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Sample records for marked gastric distension

  1. Neuroimaging of gastric distension and gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Several neuroimaging studies are presented, which derive from prior work on gastric distension. Using a nonsurgical approach, we inserted gastric balloons into rats, which led to a marked decrease in food intake that normalized at 8 weeks. Body weight, however, remained below controls, which encouraged pursuit of studies in humans. A gastric balloon was inserted in obese and lean subjects, and filled through a tube that led behind the subject with water to 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 mL, on different days prior to ingestion of a liquid meal. As gastric volume increased, intake decreased by about 40%. Stomach capacity was then investigated using a gastric balloon, by assessing subjective (maximal tolerance) and objective measures (gastric compliance). Obese individuals had a much larger stomach capacity than lean by both measures. Next, in a 2-month study, an indwelling gastric balloon was inflated to 400 mL for 1 month and deflated for 1 month in counterbalanced order. Body weight was reduced during the month when the balloon was inflated within the 2nd and 3rd week. The subsequent study involved fMRI in response to gastric distension of 0, 250, and 500 mL while the subject was in a scanner. Ratings of fullness, but not discomfort, increased at 500 mL. Amygdala and insula activation were associated with gastric distension. The amygdala, as part of the limbic system, is involved in emotion and reward, and the insula in interoception. The right amygdala activation was inversely related to BMI, consistent with greater gastric capacity at a higher BMI. The next fMRI study in obese and lean subjects used visual and auditory stimuli of high energy dense (ED) and low ED foods. Increased activation was observed in the midbrain, putamen, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and superior temporal gyrus in the obese vs. lean group in response to high vs. low ED food cues. Several of these areas lie within the mesolimbic reward pathway, and greater activation to high ED foods in

  2. Neuroimaging of Gastric Distension and Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies are presented, which derived from prior work on gastric distension. Using a nonsurgical approach, we inserted gastric balloons into rats, which led to a marked decrease in food intake that normalized at 8 weeks. Body weight, however, remained below controls, which encouraged pursuit of studies in humans. A gastric balloon was inserted in obese and lean subjects, and filled through a tube that led behind the subject with water to 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 mL, on different days prior to ingestion of a liquid meal. As gastric volume increased, intake decreased by about 40%. Stomach capacity was then investigated using a gastric balloon, by assessing subjective (maximal tolerance) and objective measures (gastric compliance). Obese individuals had a much larger stomach capacity than lean by both measures. Next, in a 2-month study, an indwelling gastric balloon was inflated to 400 mL for 1 month and deflated for 1 month in counterbalanced order. Body weight was reduced during the month when the balloon was inflated within the 2nd and 3rd week. The subsequent study involved fMRI in response to gastric distension of 0, 250, and 500 mL while the subject was in a scanner. Ratings of fullness, but not discomfort, increased at 500 mL. Amygdala and insula activation were associated with gastric distension. The amygdala, as part of the limbic system, is involved in emotion and reward, and the insula in interoception. The right amygdala activation was inversely related to BMI, consistent with greater gastric capacity ata higher BMI. The next fMRI study in obese and lean subjects used visual and auditory stimuli of high energy dense (ED) and low ED foods. Increased activation was observed in the midbrain, putamen, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and superior temporal gyrus in the obese vs. lean group in response to high vs. low ED food cues. Several of these areas lie within the mesolimbic reward pathway, and greater activation to high ED foods in

  3. Mechanism of UES relaxation initiated by gastric air distension

    PubMed Central

    Medda, Bidyut K.; Shaker, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of initiation of transient upper esophageal sphincter relaxation (TUESR) caused by gastric air distension. Cats (n = 31) were decerebrated, EMG electrodes were placed on the cricopharyngeus, a gastric fistula was formed, and a strain gauge was sewn on the lower esophageal sphincter (n = 8). Injection of air (114 ± 13 ml) in the stomach caused TUESR (n = 18) and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR, n = 6), and this effect was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by thoracotomy. Free air or bagged air (n = 6) activated TLESR, but only free air activated TUESR. Closure of the gastroesophageal junction blocked TUESR (9/9), but not TLESR (4/4), caused by air inflation of the stomach. Venting air from distal esophagus during air inflation of the stomach prevented TUESR (n = 12) but did not prevent air escape from the stomach to the esophagus (n = 4). Rapid injection of air on the esophageal mucosa always caused TUESR (9/9) but did not always (7/9) cause an increase in esophageal pressure. The time delay between the TUESR and the rapid air pulse was significantly more variable (P < 0.05) than the time delay between the rapid air pulse and the rise in esophageal pressure. We concluded that the TUESR caused by gastric air distension is dependent on air escape from the stomach, which stimulates receptors in the esophagus, but is not dependent on distension of the stomach or esophagus, or the TLESR. Therefore, the TUESR caused by gastric air distension is initiated by stimulation of receptors in the esophageal mucosa. PMID:24970778

  4. Mechanism of UES relaxation initiated by gastric air distension.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Shaker, Reza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of initiation of transient upper esophageal sphincter relaxation (TUESR) caused by gastric air distension. Cats (n = 31) were decerebrated, EMG electrodes were placed on the cricopharyngeus, a gastric fistula was formed, and a strain gauge was sewn on the lower esophageal sphincter (n = 8). Injection of air (114 ± 13 ml) in the stomach caused TUESR (n = 18) and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR, n = 6), and this effect was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by thoracotomy. Free air or bagged air (n = 6) activated TLESR, but only free air activated TUESR. Closure of the gastroesophageal junction blocked TUESR (9/9), but not TLESR (4/4), caused by air inflation of the stomach. Venting air from distal esophagus during air inflation of the stomach prevented TUESR (n = 12) but did not prevent air escape from the stomach to the esophagus (n = 4). Rapid injection of air on the esophageal mucosa always caused TUESR (9/9) but did not always (7/9) cause an increase in esophageal pressure. The time delay between the TUESR and the rapid air pulse was significantly more variable (P < 0.05) than the time delay between the rapid air pulse and the rise in esophageal pressure. We concluded that the TUESR caused by gastric air distension is dependent on air escape from the stomach, which stimulates receptors in the esophagus, but is not dependent on distension of the stomach or esophagus, or the TLESR. Therefore, the TUESR caused by gastric air distension is initiated by stimulation of receptors in the esophageal mucosa. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Transcutaneous ultrasonographic evaluation of gastric distension with fluid in horses.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marcos; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie; Rose, Patricia; Muirhead, Tammy

    2007-02-01

    To develop a transcutaneous ultrasonography (TUS) method for measuring the location of the stomach during various levels of fluid distension and evaluate any correlation between gastric fluid distension and stomach position. 6 adult horses. Known volumes of water were administered in 2 trials. In trial 1, the stomach was evaluated prior to and after the administration of 2, 4, and 6 L of water. In trial 2, the stomach was evaluated after administration of 6, 8, 10, and 12 L of water. The TUS was performed at the 7th through 16th left intercostal spaces (ICSs). For each volume of water, an image was captured at the most dorsal point in each ICS where the dorsolateral aspect of the stomach wall was viewed. The distance between this point and a horizontal line drawn on the skin at the level of the elbow joint was measured. The measurements at all ICSs were used to estimate the gastric wall height at ICS 12, which was subsequently evaluated for statistical association with volume administered. Significant correlation between the estimated height of the stomach wall at ICS 12 and the volume of fluid administered was detected. A regression equation to estimate gastric fluid volume when initial values for gastric wall height (cm) at ICS 12 and fluid volume (L) are known was developed. Results suggested that use of TUS for gastric fluid volume estimation is a potentially useful technique.

  6. Distension-Induced Gastric Contraction is Attenuated in an Experimental Model of Gastric Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao; Guo, Xiaomei; Mattar, Samer G.; Navia, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastric distension has important implications for motility and satiety. The hypothesis of this study was that distension affects the amplitude and duration of gastric contraction and that these parameters are largely mediated by efferent vagus stimulation. Methods A novel isovolumic myograph was introduced to test these hypotheses. The isovolumic myograph isolates the stomach and records the pressure generated by the gastric contraction under isovolumic conditions. Accordingly, the phasic changes of gastric contractility can be documented. A group of 12 rats were used under in vivo conditions and isolated ex vivo conditions and with two different gastric restraints (small and large) to determine the effect of degree of restraint. Results The comparison of the in vivo and ex vivo contractility provided information on the efferent vagus mediation of gastric contraction, i.e., the in vivo amplitude and duration reached maximum of 12.6 ± 2.7 mmHg and 19.8 ± 5.6 s in contrast to maximum of 5.7 ± 0.9 mmHg and 7.3 ± 1.3 s in ex vivo amplitude and duration, respectively. The comparison of gastric restraint and control groups highlights the role of distension on in vivo gastric contractility. The limitation of gastric distension by restraint drastically reduced the maximal amplitude to below 2.9 ± 0.2 mmHg. Conclusions The results show that distension-induced gastric contractility is regulated by both central nervous system and local mechanisms with the former being more substantial. Furthermore, the gastric restraint significantly attenuates gastric contractility (decreased amplitude and shortened duration of contraction) which is mediated by the efferent vagus activation. These findings have important implications for gastric motility and physiology and may improve our understanding of satiety. PMID:20706803

  7. Facilitation of gastric compliance and cardiovascular reaction by repeated isobaric distension of the rat stomach

    PubMed Central

    Römer, Markus; Painsipp, Evelin; Schwetz, Ines; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gastric distension causes cardiovascular reactions and enhances gastric compliance. Here we investigated how these responses are related to each other, whether they change upon repeated distension and which neural mechanisms are involved. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in phenobarbital-anaesthetized rats was recorded from a carotid artery and gastric compliance determined with an electronic barostat. Runs of intermittent gastric distension were generated by stepwise increments (5 mm Hg) of intragastric pressure. While gastric compliance peaked at intragastric pressures of 20 mm Hg, the change in MAP (predominantly hypotension) was largest at intragastric pressures beyond 30 mm Hg. Repeated distension enhanced the MAP response to intragastric pressures beyond 35 mm Hg, whereas gastric compliance was facilitated primarily at intragastric pressures below 20 mm Hg. This facilitation of gastric compliance depended on the magnitude of the preceding distension. The MAP response to distension was enhanced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition, inhibited by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy but hardly affected by coeliac ganglionectomy. The facilitation of gastric compliance was changed by vagotomy in a complex manner but left unaltered by the other interventions. These findings show that isobaric gastric distension elicits both MAP and gastric compliance responses whose characteristics, mechanisms and sensitization properties differ profoundly. PMID:15916627

  8. Gastric distension attenuates the hypotensive effect of intraduodenal glucose in healthy older subjects.

    PubMed

    Gentilcore, Diana; Meyer, James H; Rayner, Christopher K; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2008-08-01

    Postprandial hypotension occurs frequently, and current management is suboptimal. Recent studies suggest that the magnitude of the fall in postprandial blood pressure (BP) may be attenuated by gastric distension. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gastric distension on the hypotensive response to intraduodenal (ID) glucose. Eight healthy subjects (5 males, 3 females, aged 65-76 years) received an ID infusion of either 1) 50 g glucose in 300 ml saline (ID glucose) over 60 min (t=0-60 min), 2) 50 g glucose in 300 ml saline over 60 min and intragastric (4) infusion of 500 ml water between t=7-10 min (IG water and ID glucose), or 3) ID saline (0.9%) infusion over 60 min and IG infusion of 500 ml water (IG water and ID saline) all followed by ID saline infusion for another 60 min (t=60-120 min) on three separate days. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured. Gastric emptying (GE) of the IG water was quantified by two-dimensional ultrasonography. Between t=0-60 min, systolic and diastolic BP was greater (P<0.05 for both) with IG water and ID saline compared with IG water and ID glucose, and less (P<0.05 for both) with ID glucose compared with IG water and ID glucose. These effects were evident at relatively low IG volumes (approximately 300 ml). GE was faster with IG water and ID saline when compared with IG water and ID glucose. We conclude that, in healthy older subjects, IG administration of water markedly attenuates the hypotensive response to ID glucose, presumably as a result of gastric distension.

  9. Cortical deactivations during gastric fundus distension in health: visceral pain-specific response or attenuation of 'default mode' brain function? A H2 15O-PET study.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhove, L; Vandenberghe, J; Dupont, P; Geeraerts, B; Vos, R; Bormans, G; van Laere, K; Fischler, B; Demyttenaere, K; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-03-01

    Gastric distension activates a cerebral network including brainstem, thalamus, insula, perigenual anterior cingulate, cerebellum, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and potentially somatosensory regions. Cortical deactivations during gastric distension have hardly been reported. To describe brain areas of decreased activity during gastric fundus distension compared to baseline, using data from our previously published study (Gastroenterology, 128, 2005 and 564). H(2) (15)O-brain positron emission tomography was performed in 11 healthy volunteers during five conditions (random order): (C(1)) no distension (baseline); isobaric distension to individual thresholds for (C(2)) first, (C(3)) marked, (C(4)) unpleasant sensation and (C(5)) sham distension. Subtraction analyses were performed (in SPM2) to determine deactivated areas during distension compared to baseline, with a threshold of P(uncorrected_voxel_level) < 0.001 and P(corrected_cluster_level) < 0.05. Baseline-maximal distension (C(1)-C(4)) yielded significant deactivations in: (i) bilateral occipital, lateral parietal and temporal cortex as well as medial parietal lobe (posterior cingulate and precuneus) and medial temporal lobe (hippocampus and amygdala), (ii) right dorsolateral and dorso- and ventromedial PFC, (iii) left subgenual ACC and bilateral caudate head. Intragastric pressure and epigastric sensation score correlated negatively with brain activity in similar regions. The right hippocampus/amygdala deactivation was specific to sham. Gastric fundus distension in health is associated with extensive cortical deactivations, besides the activations described before. Whether this represents task-independent suspension of 'default mode' activity (as described in various cognitive tasks) or an visceral pain/interoception-specific process remains to be elucidated.

  10. Effect of motilin on gastric distension sensitive neurons in arcuate nucleus and gastric motility in rat.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Gao, S; Guo, F; Sun, X

    2011-03-01

    Intestinal motilin is known to stimulate gastrointestinal (GI) motility and the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of hypothalamus is shown to be involved in the regulation of GI motility. Single unit discharges in the Arc were recorded extracellularly by implantation of a force transducer into the stomach in rats, to evaluate the effect of motilin on gastric motility. Projection of nerve fiber and expression of motilin were observed by retrograde tracer deposits of Fluoro-Gold (FG) and fluo-immunohistochemistry staining. 65.5% of neurons in Arc responded to gastric distension (GD), 55.6% of which showed excitation (GD-E), and 44.4% showed inhibition (GD-I). After GD, the firing rate of GD-E neurons significantly increased (P<0.01), but decreased for GD-I neurons (P<0.01). Most of both GD-E and GD-I neurons were activated by motilin (P<0.05). The frequency and amplitude of gastric contractions significantly increased by administration of motilin in Arc with a dose dependent manner (P<0.05-0.01). However, pretreatment with GM109 could abolish the responses of neurons and excitatory effect of gastric motility induced by motilin. Motilin immunoreactive neurons were increased in Arc via gastric distention (P<0.05). Motilin/FG-labeled neurons were detected in hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Our findings suggest that motilin neurons in Arc may accept peripheral somatosensory afferent inputs from gastric mechanoreceptors of the stomach, and also may acts as a stimulatory factor in Arc to regulate gastric motility via some inferior nucleus relay pathway. The results provide insight into the role of Arc in the control of digestion mediated via motilin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Cholecystokinin in transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation due to gastric distension in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Boulant, J; Mathieu, S; D'Amato, M; Abergel, A; Dapoigny, M; Bommelaer, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) has been found to be the main mechanism of gastro-oesophageal reflux. In dogs, cholecystokinin (CCK) is involved in their occurrence. The aim was to evaluate the role of endogenous and exogenous CCK in the occurrence of TLOSRs induced by gastric distension at constant pressure in humans. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were studied. Lower oesophageal sphincter pressure was monitored with a sleeve device and gastric distension was performed via an intragastric bag monitored by a barostat. During distensions, saline, CCK (30 ng/kg/h) or the CCK-A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (10 mg/kg/h) was perfused in a random double blind order. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the number of TLOSRs during the different distensions with saline; CCK increased the number of TLOSRs at a mean rate of 13.1 compared with 9.1 with saline (p < 0.001). Loxiglumide significantly decreased the number of relaxations to 5.3 versus 8.3 under paired saline infusion (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In humans, CCK-A receptor subtype is involved in the occurrence of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations induced by gastric distension. PMID:9203932

  12. Disruption of the jejunal migrating motor complex by gastric distension and feeding in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Bull, J S; Grundy, D; Scratcherd, T

    1987-01-01

    1. The jejunal motor response to gastric distension has been quantified in the conscious dog and compared with that of feeding in order to determine the role of the physical bulk of a meal in the conversion from fasted to fed motor activity. 2. In six dogs gastric distension abolished the cyclical migrating motor complex (m.m.c.) and evoked a pattern of continuous irregular jejunal motility similar to that seen postprandially, but only after a latency of 21.5 +/- 2.7 min compared to that of 7.1 +/- 1.2 min for the response to feeding. Computer analysis of distension and fed jejunal motility revealed similar distributions of intervals between contractions and contraction amplitudes with comparable mean values for both. 3. In two dogs with antrum and corpus surgically divided distension of the corpus had a similar effect on jejunal motility although the latency to both distension and feeding were considerably less. 4. By varying the period of distension it has been possible to control accurately the duration of the jejunal motor response and so assess its effectiveness in disrupting the timing of the m.m.c. The return to m.m.c. cycling following deflation was independent of preceding complexes. The occurrence of the post-distension activity front was closely related to the act of deflation itself (R = 0.94) following a latency of 26.2 +/- 2.1 min (n = 39). 5. It is concluded that the bulk of a meal contributes significantly to the early part of postprandial motility and is capable of disrupting the timing of subsequent migrating motor complexes. PMID:3443971

  13. Modulation by peripheral opioids of basal and distension-stimulated gastric acid secretion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Esplugues, J. V.; Barrachina, M. D.; Esplugues, J.

    1992-01-01

    1. The influence of opioids in modulating gastric acid secretory responses has been investigated in the continuously perfused stomach of the anaesthetized rat. 2. Intravenous administration of morphine (0.75-3 mg kg-1) or the peripherally acting enkephalin analogue, BW443C (0.75-3 mg kg-1), substantially augmented acid secretion in basal conditions. These effects were significantly inhibited by the opioid antagonists naloxone (1 mg kg-1) and the peripherally acting N-methylnalorphine (2 mg kg-1). When administered alone, neither opioid antagonist influenced basal acid output. 3. Acid secretory responses to different levels of gastric distension (5-20 cmH2O) were significantly and dose-dependently reduced in rats pretreated with morphine (3 mg kg-1) or BW443C (1.5 mg kg-1). Previous administration of either naloxone or N-methyl nalorphine reversed the inhibitory effects of opioids on gastric acid secretion stimulated by distension. Likewise, blockade of opioid receptors with naloxone or N-methylnalorphine significantly increased acid output induced by distension. 4. Levels of serum gastrin in control animals were not increased after intragastric distension (20 cmH2O). Pretreatment with BW443C (1.5 mg kg-1) did not modify the levels of gastrin present during basal or distension stimulated conditions. 5. Pretreatment with morphine or BW443C did not influence the acid responses to i.v. injection of pentagastrin (100 micrograms kg-1), histamine (5 mg kg-1) or carbachol (4 micrograms kg-1). Acid secretion induced by i.v. administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (150 mg kg-1) was reduced in rats pretreated with morphine but not with BW443C. Gastric secretory responses to insulin (0.3 i.u. kg-1) were not modified by i.v. morphine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1504729

  14. Neuronal correlates of gastric pain induced by fundus distension: a 3T-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lu, C-L; Wu, Y-T; Yeh, T-C; Chen, L-F; Chang, F-Y; Lee, S-D; Ho, L-T; Hsieh, J-C

    2004-10-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity in gastric fundus is a possible pathogenesis for functional dyspepsia. The cortical representation of gastric fundus is still unclear. Growing evidence shows that the insula, but not the primary or secondary somatosensory region (SI or SII), may be the cortical target for visceral pain. Animal studies have also demonstrated that amygdala plays an important role in processing visceral pain. We used fMRI to study central projection of stomach pain from fundus balloon distension. We also tested the hypothesis that there will be neither S1 nor S2 activation, but amygdala activation with the fundus distension. A 3T-fMRI was performed on 10 healthy subjects during baseline, fullness (12.7 +/- 0.6 mmHg) and moderate gastric pain (17.0 +/- 0.8 mmHg). fMRI signal was modelled by convolving the predetermined psychophysical response. Statistical comparisons were performed between conditions on a group level. Gastric pain activated a wide range of cortical and subcortical structures, including thalamus and insula, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, basal ganglia, caudate nuclei, amygdala, brain stem, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex (P < 0.001). A subset of these neuronal substrates was engaged in the central processing of fullness sensation. SI and SII were not activated during the fundus stimulation. In conclusion, the constellation of neuronal structures activated by fundus distension overlaps the pain matrices induced musculocutaneous pain, with the exception of the absence of SI or SII activation. This may account for the vague nature of visceral sensation/pain. Our data also confirms that the insula and amygdala may act as the central role in visceral sensation/pain, as well as in the proposed sensory-limbic model of learning and memory of pain.

