-1) x 10(-3); P<0.01) and higher Einc (0.9+/-0.2 versus 0.7+/-0.3 kPa x 10(3); P<0.01). At the radial artery level, both IMT (240+/-42 versus 218+/-51 microm; P<0.01) and internal diameter (2685+/-432 versus 2491+/-444 microm; P<0.01) were greater in elderly subjects, but no differences in distensibility and Einc were observed between the 2 groups. All differences remained significant, even after adjusting for mean blood pressure. These results indicate that the increase of the internal diameter and IMT observed during the aging process can have opposite effects on the functional parameters of large elastic or medium-sized muscular arteries.

  4. Primary distension of the guttural pouch lateral compartment secondary to empyema.

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, D A; Baptiste, K E; Cruz, A M; Naylor, J M

    1999-01-01

    A 6-year-old, 420-kg quarter horse gelding was presented with a 2-month history of difficulty swallowing and dyspnea. The horse was diagnosed with a right guttural pouch empyema with many large chondroids. Two surgeries were required to completely remove all the chondroids from what proved to be a primary distension of the guttural pouch lateral compartment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10563241

  5. Diagnosis and management of gastric dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Gastric dysplasia is a neoplastic lesion and a precursor of gastric cancer. The Padova, Vienna, and World Health Organization classifications were developed to overcome the discrepancies between Western and Japanese pathologic diagnoses and to provide a universally accepted classification of gastric epithelial neoplasia. At present, the natural history of gastric dysplasia is unclear. Much evidence suggests that patients with high-grade dysplasia are at high risk of progression to carcinoma or synchronous carcinoma. Therefore, endoscopic resection is required. Although patients with low-grade dysplasia have been reported to be at low risk of progression to carcinoma, due to the marked histologic discrepancies between forceps biopsy and endoscopic specimens, endoscopic resection for this lesion is recommended, particularly in the presence of other risk factors (large size; depressed gross type; surface erythema, unevenness, ulcer, or erosion; and tubulovillous or villous histology). Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with dysplasia after endoscopic resection appear to reduce the incidence of metachronous lesions. PMID:26932397

  6. Developing Repair Materials for Stress Urinary Incontinence to Withstand Dynamic Distension

    PubMed Central

    Hillary, Christopher J.; Roman, Sabiniano; Bullock, Anthony J.; Green, Nicola H; Chapple, Christopher R.; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Background Polypropylene mesh used as a mid-urethral sling is associated with severe clinical complications in a significant minority of patients. Current in vitro mechanical testing shows that polypropylene responds inadequately to mechanical distension and is also poor at supporting cell proliferation. Aims and Objectives Our objective therefore is to produce materials with more appropriate mechanical properties for use as a sling material but which can also support cell integration. Methods Scaffolds of two polyurethanes (PU), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) and co-polymers of the two were produced by electrospinning. Mechanical properties of materials were assessed and compared to polypropylene. The interaction of adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) with the scaffolds was also assessed. Uniaxial tensiometry of scaffolds was performed before and after seven days of cyclical distension. Cell penetration (using DAPI and a fluorescent red cell tracker dye), viability (AlamarBlue assay) and total collagen production (Sirius red assay) were measured for ADSC cultured on scaffolds. Results Polypropylene was stronger than polyurethanes and PLA. However, polypropylene mesh deformed plastically after 7 days of sustained cyclical distention, while polyurethanes maintained their elasticity. Scaffolds of PU containing PLA were weaker and stiffer than PU or polypropylene but were significantly better than PU scaffolds alone at supporting ADSC. Conclusions Therefore, prolonged mechanical distension in vitro causes polypropylene to fail. Materials with more appropriate mechanical properties for use as sling materials can be produced using PU. Combining PLA with PU greatly improves interaction of cells with this material. PMID:26981860

  7. Gastroduodenal Intussusception Caused by a Gastric Collision Tumor Consisting of Adenocarcinoma and Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Yoshihiko; Nishimura, Takeshi; Komoto, Satoshi; Yuasa, Takeshi; Tamura, Ryuji; Okamoto, Takahiro; Ishido, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumor. Gastric tumor arising from collision of an adenocarcinoma with a neuroendocrine carcinoma is extremely rare. Moreover, this uncommon gastric collision tumor in our case had prolapsed into the duodenum. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of vomiting and severe weight loss. Abdominal X-ray showed gastric distension, and computed tomography revealed a duodenal giant mass spreading from the bulb to the horizontal part of the duodenum. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was not helpful in confirming the diagnosis of the tumor. We suspected duodenal malignant tumor and performed laparotomy. The operative findings indicated that the gastric antrum was deeply invaginated into the duodenum because of the gastric tumor. Partial resection of the stomach and duodenum was performed because the tumor was irreducible. Intraoperative diagnosis of the frozen section was well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Additional distal gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed. We herein report the first case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by a gastric collision tumor consisting of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. PMID:24803892

  8. Esophagogastric junction distensibility measurements during Heller myotomy and POEM for achalasia predict postoperative symptomatic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Ezra N.; Soper, Nathaniel J.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Hirano, Ikuo; Boris, Lubomyr; Nicodème, Frédéric; Lin, Zhiyue; Hungness, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a novel diagnostic tool that can be used to measure esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility. In this study we performed intraoperative FLIP measurements during laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) and peroral esophageal myotomy (POEM) for treatment of achalasia and evaluated the relationship between EGJ distensibility and postoperative symptoms. Methods Distensibility index (DI) (defined as the minimum cross-sectional area at the EGJ divided by distensive pressure) was measured with FLIP at two time points during LHM and POEM: 1) at baseline after induction of anesthesia, and 2) after operation completion. Results Measurements were performed in 20 patients undergoing LHM and 36 undergoing POEM. Both operations resulted in an increase in DI, although this increase was larger with POEM (7±3.1 vs. 5.1±3.4mm2/mmHg, p<.05). The two patients (both LHM) with the smallest increases in DI (1 and 1.6mm2/mmHg) both had persistent symptoms postoperatively and, overall, LHM patients with larger increases in DI had lower postoperative Eckardt scores. In the POEM group, there was no correlation between change in DI and symptoms; however, all POEM patients experienced an increase in DI of >3mm2/mmHg. When all patients were divided into thirds based on final DI, none in the lowest DI group (<6mm2/mmHg) had symptoms suggestive of reflux (i.e., GerdQ score >7), as compared with 20% in the middle third (6–9mm2/mmHg) and 36% in the highest third (>9mm2/mmHg). Patients within an “ideal” final DI range (4.5–8.5 mm2/mmHg) had optimal symptomatic outcomes (i.e. Eckardt≤1 and GerdQ≤7) in 88% of cases, compared with 47% in those with a final DI above or below that range (p<.05). Conclusions Intraoperative EGJ distensibility measurements with FLIP were predictive of postoperative symptomatic outcomes. These results provide initial evidence that FLIP has the potential to act as a useful calibration tool during operations

  9. Arterial distensibility in children and teenagers: normal evolution and the effect of childhood vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Brogan, P; Pilla, C; Dillon, M; Redington, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Polyarteritis nodosa is a necrotising vasculitis of the medium sized and small muscular arteries. The inflammatory and subsequent reparative processes may alter the arterial mechanical properties. The effect of vasculitic damage on arterial distensibility has never been explored however. Aim: To determine the normal values and the effect of childhood vasculitis on arterial distensibility in children and teenagers. Methods: Distensibility of the brachioradial arterial segment was studied using pulse wave velocity (PWV ∝1/√distensibility), in 13 children with polyarteritis nodosa at a median age of 11.8 (range 4.9–16) years. As a control group, 155 healthy schoolchildren (6–18 years, 81 boys) were studied. PWV was assessed using a photoplethysmographic technique; blood pressure was measured by an automatic sphygmomanometer (Dinamap). Data from patients were expressed as z scores adjusted for age and compared to a population mean of 0 by a single sample t test. Determinants of PWV in normal children were assessed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results: Age, height, weight, and systolic blood pressure correlated individually with the brachioradial PWV. Multivariate analysis identified age as the only independent determinant. Ten of the patients were in clinical remission, while three had evidence of disease activity at the time of study. The PWV in the patient group as a whole was significantly greater than those in healthy children (mean z score +0.99). Raised C reactive protein concentration (>2 mg/dl) in the three patients with active disease was associated with a higher PWV when compared to those in remission (z score +2.78 v +0.45). The diastolic blood pressure of the patients was higher than those of the controls (z score +1.04) while the systolic pressure was similar (z score -0.36). Conclusions: PWV in the brachioradial arterial segment increases gradually during childhood independent of body weight, height, mass

  10. Distensibility and Strength of the Pelvic Floor Muscles of Women in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Elito Júnior, Julio; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Alexandre, Sandra Maria; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the role of the pelvic floor muscles between nulliparous and multiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy, by analyzing the relationship between electrical activity (surface electromyography—EMG), vaginal palpation (modified Oxford scale), and perineal distensibility (Epi-no). Methods. This was an observational cross-sectional study on a sample of 60 healthy pregnant women with no cervical dilation, single fetus, gestational age between 35 and 40 weeks, and maternal age ranging from 15 to 40 years. The methods used were bidigital palpation (modified Oxford scale, graded 0–5), surface EMG (electrical activity during maximal voluntary contraction), and perineal distensibility (Epi-no device). The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to analyze the Epi-no values and the surface EMG findings. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the median values from surface EMG and Epi-no, using the modified Oxford scale scores. Results. Among the 60 patients included in this study, 30 were nulliparous and 30 multiparous. The average maternal age and gestational age were 26.06 (±5.58) and 36.56 (±1.23), respectively. It was observed that nulliparous women had both higher perineal muscle strength (2.53 ± 0.57 versus 2.06 ± 0.64; P = 0.005) and higher electrical activity (45.35 ± 12.24 μV versus 35.79 ± 11.66 μV; P = 0.003), while among the multiparous women, distensibility was higher (19.39 ± 1.92 versus 18.05 ± 2.14; P = 0.013). We observed that there was no correlation between perineal distensibility and electrical activity during maximal voluntary contraction (r = − 0.193; P = 0.140). However, we found a positive relationship between vaginal palpation and surface electromyography (P = 0.008), but none between Epi-no values (P = 0.785). Conclusion. The electrical activity and muscle strength of the pelvic floor muscles of the multiparous women were damaged, in relation to the

  11. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  12. Neonatal lethality of neural crest cell-specific Rest knockout mice is associated with gastrointestinal distension caused by aberrations of myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hitomi; Hara, Akira; Oomori, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Yasutake; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2014-10-01

    RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), also known as NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor), is a well-known transcriptional repressor of neural genes. Rest null mice have embryonic lethality which prevents further investigations of the functions of the Rest gene in vivo. We studied neonatal but not embryonic lethality that was characterized by gastrointestinal tract dilation in the neural crest cell (NCC)-specific Rest conditional knockout (CKO) mice. While no histological abnormalities except the thinning of the digestive tract as a consequence of the gas accumulation were found in the digestive tract of the mutant mice, they do not have proper gastric retention after oral dye administration and the reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in NCC-derived myenteric plexus in the stomach was detected. High CO2 concentration in the dilated digestive tract of the Rest CKO mice indicates a failure of gut function by underdeveloped cholinergic transmission in the enteric nervous system. The observed gastrointestinal distension phenotype provides a model for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of NCC defects in humans. PMID:25135772

  13. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and distensibility in children and adolescents: reference values and role of body dimensions.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Anke; Kracht, Daniela; Bayazit, Aysun K; Deveci, Murat; Duzova, Ali; Krmar, Rafael T; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Niemirska, Anna; Oguz, Berna; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; Sözeri, Betul; Querfeld, Uwe; Melk, Anette; Schaefer, Franz; Wühl, Elke

    2013-09-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery distensibility are reliable screening methods for vascular alterations and the assessment of cardiovascular risk in adult and pediatric cohorts. We sought to establish an international reference data set for the childhood and adolescence period and explore the impact of developmental changes in body dimensions and blood pressure (BP) on carotid wall thickness and elasticity. cIMT, the distensibility coefficient, the incremental modulus of elasticity, and the stiffness index β were assessed in 1155 children aged 6 to 18 years and sex-specific reference charts normalized to age or height were constructed from 1051 nonobese and nonhypertensive children. The role of body dimensions, BP, and family history, as well as the association between cIMT and distensibility, was investigated. cIMT increased and distensibility decreased with age, height, body mass index, and BP. A significant sex difference was apparent from the age of 15 years. Age- and height-normalized cIMT and distensibility values differed in children who are short or tall for their age. By stepwise multivariate analysis, standardized systolic BP and body mass index were independently positively associated with cIMT SD scores (SDS). Systolic BP SDS independently predicted all distensibility measures. Distensibility coefficient SDS was negatively and β SDS positively associated with cIMT SDS, whereas incremental modulus of elasticity was independent of cIMT. Morphological and functional aspects of the common carotid artery are particularly influenced by age, body dimensions, and BP. The reference charts established in this study allow to accurately compare vascular phenotypes of children with chronic conditions with those of healthy children.

  14. Identification of HRAS as cancer-promoting gene in gastric carcinoma cell aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao Yu; Liu, Wen Tao; Wu, Zhen Feng; Chen, Che; Liu, Jia Yun; Wu, Guan Nan; Yao, Xue Quan; Liu, Fu Kun; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most lethal malignancies of cancers and its prognosis remains dismal due to the paucity of effective therapeutic targets. Herein, we showed that HRAS is markedly up-regulated in gastric carcinoma. Prognostic analysis indicated that HRAS expression might be a prognostic indicator for the survival of patients with gastric carcinoma. Ectopic expression of HRAS in gastric carcinoma cells accelerated proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and clone formation ability of gastric carcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, HRAS over-expressing significantly promoted the tumorigenicity of gastric carcinoma cells in vivo whereas silencing endogenous HRAS caused opposite outcomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that HRAS enhanced gastric carcinoma aggressiveness by activating VEGFA/PI3K/AKT pathway and Raf-1 signaling. Together, our results provide new evidence that HRAS overexpression promotes the progression of gastric carcinoma and might represent a novel therapeutic target for its treatment. PMID:27725900

  15. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  16. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-09-25

    We have recently demonstrated that orexin acts centrally in the brain to induce antinociceptive action against colonic distension through orexin 1 receptors in conscious rats. Although the dopaminergic system can induce antinociceptive action for somatic pain, the association between changes in the dopaminergic system and visceral pain perception has not been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the dopaminergic system may be involved in visceral nociception, and if so, the dopaminergic system may mediate the orexin-induced visceral antinociception. Visceral sensation was evaluated using the colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternal injection of D1 (SKF38398) or D2 (quinpirole) dopamine receptor agonist increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH23390 or sulpiride, respectively) potently blocked the centrally injected orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that dopaminergic signaling via D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain may induce visceral antinociception and that the dopaminergic signaling may be involved in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension.

  17. The effect of age on the distensibility of the abdominal aorta of man.

    PubMed

    Newman, D L; Lallemand, R C

    1978-08-01

    The variation with age in distensibility and the dimensions of the abdominal aorta at the bifurcation have been measured in 43 fresh human cadavers. The age range was from birth to 69 years, both sexes being represented. Patients with vascular disease were excluded. Barium sulfate infused into the aorta through an iliac artery enabled the change in diameter to be measured from a roentgenogram with change in pressure. Incremental strain value could thus be calculated. Strain value increased from 0.02 at birth to a maximum at the end of the first decade of life and then decreased to less than 0.01 by the age of 70 years. Aortas in the age group of four to 11 years showed less stiffness with increasing pressure than at other ages. Variations of strain with age correlate with alterations in the ratio of aortic wall collagen to elastin in the young. An increase in the thickness of the wall and an atheroma, in response to prolonged hemodynamic stress, account for increased stiffness in the older age groups. Other age and disease factors may play a part, but further work is required in man to examine the role of relative wall thickness, elastic modulus and alteration in wall structure in determining the variation of aortic distensibility with age reported herein.

  18. [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension].

    PubMed

    Loeffen, J L C M; Wijnen, M; Schijf, C P T; van Wieringen, P

    2006-03-25

    A 12-year-old girl presented with chronic abdominal pain and distension that had persisted for 6 and 3 months, respectively. The cause was a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour originating in the left ovary. The cyst and ovary were resected. The patient recovered and was asymptomatic 2 years after the operation. Ovarian tumours are rarely seen in children. The sex cordstromal tumours constitute a heterogeneous subgroup. Two of the most frequently observed sex cord-stromal tumours are the juvenile granulosa cell tumour and the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour. Even though these tumours may contain histologically malignant characteristics, their behaviour is usually benign. Clinical characteristics are endocrine symptoms, fatigue, chronic abdominal pain and abdominal distension. In addition, pressure from the tumour mass may result in symptoms in adjacent organ systems. Surgical excision is usually curative. Patients with advanced disease may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Chronic abdominal pain is frequently observed in children and, in some rare cases, may be caused by ovarian tumours.

  19. The pathogenesis of bloating and visible distension in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Malagelada, Juan R

    2005-06-01

    Abdominal bloating is a relevant, troublesome, and poorly understood clinical problem. Despite its clinical importance, bloating remains substantially ignored, without proper clinical classification, known pathophysiology, and effective treatment. It is not even clear to what extent the complaints of individual patients correlate with objective evidence of abdominal distension, and this uncertainly regarding the subjective or objective origin of the complaints further adds to confusion. This article proposed a framework for investigating bloating, considering key factors potentially involved in its pathophysiology: distorted sensation, physical abdominal expansion, and abdominal wall dystony. Some data indicate that patients complaining of bloating have impaired transit and tolerance of intestinal gas loads. The problem does not seem to be too much gas,however, but rather abnormal responses to gas. Furthermore, abnormal control of abdominal muscle activity in these patients may contribute to objective distension. Bloating, like many other abdominal symptoms,probably represents a heterogeneous condition produced by a combination of pathophysiological mechanisms that differ among individual patients,resulting in a polymorphic clinical presentation.

  20. Decreased carotid artery distensibility as a sign of early atherosclerosis in viscose rayon workers.

    PubMed

    Kotseva, K; Braeckman, L; Duprez, D; De Bacquer, D; De Buyzere, M; Van De Veire, N; Vanhoorne, M

    2001-06-01

    Carbon disulphide (CS(2)) is known to accelerate atherosclerosis and to increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases. To assess the effect of CS(2) on the functional (distensibility and compliance) and the structural (intima media thickness) properties of the common carotid artery, and blood pressure and lipid metabolism parameters, a cross-sectional study on 85 workers from a viscose rayon factory and 37 controls was carried out. Exposure to CS(2) was assessed by personal monitoring and was well below the threshold limit value-time weighted average. Carotid arterial wall properties were determined using a non-invasive ultrasound wall movement detector system. No significant effect of CS(2) on blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides was found. Among the vascular parameters studied, only distensibility was significantly lower and heart rate was significantly higher in exposed subjects compared with the controls. In conclusion, occupational exposure to CS(2) may cause early alterations in arterial elastic properties in young individuals, and even before lipid and clinical findings have occurred, important functional changes in the vessel wall are present.

  1. Identification of capsaicin-sensitive rectal mechanoreceptors activated by rectal distension in mice.

    PubMed

    Spencer, N J; Kerrin, A; Singer, C A; Hennig, G W; Gerthoffer, W T; McDonnell, O

    2008-05-01

    Rodents detect visceral pain in response to noxious levels of rectal distension. However, the mechanoreceptors that innervate the rectum and respond to noxious levels of rectal distension have not been identified. Here, we have identified the mechanoreceptors of capsaicin-sensitive rectal afferents and characterized their properties in response to circumferential stretch of the rectal wall. We have also used the lethal spotted (ls/ls) mouse to determine whether rectal mechanoreceptors that respond to capsaicin and stretch may also develop in an aganglionic rectum that is congenitally devoid of enteric ganglia. In wild type (C57BL/6) mice, graded increases in circumferential stretch applied to isolated rectal segments activated a graded increase in firing of slowly-adapting rectal mechanoreceptors. Identical stimuli applied to the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice also activated similar graded increases in firing of stretch-sensitive rectal afferents. In both wild type and aganglionic rectal preparations, focal compression of the serosal surface using von Frey hairs identified mechanosensitive "hot spots," that were associated with brief bursts of action potentials. Spritzing capsaicin (10 microM) selectively onto each identified mechanosensitive hot spot activated an all or none discharge of action potentials in 32 of 56 identified hot spots in wild type mice and 24 of 62 mechanosensitive hot spots in the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice. Each single unit activated by both capsaicin and circumferential stretch responded to low mechanical thresholds (1-2 g stretch). No high threshold rectal afferents were ever recorded in response to circumferential stretch. Anterograde labeling from recorded rectal afferents revealed two populations of capsaicin-sensitive mechanoreceptor that responded to stretch: one population terminated within myenteric ganglia, the other within the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers. In the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice, only the

  2. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  3. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut.

  4. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  5. Mastering Marking Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are smart people, so why does marking reduce them to stressed and soulless messes? Because in their hearts they know that students do not learn from it, and that drives them nuts. Researchers like Lorna Earl and Dylan Wiliam have looked closely at marking systems and have proven what teachers already know deep down: marking student work…

  6. Sox2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Abby; Huebner, Aaron J; Sulahian, Rita; Anselmo, Anthony; Xu, Xinsen; Flattery, Kyle; Desai, Niyati; Sebastian, Carlos; Yram, Mary Anna; Arnold, Katrin; Rivera, Miguel; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bronson, Roderick; Bass, Adam J; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    Sox2 expression marks gastric stem and progenitor cells, raising important questions regarding the genes regulated by Sox2 and the role of Sox2 itself during stomach homeostasis and disease. By using ChIP-seq analysis, we have found that the majority of Sox2 targets in gastric epithelial cells are tissue specific and related to functions such as endoderm development, Wnt signaling, and gastric cancer. Unexpectedly, we found that Sox2 itself is dispensable for gastric stem cell and epithelial self-renewal, yet Sox2(+) cells are highly susceptible to tumorigenesis in an Apc/Wnt-driven mouse model. Moreover, Sox2 loss enhances, rather than impairs, tumor formation in Apc-deficient gastric cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription and upregulating intestinal metaplasia-associated genes, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed phenotype. Together, these data identify Sox2 as a context-dependent tumor suppressor protein that is dispensable for normal tissue regeneration but restrains stomach adenoma formation through modulation of Wnt-responsive and intestinal genes. PMID:27498859

  7. Primary gastric tuberculosis mimicking gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eray, İsmail Cem; Rencüzoğulları, Ahmet; Yalav, Orçun; Dalcı, Kubilay; Kakil, Erdem; Bağır, Emine; Parsak, Cem Kaan

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old female patient with no previous known diseases who had complaints of postprandial epigastric pain and weight loss and who could not be diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy, although gastric cancer was suspected radiologically and endoscopically, was diagnosed with primary gastric tuberculosis by laparotomy and frozen section. Following anti-tuberculosis treatment, a complete clinical, radiological, and endoscopic response was achieved. PMID:26504425

  8. Nitric Oxide Synthase Promotes Distension-Induced Tracheal Venular Leukocyte Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Moldobaeva, Aigul; Rentsendorj, Otgonchimeg; Jenkins, John; Wagner, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The process of leukocyte recruitment to the airways in real time has not been extensively studied, yet airway inflammation persists as a major contributor to lung pathology. We showed previously in vivo, that neutrophils are recruited acutely to the large airways after periods of airway distension imposed by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Given extensive literature implicating products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in lung injury after ventilatory over-distension, we questioned whether similar mechanisms exist in airway post-capillary venules. Yet, endothelial nitric oxide has been shown to be largely anti-inflammatory in other systemic venules. Using intravital microscopy to visualize post-capillary tracheal venules in anesthetized, ventilated mice, the number of adherent leukocytes was significantly decreased in eNOS-/- mice under baseline conditions (2±1 cell/60 min observation) vs wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (7±2 cells). After exposure to PEEP (8 cmH2O for 1 min; 5 times), adherent cells increased significantly (29±5 cells) in WT mice while eNOS-/- mice demonstrated a significantly decreased number of adherent cells (11±4 cells) after PEEP. A similar response was seen when thrombin was used as the pro-inflammatory stimulus. In addition, mouse tracheal venular endothelial cells studied in vitro after exposure to cyclic stretch (18% elongation) or thrombin both demonstrated increased p-selectin expression that was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) and excess BH4. In vivo treatment with the ROS inhibitor NACA or co-factor BH4 abolished completely the PEEP-induced leukocyte adherence. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory stimuli cause leukocyte recruitment to tracheal endothelium in part due to eNOS uncoupling. PMID:25181540

  9. Influence of abuse history on gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, B; Van Oudenhove, L; Fischler, B; Vandenberghe, J; Caenepeel, P; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders have elevated rates of sexual or physical abuse, which may be associated with altered rectal sensorimotor function in irritable bowel syndrome. The aim was to study the association between abuse history and gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia (FD). We studied gastric sensorimotor function with barostat (sensitivity, compliance and accommodation) and gastric emptying test in 233 consecutive FD patients from a tertiary care centre (162 women, mean age 41.6 +/- 0.9). Patients filled out self-report questionnaires on history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood or adulthood. Eighty-four patients (out of 198, 42.4%) reported an overall history of abuse [sexual and physical in respectively 30.0% (60/200) and 20.3% (42/207)]. FD patients reporting general as well as severe childhood sexual abuse have significantly lower discomfort thresholds during gastric distension [respectively 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 7.5 +/- 1.0 mmHg above minimal distending pressure (MDP), P = 0.014 and 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 6.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg above MDP, P = 0.007]. The corresponding intra-balloon volume was also significantly lower (respectively 579 +/- 21 vs 422 +/- 59 mL, P = 0.013 and 579 +/- 19 vs 423 +/- 79 mL, P = 0.033). Gastric accommodation was significantly more pronounced in patients reporting rape during adulthood (91 +/- 12 vs 130 +/- 40 mL, P = 0.016). Abuse history was not associated with differences in gastric emptying. A history of abuse is associated with alterations in gastric sensorimotor function in FD. Particularly sexual abuse, rather than physical abuse, may influence gastric sensitivity and motor function. PMID:18694440

  10. Gastric accommodation in non-ulcer dyspepsia and the roles of Helicobacter pylori infection and vagal function

    PubMed Central

    Thumshirn, M; Camilleri, M; Saslow, S; Williams, D; Burton, D; Hanson, R

    1999-01-01

    Background—The pathophysiological mechanisms in non-ulcer dyspepsia are incompletely understood. 
Aims—To compare gastric motor and sensory functions in Helicobacter pylori positive or negative patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. 
Patients—Seventeen patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and 16 asymptomatic controls. 
Methods—The following were evaluated: gastrointestinal symptoms; gastric emptying and orocaecal transit of solids; abdominal vagal function; gastric compliance; fasting and postprandial gastric tone and phasic contractions; symptoms during ingestion of cold water and during the distension of an intragastric bag; and somatic sensitivity and personality profile (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, MMPI). 
Results—Gastric accommodation was reduced in H pylori negative dyspeptics relative to controls; the degree of accommodation was unrelated to H pylori status in dyspeptics. Increased postprandial gastric sensation was more frequent among H pylori positive patients (4/5 H pylori positive versus 4/12 H pylori negative patients). Intragastric meal distribution and orocaecal transit were normal; gastric emptying at four hours was abnormal in 4/17 patients. Vagal dysfunction was rare. Eight of 17 patients had somatisation or depression on MMPI. 
Conclusion—Impaired gastric accommodation is frequent in non-ulcer dyspepsia and seems to be unrelated to vagal efferent dysfunction. H pylori infection does not seem to influence gastric accommodation, but is associated with heightened sensitivity in dyspeptics. Therapeutic approaches that restore normal postprandial accommodation and gastric sensitivity should be tested in non-ulcer dyspepsia. 