  15. Gastric distension by ingesting food is useful in the evaluation of primary gastric cancer by FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming

    2007-02-01

    Gastric carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Detection and surgical resection of gastric cancer in the early stage provides the only hope for improved survival in patients with gastric cancer. Positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has been shown to be essential in the evaluation of a variety of malignancies. However, conventional FDG PET has limited value for detecting a primary tumor of the stomach, mostly because of the relatively high levels of physiological uptake by the contracted stomach. We report 3 cases of primary gastric carcinomas detected successfully by FDG PET after the ingestion of food. The PET images of the stomach after ingesting food were compared with the routine fasting-state whole-body PET images for each patient. When the stomach was distended by food, the malignant lesions were more discernible. These cases indicate that gastric distension by ingesting food may be a simple method that can help to detect a primary gastric malignancy by FDG PET.

  16. Effects of gastric distension and feeding on cardiovascular variables in the shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius).

    PubMed

    Seth, Henrik; Axelsson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that gastric distension induces an instantaneous alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated increase in the dorsal aortic blood pressure (P(da)), with no change in cardiac output (CO), gut blood flow (Q(cma)), or heart rate. To investigate if feeding habits affect these patterns and to compare the differences between gastric distension alone and feeding in the same experimental setting, we used the short-horn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), an inactive ambush predator with a capacity to eat large meals. An inflatable balloon was placed in the stomach of one group while another group was fed fish meat. When distending the stomach with a volume corresponding to a meal of 8-10% body weight, there is a profound and long-lasting increase in systemic (123 +/- 27%) and gastrointestinal (R(cma); 82 +/- 24%) vascular resistance, leading to an increase in P(da) (19%) without any change in CO or Q(cma). After force-feeding, there is a rapid transient increase in R(cma) (24 +/- 4%) and an even larger P(da) response (53%). There is also a subsequent increase in both CO (28 +/- 8%) and Q(cma) (27 +/- 9%) after 30 min. By 15 h, CO and Q(cma) increase further (41 +/- 11 and 63 +/- 14%, respectively), and this increase persists for up to 60 h. The increase in Q(cma) is mediated via both an increase in CO and a shunting of blood from the systemic circulation via a decrease in R(cma) (34 +/- 7%). In conclusion, the response to mechanical distension of the stomach is similar to what we have described in rainbow trout, and the postprandial gastrointestinal hyperemia is most likely chemically induced.

  17. Gastric distension causes changes in heart rate and arterial blood pressure by affecting the crosstalk between vagal and splanchnic systems in anesthetised rats.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maurizio; Grossini, Elena; Molinari, Claudio; Mary, David A S G; Vacca, Giovanni; Cannas, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Various hindbrain nuclei have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of the cardiovascular reflexes elicited by both non-noxious and noxious gastric distension, through parasympathetic and sympathetic activation. The different role played by the branches of autonomic nervous system in exerting these effects and their crosstalk in relation to low-/high-pressure distension rate has not been examined yet. Therefore, in the present work, monolateral and bilateral vagotomy and splanchnicotomy were performed in anesthetised rats to analyse the involvement of hindbrain nuclei in haemodynamic changes caused by gastric distension at high (80 mmHg) and low (15 mmHg) pressure. The analysis of c-Fos expression in neuronal areas involved in cardiovascular control allowed us to examine their recruitment in response to various patterns of gastric distension and the crosstalk between vagal and splanchnic systems. The results obtained show that the low-pressure (non-noxious) gastric distension increases both heart rate and arterial blood pressure. In addition, the vagus nerve and hindbrain nuclei, such as nucleus ambiguous, ventrolateral medulla and lateral reticular nucleus, appear to be primarily involved in observed responses. In particular, we have found that although vagus nerve plays a central role in exerting those cardiovascular reflex changes at low gastric distension, for its functional expression an intact splanchnic system is mandatory. Hence, the absence of splanchnic input attenuates pressor responses or turns them into depressor responses. Instead at high-pressure (noxious) gastric distension, the splanchnic nerve represents the primary component in regulating the reflex cardiovascular effects.

  18. Lateral hypothalamic area orexin-A influence the firing activity of gastric distension-sensitive neurons and gastric motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Hao, Heling; Luan, Xiao; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo

    2016-06-01

    The orexins system consists of two G-protein coupled receptors (the orexin-1 and the orexin-2 receptor) and two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B. Orexin-A is an excitatory neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness and appetite. Recent studies have shown that orexin-A may promote gastric motility. We aim to explore the effects of orexin-A on the gastric -distension (GD) sensitive neurons and gastric motility in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and the possible regulation by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Extracellular single unit discharges were recorded and the gastric motility was monitored by administration of orexin-A into the LHA and electrical stimulation of the PVN. There were GD neurons in the LHA, and administration of orexin-A to the LHA could increase the firing rate of both GD-excitatory (GD-E) and GD-inhibited (GD-I) neurons. The gastric motility was significantly enhanced by injection of orexin-A into the LHA with a dose dependent manner, which could be completely abolished by pre-treatment with orexin-A receptor antagonist SB334867. Electrical stimulation of the PVN could significantly increase the firing rate of GD neurons responsive to orexin-A in the LHA as well as promote gastric motility of rats. However, those effects could be partly blocked by pre-treatment with SB334867 in the LHA. It is suggested that orexin-A plays an important role in promoting gastric motility via LHA. The PVN may be involved in regulation of LHA on gastric motility.

  19. Effects of gastric distension on the cardiovascular system in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Seth, Henrik; Sandblom, Erik; Holmgren, Susanne; Axelsson, Michael

    2008-05-01

    When animals feed, blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract increases to ensure an adequate oxygen supply to the gastrointestinal tissue and an effective absorption of nutrients. In mammals, this increase depends on the chemical properties of the food, as well as, to some extent, on the mechanical distension of the stomach wall. By using an inflatable nitrile balloon positioned in the stomach, we investigated the cardiovascular responses to mechanical stretch of the stomach wall in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Distension with a volume equivalent to a meal of 2% of the body mass increased dorsal aortic blood pressure by up to 29%, and central venous blood pressure increased transiently nearly fivefold. The increase in arterial pressure was mediated by an increased vascular resistance of both the systemic and the intestinal circulation. Cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume (SV) did not change, and only transient changes in gut blood flow were observed. The increase in arterial pressure was abolished by the alpha-adrenergic antagonist prazosin, indicating an active adrenergic vasoconstriction, whereas the venous pressor response could be the consequence of a passive increase in intraperitoneal pressure. Our results show that mechanical distension of the stomach causes an instantaneous increase in general vascular resistance, which may facilitate a redistribution of blood to the gastrointestinal tract when chemical stimuli from a meal induce vasodilation in the gut circulation. The normal postprandial increase in gut blood flow in teleosts is, therefore, most likely partly dependent on mechanical stimuli, as well as on chemical stimuli.

  20. Duodenal afferent input converges onto T9-T10 spinal neurons responding to gastric distension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chao; Chen, Jiande D.Z.; Zhang, Jing; Foreman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Clinically, the overlap of gastroduodenal symptoms, such as visceral pain or hypersensitivity, is often observed in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The underlying mechanism may be related to intraspinal neuronal processing of noxious convergent inputs from the stomach and the intestine. The purpose of this study was to examine whether single low thoracic (T9-T10) spinal neurons responded to both gastric and duodenal mechanical stimulation. Extracellular potentials of single T9-T10 spinal neurons were recorded in pentobarbital anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated male rats. Graded gastric distensions (GD, 20, 40, 60 mmHg, 20s) were induced by air inflation of a latex balloon surgically placed in the stomach. Graded duodenal distensions (DD, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 ml, 20s) were produced by water inflation of a latex balloon placed into the duodenum. Of 70 deeper (depth from dorsal surface of spinal cord: 0.3–1.2 mm) spinal neurons responsive to noxious GD (≥ 40 mmHg), 44(63%) also responded to noxious DD (≥ 0.4 ml). Similarly, 13/17 (76%) superficial neurons (depth < 0.3 mm) responded to both GD and DD. Of 57 gastroduodenal convergent neurons, 41 (72%) had excitatory and 6 had inhibitory responses to both GD and DD; the remaining neurons exhibited multiple patterns of excitation and inhibition. 43/57 (75%) gastroduodenal convergent neurons had low-threshold (≤ 20 mmHg) responses to GD, whereas 42/57 (74%) of these neurons had high-threshold (≥ 0.4 ml) responses to DD. In addition, 34/40 (85%) gastroduodenal convergent neurons had somatic receptive fields on the back, flank, and medial/lateral abdominal areas. These results suggested that superficial and deeper T9-T10 spinal neurons received innocuous and/or noxious convergent inputs from mechanical stimulation of the stomach and duodenum. Gastroduodenal convergent spinal neurons might contribute to intraspinal sensory transmission for cross-organ afferent-afferent communication between the stomach and

  1. Nesfatin-1 influences the excitability of gastric distension-responsive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongzhen; Wang, Qiaoling; Guo, Feifei; Han, Xiaohua; Pang, Mingjie; Sun, Xiangrong; Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo

    2017-05-04

    The present study investigated the effects of nesfatin-1 on gastric distension (GD)-responsive neurons via an interaction with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), and the potential regulation of these effects by hippocampal projections to VMH. Extracellular single-unit discharges were recorded in VHM following administration of nesfatin-1. The projection of nerve fibers and expression of nesfatin-1 were assessed by retrograde tracing and fluoro-immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Results showed that there were GD-responsive neurons in VMH; Nesfatin-1 administration and electrical stimulation of hippocampal CA1 sub-region altered the firing rate of these neurons. These changes could be partially blocked by pretreatment with the non-selective CRF antagonist astressin-B or an antibody to NUCB2/nesfatin-1. Electrolytic lesion of CA1 hippocampus reduced the effects of nesfatin-1 on VMH GD-responsive neuronal activity. These studies suggest that nesfatin-1 plays an important role in GD-responsive neuronal activity through interactions with CRF signaling pathways in VMH. The hippocampus may participate in the modulation of nesfatin-1-mediated effects in VMH.

  2. Chronic low-level administration of diquat increases the nociceptive response to gastric distension in rats: role of mast cells and tachykinin receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Anton, P M; Theodorou, V; Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2001-05-01

    Dietary factors can modulate visceral sensitivity and are suggested to interact with neuroimmune pathways. To determine whether daily low-level exposure to a food contaminant (diquat) alters sensitivity to gastric distension (GD) and the role of mast cells and tachykinin receptors activation, two series of experiments were conducted in eight groups of eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g) receiving daily doses of either diquat (0.1 mg/kg per day orally) or water for 21 days. In the first series, rats were sacrificed at the end of treatments and the gastric mucosal mast cell (MMC) number was histologically quantified. In the second series, after 21 days of treatment the cardiovascular depressor (CVD) response and corresponding gastric volumes were recorded under GD (from 10 to 40 mmHg). Doxantrazole (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), a mast cell stabilizer, and SR 140333 (1 mg/kg i.p.) and MEN 11420 (0.1 mg/kg intravenously), respectively NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists, were administered before GD. Before and after GD, blood samples were taken to measure blood histamine and the gastric MMC number was determined after sacrifice. Diquat treatment increased the MMC number. In diquat-treated rats, GD increased the CVD response and blood histamine level and induced MMC degranulation. Doxantrazole did not modify the hypersensitivity to GD but prevented mast cell degranulation. Both NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists blocked the enhanced CVD response induced by diquat and prevented mast cell degranulation. None of the drugs had any effect in control animals. Prolonged exposure to a food contaminant at doses possibly found in food increases gastric sensitivity to distension, activates tachykinin receptors and results in MMC degranulation after GD.

  3. Effects of partial truncal vagotomy on intragastric pressure responses to vagal stimulation and gastric distension in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Asala, S A; Bower, A J; Lawes, I N

    1987-12-01

    Changes in intragastric pressure after dorsal truncal vagotomy, investigated by stimulation of the surviving vagal branches and by step inflation of the stomach, were divided into an early phase lasting five days, and a late phase continuing for at least three months. During the early phase the amplitude of vagal evoked contraction was diminished but the resting pressure and the response to gastric inflation were increased. After the fifth day vagal evoked contractions doubled in amplitude but the resting pressure and the response to step inflation of the stomach returned to control levels. Ventral vagotomy did not produce any substantial changes. Alterations to gastric and body weight, or to the relation between resting pressure and evoked contraction and relaxation were excluded as causes of the enhanced vagal effectiveness. Sprouting of axons into denervated territory occurred too late to explain the changes, but an increase in synaptic density within the innervated territory has not been ruled out.

  4. Effects of partial truncal vagotomy on intragastric pressure responses to vagal stimulation and gastric distension in ferrets.

    PubMed Central

    Asala, S A; Bower, A J; Lawes, I N

    1987-01-01

    Changes in intragastric pressure after dorsal truncal vagotomy, investigated by stimulation of the surviving vagal branches and by step inflation of the stomach, were divided into an early phase lasting five days, and a late phase continuing for at least three months. During the early phase the amplitude of vagal evoked contraction was diminished but the resting pressure and the response to gastric inflation were increased. After the fifth day vagal evoked contractions doubled in amplitude but the resting pressure and the response to step inflation of the stomach returned to control levels. Ventral vagotomy did not produce any substantial changes. Alterations to gastric and body weight, or to the relation between resting pressure and evoked contraction and relaxation were excluded as causes of the enhanced vagal effectiveness. Sprouting of axons into denervated territory occurred too late to explain the changes, but an increase in synaptic density within the innervated territory has not been ruled out. PMID:3428683

  5. The visceromotor responses to colorectal distension and skin pinch are inhibited by simultaneous jejunal distension.

    PubMed

    Shafton, Anthony D; Furness, John B; Ferens, Dorota; Bogeski, Goce; Koh, Shir Lin; Lean, Nicholas P; Kitchener, Peter D

    2006-07-01

    Noxious stimuli that are applied to different somatic sites interact; often one stimulus diminishes the sensation elicited from another site. By contrast, inhibitory interactions between visceral stimuli are not well documented. We investigated the interaction between the effects of noxious distension of the colorectum and noxious stimuli applied to the jejunum, in the rat. Colorectal distension elicited a visceromotor reflex, which was quantified using electromyographic (EMG) recordings from the external oblique muscle of the upper abdomen. The same motor units were activated when a strong pinch was applied to the flank skin. Distension of the jejunum did not provoke an EMG response at this site, but when it was applied during colorectal distension it blocked the EMG response. Jejunal distension also inhibited the response to noxious skin pinch. The inhibition of the visceromotor response to colorectal distension was prevented by local application of tetrodotoxin to the jejunum, and was markedly reduced when nicardipine was infused into the local jejunal circulation. Chronic sub-diaphragmatic vagotomy had no effect on the colorectal distension-induced EMG activity or its inhibition by jejunal distension. The nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium suppressed phasic contractile activity in the jejunum, had only a small effect on the inhibition of visceromotor response by jejunal distension. It is concluded that signals that arise from skin pinch and colorectal distension converge in the central nervous system with pathways that are activated by jejunal spinal afferents; the jejunal signals strongly inhibit the abdominal motor activity evoked by noxious stimuli.

  6. Computer-simulated biopsy marking system for endoscopic surveillance of gastric lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy.

  7. Mark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew; Smith, Theresa L., Ed.

    Mark is the central character in this story designed to help adolescents formulate a philosophy of values. The story is well suited for use in high school social studies courses and/or in philosophy or guidance units. Mark's thoughts and actions are reported as he interacts with his family, friends, acquaintances, and individuals of authority…

  8. Reactivation of CDX2 in Gastric Cancer as Mark for Gene Silencing Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Yuri; Kitazawa, Riko; Ariasu, Kanazu; Tachibana, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2015-01-01

    To explore the epigenetic mechanism that reactivates CDX2 (a homeobox transcription factor that serves as a tumor-suppressor gene) in intestinal-type gastric cancer during cancer progression, we examined the methylation status of the CDX2 gene promoter and the expression pattern of methyl-CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2). From archives of the pathology records of surgically excised advanced stomach cancer cases in the Department of Molecular Pathology, Ehime University in a past decate (n=265), 10 cases of intestinal-type tubular adenocarcinoma, well-differentiated type (wel) with minor poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma (por) components were selected. The expression pattern of CDX2, MUC2 and MeCP2 in these 10 cases was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The cancerous and non-cancerous areas were selectively obtained by microdissection, and the methylation status of the CDX2 promoter of each area was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). In all 10 cases, CDX2 expression was clearly observed in the nucleus of the non-cancerous background of the intestinal metaplasic area, where the unmethylation pattern of the CDX2 gene promoter prevailed with reduced MeCP2 expression. In this metaplastic area, CDX2 expression was co-localized with its target gene, MUC2. CDX2 expression then disappeared from the deep invasive wel area. Reflecting the reduced CDX2 expression, microdissected samples from all the wel areas showed hypermethylation of the CDX2 gene promoter by MSP, with prominent MeCP2 expression. Interestingly, while hypermethylation of the CDX2 gene promoter was maintained in the por area in 8 of the 10 cases, CDX2 expression was restored in por areas where MeCP2 expression was markedly and selectively reduced. The other two cases, however, showed a constant MeCP2 expression level comparable to the surrounding deep invasive wel area with negative CDX2 expression. Therefore, gene silencing by hypermethylation may be overcome by the reduction of

  9. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2(+) cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5(+) stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5(+) stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2(+) cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2(+) cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program.

  10. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2+ cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5+ stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5+ stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2+ cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2+ cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program. PMID:26989172

  11. Lineage-specific RUNX3 hypomethylation marks the preneoplastic immune component of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurklu, B; Whitehead, R H; Ong, E K; Minamoto, T; Fox, J G; Mann, J R; Judd, L M; Giraud, A S; Menheniott, T R

    2015-05-28

    Runt domain transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is widely regarded as a tumour-suppressor gene inactivated by DNA hypermethylation of its canonical CpG (cytidine-phosphate-guanidine) island (CGI) promoter in gastric cancer (GC). Absence of RUNX3 expression from normal gastric epithelial cells (GECs), the progenitors to GC, coupled with frequent RUNX3 overexpression in GC progression, challenge this longstanding paradigm. However, epigenetic models to better describe RUNX3 deregulation in GC have not emerged. Here, we identify lineage-specific DNA methylation at an alternate, non-CGI promoter (P1) as a new mechanism of RUNX3 epigenetic control. In normal GECs, P1 was hypermethylated and repressed, whereas in immune lineages P1 was hypomethylated and widely expressed. In human GC development, we detected aberrant P1 hypomethylation signatures associated with the early inflammatory, preneoplastic and tumour stages. Aberrant P1 hypomethylation was fully recapitulated in mouse models of gastric inflammation and tumorigenesis. Cell sorting showed that P1 hypomethylation reflects altered cell-type composition of the gastric epithelium/tumour microenvironment caused by immune cell recruitment, not methylation loss. Finally, via long-term culture of gastric tumour epithelium, we revealed that de novo methylation of the RUNX3 canonical CGI promoter is a bystander effect of oncogenic immortalization and not likely causal in GC pathogenesis as previously argued. We propose a new model of RUNX3 epigenetic control in cancer, based on immune-specific, non-CGI promoter hypomethylation. This novel epigenetic signature may have utility in early detection of GC and possibly other epithelial cancers with premalignant immune involvement.

  12. Gastric giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; Braidotti, P.; Viale, G.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens from patients harbouring G lamblia infection, who repeated endoscopy before treatment, were also examined electron microscopically. RESULTS: Forty one patients (0.37% of the population study) harboured gastric giardiasis. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspepsia, epigastric pain, or abdominal distension. Only two patients had diarrhoea at the time of investigation. Giardiasis was clinically unsuspected in all cases, although the nine patients who also had duodenal biopsies performed had concomitant intestinal giardiasis. Gastric giardiasis was invariably associated with chronic atrophic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori infection were found in 32 and 37 of the 41 patients with gastric giardiasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The invariable association of gastric giardiasis with chronic atrophic gastritis, most often showing intestinal metaplasia and H pylori infection, indicates that a decreased gastric acidity is a prerequisite for localisation of G lamblia to the gastric mucosa. Though its possible role as a gastric pathogen remains to be elucidated, these findings suggest that trophozoites should be carefully searched for when examining gastric biopsy specimens showing chronic atrophic gastritis. Images PMID:1452790

  13. Photonic sensing of arterial distension

    PubMed Central

    Ruh, Dominic; Subramanian, Sivaraman; Sherman, Stanislav; Ruhhammer, Johannes; Theodor, Michael; Dirk, Lebrecht; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Most cardiovascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and hypertension, are directly linked to pathological changes in hemodynamics, i.e. the complex coupling of blood pressure, blood flow and arterial distension. To improve the current understanding of cardiovascular diseases and pave the way for novel cardiovascular diagnostics, innovative tools are required that measure pressure, flow, and distension waveforms with yet unattained spatiotemporal resolution. In this context, miniaturized implantable solutions for continuously measuring these parameters over the long-term are of particular interest. We present here an implantable photonic sensor system capable of sensing arterial wall movements of a few hundred microns in vivo with sub-micron resolution, a precision in the micrometer range and a temporal resolution of 10 kHz. The photonic measurement principle is based on transmission photoplethysmography with stretchable optoelectronic sensors applied directly to large systemic arteries. The presented photonic sensor system expands the toolbox of cardiovascular measurement techniques and makes these key vital parameters continuously accessible over the long-term. In the near term, this new approach offers a tool for clinical research, and as a perspective, a continuous long-term monitoring system that enables novel diagnostic methods in arteriosclerosis and hypertension research that follow the trend in quantifying cardiovascular diseases by measuring arterial stiffness and more generally analyzing pulse contours. PMID:27699095

  14. Expression of the Na+/l- symporter (NIS) is markedly decreased or absent in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplastic mucosa of Barrett esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Altorjay, Áron; Dohán, Orsolya; Szilágyi, Anna; Paroder, Monika; Wapnir, Irene L; Carrasco, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Background The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide (I-) transport in the thyroid, lactating breast, salivary glands, and stomach. Whereas NIS expression and regulation have been extensively investigated in healthy and neoplastic thyroid and breast tissues, little is known about NIS expression and function along the healthy and diseased gastrointestinal tract. Methods Thus, we investigated NIS expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 155 gastrointestinal tissue samples and by immunoblot analysis in 17 gastric tumors from 83 patients. Results Regarding the healthy Gl tract, we observed NIS expression exclusively in the basolateral region of the gastric mucin-producing epithelial cells. In gastritis, positive NIS staining was observed in these cells both in the presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori. Significantly, NIS expression was absent in gastric cancer, independently of its histological type. Only focal faint NIS expression was detected in the direct vicinity of gastric tumors, i.e., in the histologically intact mucosa, the expression becoming gradually stronger and linear farther away from the tumor. Barrett mucosa with junctional and fundic-type columnar metaplasia displayed positive NIS staining, whereas Barrett mucosa with intestinal metaplasia was negative. NIS staining was also absent in intestinalized gastric polyps. Conclusion That NIS expression is markedly decreased or absent in case of intestinalization or malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa suggests that NIS may prove to be a significant tumor marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric malignancies and also precancerous lesions such as Barrett mucosa, thus extending the medical significance of NIS beyond thyroid disease. PMID:17214887

  15. Helical hydro-CT for diagnosis and staging of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Düx, M; Richter, G M; Hansmann, J; Kuntz, C; Kauffmann, G W

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to define the accuracy of helical hydro-CT (HHCT) in the diagnosis and staging of gastric carcinoma. One hundred twelve patients with gastric carcinoma were preoperatively imaged by HHCT. Gastric distension was achieved by ingestion of up to 1,500 ml of water. Bolus tracking was performed, and peristalsis was minimized by intravenously administered spasmolytics. Contrast material was then injected, and helical scanning was performed at the time of peak enhancement of the liver. CT images were analyzed for tumor infiltration of the gastric wall, and TNM staging criteria were applied according to the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) classification. The results were correlated with histopathologic findings. One hundred two of 115 (89%) gastric carcinomas were correctly diagnosed by HHCT. Small malignant ulcers (< or =2 cm) that corresponded to early gastric carcinoma were not visible on CT scans. T and N staging accuracies were 51% each; abdominal M staging was correct in 79% of all cases. The positive and negative predictive values of HHCT to foresee curative resection of gastric carcinoma were 75 and 84%, respectively. Mural thickening as well as marked contrast enhancement of the gastric wall are firmly related to gastric carcinoma. The accuracy of HHCT is acceptable for M staging but inadequate for local staging of gastric carcinoma. Nonetheless, HHCT is a useful guide for choosing between tumor resection and nonoperative treatment of patients. We therefore recommend HHCT as the method of choice for preoperative imaging of gastric carcinoma.

  16. Rectal tone, distensibility, and perception: reproducibility and response to different distensions.

    PubMed

    Hammer, H F; Phillips, S F; Camilleri, M; Hanson, R B

    1998-03-01

    Increasing interest is focusing on the role of intestinal tone, distensibility, and mechanosensation in the genesis of abdominal symptoms. Experimental approaches usually feature balloon distension of the bowel with measurements of perception, tone, and compliance and/or elastance; however, the methodologies are standardized incompletely. We examined the reproducibility of repeated assessments of sensory perception, basal tone, and compliance and/or elastance of the rectum during distension. We also evaluated the response to inflations that varied in regard to control of pressure or volume, pattern of distension, and rate of inflation. Five healthy volunteers were studied under two separate protocols. The first featured a series of experiments on each of 5 days; the other consisted of 2 separate days of study. Repeated distensions evoked reproducible responses of sensation and compliance and/or elastance on a single day, providing a conditioning distension preceded them. Day-to-day variability was also sufficiently small to allow valid comparisons to be made on different days in healthy persons. The configuration of the distension profile (phasic, staircase, or ramp) and the rate of inflation (from 1 to 40 ml/s) had little effect on distensibility or perception. Perceptions were sometimes transient and sometimes constant, but no relationship was found between these temporal features and the magnitude of the stimulus. These observations help provide a basis as to how the responses to rectal distension can be best studied.

  17. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for obesity after Belsey-Mark IV for large hiatus hernia and intrathoracic stomach, in combination with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Haenen, Filip; Gys, Ben; Gys, Tobie; Lafullarde, Thierry

    2016-07-05

    Obesity is an increasing problem worldwide; patients who remain obese after non-surgical interventions are potential candidates for surgical intervention. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has proven its effects on excess weight loss and its positive effect on comorbidities and also, on reflux correction. Our patient, a 53-year-old male, with a BMI of 45 kg/m(2) and type 2 diabetes, underwent a Belsey-Mark IV procedure in another center because of a large hiatus hernia and intrathoracic stomach, in combination with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). He consulted at our center concerning his morbid obesity. After a positive preoperative evaluation a RYGB was performed with an uneventful postoperative course. RYGB is a safe and feasible procedure to perform after a Belsey-Mark IV procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first and only report of a RYGB after a Belsey-Mark IV procedure. There were no intra-operative complications and 18 months follow-up was unremarkable, with a 78.10% excess weight loss (EWL), at 86 kg, and no remaining symptoms of GERD. We also mention resolution of the patient's diabetes mellitus type 2 measured by the cessation of the glucophage, which is an added health benefit.

  18. Cardiovascular effects and c-Fos expression in the rat hindbrain in response to innocuous stomach distension.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Claudio; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Grossini, Elena; Mary, David A S G; Cannas, Mario; Vacca, Giovanni

    2006-03-31

    The present work was planned to study the effects of non-noxious gastric distension on hemodynamic variables and on cardiovascular hindbrain areas detected by means of c-Fos immunoreactivity, to determine the afferent and central mechanisms involved. In anesthetized rats, innocuous stomach distension increased arterial blood pressure and heart rate and induced c-Fos immunoreactivity within nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus ambiguus, ventrolateral medulla and lateral reticular nucleus. Bilateral vagotomy abolished the pressor response and c-Fos immunoreactivity in nucleus ambiguus and ventrolateral medulla. Also, c-Fos immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in nucleus tractus solitarii and lateral reticular nucleus. After bilateral splanchnicotomy the pressor and tachycardic responses caused by gastric distension were reduced. c-Fos immunoreactivity in nucleus tractus solitarii, lateral reticular nucleus and nucleus ambiguus was reduced in comparison to the intact rats. In ventrolateral medulla a preferential localization of c-Fos immunoreactivity was found within its caudal portion. It was shown that such gastric distension, known to activate low threshold mechanoreceptors, induced cardiovascular effects via both vagal and splanchnic afferents and involving their central convergence and interaction in modulating the baroreceptor buffer system.

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of abdominal distension in 52 camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal distension in 52 camels (Camelus dromedarius). The conditions included trypanosomiasis (n=35), intestinal obstruction (n=12) and ruptured urinary bladder (n=5). Fifteen clinically normal camels were included as controls. Transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonography was carried out on all camels. In animals with trypanosomiasis, ultrasonographic findings included accumulation of massive amounts of hypoechoic abdominal fluids where liver, intestine, kidney, spleen and urinary bladder were imaged floating. Except in two cases of bile duct calcification and one of hepatic abscessation, no detectable abnormal sonographic lesions were detected while imaging the hepatic and renal parenchyma, and the heart and its valves and major blood vessels. In camels with intestinal obstruction, ultrasonographic findings included distended intestinal loops with markedly reduced or absent motility. In one camel, the intestinal lumen contained localised hyperechoic material that was consistent with a foreign body. Hypoechoic fluid with or without fibrin was seen between intestinal loops. In camels with ruptured urinary bladder, ultrasonographic findings included collapsed and perforated bladder, echogenic blood clots within the urinary bladder and peritoneal cavity, increased thickness of the bladder wall, floating intestines in hypoechogenic fluid and echogenic calculi within the urethra. Ultrasonography was considered a useful tool for the evaluation of dromedary camels with abdominal distension. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral distension methods for small bowel MRI: comparison of different agents to optimize bowel distension.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan A; Baumann, Julia A; Stanescu-Siegmund, Nora; Froehlich, Eckhart; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus S

    2016-12-01

    Background Different methods for bowel distension prior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were described in recent years. Purpose To compare orally administered psyllium or locust bean gum / mannitol (LBM) with tylose administered through a duodenal catheter for bowel distension in patients undergoing MRI examination of the small bowel. Material and Methods Three different methods of bowel distension prior to MRI were compared: tylose applied through a duodenal catheter and orally administered psyllium and LBM in three groups with 15 patients each. Datasets were blinded and reviewed independently by two experienced radiologists, who assessed the diagnostic value and the maximum luminal diameter. Results Tylose was superior to psyllium and LBM in the examination of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. LBM was superior to the other methods for distension of the ileum and terminal ileum. The greatest luminal diameter of the duodenum was achieved after tylose and distension of the terminal ileum was the best in patients receiving LBM. The psyllium group was inferior to the other two groups in all segments. Conclusion By using LBM as an oral method of bowel distension, many patients can avoid the unpleasant placement of a duodenal catheter without compromising the diagnostic value of the examination.

  1. Anatomy and function of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in gastric vagal pathways.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard L; Cooper, Nicole J; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2008-05-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are classified into groups I (excitatory), II and III (inhibitory) mGluR. Activation of peripheral group III mGluR (mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, mGluR8), particularly mGluR8, inhibits vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in vitro which translates into reduced triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations and gastroesophageal reflux in vivo. However, the expression and function of group III mGluR in central gastrointestinal vagal reflex pathways is not known. Here we assessed the expression of group III mGluR in identified gastric vagal afferents in the nodose ganglion (NG) and in the dorsal medulla. We also determined the central action of the mGluR8a agonist S-3,4-DCPG (DCPG) on nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons with gastric mechanosensory input in vivo. Labelling for mGluR4 and mGluR8 was abundant in gastric vagal afferents in the NG, at their termination site in the NTS (subnucleus gelatinosus) and in gastric vagal motorneurons, while labelling for mGluR6 and mGluR7 was weaker in these regions. DCPG (0.1 nmol or 0.001-10 nmol i.c.v.) inhibited or markedly attenuated responses of 8/10 NTS neurons excited by isobaric gastric distension with no effect on blood pressure or respiration; 2 NTS neurons were unaffected. The effects of DCPG were significantly reversed by the group III mGluR antagonist MAP4 (10 nmol, i.c.v.). In contrast, 4/4 NTS neurons inhibited by gastric distension were unaffected by DCPG. We conclude that group III mGluR are expressed in peripheral and central vagal pathways, and that mGluR8 within the NTS selectively reduce excitatory transmission along gastric vagal pathways.

  2. Decrease of 5hmC in gastric cancers is associated with TET1 silencing due to with DNA methylation and bivalent histone marks at TET1 CpG island 3'-shore.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kim, Hee-Jin; Seo, Eun-Hye; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Lim, Byungho; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Yong Sung

    2015-11-10

    Recent evidence has shown that the level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) in chromosomal DNA is aberrantly decreased in a variety of cancers, but whether this decrease is a cause or a consequence of tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we show that, in gastric cancers, the 5 hmC decrease correlates with a decrease in ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) expression, which is strongly associated with metastasis and poor survival in patients with gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, TET1-targeted siRNA induced a decrease in 5 hmC, whereas TET1 overexpression induced an increase in 5 hmC and reduced cell proliferation, thus correlating decreased 5 hmC with gastric carcinogenesis. We also report the epigenetic signatures responsible for regulating TET1 transcription. Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Sequencing and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing identified unique CpG methylation signatures at the CpG island 3'-shore region located 1.3 kb from the transcription start site of TET1 in gastric tumor cells but not in normal mucosa. The luciferase activity of constructs with a methylated 3'-shore sequence was greatly decreased compared with that of an unmethylated sequence in transformed gastric cancer cells. In gastric cancer cells, dense CpG methylation in the 3'-shore was strongly associated with TET1 silencing and bivalent histone marks. Thus, a decrease in 5 hmC may be a cause of gastric tumorigenesis owing to a decrease in TET1 expression through DNA methylation coupled with bivalent marks in the 3'-shore of TET1.

  3. Acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in an adult treated laparoscopically after endoscopic reduction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Omata, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Katsuyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Takahata, Risa; Miyasaka, Nobuo; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yamagishi, Yoji; Fukumura, Makiko; Kitagawa, Daiki; Konno, Mitsuhiko; Okusa, Yasushi; Murayama, Michinori

    2016-12-01

    A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series showed the greater curvature to be elevated and the gastric fundus to be lower than normal. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was diagnosed. GI endoscopy showed a distortion of the gastric anatomy with difficulty intubating the pylorus. Various endoscopic maneuvers were required to reposition the stomach, and the symptoms showed immediate and complete solution. GI fluoroscopy was performed 3 days later. Initially, most of the contrast medium accumulated in the fundus, which was drawn prominently downward, and then began flowing into the duodenum with anteflexion. Elective laparoscopic surgery was performed 1 month later. The stomach was in its normal position, but the fundus was folded posteroinferiorly. The spleen attached to the fundus was normal in size but extremely mobile. We diagnosed a wandering spleen based on the operative findings. Gastropexy was performed for the treatment of gastric volvulus and wandering spleen. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 24 months. This report describes a rare adult case of acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen. Because delay in treatment can result in lethal complications, it is critical to provide a prompt and correct diagnosis and surgical intervention. We advocate laparoscopic surgery after endoscopic reduction because

  4. Antinociceptive action against colonic distension by brain orexin in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-02-19

    Increasing evidence has suggested that brain orexins are implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions. With regard to gastrointestinal functions, orexin-A acts centrally to regulate gastrointestinal functions such as gastric and pancreatic secretion, and gastrointestinal motility. Visceral sensation is also known as one of key gastrointestinal functions which are controlled by the central nervous system. Little is, however, known about a role of central orexin in visceral sensation. This study was therefore performed to clarify whether brain orexin may be involved in the process of visceral sensation. Visceral sensation was evaluated by colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternally administered orexin-A dose-dependently increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR. In contrast, neither intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A nor intracisternal orexin-B altered the threshold volume. While intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, by itself failed to change the threshold volume, SB334867 injected centrally completely blocked the morphine-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that orexin-A specifically acts centrally in the brain to enhance antinociceptive response to colonic distension. We would furthermore suggest that endogenous orexin-A indeed mediates the antinociceptive effect of morphine on visceral sensation through the orexin 1 receptors. All these evidence might indicate that brain orexin plays a role in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome because visceral hypersensitivity of the gut is considered to play a vital role in the diseases.

  5. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  6. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Julia L.; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A.

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described. PMID:24975870

  7. Management Strategies for Abdominal Bloating and Distension

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Anna; Burgell, Rebecca; Barrett, Jacqueline S.

    2014-01-01

    Bloating and distension are among the most common gastrointestinal complaints reported by patients with functional gut disorders and by the general population. These 2 complaints are also among the most prevalent of the severe symptoms reported by patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Nonetheless, only a limited number of published studies have specifically addressed bloating; it is infrequently studied as a primary endpoint, and what little systematic information exists has often been garnered from the assessment of secondary endpoints or the dissection of composite endpoints. This lack of data, and our consequent limited understanding of the pathophysiology of bloating, had hampered the quest for effective and targeted therapies until recently. Advances in the knowledge of underlying mechanisms, particularly with regard to the roles of diet, poorly absorbed fermentable carbohydrates, dysbiosis of the gut bacteria, alterations in visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal viscerosomatic reflexes, have enabled the development of improved treatment options. The most significant recent advance has been a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which significantly reduces patients’ symptoms and improves quality of life. Given the prevalence of bloating and its perceived severity, it is clear that further studies regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of this problem are needed. PMID:27551250

  8. Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori vacA increase markedly gastric mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in gastritis patients.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Sanei, Mohammad Hosein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Taghikhani, Afshin; Salimzadeh, Loghman; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main cause of gastric inflammation. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) suppress the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells and mediate immunologic tolerance. TGF-β1 was shown to be secreted in a subset of Treg cells known as 'Th3 cells'. These cells have not been sufficiently studied in context to H. pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric mucosa. In this study we therefore, aimed to investigate the expression of TGF-β1 in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, to examine the relationship between it and histopathologic findings and to compare it with virulence factors. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori-negative patients with gastritis. Mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time PCR. Presence of vacA, cagA, iceA, babA2 and oipA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. TGF-β1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori-uninfected patients. There was association between virulence factors and TGF-β1 mRNA expression. TGF-β1 mRNA expression in mucosa was significantly higher in patients with vacA s1 and s1m1. TGF-β1 may play an important role in the inflammatory response and promote the chronic and persistent inflammatory changes in the gastric. This may ultimately influence the outcome of H. pylori-associated diseases that arise within the context of gastritis and vacA may suffice to induce expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bloating and Abdominal Distension: Old Misconceptions and Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Malagelada, Juan R; Accarino, Anna; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Bloating, as a symptom and abdominal distension, as a sign, are both common functional-type complaints and challenging to manage effectively. Individual patients may weight differently the impact of bloating and distension on their well-being. Complaints may range from chronic highly distressing pain to simply annoying and unfashionable protrusion of the abdomen. To avoid mishaps, organic bloating, and distension should always be considered first and appropriated assessed. Functional bloating and distension often present in association with other manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome or functional dyspepsia and in that context patients tend to regard them as most troublesome. A mechanism-based management bloating and distension should be ideal but elucidating key operational mechanisms in individual patients is not always feasible. Some clues may be gathered through a detailed dietary history, by assessing bowel movement frequency and stool consistency and special imaging technique to measure abdominal shape during episodes of distension. In severe, protracted cases it may be appropriate to refer the patient to a specialized center where motility, visceral sensitivity, and abdominal muscle activity in response to intraluminal stimuli may be measured. Therapeutic resources focussed upon presumed or demonstrated pathogenetic mechanism include dietary modification, microbiome modulation, promoting gas evacuation, attenuating visceral perception, and controlling abdominal wall muscle activity via biofeedback.