 Keywords: non-ulcer dyspepsia; Helicobacter pylori; vagal function PMID:9862826

  11. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described.

  12. [Gastric cancer in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Wu, M S; Lin, J T; Lee, W J; Yu, S C; Wang, T H

    1994-09-01

    The study of gastric cancer is important in clinical medicine as well as in public health. Environmental factors play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis and thus primary prevention is feasible after improvement of these factors. The 5-year survival rate of resected early gastric cancer is over 90% and this provides an excellent paradigm for secondary prevention. Though its mortality rate has declined since 1970, gastric cancer remains common and carries a high mortality in Taiwan where about 2,000 patients die of gastric cancer annually. The age-adjusted mortality is 16.54 and 8.16/100,000 for male and female, ranking the third and fourth cancer death respectively. Epidemiologic data disclose a positive association between gastric cancer and some dietary factors in Taiwan. However, the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and hereditary susceptibility should be elucidated in the future. Endoscopy with biopsy is an excellent method of the diagnosis of gastric cancer. However, its invasiveness makes it impractical as a screening tool and thus the proportion of early gastric cancer to gastric cancer remains as low as 30% in most reports. The value of lymph node dissection remains controversial although surgery is one of the most effective methods of eradicating gastric cancer. Overall, the 5 year survival rate is 24.5% to 54%. Laser therapy is usually reserved for patients with high operative risk and specific types of gastric cancer. To improve the survival results, development of a simple and economic screening program based on the epidemiologic results and utilization of noninvasive examinations such as serologic markers to diagnose and treat gastric cancer at its earliest stage deserves further study.

  13. Theophylline and gastric emptying in very low birthweight neonates: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris, A; Kokori, P; Varchalama, L; Konstandinidi, K; Skouroliakou, M; Alexiou, N; Costalos, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Theophylline treatment causes side effects such as tachycardia, hyperglycaemia, abdominal distension, and vomiting. The latter two are probably the result of delayed gastric evacuation. Objective: To study the effect of theophylline on gastric emptying time in preterm infants. Patients: The subjects were 18 premature neonates with a mean (SD) birth weight of 1302 (240) g and a mean (SD) gestational age of 28.7 (1.9) weeks. Main outcome measures: In each case, gastric emptying was measured on two occasions: once when the newborns were being treated with theophylline and once when they were not. Half of the cases were randomised to receive theophylline before the initial measurement. The opposite was applied for the rest. Gastric emptying was assessed ultrasonically by measuring the change in antral cross sectional area (ACSA) at regular intervals over 120 minutes. Results: The mean (SD) ACSA half time in the newborns receiving theophylline was 52 (19) minutes compared with 37 (16) minutes in those not receiving theophylline. This difference is significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Treatment with theophylline seems to delay gastric emptying in very low birthweight neonates, and this must be taken into consideration when this drug is used to treat apnoea of prematurity. PMID:15210659

  14. Changes in patients’ symptoms and gastric emptying after Helicobacter pylori treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Geng, Chang-Hui; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yan-Lin; Tong, Li-Quan; Gao, Ping; Gao, Yue-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes in clinical symptoms and gastric emptying and their association in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. METHODS: Seventy FD patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative group (28 patients), and H. pylori-positive group (42 patients). Patients in the H. pylori-positive group were further randomly divided into groups: H. pylori-treatment group (21 patients) and conventional treatment group (21 patients). Seventy two healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The proximal and distal stomach area was measured by ultrasound immediately after patients took the test meal, and at 20, 40, 60 and 90 min; then, gastric half-emptying time was calculated. The incidence of symptoms and gastric half-emptying time between the FD and control groups were compared. The H. pylori-negative and conventional treatment groups were given conventional treatment: domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The H. pylori-treatment group was given H. pylori eradication treatment + conventional treatment: lansoprazole 30 mg once daily, clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily and amoxicillin 1.0 g twice daily for 1 wk, then domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The incidence of symptoms and gastric emptying were compared between the FD and control groups. The relationship between dyspeptic symptoms and gastric half-emptying time in the FD and control groups were analyzed. Then total symptom scores before and after treatment and gastric half-emptying time were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: The incidence of abdominal pain, epigastric burning sensation, abdominal distension, nausea, belching, and early satiety symptoms in the FD group were significantly higher than in the control group (50.0% vs 20.8%; 37.1% vs 12.5%; 78.6% vs 44.4%; 45.7% vs 22.2%; 52.9% vs 15.3%; 57.1% vs 19.4%; all P < 0.05). The gastric half-emptying times of the proximal end, distal end, and the whole stomach in the FD group were slower than in the

  15. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency.

  16. [The effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, H

    1990-02-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying and the sites of their action in the stomach, changes in gastric emptying after administration of these drugs were determined in healthy adults by means of radioisotopic technique, by setting 3 regions of interest, i.e., the whole stomach, the proximal area and the antral area. Following results were obtained. 1. With metoclopramide administration, no particular movement of gastric contents was found for several minutes after ingestion. Once the movement of emptying was initiated, the gastric contents were transferred more efficiently from the proximal area to the antral area in comparison with the corresponding movement observed in persons given no metoclopramide. On the other hand, the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum exceeded the inflow from the proximal area to the antral area. 2. With domperidon administration, transfer of gastric contents was markedly increased, but the outflow from the antral area did not exceed the inflow. Domperidone caused overall facilitation of gastric emptying, mainly by enhancing the emptying movement in the proximal area. 3. With aclatonium napadisilate administration, marked transfer of the gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was noted, and the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum was equal to the inflow within 10 min, then exceeded the inflow. 4. With trimebutine maleate administration, transfer of gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was conspicuous, and the outflow from the antral area exceeded the increased inflow, resulting in overall faciliation of gastric emptying. PMID:2255123

  17. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  18. Mist1 Expressing Gastric Stem Cells Maintain the Normal and Neoplastic Gastric Epithelium and Are Supported by a Perivascular Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Stancikova, Jitka; Sakitani, Kosuke; Asfaha, Samuel; Renz, Bernhard W; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A; Shibata, Wataru; Wang, Hongshan; Westphalen, Christoph B; Chen, Xiaowei; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Kim, Woosook; Khurana, Shradha S; Tailor, Yagnesh; Nagar, Karan; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Setlik, Wanda; Gershon, Michael D; Saha, Subhrajit; Ding, Lei; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G; Friedman, Richard A; Konieczny, Stephen F; Worthley, Daniel L; Korinek, Vladimir; Wang, Timothy C

    2015-12-14

    The regulation and stem cell origin of normal and neoplastic gastric glands are uncertain. Here, we show that Mist1 expression marks quiescent stem cells in the gastric corpus isthmus. Mist1(+) stem cells serve as a cell-of-origin for intestinal-type cancer with the combination of Kras and Apc mutation and for diffuse-type cancer with the loss of E-cadherin. Diffuse-type cancer development is dependent on inflammation mediated by Cxcl12(+) endothelial cells and Cxcr4(+) gastric innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). These cells form the perivascular gastric stem cell niche, and Wnt5a produced from ILCs activates RhoA to inhibit anoikis in the E-cadherin-depleted cells. Targeting Cxcr4, ILCs, or Wnt5a inhibits diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis, providing targets within the neoplastic gastric stem cell niche.

  19. Ramucirumab for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Kohei; Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, various molecular target agents have been investigated for gastric cancer. VEGF is one of the most potent angiogenic factors and is a signaling molecule secreted by many solid tumors. High VEGF expression is one of the characteristic features of gastric carcinomas, thus targeting VEGF is considered a promising strategy for gastric cancer. Ramucirumab, an anti-VEGF receptor antibody, has proven to be effective for previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Details of ramucirumab, including two pivotal Phase III studies, will be discussed in this review. Ramucirumab, with or without chemotherapy, improved survival in gastric cancer after previous systemic chemotherapy, thus becoming the standard of care for this patient population. Optimal timing of ramucirumab use and adequate biomarkers for patient selection as well as mechanism of resistance should be explored in future research.

  20. [Intermediate gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Fontán, A N; Marzano, C A; Martínez, M M; Palau, G; Rubio, H H

    1980-01-01

    Gastric Cancer comprises two basic types: Advanced Gastric Cancer (A.G.C.) and Early Gastric Cancer (E.G.C.). A.G.C. extends beyond the proper muscle layer with a 5 to 17%, five years survival rate after surgery. E.G.C. does not extend beyond the submucosa (with or without metastasis to regional lymph nodes) and has a 80 - 95% five years survival rate. Intermediate Gastric Cancer, PM G.C. (Gastric cancer of the proper muscle layer) does not surpass the proper muscle layer and offers a five years life expectance of near 60% after adequate surgical treatment, with peculiar features in radiology, endoscopy and evolutivity. We report a case of PM G.C., "depressed" and "protruded". The proper muscle layer was invaded by the depressed lesion". Both lesions were continguous.

  1. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  2. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  3. Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodin, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

  4. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  5. Aesthetic laser marking assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, T. W.; Yeo, S. C.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, the CIE color difference formula was applied to evaluate four types of material surfaces; anodized aluminium, stainless steel, poly-butylene tetra-phthalate (PBT), and phenol formaldehyde, marked using a Nd:YAG laser, and viewed under three common modes of illumination; tungsten, fluorescent and daylight. The color difference values were based on the spectral reflectance readings obtained from a spectrophotometer. Each material exhibited different color difference trends in relation to marking speed for the different modes of illumination. Nevertheless, general comparisons could be made in terms of operational marking speeds and the maximal color difference values for each material.

  6. Neuroanatomic and behavioral correlates of urinary dysfunction induced by vaginal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Palacios, J L; Juárez, M; Morán, C; Xelhuantzi, N; Damaser, M S; Cruz, Y

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to use a model of simulated human childbirth in rats to determine the damage to genitourinary structures and behavioral signs of urinary dysfunction induced by vaginal distension (VD) in female rats. In experiment 1, the length of the genitourinary tract and the nerves associated with it were measured immediately after simulated human delivery induced by VD or sham (SH) procedures. Electroneurograms of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) were also recorded. In experiment 2, histological characteristics of the bladder and major pelvic ganglion of VD and SH rats were evaluated. In experiment 3, urinary parameters were determined in conscious animals during 6 h of dark and 6 h of light before and 3 days after VD or SH procedures. VD significantly increased distal vagina width (P < 0.001) and the length of the motor branch of the sacral plexus (P < 0.05), DNC (P < 0.05), and vesical nerves (P < 0.01) and decreased DNC frequency and amplitude of firing. VD occluded the pelvic urethra, inducing urinary retention, hematomas in the bladder, and thinness of the epithelial (P < 0.05) and detrusor (P < 0.01) layers of the bladder. Major pelvic ganglion parameters were not modified after VD. Rats dripped urine in unusual places to void, without the stereotyped behavior of micturition after VD. The neuroanatomic injuries after VD occur alongside behavioral signs of urinary incontinence as determined by a new behavioral tool for assessing micturition in conscious animals. PMID:26936873

  7. Effects of wall distensibility in hemodynamic simulations of an arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Aliseda, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. The current study presents fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of a patient-specific model of a mature arteriovenous fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. The FSI results are compared with previously published data of the same model but with rigid walls. Ultrasound-derived wall motion measurements are also used to validate the FSI simulations of the wall motion. Very large time-averaged shear stresses, 10-15 Pa, are calculated at the fistula anastomosis in the FSI simulations, values which are much larger than what is typically thought to be the normal homeostatic shear stress in the peripheral vasculature. Although this result is systematically lower by as much as 50% compared to the analogous rigid-walled simulations, the inclusion of distensible vessel walls in hemodynamic simulations does not reduce the high anastomotic shear stresses to "normal" values. Therefore, rigid-walled analyses may be acceptable for identifying high shear regions of arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:24037281

  8. Effect of DSS-induced colitis on visceral sensitivity to colorectal distension in mice.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M H; Rapp, L; Lindström, E

    2006-02-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis on visceral sensitivity, measured as the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) in BALB/c and C57Bl/6 male mice. Inflammation was induced by the addition of 4% DSS to the drinking water for 5 (C57Bl/6) or 6-7 days (BALB/c). Parallel groups were used to monitor histopathological changes and visceral sensitivity. Pseudo-affective visceral pain responses were evoked using an increasing phasic CRD paradigm (10-60 mmHg) in conscious mice on predetermined days (pretreatment controls, 12, 16, 20, 30, 40 and 51). In both mouse strains, significant histopathological changes developed between days 2 and 5 of DSS treatment, and persisted until day 12 (P < 0.05). On day 15, inflammatory scores were reduced by about 50%. Despite evidence of inflammation in DSS-treated mice, no differences could be shown in the VMR to CRD between DSS-treated mice and controls at any time point tested. In addition, no differences were seen before and after DSS treatment in the same group of mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that DSS-induced colonic inflammation does not affect the visceral sensitivity to CRD, neither at short or long term, in BALB/c or C57Bl/6 male mice.

  9. Effects of Wall Distensibility in Hemodynamic Simulations of an Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    McGah, Patrick M.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e. mechanical homeostasis. The current study presents fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of a patient-specific model of a mature arteriovenous fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. The FSI results are compared with previously published data of the same model but with rigid walls. Ultrasound-derived wall motion measurements are also used to validate the FSI simulations of the wall motion. Very large time-averaged shear stresses, 10–15 Pa, are calculated at the fistula anastomosis in the FSI simulations, values which are much larger than what is typically thought to be the normal homeostatic shear stress in the peripheral vasculature. Although this result is systematically lower by as much as 50% compared to the analogous rigid-walled simulations, the inclusion of distensible vessel walls in hemodynamic simulations does not reduce the high anastomotic shear stresses to “normal” values. Therefore, rigid-walled analyses may be acceptable for identifying high shear regions of arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:24037281

  10. Distensibility of hepatic venous resistance sites and consequences on portal pressure.

    PubMed

    Greenway, C V; Lautt, W W

    1988-03-01

    Hepatic venous resistance was measured in cats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium during changes in hepatic blood flow and in inferior vena cava (IVC) pressure, in an attempt to explain the variable and partial transmission of pressure from IVC to portal vein. Problems with earlier explanations based on a "vascular waterfall" or a "Starling resistor" are discussed. Our data and previously published data can be explained by the hypothesis that hepatic venous resistance decreases as the resistance site is distended by the pressure within the resistance vessels. The product of resistance and distending pressure was a constant. This constant equals the resistance at unit-distending pressure, and it is an index of active contraction of the resistance sites in acute experiments. It is increased during infusions of norepinephrine, and it is higher in innervated than in denervated livers. A distensible hepatic venous resistance is a passive mechanism for partial autoregulation of portal pressure. It also serves as a mechanism for regulation of the splanchnic capacitance response to changes in IVC pressure. PMID:3348424

  11. Gastric conduit perforation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized.

  12. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band after laparoscopic gastric bypass and following placement of adjustable gastric band

    PubMed Central

    Lanaia, Andrea; Zizzo, Maurizio; Cartelli, Concetto M.; Fumagalli, Matteo; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Banded gastric bypass is a bariatric surgical intervention that has been regularly performed in many centers. According to some series, banded gastric bypass is safe and feasible. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass in 2008. Subsequently, she underwent surgery in order to place adjustable gastric banding on previous bypass because of gastric pouch dilatation. Five months later, patient showed anorexia and signs of malnutrition. For this reason, she underwent laparoscopic removal of gastric banding. In our opinion, placing a device to restrict an already dilated gastric pouch must be avoided. PMID:26232597

  13. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  14. Gastric cancer detection in gastric ulcer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mountford, R A; Brown, P; Salmon, P R; Alvarenga, C; Neumann, C S; Read, A E

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective study has been performed of all cases of gastric ulcer diagnosed or investigated within the Endoscopy Unit of the Department of Medicine, Bristol, over a three year period (1974-76). The average length of follow-up was two years. Two hundred and sixty five cases of gastric ulcer were studied of which 37 proved to be malignant (14%). Presenting complaints of anorexia, weight loss, nausea and/or vomiting, and multiple (greater than 3) symptoms, were commoner in the malignant ulcer group. Ulcer site and the presence of coexisting duodenal ulceration were largely unhelpful in deciding the status of an ulcer. Malignant ulcers tended to be large (greater than 1 cm diameter). Radiology was highly unreliable in distinguishing benign from malignant ulcers. Visual inspection at endoscopy was more reliable, but associated with a tendency to over-diagnose malignancy. False positive biopsies were uncommon (two cases). Three cases of clinically unsuspected superficial gastric carcinoma were revealed. Repeated endoscopy and biopsy of all gastric ulcers until they are completely healed is advised. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7364322

  15. [Elevated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    de Careaga, B; Villagómez, G; Pabón, J; Calderón, O; Elío, D; Pérez, J; Martínez, M; Patiño, F; Ponce, R; Lora, J

    1986-01-01

    Elevated gastric lesions, represent an important group among gastric pathology. To establish its incidence in our experience, we studied the endoscopic reports of two important hospitals in La Paz city: Instituto de Gastroenterología Boliviano Japonés and Hospital Obrero No. 1. In order to make a good endoscopic diagnosis among different elevated lesions we use some parameters like: location, shape, size, diameter, surface of the lesion and surrounding mucosa and characteristics of the falls. 10.472 endoscopic reports were reviewed, 497 elevated gastric lesions were found, 475 corresponded to mucosal lesions (352 benign lesions and 123 malignant lesions), 11 to submucosal and 11 extragastric lesions.

  16. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  17. Micro-CT image-derived metrics quantify arterial wall distensibility reduction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roger H.; Karau, Kelly L.; Molthen, Robert C.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2000-04-01

    We developed methods to quantify arterial structural and mechanical properties in excised rat lungs and applied them to investigate the distensibility decrease accompanying chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Lungs of control and hypertensive (three weeks 11% O2) animals were excised and a contrast agent introduced before micro-CT imaging with a special purpose scanner. For each lung, four 3D image data sets were obtained, each at a different intra-arterial contrast agent pressure. Vessel segment diameters and lengths were measured at all levels in the arterial tree hierarchy, and these data used to generate features sensitive to distensibility changes. Results indicate that measurements obtained from 3D micro-CT images can be used to quantify vessel biomechanical properties in this rat model of pulmonary hypertension and that distensibility is reduced by exposure to chronic hypoxia. Mechanical properties can be assessed in a localized fashion and quantified in a spatially-resolved way or as a single parameter describing the tree as a whole. Micro-CT is a nondestructive way to rapidly assess structural and mechanical properties of arteries in small animal organs maintained in a physiological state. Quantitative features measured by this method may provide valuable insights into the mechanisms causing the elevated pressures in pulmonary hypertension of differing etiologies and should become increasingly valuable tools in the study of complex phenotypes in small-animal models of important diseases such as hypertension.

  18. [Analysis of bite marks].

    PubMed

    Spiessens, Marc; Van der Velden, Bram; Willems, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Precise photographs, supplemented by impressions are used to research and compare bite marks. Different materials for impressions are available to the forensic odontologist. Subsequently, the acquired information of the bite mark will be compared with the dentition of a suspect through photographs, intra- and extra oral examination and impressions. The overlay, which can be created using a variety of methods, allows the comparison between the bite mark and the dentition of the suspect. Among the most commonly used are hand-tracing of study models, wax bites or photocopies, or the radio-opaque wax bite method. Thanks to modern technology and the use of computers, analyses of bite marks have gradually become more accurate. Current research carried out at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven will demonstrate whether the computer program ForensicIQ is able to offer an even more precise comparison between a given bite mark and the dentition of a suspect. By no means should bite mark analysis alone be allowed to lead to a guilty verdict, but it will offer the opportunity to exclude a suspect from a crime when the data do not correspond. PMID:16370436

  19. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up.

  20. Increased carotid intima-media thickness and reduced distensibility in human class III obesity: independent and differential influences of adiposity and blood pressure on the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Xiao L; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B; Dart, Anthony M; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  1. Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Reduced Distensibility in Human Class III Obesity: Independent and Differential Influences of Adiposity and Blood Pressure on the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Xiao L.; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R.; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B.; Dart, Anthony M.; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m2). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133+/KDR+ angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10−3kpa−1 vs. 29.91±12.37 10−3kpa−1, P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  2. Increased carotid intima-media thickness and reduced distensibility in human class III obesity: independent and differential influences of adiposity and blood pressure on the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Xiao L; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B; Dart, Anthony M; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity.

  3. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 suppression and arginine restriction inhibit cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ching; Fang, Jung-Hua; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer metastasis remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths. There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches targeting metastatic gastric cancer. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) expression is increased in gastric cancer. We detected the protein expression of ASS1 in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, NCI-N87, and MKN45) and in murine gastric cancer cell lines (3I and 3IB2). We used vector-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression to silence ASS1 expression in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines, and analyzed the effects of this protein on cell migration and metastasis. We demonstrated that ASS1 silencing suppressed cell migration in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines. ASS1 knockdown significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after the intrasplenic implantation of 3IB2 cancer cell clones. To determine whether arginine restriction may represent a therapeutic approach to treat gastric cancer, the sensitivity of tumor cells to arginine depletion was determined in gastric cancer cells. Arginine depletion significantly inhibited cell migration in the gastric cancer cell line. The silencing of ASS1 expression in MKN45 and 3IB2 gastric cancer cells markedly decreased STAT3 protein expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ASS1 protein is required for cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:25928182

  4. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  5. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, R; Recavarren-Arce, S; Berendson, R; Gilman, R H

    1995-01-01

    A review is done on the evidence in favor of a link between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer of the intestinal type. In countries at high risk of gastric cancer, like Perú, Hp infection begins early in life and is highly frequent and persistent. When Hp colonizes the gastric mucosa, it causes active chronic gastritis. Initially, the gastritis is of the superficial type. With time, and probably as a result of the concurrent action of nutritional, epidemiologic and immunologic modulating factors, chronic superficial gastritis may give rise to a progressive gastric pathology that leads to gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and increases the predisposition to gastric cancer. The principal modulating factors are described. The epidemiology of gastric premalignant lesions in Perú is also described. Finally, a discussion is done on the effect that eradication of Hp infection might have on the prevalence of gastric cancer.

  6. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  7. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  8. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  9. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  10. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  11. Acupuncture transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces discomfort associated with barostat-induced rectal distension: A randomized-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing-Wa; Jones, Alice YM; Ng, Simon SM; Wong, Cherry YN; Lee, Janet FY

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effectiveness of acupuncture transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (Acu-TENS), a non-invasive modality in reduction of rectal discomfort during barostat-induced rectal distension. METHODS: Forty healthy subjects were randomized to receive 45 min of either Acu-TENS or placebo-TENS (no electrical output) over acupuncture points Hegu (large-intestine 4), Neiguan (pericardium 6) and Zusanli (stomach 36). A balloon catheter attached to a dual-drive barostat machine was then inserted into the subjects’ rectum. A step-wise (4 mmHg) increase in balloon pressure was induced until maximal tolerable or 48 mmHg. Visual analogue scale and a 5-point subjective discomfort scale (no perception, first perception of distension, urge to defecate, discomfort/pain and extreme pain) were used to assess rectal discomfort at each distension pressure. Blood beta-endorphin levels were measured before, immediately after intervention, at 24 mmHg and at maximal tolerable distension pressure. RESULTS: There was no difference in the demographic data and baseline plasma beta-endorphin levels between the two groups. Perception threshold levels were higher in the Acu-TENS group when compared to the placebo group, but the difference reached statistical significance only at the sensations “urge to defecate” and “pain”. The distension pressures recorded at the “urge to defecate” sensation for the Acu-TENS and placebo-TENS groups were 28.0 ± 4.5 mmHg and 24.6 ± 5.7 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.043); and the pressures recorded for the “pain” sensation for these two groups were 36.0 ± 4.2 mmHg and 30.5 ± 4.3 mmHg respectively (P = 0.002). Compared to the placebo group, a higher number of participants in the Acu-TENS group tolerated higher distension pressures (> 40 mmHg) (65% in Acu-TENS vs 25% in placebo, P = 0.02). The plasma beta-endorphin levels of the Acu-TENS group were significantly higher than that of the placebo group at barostat inflation pressure of

  12. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Baskın, Veysel; Bilge, S. Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Güzel, Hasan; İlkaya, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness in colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral pain model. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley (250–300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously. Results: Paracetamol 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg did not change the visceromotor response (VMR) when compare with the control group. Meloxicam 2 and 4 mg/kg showed no effect but at doses of 6 mg/kg meloxicam significantly ([51.9 ± 6.4%] [P < 0.001]) decreased VMR compared with the control group. Metamizole 200 mg/kg did not change responses but dose of 400 and 600 mg/kg metamizole reduced VMR. Dexketoprofen 2 and 4 mg/kg did not cause a change in VMR but 6 mg/kg dose significantly reduced response compared with the control group ([43.9 ± 3.9%, 36.8 ± 2.8%, 34.8 ± 2.5%, 42.1 ± 4.8%, 40.7 ± 3.5%, 36.4 ± 2.7%, and 26.1 ± 2.2%]; from 10 min to 70 min, respectively, [P < 0.05]). Conclusion: Metamizole, dexketoprofen and meloxicam show antinociceptive effect with different duration of action on CRD-induced visceral pain model. This condition can be explained due to different chemical structures and different mechanisms which play a role in modulation of pain. PMID:27114637

  13. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  14. Rare case of Helicobacter pylori-positive multiorgan IgG4-related disease and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Kun; Brigstock, David R; Zhang, Lu; Xiu, Ming; Sun, Li; Gao, Run-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A 61-year-old male from Northeast China presented with a 2-mo history of abdominal distension, pruritus and jaundice. Laboratory testing revealed an elevated serum IgG4 level. A computed tomography scan showed a typical feature of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and cholecystocholangitis. Early gastric cancer was incidentally discovered when endoscopic untrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas was carried out. The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer combined with cholecystectomy. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IgG4-positive plasmacytes were detected in gastric cancer tissue, pancreatic EUS-FNA sample and resected gallbladder specimen by immunohistochemistry. The patient was diagnosed with H. pylori-positive IgG4-related AIP and sclerosing cholecystocholangitis as well as H. pylori-positive gastric cancer. He responded well to steroid therapy and remains healthy with no signs of recurrence at one year follow-up. We speculate that H. pylori might act as a trigger via direct or indirect action in the initiation of onset of gastric cancer and multiorgan IgG4-related disease. PMID:25805956

  15. Rare case of Helicobacter pylori-positive multiorgan IgG4-related disease and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Kun; Brigstock, David R; Zhang, Lu; Xiu, Ming; Sun, Li; Gao, Run-Ping

    2015-03-21

    A 61-year-old male from Northeast China presented with a 2-mo history of abdominal distension, pruritus and jaundice. Laboratory testing revealed an elevated serum IgG4 level. A computed tomography scan showed a typical feature of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and cholecystocholangitis. Early gastric cancer was incidentally discovered when endoscopic untrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas was carried out. The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer combined with cholecystectomy. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IgG4-positive plasmacytes were detected in gastric cancer tissue, pancreatic EUS-FNA sample and resected gallbladder specimen by immunohistochemistry. The patient was diagnosed with H. pylori-positive IgG4-related AIP and sclerosing cholecystocholangitis as well as H. pylori-positive gastric cancer. He responded well to steroid therapy and remains healthy with no signs of recurrence at one year follow-up. We speculate that H. pylori might act as a trigger via direct or indirect action in the initiation of onset of gastric cancer and multiorgan IgG4-related disease.

  16. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  17. Marked ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, ghost imaging has been widely applied in various areas, such as optical security. Here, we report how an object and multiple hidden marks can be simultaneously recovered by using only one rebuilt reference intensity sequence in ghost imaging. The reconstructed object can be clearly observed during the decoding, and multiple marks can be effectively hidden. This unique characteristic is established for ghost imaging system due to random selections of pixels from each reference intensity pattern, which also guarantees high security. This finding may open up a different research perspective for ghost-imaging-based security system.

  18. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  19. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  20. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  1. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  2. Mark 22 Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.

    2001-07-02

    Calculations for reactivity held in control rods have underpredicted the observed Mark 22 reactivity. Reactivity predictions by charge designers have accounted for this by including large biases which change with exposure and reactor region. The purpose of this study was to thoroughly investigate the methods and data used in the reactivity calculations. The goal was to identify errors and improvements and make necessary corrections.

  3. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  4. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  5. Effect of psychotropic drugs on gastric ulcers induced by immobilization: Increased protective effect of amitriptyline caused by chlordiazepoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, J. E.; Huerlimann, A.

    1980-01-01

    Amitriptyline, but not chlordiazepoxide, protects rats from the occurrence of gastric erosions and ulcers following immobilization. When, however, chlordiazepoxide is given together with amitriptyline the protective effect of the latter is markedly increased.

  6. [Tumor markers in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Hisanao

    2002-04-01

    There are two markers, pepsinogen isoenzymes and antibody against Helicobactor pyroli, for screening of high-risk group for gastric cancer. Most of markers are used in diagnosis, staging, monitoring and differentiating subgroups of gastric cancer. Markers in ascitic fluid are used for diagnosing peritoneal invasion of gastric cancer. PMID:11977555

  7. Gastroprotective effect of 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate against acute gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

    2016-05-01

    Gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol is a serious medical problem. Recent evidences suggest that reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators play a key role in the destruction of gastric mucosa. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of MESNA (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice. The animals were orally pretreated with vehicle or MESNA and then treated with acidified ethanol to induce gastric mucosal damage. One hour after ethanol ingestion mice were euthanized and stomach samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluation of gastric mucosa showed that pretreatment with MESNA attenuated gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Administration of MESNA significantly increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the gastric tissues. In addition, MESNA markedly reduced ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels. These findings suggest that the thiol-containing compound MESNA is able to decrease alcohol-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the gastric tissue. It seems that MESNA may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. PMID:26967742

  8. Inhibitory Effects and Sympathetic Mechanisms of Distension in the Distal Organs on Small Bowel Motility and Slow Waves in Canine.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2015-12-01

    Rectal distension (RD) is known to induce intestinal dysmotility. Few studies were performed to compare effects of RD, colon distension (CD) and duodenal distension (DD) on small bowel motility. This study aimed to investigate effects and underlying mechanisms of distensions in these regions on intestinal motility and slow waves. Eight dogs chronically implanted with a duodenal fistula, a proximal colon fistula, and intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in six sessions: control, RD, CD, DD, RD + guanethidine, and CD + guanethidine. Postprandial intestinal contractions and slow waves were recorded for the assessment of intestinal motility. The electrocardiogram was recorded for the assessment of autonomic functions. (1) Isobaric RD and CD suppressed intestinal contractions (contractile index: 6.0 ± 0.4 with RD vs. 9.9 ± 0.9 at baseline, P = 0.001, 5.3 ± 0.2 with CD vs. 7.7 ± 0.8 at baseline, P = 0.008). Guanethidine at 3 mg/kg iv was able to partially block the effects. (2) RD and CD reduced the percentage of normal intestinal slow waves from 92.1 ± 2.8 to 64.2 ± 3.4 % (P < 0.001) and from 90 ± 2.7 to 69.2 ± 3.7 % (P = 0.01), respectively. Guanethidine could eliminate these inhibitory effects. (3) DD did not induce any changes in small intestinal contractions and slow waves (P > 0.05). (4) The spectral analysis of the heart rate variability showed that both RD and CD increased sympathetic activity (LF) and reduced vagal activity (HF) (P < 0.05). Isobaric RD and CD could inhibit postprandial intestinal motility and impair intestinal slow waves, which were mediated via the sympathetic pathway. However, DD at a site proximal to the measurement site did not seem to impair small intestinal contractions or slow waves.

  9. Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, H; Urbain, J; Knight, L; Brown, K; Trate, D; Miller, M; Maurer, A; Fisher, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—The effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gastric emptying is controversial. 
Aims—To determine the effects of ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole on gastric motility and emptying. 
Patients and methods—Fifteen normal subjects underwent simultaneous antroduodenal manometry, electrogastrography (EGG), and gastric emptying with dynamic antral scintigraphy (DAS). After 30 minutes of fasting manometry and EGG recording, subjects received either intravenous saline, ranitidine, or famotidine, followed by another 30 minutes recording and then three hours of postprandial recording after ingestion of a radiolabelled meal. Images were obtained every 10-15 minutes for three hours to measure gastric emptying and assess antral contractility. Similar testing was performed after omeprazole 20 mg daily for one week. 
Results—Fasting antral phase III migrating motor complexes (MMCs) were more common after ranitidine (9/15 subjects, 60%), famotidine (12/15, 80%), and omeprazole (8/12, 67%) compared with placebo (4/14, 29%; p<0.05). Postprandially, ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole slowed gastric emptying, increased the amplitude of DAS contractions, increased the EGG power, and increased the antral manometric motility index. 
Conclusions—Suppression of gastric acid secretion with therapeutic doses of gastric acid suppressants is associated with delayed gastric emptying but increased antral motility. 

 Keywords: gastric motility; gastric emptying; histamine H2 receptor antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid secretion; scintigraphy PMID:9536950

  10. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ŁaŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  11. Computed tomography of gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Buy, J N; Moss, A A

    1982-05-01

    The CT features in 12 patients with gastric lymphoma, four primary and eight secondary, were analyzed, correlated with other diagnostic studies, surgery, and pathologic features, and compared with the CT findings in 22 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. An abnormally thickened gastric wall (mean, 4.0 cm) was found in all patients with gastric lymphoma. Lymphomas of the stomach often involved more than one region of the stomach (83%). The contour of the outer gastric wall was smooth or lobulated in 42%, perigastric lymph adenopathy was common (58%), extension into adjacent organs was found in 42%, and 42% had lymphadenopathy at or below the renal pedicle.

  12. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  13. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  14. Effect of cimetidine on gastric secretion and duodenogastric reflux.

    PubMed Central

    Melville, R J; Suleiman, S I; Whitfield, P F; Parkin, J V; Nwabunike, T O; Hobsley, M

    1985-01-01

    In 19 subjects (four controls, one gastric ulcer and 14 duodenal ulcer) maximal gastric secretion was evoked with histamine 0.13 mumol/kg/h (0.04 mg/kg/h) for two to two and a half hours. A slow intravenous bolus dose of 200 mg cimetidine was given at the beginning of the last hour. Gastric secretion was measured before and after cimetidine administration and expressed both as mean acid output (mmol H+/h) and 'pyloric loss and duodenogastric reflux corrected' volume (Vg, ml/h). Mean reduction by acid output was 86%; mean reduction by corrected volume (Vg) was only 64%. The discrepancy, which is significant (p less than 0.01), is caused by a marked increase in duodenogastric reflux after cimetidine. PMID:4018640

  15. Pressure drops in a distensible model of end-to-side anastomosis in systemic-to-pulmonary shunts.

    PubMed

    Migliavacca, Francesco; Pennati, Giancarlo; Di Martino, Elena; Dubini, Gabriele; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2002-06-01

    The modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is a surgical procedure used as a palliation to treat complex congenital heart defects. It consists of an interposing prosthetic tube between the innominate/subclavian artery and the right pulmonary artery. Previous experience indicates that the pressure drop across the shunt is affected by the pulmonary pressure at the distal anastomosis combined with the distensibility of the anastomosis. In this study, a computational fluid-structure interaction approach is presented to investigate the haemodynamic behaviour. Steady-state fluid dynamics and structural analyses were carried out using commercial codes based on the finite element method (FIDAP and ABAQUS) coupled by means of a purposely-developed procedure to transfer boundary conditions. Both prosthetic tube and artery walls were characterised by non-linear material properties. Three different pulmonary pressures (2, 5 and 15 mmHg) and two volume flow rates (0.4 and 0.8 l/min) were investigated. Results indicate that the effects of distensibility at the distal anastomosis on the shunt pressure drop are relevant only when the distal anastomosis on the shunt pressure drop are relevant only when the distal anastomosis is not fully distended, which occurs when the pulmonary pressure is lower than 5 mmHg.

  16. Helicobacter suis Causes Severe Gastric Pathology in Mouse and Mongolian Gerbil Models of Human Gastric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Flahou, Bram; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; D'Herde, Katharina; Driessen, Ann; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background “Helicobacter (H.) heilmannii” type 1 is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans suffering from gastric disease. It has been shown to be identical to H. suis, a bacterium which is mainly associated with pigs. To obtain better insights into the long-term pathogenesis of infections with this micro-organism, experimental infections were carried out in different rodent models. Methodology/Principal Findings Mongolian gerbils and mice of two strains (BALB/c and C57BL/6) were infected with H. suis and sacrificed at 3 weeks, 9 weeks and 8 months after infection. Gastric tissue samples were collected for PCR analysis, histological and ultrastructural examination. In gerbils, bacteria mainly colonized the antrum and a narrow zone in the fundus near the forestomach/stomach transition zone. In both mice strains, bacteria colonized the entire glandular stomach. Colonization with H. suis was associated with necrosis of parietal cells in all three animal strains. From 9 weeks after infection onwards, an increased proliferation rate of mucosal epithelial cells was detected in the stomach regions colonized with H. suis. Most gerbils showed a marked lymphocytic infiltration in the antrum and in the forestomach/stomach transition zone, becoming more pronounced in the course of time. At 8 months post infection, severe destruction of the normal antral architecture at the inflamed sites and development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma-like lesions were observed in some gerbils. In mice, the inflammatory response was less pronounced than in gerbils, consisting mainly of mononuclear cell infiltration and being most severe in the fundus. Conclusions/Significance H. suis causes death of parietal cells, epithelial cell hyperproliferation and severe inflammation in mice and Mongolian gerbil models of human gastric disease. Moreover, MALT lymphoma-like lesions were induced in H. suis-infected Mongolian gerbils. Therefore, the

  17. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W.; Bhatia, Abhijit S.; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  18. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  19. Melanoma with gastric metastases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W; Bhatia, Abhijit S; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  20. Gastric calcifying fibrous tumour

    PubMed Central

    Attila, Tan; Chen, Dean; Gardiner, Geoffrey W; Ptak, Theadore W; Marcon, Norman E

    2006-01-01

    Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours); however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases. PMID:16858502

  1. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Sandor

    2014-12-01

    rapid vascular changes (e.g. increased VP and blood flow), followed by cellular events (e.g. infiltration by acute and chronic inflammatory cells). Thus, PG and histamine, by increasing VP create a perivascular edema that dilutes and delays toxic agents reaching the subepithelial capillaries. Otherwise, damaging chemicals may induce severe early vascular injury resulting in blood flow stasis, hypoxia, and necrosis of surrounding epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this complex response, increased mucus and/or bicarbonate secretion seem to cause luminal dilution of gastrotoxic chemicals that is further reinforced by a perivascular, histodilutional component. This mechanistic explanation would encompass the protective actions of diverse agents as PG, small doses of histamine, motility stimulants, and dilute irritants (i.e. "adaptive cytoprotection"). Thus, although markedly increased VP is pathologic, slight increase in VP seems to be protective, that is, a key element in the complex pathophysiologic response during acute gastroprotection. Over the years, "gastroprotection" was also applied to accelerated healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers without reduction of acid secretion. The likely main mechanism here is the binding of angiogenic growth factors (e.g. basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor) to the heparin-like structures of sucralfate and sofalcone. Thus, despite intensive research of the last 30 years, gastroprotection is incompletely understood, and we are still far away from effectively treating Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers and preventing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-caused erosions and ulcers in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract; hence "gastric cytoprotection" research is still relevant.

  2. Acute gastric dilatation causing fatal outcome in a young female with eating disorder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Seung-Mok; Kim, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old female with a history of bulimia nervosa came to the emergency room due to severe abdominal pain after excessive eating five hours previously. On arrival at the emergency room, extreme abdominal distension was detected and the patient's legs changed color. Computed tomography suggested severe gastric dilatation, so abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected and an emergent laparotomy was supposed to be conducted. Though anesthesia was induced without event, abrupt hemodynamic collapse developed just after the operation started. In spite of active resuscitation for 29 min, the patient did not recover and expired. As the incidence of eating disorders is increasing, anesthesiologists should keep in mind the possibility of abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with a recent history of binge eating, and prepare optimal anesthetic and resuscitation remedies against sudden deteriorations of a patient's condition. PMID:25844140

  3. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  4. Does Measurement of Esophagogastric Junction Distensibility by EndoFLIP Predict Therapy-responsiveness to Endoluminal Fundoplication in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Fabiënne G M; Keszthelyi, Daniel; Bouvy, Nicole D; Masclee, Ad A M; Conchillo, José M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), an increased esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility has been described. Assessment of EGJ distensibility with the endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP) technique might identify patients responsive to transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF), whereas postoperative measurement of EGJ distensibility might provide insight into the antireflux mechanism of TIF. Therefore, we investigated the value of the EndoFLIP technique in GERD patients treated by TIF. Methods Forty-two GERD patients underwent EGJ distensibility measurement before TIF using the EndoFLIP technique. In a subgroup of 25 patients, EndoFLIP measurement was repeated both postoperative and at 6 months follow-up. Treatment outcome was assessed according to esophageal acid exposure time (AET; objective outcome) and symptom scores (clinical outcome) 6 months after TIF. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative EGJ distensibility (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03–0.78; P = 0.023) and preoperative AET (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42–0.90; P = 0.013) were independent predictors for objective treatment outcome but not for clinical outcome after TIF. The best cut-off value for objective outcome was 2.3 mm2/mmHg for preoperative EGJ distensibility and 11% for preoperative AET. EGJ distensibility decreased direct postoperative from 2.0 (1.2–3.3) to 1.4 (1.0–2.2) mm2/mmHg (P = 0.014), but increased to 2.2 (1.5–3.0) at 6 months follow-up (P = 0.925, compared to preoperative). Conclusions Preoperative EGJ distensibility and preoperative AET were independent predictors for objective treatment outcome but not for clinical outcome after TIF. According to our data, the EndoFLIP technique has no added value either in the preoperative diagnostic work-up or in the post-procedure evaluation of endoluminal antireflux therapy. PMID:25742904

  5. Stromal-Based Signatures for the Classification of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Uhlik, Mark T; Liu, Jiangang; Falcon, Beverly L; Iyer, Seema; Stewart, Julie; Celikkaya, Hilal; O'Mahony, Marguerita; Sevinsky, Christopher; Lowes, Christina; Douglass, Larry; Jeffries, Cynthia; Bodenmiller, Diane; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Fischl, Anthony; Gerald, Damien; Xue, Qi; Lee, Jee-Yun; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Sui, Yunxia; Desai, Keyur; Doman, Thompson; Aggarwal, Amit; Carter, Julia H; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Jaminet, Shou-Ching; Ginty, Fiona; Nasir, Aejaz; Nagy, Janice A; Dvorak, Harold F; Benjamin, Laura E

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of metastatic gastric cancer typically involves chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies targeting HER2 (ERBB2) and VEGFR2 (KDR). However, reliable methods to identify patients who would benefit most from a combination of treatment modalities targeting the tumor stroma, including new immunotherapy approaches, are still lacking. Therefore, we integrated a mouse model of stromal activation and gastric cancer genomic information to identify gene expression signatures that may inform treatment strategies. We generated a mouse model in which VEGF-A is expressed via adenovirus, enabling a stromal response marked by immune infiltration and angiogenesis at the injection site, and identified distinct stromal gene expression signatures. With these data, we designed multiplexed IHC assays that were applied to human primary gastric tumors and classified each tumor to a dominant stromal phenotype representative of the vascular and immune diversity found in gastric cancer. We also refined the stromal gene signatures and explored their relation to the dominant patient phenotypes identified by recent large-scale studies of gastric cancer genomics (The Cancer Genome Atlas and Asian Cancer Research Group), revealing four distinct stromal phenotypes. Collectively, these findings suggest that a genomics-based systems approach focused on the tumor stroma can be used to discover putative predictive biomarkers of treatment response, especially to antiangiogenesis agents and immunotherapy, thus offering an opportunity to improve patient stratification. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2573-86. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197264

  6. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  7. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists ... stomach (gastric) cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel ...

  8. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

  9. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  10. Effects of EGFR Inhibitor on Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastric Epithelial Pathology in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Jean E.; Jeremy, Anthony H.T.; Duval, Cedric; Dixon, Michael F.; Danjo, Kazuma; Carr, Ian M.; Pritchard, D. Mark; Robinson, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori transactivates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and predisposes to gastric cancer development in humans and animal models. To examine the importance of EGFR signalling to gastric pathology, this study investigated whether treatment of Mongolian gerbils with a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, EKB-569, altered gastric pathology in chronic H. pylori infection. Gerbils were infected with H. pylori and six weeks later received either EKB-569-supplemented, or control diet, for 32 weeks prior to sacrifice. EKB-569-treated H. pylori-infected gerbils had no difference in H. pylori colonisation or inflammation scores compared to infected animals on control diet, but showed significantly less corpus atrophy, mucous metaplasia and submucosal glandular herniations along with markedly reduced antral and corpus epithelial proliferation to apoptosis ratios. EKB-569-treated infected gerbils had significantly decreased abundance of Cox-2, Adam17 and Egfr gastric transcripts relative to infected animals on control diet. EGFR inhibition by EKB-569 therefore reduced the severity of pre-neoplastic gastric pathology in chronically H. pylori-infected gerbils. EKB-569 increased gastric epithelial apoptosis in H. pylori-infected gerbils which counteracted some of the consequences of increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation. Similar chemopreventative strategies may be useful in humans who are at high risk of developing H. pylori- induced gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:25437333

  11. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  12. Theory of gastric CO2 ventilation and its control during respiratory acidosis: implications for central chemosensitivity, pH regulation, and diseases causing chronic CO2 retention.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jay B

    2011-02-15

    The theory of gastric CO(2) ventilation describes a previously unrecognized reflex mechanism controlled by neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) for non-alveolar elimination of systemic CO(2) during respiratory acidosis. Neurons in the cSC, which is a site of CO(2) chemosensitivity for cardiorespiratory control, also control various gastroesophageal reflexes that remove CO(2) from blood. CO(2) is consumed in the production of gastric acid and bicarbonate in the gastric epithelium and then reconstituted as CO(2) in the stomach lumen from the reaction between H(+) and HCO(3)(-). Respiratory acidosis and gastric CO(2) distension induce cSC/vagovagal mediated transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter to vent gastric CO(2) upwards by bulk flow along an abdominal-to-esophageal (=intrapleural) pressure gradient the magnitude of which increases during abdominal (gastric) compression caused by increased contractions of respiratory muscles. Esophageal distension induces cSC/nucleus ambiguus/vagovagal reflex relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter and CO(2) is vented into the pharynx and mixed with pulmonary gas during expiration or, alternatively, during eructation. It is proposed that gastric CO(2) ventilation provides explanations for (1) the postprandial increase in expired CO(2) and (2) the negative P(blood - expired)CO₂difference that occurs with increased inspired CO(2). Furthermore, it is postulated that gastric CO(2) ventilation and alveolar CO(2) ventilation are coordinated under dual control by CO(2) chemosensitive neurons in the cSC. This new theory, therefore, presupposes a level of neural control and coordination between two previously presumed dissimilar organ systems and supports the notion that different sites of CO(2) chemosensitivity address different aspects of whole body pH regulation. Consequently, not all sites of central chemosensitivity are equal regarding the mechanism(s) activated for CO(2) elimination. A distributed CO(2

  13. Gastric cancer review

    PubMed Central

    Carcas, Lauren Peirce

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

  14. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  15. Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Michel; Giusti, Vittorio; Worreth, Marc; Héraief, Eric; Calmes, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic gastric banding using 2 different bands (the Lapband [Bioenterics, Carpinteria, CA] and the SAGB [Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band; Obtech Medical, 6310 Zug, Switzerland]) in terms of weight loss and correction of comorbidities, short-and long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life in morbidly obese patients Summary Background Data: During the past 10 years, gastric banding has become 1 of the most common bariatric procedures, at least in Europe and Australia. Weight loss can be excellent, but it is not sufficient in a significant proportion of patients, and a number of long-term complications can develop. We hypothesized that the type of band could be of importance in the outcome. Methods: One hundred eighty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to receive the Lapband or the SAGB. All the procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The primary end point was weight loss, and secondary end points were correction of comorbidities, early- and long-term complications, importance of food restriction, and improvement of quality of life. Results: Initial weight loss was faster in the Lapband group, but weight loss was eventually identical in the 2 groups. There was a trend toward more early band-related complications and more band infections with the SAGB, but the study had limited power in that respect. Correction of comorbidities, food restriction, long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life were identical. Only 55% to 60% of the patients achieved an excess weight loss of at least 50% in both groups. There was no difference in the incidence of long-term complications. Conclusions: Gastric banding can be performed safely with the Lapband or the SAGB with similar short- and midterm results with respect to weight loss and morbidity. Only 50% to 60% of the patients will achieve sufficient weight loss, and close to 10% at least will develop severe

  16. A comparison of rigid registration methods for prostate localization on CBCT and the dependence on rectum distension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boydev, C.; Pasquier, D.; Derraz, F.; Peyrodie, L.; Taleb-Ahmed, A.; Thiran, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated automatic three-dimensional intensity-based rigid registration (RR) methods for prostate localization on CBCT scans and studied the impact of rectum distension on registration quality. 106 CBCT scans of 9 prostate patients were used. Each one was registered to the planning computed tomography (CT) scan using different methods: (a) global registration, (b) pelvis bony structure registration, (c) bony registration refined by a local prostate registration using the CT clinical target volume (CTV) expanded with 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15 or 20-mm margin. Automatic CBCT contours were generated after propagation of the manual CT contours. To evaluate results, a radiation oncologist was asked to manually delineate the CTV on the CBCT scans (gold standard). The Dice similarity coefficients between propagated and manual CBCT contours were calculated.

  17. Effect of fedotozine on the cardiovascular pain reflex induced by distension of the irritated colon in the anesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Langlois, A; Diop, L; Rivière, P J; Pascaud, X; Junien, J L

    1994-12-27

    The effect of fedotozine was evaluated in a model of colonic hypersensibility to balloon distension in anesthetized rats. Acetic acid (0.6%, intracolonically) significantly enhanced the hypotension reflex response to colonic distension (P < 0.05). At a noxious pain pressure (75 mm Hg), fedotozine ((+)-(-1R)-1-phenyl-1-[(3,4,5- trimethoxy)benzyloxymethyl]-N,N-dimethyl-n-propylamine) had no effect at 0.6 and 1 mg/kg i.v. in saline-treated rats and higher doses were required to produce antinociception (ED50 = 2.57 mg/kg i.v.). By contrast, fedotozine at 0.6 and 1 mg/kg i.v. displayed 38 and 54% antinociception (P < 0.05) respectively, in acetic acid-treated animals, leading to a decrease in its ED50 (1.15 mg/kg i.v.). Similar results were obtained with (+/-)-trans-N-methyl-N-[2-(pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzo[b]-thiophene- 4-acetamide (PD-117,302), a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, while the antinociceptive action of morphine and a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1- pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl)benzenacetamide ((+/-)-U-50,488H), was identical in control and acetic acid-treated animals. Nor-binaltorphimine, a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, reversed the enhanced antinociceptive activity of fedotozine and PD-117,302. It is concluded that acetic acid induces colonic hypersensibility to painful mechanical stimuli and that some but not all kappa-opioid receptor ligands can have enhanced efficacy in this pathological situation. PMID:7705424

  18. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Dehydroeffusol markedly inhibits gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry. • Dehydroeffusol suppresses the expression of vasculogenic mimicry key gene VE-cadherin. • Dehydroeffusol decreases the MMP2 expression and activity in gastric cancer cells. • Dehydroeffusol is a potential anti-cancer drug candidate with very low toxicity.

  19. Gastric distention exacerbates ischemia in a rodent model of partial gastric devascularization.

    PubMed

    Urschel, J D; Antkowiak, J G; Takita, H

    1997-11-01

    Occult ischemia of the mobilized gastric fundus is an important etiologic factor for esophagogastric anastomotic leaks after esophagectomy. Postoperative gastric distention is another possible predisposing factor for anastomotic leakage. We hypothesized that gastric distention could worsen gastric ischemia. To test this hypothesis, gastric tissue perfusion was studied in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats. Baseline serosal gastric tissue perfusion was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry at a point 10 mm distal to the gastroesophageal junction. Perfusion was measured after left gastric artery occlusion, gastric distention to 20 cm water pressure, and combined left gastric artery occlusion and gastric distention. Gastric tissue perfusion (in tissue perfusion units, TPU) was 64.2 +/- 9.1 TPU at baseline measurement, 18.6 +/- 4.3 TPU after left gastric artery occlusion, 22.0 +/- 4.1 TPU after gastric distention, and 7.8 +/- 1.8 TPU after combined left gastric artery occlusion and gastric distention. Distention (P < 0.0001) and arterial occlusion (P < 0.0001) both reduced gastric tissue perfusion; of the two, arterial occlusion produced the greatest reduction in perfusion (P < 0.021). The combination of distention and arterial occlusion caused greater reduction in gastric perfusion than either factor alone (P < 0.0001). In this model, gastric distention exacerbated the ischemia produced by partial gastric devascularization. In clinical esophageal surgery, postoperative gastric distention may similarly potentiate the ischemic effects of gastric transposition for esophageal reconstruction.