  10. Esophagogastric junction distensibility assessed using the functional lumen imaging probe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joan W; Rubenstein, Joel H

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess reference values in the literature for esophageal distensibility and cross-sectional area in healthy and diseased subjects measured by the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP). METHODS Systematic search and review of articles in Medline and Embase pertaining to the use of FLIP in the esophagus was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Cross-sectional area and distensibility at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) were abstracted for normal subjects, achalasia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients, stratified by balloon length and volume of inflation. RESULTS Six achalasia studies (n = 154), 3 GERD (n = 52), and 5 studies including healthy controls (n = 98) were included in the systematic review. Normative data varied widely amongst studies of healthy volunteers. In contrast, studies in achalasia patients uniformly demonstrated low point estimates in distensibility ≤ 1.6 mm2/mmHg prior to treatment that increased to ≥ 3.4 mm2/mmHg following treatment at 40mL bag volume. In GERD patients, distensibility fell to the range of untreated achalasia (≤ 2.85 mm2/mmHg) following fundoplication. CONCLUSION FLIP may be a useful tool in assessment of treatment efficacy in achalasia. The drastic drop in EGJ distensibility after fundoplication suggests that FLIP measurements need to be interpreted in the context of esophageal body motility and highlights the importance of pre-operative screening for dysmotility. Future studies using standardized FLIP protocol and balloon size are needed. PMID:28275309

  11. Gastric Duplication Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome. PMID:22953249

  12. Esophageal distensibility measurement: impact on clinical management and procedure length.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, N K; Agnihotri, A; Lynch, K L; Hoo-Fatt, D; Onyimba, F; McKnight, M; Okeke, F C; Garcia, P; Dhalla, S; Stein, E; Pasricha, P J; Clarke, J O

    2017-08-01

    Luminal distensibility measurement has demonstrated relevance to various disease processes, though its effects on clinical decision-making have been less well understood. This study aims to characterize the clinical impact of impedance planimetry measurement as well as the learning curve associated with its use in the esophagus. A single provider performed distensibility measurement in conjunction with upper endoscopy for a variety of clinical indications with the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) over a period of 21 months. Procedural data were prospectively collected and, along with medical records, retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-three procedures (70 patients) underwent esophageal distensibility measurement over the timeline of this study. The most common procedural indications were known or suspected achalasia (32.9%), dysphagia with connective tissue disease (13.7%), eosinophilic esophagitis (12.3%), and dysphagia with prior fundoplication (9.6%). FLIP results independently led to a change in management in 29 (39.7%) cases and supported a change in management in an additional 15 (20.5%) cases. The most common change in management was a new or amended therapeutic procedure (79.5%). Procedural time added by distensibility measurement was greater among earlier cases than among later cases. The median time added overall was 5 minutes and 46 seconds. Procedural time added varied significantly by procedural indication, but changes in management did not. Distensibility measurement added meaningful diagnostic information that impacted therapeutic decision-making in the majority of cases in which it was performed. Procedural time added by this modality is typically modest and decreases with experience. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. HOXB7 overexpression promotes cell proliferation and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients by inducing expression of both AKT and MARKs

    PubMed Central

    He, Xujun; Liu, Zhengchuang; Xia, Yingjie; Xu, Ji; Lv, Guocai; Wang, Lu; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Liping; Mou, Yiping; Jiang, Xiaoting; Ma, Jie; Zhao, Zhongkuo; Ni, Haibin; Xu, Wenjuan; Ru, Guoqing; Huang, Dongsheng; Tao, Houquan

    2017-01-01

    Increased expression of HOXB7 has been reported to correlate with the progression in many cancers. However, the specific mechanism by which it promotes the evolution of gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of HOXB7 in GC by assessing HOXB7 expression in patient tissue and its correlation to clinical characteristics. We found that GC tissues showed increased expression of HOXB7 and that the HOXB7 expression was significantly associated with Lauren classification, invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis and poor prognosis, and could serve as an independent prognostic factor. To further investigate the role of HOXB7 in GC, we generated stable GC cell lines and both over-expressed and knocked down HOXB7 expression. Over-expression of HOXB7 in GC cell lines enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion ability, whereas the opposite trends were observed upon reduction of HOXB7 expression by knockdown. These findings were further supported by our in vivo studies which show that HOXB7 expression can affect the GC cells' subcutaneous growth and lung metastases. A Phospho-MAPK Array Kit was used to explore the possible mechanism of HOXB7-induced cell proliferation and invasion. We found that the AKT signaling pathway and the two members of the MAPK pathway, were involved in those promoting effects. In conclusion, our results showed that increased expression of HOXB7 might play an important role in promoting GC proliferation, migration and invasion by inducing both AKT and MAPK pathways, thus resulting in progression of, and poor prognosis in GC patients. PMID:27901487

  14. Equivalent weight loss with marked metabolic benefit observed in a matched cohort with and without type 2 diabetes 12 months following gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Yip, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie; Giegerich, Victoria; Schauer, Philip R; Kashyap, Sangeeta R

    2012-11-01

    Bariatric surgery results in dramatic weight loss and improves metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, previous studies have noted that morbidly obese patients with T2DM experience less weight loss benefits than non-diabetic patients following bariatric surgery. We sought to determine longitudinal effects of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) on percent excess body mass index (BMI) loss (%EBMIL) and clinical metabolic syndrome parameters in patients with T2DM compared with appropriately matched cohort without T2DM. Retrospective cohort analysis of T2DM patients (n = 126) to non-T2DM patients (n = 126) matched on age (M = 48.1 ± 9.5), sex (81 % female), race (81 % Caucasian), and pre-surgical BMI (M = 49.3 ± 9.5). Lipids, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, co-morbidities of obesity, medications for co-morbidities, and T2DM medications were collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months post-surgery. %EBMIL was collected at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-surgery. One-way analyses of variance with effect sizes estimates were conducted to compare the two groups. As expected, T2DM subjects had significantly greater pre-surgical HbA1c, blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid parameters at baseline vs. non-T2DM (all p values of<0.05). At 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after LRYRB, both groups had similar reduction in %EBMIL (p > 0.10). At 6 months, there was a significant reduction in HbA1c, blood glucose, and lipid in the T2DM cohort compared with pre-surgical levels (p < 0.0001). At 12 months, these values were not different to that of the non-T2DM subjects (p > 0.10). When matched on appropriate factors associated with weight loss outcomes, severely obese patients with T2DM have similar post-LRYGB weight loss outcomes in the first 12 months following surgery compared with non-T2DM patients. Furthermore, T2DM surgical patients achieved significant improvement in metabolic syndrome components.

  15. Evaluating peripheral arterial volume distensibility by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Xu, Guan; Wei, Xinbin; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Stiffness of arteries, especially small arteries, is an important marker for many diseases and a good parameter to evaluate the risks of cardiovascular problems. In this research, we proposed a new method for measurement of local arterial distensibility by using photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) technology. Taking advantages from its excellent sensitivity and high spatial resolution, PAM can evaluate the morphology and volume change of a small artery accurately without involving any contrast agent. When working in the linear elastic range of a vessel, measuring the initial and the distended diameters of the vessel before and after pressure change facilitates quantitative assessment of vessel distensibility. The preliminary experiment on well-controlled gel phantoms demonstrates the feasibility of this technology.

  16. Does Helicobacter pylori infection increase gastric sensitivity in functional dyspepsia?

    PubMed Central

    Mearin, F; de Ribot, X; Balboa, A; Salas, A; Varas, M J; Cucala, M; Bartolomé, R; Armengol, J R; Malagelada, J R

    1995-01-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia is debated. It is known that a substantial fraction of dyspeptic patients manifest a low discomfort threshold to gastric distension. This study investigated the symptomatic pattern in 27 H pylori positive and 23 H pylori negative patients with chronic functional dyspepsia, and potential relations between infection and gastric hyperalgesia. Specific symptoms (pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating/fullness, early satiety) were scored from 0 to 3 for severity and frequency (global symptom scores: 0-15). The mechanical and perceptive responses to gastric accommodation were evaluated with an electronic barostat that produced graded isobaric distensions from 0 to 20 mm Hg in 2 mm Hg steps up to 600 ml. Gastric compliance (volume/pressure relation) and perception (rating scale: 0-10) were quantified. Standard gastrointestinal manometry and recorded phasic pressure activity at eight separate sites during fasting and postprandially were also assessed. H pylori positive and H pylori negative patients manifested similar severity and frequency of specific symptoms and global symptom scores (mean (SEM)) (severity: 9.5 (2.0) v 9.0 (2.1); frequency: 10.8 (2.0) v 9.7 (2.2)). No differences were seen either in gastric compliance (53 (4) ml/mm Hg v 43 (3) ml/mm Hg) or in gastric perception of distension (slope: 0.50 (0.05) v 0.53 (0.06)). Postprandial antral motility was significantly decreased in H pylori positive patients (two hours motility index: 10.4 (0.6) v 12.6 (0.5); p < 0.05). It is concluded that H pylori infected patients with functional dyspepsia present no distinctive symptoms by comparison with H pylori negative counterparts and H pylori infection is associated with diminished postprandial antral motility but it does not increase perception of gastric distension. PMID:7672680

  17. Sudden onset abdominal pain and distension: an imaging sparkler.

    PubMed

    Klair, Jagpal Singh; Girotra, M; Medarametla, S; Shah, H R

    2014-11-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged patient presenting with acute onset abdominal pain and distension who had signs of bowel obstruction on physical exam. He was afebrile, hemodynamically stable with no peritoneal signs. Abdominal radiograph and CT scan were pathognomic for sigmoid volvulus. Through this case report we want to discuss the presentation, diagnosis, management options for sigmoid volvulus and importance of features suggestive of ischemic bowel that necessitates different management options.

  18. Airway distensibility and volume recruitment with lung inflation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Simonetta; Dellacà, Raffaele; Govoni, Leonardo; Torchio, Roberto; Aliverti, Andrea; Pompilio, Pasquale; Corda, Luciano; Tantucci, Claudio; Gulotta, Carlo; Brusasco, Vito; Pellegrino, Riccardo

    2010-10-01

    The effects of full lung inflation on respiratory conductance (Grs) and reactance (Xrs) were measured in 15 subjects with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Airway distensibility was estimated from the ratio of the difference of Grs between functional residual capacity and total lung capacity to the relevant changes in lung volume (ΔGrs/ΔVl) or transpulmonary pressure (ΔGrs/ΔPtp). Similar analysis was applied to Xrs to estimate lung volume recruitment (ΔXrs/ΔVl or ΔXrs/ΔPtp). The extent of emphysema in COPD subjects was estimated from the percentage of low attenuation area (LAA) at high-resolution computed tomography. At baseline, ΔGrs/ΔVl and ΔXrs/ΔVl were significantly less in COPD than control subjects, indicating less distensibility and volume recruitment in the former. In COPD, ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔPtp were uncorrelated with LAA but correlated with 1-s forced expiratory volume and with each other. After albuterol, both ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔGrs/ΔVl became significantly and negatively correlated with LAA, while ΔXrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔVl decreased significantly independently of LAA. Moreover, ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔPtp with lung inflation were no longer correlated with each other, suggesting that airway distensibility and volume recruitment were affected differently by airway smooth muscle tone. Assuming that Grs mainly reflects airway caliber and Xrs the number of ventilated lung units, we conclude that airway smooth muscle contributes to airway stiffness and ventilation inhomogeneities in COPD subjects with prevailing bronchitis but only to the latter in those with more emphysema. We suggest that changes of airway distensibility and volume recruitment with a bronchodilator may be useful for disease phenotyping.

  19. Acute effect of DDD versus VVI pacing on arterial distensibility.

    PubMed

    Altun, Armagan; Erdogan, Okan; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a new technique and frequently used today to determine the elastic distensibility of great arteries. Increased arterial stiffness and PWV have been proposed as possible mechanisms in the initiation and/or progression and/or complications of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the acute effect of two frequently used pacing modes (DDD vs. VVI) on arterial distensibility using PWV. Seventeen patients (age, 56 +/- 14 years) implanted with DDD pacemakers were included in the study. All patients were pacemaker dependent and continuously paced at the programmed rate. PWV was measured first in DDD mode, and then the mode was switched to VVI, and PWV was measured again at the same programmed heart rate as in the DDD mode. Although systolic blood pressure significantly decreased from 129 +/- 18 to 119 +/- 16 mm Hg (p = 0.001) after switching the mode from DDD to VVI, diastolic blood pressure (81 +/- 12 vs. 80 +/- 13 mm Hg; p = 0.38) did not change. In addition, PWV significantly increased from 11 +/- 2.46 m/s in DDD mode to 11.29 +/- 2.43 m/s (p = 0.01) after having been programmed to VVI mode. Our results suggest that VVI pacing increases PWV, and therefore decreases arterial distensibility, and thus may contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  1. Distension-evoked motility analysis in human esophagus.

    PubMed

    Liao, D; Villadsen, G E; Gregersen, H

    2013-05-01

    The major function of the esophagus is to transport food from the mouth to the stomach by peristaltic muscle action. However, only few techniques exist for detailed evaluation of motor activity of the esophagus in vivo. The aim of this study is to use distension combined with manometry and impedance planimetry [pressure-cross-sectional area (P-CSA) recordings] to assess esophageal peristaltic motor function in terms of the mechanical energy output, and to examine the change in the motor activity of the esophagus in response to butylscopolamine, an anticholinergic drug known to impair the smooth muscle contraction in the gastrointestinal tract. The probe with CSA measurements was positioned 7 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter in 16 healthy volunteers before and during butylscopolamine administration. Distension-evoked esophageal peristalsis was analyzed using P-CSA data during distension up to pressures of 5 kPa. The P-CSA, work output (area of the tension-CSA curves), and propulsive tension were analyzed. The wave-like peristalsis resulted in P-CSA loops consisting of relaxation and contraction phases. The work increased with the distension pressure (from 1311 ± 198 to 16 330 ± 1845 μJ before butylscopolamine vs from 2615 ± 756 to 11 404 ± 1335 μJ during butylscopolamine administration), and propulsive tension increased from 18.7 ± 1.9 to 88.5 ± 5.5 N m(-1) before the drug and from 23.1 ± 3.9 to 79.5 ± 3.3 N m(-1) during butylscopolamine administration). Significantly, lower values were found during butylscopolamine administration compared with the distension before using the drug (P < 0.01). Esophageal muscle properties during peristalsis can be assessed in vivo in terms of mechanical energy output parameters. Butylscopolamine impaired muscle contraction which could be detected as altered contraction parameters. The analysis can be further used as an adjunct tool of the combined manometry and impedance planimetry recordings to derive advanced

  2. Role of nitric oxide- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing neurones in human gastric fundus strip relaxations

    PubMed Central

    Tonini, M; De Giorgio, R; De Ponti, F; Sternini, C; Spelta, V; Dionigi, P; Barbara, G; Stanghellini, V; Corinaldesi, R

    2000-01-01

    The morphological pattern and motor correlates of nitric oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation in the human isolated gastric fundus was explored. By using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH)-diaphorase and specific rabbit polyclonal NO-synthase (NOS) and VIP antisera, NOS- and VIP-containing varicose nerve fibres were identified throughout the muscle layer or wrapping ganglion cell bodies of the myenteric plexus. NOS-immunoreactive (IR) neural cell bodies were more abundant than those positive for VIP-IR. The majority of myenteric neurones containing VIP coexpressed NADPH-diaphorase. Electrical stimulation of fundus strips caused frequency-dependent NANC relaxations. NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG: 300 μM) enhanced the basal tone, abolished relaxations to 0.3–3 Hz (5 s) and those to 1 Hz (5 min), markedly reduced (∼50%) those elicited by 10–50 Hz, and unmasked or potentiated excitatory cholinergic responses at frequencies ⩾1 Hz. L-NOARG-resistant relaxations were virtually abolished by VIP (100 nM) desensitization at all frequencies. Relaxations to graded low mechanical distension (⩽1 g) were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX: 1 μM) and L-NOARG (300 μM), while those to higher distensions (2 g) were slightly inhibited by both agents to the same extent (∼25%). In the human gastric fundus, NOS- and VIP immunoreactivities are colocalized in the majority of myenteric neurones. NO and VIP mediate electrically evoked relaxations: low frequency stimulation, irrespective of the duration, caused NO release only, whereas shortlasting stimulation at high frequencies induced NO and VIP release. Relaxations to graded mechanical distension were mostly due to passive viscoelastic properties, with a slight NO-mediated neurogenic component at 2 g distension. The difference between NO and VIP release suggests that in human fundus accommodation is initiated by NO. PMID:10694197

  3. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in Two Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Akalonu, Amaka; Yasrebi, Mona; Rios, Zarela Molle

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: Female, 11 • Male, 15 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous gastric perforation Symptoms: Abdominal pain • distention • vomiting • leukocytosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Both patients had surgery Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare etiology Background: Spontaneous gastric perforation is a rare clinical disorder. The majority of the available data have been reported in the neonatal age group. There are a few cases of spontaneous gastric perforation in preschool children. To our knowledge, there is no published information on spontaneous gastric perforation in older children and adolescents. Case Report: We describe the presentation and clinical course of two adolescent children who presented with spontaneous gastric perforation. Both children presented with acute onset abdominal pain, which progressively worsened. In both cases, the patient were taken urgently to the operating room after imaging studies had shown pneumoperitoneum. In both cases, surgery revealed gastric perforation with no obvious etiology, specifically no ulcer, inflammation, or other pathology. Conclusions: These two cases highlight the importance of including spontaneous gastric perforation, not just the typical duodenal/gastric ulcer, in the differential of a patient with severe abdominal pain and distension, who has imaging showing pneumoperitoneum. PMID:27686129

  4. Decreased venous distensibility and reduced renin responsiveness in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, M A; Hinderliter, A L; Egan, B M; Julius, S

    1986-06-01

    Abnormalities of renin release and of venous distensibility have been described in essential hypertension. We have postulated that decreased venous distensibility could contribute to the blunted renin response to upright posture in hypertension. Stiffer veins might prevent venous pooling in the lower extremities, which in turn might affect the stretch on cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors, thereby influencing the reflex release of renin. We investigated this hypothesis in the present study of 47 patients with mild hypertension and 26 (male) healthy volunteers of similar age and race. To induce isolated changes in the stretch of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors, systemic hemodynamics were measured before and after thigh cuff inflation at 60 mm Hg for 30 minutes. Cardiac output was determined by dye dilution. Before the intervention, variable thigh cuff pressures were used to measure venous pressure volume with mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge plethysmography. Venous distensibility was diminished in hypertension, as evidenced by a shift in the calf venous volume/pressure curve toward the pressure axis. During the 30-minute experiment, the hypertensive subjects had less blood pooling in their legs in response to thigh cuff inflation, as compared with the control subjects. The hemodynamic and renin responses reflected this diminished effect of thigh cuff inflation on venous return. The smaller increase of renin in the hypertensive group was associated with a smaller fall in the stroke index and right atrial pressure; the reflex rise in the heart rate was also decreased. By pooling blood in the lower extremities, thigh cuff inflation simulates upright posture. It is customary to classify the renin status of hypertensive patients according to the renin response to upright posture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Pathologic aerophagia: a rare cause of chronic abdominal distension

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Cestari, Ana Beatriz C.S.S.; da Silva, Orli Carvalho; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Firme, Livia Honorato

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adolescent with pathologic aerophagia, a rare condition caused by excessive and inappropriate swallowing of air and to review its treatment and differential diagnoses. Case description: An 11-year-old mentally impaired blind girl presenting serious behavior problems and severe developmental delay with abdominal distension from the last 8 months. Her past history included a Nissen fundoplication. Abdominal CT and abdominal radiographs showed diffuse gas distension of the small bowel and colon. Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. The distention was minimal at the moment the child awoke and maximal at evening, and persisted after control of constipation. Audible repetitive and frequent movements of air swallowing were observed. The diagnosis of pathologic aerophagia associated to obsessive-compulsive disorder and developmental delay was made, but pharmacological treatment was unsuccessful. The patient was submitted to an endoscopic gastrostomy, permanently opened and elevated relative to the stomach. The distention was resolved, while maintaining oral nutrition. Comments: Pathologic aerophagia is a rare self-limiting condition in normal children exposed to high levels of stress and may be a persisting problem in children with psychiatric or neurologic disease. In this last group, the disease may cause serious complications. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments are ill-defined. Severe cases may demand surgical strategies, mainly decompressive gastrostomy. PMID:26100594

  6. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... like during puberty), that person may get fine lines on the body called stretch marks. Stretch marks happen when the skin is pulled by rapid growth or stretching. Although the skin is usually fairly elastic, when it's overstretched, the normal production of collagen (the major protein that makes up ...

  7. Using computed tomography scans to develop an ex-vivo gastric model.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jerome A; O'Sullivan, Gerard; Pandit, Abhay S

    2007-03-07

    The objective of this research was to use abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans to non-invasively quantify anthropometrical data of the human stomach and to concomitantly create an anatomically correct and distensible ex-vivo gastric model. Thirty-three abdominal CT scans of human subjects were obtained and were imported into reconstruction software to generate 3D models of the stomachs. Anthropometrical data such as gastric wall thickness, gastric surface area and gastric volume were subsequently quantified. A representative 3D computer model was exported into a selective laser sintering (SLS) rapid prototyping machine to create an anatomically correct solid gastric model. Subsequently, a replica wax template of the SLS model was created. A negative mould was offset around the wax template such that the offset distance was equivalent to that of the gastric wall thickness. A silicone with similar mechanical properties to the human stomach was poured into the offset. The lost wax manufacturing technique was employed to create a hollow distensible stomach model. 3D computer gastric models were generated from the CT scans. A hollow distensible silicone ex-vivo gastric model with similar compliance to that of the human stomach was created. The anthropometrical data indicated that there is no significant relationship between BMI and gastric surface area or gastric volume. There were inter- and intra-group differences between groups with respect to gastric wall thickness. This study demonstrates that abdominal CT scans can be used to both non-invasively determine gastric anthropometrical data as well as create realistic ex-vivo stomach models.

  8. Effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying and intragastric meal distribution.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Friedman, N; Shirazi, P; Ringelstein, J G; Keshavarzian, A

    1997-01-01

    Carbonated water has long been advocated to relieve dyspeptic symptoms, suggesting that it may alter gastric motility via gastric distension. This study aimed to determine the effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying of a radiolabeled mixed meal in eight healthy volunteers. Meal emptying and its distribution within the stomach were assessed with carbonated and still water in a crossover study. Emptying of both solid and liquid, including the duration of the lag phase, was identical for both drinks. However, the proximal stomach contained a greater proportion of solids (74 +/- 7% vs 56 +/- 8%, P < 0.05) and liquids (43 +/- 5% vs 27 +/- 4%, P < 0.05) with carbonated water as opposed to still water. Retention of the meal within the proximal stomach ended with the lag phase and was likely related to proximal distension. In conclusion, carbonated water did not alter overall gastric emptying but profoundly modified intragastric distribution of the meal.

  9. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  10. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  11. Computational device design: measuring esophageal distensibility using EndoFLIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shashank; Kou, Wenjun; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Pandolfino, John E.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2016-11-01

    Characterizing the strength of sphincters in the human body is valuable from a diagnostic and surgical standpoint. We develop a numerical model for the EndoFLIP device (Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe) that is crucial to the biomechanical study of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES). The simulations demonstrate how the device operates in vivo. From this model, we suggest additional use cases for the device that can give insight into the state of the esophageal wall. Currently, the device measures a single steady quantity (distensibility) that is calculated from pressure and area. Our analysis shows that by capturing and analyzing spatio-temporal pressure variations during peristalsis, the effectiveness of the contractions and health of the surrounding tissue can be quantified. Furthermore, there is an opportunity to validate tissue models by comparing dilation results with clinical data from the device. This work is supported by the Cabell Fellowship at Northwestern Unviersity.