  20. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736, Pliva, Croatia). Full and distended stomach, and vascular response.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Brcic, L; Blagaic, A B; Zoricic, I; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Keller, N; Sipos, K; Jakir, A; Udovicic, M; Tonkic, A; Kokic, N; Turkovic, B; Mise, S; Anic, T

    2006-12-01

    Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, safe in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL 10, PLD 116, PLD 14736, Pliva, Croatia)) has a particular cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotective activity. The cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotection researches largely neglect that stomach distension could per se jeopardize the mucosal integrity, with constantly stretched mucosa and blood vessels, and sphincters more prone for reflux induction. After absolute alcohol instillation in fully distended rat stomach, gastric, esophageal and duodenal lesions occur. Throughout next 3 min, left gastric artery blood vessels clearly disappear at the serosal site, indicative for loss of vessels both integrity and function. Contrary, constant vessels presentation could predict the beneficial effect of applied agent. After pentadecapeptide BPC 157 instillation into the stomach the vessels presentation remains constant, and lesions of stomach, esophagus, and duodenum are inhibited. Standards (atropine, ranitidine, omeprazole) could only slightly improve the vessels presentation compared to control values, and they have only a partial effect on the lesions. In this review we emphasize BPC 157 unusual stability, and some of its important effects: effectiveness against various lesions in gastrointestinal tract, on nitric oxide (NO)-system, and NO-agents effects, on somatosensory neurons, salivary glands function, recovery of AMP-ADP-ATP system, endothelium protection, effect on endothelin, and on angiogenesis promotion. It also antagonizes other alcohol effects, including acute and chronic intoxication. Given peripherally, it counteracts the consequence of central dopamine system disturbances (receptor blockade), and induces serotonin release in substantia nigra. Therapeutic potential of BPC 157 as a cytoprotective agent is also seen in its capability to heal various wounds. Given directly into the stomach, BPC 157 instantly recovers disturbed lower esophageal

  1. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  2. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  3. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:26771139

  4. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Yun, Nari; Han, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101) on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25610477

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  6. Gastric band migration following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): two cases of endoscopic management using a gastric band cutter.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Pawel; Hady, Hady Razak; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently used minimally invasive and reversible procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Migration of the gastric band into the gastric lumen is a rare late complication of LAGB. Previous attempts at endoscopic removal of migrated bands have included the use of endoscopic scissors, laser ablation and argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report two cases of successful endoscopic management of gastric band migration using a gastric band cutter. PMID:23256012

  7. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  8. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  9. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  10. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are "better" at it. We outline a…

  11. Update on gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma is an uncommon entity that can often present like classic adenocarcinoma. The most common organ site involved is the stomach. Important prognostic indicators include location of lymph node involvement, histologic subtype, lymphocyte lineage, gross size, and location of the tumor. Surgical resection is the mainstay of curative therapy. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have a role either separately or as part of a multimodality treatment program. Clinicians are encouraged to enter patients with primary gastric lymphoma into multi-institutional, cooperative group clinical trials to more clearly define the best treatment strategy. PMID:1956083

  12. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  13. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A.; Al Kharusi, Suad S.; Al Bahrani, Bassim J.; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  14. Changing pattern of gastric cancer in Oxfordshire.

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Castellanos, E; Sitas, F; Shepherd, N A; Jewell, D P

    1992-01-01

    This study compares the incidence rates of histologically confirmed gastric carcinoma in Oxfordshire in two five year periods (1960-64, 1984-88). Data were available for 215 patients in the first period, and 200 in the second. The overall incidence fell from 18/100,000 to 15/100,000 but when analysed for site, the incidence of antral tumours fell from 10 to 4.5/100,000. In contrast, there was an increase from 2.8 to 5.2/100,000 of tumours of the cardia. These changes were more pronounced in men. There was a marked association between smoking and tumours of the cardia (relative risk 4.5). Helicobacter pylori was associated with 37.5% of tumours in the 1960s series compared with 25% in the later series. The changing patterns of incidence of gastric carcinoma may, in part, be related to changes in smoking habits and perhaps a change in incidence of H pylori infection. Images Figure 2 PMID:1446851

  15. Helicobacter pylori chronic infection and mucosal inflammation switches the human gastric glycosylation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Nairn, Alison V.; Rosa, Mitche dela; Ferreira, Rui M.; Junqueira-Neto, Susana; Freitas, Daniela; Gomes, Joana; Oliveira, Patrícia; Santos, Marta R.; Marcos, Nuno T.; Xiaogang, Wen; Figueiredo, Céu; Oliveira, Carla; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Moremen, Kelley W.; David, Leonor; Reis, Celso A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori exploits host glycoconjugates to colonize the gastric niche. Infection can persist for decades promoting chronic inflammation, and in a subset of individuals lesions can silently progress to cancer. This study shows that H. pylori chronic infection and gastric tissue inflammation result in a remodeling of the gastric glycophenotype with increased expression of sialyl-Lewis a/x antigens due to transcriptional up-regulation of the B3GNT5, B3GALT5, and FUT3 genes. We observed that H. pylori infected individuals present a marked gastric local proinflammatory signature with significantly higher TNF-α levels and demonstrated that TNF-induced activation of the NF-kappaB pathway results in B3GNT5 transcriptional up-regulation. Furthermore, we show that this gastric glycosylation shift, characterized by increased sialylation patterns, favors SabA-mediated H. pylori attachment to human inflamed gastric mucosa. This study provides novel clinically relevant insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying H. pylori modulation of host glycosylation machinery, and phenotypic alterations crucial for life-long infection. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways here identified as responsible for gastric mucosa increased sialylation, in response to H. pylori infection, can be exploited as drug targets for hindering bacteria adhesion and counteract the infection chronicity. PMID:26144047

  16. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng; Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy.

  17. Ghrelin inhibits sodium metabisulfite induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sevim; Basaranlar, Goksun; Gungor, Nazlı Ece; Kencebay, Ceren; Sahin, Pınar; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Derin, Narin

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of ghrelin administration on sulfite induced oxidative and apoptotic changes in rat gastric mucosa. Forty male albino Wistar rats were randomized into control (C), sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) treated (S), ghrelin treated (G) and, Na2S2O5+ghrelin treated (SG) groups. Sodium metabisulfite (100 mg/kg/day) was given by gastric gavage and, ghrelin (20 μg/kg/day) was given intraperitoneally for 5 weeks. Plasma-S-sulfonate level was increased in S and SG groups. Na2S2O5 administration significantly elevated total oxidant status (TOS) levels while depleting total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in gastric mucosa. Ghrelin significantly decreased gastric TOS levels in the SG group compared with the S group. Additionally, TAS levels were found to be higher in SG group in reference to S group. Na2S2O5 administration also markedly increased the number of apoptotic cells, cleaved caspase-3 and PAR expression (PARP activity indicator) and, decreased Ki67 expression (cell proliferation index) in gastric mucosal cells. Ghrelin treatment decreased the number apoptotic cells, cytochrome C release, PAR and, caspase-3 expressions while increasing Ki67 expression in gastric mucosa exposed to Na2S2O5. In conclusion, we suggest that ghrelin treatment might ameliorate ingested-Na2S2O5 induced gastric mucosal injury stemming from apoptosis and oxidative stress in rats.

  18. [Role of animal gastric Helicobacter species in human gastric pathology].

    PubMed

    Pozdeev, O K; Pozdeeva, A O; Pozdnyak, A O; Saifutdinov, R G

    2015-01-01

    Animal Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori are also able to cause human gastritis, gastric ulcers, and MALT lymphomas. Animal Helicobacter species are presented with typical spiral fastidious microorganisms colonizing the gastric mucosa of different animals. Bacteria initially received their provisional name Helicobacter heilmannii, and out of them at least five species colonizing the gastric mucosa of pigs, cats, and dogs were isolated later on. A high proportion of these diseases are shown to be zoonotic. Transmission of pathogens occurs by contact. The factors of bacterial pathogenicity remain little studied.

  19. Use of pyloroplasty (Y-U) to treat presumed delayed gastric emptying in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Neiffer, D L; Pardo, A D; Klein, E C

    2000-12-01

    A 4-yr-old cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with a 2-yr history of chronic intermittent vomiting and spiral bacteria-associated gastritis presented with dramatically increased vomiting frequency and marked intermittent abdominal distention. Physical examination revealed loss of muscle mass and poor fur coat quality. Contrast radiography was consistent with delayed gastric emptying due to presumed gastric outlet obstruction. Both Y-U pyloroplasty and incisional gastropexy were performed, and no subsequent vomiting has been observed for 3 yr with the exception of three episodes during the immediate postoperative period. The cause of delayed gastric emptying was not determined, although a gastric motility disorder associated with gastric bacterial infection and elevated gastrin levels was suspected.

  20. Longitudinal displacement of the carotid wall and cardiovascular risk factors: associations with aging, adiposity, blood pressure and periodontal disease independent of cross-sectional distensibility and intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Zahnd, Guillaume; Vray, Didier; Sérusclat, André; Alibay, Djhianne; Bartold, Mark; Brown, Alex; Durand, Marion; Jamieson, Lisa M; Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; O'Dea, Kerin; Moulin, Philippe; Celermajer, David S; Skilton, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    The recently discovered longitudinal displacement of the common carotid arterial wall (i.e., the motion along the same plane as the blood flow), may be associated with incident cardiovascular events and represents a novel and relevant clinical information. At present, there have only been a few studies that have been conducted to investigate this longitudinal movement. We propose here a method to assess noninvasively the wall bi-dimensional (two-dimensional [2-D], cross-sectional and longitudinal) motion and present an original approach that combines a robust speckle tracking scheme to guidance by minimal path contours segmentation. Our method is well suited to large clinical population studies as it does not necessitate strong imaging prerequisites. The aim of this study is to describe the association between the longitudinal displacement of the carotid arterial wall and cardiovascular risk factors, among which periodontal disease. Some 126 Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease, an emerging risk factor, and 27 healthy age- and sex-matched non-indigenous control subjects had high-resolution ultrasound scans of the common carotid artery. Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial wall 2-D motion were then assessed using our method in ultrasound B-mode sequences. Carotid longitudinal displacement was markedly lower in the periodontal disease group than the control group (geometric mean (IQR): 0.15 mm (0.13) vs. 0.42 mm (0.30), respectively; p < 0.0001), independent of cardiovascular risk factors, cross-sectional distensibility and carotid intima-media thickness (p < 0.0001). A multivariable model indicated that the strongest correlates of carotid longitudinal displacement in adults with periodontal disease were age (β-coefficient = -.235, p = .03), waist (β-coefficient = -.357, p = 0.001), and pulse pressure (β-coefficient = .175, p = 0.07), independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, cross-sectional distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Carotid

  1. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; de Micheaux, Hugo Lafaye; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  2. Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

  3. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. PMID:27531542

  4. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery and identification in gastric tissue by Marshall and Warren in 1983, our knowledge about the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection has grown considerably. Its role in the multifactorial pathology of peptic ulcer disease (gastrodudodenal ulcer disease), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma is now widely accepted while its involvement in extraintestinal disease is still controversial.The correlation between the colonization of the stomach by H. pylori and gastric lymphoma has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Between 65 and 80% of distal gastric adenocarcinomas are attributed to H. pylori infection. However, gastric carcinogenesis cannot be explained by H. pylori infection alone. Among those individuals infected by this bacteria, only a small percentage (2-5%) ever develops gastric cancer, the majority exhibit benign lesions. There is a wide individual variation in the outcome of this infection in patients. This individual and population specific variation is due to the intricate relationship between genetics, the environment, bacterial virulence, diet, and socio-economic status and it explains the multiple outcomes of this infection. In this article, we conduct a review of the widely accepted theories regarding gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, the correlations and enigmas between them, the reported geographical variations, and the various proposed hypotheses on the carcinogenic mechanism of Helicobacter pylori.

  5. Swash mark and grain flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    1981-01-01

    Swash marks composed entirely of coarse sand are commonly found on coarse-sand beaches. These swash marks are 10 to 30 centimeters in width and a few millimeters to one centimeter in height. Previous observations, mostly on finer-sand beaches, indicate swash marks are seldom over a few millimeters in height and are commonly composed of material readily floated by surface tension (e.g., mica flakes and shell fragments). Swash marks composed of coarse sand have both fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size. Apparently, the leading margin of a wave upwash drives a highly concentrated flow of grains in which both grain size and grain velocity decrease with depth. Therefore, large grains are transported at greater velocities than are smaller grains. Thus, at the maximum advance of an upwash, a swash mark is deposited which has the observed fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size.

  6. Propeller-based wireless device for active capsular endoscopy in the gastric district.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Giuseppe; Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Rieber, Fabian; Schurr, Marc Oliver

    2009-01-01

    An innovative approach to active locomotion for capsular endoscopy in the gastric district is reported in this paper. Taking advantage of the ingestion of 500 ml of transparent liquid by the patient, an effective distension of the stomach is safely achieved for a timeframe of approximately 30 minutes. Given such a scenario, an active swallowable capsule able to navigate inside the stomach thanks to a four propeller system has been developed. The capsule is 15 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and it is composed of a supporting shell containing a wireless microcontroller, a battery and four motors. The motors enable the rotation of propellers located in the rear side of the device, thus obtaining a reliable locomotion and steering of the capsule in all directions in a liquid. The power consumption has been properly optimized in order to achieve an operative lifetime consistent with the time of the diagnostic inspection of the gastric district, assumed to be no more than 30 minutes. The capsule can be easily remotely controlled by the endoscopist using a joystick together with a purposely developed graphical user interface. The capsule design, prototyping, in vitro, ex vivo and preliminary in vivo tests are described in this work.

  7. Analysis of gastric emptying data

    SciTech Connect

    Elashoff, J.D.; Reedy, T.J.; Meyer, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    How should gastric emptying data be summarized to allow comparisons between males or between groups of subjects within a study, and to facilitate comparisons of results from study to study. We review standardization issues for reporting gastric emptying data, discuss criteria for choosing a method of analysis, review methods which have been used to describe gastric emptying data, recommend trial of the power exponential curve, and illustrate its use in the analysis and interpretation of data from several studies involving different types of meals and different types of subjects. We show why nonlinear curves should be fit using nonlinear least squares.

  8. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management. PMID:27126070

  9. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  10. Analysis of the cold-water restraint procedure in gastric ulceration and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2004-10-15

    Gastric mucosal injury induced by body restraint can be enhanced when combined with cold-water immersion. Based on this fact, the present study had two main purposes: (i) to examine the contribution of each of these two forms of stress on the development of gastric ulceration and regulation of body temperature and (ii) to investigate the importance of the animal's consciousness on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint. Independent groups of animals were exposed for 3 h to one of the following stressful treatments: body restraint plus cold-water (20+1 degrees C) immersion, body restraint alone or cold-water immersion alone. Control animals were not exposed to any form of stress. Half of the animals submitted to each of the four treatments were anesthetized with thionembutal (35 mg/kg), whereas the other half was injected with saline. Results indicated that body restraint alone was not sufficient to induce gastric ulceration or changes in body temperature. On the other hand, cold-water exposure, either alone or in conjunction with body restraint, induced the same amount of stomach erosions and hypothermia. Therefore, it appears that body restraint does not play an important role on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint procedure. Present results also indicated that conscious and anesthetized animals immersed in cold water presented robust gastric ulceration and a marked drop in body temperature. However, conscious animals developed more severe gastric damage in comparison to anesthetized animals although both groups presented the same degree of hypothermia. These findings suggest that hypothermia resulting from cold-water exposure has a deleterious effect on gastric ulceration but the animal's conscious activity during the cold-water immersion increases the severity of gastric mucosal damage. It is concluded that cold-water restraint is a useful procedure for the study of the underlying mechanisms involved in stress

  11. Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-02-01

    The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  12. CE Marking - the Essential Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Mervyn

    The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

  13. 19 CFR 134.21 - Special marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Marking of Containers or Holders § 134.21 Special marking. This subpart includes only country of origin marking requirements and exceptions under section 304(b), Tariff Act of 1930,...

  14. Gastric cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Hilmar; Marques, Miguel S; Zietlow, Rike; Meyer, Thomas F; Machado, Jose C; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) results from a multistep process that is influenced by Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic susceptibility of the host, as well as of other environmental factors. GC results from the accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, leading to dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, which disrupt the cell cycle and the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. For this special issue, we have selected to review last year's advances related to three main topics: the cell of origin that initiates malignant growth in GC, the mechanisms of direct genotoxicity induced by H. pylori infection, and the role of aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs in GC transformation. The understanding of the molecular basis of GC development is of utmost importance for the identification of novel targets for GC prevention and treatment. PMID:27531537

  15. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations.

  16. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations. PMID:27197667

  17. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    PubMed

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged.

  18. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    PubMed

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged. PMID:2434965

  19. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do. PMID:26566288

  20. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  1. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  2. Protective effects of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiming; Liao, Huijun; Liu, Yuhong; Zheng, Yifeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Su, Zuqing; Zhang, Xie; Lai, Zhengquan; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Su, Ziren

    2015-01-01

    We examined the protective effect of pogostone (PO), a chemical constituent isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of PO at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion effectively protected the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesions were significantly ameliorated by all doses of PO as compared to the vehicle group. Pre-treatment with PO prevented the oxidative damage and the decrease of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content. In addition, PO pretreatment markedly increased the mucosa levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), relative to the vehicle group. In the mechanistic study, significant elevation of non-protein-sulfhydryl (NP-SH) was observed in the gastric mucosa pretreated by PO. Analysis of serum cytokines indicated that PO pretreatment obviously elevated the decrease of interleukin-10 (IL-10) level, while markedly mitigated the increment of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretions in ethanol-induced rats. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that PO could exert a gastro-protective effect against gastric ulceration, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the stimulation of PGE2, improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status, as well as preservation of NP-SH.

  3. [The Soupault-Bucaillle operation in the treatment of Billroth II gastric resection syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, M; Biffoni, M; Tartaglia, F; Nobili-Benedetti, R; Picchi, P; Pugliese, F R; Lentini, A; Stocco, F; Campana, F P

    1992-04-01

    The study analyzes the benefits related to the gastroduodenojejunoplasty (GDJP) according to Soupault & Bucaille, adopted as the corrective treatment of the Billroth II gastric resection syndrome in those cases resistant to the dieting-pharmacological supports. Our experience is based on 18 cases (13 males, 5 females, mean age 39 yrs), treated from 1982 to 1987 with GDJP for a gastric resection syndrome. The patients were observed 5 years after their resection: 10 presented with an atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy and all had a diffuse acute phlogosis in presence of biliary storage. Manual anastomoses were performed in the first 8 cases, while staplers were used in the remaining cases. Results were quite satisfying; no operative mortality or specific complications, nor pain and biliary vomiting were registered; 14 patients over 18 (77%) gained weight significantly; only 1 patient reported low-intense early "dumping-like" symptoms easily controlled by medical therapy. Endoscopy showed no biliary reflux in all cases. Biopsies of the stump, carried on before and after the GDJP intervention, showed a marked reduction of the inflammatory aspects in 76% (13) of the patients. Among the 10 patients with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy, only 2 (20%) presented a significant increase in the number of gastric parietal cells and gastric principal cells.

  4. The gastroprotective effect of Memora nodosa roots against experimental gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Dayane M; Martins, José L R; Florentino, Iziara F; Oliveira, Danillo R; Fajemiroye, James O; Tresnvenzol, Leonice M F; Paula, José R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-07-11

    Memora nodosa is popularly known as "caroba" and widely found in the Cerrado regions of Brazil. In traditional medicine, the leaves and stems are used for the healing of external ulcer and the roots for abdominal pain. This study investigated the effect of ethanolic roots extract of Memora nodosa (EMN) on the gastric mucosa of mice. In the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model, the treatments of the animals with EMN at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., markedly reduced the index of lesions. In the gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol and cold restraint-stress the previous treatment with EMN at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 69% and 43% of protection, respectively. Seven days after food-restriction, the animals treated with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o.) showed reduction in the index of lesion by 65% as compared to control group. The intraduodenal administration of EMN (300 mg/kg) did not alter the gastric acid secretion parameters. The treatment with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o.) did not alter glutathione levels (GSH), but showed an increase of adhered gastric mucus as compared to the control group with lesion. These results showed that EMN has gastroprotective activity probably due with an increase of adhered gastric mucus.

  5. Piperlongumine as a direct TrxR1 inhibitor with suppressive activity against gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Xia, Yiqun; Ji, Jiansong; Chen, Weiqian; Zhang, Jinsan; Chen, Xi; Rajamanickam, Vinothkumar; Chen, Gaozhi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Lingfeng; Wang, Yifeng; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-05-28

    Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid isolated from the fruit of long pepper, is known to selectively kill tumor cells while sparing their normal counterparts. However, the cellular target and potent anticancer efficacy of PL in numerous types of human cancer cells have not been fully defined. We report here that PL may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, PL induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to PL treatment, and PL displays synergistic lethality with GSH inhibitors (BSO and Erastin) against gastric cancer cells. In vivo, PL treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden. Remarkably, TrxR1 was significantly overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines and human gastric cancer tissues. Targeting TrxR1 with PL thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of PL and provides an in-depth insight into the action of PL in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26963494

  6. EF24 induces ROS-mediated apoptosis via targeting thioredoxin reductase 1 in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Feng, Zhiguo; Chen, Tongke; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Zhe; Qiu, Chenyu; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, and finding novel agents for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is of urgent need. Diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24), a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, exhibits potent anti-tumor activities by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. Although EF24 demonstrates potent anticancer efficacy in numerous types of human cancer cells, the cellular targets of EF24 have not been fully defined. We report here that EF24 may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, EF24 induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to EF24 treatment. In vivo, EF24 treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden, and displays synergistic lethality with 5-FU against gastric cancer cells. Targeting TrxR1 with EF24 thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of EF24, and reveals that TrxR1 is a good target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26919110

  7. EF24 induces ROS-mediated apoptosis via targeting thioredoxin reductase 1 in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Xia, Yiqun; Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Feng, Zhiguo; Chen, Tongke; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Zhe; Qiu, Chenyu; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, and finding novel agents for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is of urgent need. Diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24), a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, exhibits potent anti-tumor activities by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. Although EF24 demonstrates potent anticancer effïcacy in numerous types of human cancer cells, the cellular targets of EF24 have not been fully defined. We report here that EF24 may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, EF24 induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to EF24 treatment. In vivo, EF24 treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden, and displays synergistic lethality with 5-FU against gastric cancer cells. Targeting TrxR1 with EF24 thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of EF24, and reveals that TrxR1 is a good target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26919110

  8. The gastroprotective effect of Memora nodosa roots against experimental gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Dayane M; Martins, José L R; Florentino, Iziara F; Oliveira, Danillo R; Fajemiroye, James O; Tresnvenzol, Leonice M F; Paula, José R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-07-11

    Memora nodosa is popularly known as "caroba" and widely found in the Cerrado regions of Brazil. In traditional medicine, the leaves and stems are used for the healing of external ulcer and the roots for abdominal pain. This study investigated the effect of ethanolic roots extract of Memora nodosa (EMN) on the gastric mucosa of mice. In the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model, the treatments of the animals with EMN at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., markedly reduced the index of lesions. In the gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol and cold restraint-stress the previous treatment with EMN at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 69% and 43% of protection, respectively. Seven days after food-restriction, the animals treated with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o.) showed reduction in the index of lesion by 65% as compared to control group. The intraduodenal administration of EMN (300 mg/kg) did not alter the gastric acid secretion parameters. The treatment with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o.) did not alter glutathione levels (GSH), but showed an increase of adhered gastric mucus as compared to the control group with lesion. These results showed that EMN has gastroprotective activity probably due with an increase of adhered gastric mucus. PMID:27411070

  9. Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection against acute gastric lesions: role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, S B; Leal, L K A M; Nogueira, N A P; Pinto, N A N; Campos, A R

    2009-12-01

    The effects of Matricaria recutita and alpha-bisabolol, a bioactive component from Chamomile species, were investigated against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol (96%, 1 mL per animal) in rats. The effects of M. recutita extract and alpha-bisabolol on gastric mucosal damage were assessed by determination of changes in mean gastric lesion area. Mechanistic studies were carried out at with 100 mg=kg alpha-bisabolol. We further examined the possible participation of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels in its mechanism. M. recutita reduced gastric damage in all doses tested. Alpha-bisabolol at oral doses of 50 and 100 mg=kg markedly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by ethanol to the extent of 87% and 96%, respectively. Pretreatments with the nitric oxide antagonist N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (10 mg=kg, i.p.) or with indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, failed to block effectively the gastroprotective effect of alpha-bisabolol. Furthermore, the alpha-bisabolol effect was significantly reduced in rats pretreated with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP+ channel activation. Thus we provide evidence that alpha-bisabolol reduces the gastric damage induced by ethanol, at least in part, by the mechanism of activation of KATP+ channels. PMID:20041801

  10. Schlafen 4–expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M.; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori–infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype. PMID:27427984

  11. Abnormal gastric morphology and function in CCK-B/gastrin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rindi, G.; Langhans, N.; Rehfeld, J. F.; Beinborn, M.; Kopin, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    Mice lacking the cholecystokinin (CCK)-B/gastrin receptor have been generated by targeted gene disruption. The roles of this receptor in controlling gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth have been assessed. The analysis of homozygous mutant mice vs. wild type included measurement of basal gastric pH, plasma gastrin concentrations as well as quantification of gastric mucosal cell types by immunohistochemistry. Mutant mice exhibited a marked increase in basal gastric pH (from 3.2 to 5.2) and about a 10-fold elevation in circulating carboxyamidated gastrin compared with wild-type controls. Histologic analysis revealed a decrease in both parietal and enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, thus explaining the reduction in acid output. Consistent with the elevation in circulating gastrin, antral gastrin cells were increased in number while somatostatin cells were decreased. These data support the importance of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor in maintaining the normal cellular composition and function of the gastric mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10461365

  12. Integrated epigenomic analyses of enhancer as well as promoter regions in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Su-Jin; Kim, Mirang; Bae, Dong-Hyuck; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Hee-Jin; Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Seon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that promotes gastric carcinogenesis. While the abnormal methylation at promoter regions has been characterized for many genes, the function of DNA methylation marks at distal regulatory regions in gastric cancer remains poorly described. Here, we performed RNA-seq, MBD-seq, and H3K27ac ChIP-seq on gastric tissues and cell lines to understand the epigenetic changes in the distal as well as the proximal regulatory regions. In total, 257,651 significant DMRs (Differentially methylated regions) were identified in gastric cancer, and the majority of these DMRs were located in the intergenic, intronic, and non-coding RNA regions. We identified the aberrant expression of many genes and lncRNAs due to changes in DNA methylation. Furthermore, we profiled the molecular subtype-specific methylation patterns in gastric cancer to characterize subtype-specific regulators that undergo DNA methylation changes. Our findings provide insights for understanding methylation changes at distal regulatory regions and reveal novel epigenetic targets in gastric cancer. PMID:27016420

  13. Regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery distensibility in young to middle-age stage 1 hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Saladini, Francesca; Benetti, Elisabetta; Mos, Lucio; Mazzer, Adriano; Casiglia, Edoardo; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of physical activity with small artery elasticity in the early stage of hypertension. We examined 366 young-to-middle-age stage 1 hypertensives (mean blood pressure 145.6±10.3/92.5±5.8 mmHg), divided into two categories of physical activity, sedentary (n=264) and non-sedentary (n=102) subjects. The augmentation index was measured using the Specaway DAT System. Small artery compliance (C2) was measured by applanation tonometry, at the radial artery, with an HDI CR2000 device. After 6 years of follow-up, arterial distensibility assessment was repeated in 151 subjects. Heart rate was lower in active than in sedentary subjects (71.2±8.9 vs 76.6±9.7 bpm, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, heart rate, smoking, and blood pressure, C2 was higher (8.0±2.6 vs 6.4±3.0 ml/mmHg × 100, p=0.008) in non-sedentary than in sedentary patients. The augmentation index was smaller in the former (8.8±20.1 vs 16.8±26.5%, p=0.044) but the difference lost statistical significance after further adjustment for blood pressure. After 6 years, C2 was still higher in the non-sedentary than sedentary subjects. In addition, an improvement in the augmentation index accompanied by a decline in total peripheral resistance was found in the former. These data show that regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery elasticity in the early phase of hypertension. This association persists over time and is independent of blood pressure and heart rate.

  14. At high cardiac output, diesel exhaust exposure increases pulmonary vascular resistance and decreases distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Aurélien; Vicenzi, Marco; De Becker, Benjamin; Riga, Jean-Philippe; Esmaeilzadeh, Fatemeh; Faoro, Vitalie; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; van de Borne, Philippe; Argacha, Jean-François

    2015-12-15

    Air pollution has recently been associated with the development of acute decompensated heart failure, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. A pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of air pollution, combined with its systemic effects, may precipitate decompensated heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) under resting and stress conditions but also to determine whether air pollution may potentiate acquired pulmonary hypertension. Eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to ambient air (AA) or dilute DE with a particulate matter of <2.5 μm concentration of 300 μg/m(3) for 2 h in a randomized, crossover study design. The effects of DE on PVR, on the coefficient of distensibilty of pulmonary vessels (α), and on right and left ventricular function were evaluated at rest (n = 18), during dobutamine stress echocardiography (n = 10), and during exercise stress echocardiography performed in hypoxia (n = 8). Serum endothelin-1 and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were also measured. At rest, exposure to DE did not affect PVR. During dobutamine stress, the slope of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship increased from 2.8 ± 0.5 mmHg · min · l (-1) in AA to 3.9 ± 0.5 mmHg · min · l (-1) in DE (P < 0.05) and the α coefficient decreased from 0.96 ± 0.15 to 0.64 ± 0.12%/mmHg (P < 0.01). DE did not further enhance the hypoxia-related upper shift of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship. Exposure to DE did not affect serum endothelin-1 concentration or fractional exhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, acute exposure to DE increased pulmonary vasomotor tone by decreasing the distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels at high cardiac output. PMID:26497960

  15. Electrocardiogram-Gated 320-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography for the Measurement of Pulmonary Arterial Distensibility in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Hajime; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Sakurai, Yoriko; Yahaba, Misuzu; Matsuura, Yukiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Kawata, Naoko; Sakao, Seiichiro; Kasahara, Yasunori; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to study whether pulmonary arterial distensibility (PAD) correlates with hemodynamic parameters in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 320-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Methods and Findings ECG-gated 320-slice MDCT and right heart catheterization (RHC) was performed in 53 subjects (60.6±11.4 years old; 37 females) with CTEPH. We retrospectively measured the minimum and maximum values of the cross sectional area (CSA) of the main pulmonary artery (mainPA), right pulmonary artery (rtPA), and left pulmonary artery (ltPA) during one heartbeat. PAD was calculated using the following formula: PAD = [(CSAmaximum−CSAminimum)/CSAmaximum]×100(%). The correlation between hemodynamic parameters and PAD was assessed. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were 40.8±8.7 mmHg and 8.3±3.0 wood units, respectively. PAD values were as follows: mainPA (14.0±5.0%), rtPA (12.8±5.6%), and ltPA (9.7±4.6%). Good correlations existed between mainPAD, with mPAP (r = −0.594, p<0.001) and PVR (r = −0.659, p<0.001). The correlation coefficients between rtPAD and ltPAD with pulmonary hemodynamics were all lower or equal than for mainPAD. Conclusions PAD measured using ECG-gated 320-slice MDCT correlates with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with CTEPH. The mainPA is suitable for PAD measurement. PMID:25365168

  16. Effect of Bladder Distension on Dose Distribution of Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer: Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Plan Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cengiz, Mustafa Guerdalli, Salih; Selek, Ugur; Yildiz, Ferah; Saglam, Yuecel; Ozyar, Enis; Atahan, I. Lale

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of bladder volume on the dose distribution during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Patients: The study was performed on 10 women with cervical cancer who underwent brachytherapy treatment. After insertion of the brachytherapy applicator, the patients were transferred to the computed tomography unit. Two sets of computed tomography slices were taken, including the pelvis, one with an empty bladder and one after the bladder was filled with saline. The target and critical organs were delineated by the radiation oncologist and checked by the expert radiologist. The radiotherapy plan was run on the Plato planning system, version 14.1, to determine the dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, and maximal dose points. The doses and organ volumes were compared with the Wilcoxon signed ranks test on a personal computer using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 11.0, statistical program. Results: No significant difference regarding the dose distribution and target volumes between an empty or full bladder was observed. Bladder fullness significantly affected the dose to the small intestine, rectum, and bladder. The median of maximal doses to the small intestine was significantly greater with an empty bladder (493 vs. 284 cGy). Although dosimetry revealed lower doses for larger volumes of bladder, the median maximal dose to the bladder was significantly greater with a full bladder (993 vs. 925 cGy). The rectal doses were also affected by bladder distension. The median maximal dose was significantly lower in the distended bladder (481vs. 628 cGy). Conclusions: Bladder fullness changed the dose distributions to the bladder, rectum, and small intestine. The clinical importance of these changes is not known and an increase in the use of three-dimensional brachytherapy planning will highlight the answer to this question.

  17. At high cardiac output, diesel exhaust exposure increases pulmonary vascular resistance and decreases distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Aurélien; Vicenzi, Marco; De Becker, Benjamin; Riga, Jean-Philippe; Esmaeilzadeh, Fatemeh; Faoro, Vitalie; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; van de Borne, Philippe; Argacha, Jean-François

    2015-12-15

    Air pollution has recently been associated with the development of acute decompensated heart failure, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. A pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of air pollution, combined with its systemic effects, may precipitate decompensated heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) under resting and stress conditions but also to determine whether air pollution may potentiate acquired pulmonary hypertension. Eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to ambient air (AA) or dilute DE with a particulate matter of <2.5 μm concentration of 300 μg/m(3) for 2 h in a randomized, crossover study design. The effects of DE on PVR, on the coefficient of distensibilty of pulmonary vessels (α), and on right and left ventricular function were evaluated at rest (n = 18), during dobutamine stress echocardiography (n = 10), and during exercise stress echocardiography performed in hypoxia (n = 8). Serum endothelin-1 and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were also measured. At rest, exposure to DE did not affect PVR. During dobutamine stress, the slope of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship increased from 2.8 ± 0.5 mmHg · min · l (-1) in AA to 3.9 ± 0.5 mmHg · min · l (-1) in DE (P < 0.05) and the α coefficient decreased from 0.96 ± 0.15 to 0.64 ± 0.12%/mmHg (P < 0.01). DE did not further enhance the hypoxia-related upper shift of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship. Exposure to DE did not affect serum endothelin-1 concentration or fractional exhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, acute exposure to DE increased pulmonary vasomotor tone by decreasing the distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels at high cardiac output.

  18. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  19. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  20. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  1. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  2. Effects of Levosulpiride in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia Accompanied by Delayed Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi-Wook; Chun, Hoon-Jae; Kim, Chang-Duck; Ryu, Ho-Sang; Choe, Jae-Gol; Hyun, Jin-Hai

    1998-01-01

    Objectives Levosulpiride is the levo-enantiomer of sulpiride, a well-known antiemetic, antidyspeptic and antipsychotic drug. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of levosulpiride on dyspeptic symptoms and gastric motor function in a group of patients with functional dyspepsia showing delayed gastric emptying. Method Forty two eligible patients were entered into a 3 week, double-blind randomized comparison of 25mg of levosulpiride or placebo t.i.d.. Symptom assessment and gastric scintigraphy following the intake of scrambled egg sandwich, were performed in each patient before and after treatment. Results The improvement of symptom score in levosulpiride group was higher than the placebo group (p<0.05). We assessed global efficacy, which was excellent in 1 (6%), good 11 (65%), fair 4 (24%), nil 1 (6%) of those receiving levosulpiride, and fair 9(60%), nil 5 (33%), poor 1 (6%) of those receiving placebo. Levosulpiride tended to be more effective than placebo in relieving the dyspeptic symptoms especially in the subgroups of dysmotility-like (p<0.05) and nonspecific (p<0.05) as compared to other subgroups (p=0.16). The reduction of gastric emptying time after levosulpiride treatment was more marked than Placebo group (p<0.05). We found a significant correlation between changes of symptom score and gastric emptying time (r=0.47, p=0.01. No serious adverse effects were reported after administration of either levosulpiride or placebo. Only two patients reported mild somnolence during levosulpiride administration. Conclusions Levosulpiride is effective and well tolerated in patients with functional dyspepsia accompanied by delayed gastric emptying. Its efficacy may be related to its action on the gastric motor function by improving the delayed gastric emptying. PMID:9538626

  3. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated, and artesunate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. These results demonstrate that artesunate has an effect on anti-gastric cancer cells. One of the antitumor mechanisms of artesunate may be that its inhibition of COX-2 led to reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis, connected with mitochondrial dysfunction. Artesunate might be a potential therapeutic

  4. [Unusual cause of gastric bleeding: leiomyoma].

    PubMed

    Alberti, P; Pruneri, U; Bianchi, P; Cerra, V

    1996-10-01

    The gastric leiomyoma is a rare non-epithelial tumor of the stomach that can either be asymptomatic (autoptical diagnosis) or, on the contrary, suddenly appear with severe gastric hemorrhage. The authors review the literature and report their own experience concerning 6 cases of gastric leiomyoma observed during 5 years. They discuss the clinical presentation, the difficulties of diagnosis and the therapeutic choices.

  5. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1), pepsinogen 2 (PG2) and gastrin 17 (G17) offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation), degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy) and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status). Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003). The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058). The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p < 0.01). Laurén-specific analysis revealed that this is only true for intestinal type tumors. Univariate ANOVA revealed atrophy and CagA-status as the only independent factors for low PG1 and a low PG1/2-ratio. Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer. PMID:22289789

  6. MiR-493 suppresses the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells by targeting RhoC

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenhua; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Zhiwei; Xie, Liming; He, Xiusheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): MiRNAs have been proposed to be key regulators of tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. However, their effect and prognostic value in gastric cancer is still poorly known. Materials and Methods: Gastric cancer cell lines were cultured. Tissue samples obtained from 36 gastric cancer patients were used for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The tissue microarrays (TMAs) consisted of 126 cases of gastric carcinoma that were used for In situ hybridisation (ISH). Lentivirus plasmids were co-transfected into 293FT cells. Cell migration was examined using wound-healing assays. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS16.0 software. Results: In this study, we found that the expression levels of miR-493 were strongly down-regulated in gastric cancer and were associated with clinical stage and the presence of lymph node metastases. Moreover, miR-493 might independently predict OS and RFS in gastric cancer. We further found that up-regulation of miR-493 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. In addition, miR-493 directly targeted RhoC, which resulted in a marked reduction of the expression of mRNA and protein. This effect, in turn, led to a decreased ability of growth, invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that miR-493 is important for gastric cancer initiation and progression and holds promise as a prognostic biomarker to predict survival and relapse in gastric cancer. It is also a potential therapeutic tool to improve clinical outcomes in this disease. PMID:26730339

  7. CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes the invasion of gastric cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway-dependent MMPs production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongfeng; Wu, Jin; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    CXCR3, a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, has been found to be overexpressed in many tumors and act as an independent prognostic marker. However, it is still unclear whether CXCR3 is involved in gastric cancer progression. In this study, we found that CXCR3 was markedly expressed in gastric cancer cells and tissues. High CXCR3 expression correlated with advanced tumor stage, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Activation of CXCR3 by one of its ligands CXCL10 promoted the invasion and migration of gastric cancer BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells, and increased the secretion and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, the effects of CXCL10 on gastric cancer cells were attenuated by CXCR3 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, overexpression of CXCR3 enhanced CXCL10-mediated cell invasion and migration of gastric cancer MKN28 cells. In addition, CXCR3 time-dependently induced activation of AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway was required for CXCR3-mediated gastric cancer cell invasion, migration and MMP-2/9 production. Together, our findings suggest that CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and migration by upregulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, CXCR3 could be a potential target for the gastric cancer treatment.

  8. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  9. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  10. Marking Errors: A Simple Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Theresa Cullen

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that using highlighters to mark errors produced a 76% class improvement in removing comma errors and a 95.5% improvement in removing apostrophe errors. Outlines two teaching procedures, to be followed before introducing this tool to the class, that enable students to remove errors at this effective rate. (JD)

  11. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  12. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  13. [Genetic factors in gastric carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ohgaki, H

    1983-02-01

    Genetic control of susceptibility of rats to gastro-carcinogenesis by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was studied in susceptible ACI strain rats, resistant Buffalo strain rats, and their F1 and F2 offsprings. Rats were given MNNG at a concentration of 83 micrograms/ml in drinking water for 32 weeks and sacrificed on week 72. The incidence of gastric adenocarcinomas in F1 was as low as that in Buffalo rats. The results showed that susceptibility to MNNG was controlled genetically and that the resistance of Buffalo strain rats was autosomal dominant. To clarify the mechanisms which determine susceptibility to MNNG, some biochemical parameters such as pH of gastric juice, glutathione content in the gastric mucosa and the binding of MNNG to DNA, were analysed. No difference was observed between ACI and Buffalo strains in regard to the events leading to the binding of MNNG to DNA.

  14. Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. Summary Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle, including high-salt food, smoking and drinking, are able to induce genotypic and phenotypic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. Gene mutations (such as E-cadherin) in stomach epithelial cells are major genetic causes for gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Increased intake of a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits as well as smoking cessation have been shown to reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. The secondary prevention strategy is to screen premalignant gastric lesions by endoscopy. Biomarker tests are also reliable methods to identify gastric precancerous lesions. Endoscopy screening is still the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Key Message H. pylori infection, a diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, as well as gene mutations are major risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. Practical Implications The eradication of H. pylori is a major primary preventive strategy of gastric cancer. A healthy lifestyle, including increased intake of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, reduced intake of salted and smoked food and red meat, a reduction of alcohol intake as well as smoking cessation will be effective approaches for the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27722154

  15. Wine and tobacco: risk factors for gastric cancer in France.

    PubMed

    Hoey, J; Montvernay, C; Lambert, R

    1981-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies in France have shown strong regional correlations between death rates from alcohol related diseases and death rates from gastric cancer. The present study involved 40 cases of newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 168 control subjects with one of four other gastrointestinal diagnoses selected from the same hospital service during the same time period, 1978-1980. On the basis of a standard nutritional interview alcohol and particularly red wine were seen to be significant risk factors for this cancer (relative risks of 6.9 with 95% confidence limits (CL) of 3.3-14.3 for alcohol and 6.3 with CL 3.1-12.7 for wine). Smoking of one or more cigarettes per day was associated with a relative risk for gastric cancer of 4.8 with CL of 1.6-14.8. The presence of both risk factors was associated with a relative risk of 9.3 with 95% CL of 4.6-19.0. Possible confounding by age, smoking, and eating lettuce (a reported protective factor for gastric cancer in other studies) did not explain these results. The relative risks were consistently found and remained significant when each diagnostic group of control subjects was analyzed separately. These results suggest that alcohol, and particularly red wine, may be important risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the stomach in France. In addition, cigarette smoking, a risk factor in itself, when coupled with alcohol appears markedly to increase the risk.

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the GEJ: gastric or oesophageal cancer?

    PubMed

    Rüschoff, J

    2012-01-01

    According to WHO (2010) adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction (GEJ) are defined as tumors that cross the most proximal extent of the gastric folds regardless of where the bulk of the tumor lies. In addition, these neoplasms are now classified as esophageal cancers by UICC (2010). Recent studies, however, revealed two types of carcinogenesis in the distal oesophagus and at the GEJ, one of intestinal type (about 80 %) and the other of gastric type (about 20 %). These are characterized by marked differences in morphology, tumor stage at diagnosis, and prognosis. Furthermore, both cancer types show different targetable biomarker expression profiles such as Her2 in the intestinal and EGFR in the non-intestinal pathway indicating new therapy options. Due to the fact that carcinomas of the intestinal pathway were typically associated with Barrett's mucosa which was not the case in the non-intestinal-type tumors, this challenges the paradigm "no goblets no Barrett's". Moreover, even the cancer risk of intestinal-type metaplasia has seriously been questioned by a Danish population-based study where Barrett's mucosa turned out to be only a weak indicator of esophageal and GEJ cancer (1 case in 860 patients years). Thus, two biologically different types of cancer arise at the GEJ-esophageal and gastric type that open distinctive targeted treatment options and also question our current concept about the diagnostics of potential precursor lesions as well as the associated screening and surveillance strategy.

  17. Gastric adenocarcinoma with prostatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Roshni, S; Anoop, Tm; Preethi, Tr; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, Al

    2014-06-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  18. Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Prostatic Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Roshni, S; Preethi, TR; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, AL

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  19. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step.

  20. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  1. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  2. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  3. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  4. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  5. 46 CFR 164.023-15 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... permanently and clearly marked in a color which contrasts with the color of the surface on which the marking is applied. Each label must be marked with— (1) The manufacturer's or supplier's name, trade name,...

  6. Predictive Value of Carotid Distensibility Coefficient for Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chuang; Wang, Jing; Ying, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the present study is to determine the pooled predictive value of carotid distensibility coefficient (DC) for cardiovascular (CV) diseases and all-cause mortality. Background Arterial stiffness is associated with future CV events. Aortic pulse wave velocity is a commonly used predictor for CV diseases and all-cause mortality; however, its assessment requires specific devices and is not always applicable in all patients. In addition to the aortic artery, the carotid artery is also susceptible to atherosclerosis, and is highly accessible because of the surficial property. Thus, carotid DC, which indicates the intrinsic local stiffness of the carotid artery and may be determined using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, is of interest for the prediction. However, the role of carotid DC in the prediction of CV diseases and all-cause mortality has not been thoroughly characterized, and the pooled predictive value of carotid DC remains unclear. Methods A meta-analysis, which included 11 longitudinal studies with 20361 subjects, was performed. Results Carotid DC significantly predicted future total CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality. The pooled risk ratios (RRs) of CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality were 1.19 (1.06–1.35, 95%CI, 9 studies with 18993 subjects), 1.09 (1.01–1.18, 95%CI, 2 studies with 2550 subjects) and 1.65 (1.15–2.37, 95%CI, 6 studies with 3619 subjects), respectively, for the subjects who had the lowest quartile of DC compared with their counterparts who had higher quartiles. For CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality, a decrease in DC of 1 SD increased the risk by 13%, 6% and 41% respectively, whereas a decrease in DC of 1 unit increased the risk by 3%, 1% and 6% respectively. Conclusions Carotid DC is a significant predictor of future CV diseases and all-cause mortality, which may facilitate the identification of high-risk patients for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CV diseases

  7. Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

  8. CEUS and strain elastography in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Vito; Rubini, Antonello; Miniagio, Guglielmo

    2013-07-18

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer, but diagnosis is often delayed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is currently the gold standard for evaluating gastric cancer. Also other imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are employed for identifying gastric cancer, but particularly for cancer staging. Ultrasound (US) is a first-line imaging modality used to examine organs in the abdomen, and during these examinations gastric cancer may be incidentally detected. Very few studies in the literature have investigated the role of US in gastric disease. However, more recently, some authors have reported on the use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and US-elastography in gastric disease using both endoscopic and transabdominal approach. In this paper, we present a case of gastric cancer studied by CEUS and transabdominal US-elastography.

  9. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  10. Gastric stimulation for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-05-21

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  11. Neural invasion in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Adachi, Y; Kamakura, T; Ikeda, Y; Maehara, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether neural invasion in advanced gastric cancer is of clinicopathological significance. METHODS--The study population comprised 121 cases of primary advanced gastric carcinoma. Two paraffin wax embedded blocks taken from the central tissue slice in each primary tumour were used. For definitive recognition of neural invasion, immunostaining for S-100 protein was applied to one slide; the other slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS--Neural invasion was recognised in 34 of 121 (28%) primary gastric carcinomas. There were significant differences in tumour size, depth of tumour invasion, stage, and curability between patients with and without neural invasion. The five year survival rates of patients with and without neural invasion were 10 and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, demonstrated that neural invasion was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS--Neural invasion could be an additional useful factor for providing information about the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma. This may be analogous to vessel permeation which is thought to be important, but is not an independent prognostic factor. Images PMID:7745113

  12. Effects of ALDH2 Genotype, PPI Treatment and L-Cysteine on Carcinogenic Acetaldehyde in Gastric Juice and Saliva after Intragastric Alcohol Administration

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30–50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These

  13. Advances in gastric cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-09-10

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  14. Marked Initial Pitch in Questions Signals Marked Communicative Function.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Mark A; Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    In conversation, the initial pitch of an utterance can provide an early phonetic cue of the communicative function, the speech act, or the social action being implemented. We conducted quantitative acoustic measurements and statistical analyses of pitch in over 10,000 utterances, including 2512 questions, their responses, and about 5000 other utterances by 180 total speakers from a corpus of 70 natural conversations in 10 languages. We measured pitch at first prominence in a speaker's utterance and discriminated utterances by language, speaker, gender, question form, and what social action is achieved by the speaker's turn. Through applying multivariate logistic regression we found that initial pitch that significantly deviated from the speaker's median pitch level was predictive of the social action of the question. In questions designed to solicit agreement with an evaluation rather than information, pitch was divergent from a speaker's median predictably in the top 10% of a speakers range. This latter finding reveals a kind of iconicity in the relationship between prosody and social action in which a marked pitch correlates with a marked social action. Thus, we argue that speakers rely on pitch to provide an early signal for recipients that the question is not to be interpreted through its literal semantics but rather through an inference. PMID:26677643

  15. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-05-14

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  16. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking devices. 221.14 Section 221.14..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall...

  17. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  18. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  19. 46 CFR 160.171-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-23 Marking. (a) Each immersion suit must be marked with the words “IMMERSION SUIT—COMPLIES WITH SOLAS 74/83,” the name of the manufacturer... case must be marked with the words “immersion suit” and the size. (c) The markings for the child...

  20. Reading Skill, Textbook Marking, and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kenneth E.; Limber, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…

  1. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  2. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  3. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  4. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate...

  5. 14 CFR 45.10 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking. 45.10 Section 45.10 Aeronautics..., § 45.10 was added, effective Apr. 14, 2010. The effective date of this addition was subsequently... REGISTRATION MARKING Identification of Aircraft and Related Products § 45.10 Marking. No person may mark...

  6. Rare case of Helicobacter pylori-related gastric ulcer: malignancy or pseudomorphism?

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Ting; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Lu; Wan, Jun

    2013-03-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen and the most frequent cause of gastric ulcers. There is also a close correlation between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer. We present the case of a 38-year-old woman referred by her primary care physician for screening positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which showed a nodular strong accumulation point with standardized uptake value 5.6 in the gastric fundus. Gastroscopy was then performed, and a single arched ulcer, 12 mm in size, was found in the gastric fundus. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed chronic mucosal inflammation with acute inflammation and H. pylori infection. There was an obvious mitotic phase with widespread lymphoma. Formal anti-H. pylori treatment was carried out. One month later, a gastroscopy showed a single arched ulcer, measuring 10 mm in size in the gastric fundus. Histopathological examination revealed chronic mucosal inflammation with acute inflammation and a very small amount of H. pylori infection. The mitotic phase was 4/10 high power field, with some heterotypes and an obvious nucleolus. Follow-up gastroscopy 2 mo later showed the gastric ulcer in stage S2. The mucosal swelling had markedly improved. The patient remained asymptomatic, and a follow-up PET-CT was performed 6 mo later. The nodular strong accumulation point had disappeared. Follow-up gastroscopy showed no evidence of malignant cancer. H. pylori-associated severe inflammation can lead to neoplastic changes in histiocytes. This underscores the importance of eradicating H. pylori, especially in those with mucosal lesions, and ensuring proper follow-up to prevent or even reverse early gastric cancer.

  7. Gastric anti-ulcer and cytoprotective effect of selenium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, N.S.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element, in the form of sodium selenite has been studied for its ability to protect the gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by hypothermic restraint stress, aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, dimaprit, and various other gastric mucosal-damaging (necrotizing) agents in rats. The results demonstrate that oral administration of sodium selenite produces a significant inhibition of the gastric mucosal damage induced by all the procedures used in this study. Selenium, in a nonantisecretory dose, produced a marked cytoprotective effect against all the necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective effect of selenium against the effects of 80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl was significantly reversed by prior treatment with a dose of indomethacin that inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. These data indicate that sodium selenite inhibits the formation of these lesions by the mucosal generation of prostaglandins. The concentrations of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were significantly decreased in the gastric mucosa following the administration of necrotizing agents--80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl. Treatment with sodium selenite, which significantly reduced the intensity of gastric lesions, did not replenish the reduced levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH, thus ruling out the mediation of its protective effect through sulfhydryls. The antisecretory effect of sodium selenite, which becomes evident only in the high dose of 20 mumol/kg, may be responsible for the inhibition of gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, and dimaprit. Our findings show that selenium possesses significant anti-ulcer and adaptive cytoprotective effects. However, further detailed studies are required to confirm these effects, to establish its mechanism(s) of action, and to determine its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  8. Effects of allyl isothiocyanate from horseradish on several experimental gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Ochi, Momotaro; Nagatomo, Akifumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2007-04-30

    Allyl isothiocyanate is well known to be a principal pungent constituent of horseradish and an agonist for transient receptor potential (TRP) A1. Ally isothiocyanate markedly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol (1.5 ml/rat, p.o.), 0.6 M HCl (1.5 ml/rat, p.o.), 1% ammonia (1.5 ml/rat, p.o.), and aspirin (150 mg/kg, p.o.) (ED(50)=1.6, 2.2, 1.7, ca. 6.5 mg/kg, p.o.). It also significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), though the inhibition was ca. 60% at a high dose (40 mg/kg, p.o.). Furthermore, several synthetic isothiocyanate compounds also significantly inhibited ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Whereas, TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin and piperine, inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol, 1% ammonia, and aspirin, but had less of an effect on 0.6 M HCl-induced gastric lesions. With regard to mode of action, the protective effects of ally isothiocyanate on ethanol-induced gastric lesions were attenuated by pretreatment with indomethacin, but not with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), or ruthenium red. Pretreatment with indomethacin reduced the protective effects of piperine, and L-NAME reduced the effects of capsaicin and omeprazole. Furthermore, ruthenium red reduced the effects of capsaicin, piperine, and omeprazole. These findings suggest that endogenous prostaglandins play an important role in the protective effect of allyl isothiocyanate in ethanol-induced gastric lesions different from capsaicin, piperine, and omeprazole.

  9. RUNX3 is a novel negative regulator of oncogenic TEAD-YAP complex in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Y; Lin, S J; Chen, Y; Voon, D C-C; Zhu, F; Chuang, L S H; Wang, T; Tan, P; Lee, S C; Yeoh, K G; Sudol, M; Ito, Y

    2016-05-19

    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a well-documented tumour suppressor that is frequently inactivated in gastric cancer. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which RUNX3 exerts its tumour suppressor activity involving the TEAD-YAP complex, a potent positive regulator of proliferative genes. We report that the TEAD-YAP complex is not only frequently hyperactivated in liver and breast cancer, but also confers a strong oncogenic activity in gastric epithelial cells. The increased expression of TEAD-YAP in tumour tissues significantly correlates with poorer overall survival of gastric cancer patients. Strikingly, RUNX3 physically interacts with the N-terminal region of TEAD through its Runt domain. This interaction markedly reduces the DNA-binding ability of TEAD that attenuates the downstream signalling of TEAD-YAP complex. Mutation of RUNX3 at Arginine 122 to Cysteine, which was previously identified in gastric cancer, impairs the interaction between RUNX3 and TEAD. Our data reveal that RUNX3 acts as a tumour suppressor by negatively regulating the TEAD-YAP oncogenic complex in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26364597

  10. Suramin enhances ethanol-induced injury to gastric mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Blandizzi, C; Gherardi, G; Marveggio, C; Lazzeri, G; Natale, G; Carignani, D; Colucci, R; Del Tacca, M

    1997-06-01

    Suramin is currently used in clinical practice as antineoplastic agent because of its complex interaction with the biological activity of various growth factors involved in tumor progression. The influence exerted by suramin on gastric injury induced in rats by intraluminal injection of absolute ethanol was investigated in the present study. The morphometric analysis of gastric histological sections revealed that suramin, 18 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally for 14 days every other day, caused a marked enhancement of ethanol-induced mucosal damage. This effect was more pronounced 1-8 hr following ethanol administration, and it was still significant after 48 hr. In suramin-treated animals the evaluation of Alcian blue recovery from gastric-bound mucus showed that the levels of adherent mucus were significantly lower than those detected in untreated rats. In addition, pretreatment with suramin did not modify basal acid secretion, but caused potentiation of acid output stimulated by pylorus ligation or electrical vagal stimulation. Overall, the present results indicate that suramin exerts a negative influence on both gastric protective and repairing mechanisms. Due to the peculiar pharmacodynamic profile of suramin, it is suggested that interference with endogenous growth factors, endowed with physiological protective activity on gastric mucosa, might account for the damage-enhancing action of this drug.