  12. Magnetic sensor for arterial distension and blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ruhhammer, Johannes; Herbstritt, Tamara; Ruh, Dominic; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Seifert, Andreas; Woias, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A novel sensor for measuring arterial distension, pulse and pressure waveform is developed and evaluated. The system consists of a magnetic sensor which is applied and fixed to arterial vessels without any blood vessel constriction, hence avoiding stenosis. The measurement principle could be validated by in vitro experiments on silicone tubes, and by in vivo experiments in an animal model, thereby indicating the non-linear viscoelastic characteristics of real blood vessels. The sensor is capable to provide absolute measurements of the dynamically varying arterial diameter. By calibrating the sensor, a long-term monitoring system for continuously measuring blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters could be developed based on the method described. This will improve diagnostics for high risk patients and enable a better, specific treatment.

  13. Retention of lung distension information in pump cell spike trains.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Vitaliy; Rogers, Robert F

    2007-07-01

    Respiratory control requires feedback signals from the viscera, including mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors. We previously showed that typical pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) spike trains provide the central nervous system with approximately 31% of the theoretical maximum information regarding the amplitude of lung distension. However, it is unknown whether the spatiotemporal convergence of many PSR inputs onto second-order neurons (e.g., pump cells) results in more, or less, information about the stimulus carried by second-order cell spike trains. We recorded pump cell activity in adult, anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated rabbits during continuous manipulation of ventilator rate and volume to test the hypothesis that less information is carried by spike trains of individual pump cells than PSRs. Using previously developed analytic methods, we quantified the information carried by the pump cell spike trains and compared it with the same values derived from PSR data. Our results provide evidence that rejects our hypothesis: pump cells as a group did not carry significantly less information about the lung distension stimulus than PSRs, although that trend was implied by the data. By comparing the response variances with the theoretical minimum, we discovered that the trend toward information loss depends on response strength, with higher mean responses associated with larger response variances in pump cells than in PSRs. Thus spatiotemporal integration may result in information loss within certain analytic/stimulus parameters, but this is counterbalanced by the consistency of pump cell responses during brief integration times and/or low stimulus amplitudes, resulting in retention of total information.

  14. Carotid Artery Distensibility and Hormone Therapy and Menopause: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study (LAAS)

    PubMed Central

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B. Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, the relation to hormone therapy use is controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use during different menopause stages. Methods 161 women between 42–61 years of age without cardiovascular disease had carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate the distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Over 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning, defined as change from premenopausal-to-perimenopausal, premenopausal-to-postmenopausal, perimenopausal-to-perimenopausal, or perimenopausal-to-postmenopausal. Results Distensibility declined over time in all menopause stages (p<0.0001). Compared to postmenopausal women, premenopausal and transitioning/no hormone therapy women had over twice the decline in distensibility index (p=0.06 and p=0.016, respectively), whereas transitioning/hormone therapy did not differ in distensibility decline (p=0.28). In a multivariate model, change in systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001) and change in pulse pressure (p=0.004) were independent predictors of distensibility index change and served as effect modulators. In the adjusted model, women in the premenopausal and transitioning/no hormone therapy groups had a significantly faster distensibility index decline (p=0.002 and 0.001, respectively) than postmenopausal women, while the transitioning/hormone therapy group did not (p=0.21) Conclusions These findings confirm that menopause transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during menopause transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine if hormone therapy use beyond menopause

  15. Carotid artery distensibility and hormone therapy and menopause: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study.

    PubMed

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies have suggested that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, its relationship with hormone therapy use remains controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use at different menopause stages. One hundred sixty-one women (aged between 42 and 61 y) without cardiovascular disease underwent carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Across 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning (defined as change from premenopausal to perimenopausal, from premenopausal to postmenopausal, from perimenopausal to perimenopausal, or from perimenopausal to postmenopausal). Distensibility declined across time at all menopause stages (P < 0.0001). Compared with postmenopausal women, premenopausal and transitioning/no hormone therapy women had more than twice the decline in distensibility index (P = 0.06 and P = 0.016, respectively), whereas transitioning/hormone therapy women did not differ in distensibility decline (P = 0.28). In a multivariate model, change in systolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001) and change in pulse pressure (P = 0.004) were independent predictors of distensibility index change and served as effect modulators. In an adjusted model, women in the premenopausal and transitioning/no hormone therapy groups had a significantly faster decline in distensibility index (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively) compared with postmenopausal women, whereas the transitioning/hormone therapy group did not (P = 0.21). These findings confirm that the menopausal transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during the menopausal transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm

  16. Familial Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Duda, Dan G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Mullen, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Implications for Practice: Although the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are sporadic with many of those related to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, approximately 10% of the cases show familial aggregation, and a specific hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. This review describes the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Ultimately, a better understanding of the biology of these conditions should allow early identification and intervention as part of a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. PMID:26424758

  17. Uneasy marks.

    PubMed

    Rublee, D

    1998-05-05

    Germany earned a reputation as a European nirvana, marked by a booming job market and generous health and social programs. Now, thanks to the high costs of rebuilding the former East Germany and other factors, national health programs face cutbacks. But just about everyone has a stake in guarding the status quo.

  18. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  19. Gastric microbiome and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Kyle M; Morrow, Casey D; Smith, Phillip D

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of noncultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely affects gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer.

  20. Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Kyle M.; Morrow, Casey D.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of non-cultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely impacts gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer. PMID:24855010

  1. Management of left ventricular distension during peripheral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, B; Pae, W E

    2012-07-01

    The application of peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the management of inotrope-refractory cardiogenic shock has proven controversial because of concerns about sub-optimal drainage of the left heart, resulting in left ventricular distension and pulmonary oedema. In this article, we will discuss the pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of left ventricular distension following institution of peripheral extracorporeal life support. We will also review the clinical strategies used to circumvent left ventricular distension and pulmonary oedema in these patients.

  2. Evaluation of regional aortic distensibility using color kinesis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshimasa; Kotoh, Keiju; Yamashita, Akio; Furuta, Hidetoshi; Shimazu, Chikasi; Misaki, Takurou

    2003-01-01

    Regional aortic stiffness cannot be evaluated by conventional methods. Regional aortic wall velocity during systole in the descending aorta was evaluated by using transesophageal echocardiography with color kinesis. The authors defined regional aortic distensibility (RAD) by considering pulse pressure, with RAD (microm/s/mm Hg) = (regional aortic wall velocity)/(pulse pressure). RAD was evaluated in 38 patients who had coronary artery disease (CAD) and 10 who did not. RAD decreased depending on aging (partial regression coefficient was -5.39 x 10(-1), p<0.001), and RAD was lower in the CAD group than that in the no-CAD group (p<0.05). In the CAD group, 19 patients had a single fixed plaque (4 calcified and 15 noncalcified plaques). RAD in the calcified plaque was lower than that in the noncalcified plaque (p<0.01), and RAD was lower in the noncalcified plaque than that in the no-plaque region (p<0.05). In noncalcified plaques, the relation between RAD and maximum intimal thickness had a significant correlation, r=0.7, p<0.001. The residual of RAD from the regression line was significantly larger in the calcified plaque than that in the noncalcified plaque (p<0.001). In conclusion, RAD can express increasing regional aortic wall stiffness brought about by arteriosclerosis quantitatively. Color kinesis provides information on characteristic difference between calcified and noncalcified plaque.

  3. [Endoscopic sclerosis with pneumatic distension for pyriform sinus fistula treatment].

    PubMed

    Sanchís Blanco, G; Gutiérrez San Román, C; Bordallo Vázquez, M; Cortés Sáez, J; Barrios Fontoba, J E; Lluna González, J; Esteban Ricós, M J; Vila Carbó, J J

    2014-01-01

    Classic treatment for pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) has been surgical excision; however, less invasive therapeutic alternatives whose aim is the obliteration of the sinus have been described subsequently. The authors present a technical modification of endoscopic sclerosis with diathermy (ESD): continuous infusion of air flow through the flexible endoscope was used to distend the pyriform sinus and facilitate recognition of the fistula opening. The sinus obliteration was performed with a wire guide and diathermy. In the last 15 years, 9 patients were diagnosed of suffering from PSF in our institution. Initial treatment was antibiotics therapy associated in some cases to cervical abscess drainage. Fistulectomy was performed in 4 cases and ESD in 4. The ninth patient received both treatments, performing electrocauterization after a surgical recurrence. Three of the patients who underwent surgery relapsed; none treated by ESD did, or had any complications. In our experience, endoscopic sclerosis with pneumatic distension is a simple technique, reproducible, not invasive and very effective; hence we consider it might become a first line therapy for PSF.

  4. Spontaneous intradural disc herniation with focal distension of the subarachnoid space in a dog.

    PubMed

    Barnoon, Itai; Chai, Orit; Srugo, Itai; Peeri, Dana; Konstantin, Lilach; Brenner, Ori; Shamir, Merav H

    2012-11-01

    Myelo-computed tomography of a paraparetic 14-year-old dog revealed subarachnoid distension with an intradural filling defect above the T13-L1 disc space. T12-L1 hemilaminectomy followed by durotomy allowed removal of a large piece of degenerated disc material that compressed the spinal parenchyma. Full return to function was achieved 10 days post-surgery. The distension was likely secondary to the intradural herniation, and is a rare and distinct finding.

  5. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  6. Dose optimization of mannitol solution for small bowel distension in MRI.

    PubMed

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2004-10-01

    To optimize the dose of a hydro solution containing 2.5% mannitol and 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel MRI in terms of bowel distension and patient acceptance. A total of 10 healthy volunteers ingested a hydro solution containing 2.5% mannitol and 0.2% LBG. Four different volumes (1500, 1200, 1000, and 800 ml) were assessed on four different examination days. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal two-dimensional TrueFISP images by measuring the diameter of eight bowel loops throughout the jejunum and the ileum. In addition, volunteer acceptance was evaluated for every single examination by using a questionnaire. Optimal distension was obtained with either, 1000, 1200, or 1500 ml, with no statistically significant differences in distension between these groups. Administration of 800 ml led to significantly less distension of the small bowel. Significantly less side effects were noted using either 800 or 1000 ml compared to using larger volumes. We recommend a dose of 1000 ml mannitol/LBG solution as an oral contrast agent for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility changes with applied external pressure: significant difference between arteries with different compliance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengyan; Chen, Aiqing; Si, Xiaoshui; Ji, Mingxia; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the different effect of external cuff pressure on arterial volume distensibility between peripheral arteries with different compliance. 30 healthy subjects were studied with the arm at two positions (0° and 45° from the horizontal level) to introduce different compliance of arteries. The electrocardiogram and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously under five external cuff pressures (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg) on the whole arm to obtain arterial volume distensibility. With the applied external cuff pressures of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg, the overall changes in arterial volume distensibility referred to those without external pressure were 0.010, 0.029, 0.054 and 0.108% per mmHg for the arm at the horizontal level, and 0.026, 0.071, 0.170 and 0.389% per mmHg for the arm at 45° from the horizontal level, confirming the non-linearity between arterial volume distensibility and external pressure. More interestingly, the significant differences in arterial volume distensibility changes were observed between the two arm positions, which were 0.016, 0.043, 0.116 and 0.281% per mmHg (all P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrated that arterial volume distensibility of peripheral arm arteries increased with external pressure, with a greater effect for more compliant arteries. PMID:28094277

  8. Using High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Estimate Distensibility of the Middle Cerebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther A.H.; Verbree, Jasper; Wise, Richard G.; van Osch, Matthias J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although cerebral arterial stiffness may be an important marker for cerebrovascular health, there is not yet a measurement that accurately reflects the distensibility of major intracranial arteries. Herein, we aim to noninvasively measure distension of the human middle cerebral artery (MCA). Methods Ten healthy volunteers (age: 30.3 ± 10.8 years) underwent ultra-high-field (7-tesla) MRI scanning. Time-of-flight angiography and phase-contrast flow imaging were used to locate the M1 segment of the MCA and to determine the occurrence of systole and diastole. High-resolution cross-sectional cardiac triggered T2-weighted images of the M1 segment of the MCA were acquired in systole and diastole. Results The average distension of the MCA area from diastole to systole was 2.58% (range: 0.08%-6.48%). There was no significant correlation between MCA distension and the pulsatility index, calculated from the phase-contrast flow velocity profiles. Conclusion These results lead to the first noninvasive image-based estimation of distensibility of the MCA (approx. 5.8 × 10-4 mm Hg-1) and demonstrate that ultra-high-field MRI could be a promising tool for investigating distensibility of intracranial arteries in relation to cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:27449212

  9. Laparoscopic gastropexy for the treatment of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen.

    PubMed

    François-Fiquet, Caroline; Belouadah, Mohamed; Chauvet, Philippe; Lefebvre, Francis; Lefort, Gérard; Poli-Merol, Marie Laurence

    2009-04-01

    A 2.5-year-old boy was referred to the emergency room for a sudden onset of diffuse and increasing abdominal pain with lethargy, abdominal distension, and vomiting, all in the past 24 hours. A plain abdominal X-ray showed gastric distension. Two liters of gastric contents were evacuated by suction. The abdominal sonogram showed an unusual position of the spleen in the left-lower quadrant, with no splenic ischemia. The diagnosis of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen was then evoked. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a nonischemic spleen, absence of normal supporting ligaments for the spleen, and gastric distension with flaccid gastric walls. The spleen was then easily moved in the left-under quadrant. A parietal peritoneal posterolateral incision was made, opposite the large gastric curve, up to the diaphragm (7 cm). This delimitated a sharp demarcation zone between the two edges of the incised peritoneum. The stomach was fixed to the peritoneal incision, covering and anchoring the spleen in a good position. Recovery was uneventful, and an abdominal sonogram performed 4 years after the surgery shows a viable spleen in its correct location. The rarity of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen and its fast clinical improvement with medical treatment often delays the diagnosis and the surgical treatment. Laparoscopy in this case has a dual relevance: diagnosis and therapeutic management (splenectomy or gastropexy). Laparoscopic gastropexy for the treatment of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen is an easy procedure and combines the advantages of all the surgical techniques previously described.

  10. Enhanced responses of the anterior cingulate cortex neurones to colonic distension in viscerally hypersensitive rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyin; Owyang, Chung; Li, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is critically involved in processing the affective component of pain sensation. Visceral hypersensitivity is a characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome. Electrophysiological activity of the ACC with regard to visceral sensitization has not been characterized. Single ACC neuronal activities in response to colorectal distension (CRD) were recorded in control, sham-treated rats and viscerally hypersensitive (EA) rats (induced by chicken egg albumin injection, i.p). The ACC neurones of controls failed to respond to 10 or 30 mmHg CRD; only 22% were activated by 50 mmHg CRD. Among the latter, 16.4% exhibited an excitatory response to CRD and were labelled ‘CRD-excited’ neurones. In contrast, CRD (10, 30 and 50 mmHg) markedly increased ACC neuronal responses of EA rats (10%, 28% and 47%, respectively). CRD produced greater pressure-dependent increases in ACC spike firing rates in EA rats compared with controls. Splanchnicectomy combined with pelvic nerve section abolished ACC responses to CRD in EA rats. Spontaneous activity in CRD-excited ACC neurones was significantly higher in EA rats than in controls. CRD-excited ACC neurones in control and EA rats (7 of 16 (42%) and 8 of 20 (40%), respectively) were activated by transcutaneous electrical and thermal stimuli. However, ACC neuronal activity evoked by noxious cutaneous stimuli did not change significantly in EA rats. This study identifies CRD-responsive neurones in the ACC and establishes for the first time that persistence of a heightened visceral afferent nociceptive input to the ACC induces ACC sensitization, characterized by increased spontaneous activity of CRD-excited neurones, decreased CRD pressure threshold, and increased response magnitude. Enhanced ACC nociceptive transmission in viscerally hypersensitive rats is restricted to visceral afferent input. PMID:16239277

  11. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Continuous intrapulmonary distension with perfluorocarbon accelerates neonatal (but not adult) lung growth.

    PubMed

    Nobuhara, K K; Fauza, D O; DiFiore, J W; Hines, M H; Fackler, J C; Slavin, R; Hirschl, R; Wilson, J M

    1998-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that experimental fetal tracheal ligation reverses the structural and physiological effects of pulmonary hypoplasia associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The purpose of this study was to determine if lung growth could be similarly accelerated postnatally by continuous liquid-based intrapulmonary distension. Ten neonatal lambs were divided into two experimental groups. Five neonatal animals underwent a right thoracotomy with isolation of the anterior superior segment of the right upper lobe. A pressure monitoring catheter was introduced and perfluorocarbon (PFC) was instilled into the segment. Animals were subjected to a 21-day distention period with continuous maintenance of 7 to 10 mm Hg intrabronchial pressure. Five other neonatal animals used as age- and weight-matched controls were killed immediately after distension with PFC to 7 to 10 mm Hg. To evaluate the effect of age on postnatal growth, identical procedures were performed on seven mature sheep. Four adult animals underwent a 21-day distension with PFC, and three animals were killed immediately after PFC distension. Neonatal animals who underwent distension showed a significant acceleration of lung growth based on right upper lobe volume to body weight ratio (P = .0019), total alveolar number (P = .003), and total alveolar surface area (P = .006), when compared with controls. Alveolar growth was attributed to an increased alveolar number rather than increased alveolar size based on a normal histological appearance, normal airspace fraction (P = NS), and normal alveolar numerical density (P = NS). In contrast, no significant differences in lung growth or maturation indices were present in adult animals. From this preliminary data we conclude: (1) Liquid-based airway distension does accelerate postnatal lung growth, (2) lung architecture remains normal during this period of accelerated growth, (3) adult sheep do not respond to liquid-based airway distension with

  13. Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Molina-Infante, Javier; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori in 1983, the stomach was no longer considered a sterile environment. In 2015, evolving data shows that H. pylori is not the only inhabitant of the gastric mucosa. Using culture-independent methods of analysis, a non-H. pylori microbial community has been recently observed in the human stomach, the so-called human gastric microbiota, along with H. pylori itself. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that although H. pylori may be the most relevant, it is not the only local bacterial culprit leading to gastric diseases. Further studies are warranted to offer a better picture of the role and functions of gastric microbiota and to identify the best therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota for the management of gastric diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pulmonary Vascular Distensibility Predicts Pulmonary Hypertension Severity, Exercise Capacity, and Survival in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Dhakal, Bishnu P.; Eisman, Aaron S.; Pappagianopoulos, Paul P.; Dress, Ashley; Weiner, Rory B.; Baggish, Aaron L.; Semigran, Marc J.; Lewis, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular (PV) distensibility, defined as the percent increase in pulmonary vessel diameter per mmHg increase in pressure, permits the pulmonary arteries to increase in size to accommodate increased blood flow. We hypothesized that PV distensibility is abnormally low in patients with heart failure (HF) and serves as an important determinant of right ventricular performance and exercise capacity. Methods and Results Patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, n=48), HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, n=55), pulmonary hypertension without left-heart failure (PAH, n=18), and control subjects (n=30) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and first-pass radionuclide ventriculography. PV distensibility was derived from 1257 matched measurements (mean±SD, 8±2 per subject) of PA pressure, PA wedge pressure and cardiac output. PV distensibility was lowest in the PAH group (0.40±0.24% per mmHg) and intermediate in the HFpEF and HFrEF groups (0.92±0.39 and 0.84±0.33% per mmHg, respectively) compared to the control group (1.39±0.32% per mmHg, P<0.0001 for all three). PV distensibility was associated with change in RVEF (ρ=0.39, P<0.0001) with exercise and was an independent predictor of peak VO2. PV distensibility also predicted cardiovascular mortality independent of peak VO2 in HF patients (n=103, Cox HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10–0.93, P=0.036). In a subset of HFrEF patients (n=26), 12 weeks of treatment with the pulmonary vasodilator sildenafil or placebo led to a 24.6% increase in PV distensibility (P=0.015) in the sildenafil group only. Conclusions PV distensibility is reduced in patients with HF and PAH and is closely related to RV systolic function during exercise, maximal exercise capacity, and survival. Furthermore, PV distensibility is modifiable with selective pulmonary vasodilator therapy and may represent an important target for therapy in selected HF patients with pulmonary

  15. Temporary feeding inhibition caused by artificial abdominal distension in the bedbug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Wintle, Kenneth; Reinhardt, Klaus

    2008-07-01

    Abdominal distension of haematophagous insects caused by ingested blood has been recognised as an important contributor to triggering meal termination, feeding inhibition and further susceptibility to host signals. Factors that regulate feeding behaviour of the common bedbug, Cimex lectularius, are poorly understood. By injecting air directly into the body cavity of virgin female C. lectularius we artificially induced abdominal distension without providing chemical cues of the blood meal and without applying gut distension. Body length increased to 138% after feeding and 147% after inflation. The early decline in body volume is similar in blood-fed bugs but after between 8 and 24h became faster in inflated than fed bedbugs. Artificially inflated individuals remained feeding-inhibited at lower abdominal distensions than those that terminate blood ingestion (to ca. 135% initial body length, or up to about 5h). Feeding activity resumed earlier in inflated than blood-fed bugs. These results suggest that artificial abdominal distension has an inhibitory effect on feeding but is not the sole mechanism in preventing further feeding.