  11. Identification of genes specifically methylated in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakai, Kouhei; Zhang, Yibo; Saito, Mari; Morishige, Akihiro; Oga, Atsunori; Sasaki, Kosuke; Suehiro, Yutaka; Hinoda, Yuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2013-10-01

    We studied the comprehensive DNA methylation status in the naturally derived gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SNU-719, which was infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by methylated CpG island recovery on chip assay. To identify genes specifically methylated in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGC), we focused on seven genes, TP73, BLU, FSD1, BCL7A, MARK1, SCRN1, and NKX3.1, based on the results of methylated CpG island recovery on chip assay. We confirmed DNA methylation of the genes by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing in SNU-719. The expression of the genes, except for BCL7A, was upregulated by a combination of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A treatment in SNU-719. After the treatment, unmethylated DNA became detectable in all seven genes by methylation-specific PCR. We verified DNA methylation of the genes in 75 primary gastric cancer tissues from 25 patients with EBVaGC and 50 EBV-negative patients who were controls. The methylation frequencies of TP73, BLU, FSD1, BCL7A, MARK1, SCRN1, and NKX3.1 were significantly higher in EBVaGC than in EBV-negative gastric carcinoma. We identified seven genes with promoter regions that were specifically methylated in EBVaGC. Inactivation of these genes may suppress their function as tumor suppressor genes or tumor-associated antigens and help to develop and maintain EBVaGC. PMID:23829175

  12. Black anneal marking with pulsed fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T.; Harrison, P.; Norman, S.

    2015-07-01

    High contrast marking of metals is used in a wide range of industries. Fiber laser marking of these metals provides non-contact marking with no consumables, offering many advantages over traditional methods of metal marking. The laser creates a permanent mark on the material surface combining heat and oxygen with no noticeable ablation. The focussed beam of the fiber laser in combination with precision control of the heat input is able to treat small areas of the material surface evenly and consistently, which is critical for producing black anneal marks. The marks are highly legible which is ideal for marking serial numbers or small data matrices where traceability is required. This paper reports the experimental study for producing black anneal marks on various grades of stainless steel using fiber lasers. The influence of metal surface finish, beam quality, spot size diameter and pulse duration are investigated for producing both smooth and decorative anneal marks.

  13. MYC, FBXW7 and TP53 copy number variation and expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MYC deregulation is a common event in gastric carcinogenesis, usually as a consequence of gene amplification, chromosomal translocations, or posttranslational mechanisms. FBXW7 is a p53-controlled tumor-suppressor that plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle exit and reentry via MYC degradation. Methods We evaluated MYC, FBXW7, and TP53 copy number, mRNA levels, and protein expression in gastric cancer and paired non-neoplastic specimens from 33 patients and also in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. We also determined the invasion potential of the gastric cancer cell lines. Results MYC amplification was observed in 51.5% of gastric tumor samples. Deletion of one copy of FBXW7 and TP53 was observed in 45.5% and 21.2% of gastric tumors, respectively. MYC mRNA expression was significantly higher in tumors than in non-neoplastic samples. FBXW7 and TP53 mRNA expression was markedly lower in tumors than in paired non-neoplastic specimens. Moreover, deregulated MYC and FBXW7 mRNA expression was associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis and tumor stage III-IV. Additionally, MYC immunostaining was more frequently observed in intestinal-type than diffuse-type gastric cancers and was associated with MYC mRNA expression. In vitro studies showed that increased MYC and reduced FBXW7 expression is associated with a more invasive phenotype in gastric cancer cell lines. This result encouraged us to investigate the activity of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in both cell lines. Both gelatinases are synthesized predominantly by stromal cells rather than cancer cells, and it has been proposed that both contribute to cancer progression. We observed a significant increase in MMP-9 activity in ACP02 compared with ACP03 cells. These results confirmed that ACP02 cells have greater invasion capability than ACP03 cells. Conclusion In conclusion, FBXW7 and MYC mRNA may play a role in aggressive biologic behavior of gastric cancer cells and may be a useful

  14. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  15. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  16. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  17. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Early Gastric Cancer in the West: A Changing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the fifth leading cancer diagnosis worldwide, and it is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The incidence of gastric cancer within the United States, however, has remained substantially lower than elsewhere, which has led to a lack of screening and surveillance in clinical practice. Patients with known premalignant lesions, such as gastric intestinal metaplasia, which can increase the risk of gastric cancer by as much as 6-fold, might benefit from surveillance guidelines to detect gastric cancer at an earlier, potentially curative stage. Chro-moendoscopy with optical magnification, narrow-band imaging, and other image-enhanced endoscopic techniques are commercially available to assist in the diagnosis of premalignant gastric lesions and early gastric cancer. Furthermore, endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection have become more widely available and offer potentially curative endoscopic resection for dysplastic lesions of the stomach and early gastric cancers, which is an alternative to traditional surgical resection. PMID:25013389

  18. [A Case of Gastro-Gastric Intussusception Secondary to Primary Gastric Lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyeong Ho; Kang, Sun Mi; Kim, Si Hye; Ra, Moni; Park, Byeong Kyu; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Kim, Ho Gak; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Kang, Ung Rae

    2016-07-25

    In adults, most intussusceptions develop from a lesion, usually a benign or malignant neoplasm, and can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusception in the proximal gastrointestinal tract is uncommon, and gastro-gastric intussusception is extremely rare. We present a case of gastro-gastric intussusception secondary to a primary gastric lymphoma. An 82-year-old female patient presented with acute onset chest pain and vomiting. Abdominal CT revealed a gastro-gastric intussusception. We performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, revealing a large gastric mass invaginated into the gastric lumen and distorting the distal stomach. Uncomplicated gastric reposition was achieved with endoscopy of the distal stomach. Histological evaluation of the gastric mass revealed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma that was treated with chemotherapy.

  19. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended to measure the acidity of gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the diagnosis...-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders. (b) Classification. Class I...

  20. Dehydroeffusol inhibits gastric cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity by selectively inducing tumor-suppressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and a moderate apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Han, Hongyan; Fu, Shilong; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng; Cao, Zhifei

    2016-03-15

    Gastric cancer is ranked as the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Although extensive efforts have been made in recent decades to treat gastric cancer with various anticancer drugs, effective anti-gastric cancer therapeutics to cure the disease are still lacking in the clinics. Therefore, potent novel anti-gastric cancer drugs are greatly needed. In this study, we explored a novel anti-gastric cancer agent from a medicinal herb named Juncus effusus and found that the active component dehydroeffusol (DHE), a small molecular phenanthrene, effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by inducing tumor suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and by triggering moderate apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that DHE selectively activated the intracellular tumor suppressive stress response by promoting the overexpression of the key ER stress marker DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), through upregulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Concurrently, DHE suppressed the expression of the cell survival and ER stress marker glucose regulated protein of molecular mass 78 (GRP78) via downregulation of the transcription factor ATF6. In addition, DHE markedly activated the stress response signaling pathway MEKK4-MKK3/6-p38-DDIT3, but significantly inhibited ERK signaling. Our data suggest that DHE inhibits gastric cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity through selectively inducing a robust tumor suppressive ER stress response and a moderate apoptosis response. Therefore, DHE may provide a novel drug candidate for further development of potential anti-gastric cancer therapeutics. PMID:26774454

  1. [Effects of aloe extracts, aloctin A, on gastric secretion and on experimental gastric lesions in rats].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Imanishi, K; Okabe, S

    1989-05-01

    Effect of aloctin A, glycoprotein isolated from leaves of Aloe arborescens MILL, on gastric secretion and on acute gastric lesions in rats were examined. Aloctin A given intravenously dose-dependently inhibited the volume of gastric juice, acid and pepsin output in pylorus-ligated rats. Aloctin A given intravenously significantly inhibited the development of Shay ulcers and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. It also inhibited water-immersion stress lesions induced in pylorus-ligated rats.

  2. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007). PMID:27494150

  3. THE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GASTRIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Charles D.; Johnson, William D.; Wilbur, Richard S.; Lack, Arthur J.

    1961-01-01

    Established centers find that cytological study of gastric washings with saline or chymotrypsin, adequately performed, is a valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of early and curable gastric carcinoma. Our experience with a small series of 150 patients, studied by saline gastric washing, has emphasized the difficulties of collection and the particular importance of obtaining, by repeated washings if necessary, an adequate specimen of gastric epithelial cells for diagnosis, before an opinion is given. It seems likely that the cytological method will be of future value in study of the natural history of gastric malignant disease and in detection of its surface lesions in their earliest form in asymptomatic, known-susceptible persons. Further, it should become a complementary part of the “stomach profile” in gastric diagnostic problems, where roentgenologic and gastroscopic studies may be expected to reveal the older, necrotic, or infiltrative lesions; cytological study, the earlier and more superficial stages of disease. PMID:13862364

  4. Gastric Hamartomatous Polyps—Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Monika; Yang, Xiu; Zhang, Xuchen

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently encountered on endoscopic examinations. While many of these represent true epithelial lesions, some of the polyps may result from underlying stromal or lymphoid proliferations or even heterotopic tissue. Histologic examination is essential for accurate typing of the polyps to predict malignant potential and underlying possible genetic abnormalities. The focus of this review is on gastric hamartomatous polyps, which are relatively rare and diagnostically challenging. Though most of the gastric hamartomatous polyps are benign, certain types are associated with increased malignant potential. These include certain polyps associated with specific genetic familial polyposis syndromes and gastric inverted hamartomatous polyps. Identification of these polyps can result in the prevention or early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and also help in the identification of family members with polyposis syndromes. The aim of this review is to categorize gastric hamartomatous polyps and aid in the identification of high-risk categories. PMID:27081323

  5. [Early gastric cancer--two case reports].

    PubMed

    Neziha, Belkahla; Houneida, Bouzi; Mohamed, Jouini; Hajer, Ouerghi; Nadia, Maamouri; Imed, Cheikh; Faouzi, Chebbi; Saadia, Bouraoui; Nidhameddine, Kchir; Ahmed, Ben Ammar

    2005-11-01

    Gastric cancer is a serious disease with a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis of the disease improves its prognosis. We report two cases of early gastric cancer and we specify the clinical, endoscopic, histologic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. This study is about two female patients, respectively, 36 and 70 years old. The diagnosis of early gastric cancer was based on pathologic examination of the resected stomach. The two patients are in remission 2 years and 6 months later, respectively. The diagnosis of early gastric cancer is often made on nonspecific symptoms. Oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy shows gastric mucosal anomalies. Pathologic examination of gastric biopsies confirm the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic ultrasound is essential; it specifies the submucosal infiltration and evaluates the lymph node invasion. Surgery is the primary treatment but in some cases endoscopic mucosal resection provides good long-term results. Early diagnosis of adenocarcinoma improves the prognosis of the disease, which remains poor nowadays.

  6. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    PubMed

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  7. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  8. Atypical presentation of a gastric stromal tumor masquerading as a giant intraabdominal cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ke-Kang; Xu, Song; Chen, Jinzhen; Liu, Gang; Shen, Xiaojun; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms that arise in the gastrointestinal tract, accounting for ~1% of gastric malignancies. The present study reports the case of a GIST of the stomach in a 75-year-old man who presented with abdominal distension and anorexia for 1 month. Gastroscopy was unremarkable. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans showed a giant intraabdominal cystic lesion of unknown origin. The lesion was initially believed to be a duplication cyst, a pancreatic pseudocyst or a liver cyst in the pre-operative diagnosis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a cystic lesion of the lesser sac originating from the lesser curvature of the stomach. A distal gastrectomy with en bloc resection of the lesion was performed. The intraoperative frozen section showed a spindle-cell GIST and microscopically negative margins. The patient was treated with imatinib for 1 year. The latest CT scan at 14 months post-surgery did not show any recurrence. Although GISTs presenting as predominantly cystic lesions are very rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the upper abdomen.

  9. Molecular Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Norihiko; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in gastric carcinogenesis. H pylori exerts oncogenic effects on gastric mucosa through complex interaction between bacterial virulence factors and host inflammatory responses. On the other hand, gastric cancer develops via stepwise accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in H pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Recent comprehensive analyses of gastric cancer genomes indicate a multistep process of genetic alterations as well as possible molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis. Both genetic processes of gastric cancer development and molecular oncogenic pathways related to H pylori infection are important to completely understand the pathogenesis of H pylori-related gastric cancer.

  10. Gastric cancer: new genetic developments.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Grady, William; Suriano, Gianpaolo; Huntsman, David

    2005-06-01

    Gastric cancer's (GC) incidence shows large geographic differences worldwide with the lowest rates occurring in most Western industrialized countries including the United States and the United Kingdom; in contrast, relatively high rates of GC occur in Japan, Korea, China, and South America, particularly Chile. The Laurén classification system classifies GC under two major histopathological variants: 1) an intestinal type and 2) a diffuse type. The intestinal type is more common in the general population, more likely to be sporadic and related to environmental factors such as diet, particularly salted fish and meat as well as smoked foods, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use. It exhibits components of glandular, solid, or intestinal architecture, as well as tubular structures. On the other hand, the diffuse type is more likely to have a primary genetic etiology, a subset of which, known as hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), is due to the E-cadherin (CDH1) germline mutation. The diffuse type pathology is characterized by poorly cohesive clusters of cells which infiltrate the gastric wall, leading to its widespread thickening and rigidity of the gastric wall, known as linitis plastica. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with risk for both the intestinal and diffuse varieties of gastric cancer. Germline truncating mutations of the CDH1 gene, which codes for the E-cadherin protein, were initially identified in three Maori families from New Zealand that were predisposed to diffuse GC. Since then, similar mutations have been described in more than 40 additional HDGC families of diverse ethnic backgrounds. It is noteworthy that two-thirds of HDGC families reported to date have proved negative for the CDH1 germline mutation. A number of candidate genes have been identified through analysis of the molecular biology of E-cadherin. Patients with evidence of the CDH1 germline mutation in the context of a family history of HDGC must be considered as candidates

  11. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  12. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography comparison of gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Qiang; Dong, You-Wen; Liu, Jian-Jing; Song, Xiu-Yu; Dai, Dong; Zuo, Cong; Xu, Wen-Gui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) features in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. METHODS Patients with newly diagnosed gastric lymphoma or gastric carcinoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were included in this study. We reviewed and analyzed the PET/CT features of gastric wall lesions, including FDG avidity, pattern (focal/diffuse), and intensity [maximal standard uptake value: (SUVmax)]. The correlation of SUVmax with gastric clinicopathological variables was investigated by χ2 test, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the differential diagnostic value of SUVmax-associated parameters in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. RESULTS Fifty-two patients with gastric lymphoma and 73 with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Abnormal gastric FDG accumulation was found in 49 patients (94.23%) with gastric lymphoma and 65 patients (89.04%) with gastric carcinoma. Gastric lymphoma patients predominantly presented with type I and type II lesions, whereas gastric carcinoma patients mainly had type III lesions. The SUVmax (13.39 ± 9.24 vs 8.35 ± 5.80, P < 0.001) and SUVmax/THKmax (maximal thickness) (7.96 ± 4.02 vs 4.88 ± 3.32, P < 0.001) were both higher in patients with gastric lymphoma compared with gastric carcinoma. ROC curve analysis suggested a better performance of SUVmax/THKmax in the evaluation of gastric lesions between gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in comparison with that of SUVmax alone. CONCLUSION PET/CT features differ between gastric lymphoma and carcinoma, which can improve PET/CT evaluation of gastric wall lesions and help differentiate gastric lymphoma from gastric carcinoma. PMID:27678362

  13. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography comparison of gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Qiang; Dong, You-Wen; Liu, Jian-Jing; Song, Xiu-Yu; Dai, Dong; Zuo, Cong; Xu, Wen-Gui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) features in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. METHODS Patients with newly diagnosed gastric lymphoma or gastric carcinoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were included in this study. We reviewed and analyzed the PET/CT features of gastric wall lesions, including FDG avidity, pattern (focal/diffuse), and intensity [maximal standard uptake value: (SUVmax)]. The correlation of SUVmax with gastric clinicopathological variables was investigated by χ2 test, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the differential diagnostic value of SUVmax-associated parameters in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. RESULTS Fifty-two patients with gastric lymphoma and 73 with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Abnormal gastric FDG accumulation was found in 49 patients (94.23%) with gastric lymphoma and 65 patients (89.04%) with gastric carcinoma. Gastric lymphoma patients predominantly presented with type I and type II lesions, whereas gastric carcinoma patients mainly had type III lesions. The SUVmax (13.39 ± 9.24 vs 8.35 ± 5.80, P < 0.001) and SUVmax/THKmax (maximal thickness) (7.96 ± 4.02 vs 4.88 ± 3.32, P < 0.001) were both higher in patients with gastric lymphoma compared with gastric carcinoma. ROC curve analysis suggested a better performance of SUVmax/THKmax in the evaluation of gastric lesions between gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in comparison with that of SUVmax alone. CONCLUSION PET/CT features differ between gastric lymphoma and carcinoma, which can improve PET/CT evaluation of gastric wall lesions and help differentiate gastric lymphoma from gastric carcinoma.

  14. The psyche and gastric functions.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24732184

  15. Imaging gastric pennies in children.

    PubMed

    Lane, Joshua E; Boltri, John M

    2005-04-01

    Pennies are among the most common foreign objects ingested by children. This occurrence has traditionally been managed conservatively. However, more recent studies indicate that the higher zinc composition of pennies produced after 1982 may be more dangerous than previously believed. We reported earlier the in situ reaction of such pennies following immersion in hydrochloric acid at gastric pH. The present study examines the utility of radiographic examination of such pennies.

  16. Sensitive and Specific Detection of Early Gastric Cancer Using DNA Methylation Analysis of Gastric Washes

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Hyun Soo; Castoro, Ryan J.; Chung, Woonbok; Estecio, Marcos R. H.; Kondo, Kimie; Guo, Yi; Ahmed, Saira S.; Toyota, Minoru; Itoh, Fumio; Suk, Ki Tae; Cho, Mee-Yon; Shen, Lanlan; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Aberrant DNA methylation is an early and frequent process in gastric carcinogenesis and could be useful for detection of gastric neoplasia. We hypothesized that methylation analysis of DNA recovered from gastric washes could be used to detect gastric cancer. Methods We studied 51 candidate genes in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 24 samples (training set) and identified 6 for further studies. We examined the methylation status of these genes in a test set consisting of 131 gastric neoplasias at various stages. Finally, we validated the 6 candidate genes in a different population of 40 primary gastric cancer samples and 113 non-neoplastic gastric mucosa samples. Results 6 genes (MINT25, RORA, GDNF, ADAM23, PRDM5, MLF1) showed frequent differential methylation between gastric cancer and normal mucosa in the training, test and validation sets. GDNF and MINT25 were most sensitive molecular markers of early stage gastric cancer while PRDM5 and MLF1 were markers of a field defect. There was a close correlation (r=0.5 to 0.9, p=0.03 to 0.001) between methylation levels in tumor biopsy and gastric washes. MINT25 methylation had the best sensitivity (90%), specificity (96%), and area under the ROC curve (0.961) in terms of tumor detection in gastric washes. Conclusions These findings suggest MINT25 is a sensitive and specific marker for screening in gastric cancer. Additionally we have developed a new methodology for gastric cancer detection by DNA methylation in gastric washes. PMID:19375421

  17. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  18. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  19. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  20. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  1. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  2. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  3. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... markings in paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section. (b) Front Marking. In addition to the overall classification level of the document, the following notices shall appear on the front of the document,...

  4. 49 CFR 179.500-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-17 Marking. (a) Each... of this specification. These marks shall be stamped into the metal of necked-down section of tank...

  5. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  6. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  7. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  8. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  9. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  10. Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarun; Alekshun, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Case: A 63-year-old male presented with unintentional weight loss of 20 pounds over a 4-month duration. He reported loss of appetite, intermittent post-prandial nausea, bloating and early satiety. He also complained of dyspepsia and had been treated for reflux during the previous 2 years. He denied vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, melena, hematochezia, or alterations in bowel habits. Additionally, he denied fevers, night sweats, cough, or dyspnea. He quit smoking 25 years ago, and denied alcohol use. His past medical history was significant for basal cell carcinoma treated with local curative therapy and he was without recurrence on surveillance. Pertinent family history included a paternal uncle with lung cancer at the age of 74. Physical examination was unremarkable except for occult heme-positive stools. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT-112, AST-81, AlkPhos-364). CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse heterogeneous liver with extensive nodularity, raising the concern for metastases. Serum tumor-markers: PSA, CEA, CA 19-9, and AFP were all within normal limits. Screening colonoscopy was normal, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a malignant-appearing ulcerative lesion involving the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric cardia. Pathology confirmed an invasive gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a hepatic lesion revealed malignant cells with cytologic features consistent with large-cell type carcinoma and positive immunostaining for synaptophysin favoring neuroendocrine differentiation. A PET-CT demonstrated intense diffuse FDG uptake of the liver, suggesting diffuse hepatic parenchymal infiltration by tumor. There were multiple foci of intense osseous FDG uptake with corresponding osteolytic lesions seen on CT scan. The remaining intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic structures were unremarkable. The patient will receive palliative systemic therapy

  11. Gastric Adenocarcinoma after Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maxwel Capsy Boga; Lopes, Luiz Roberto; Coelho Neto, João de Souza; Tercioti, Valdir; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma after gastric bypass for morbid obesity is rare but has been described. The diet restriction, weight loss, and difficult assessment of the bypassed stomach, after this procedure, hinder and delay its diagnosis. We present a 52-year-old man who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass 2 years ago and whose previous upper digestive endoscopy was considered normal. He presented with weight loss, attributed to the procedure, and progressive dysphagia. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed stenosing tumor in gastric pouch whose biopsy showed diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma. He underwent total gastrectomy, left lobectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, segmental colectomy, and bowel resection with esophagojejunal anastomosis. The histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of gastric pouch adenocarcinoma is discussed with a literature review. PMID:23509467

  12. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked

  13. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 27.1555 Section 27.1555... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant...

  17. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  18. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  19. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  20. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  1. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  2. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 29.1555 Section 29.1555 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29.1555 Control markings. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 27.1555 Section 27.1555 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 27.1555 Control markings. (a) Each...

  5. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words...

  6. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words...

  7. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the... prevent corrosion. After the proof test, the gun barrel shall be marked with the letters “P.T.” and...

  8. Classroom Mark-Recapture with Crickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Andrew R.; Woolfe, Jennifer; Kennedy, Kathleen; Oberbillig, David; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are commonly used by ecologists to estimate abundance of naturally occurring animals and are an important component of ecology curricula. This investigation teaches a mark-recapture technique using store-bought crickets in 10-gallon aquaria and provides an inexpensive way to teach students about mark-recapture in a real…

  9. Marking Student Programs Using Graph Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Kevin A.; Greyling, Jean H.; Vogts, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automated marking of student programming assignments. Our technique quantifies the structural similarity between unmarked student submissions and marked solutions, and is the basis by which we assign marks. This is accomplished through an efficient novel graph similarity measure ("AssignSim"). Our experiments…

  10. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  11. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  12. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  13. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or...

  14. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal...

  15. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export”...

  16. Role of GP82 in the selective binding to gastric mucin during oral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Martins, Rafael M; Macedo, Silene; Sasso, Gisela R S; Atayde, Vanessa D; Juliano, Maria A; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2010-03-02

    Oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi has been the primary cause of recent outbreaks of acute Chagas' diseases. This route of infection may involve selective binding of the metacyclic trypomastigote surface molecule gp82 to gastric mucin as a first step towards invasion of the gastric mucosal epithelium and subsequent systemic infection. Here we addressed that question by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments. A recombinant protein containing the complete gp82 sequence (J18), a construct lacking the gp82 central domain (J18*), and 20-mer synthetic peptides based on the gp82 central domain, were used for gastric mucin binding and HeLa cell invasion assays, or for in vivo experiments. Metacyclic trypomastigotes and J18 bound to gastric mucin whereas J18* failed to bind. Parasite or J18 binding to submaxillary mucin was negligible. HeLa cell invasion by metacyclic forms was not affected by gastric mucin but was inhibited in the presence of submaxillary mucin. Of peptides tested for inhibition of J18 binding to gastric mucin, the inhibitory peptide p7 markedly reduced parasite invasion of HeLa cells in the presence of gastric mucin. Peptide p7*, with the same composition as p7 but with a scrambled sequence, had no effect. Mice fed with peptide p7 before oral infection with metacyclic forms developed lower parasitemias than mice fed with peptide p7*. Our results indicate that selective binding of gp82 to gastric mucin may direct T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes to stomach mucosal epithelium in oral infection.

  17. Preventive Effects of Tocotrienol on Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Its Relation to Oxidative and Inflammatory Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Nur Azlina, Mohd Fahami; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible gastroprotective effect of tocotrienol against water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) induced gastric ulcers in rats by measuring its effect on gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats. The two control groups were administered vitamin-free palm oil (vehicle) and the two treatment groups were given omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg) orally. After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours once. Malondialdehyde (MDA), NO content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were assayed in gastric tissue homogenates. Gastric tissue SOD, iNOS, TNF-α and IL1-β expression were measured. WIRS increased the gastric MDA, NO, and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels significantly when compared to the non-stressed control group. Administration of tocotrienol and omeprazole displayed significant protection against gastric ulcers induced by exposure to WIRS by correction of both ulcer score and MDA content. Tissue content of TNF-α and SOD activity were markedly reduced by the treatment with tocotrienol but not omeprazole. Tocotrienol significantly corrected nitrite to near normal levels and attenuated iNOS gene expression, which was upregulated in this ulcer model. In conclusion, oral supplementation with tocotrienol provides a gastroprotective effect in WIRS-induced ulcers. Gastroprotection is mediated through 1) free radical scavenging activity, 2) the increase in gastric mucosal antioxidant enzyme activity, 3) normalisation of gastric mucosal NO through reduction of iNOS expression, and 4) attenuation of inflammatory cytokines. In comparison to omeprazole, it exerts similar effectiveness but has a more diverse mechanism of protection, particularly through its effect on NO, SOD activity, and TNF-α. PMID:26465592

  18. Aortic distensibility is reduced during intense lower body negative pressure and is related to low frequency power of systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Cote, Anita T; Drury, C Taylor; Warburton, Darren E R

    2013-03-01

    As sympathetic activity approximately doubles during intense lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -60 mmHg or greater, we examined the relationship between surrogate markers of sympathetic activation and central arterial distensibility during severe LBNP. Eight participants were exposed to progressive 8-min stages of LBNP of increasing intensity (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg), while recording carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV), stroke volume (SV), heart rate, and beat-by-beat blood pressure. The spectral power of low frequency oscillations in SBP (SBP(LF)) was used as a surrogate indicator of sympathetically modulated vasomotor modulation. Total arterial compliance (C) was calculated as C = SV/pulse pressure. Both cPWV and C were compared between baseline, 50 % of the maximally tolerated LBNP stage (LBNP(50)), and the maximum fully tolerated stage of LBNP (LBNP(max)). No change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred over LBNP. An increase in cPWV (6.5 ± 2.2; 7.2 ± 1.4; 9.0 ± 2.5 m/s; P = 0.004) occurred during LBNP(max). Over progressive LBNP, SBP(LF) increased (8.5 ± 4.6; 9.3 ± 5.8; 16.1 ± 12.9 mmHg(2); P = 0.04) and C decreased significantly (18.3 ± 6.8; 14.3 ± 4.1; 11.6 ± 4.8 ml/mmHg × 10; P = 0.03). The mean correlation (r) between cPWV and SBP(LF) was 0.9 ± 0.03 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99). Severe LBNP increased central stiffness and reduced total arterial compliance. It appears that increased sympathetic vasomotor tone during LBNP is associated with reduced aortic distensibility in the absence of changes in MAP.