  16. The clinical effect of hydraulic distension plus manual therapy on patients with frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kwang-Il; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to develop a clinical protocol for the treatment of frozen shoulder using applied hydraulic distension plus manual therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 60 patients in group A were treated with hydraulic distension plus manual therapy, and 61 in group B were treated with hydraulic distension alone. Treatment effects were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (pain and satisfaction), and active range of motion of the shoulder (forward flexion, internal and external rotation) before treatments and at 2, 6, 12, 24 weeks, and 1 year after the last injections. [Results] Patients in group A achieved faster pain relief and better satisfaction than patients in group B during the 6 weeks after treatment. However, no significant difference in VAS was observed between the groups at final follow-up. AROM of the shoulder was improved at final follow-up in both groups. [Conclusion] Hydraulic distension plus manual therapy provided faster pain relief, a higher level of patient satisfaction, and an earlier improvement in AROM of the shoulder than hydraulic distension alone in patients with frozen shoulder.

  17. Oesophageal heat transfer properties indication of segmental blood flow changes during distension.

    PubMed

    Liao, D; Frøkjaer, J B; Brock, C; Andersen, S D; Drewes, A M; Gregersen, H

    2008-04-01

    The pain perception to distension of the oesophagus can be explained by activation of receptors responding to mechanical deformation or to distension-induced ischaemia. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for detection of changes in segmental blood flow during distension based on measurement of heat transfer. A bag was distended in the distal oesophagus of six healthy subjects followed by cooling or heating of the bag fluid to 5 or 60 degrees C. After equilibrium, the temperature was allowed to change back to body temperature. The temperature was recorded together with intraluminal ultrasound imaging, allowing assessment of the heat transfer properties at different bag volumes. The heat transfer constants were higher after heating the bag than after cooling the bag (Tukey, P < 0.05). The heat transfer constants after heating the bag decreased as function of bag volumes whereas the heat transfer during cooling was not affected by the bag volume (F = 0.9, P = 0.4). The findings indicate that segmental blood flow can be assessed indirectly by calculating the heat transfer properties. Distension induced a drop in regional blood flow. Hence, ischaemia may contribute to distension-induced pain. Furthermore, heat increased segmental blood flow and cold decreased segmental blood flow. This method may in the future be used to explore the mechanisms behind oesophageal pain.

  18. The role of left atrial receptors in the diuretic response to left atrial distension

    PubMed Central

    Ledsome, J. R.; Linden, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. The diuretic response to distension of the whole left atrium caused by obstruction of the mitral orifice has been compared with the effects of distension (by means of small balloons) of the left pulmonary vein/left atrial junctions. 2. Distension of the pulmonary vein/atrial junctions caused an increase in heart rate and a diuresis similar to but smaller than that caused by mitral obstruction. 3. Section of both ansae subclaviae prevented the increase in heart rate produced by distension of the pulmonary vein/left atrial junctions but had little effect on the diuretic response either to pulmonary vein distension or to mitral obstruction. 4. A diuretic response to mitral obstruction could be demonstrated after all nerves from the lungs had been cut but not after the vagus nerves had been cut at levels likely to interrupt the majority of afferent fibres from left atrial receptors. 5. The results support the view that stimulation of left atrial receptors is a major factor in the production of a diuretic response to mitral obstruction. PMID:5698283

  19. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension.

    PubMed

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance.

  20. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Espejo Romero, H

    1991-01-01

    Gastric cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, is variable in incidence on the world. In this paper, there is a review of the epidemiology and the etiopathogenic factors of the disease: genetics, hereditary, immunologic and environmental and, also, of the so called precursor diseases: atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, gastric adenoma, gastrectomized patients, pernicious anemia and Menetrier's disease. There is an explanation about the changes of the gastric epithelium related both with the intestinal and diffuse type of adenocarcinoma; the anatomo-pathological notion of macroscopic advanced-Borrmann and early cancer-Japanese classification and the clinical and diagnostic procedures are included with the fundamentals of therapeutic management.

  1. Gastric volvulus following diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ram, Duvuru; Rajkumar, Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a commonly used, safe diagnostic modality for evaluation of epigastric pain and rarely its major complications include perforation, haemorrhage, dysrhythmias and death. Gastric volvulus has been reported to complicate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy but its occurrence after diagnostic EGD has not yet been reported in literature. The successful management relies on prompt diagnosis and gastric untwisting, decompression and gastropexy or gastrectomy in full thickness necrosis of the stomach wall. A 38-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and EGD showed pangastritis. Immediately after EGD she developed increased severity of pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Emergency laparotomy carried out for peritoneal signs revealed eventration of left hemidiaphragm with the stomach twisted anticlockwise in the longitudinal axis. After gastric decompression and untwisting of volvulus, anterior gastropexy and gastrostomy was carried out. Hence, we report this rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy and review the existing literature on the management. PMID:24515235

  2. Regional aortic distensibility and its relationship with age and aortic stenosis: a computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dennis T L; Narayan, Om; Leong, Darryl P; Bertaso, Angela G; Maia, Murilo G; Ko, Brian S H; Baillie, Timothy; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Worthley, Matthew I; Meredith, Ian T; Cameron, James D

    2015-06-01

    Aortic distensibility (AD) decreases with age and increased aortic stiffness is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The association of severe aortic stenosis (AS) with AD in different aortic regions has not been evaluated. Elderly subjects with severe AS and a cohort of patients without AS of similar age were studied. Proximal aortic cross-sectional-area changes during the cardiac cycle were determined using retrospective-ECG-gating on 128-detector row computed-tomography. Using oscillometric-brachial-blood-pressure measurements, the AD at the ascending-aorta (AA), proximal-descending-aorta (PDA) and distal-descending-aorta (DDA) was determined. Linear mixed effects modelling was used to determine the association of age and aortic stenosis on regional AD. 102 patients were evaluated: 36 AS patients (70-85 years), 24 AS patients (>85 years) and 42 patients without AS (9 patients <50 years, 20 patients between 51-70 years and 13 patients 70-85 years). When comparing patients 70-85 years, AA distensibility was significantly lower in those with AS compared to those without AS (0.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 1.1, P = 0.03) while there was no difference in the PDA (1.0 ± 1.1 vs. 1.0 ± 1.2, P = 0.26) and DDA (1.1 ± 1.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.8, P = 0.97). In patients without AS, AD decreased with age in all aortic regions (P < 0.001). The AA in patients <50 years were the most distensible compared to other aortic regions. There is regional variation in aortic distensibility with aging. Patients with aortic stenosis demonstrated regional differences in aortic distensibility with lower distensibility demonstrated in the proximal ascending aorta compared to an age-matched cohort.

  3. Association of parity with carotid diameter and distensibility: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Dhananjay; Bennett, Wendy L; Sibley, Christopher T; Polak, Joseph F; Herrington, David M; Ouyang, Pamela

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with hemodynamic changes and vascular remodeling. It is not known whether parity is associated with later adverse vascular properties such as larger arterial diameter, wall thickness, and lower distensibility. We used baseline data from 3283 women free of cardiovascular disease aged 45 to 84 years enrolled in the population-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants self-reported parity status. Ultrasound-derived carotid artery lumen diameters and brachial artery blood pressures were measured at peak-systole and end-diastole. Common carotid intima-media thickness was also measured. Regression models to determine the association of carotid distensibility coefficient, lumen diameter, and carotid intima-media thickness with parity were adjusted for age, race, height, weight, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, blood pressure medication use, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The prevalence of nulliparity was 18%. In adjusted models, carotid distensibility coefficient was 0.09×10−5 Pa−1 lower (P=0.009) in parous versus nulliparous women. Among parous women, there was a nonlinear association with the greatest carotid distensibility coefficient seen in women with 2 live births and significantly lower distensibility seen in primiparas (P=0.04) or with higher parity >2 (P=0.005). No such pattern of association with parity was found for lumen diameter or carotid intima-media thickness. Parity is associated with lower carotid artery distensibility, suggesting arterial remodeling that lasts beyond childbirth. These long-term effects on the vasculature may explain the association of parity with cardiovascular events later in life.

  4. Esophageal distensibility as a measure of disease severity in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Nicodème, Frédéric; Hirano, Ikuo; Chen, Joan; Robinson, Kenika; Lin, Zhiyue; Xiao, Yinglian; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kwasny, Mary J; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether measurements of esophageal distensibility, made by high-resolution impedance planimetry, correlated with important clinical outcomes in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Seventy patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (50 men; age, 18-68 y) underwent endoscopy with esophageal biopsy collection and high-resolution impedance planimetry using the functional lumen-imaging probe. The patients were followed up prospectively for an average of 9.2 months (range, 3-14 mo), and the risk of food impaction, requirement for dilation, and symptom severity during the follow-up period was determined from medical records. Esophageal distensibility metrics and the severity of mucosal eosinophilia at baseline were compared between patients presenting with and without food impaction and those requiring or not requiring esophageal dilation. Logistic regression and stratification assessments were used to assess the predictive value of esophageal distensibility metrics in assessing risk of food impaction, the need for dilation, and continued symptoms. Patients with prior food impactions had significantly lower distensibility plateau (DP) values than those with solid food dysphagia alone. In addition, patients sustaining food impaction and requiring esophageal dilation during the follow-up period had significantly lower DP values than those who did not. The severity of mucosal eosinophilia did not correlate with risk for food impaction, the requirement for dilation during follow-up evaluation, or DP values. Reduced esophageal distensibility predicts risk for food impaction and the requirement for esophageal dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. The severity of mucosal eosinophilia was not predictive of these outcomes and had a poor correlation with esophageal distensibility. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric lavage; Stomach pumping; Nasogastric tube suction; Bowel obstruction - suction ... A tube is inserted through your nose or mouth, down the food pipe (esophagus), and into the stomach. Your ...

  6. Gastric sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Rohewal, Upinder; Tangorra, Matthew; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old Jamaican male presented with acute-onset, right-sided facial droop and slurred speech. He had an episode of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed on the second day of admission and endoscopy with biopsy of antral ulcer revealed gastric sarcoidosis. This case demonstrates the rare entity of gastric sarcoidosis presenting acutely with an upper GI bleed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16775918

  7. Renal clearance studies of effect of left atrial distension in the dog.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the water diuresis of left atrial distension in 16 dogs on the basis of clearance studies employing hydration, chronic and acute salt loading, deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess, and distal tubular nephron blockade with diuretics. The diuresis was found in hydrated and salt-loaded dogs and was independent of DOCA and presumed renin depletion. It was not found in five dogs after distal tubular blockade. No significant reproducible saluresis was ever documented. The water diuresis was always stopped by exogenous vasopressin (seven dogs). Antidiuretic hormone inhibition with distal tubular nephron water permeability changes appears to be the sole mechanism of the diuresis of left atrial distension in the dog.

  8. Spontaneous intradural disc herniation with focal distension of the subarachnoid space in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Barnoon, Itai; Chai, Orit; Srugo, Itai; Peeri, Dana; Konstantin, Lilach; Brenner, Ori; Shamir, Merav H.

    2012-01-01

    Myelo-computed tomography of a paraparetic 14-year-old dog revealed subarachnoid distension with an intradural filling defect above the T13–L1 disc space. T12–L1 hemilaminectomy followed by durotomy allowed removal of a large piece of degenerated disc material that compressed the spinal parenchyma. Full return to function was achieved 10 days post-surgery. The distension was likely secondary to the intradural herniation, and is a rare and distinct finding. PMID:23633713

  9. Renal clearance studies of effect of left atrial distension in the dog.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the water diuresis of left atrial distension in 16 dogs on the basis of clearance studies employing hydration, chronic and acute salt loading, deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess, and distal tubular nephron blockade with diuretics. The diuresis was found in hydrated and salt-loaded dogs and was independent of DOCA and presumed renin depletion. It was not found in five dogs after distal tubular blockade. No significant reproducible saluresis was ever documented. The water diuresis was always stopped by exogenous vasopressin (seven dogs). Antidiuretic hormone inhibition with distal tubular nephron water permeability changes appears to be the sole mechanism of the diuresis of left atrial distension in the dog.

  10. Gastric vagal afferent modulation by leptin is influenced by food intake status

    PubMed Central

    Kentish, Stephen J; O'Donnell, Tracey A; Isaacs, Nicole J; Young, Richard L; Li, Hui; Harrington, Andrea M; Brierley, Stuart M; Wittert, Gary A; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Page, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Energy intake is strongly influenced by vagal afferent signals from the stomach, and is also modulated by leptin. Leptin may be secreted from gastric epithelial cells, so we aimed to determine the direct effect of leptin on gastric vagal afferents under different feeding conditions. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed standard laboratory diet, high-fat diet or were food restricted. The expression of leptin receptor (Lep-R) and its signal transduction molecules in vagal afferents was determined by retrograde tracing and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the relationship between leptin-immunopositive cells and gastric vagal afferent endings determined by anterograde tracing and leptin immunohistochemistry. An in vitro preparation was used to determine the functional effects of leptin on gastric vagal afferents and the second messenger pathways involved. Leptin potentiated vagal mucosal afferent responses to tactile stimuli, and epithelial cells expressing leptin were found close to vagal mucosal endings. After fasting or diet-induced obesity, potentiation of mucosal afferents by leptin was lost and Lep-R expression reduced in the cell bodies of gastric mucosal afferents. These effects in diet-induced obese mice were accompanied by a reduction in anatomical vagal innervation of the gastric mucosa. In striking contrast, after fasting or diet-induced obesity, leptin actually inhibited responses to distension in tension receptors. The inhibitory effect on gastric tension receptors was mediated through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent activation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. The excitatory effect of leptin on gastric mucosal vagal afferents was mediated by phospholipase C-dependent activation of canonical transient receptor potential channels. These data suggest the effect of leptin on gastric vagal afferent excitability is dynamic and related to the feeding state. Paradoxically, in obesity, leptin may reduce responses to

  11. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach's extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition.

  12. The monoamine reuptake inhibitor milnacipran does not affect nociception to acute visceral distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Wook; Eisenach, James C; Rao, Srinias G; Tong, Chuanyao

    2004-05-01

    The role of antidepressants in the treatment of visceral pain has not been extensively examined. Milnacipran, an antidepressant that inhibits monoamine reuptake, is widely used in the treatment of depression and fibromyalgia. In this study, we sought to determine the activity of milnacipran against acute visceral nociception. Female virgin rats were studied 7 days after bilateral ovariectomy. For uterine cervical distension (UCD), two metal rods were inserted into the cervical osses under general anesthesia for manual distension. Colorectal distension (CRD) was performed by insertion of a balloon catheter into the descending colon and rectum, followed by manual inflation. Two electrodes were inserted into the rectus abdominus muscle for recording UCD- or CRD-induced reflex contraction, which was quantified by electromyography (EMG). A dose response for milnacipran, administered intrathecally or i.v., was obtained for UCD and CRD stimulation. Milnacipran failed to inhibit the UCD-induced EMG response, whether administered i.v. or intrathecally. Similarly, i.v. milnacipran, administered either acutely or chronically, failed to inhibit the CRD-induced EMG response. CRD and UCD are well established animal models for the study of acute visceral pain. Milnacipran, although it provides some unique advantages compared with other antidepressants, is unlikely to produce analgesia after acute administration in the setting of acute visceral pain. Neither intrathecal nor i.v. milnacipran, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor, inhibits an acute visceral pain response induced by colorectal or uterine cervical distension.

  13. A novel method to assess gastric accommodation and peristaltic motility in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Pieter; Nielsen, Maria Astin; Hirsch, Ika; Svensson, David; Gillberg, Per-Göran; Hultin, Leif

    2008-01-01

    To simultaneously study gastric accommodation and peristaltic motility in the whole stomach of conscious rats by measuring intragastric pressure (IGP) during test-meal infusion. After an overnight fast, a test-meal infusion system and a catheter to measure IGP were connected to a chronically implanted gastric fistula. IGP was measured during infusion of an X-ray-opaque, non-nutritious viscous test meal (0.25-2 ml min(-1)); gastric motility and emptying were assessed by X-ray fluoroscopy. Peristaltic motility-induced IGP waves were quantified as a motility index (wave amplitude divided by wavelength). Experiments were performed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and in the high-anxiety Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Moreover, the effects of 30 mg kg(-1) NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 1 mg kg(-1) atropine or 20 mg kg(-1) molsidomine were tested in SD rats. Compared with SD rats, IGP increased significantly faster during stomach distension in WKY rats, indicating impaired accommodation in the latter strain. Motility indices did not differ between the two strains. L-NAME significantly increased IGP during stomach distension, indicating decreased gastric accommodation. However, no change in motility indices was observed with L-NAME. Treatment with atropine significantly increased IGP and decreased motility indices, indicating decreased gastric accommodation and motility. Molsidomine significantly decreased IGP during stomach distension but did not affect motility. The results correspond to X-ray observations, and confirm literature data. We conclude that IGP measurement during test-meal infusion represents an efficient and novel method to compare gastric accommodation and peristaltic motility in the whole stomach of conscious rats.

  14. Continuous intrapulmonary distension with perfluorocarbon accelerates lung growth in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Fauza, D O; Hirschl, R B; Wilson, J M

    2001-08-01

    The authors have shown previously in an animal model that neonatal lung growth can be accelerated by continuous intrapulmonary distension with a perfluorocarbon (PFC). The authors now describe a preliminary clinical experience with this therapeutic concept in a select group of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Neonates with very high predicted mortality rate caused by CDH had their lungs completely filled with PFC while on extracorporeal life support (ECLS); (n = 5). A continuous positive pressure of 7 to 10 cm H2O was maintained via the endotracheal tube for 3 to 7 days (mean, 5.6 +/- 0.87 days). The areas of both lungs (L) then were measured daily from digitized chest x-rays and divided by the area of the corresponding L1 vertebrae (V), to create an L/V index, so as to control for variable roentgenographic techniques. Immediately after removal of PFC, blood gas data were collected off ECLS. At the end of continuous pulmonary distension, all patients showed improvements in oxygenation and ventilation. The ipsilateral lungs showed significant increase of the L/V index with time (P =.003) and of L/V's daily change (P <.0001), suggesting accelerated lung growth. Overall survival rate was 40% (2 of 5). Of the 3 patients that had 7 days of distension, 2 survived. Continuous intrapulmonary distension with PFC for up to 1 week accelerated ipsilateral lung growth, improved gas exchange, and increased survival of CDH infants with profound pulmonary hypoplasia marooned on ECLS. Additional trials of PFC-based pulmonary distension in similar infants are warranted. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  15. Hydraulic distension of the knee: a novel treatment for arthrofibrosis after total knee replacement (case series).

    PubMed

    Formby, Peter M; Donohue, Michael A; Cannova, Christopher J; Caulfield, J Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common problem, which can be frustrating to both the patient and treating physician and can dramatically compromise post-operative function. Current treatment options for TKA arthrofibrosis include watchful waiting, injections, physical therapy, manipulation under anaesthesia, arthroscopic/open lysis of adhesions and revision surgery. We present a novel technique to treat acute and chronic stiffness following TKA, which we call hydraulic distension. A retrospective pre- and post-operative inpatient and outpatient record review of three patients treated with hydraulic distension for arthrofibrosis following TKA at a single institution. Three patients with a mean age of 74 years (68-78) underwent hydraulic distension of the knee at a mean of 23.4 ± 18.4 months (9 weeks to 36 months) following primary TKA. The mean pre-distension maximum flexion was 86.7 ± 10.4°, and the mean post-distension flexion was 110 ± 13.2° (23.3° increase). The patients maintained a mean 110 ± 20° flexion (23.3° increase) at a mean follow-up of 11.7 months (1 week to 29 months). There were no complications. We present a novel technique for managing arthrofibrosis following TKA that has not been previously reported. This is an effective, safe procedure, with our patients experiencing a mean 23° increased knee flexion at the most recent follow-up. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  17. [Gastric cleansing].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann Serret, Alina; Alcaraz Bravo, Judit; Carballo Alvarez, Montse; Fernández Vargas, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    Numerous cases in emergency wards are due to the ingestion of potentially toxic substances. One of the most utilized procedures under these circumstances is gastric cleansing. This procedure is a technique habitually practiced by nursing personnel but is not without its risks. Therefore, the motive of this article is to make known the indications, contraindications, related complications of gastric cleansing and its integral patient care process in order to offer quality care methods which enable their being performed in an effective and efficient manner, under the maximum security conditions with the minimum inconveniences for the patient while at the same time describing the system most commonly used by our service.

  18. [Gastric volvulus].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, J; Acosta, D; Morales, H; Vásquez, F; Mora, G; Chávez, M; Andrade, D; Joutteaux, R; Sánchez, I; García, D; Valenzuela, E

    2006-10-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition in pediatric population in which there is an abnormal rotation of one part of the stomach around itself. It's a surgical emergency. We report a six year old female admitted in the emergency due to upper abdominal distention, nausea without vomiting, physical exam revealed upper abdominal distention and abdominal tenderness, no bowel sounds. Laparotomy was performed and a gastric volvulus with occlusive vascular involvement was found. In the post operative period she required a second laparotomy due to adhesions in small bowel.