  19. Vagal nerve and the gastric mucosal defense.

    PubMed

    Mózsik, G; Karádi, O; Király, A; Matus, Z; Sütö, G; Tóth, G; Vincze, A

    1993-01-01

    An essential role for an intact vagal nerve has been proven in the development of gastric mucosal cyto- and general protection. On the other hand, chemically-induced (ethanol, HCl, indomethacin) gastric mucosal damage is enhanced after acute surgical vagotomy. The aims of this paper were to study the possible mechanisms of the vagal nerve in the development of gastric mucosal defense. The following questions were addressed: 1) effect of surgical vagotomy on the development of ethanol- (ETOH), HCl-, and indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal damage: 2) changes in the gastric mucosal defense by scavengers, prostacyclin and other compounds (small doses of atropine and cimetidine; 3) changes in the gastric mucosal vascular permeability due to chemicals; 4) effect of indomethacin in the ETOH and HCl models with and without surgical vagotomy; 5) changes in the gastric mucosal content of prostacyclin and PGE2 in the ETOH and HCl models after surgical vagotomy; and 6) changes in the role of SH-groups in gastric mucosal defense after surgical vagotomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Laparoscopic gastric band removal complicated by splenosis.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Gregory; Schoucair, Ramy; Shimlati, Rasha; Rached, Linda; Khoury, George

    2016-08-01

    In any patient, the occurrence of postsplenectomy splenosis can complicate the planning of further surgeries. In our case, the gastric sleeve procedure was aborted, as it would have put the patient's life in danger. Therefore, only the gastric band was removed, eliminating future erosion. PMID:27525091

  1. The journey of personalizing gastric cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks the fourth most prevalent malignancy yet it is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Every year, gastric cancer adds nearly 1 million new cancer cases, and 723,000 or 10% of cancer deaths to the global cancer burden. Approximately, 405,000 or 43% of the new cases and 325,000 or 45% of the deaths are in China, making gastric cancer a particularly challenging malignancy. This thematic series discusses the molecular classifications of gastric cancer by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) as well as the implications in personalized therapeutic choices; discusses the evolution of gastric surgery and presents perspectives on surgical techniques in treating gastric cancer; and reviews current and emerging targeted agents as well as immunotherapies in treating gastric cancer. With these advancements in molecular characterization, surgical intervention, and targeted and immunotherapies, gastric cancer will enter a personalized medicine era in the next 5 years. PMID:27581614

  2. Ramucirumab: successfully targeting angiogenesis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Javle, Milind; Smyth, Elizabeth C; Chau, Ian

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer globally and represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Early detection, aggressive surgical resection, and postoperative adjuvant therapy have led to survival improvement for early-stage gastric cancer, particularly in Asian countries. Unfortunately, advanced gastric cancer continues to pose a formidable challenge with few gains being reported recently. Trastuzumab was the first targeted agent to be approved for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer in 2010. The failure of the AVAGAST trial was a setback for antiangiogenic therapy for this disease. Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-R2 and prevents its activation. The recent REGARD trial was a randomized phase III trial of ramucirumab vs. placebo for patients with advanced, pretreated gastric cancer that met its primary endpoint of increased overall survival. The toxicity of ramucirumab was modest in this setting, with an increased risk of grade 3 or higher hypertension (8% vs. 3%, with ramucirumab and placebo, respectively). The subsequent RAINBOW trial of paclitaxel plus ramucirumab vs. paclitaxel plus placebo for advanced pretreated gastric cancer confirmed the survival advantage of this antiangiogenic agent in gastric cancer. Ramucirumab is the first FDA-approved therapy for advanced gastric cancer after prior chemotherapy.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  4. Laparoscopic gastric band removal complicated by splenosis.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Gregory; Schoucair, Ramy; Shimlati, Rasha; Rached, Linda; Khoury, George

    2016-08-01

    In any patient, the occurrence of postsplenectomy splenosis can complicate the planning of further surgeries. In our case, the gastric sleeve procedure was aborted, as it would have put the patient's life in danger. Therefore, only the gastric band was removed, eliminating future erosion.

  5. The role of microRNA-1274a in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer: Accelerating cancer cell proliferation and migration via directly targeting FOXO4

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guo-Jun Liu, Guang-Hui; Ye, Yan-Wei; Fu, Yang; Zhang, Xie-Fu

    2015-04-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of 18–25 nucleotides length non-coding RNAs, which play critical roles in tumorigenesis. Previous study has shown that microRNA-1274a (miR-1274a) is upregulated in human gastric cancer. However, its role in gastric cancer progression remains poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to examine the effect of miR-1274a on gastric cancer cells. We found that miR-1274a was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues or gastric cancer cells including HGC27, MGC803, AGS, and SGC-7901 by qRT-PCR analysis. Transfection of miR-1274a markedly promoted gastric cancer cells proliferation and migration as well as induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. Our further examination identified FOXO4 as a target of miR-1274a, which did not influence FOXO4 mRNA expression but significantly inhibited FOXO4 protein expression. Moreover, miR-1274a overexpression activated PI3K/Akt signaling and upregulated cyclin D1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. With tumor xenografts in mice models, we also showed that miR-1274a promoted tumorigenesis of gastric cancer in vivo. In all, our study demonstrated that miR-1274a prompted gastric cancer cells growth and migration through dampening FOXO4 expression thus provided a potential target for human gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • MiR-1274a expression was augmented in gastric cancer. • MiR-1274a promoted proliferation, migration and induced EMT in cancer cells. • MiR-1274a directly targeted FOXO4 expression. • MiR-1274a triggered PI3K/Akt signaling in cancer cells. • MiR-1274a significantly increased tumor xenografts growth.

  6. The Mark 5 VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.

    2007-07-01

    The Mark 5 VLBI data system is a disk-based data-recording and playback system for high-data-rate VLBI observations, and has been adopted worldwide for VLBI observations. Approximately 150 Mark 5A systems, capable of recording/playback at 1024 Mbps, are now deployed around the world, directly replacing the Mark 4/VLBA tape-based systems which were prevalent for over 25 years. The Mark 5A system records to an 8-disk removable module which is normally transported to a central correlator facility for processing. The Mark 5B VLBI data system is designed to support the VSI-H international specification and is now being deployed. It is based on the same physical platform and uses the same disk-modules as the Mark 5A; it also supports the same maximum data rate of 1024 Mbps. Data formatting and timetagging is done internally within the Mark 5B, eliminating the need for external formatters. Backwards playback compatibility with Mark 5A is accomplished by an upgrade to the Mark 5A. An upgrade of the Mark 5B system, dubbed Mark 5B+, is now also available and capable of sustained recording at 2 Gbps. The Mark 5C system, currently in development, accepts sampled data through a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet OSI Layer 2 interface and will support sustained recording up to 4 Gbps. The Mark 5C will support a recording mode which is backwards compatible with the Mark 5B system for playback; Mark 5C is expected to be available in early 2008.

  7. Gastroprotective effect of andrographolide sodium bisulfite against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ming; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Zu-Qing; Feng, Xue-Xuan; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Su, Zi-Ren

    2015-06-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfite (ASB), a water-soluble sulfonate of andrographolide has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. However, there is no report on the gastroprotective effect of ASB against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Here we investigated the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of ASB and the underlying mechanism against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The ulcer area, histopathological assessment, contents of gastric mucosal glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined. In addition, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and immunohistochemical evaluation of HSP70, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were also investigated. Results indicated that ASB pre-treatment significantly reduced the ulcer areas induced by indomethacin compared with the vehicle group. The gastric levels of GSH, CAT and SOD were markedly increased by ASB while the level of MDA was decreased. In addition, ASB pretreatment significantly promoted the gastric PGE2 levels and up-regulated the COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression in comparison with the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed obvious up-regulation of HSP70 and Bcl-2 protein expression while suppression of Bax protein in the gastric tissue of ASB-pretreated group. Taken together, these findings indicated that the gastroprotective effect of ASB might be associated with the improvement of antioxidative status, activation of COX-mediated PGE2 synthesis, down-regulation of Bax proteins and up-regulation of Bcl-2 and HSP70 proteins. ASB might have the potential for further development as a promising alternative for antiulcer treatment. PMID:25916678

  8. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Methods Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Results Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Conclusion Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of

  9. Gastroprotective effect of andrographolide sodium bisulfite against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ming; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Zu-Qing; Feng, Xue-Xuan; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Su, Zi-Ren

    2015-06-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfite (ASB), a water-soluble sulfonate of andrographolide has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. However, there is no report on the gastroprotective effect of ASB against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Here we investigated the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of ASB and the underlying mechanism against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The ulcer area, histopathological assessment, contents of gastric mucosal glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined. In addition, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and immunohistochemical evaluation of HSP70, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were also investigated. Results indicated that ASB pre-treatment significantly reduced the ulcer areas induced by indomethacin compared with the vehicle group. The gastric levels of GSH, CAT and SOD were markedly increased by ASB while the level of MDA was decreased. In addition, ASB pretreatment significantly promoted the gastric PGE2 levels and up-regulated the COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression in comparison with the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed obvious up-regulation of HSP70 and Bcl-2 protein expression while suppression of Bax protein in the gastric tissue of ASB-pretreated group. Taken together, these findings indicated that the gastroprotective effect of ASB might be associated with the improvement of antioxidative status, activation of COX-mediated PGE2 synthesis, down-regulation of Bax proteins and up-regulation of Bcl-2 and HSP70 proteins. ASB might have the potential for further development as a promising alternative for antiulcer treatment.

  10. Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

    1982-03-01

    The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

  11. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer. PMID:27573782

  12. Cate's Story: Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and is thought to be responsible for about 10% of cancer-related deaths across the globe. A small proportion of all gastric cancers arise because of a known hereditary syndrome, the most common of which is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an increased risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer at a young age. The gene responsible for HDGC is CDH1, also known as E-cadherin, a germline mutation conferring an 80% risk of developing gastric cancer during the lifetime of the carrier. Females with germline CDH1 mutations face an additional risk of developing lobular breast cancer, with a reported cumulative risk of 60% by the age of 80 years.
.

  13. Standards and practices for bite mark photography.

    PubMed

    Golden, G S

    2011-12-01

    In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark(s) may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime. Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. This paper will discuss current standards, best practice, and armamentaria for digital photography of bite mark injuries on skin. Full spectrum protocols will be described including Alternate Light Imaging, Reflective Ultra-violet, and Infrared techniques for photo-documentation of images of bite marks and other bruise patterns that have been inflicted on human skin. PMID:22717911

  14. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chet; Romney, Jon; Owens, Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  15. Isoprenaline Induces Periostin Expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Xiao; Xi, Hong-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Shao-Wei; Lu, Yan-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Periostin mediates critical steps in gastric cancer and is involved in various signaling pathways. However, the roles of periostin in promoting gastric cancer metastasis are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance between periostin expression and gastric cancer progression and the role of stress-related hormones in the regulation of cancer development and progression. Materials and Methods Normal, cancerous and metastatic gastric tissues were collected from patients diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer. The in vivo expression of periostin was evaluated by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescent staining. Meanwhile, human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines MKN-45 and BGC-803 were used to detect the in vitro expression of periostin by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. Results Periostin is expressed in the stroma of the primary gastric tumors and metastases, but not in normal gastric tissue. In addition, we observed that periostin is located mainly in pericryptal fibroblasts, but not in the tumor cells, and strongly correlated to the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Furthermore, the distribution patterns of periostin were broader as the clinical staging of tumors progressed. We also identified a role of stress-related signaling in promoting cancer development and progression, and found that isoprenaline upregulated expression levels of periostin in gastric cancer cells. Conclusion These findings suggest that the distribution pattern of periostin was broader as the clinical staging of the tumor progressed and found that isoprenaline upregulated expression levels of periostin in gastric cancer cells. PMID:26996552

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection induced gastric cancer; advance in gastric stem cell research and the remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastric cancer, which remains an important health care challenge. Recent investigation in gastric stem cell or progenitor cell biology has uncovered valuable information in understanding the gastric gland renewal and maintenance of homeostasis, they also provide clues for further defining the mechanisms by which gastric cancer may originate and progress. Lgr5, Villin-promoter, TFF2-mRNA and Mist have recently been identified as gastric stem/progenitor cell markers; their identification enriched our understanding on the gastric stem cell pathobiology during chronic inflammation and metaplasia. In addition, advance in gastric cancer stem cell markers such as CD44, CD90, CD133, Musashi-1 reveal novel information on tumor cell behavior and disease progression implicated for therapeutics. However, two critical questions remain to be of considerable challenges for future exploration; one is how H. pylori or chronic inflammation affects gastric stem cell or their progenitors, which give rise to mucus-, acid-, pepsinogen-, and hormone-secreting cell lineages. Another one is how bacterial infection or inflammation induces oncogenic transformation and propagates into tumors. Focus on the interactions of H. pylori with gastric stem/progenitor cells and their microenvironment will be instrumental to decipher the initiation and origin of gastric cancer. Future studies in these areas will be critical to uncover molecular mechanisms of chronic inflammation-mediated oncogenic transformation and provide options for cancer prevention and intervention. We review recent progress and discuss future research directions in these important research fields. PMID:23217022

  17. Current Perspectives on Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Marqués-Lespier, Juan M; González-Pons, María; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is third leading cause of cancer-related death. Only 28.3% of new GC cases survive more than 5 years. Although incidence has declined in the United States, an increase is estimated for 2016. Risk factors include sex (risk is higher in men), Helicobacter pylori infection, heredity, and lifestyle. GC is usually diagnosed between the ages of 60-80 years. Prognosis of GC is largely dependent on the tumor stage at diagnosis and classification as intestinal or diffuse type; diffuse-type GC has worse prognosis. Chemoprevention has been shown to decrease risk, but is currently not used clinically. PMID:27546840

  18. Triple gastric peptic ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Radojkovic, Milan; Mihajlovic, Suncica; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Stanojevic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer have compromised nutritional, metabolic, and immune conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about gastroduodenal perforation in cancer patients. Described in the present report is the case of a 41-year old woman with stage IV recurrent laryngeal cancer, who used homeopathic anticancer therapy and who had triple peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) that required surgical repair. Triple gastric PUP is a rare complication. Self-administration of homeopathic anticancer medication should be strongly discouraged when evidence-based data regarding efficacy and toxicity is lacking.

  19. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  20. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  1. Molecular events in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mahu, C; Purcarea, AP; Gheorghe, CM; Purcarea, MR

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer represents an important problem for the public health, being one of the main causes of mortality. At present, it represents the second cause of mortality due to cancer, after the bronchopulmonary cancer in men and the fourth cause of mortality in women. Important progresses have been made in the last couple of years in determining the neoplastic etiopathogenesis, but it cannot be affirmed that the genetic mutations chain, which leads to the appearance of the malignant cell, has been fully understood. PMID:25408758

  2. Evaluation of gastric antral motility in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Helmar; Minear, Greg; Kugi, Andrea; Stacher, Georg

    1994-09-01

    Gastric motion after the ingestion of a radioactively labeled standard meal was visualized using a triple headed gamma camera and dynamic SPECT acquisitions consisting of 30 scans of 6 s duration each. After the ingestion of a radiolabeled standard meal tomographic reconstruction produced, after prefiltering with a Metz filter, images of reasonable quality, in spite of the short acquisition time per view. Oblique slices rectangular to the longitudinal axis of the antrum were positioned employing 3D rendering techniques. These slices were extracted from the sequential volumes to produce time activity curves (TACs) of antral contractions. From the TACs the amplitudes and the frequencies of the antral contraction curves obtained from planar acquisitions, were markedly higher for the curves from the tomographic slices. This was due to the removal of oblique components of motion in the oblique slices. The effect of the long sampling interval of 6 seconds was checked on simulations using data from planar acquisitions and found to permit sampling of the antral waves with acceptable accuracy. 3D display of the stomach contributed to the anatomical knowledge since it showed clearly differences to the positions that would have been expected from conventional x-ray views. Antral contraction strength was not necessarily related with the rate of gastric emptying, which emphasizes the role of other factors, mainly the tone of the fundus, for the emptying process.

  3. Gastric Bypass Reduces Symptoms and Hormonal Responses in Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Niclas; Börjesson, Joey Lau; Sundbom, Magnus; Wiklund, Urban; Karlsson, F Anders; Eriksson, Jan W

    2016-09-01

    Gastric bypass (GBP) surgery, one of the most common bariatric procedures, induces weight loss and metabolic effects. The mechanisms are not fully understood, but reduced food intake and effects on gastrointestinal hormones are thought to contribute. We recently observed that GBP patients have lowered glucose levels and frequent asymptomatic hypoglycemic episodes. Here, we subjected patients before and after undergoing GBP surgery to hypoglycemia and examined symptoms and hormonal and autonomic nerve responses. Twelve obese patients without diabetes (8 women, mean age 43.1 years [SD 10.8] and BMI 40.6 kg/m(2) [SD 3.1]) were examined before and 23 weeks (range 19-25) after GBP surgery with hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp (stepwise to plasma glucose 2.7 mmol/L). The mean change in Edinburgh Hypoglycemia Score during clamp was attenuated from 10.7 (6.4) before surgery to 5.2 (4.9) after surgery. There were also marked postsurgery reductions in levels of glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamine and the sympathetic nerve responses to hypoglycemia. In addition, growth hormone displayed a delayed response but to a higher peak level. Levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide rose during hypoglycemia but rose less postsurgery compared with presurgery. Thus, GBP surgery causes a resetting of glucose homeostasis, which reduces symptoms and neurohormonal responses to hypoglycemia. Further studies should address the underlying mechanisms as well as their impact on the overall metabolic effects of GBP surgery.

  4. Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

  5. Linifanib (ABT-869) Potentiates the Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Agents through the Suppression of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Mediated AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Guo, Jiawei; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Jieqiong; Liu, Mingyao; Pang, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer, highly dependent on tumor angiogenesis, causes uncontrolled lethality, in part due to chemoresistance. Here, we demonstrate that linifanib (ABT-869), a novel multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, markedly augments cytotoxicity of chemotherapies in human gastric cancer. ABT-869 and chemotherapeutic agents exhibited a strong synergy to inhibit the viability of several gastric cancer cell lines, with combination index values ranging from 0.017 to 0.589. Additionally, the combination of ABT-869 and chemotherapeutic agents led to remarkable suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, in a preclinical gastric cancer xenograft mouse model, drug co-treatments led to increased mouse survival as well as a synergistic reduction in tumor size and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Mechanistic studies further revealed that all of the co-treatments containing ABT-869 resulted in decreased activation of the VEGF receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor and the insulin growth factor receptor. Inhibition of these receptor tyrosine kinases consequently attenuated the activation of the downstream AKT/mTOR signaling pathway both in cultured gastric cancer cells and in gastric cancer xenografts. Collectively, our findings suggest that the addition of ABT-869 to traditional chemotherapies may be a promising strategy for the treatment of human gastric cancer. PMID:27387652

  6. An unusual case showing fatal rupture of a gastric ulcer or gastromalacia? The importance/role of histology for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Spagnolo, Antonio G; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Arena, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Gastromalacia is the acute autolytic erosion of the gastric wall. It generally occurs postmortem, and it appears as a slimy brownish black region of the wall which occurs principally in the gastric fundus. A 59-year-old woman died in the Emergency Department following a 2-day period of mild abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. A forensic autopsy was performed which revealed a rupture of the gastric fundus that had caused leakage of gastric content into the abdominal cavity. There was no macroscopic evidence of peritonitis, and the stomach wall adjacent to the rupture site showed marked thinning. The gross appearance was typical of gastromalacia. In contrast, histological observations revealed the presence of an ulcer at the site of perforation and a severe acute inflammatory reaction indicating a robust reaction with an antemortem rupture.

  7. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), ASA plus L-glutamine and L-glutamine on healing of chronic gastric ulcer in the rat.

    PubMed

    Okabe, S; Takeuchi, K; Honda, K; Takagi, K

    1976-01-01

    A chronic gastric ulcer model was produced in rats by the subserosal injection of 20% acetic acid solution (0.015 ml) in order to examine whether (1) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) irritates the chronic gastric ulcer in active or healed or diminished stage, (2) L-glutamine, given together with ASA, inhibits the adverse effect of ASA. Oral ASA 200 mg/kg/day, given in two divided doses for 10 consecutive days, apparently delayed the healing of the gastric ulcer and irritated the healed ulcer to reulcerate. L-Glutamine, 1,500 mg/kg/day, which was given together with ASA in two divided doses, markedly protected the gastric ulcer both in active and healed stages from the deleterious activity of ASA. PMID:955326

  8. Effects of phenylalaninol on centrally induced gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, H; Miyamae, T; Morikawa, T; Hagiwara, M

    1992-11-01

    The effects of phenylalaninol (D-isomer) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer were studied in rats. The compound reduced the gastric acid secretion stimulated by intracisternal thyrotropin releasing hormone and intravenous 2-deoxy-D-glucose, but not that stimulated by subcutaneous carbachol or histamine. Phenylalaninol prevented stress- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. We conclude that phenylalaninol inhibits ulcer formation mainly by central inhibition of gastric acid secretion. PMID:1477931

  9. Gastric Electrical Stimulation for Abdominal Pain in Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Christopher J.; Griffith, James; Subramony, Charu; Halley, Lindsey; Adams, Kristen; Paine, Elizabeth R.; Schmieg, Robert; Islam, Saleem; Salameh, Jay; Spree, Danielle; Kothari, Truptesh; Kedar, Archana; Nikitina, Yana; Abell, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal pain physiology may be better understood studying electrophysiology, histology, and symptom scores in patients with the symptoms of gastroparesis (Gp) treated with gastric electrical stimulation (GES). Ninety-five Gp patients’ symptoms were recorded at baseline and during temporary and permanent GES. Gastric-emptying times and cutaneous, mucosal, and serosal electrogastrograms were obtained. S100-stained, full-thickness gastric biopsies were compared with autopsy controls. Sixty-eight patients reported severe pain at baseline. Severe pain patients’ mean pain scores decreased with temporary GES from 3.62 to 1.29 (P < 0.001) and nonsevere pain from 1.26 to 0.67 (P = 0.01). With permanent GES, severe mean pain scores fell to 2.30 (P < 0.001); nonsevere pain changed to 1.60 (P = 0.221). Mean follow-up was 275 days. Mean cutaneous, mucosal, and serosal frequencies and frequency-to-amplitude ratios were markedly higher than literature controls. For patients with Gp overall and subdivided by etiology and severity of pain, S-100 neuronal fibers were significantly reduced in both muscularis propria layers. GES improved severe pain associated with symptoms of Gp. This severe pain is associated with abnormal electrogastrographic activity and loss of S100 neuronal fibers in the stomach’s inner and outer muscularis propria and, therefore, could be the result of gastric neuropathy. PMID:23635579

  10. Strategies and Advancements in Harnessing the Immune System for Gastric Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Yeo, Mei Shi; Tan, Woei Loon; Yong, Wei Peng

    2015-01-01

    In cancer biology, cells and molecules that form the fundamental components of the tumor microenvironment play a major role in tumor initiation, and progression as well as responses to therapy. Therapeutic approaches that would enable and harness the immune system to target tumor cells mark the future of anticancer therapy as it could induce an immunological memory specific to the tumor type and further enhance tumor regression and relapse-free survival in cancer patients. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities that has a modest survival benefit from existing treatment options. The advent of immunotherapy presents us with new approaches in gastric cancer treatment where adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, and antibody therapies have all been used with promising outcomes. In this paper, we review the current advances and prospects in the gastric cancer immunotherapy. Special focus is laid on new strategies and clinical trials that attempt to enhance the efficacy of various immunotherapeutic modalities in gastric cancer. PMID:26579545

  11. Aberrant silencing of the endocrine peptide gene tachykinin-1 in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    David, Stefan; Kan, Takatsugu; Cheng, Yulan; Agarwal, Rachana; Jin, Zhe; Mori, Yuriko

    2009-01-16

    Tachykinin-1 (TAC1) is the precursor protein for neuroendocrine peptides, including substance P, and is centrally involved in gastric secretion, motility, mucosal immunity, and cell proliferation. Here we report aberrant silencing of TAC1 in gastric cancer (GC) by promoter hypermethylation. TAC1 methylation and mRNA expression in 47 primary GCs and 41 noncancerous gastric mucosae (NLs) were analyzed by utilizing real-time quantitative PCR-based assays. TAC1 methylation was more prevalent in GCs than in NLs: 21 (45%) of 47 GCs versus 6 (15%) of 41 NLs (p < 0.01). Microsatellite instability was also associated with TAC1 methylation in GCs. There was no significant association between TAC1 methylation and age, gender, stage, histological differentiation, or the presence of Helicobacter pylori. TAC1 mRNA was markedly downregulated in GCs relative to NLs. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine-induced demethylation of the TAC1 promoter resulted in TAC1 mRNA upregulation. Further studies are indicated to elucidate the functional involvement of TAC1 in gastric carcinogenesis.

  12. Preclinical evidence of multiple mechanisms underlying trastuzumab resistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arienti, Chiara; Zanoni, Michele; Pignatta, Sara; Del Rio, Alberto; Carloni, Silvia; Tebaldi, Michela; Tedaldi, Gianluca; Tesei, Anna

    2016-01-01

    HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer patients frequently develop resistance to trastuzumab through mechanisms still poorly understood. In breast cancer, other members of the HER-family are known to be involved in trastuzumab-resistance, as is overexpression of the scaffold protein IQGAP1. In the present work, we investigated acquired resistance to trastuzumab in gastric cancer experimental models. Trastuzumab-resistant (HR) subclones derived from 3 HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells were generated and characterized for alterations in HER2-signaling mechanisms by next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemical, western blot and qRT-PCR techniques, and molecular modeling analysis. All subclones showed a reduced growth rate with respect to parental cell lines but each had a different resistance mechanism. In NCI N87 HR cells, characterized by a marked increase in HER2-signaling pathways with respect to the parental cell line, trastuzumab sensitivity was restored when IQGAP1 expression was silenced. AKG HR subclone showed higher HER3 protein expression than the parental line. High nuclear HER4 levels were observed in KKP HR cells. In conclusion, our study revealed that high IQGAP1 expression leads to resistance to trastuzumab in gastric cancer. Furthermore, 2 new mutations of the HER2 gene that may be involved in acquired resistance were identified in AKG HR and KKP HR subclones. PMID:26919099

  13. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium. PMID:24587625

  14. Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, B D

    1989-01-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

  15. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium.