  19. [Gastric lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A

    1997-04-15

    The stomach is the most common site involved in primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originates from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue so called MALT. It comprises a group of distinctive clinicopathological entities which are important to take in account for clinical behavior. In recent years, new diagnostic tools and modern modes of treatment have improved their overall prognosis. One of the most exciting recent discoveries is the hypothesis that an infection by a bacterium. Helicobacter pylori has a decisive role in gastric lymphoma.

  20. Effects of foam or gauze on sternum wound contraction, distension and heart and lung damage during negative-pressure wound therapy of porcine sternotomy wounds.

    PubMed

    Malmsjö, Malin; Lindstedt, Sandra; Ingemansson, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The study was performed to compare the effects of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using gauze and foam on wound edge movement and the macroscopic appearance of the heart and lungs after NPWT. Sternotomy wounds were created in 6×70 kg pigs. Negative pressures of -40, -70, -120 and -160 mmHg were applied and the following were evaluated: wound contraction, distension and the macroscopic appearance of the heart and lungs after NPWT. Wound contraction was greater when using foam than gauze (3.5±0.3 cm and 1.3±0.2 cm, respectively, P<0.01). The application of traction to the lateral edges of the sternotomy resulted in greater wound distention with foam than with gauze (5.3±0.3 cm and 3.6±0.2 cm, respectively, P<0.001). After using foam, the surface of the heart was red and mottled, and lung emphysema and sometimes, lung rupture were observed. After using gauze, the organ surface had no markings. The study shows that foam allows greater wound contraction and distension than gauze. This movement of the wound edges may cause damage to the underlying organs. There is less damage to the heart and lungs when using gauze than foam.

  1. Effects of Ultrasound-guided intra-articular ketorolac injection with capsular distension.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Ki; Kim, Jongwoo; Lee, Sang Jae; Park, Yongbum; Bae, Byung; Lee, Woo

    2015-01-01

    Frozen shoulder is a painful condition with gradual onset and loss of range of motion in the glenohumeral joint. To investigate the efficacy of ultrasound(US)-guided intra-articular (IA) ketorolac injection with capsular distension compared with steroid injection alone in patients with frozen shoulder by assessing pain relief, functional improvements, and range of motion at 1,3 and 6 months after the last injections. Between January 2009 and December 2012, 121 patient were treated with US-guided IA steroid injection or IA ketorolac injection with capsular distension for frozen shoulder. Patients (n= 57) of US-guided IA steroid injection group were administered with a mixture of 0.5% lidocaine (4 ml) plus triamcinolone (40 mg/ml; 1 ml) and patients (n= 64) of US-guided IA ketorolac injection with capsular distension group were administered by using 0.5% lidocaine (19 mL) plus ketorolac (30 mg/ml; 1 mL) for capsular distension. Outcome measurement was assessed by Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), Verbal Numeric pain Scale (VNS) and passive range of motion (ROM) before injections and at 1, 3 and 6 months after the last injections. We regarded the outcomes as a success if patients obtained significant pain relief (as measured by > 50% improvement in the VNS score and 20 point improvement in the SPASI) at 1, 3 and 6 months after the last injections. SPADI, VNS and passive ROM were improved 1, 3 and 6 months after the last injections in both groups. The statistical differences were not observed in SPADI, VNS between groups (p< 0.05). Successful treatment rate were not significantly different between the groups as well as in 1, 3 and 6 month outcomes. However, greater improvement was found in a matter of range of motion in patients receiving IA ketorolac injection with capsular distension than participants receiving US-guided IA steroid injection alone. Significant differences in improvement at 3 and 6 months were observed for shoulder passive abduction and

  2. Acute Gastric Volvulus and Atrial Fibrillation with RVR: A Coincidence or Association

    PubMed Central

    Salh, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare and life-threatening condition that involves the abnormal rotation of the stomach around its axis by more than 180°. The association between acute gastric volvulus and atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response is rare with only few cases that have been reported. Our patient was an 86-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain, distension, nausea, and shortness of breath. Clinical and laboratory workup revealed acute gastric volvulus with diaphragmatic hernia. On presentation, she was also in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. She was successfully treated by laparotomy with reduction of the gastric volvulus and repair of the diaphragmatic hernia, with significant improvement. PMID:28373916

  3. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  4. Lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the viscous flow in large distensible blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Haiping; Wang, Zuowei; Lin, Zhifang; Liu, Muren

    2002-05-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the viscous flow in large distensible blood vessels is presented by introducing a boundary condition for elastic and moving boundaries. The mass conservation for the boundary condition is tested in detail. The viscous flow in elastic vessels is simulated with a pressure-radius relationship similar to that of the pulmonary blood vessels. The numerical results for steady flow agree with the analytical prediction to very high accuracy, and the simulation results for pulsatile flow are comparable with those of the aortic flows observed experimentally. The model is expected to find many applications for studying blood flows in large distensible arteries, especially in those suffering from atherosclerosis, stenosis, aneurysm, etc.

  5. Quantification of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility using parameters extracted from volumetric micro-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roger H.; Karau, Kelly L.; Molthen, Robert C.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    1999-09-01

    Stiffening, or loss of distensibility, of arterial vessel walls is among the manifestations of a number of vascular diseases including pulmonary arterial hypertension. We are attempting to quantify the mechanical properties of vessel walls of the pulmonary arterial tree using parameters derived from high-resolution volumetric x-ray CT images of rat lungs. The pulmonary arterial trees of the excised lungs are filled with a contrast agent. The lungs are imaged with arterial pressures spanning the physiological range. Vessel segment diameters are measured from the inlet to the periphery, and distensibilities calculated from diameters as a function of pressure. The method shows promise as an adjunct to other morphometric techniques such as histology and corrosion casting. It possesses the advantages of being nondestructive, characterizing the vascular structures while the lungs are imaged rapidly and in a near-physiological state, and providing the ability to associate mechanical properties with vessel location in the intact tree hierarchy.

  6. Effects of longitudinal stretch on VSM tone and distensibility of muscular conduit arteries.

    PubMed

    Zulliger, Martin A; Kwak, Naomi T M R; Tsapikouni, Theodora; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2002-12-01

    With progressing age, large arteries diminish their longitudinal stretch, which in extreme cases results in tortuosity. Increased age is also associated with loss of vessel distensibility. We measured pressure-diameter curves from muscular porcine carotid arteries ex vivo at different longitudinal stretch ratios (lambda(z) = 1.4 and 1.8) and under different vascular smooth muscle (VSM) conditions (fully relaxed, normal VSM tone, and maximally contracted). Distensibility was found to be halved by decreasing longitudinal stretch from lambda(z) = 1.8 to 1.4 at physiological pressures. This counterintuitive observation is possible because highly nonlinear elastic modulus of the artery and anisotropic properties. Furthermore, a significantly larger basal VSM contraction was observed at lambda(z) = 1.8 than 1.4, although this was clearly not related to a myogenic response during inflation. This dependence of VSM tone to longitudinal stretch may have possible implications on the functional characteristics of the arterial wall.

  7. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity ... Gloy VL, Briel M, Bhatt DL, et al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic ...

  8. Adrenergic Stimulation Mediates Visceral Hypersensitivity to Colorectal Distension following Heterotypic Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Winston, John H.; Xu, Guang-Yin; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic stress exacerbates or causes relapse of symptoms such as abdominal pain and cramping in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated whether chronic stress increases plasma norepinephrine and sensitizes colon-specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by increasing the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the colon wall. Methods Heterotypic chronic stress (HeCS) was induced in male Wistar rats and neurologic and molecular responses were analyzed. Tissues were analyzed for NGF expression. Results HeCS significantly increased the visceromoter response to colorectal distension; expression of NGF increased in colonic muscularis externa and mucosa/submucosa. Rheobase decreased, resting membrane potential was depolarized, and electrogenesis of action potentials increased in colon-specific thoracolumbar DRG neurons. Luminal administration of resiniferatoxin in distal colon, systemic administration of anti-NGF antibody, or inhibition of the NGF receptor TrkA by k252A or antisense oligonucleotides in thoracolumbar DRG blocked the chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension. Blockade of α1/α2- and β1/β2-adrenergic receptors prevented the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity and increased expression of NGF in the colon wall. HeCS did not induce any inflammatory response in the colon wall. Conclusion The peripheral stress mediator norepinephrine induces visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in response to HeCS by increasing the expression of NGF in the colon wall, which sensitizes primary afferents in the absence of an inflammatory response. PMID:19800336

  9. Duration of breast feeding and arterial distensibility in early adult life: population based study.

    PubMed

    Leeson, C P; Kattenhorn, M; Deanfield, J E; Lucas, A

    2001-03-17

    To test the hypothesis that duration of breast feeding is related to changes in vascular function relevant to the development of cardiovascular disease. Population based observational study. Cambridge. 331 adults (171 women, 160 men) aged between 20 and 28 years, born in Cambridge Maternity Hospital. Distensibility of brachial artery, type and duration of infant feeding, current lipid profile, and other cardiovascular risk factors. The longer the period of breast feeding the less distensible the artery wall in early adult life, with no sex differences (regression coefficient = -3.93 micrometer/month, 95% confidence interval -7.29 to -0.57, P=0.02). However, in those breast fed for less than four months, arterial distensibility was not significantly reduced compared with an exclusively formula fed group. The vascular changes observed were not explained by alterations in plasma cholesterol concentration in adult life. Breast feeding in infancy is related to reduced arterial function 20 years later. These data should not alter current recommendations in favour of breast feeding, which has several benefits for infant health. Further work is needed, however, to explore the optimal duration of breast feeding in relation to cardiovascular outcomes.

  10. Duration of breast feeding and arterial distensibility in early adult life: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, C P M; Kattenhorn, M; Deanfield, J E; Lucas, A

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that duration of breast feeding is related to changes in vascular function relevant to the development of cardiovascular disease. Design Population based observational study. Setting Cambridge. Participants 331 adults (171 women, 160 men) aged between 20 and 28 years, born in Cambridge Maternity Hospital. Main outcome measures Distensibility of brachial artery, type and duration of infant feeding, current lipid profile, and other cardiovascular risk factors. Results The longer the period of breast feeding the less distensible the artery wall in early adult life, with no sex differences (regression coefficient = −3.93 μm/month, 95% confidence interval −7.29 to −0.57, P=0.02). However, in those breast fed for less than four months, arterial distensibility was not significantly reduced compared with an exclusively formula fed group. The vascular changes observed were not explained by alterations in plasma cholesterol concentration in adult life. Conclusions Breast feeding in infancy is related to reduced arterial function 20 years later. These data should not alter current recommendations in favour of breast feeding, which has several benefits for infant health. Further work is needed, however, to explore the optimal duration of breast feeding in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:11250848

  11. Developing Repair Materials for Stress Urinary Incontinence to Withstand Dynamic Distension

    PubMed Central

    Hillary, Christopher J.; Roman, Sabiniano; Bullock, Anthony J.; Green, Nicola H; Chapple, Christopher R.; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Background Polypropylene mesh used as a mid-urethral sling is associated with severe clinical complications in a significant minority of patients. Current in vitro mechanical testing shows that polypropylene responds inadequately to mechanical distension and is also poor at supporting cell proliferation. Aims and Objectives Our objective therefore is to produce materials with more appropriate mechanical properties for use as a sling material but which can also support cell integration. Methods Scaffolds of two polyurethanes (PU), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) and co-polymers of the two were produced by electrospinning. Mechanical properties of materials were assessed and compared to polypropylene. The interaction of adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) with the scaffolds was also assessed. Uniaxial tensiometry of scaffolds was performed before and after seven days of cyclical distension. Cell penetration (using DAPI and a fluorescent red cell tracker dye), viability (AlamarBlue assay) and total collagen production (Sirius red assay) were measured for ADSC cultured on scaffolds. Results Polypropylene was stronger than polyurethanes and PLA. However, polypropylene mesh deformed plastically after 7 days of sustained cyclical distention, while polyurethanes maintained their elasticity. Scaffolds of PU containing PLA were weaker and stiffer than PU or polypropylene but were significantly better than PU scaffolds alone at supporting ADSC. Conclusions Therefore, prolonged mechanical distension in vitro causes polypropylene to fail. Materials with more appropriate mechanical properties for use as sling materials can be produced using PU. Combining PLA with PU greatly improves interaction of cells with this material. PMID:26981860

  12. Elasticity/distensibility of the ascending aorta: basal conditions and simulated conditions from space flights.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, N; Tufano, F; Petrassi, M; Alessandri, C; Lanzi, L; Fusco, L; Moscariello, F; De Angelis, C; Tomao, E

    2010-05-01

    The hysto-morfological composition of the ascending aorta wall gives to the vessel its characteristic elasticity/distensibility, which is deteriorated due to both physiological (age) and pathological events (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia). This contributes to reduce the wall elasticity and to occurrence of cardiovascular events. Thirty young healthy subjects (20 males, 10 females, age <30 yr), were subjected to different postural conditions with and without Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) with conventional procedures, to simulate the microgravity conditions in space flight. During this procedure the cardiovascular parameters and the aorta elasticity were assessed with ecocardiography. The observation of results and statistical comparison showed that despite different hemodynamic conditions and with significant variation of blood pressure related to posture, elasticity/distensibility did not change significantly. The elasticity/distensibility of arterial vessels is the result of two interdependent variables such as blood pressure and systolic and diastolic diameters. While blood pressure and heart rate vary physiologically in relation to posture, the compensation of the vessel diameters modifications maintains the aortic compliance invariate. Therefore, in young healthy people, despite the significant postural and the sudden pressure changes (equivalent to parietal stress) aortic compliance does not alter. This behavior might be related to the low rate of cardiovascular events that are present in healthy people aged under 30 yrs.

  13. Airway distensibility with lung inflation after allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barisione, Giovanni; Pompilio, Pasquale P; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Brusasco, Claudia; Cioè, Alex; Dellacà, Raffaele L; Lamparelli, Teresa; Garlaschi, Alessandro; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Brusasco, Vito

    2012-10-15

    The ability to reverse induced-bronchoconstriction by deep-inhalation increases after allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), despite a decreased total lung capacity (TLC). We hypothesized that this effect may be due to an increased airway distensibility with lung inflation, likely related to an increment in lung stiffness. We studied 28 subjects, 2 weeks before and 2 months after HSCT. Within-breath respiratory system conductance (G(rs)) at 5, 11 and 19 Hz was measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT) at functional residual capacity (FRC) and TLC. Changes in conductance at 5Hz (G(rs5)) were related to changes in lung volume (ΔG(rs5)/ΔV(L)) to estimate airway distensibility. G(rs) at FRC showed a slight but significant increase at all forcing frequencies by approximately 12-16%. TLC decreased after HSCT whereas the ΔG(rs5)/ΔV(L) ratio became higher after than before HSCT and was positively correlated (R2=0.87) with lung tissue density determined by quantitative CT scanning. We conclude that airway caliber and distensibility with lung inflation are increased after HSCT. This effect seems to be related to an increase in lung stiffness and must be taken into account when interpreting lung function changes after HSCT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlations between MRI findings and outcome of capsular distension in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Hee; Park, Young Sook; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeongmi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis and the therapeutic effect of capsular distension. [Subjects and Methods] We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 57 patients who underwent capsular distension therapy after a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis with clinical and MRI scans. Axillary joint capsular thickness by MRI was graded as I (≤3.6 mm), II (3.7–4.2 mm), and III (≥4.3 mm). Subcoracoid fat obliteration of the rotator interval was graded subjectively as absent, partial, and complete. [Results] Capsular thickness and fat replacement were correlated with passive range of motion (PROM) and pain score on a visual analog scale (VAS) by analysis of variance with a Bonferroni correction before treatment and by analysis of covariance with a Bonferroni correction after treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS) for patients with all grades decreased significantly after treatment and passive range of motion (PROM) for patients with all grades improved. No difference was detected between grades. [Conclusion] Although MRI is useful to evaluate adhesive capsulitis, MRI findings of shoulder did not predict the prognosis after capsular distension treatment. PMID:27821938

  15. Commentary on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    PubMed

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Kohl, Zachary F

    2017-06-01

    The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature. We analyze the data and conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) regarding the role of vascular distensibilities in determining net cardiac shunt patterns in reptiles in comparison with toads. In our view, the conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) are not supported by the data primarily because vascular distensibilities were not measured in the reptiles analyzed in their study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    To describe the successful management of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in a red panda. Clinical report. Red panda diagnosed with GDV. A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetence, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. GDV should be considered as a differential diagnosis for red pandas presenting with acute onset of unspecific signs such as collapse, inappetence, and abdominal distension. GDV in red pandas can be diagnosed and successfully treated as described in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Distensibility and Strength of the Pelvic Floor Muscles of Women in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Elito Júnior, Julio; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Alexandre, Sandra Maria; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the role of the pelvic floor muscles between nulliparous and multiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy, by analyzing the relationship between electrical activity (surface electromyography—EMG), vaginal palpation (modified Oxford scale), and perineal distensibility (Epi-no). Methods. This was an observational cross-sectional study on a sample of 60 healthy pregnant women with no cervical dilation, single fetus, gestational age between 35 and 40 weeks, and maternal age ranging from 15 to 40 years. The methods used were bidigital palpation (modified Oxford scale, graded 0–5), surface EMG (electrical activity during maximal voluntary contraction), and perineal distensibility (Epi-no device). The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to analyze the Epi-no values and the surface EMG findings. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the median values from surface EMG and Epi-no, using the modified Oxford scale scores. Results. Among the 60 patients included in this study, 30 were nulliparous and 30 multiparous. The average maternal age and gestational age were 26.06 (±5.58) and 36.56 (±1.23), respectively. It was observed that nulliparous women had both higher perineal muscle strength (2.53 ± 0.57 versus 2.06 ± 0.64; P = 0.005) and higher electrical activity (45.35 ± 12.24 μV versus 35.79 ± 11.66 μV; P = 0.003), while among the multiparous women, distensibility was higher (19.39 ± 1.92 versus 18.05 ± 2.14; P = 0.013). We observed that there was no correlation between perineal distensibility and electrical activity during maximal voluntary contraction (r = − 0.193; P = 0.140). However, we found a positive relationship between vaginal palpation and surface electromyography (P = 0.008), but none between Epi-no values (P = 0.785). Conclusion. The electrical activity and muscle strength of the pelvic floor muscles of the multiparous women were damaged, in relation to the

  18. Arterial distensibility in children and teenagers: normal evolution and the effect of childhood vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Brogan, P; Pilla, C; Dillon, M; Redington, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Polyarteritis nodosa is a necrotising vasculitis of the medium sized and small muscular arteries. The inflammatory and subsequent reparative processes may alter the arterial mechanical properties. The effect of vasculitic damage on arterial distensibility has never been explored however. Aim: To determine the normal values and the effect of childhood vasculitis on arterial distensibility in children and teenagers. Methods: Distensibility of the brachioradial arterial segment was studied using pulse wave velocity (PWV ∝1/√distensibility), in 13 children with polyarteritis nodosa at a median age of 11.8 (range 4.9–16) years. As a control group, 155 healthy schoolchildren (6–18 years, 81 boys) were studied. PWV was assessed using a photoplethysmographic technique; blood pressure was measured by an automatic sphygmomanometer (Dinamap). Data from patients were expressed as z scores adjusted for age and compared to a population mean of 0 by a single sample t test. Determinants of PWV in normal children were assessed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results: Age, height, weight, and systolic blood pressure correlated individually with the brachioradial PWV. Multivariate analysis identified age as the only independent determinant. Ten of the patients were in clinical remission, while three had evidence of disease activity at the time of study. The PWV in the patient group as a whole was significantly greater than those in healthy children (mean z score +0.99). Raised C reactive protein concentration (>2 mg/dl) in the three patients with active disease was associated with a higher PWV when compared to those in remission (z score +2.78 v +0.45). The diastolic blood pressure of the patients was higher than those of the controls (z score +1.04) while the systolic pressure was similar (z score -0.36). Conclusions: PWV in the brachioradial arterial segment increases gradually during childhood independent of body weight, height, mass

  19. Gastric hypersensitivity induced by oesophageal acid infusion in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    van den Elzen, B D J; Tytgat, G N J; Boeckxstaens, G E E

    2009-02-01

    Distal oesophageal acid exposure has been shown to increase visceral sensitivity of the proximal oesophagus via central sensitization. Here we evaluated whether acidification of the distal oesophagus also affects the sensorimotor function of the proximal stomach. A gastric barostat study combined with a 30-min acid (HCl 0.15 mol L(-1)) or saline infusion in the distal oesophagus was performed in 18 healthy volunteers. Gastric and cutaneous sensitivity was assessed before and up to 2 h after the start of infusion. Directly after acid infusion, but not after saline, the threshold for discomfort decreased (-6.4 +/- 1.7 vs 0.4 +/- 0.4 mmHg; P = 0.028) and distension-induced symptoms increased significantly compared with the baseline (122 +/- 49% vs -3 +/- 9%). Cutaneous sensitivity remained unaffected by acid infusion. In contrast, when the infused liquid was aspirated 3 cm more distally, at the level of the lower oesophageal sphincter, the effect of acid infusion on gastric sensitivity was abolished and the increase in distension-induced symptoms was reduced (61 +/- 24%). Distal oesophageal acid infusion induces visceral hypersensitivity without affecting somatic sensitivity arguing against a similar mechanism of central sensitization as observed in non-cardiac chest pain. As reduction of the acid load to the stomach prevented this effect, our findings indicate that either gastric and/or duodenal acidification is involved. It should be emphasized though that aspiration from distal oesophagus may have attenuated the effect by reducing the acid-exposed area or by reducing the contact time.