  16. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  17. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Gong, Jian; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are constantly being developed and have been shown to be effective in various clinical trials. One group of representative targeted oncogenic kinases, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has been associated with gastric cancer development. Trastuzumab, an inhibitor of ERBB2, has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer, although other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, IGF-1R and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, are also activated in gastric cancer. The promising results of the trastuzumab clinical trial for gastric cancer resulted in the approval of trastuzumab-based therapy as a first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients. On the other hand, the trial examining bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy did not meet its primary goal of increasing the overall survival time of gastric cancer patients; however, a significantly higher response rate and a longer progression-free survival were observed in the bevacizumab arm of the trial. Other clinical trials, especially phase III trials that have tested drugs targeting RTKs, such as cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, figitumumab, sorafenib, sunitinib and lapatinib, have shown that these drugs have modest effects against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the recent results from the clinical trials of molecularly targeted drugs and suggests that further improvements in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer can be achieved through the combination of conventional drugs with the new molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24782606

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  19. RGB marking facilitates multicolor clonal cell tracking.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristoffer; Thomaschewski, Michael; Warlich, Michael; Volz, Tassilo; Cornils, Kerstin; Niebuhr, Birte; Täger, Maike; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Pollok, Jörg-Matthias; Stocking, Carol; Dandri, Maura; Benten, Daniel; Fehse, Boris

    2011-04-01

    We simultaneously transduced cells with three lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors encoding red, green or blue fluorescent proteins. Individual cells were thereby marked by different combinations of inserted vectors, resulting in the generation of numerous mixed colors, a principle we named red-green-blue (RGB) marking. We show that lentiviral vector-mediated RGB marking remained stable after cell division, thus facilitating the analysis of clonal cell fates in vitro and in vivo. Particularly, we provide evidence that RGB marking allows assessment of clonality after regeneration of injured livers by transplanted primary hepatocytes. We also used RGB vectors to mark hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that generated colored spleen colonies. Finally, based on limiting-dilution and serial transplantation assays with tumor cells, we found that clonal tumor cells retained their specific color-code over extensive periods of time. We conclude that RGB marking represents a useful tool for cell clonality studies in tissue regeneration and pathology. PMID:21441917

  20. Gastric Cancer: New Drugs – New Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Nadine; Ebert, Matthias P.; Härtel, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. There are large geographic variations in the incidence of these tumors, with 60% occurring in East Asia. For patients with resectable disease, surgery and perioperative treatment can be effective. For patients with advanced gastric cancer, chemotherapy regimens result in a median survival of 9-11 months. In general, the prognosis for advanced disease is poor and 5-year overall survival rates are around 15%. Combination therapies yield better survival rates, albeit with increased toxicity. Therefore, more effective and less toxic treatment regimens are needed. Summary The molecular aberrations that characterize the different subgroups of gastric cancer have been used as therapeutic targets. However, the heterogeneity and complexity of gastric cancers is a major challenge for the development of effective targeted therapies. This review examines the main molecular targets in the treatment of gastric cancer, namely the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. Key Message The molecular aberrations characteristic of gastric cancer are being explored for the development of targeted therapies, including the VEGF, HER2, HGF/c-Met, EGFR and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Practical Implications Trastuzumab, an antibody which targets HER2, is the first approved targeted therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer. However, trastuzumab is only effective in HER2-positive tumors (about 10-20% of all gastric cancers). Ramucirumab, which targets the VEGF receptor 2, has yielded benefits with respect to overall survival in a phase III trial and is an effective treatment for advanced gastric cancer with approval in second-line treatment. Apatinib and rilotumumab are another two promising new agents currently under

  1. Antitumor Effects of a Sirtuin Inhibitor, Tenovin-6, against Gastric Cancer Cells via Death Receptor 5 Up-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Sachiko; Endo, Shinji; Saito, Rie; Hirose, Mitsuaki; Ueno, Takunori; Suzuki, Hideo; Yamato, Kenji; Abei, Masato; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Up-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylase, deacetylates p53 and inhibits its transcriptional activity, leading to cell survival. SIRT1 overexpression has been reported to predict poor survival in some malignancies, including gastric cancer. However, the antitumor effect of SIRT1 inhibition remains elusive in gastric cancer. Here, we investigated the antitumor mechanisms of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, in seven human gastric cancer cell lines (four cell lines with wild-type TP53, two with mutant-type TP53, and one with null TP53). Interestingly, tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in all cell lines, not only those with wild-type TP53, but also mutant-type and null versions, accompanied by up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5). In the KatoIII cell line (TP53-null), DR5 silencing markedly attenuated tenovin-6-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the pivotal mechanism behind its antitumor effects is based on activation of the death receptor signal pathway. Although endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by sirtuin inhibitors was reported to induce DR5 up-regulation in other cancer cell lines, we could not find marked activation of its related molecules, such as ATF6, PERK, and CHOP, in gastric cancer cells treated with tenovin-6. Tenovin-6 in combination with docetaxel or SN-38 exerted a slight to moderate synergistic cytotoxicity against gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, tenovin-6 has potent antitumor activity against human gastric cancer cells via DR5 up-regulation. Our results should be helpful for the future clinical development of sirtuin inhibitors. PMID:25033286

  2. Antitumor effects of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, against gastric cancer cells via death receptor 5 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Sachiko; Endo, Shinji; Saito, Rie; Hirose, Mitsuaki; Ueno, Takunori; Suzuki, Hideo; Yamato, Kenji; Abei, Masato; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Up-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylase, deacetylates p53 and inhibits its transcriptional activity, leading to cell survival. SIRT1 overexpression has been reported to predict poor survival in some malignancies, including gastric cancer. However, the antitumor effect of SIRT1 inhibition remains elusive in gastric cancer. Here, we investigated the antitumor mechanisms of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, in seven human gastric cancer cell lines (four cell lines with wild-type TP53, two with mutant-type TP53, and one with null TP53). Interestingly, tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in all cell lines, not only those with wild-type TP53, but also mutant-type and null versions, accompanied by up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5). In the KatoIII cell line (TP53-null), DR5 silencing markedly attenuated tenovin-6-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the pivotal mechanism behind its antitumor effects is based on activation of the death receptor signal pathway. Although endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by sirtuin inhibitors was reported to induce DR5 up-regulation in other cancer cell lines, we could not find marked activation of its related molecules, such as ATF6, PERK, and CHOP, in gastric cancer cells treated with tenovin-6. Tenovin-6 in combination with docetaxel or SN-38 exerted a slight to moderate synergistic cytotoxicity against gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, tenovin-6 has potent antitumor activity against human gastric cancer cells via DR5 up-regulation. Our results should be helpful for the future clinical development of sirtuin inhibitors. PMID:25033286

  3. [Lymphoma of the residual gastric stump].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Nicastro, A; Crescenzi, U; Persico Stella, L; Clarioni, A; Pontone, P; Montori, A

    1993-03-01

    The authors report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (lymphoplasmocytoid type) arisen on the gastric stump of a patient operated 18 years before according to Billroth II gastric resection for peptic ulcer. They underline the extraordinary rarity of the event because this type of neoplasia never arises on the gastric stump, where would be more likely to find, due to irritative chemical stimuli of the biliary reflux, phenomena of intestinal metaplasia or severe dysplasia highly predisposing to adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, they stress the importance of a "deep" bioptic examination for a diagnosis as early as possible of this type of pathology.

  4. Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Amy; Cha, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers. However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers. PMID:16718845

  5. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as

  6. Gastric hyperplastic polyps coexisting with early gastric cancers, adenoma and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, K; Lewandowska, M; Białek, A; Ławniczak, M; Urasińska, E

    2016-03-01

    Gastric hyperplastic polyps (GHP) constitute up to 93% of all benign epithelial polyps of the stomach. The average probability of malignant transformation in GHP is 0.6-22% in large series. The aim of the study was to present the coexistence of GHP with early gastric cancer (EGC), gastric adenoma (GA), neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NH) and well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET G1). Three cases were studied to reveal clinical data and morphological changes and to assess the relationship between GHP and accompanying gastric neoplastic lesions. PMID:27179272

  7. Seatbelt syndrome with gastric mucosal breaks and intra-gastric wall air leakage.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirohito; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Chiyo, Taiga; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    As numerous reports were published regarding the so-called seatbelt syndrome involved in car crashes, most of them were mentioned about small intestine, duodenum and colon perforations and solid organ bleeding. No reports have been published regarding multiple gastric mucosal tears with intra-gastric wall air leakage with massive bleeding. A 65-year-old woman was admitted after a motor vehicle crash. She vomited massive fresh blood. Gastric mucosal breaks, approximately 5 cm in length, were observed. Computed tomography imaging revealed multiple gastric mucosal breaks. We report a rare case wherein a traffic accident caused a serious condition associated with massive digestive bleeding. PMID:26466695

  8. Pretreatment Gastric Lavage Reduces Postoperative Bleeding after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuka; Itakura, Jun; Ueda, Ken; Suzuki, Shoko; Yasui, Yutaka; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Takada, Hitomi; Ueda, Masako; Hayashi, Tsuguru; Kuwabara, Konomi; Takaura, Kenta; Higuchi, Mayu; Komiyama, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Tsubasa; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-01-01

    Aim For patients receiving endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there is urgent need pertaining to the prevention of postoperative bleeding. We conducted a retrospective propensity score-matched study that evaluated whether pre-ESD gastric lavage prevents postoperative bleeding after ESD for gastric neoplasms. Methods From September 2002 to October 2015, the 760 consecutive patients receiving ESD for gastric neoplasm were enrolled and data regarding them were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received conventional preventive treatment against delayed bleeding after ESD, including the administration of proton pump inhibitor and preventive coagulation of visible vessels, at the end of the ESD procedure. Results Pre-ESD risk factors for postoperative bleeding included tumor size and no gastric lavage. Using multivariate analysis tumor size >2.0 cm (HR 2.90, 95% CI 1.65–5.10, p = 0.0002) and no gastric lavage (HR 3.20, 95% CI 1.13–9.11, p = 0.029) were found to be independent risk factors. Next, we evaluated the effect of gastric lavage on the prevention of post-ESD bleeding using a propensity score-matching method. A total of 284 subjects (142 per group) were selected. Adjusted odds ratio of gastric lavage for post-ESD bleeding was 0.25 (95% CI 0.071–0.886, p = 0.032). Conclusion Pretreatment gastric lavage reduced postoperative bleeding in patients receiving ESD for gastric neoplasm. PMID:26871449

  9. Association between the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 and the prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LING; YANG, XIGUI; YANG, XIANGSHAN; FAN, KAIXI; XIAO, PING; ZHANG, JING; WANG, XIUWEN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) in gastric adenocarcinoma. TNFAIP8 expression levels in gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples (with and without lymph node metastasis), adjacent normal tissue samples and metastatic lymph node tissue samples were detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between TNFAIP8 expression levels and clinicopathological data and gastric adenocarcinoma prognosis was analyzed. The results demonstrated that TNFAIP8 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples and metastatic lymph node tissue samples markedly increased at a rate of 47.2% (50/106) and 81.7% (49/60), respectively, as compared with the adjacent normal tissue samples in which no TNGFAIP8 expression was detected (0%). This increase in TNFAIP8 expression was statistically significant. TNFAIP8 expression rates in the primary tumors (60%, 36/60) of patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly higher compared with the primary tumors of patients without lymph node metastasis (30.4%, 14/46). TNFAIP8 expression was associated with an increase in the severity of TNM stage, tumor grade, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and serum CA72-4 levels. The overall survival rate of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and high TNFAIP8 expression was poorer compared with patients with low TNFAIP8 expression, and TNFAIP8 expression was negatively correlated with patient prognosis. The results also demonstrated that TNFAIP8 was an independent prognostic marker in gastric adenocarcinoma (relative risk, 1.736; P=0.029). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that TNFAIP8 expression was associated with the occurrence, development and metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma, and negatively correlated with the prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. TNFAIP8 may therefore serve as a prognostic factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:27347043

  10. Promoted interaction of nuclear factor-κB with demethylated cystathionine-β-synthetase gene contributes to gastric hypersensitivity in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Hong; Hu, Ji; Zhou, You-Lang; Hu, Shufen; Wang, Yong-Meng; Chen, Wei; Xiao, Ying; Huang, Li-Yen Mae; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2013-05-22

    Patients with long-standing diabetes frequently demonstrate gastric hypersensitivity with an unknown mechanism. The present study was designed to investigate roles for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the endogenous H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS) signaling pathways by examining cbs gene methylation status in adult rats with diabetes. Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) produced gastric hypersensitivity in female rats in response to gastric balloon distention. Treatment with the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid significantly attenuated STZ-induced gastric hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent fashion. Aminooxyacetic acid treatment also reversed hyperexcitability of gastric-specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons labeled by the dye DiI in diabetic rats. Conversely, the H2S donor NaHS enhanced neuronal excitability of gastric DRG neurons. Expression of CBS and p65 were markedly enhanced in gastric DRGs in diabetic rats. Blockade of NF-κB signaling using pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reversed the upregulation of CBS expression. Interestingly, STZ treatment led to a significant demethylation of CpG islands in the cbs gene promoter region, as determined by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. STZ treatment also remarkably downregulated the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b. More importantly, STZ treatment significantly enhanced the ability of cbs to bind DNA at the p65 consensus site, as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our findings suggest that upregulation of cbs expression is attributed to cbs promoter DNA demethylation and p65 activation and that the enhanced interaction of the cbs gene and p65 contributes to gastric hypersensitivity in diabetes. This finding may guide the development and evaluation of new treatment modalities for patients with diabetic gastric hypersensitivity.

  11. Adaptive Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) Eliminates the Risk of Biochemical Failure Caused by the Bias of Rectal Distension in Prostate Cancer Treatment Planning: Clinical Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sean S.; Yan Di; McGrath, Samuel; Dilworth, Joshua T.; Liang Jian; Ye Hong; Krauss, Daniel J.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Rectal distension has been shown to decrease the probability of biochemical control. Adaptive image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) corrects for target position and volume variations, reducing the risk of biochemical failure while yielding acceptable rates of gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicities. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2006, 962 patients were treated with computed tomography (CT)-based offline adaptive IGRT. Patients were stratified into low (n = 400) vs. intermediate/high (n = 562) National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. Target motion was assessed with daily CT during the first week. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was used to measure daily setup error. Patient-specific confidence-limited planning target volumes (cl-PTV) were then constructed, reducing the standard PTV and compensating for geometric variation of the target and setup errors. Rectal volume (RV), cross-sectional area (CSA), and rectal volume from the seminal vesicles to the inferior prostate (SVP) were assessed on the planning CT. The impact of these volumetric parameters on 5-year biochemical control (BC) and chronic Grades {>=}2 and 3 GU and GI toxicity were examined. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Median minimum dose covering cl-PTV was 75.6 Gy. Median values for RV, CSA, and SVP were 82.8 cm{sup 3}, 5.6 cm{sup 2}, and 53.3 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The 5-year BC was 89% for the entire group: 96% for low risk and 83% for intermediate/high risk (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in BC were seen with stratification by RV, CSA, and SVP in quartiles. Maximum chronic Grades {>=}2 and 3 GI toxicities were 21.2% and 2.9%, respectively. Respective values for GU toxicities were 15.5% and 4.3%. No differences in GI or GU toxicities were noted when patients were stratified by RV. Conclusions: Incorporation of adaptive IGRT reduces the risk of geometric miss and results in excellent biochemical control that is

  12. Gastric tubes and airway management in patients at risk of aspiration: history, current concepts, and proposal of an algorithm.

    PubMed

    Salem, M Ramez; Khorasani, Arjang; Saatee, Siavosh; Crystal, George J; El-Orbany, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    stipulates that in patients with gastric distension without predictable airway difficulties, a clinical and imaging assessment will determine the need for a GT and in severe cases an attempt to insert a GT should be made. In the latter cases, the success of placement will indicate whether to use RSII or awake intubation. The GT should not be withdrawn and should be connected to suction during induction. Airway management and the use of GTs in the surgical correction of certain gastrointestinal anomalies in infants and children are discussed.

  13. Protective effect of histamine microinjected into the cerebellar fastigial nucleus on stress-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xiao; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jianfu; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Yanming; Wang, Changcheng; Fei, Sujuan; Zhu, Jinzhou; Zhu, Shengping; Liu, Zhangbo; Li, Tingting; Lv, Shengxiang; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the effffects and the possible mechanism of microinjection of histamine into cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) on stress-induced gastric mucosal damage (SGMD) in rats. The effect of microinjection of histamine into FN on SGMD was observed. Methods: The model of SGMD was established by restraint and water (21 ± 1°C)-immersion (RWI) for 3 h in rats. The gastric mucosal damage index indicated the severity of SGMD. Western blotting was performed to assess gastric mucosal cell apoptosis and proliferation. Results: We observed that histamine microinjection into the FN markedly attenuated SGMD in a dose-dependent manner, and was prevented by pre-treatment with the ranitidine (a selective histamine H2 receptor antagonist) into the FN. The effect of histamine was abolished by pre-treatment with 3-MPA (a glutamic acid decarboxylase antagonist) into the FN. There was a decrease in the discharge frequency of greater splanchnic nerve, and an increase in gastric mucosal blood flow after histamine injection into the FN. Additionally, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative factors of gastric mucosa might be involved in this process. Conclusion: The exogenous histamine in FN participates in the regulation of SGMD, and our results may help to provide new ideas on the treatment of gastroenterological diseases. PMID:26550464

  14. Effects of verapamil, carbenoxolone and N-acetylcysteine on gastric wall mucus and ulceration in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Koo, M W; Ogle, C W; Cho, C H

    1986-01-01

    The effects of verapamil on gastric wall mucus and ulceration were studied in rats which were restrained and exposed to 4 degrees C (stress). Stress for 2 h significantly depleted stomach wall mucus and produced marked gastric glandular ulcers. Verapamil pretreatment (2, 4, 8 or 16 mg/kg), injected intraperitoneally 30 min before experimentation, significantly prevented stress-induced mucus depletion and gastric ulceration; however, it did not itself influence stomach wall mucus levels in nonstressed animals. Intragastric administration of carbenoxolone (100 or 200 mg/kg), also given 30 min before stress, exhibited similar actions as verapamil. A 15% solution of N-acetylcysteine (10 ml/kg), given orally, strongly decreased the mucus content in both nonstress and stress conditions; it induced ulcers in nonstressed rats, and worsened stress ulceration. These effects were not reversed by verapamil pretreatment. The influence of multiple-dose pretreatment with verapamil or carbenoxolone on mucus content and ulceration in the gastric glandular mucosa during stress is also discussed. It is concluded that gastric wall mucus depletion is likely to play an important role in stress ulcer formation; the antiulcer action of verapamil could partly be due to the preservation of mucus.

  15. Distribution of prostaglandins in gastric and duodenal mucosa of healthy subjects and duodenal ulcer patients: effects of aspirin and paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Obtulowicz, W; Sito, E; Oleksy, J; Wilkon, S; Kiec-Dembinska, A

    1981-04-01

    The distribution of mucosal PGE2-like activity was determined by bioassay technique in the body and antrum of the stomach and in the duodenum of healthy subjects and duodenal ulcer patients before and after administration of aspirin, paracetamol, or histamine. In healthy subjects, the oxyntic, antral and duodenal mucosa was found to be capable of generating large amounts of PGE2, which were not significantly different from those found in duodenal ulcer patients. No correlation was found between the generation of PGE2 and gastric acid secretory status or serum gastrin level. Aspirin-and to a much lesser extent, paracetamol-caused a dramatic reduction in the ability of the gastric mucosa to biosynthesis PGE2 and this was accompanied by marked side-effects and injury to the gastric mucosa. Administration of histamine caused small but significant reduction in the biosynthesis of PGE2 but it was accompanied by marked mucosal damage. This study indicates that the gastric and duodenal mucosa is capable of generating PGE2-like activity which may be involved in the mechanism that protects the mucosa against the damage caused by aspirin.

  16. Primary gastric rupture in 47 horses (1995–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Winfield, Laramie S.; Dechant, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to identify factors associated with primary gastric rupture and to investigate if there were differences between etiologies of primary gastric rupture. Compared to the general colic population, Quarter horses were under-represented and Friesians and draft breeds were over-represented in 47 cases of primary gastric ruptures. Horses with primary gastric rupture typically presented with severe clinical and clinicopathological derangements. There were 24 idiopathic gastric ruptures, 20 gastric impaction associated ruptures, and 3 perforating gastric ulcers. Thoroughbred horses were over-represented in the idiopathic gastric rupture group compared to other breeds and etiologies. This study suggests the presence of important breed predispositions for development of gastric rupture. Further study is necessary to identify if these predispositions are associated with management factors or breed-specific disorders. PMID:26345205

  17. Protein profiling of alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Liang; Ye, Fei; Qu, Linlin; Wang, Daguang; Cui, Miao; Wei, Chengguo; Xing, Yanpeng; Lee, Peng; Suo, Jian; Zhang, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) producing gastric adenocarcinoma is considered as a rare subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma. Compared with AFP non-producing gastric adenocarcinoma, our study and other previous studies showed that AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma is more aggressive and prone to liver metastasis. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 11 of out of 286 proteins tested were found to be differentially expressed between AFP producing (n=32) and AFP non-producing (n=45) gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. In addition, the high level expression of XIAP and IGF-Irβ in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues was independent factors for poor prognosis in AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma patients. A risk model based on the XIAP and IGF-Irβ expression levels can separate AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma patients into 2 subgroups and each subgroup had a distinct set of signaling pathways involved. In conclusion, AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma is a heterogeneous cancer with different clinical outcomes, biological behaviors and underlying molecular alterations. PMID:27057629

  18. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... JT, van Hillegersberg R, Dekker E, Oliveira C, Cats A, Hoogerbrugge N; Dutch Working Group on Hereditary ... JH, van Hillegersberg R, Ligtenberg M, Bleiker E, Cats A; Dutch Working Group on Hereditary Gastric Cancer. ...

  19. [Cancer of the gastric stump: our experience].

    PubMed

    Vecchioni, R; Rossi, M

    1990-01-01

    The experienced gained over the past few years in the Verona University Institute of Surgical Pathology has revealed a slow, though progressive, increase in the number of gastric stump cancers, reflecting a trend emerging in the literature. There can be no doubt that an important factor in the enhanced detection of such cancers is the adoption of digestive endoscopy in routine clinical practice. Silent symptoms, barely noticeable clinical signs and the particular aggressiveness of the tumours often lead to an excessively late diagnosis, which, unfortunately, limits the efficacy of surgical therapy. We therefore recommend, as a single solution to the problem, the endoscopic screening of all patients who have undergone gastric resection ten or more years ago in order to detect early stump cancer. Obviously, and fortunately, in a few years time gastric stump cancer will be a rare phenomenon, in view of the exponential drop in gastric resections for ulcer disease over the past decade.

  20. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... lot of calories. Avoid drinks that have sugar, fructose, or corn syrup in them. Avoid carbonated drinks ( ...

  2. Gastric polyposis caused by multifocal histiocytosis X.

    PubMed Central

    Wada, R; Yagihashi, S; Konta, R; Ueda, T; Izumiyama, T

    1992-01-01

    A rare case of gastric polyposis caused by infiltration of Langerhans' cells is reported. A 53 year old Japanese woman complaining of vague abdominal discomfort, was found at endoscopy to have numerous polyps all over the gastric wall. An endoscopic biopsy specimen showed characteristic infiltration of Langerhans' cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa. Functional abnormalities such as impaired gastric acid secretion or malabsorption were not associated with this lesion and the patient was treated conservatively. During follow up over two years, she had a cutaneous eruption with infiltration of histiocytes and osteolytic lesions in the skull. However, no progressive changes occurred in the stomach. This probably benign self-limiting lesion of gastric histiocytosis X may be one of the manifestations of multifocal histiocytosis X, but its aetiology and appropriate treatment have not yet been determined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1644344

  3. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  4. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-09-15

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:27672425

  5. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance.

  6. Hematogenous Gastric Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sasajima, Junpei; Okamoto, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While the gastric involvement of pancreatic cancer is occasionally observed as the result of direct invasion, hematogenous gastric metastasis is rare. A 72-year-old Japanese male presented with general fatigue, pollakiuria, and thirst. Computed tomography revealed a 4.6-cm solid mass in the pancreatic tail and a 4.2-cm multilocular cystic mass in the pancreatic head with multiple liver and lymphatic metastasis. Notably, two solid masses were detected in the gastric wall of the upper body and the antrum; both were separated from the primary pancreatic cancer and seemed to be located in the submucosal layer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with a normal mucosa in the posterior wall of the upper body of the stomach, suggesting the gastric hematogenous metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The suspected diagnosis was unresectable pancreatic cancer with multiple metastases that was concomitant with the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. PMID:27403106

  7. Hematogenous Gastric Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Junpei; Okamoto, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While the gastric involvement of pancreatic cancer is occasionally observed as the result of direct invasion, hematogenous gastric metastasis is rare. A 72-year-old Japanese male presented with general fatigue, pollakiuria, and thirst. Computed tomography revealed a 4.6-cm solid mass in the pancreatic tail and a 4.2-cm multilocular cystic mass in the pancreatic head with multiple liver and lymphatic metastasis. Notably, two solid masses were detected in the gastric wall of the upper body and the antrum; both were separated from the primary pancreatic cancer and seemed to be located in the submucosal layer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with a normal mucosa in the posterior wall of the upper body of the stomach, suggesting the gastric hematogenous metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The suspected diagnosis was unresectable pancreatic cancer with multiple metastases that was concomitant with the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. PMID:27403106

  8. Revision operations after primary gastric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W Weatherston

    1982-01-01

    A single surgeon working in a district general hospital gives his experience over 31 years of 179 reoperations after a primary gastric operation has failed to relieve symptoms of duodenal ulcer. PMID:7092089

  9. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  10. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Boniface, Megan M; Wani, Sachin B; Schefter, Tracey E; Koo, Phillip J; Meguid, Cheryl; Leong, Stephen; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Wingrove, Lisa J; McCarter, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical), and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients.

  11. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Megan M; Wani, Sachin B; Schefter, Tracey E; Koo, Phillip J; Meguid, Cheryl; Leong, Stephen; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Wingrove, Lisa J; McCarter, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical), and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients. PMID:27217796

  12. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:27672425

  13. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123 Section 28.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In...

  14. 46 CFR 162.161-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 162.161-8 Section 162.161-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems § 162.161-8 Marking. The following information must be displayed...

  15. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  16. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  17. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  18. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  19. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  20. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  1. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  3. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  4. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  5. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  6. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  7. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  8. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  9. 46 CFR 160.017-25 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 160.017-25 Section 160.017-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-25 Marking. (a) Each chain ladder...

  10. 46 CFR 163.003-25 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 163.003-25 Section 163.003-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-25 Marking. (a) Each pilot ladder...

  11. 46 CFR 163.003-25 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 163.003-25 Section 163.003-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-25 Marking. (a) Each pilot ladder...

  12. 46 CFR 160.017-25 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.017-25 Section 160.017-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-25 Marking. (a) Each chain ladder...

  13. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held...

  14. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held...

  15. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held...

  16. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held...

  17. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  19. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  20. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  1. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  2. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  3. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  4. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  5. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  6. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  7. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  8. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  13. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... construction begins on or after January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be consistent with the maximum gross weight information on the safety approval plate. (b) On each container that construction begins before January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must...

  14. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... construction begins on or after January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be consistent with the maximum gross weight information on the safety approval plate. (b) On each container that construction begins before January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must...

  15. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... construction begins on or after January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be consistent with the maximum gross weight information on the safety approval plate. (b) On each container that construction begins before January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must...

  16. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... construction begins on or after January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be consistent with the maximum gross weight information on the safety approval plate. (b) On each container that construction begins before January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must...

  17. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  18. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  19. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  20. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...