  20. Lrig1+ gastric isthmal progenitor cells restore normal gastric lineage cells during damage recovery in adult mouse stomach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunyoung; Lantz, Tyler L; Vlacich, Gregory; Keeley, Theresa M; Samuelson, Linda C; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R; Powell, Anne E

    2017-08-16

    Lrig1 is a marker of proliferative and quiescent stem cells in the skin and intestine. We examined whether Lrig1-expressing cells are long-lived gastric progenitors in gastric glands in the mouse stomach. We also investigated how the Lrig1-expressing progenitor cells contribute to the regeneration of normal gastric mucosa by lineage commitment to parietal cells after acute gastric injury in mice. We performed lineage labelling using Lrig1-CreERT2/+;R26R-YFP/+ (Lrig1/YFP) or R26R-LacZ/+ (Lrig1/LacZ) mice to examine whether the Lrig1-YFP-marked cells are gastric progenitor cells. We studied whether Lrig1-YFP-marked cells give rise to normal gastric lineage cells in damaged mucosa using Lrig1/YFP mice after treatment with DMP-777 to induce acute injury. We also studied Lrig1-CreERT2/CreERT2 (Lrig1 knockout) mice to examine whether the Lrig1 protein is required for regeneration of gastric corpus mucosa after acute injury. Lrig1-YFP-marked cells give rise to gastric lineage epithelial cells both in the gastric corpus and antrum, in contrast to published results that Lgr5 only marks progenitor cells within the gastric antrum. Lrig1-YFP-marked cells contribute to replacement of damaged gastric oxyntic glands during the recovery phase after acute oxyntic atrophy in the gastric corpus. Lrig1 null mice recovered normally from acute gastric mucosal injury indicating that Lrig1 protein is not required for lineage differentiation. Lrig1+ isthmal progenitor cells did not contribute to transdifferentiating chief cell lineages after acute oxyntic atrophy. Lrig1 marks gastric corpus epithelial progenitor cells capable of repopulating the damaged oxyntic mucosa by differentiating into normal gastric lineage cells in mouse stomach. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The Inhibitory Effects of Nesfatin-1 in Ventromedial Hypothalamus on Gastric Function and Its Regulation by Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shengli; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Zhang, Nana; Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nesfatin-1 signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) on gastric functions, as well as the regulation of these effects by nucleus accumbens (NAc) projections to VMH. Methods: The expression of c-fos in nesfatinergic VMH neurons induced by gastric distension (GD) was measured using the double fluoro-immunohistochemical staining. The firing rates of neurons were monitored with single-unit extracellular electric discharge recording. The projection of nesfatinergic neurons from NAc to VMH was observed by fluorogold retrograde tracer combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining. The effect of nesfatin-1 in VMH or electric stimulation in NAc on gastric function was studied by measuring food intake, gastric acid output, gastric motility, and gastric emptying, and the ability of the melanocortin-3/4 receptor antagonist SHU9119 or the anti-nesfatin-1 antibody to block nesfatin-1 in the VMH was assessed. Results: Expression of c-fos was observed in VMH nesfatinergic neurons following GD in rats. Further, nesfatin-1 delivery to single GD-responsive neurons changed the firing rates of these neurons in the VMH. In awake, behaving rats, intra-VMH administration of nesfatin-1 inhibited food intake, gastric acid output, gastric motility, and gastric emptying. These effects were abolished by SHU9119. Fluorogold retrograde tracing showed nesfatinergic neural projection from the NAc to the VMH. Electrical stimulation of NAc modified the firing rates of the VMH neurons and inhibited food intake and gastric functions. The pretreatment with an anti-nesfatin-1 antibody in the VMH reversed the effects of NAc electrical stimulation on the VMH neuronal firing rates and gastric function. Conclusions: Nesfatin-1 in the VMH inhibited food intake, gastric acid output, gastric motility, and gastric emptying. A nesfatinergic pathway between NAc and VMH transmitted metabolism-regulating signals. PMID:28105016

  2. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model.

  3. [Effect of Saussurea lappa on gastric functions].

    PubMed

    Chen, S F; Li, Y Q; He, F Y

    1994-07-01

    The patients with chronic superficial gastritis were selected in the study. The variation in gastric acidity output, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin concentration were observed during the Saussurea lappa decoction (SLD) perfusion into the stomach. There was no significant changes in acidity output, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin concentration after the perfusion of SLD (P > 0.05). Changes in gastric emptying and plasma motilin concentration were observed after oral administration of the SLD in 5 healthy volunteers. The time of gastric emptying was markedly shortened after oral administration of SLD (P < 0.01). A significant increase occurred in plasma motilin concentration at 30 min. after oral administration of SLD (P < 0.01). It revealed that SLD could accelerate the gastric emptying and increase the endogenous motilin release.

  4. Diagnosis and management of gastric dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Gastric dysplasia is a neoplastic lesion and a precursor of gastric cancer. The Padova, Vienna, and World Health Organization classifications were developed to overcome the discrepancies between Western and Japanese pathologic diagnoses and to provide a universally accepted classification of gastric epithelial neoplasia. At present, the natural history of gastric dysplasia is unclear. Much evidence suggests that patients with high-grade dysplasia are at high risk of progression to carcinoma or synchronous carcinoma. Therefore, endoscopic resection is required. Although patients with low-grade dysplasia have been reported to be at low risk of progression to carcinoma, due to the marked histologic discrepancies between forceps biopsy and endoscopic specimens, endoscopic resection for this lesion is recommended, particularly in the presence of other risk factors (large size; depressed gross type; surface erythema, unevenness, ulcer, or erosion; and tubulovillous or villous histology). Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with dysplasia after endoscopic resection appear to reduce the incidence of metachronous lesions. PMID:26932397

  5. Gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Jaffer A; Lee, Jeeyun; Sano, Takeshi; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Fan, Daiming; Song, Shumei

    2017-06-01

    Gastric cancers, with gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) as the most common histological type, impose a considerable global health burden. Although the screening strategies for early detection have been shown to be successful in Japan and South Korea, they are either not implemented or not feasible in most of the world, leading to late diagnosis in most patients. Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to the development of many endemic GACs, and pre-emptive eradication or early treatment of this bacterial infection might provide effective primary prevention. GACs are phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous. Localized (clinical stage I) GAC is best treated either endoscopically or with limited surgical resection, but clinical stage II or stage III tumours require multidisciplinary adjunctive approaches in addition to surgery. Although GAC is highly treatable in its early stages, advanced (clinical stage IV) GAC has a median survival of just ∼9-10 months. However, detailed molecular and immune profiling of GAC is yielding promise; early studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors suggest that GAC is amenable to immune modulation. Molecular studies have yielded a vast quantity of new information for potential exploitation. Nevertheless, advances against GACs have lagged compared with other tumours of similar incidence, and more research is necessary to overcome the obstacles to prolong survival.

  6. Differential changes in dietary habits after gastric bypass versus gastric banding operations.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Barbara; Thurnheer, Martin; Wilms, Britta; Schultes, Bernd

    2009-03-01

    Reduction of food intake is an important mechanism by which bariatric procedures reduce body weight. However, only few studies have systematically assessed what patients actually eat after different types of bariatric operations. Dietary habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 121 bariatric patients (48 gastric bypass patients, 73 gastric banding patients) during follow-up visits in our interdisciplinary obesity center as well as in 45 severely obese (body mass index (BMI)>35 kg/m2) and 45 nonobese (BMI<27 kg/m2) control subjects. As compared with nonobese control subjects, obese control subjects consumed more meat, white bread, and diet soft drinks. Gastric bypass patients showed an enhanced consumption of foods rich in protein such as poultry, fish, and eggs as well as of cooked vegetables, while the consumption of fatty sweets like chocolate, cake, biscuits, and cookies was found to be distinctly reduced in this patient group. In contrast, gastric banding patients reported on a reduced intake of pasta, white bread, and fresh fruits and, just like gastric bypass patients, also on an enhanced intake of poultry and fish. Direct comparison of dietary habits between the two bariatric patient groups revealed that gastric bypass patients consumed more frequently fresh fruits, eggs, and diet soft drinks but strikingly less chocolate than gastric banding patients. Collectively, data clearly point to distinct changes in dietary habits after bariatric operations which markedly differ between gastric bypass and gastric banding patients. Overall, it is tempting to conclude that gastric bypass operations lead to a healthier and a more balanced diet than gastric band implantations.

  7. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  8. Mastering Marking Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are smart people, so why does marking reduce them to stressed and soulless messes? Because in their hearts they know that students do not learn from it, and that drives them nuts. Researchers like Lorna Earl and Dylan Wiliam have looked closely at marking systems and have proven what teachers already know deep down: marking student work…

  9. Rapid balloon distension as a tool to study cortical processing of visceral sensations and pain.

    PubMed

    Lelic, D; Nissen, T D; Brock, C; Aziz, Q; Drewes, A M

    2015-06-01

    The processing of discomfort and pain in the central nervous system is normally studied with experimental methods, but it is mandatory that they are reliable over time to ensure that any interventions will result in valid results. We investigated reliability of rapid balloon distension in the rectum to elicit cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) to study the reliability of central processing of visceral sensation and discomfort/pain. Eighteen healthy volunteers had two series of rectal balloon distensions performed on two separate days. Individualized balloon pressure, corresponding to pain detection threshold or to the maximum possible distension (30 psi), was used. Within- and between days reliability was measured in terms of amplitudes and latencies of the CEP global field power, topography and underlying brain networks. There were two prominent peaks in the CEP recordings at mean latencies of 157 and 322 ms. There were no differences in latencies or amplitudes (p = 0.3) and they passed the Bland-Altman test for reproducibility. There were no differences in topographies (p > 0.7). Brain source connectivity revealed the cingulate-operculum network as the most consistent network within and between subjects. There were no differences in the location of brain sources in this network (p = 0.9) and the source coordinates were reproducible. Finally, the cingulate source generally had higher strength than operculum source (p < 0.001). A reliable method to study central mechanisms underlying visceral sensation and pain was established. The method may improve our understanding of visceral pain and could be an objective method for studying efficacy of analgesics on visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Esophageal Distension During Bolus Transport: Can it be Detected by Intraluminal Impedance Recordings?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Mittal, Ravinder K.; Patel, Nirali; Ledgerwood, Melissa; Bhargava, Valmik

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal multiple intraluminal impedance (MII) measurement has been in used to detect gastroesophageal reflux and bolus transport. It is not clear if MII can detect changes in luminal cross sectional area (CSA) during bolus transport. Aims Intraluminal ultrasound (US) images, MII and high resolution manometry (HRM) were recorded simultaneously to determine temporal relationship between CSA and impedance during esophageal bolus transport and to define the relationship between peak distension and nadir impedance. Methods Studies were conducted in five healthy subjects. MII, HRM and US images were recorded 6 cm above LES. Esophageal distensions were studied during swallows and injections of 0.5 N saline bolus into the esophagus. Results Temporal change in esophageal CSA correlates with changes in impedance (r value: mean ± SD = −0.80 ± 0.08, range: −0.94 to −0.66). Drop in impedance during distension occurs as a two step process; initial large drop associated with onset of CSA increase, followed by a small drop during which majority of the CSA increase occurs. Peak CSA and nadir impedance occur within 1 s of each other. Increase in swallow and injection volumes increased the CSA, had no effect on large drop but increased the small drop amplitude. We observed a significant correlation between peak CSA and nadir impedance (r = − 0.90, p<0.001) and a better correlation between peak CSA and inverse impedance (r = 0.94, p<0.001). Conclusion Further studies are needed to confirm that intraluminal impedance recordings may be used to measure luminal CSA during esophageal bolus transport. PMID:24861157

  11. Esophageal distension during bolus transport: can it be detected by intraluminal impedance recordings?

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Mittal, R K; Patel, N; Ledgerwood, M; Bhargava, V

    2014-08-01

    Esophageal multiple intraluminal impedance (MII) measurement has been used to detect gastro-esophageal reflux and bolus transport. It is not clear if MII can detect changes in luminal cross sectional area (CSA) during bolus transport. Intraluminal ultrasound (US) images, MII, and high resolution manometry (HRM) were recorded simultaneously to determine temporal relationship between CSA and impedance during esophageal bolus transport and to define the relationship between peak distension and nadir impedance. Studies were conducted in five healthy subjects. MII, HRM, and US images were recorded 6 cm above LES. Esophageal distensions were studied during swallows and injections of 0.5 N saline bolus into the esophagus. Temporal change in esophageal CSA correlates with changes in impedance (r-value: mean ± SD = -0.80 ± 0.08, range: -0.94 to -0.66). Drop in impedance during distension occurs as a two-step process; initial large drop associated with onset of CSA increase, followed by a small drop during which majority of the CSA increase occurs. Peak CSA and nadir impedance occur within 1 s of each other. Increase in swallow and injection volumes increased the CSA, had no effect on large drop but increased the small drop amplitude. We observed a significant correlation between peak CSA and nadir impedance (r = -0.90, p < 0.001) and a better correlation between peak CSA and inverse impedance (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Further studies are needed to confirm that intraluminal impedance recordings may be used to measure luminal CSA during esophageal bolus transport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Human Placental Arterial Distensibility, Birth Weight, and Body Size Are Positively Related to Fetal Homocysteine Concentration.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stephen W; Solanky, Nita; Guarino, Jane; Moat, Stuart; Sibley, Colin P; Taggart, Michael; Glazier, Jocelyn D

    2017-07-01

    Methionine demethylation during metabolism generates homocysteine (Hcy) and its remethylation requires folate and cobalamin. Elevated Hcy concentrations are associated with vascular-related complications of pregnancy, including increased vascular stiffness, predictive of clinical vascular disease. Maternal and fetal total Hcy (tHcy) concentrations are positively related, yet the influence of Hcy on fetoplacental vascular function in normal pregnancy has not been examined. We hypothesized that Hcy alters fetoplacental vascular characteristics with influences on fetal growth outcomes. We investigated (1) placental chorionic plate artery distensibility and neonatal blood pressure in relation to umbilical plasma tHcy; (2) relationships between cord venous (CV) and cord arterial (CA) plasma tHcy, folate, and cobalamin concentrations; and (3) tHcy associations with birth weight and anthropometric measurements of body size as indices of fetal growth in normal pregnancies with appropriate weight-for-gestational age newborns. Maternal plasma tHcy, folate, and cobalamin concentrations were consistent with published data. Placental chorionic plate artery distensibility index (β; measure of vessel stiffness) was inversely related to CA tHcy, yet neonatal blood pressure was not significantly affected. CV and CA tHcy concentrations were positively related and CV tHcy negatively related to CV cobalamin but not folate. CV tHcy concentration positively related to birth weight, corrected birth weight percentile, length, head circumference, and mid-arm circumference of newborns. CV cobalamin was inversely related to fetal growth indices but not to folate concentration. Our study demonstrates a potential relationship between fetal tHcy and placental artery distensibility, placing clinical relevance to cobalamin in influencing Hcy concentration and maintaining low vascular resistance to facilitate nutrient exchange favorable to fetal growth.

  13. Determination of wave speed and distensibility of flexible tubes using diameter and velocity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Khir, Ashraf W

    2009-01-01

    It is well accepted that wave speed is one of the key factors describing wave propagation in arteries [1]. Local wave speed is directly related to the mechanical properties of the arterial wall [2] and is widely used to determine the arterial distensibility [3]. Several methods have been proposed for determining wave speed in arteries, such as foot-to-foot and PU-loop methods. In this paper, we suggest a new method for the determination of wave speed and wall distensibility, using noninvasive measurements. The theoretical foundation of this method is based on the 1-D conservation of mass and momentum equations of flow in flexible tubes. We simultaneously measured pressure, diameter and velocity at the same site, sequentially along silicon and latex tubes which are 1m in length and of different diameters. We compared the results of the new method, ln(D)U-loop, with those determined by the PU-loop method. Wave speeds determined by both methods are comparable, although wave speeds determined by the new technique are slightly smaller than those determined by PU-loop method. We also compared distensibility calculated by the new method with those calculated using the traditional method (D(t)), D(t) = dP/AdA, where A and dA are the cross sectional area and its change respectively, and dP is the change in pressure. The results of both methods are in agreement. We conclude that the new technique has the advantage of using only noninvasive parameters which is of clinical relevance.

  14. Increased arterial distensibility induced by the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, in normotensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Makki, T.; Talom, R. T.; Niederhoffer, N.; Amin, F.; Tankosic, P.; Mertès, P. M.; Atkinson, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. We investigated possible structural correlates of the beneficial effect of chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) with lisinopril on the aortic distensibility of normotensive rats. 2. Experiments were performed in young (4-month old), normotensive, Wistar rats which received lisinopril in their drinking water (0.9 or 9 mg kg-1 day-1) for 9 months. 3. Following ACEI treatment, rats were pithed and aortic pulse wave velocity was measured during the progressive rise in mean arterial blood pressure produced by i.v. infusion of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine. The slope of the regression line relating aortic pulse wave velocity to mean arterial blood pressure was taken as an index of aortic distensibility. Following this, the aorta was fixed in situ at a normotensive pressure level and histomorphometry was performed. We also measured the calcium content of the aortic wall by atomic absorption. 4. The lower dose of lisinopril failed to lower systolic arterial blood pressure (unanaesthetized rat) or mean arterial blood pressure (pithed rat). Chronic ACEI with the higher dose of lisinopril lowered both systolic arterial blood pressure (104 +/- 6 mmHg, controls 133 +/- 4 mmHg, unanaesthetized), and mean arterial blood pressure (27 +/- 1 mmHg, controls 34 +/- 2 mmHg, pithed). 5. Although the lower dose of lisinopril did not lower blood pressure, it did improve aortic distensibility as revealed by a fall in the slope relating aortic pulse wave velocity (Y) to mean arterial blood pressure (X). Values were 5.7 +/- 0.7, 3.8 +/- 0.6 and 2.7 +/- 0.3 in controls, and in low and high ACEI groups, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004398

  15. Gastric vascular and motor responses to anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats, in comparison to those with hemorrhagic or vasodilator-induced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Yuhichi; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Wei; Tanida, Mamoru; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2017-01-31

    Anaphylactic shock is life-threatening, but pathophysiology of the stomach lesion remains unclear. We determined gastric hemodynamics and gastric functions during anaphylactic hypotension, as compared to hypotension induced by hemorrhage or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in anesthetized and ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic arterial pressure, portal venous pressure, and gastric arterial blood flow were measured, and gastric vascular resistance (GVR) was determined. Separately, the intragastric pressure (IGP) and gastric effluent, as a measure of gastric flux, were continuously measured. During anaphylaxis, GVR decreased only transiently at 0.5 min, followed by an increase. IGP increased markedly, while gastric flux decreased. During hemorrhage, GVR and IGP increased, while gastric flux did not change. When SNP was injected, both GVR and IGP decreased and gastric flux increased only just after injection. In conclusion, gastric vasodilatation occurs only transiently after antigen injection, and gastric motility increases, but gastric emptying deceases during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  16. Identification of the Visceral Pain Pathway Activated by Noxious Colorectal Distension in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kyloh, Melinda; Nicholas, Sarah; Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P.; Brookes, Simon J.; Spencer, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, visceral pain is evoked more readily following distension of the colorectum. However, the identity of extrinsic afferent nerve pathway that detects and transmits visceral pain from the colorectum to the spinal cord is unclear. In this study, we identified which extrinsic nerve pathway(s) underlies nociception from the colorectum to the spinal cord of rodents. Electromyogram recordings were made from the transverse oblique abdominal muscles in anesthetized wild type (C57BL/6) mice and acute noxious intraluminal distension stimuli (100–120 mmHg) were applied to the terminal 15 mm of colorectum to activate visceromotor responses (VMRs). Lesioning the lumbar colonic nerves in vivo had no detectable effect on the VMRs evoked by colorectal distension. Also, lesions applied to the right or left hypogastric nerves failed to reduce VMRs. However, lesions applied to both left and right branches of the rectal nerves abolished VMRs, regardless of whether the lumbar colonic or hypogastric nerves were severed. Electrical stimulation applied to either the lumbar colonic or hypogastric nerves in vivo, failed to elicit a VMR. In contrast, electrical stimulation (2–5 Hz, 0.4 ms, 60 V) applied to the rectum reliably elicited VMRs, which were abolished by selective lesioning of the rectal nerves. DiI retrograde labeling from the colorectum (injection sites 9–15 mm from the anus, measured in unstretched preparations) labeled sensory neurons primarily in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the lumbosacral region of the spinal cord (L6-S1). In contrast, injection of DiI into the mid to proximal colon (injection sites 30–75 mm from the anus, measured in unstretched preparations) labeled sensory neurons in DRG primarily of the lower thoracic level (T6-L2) of the spinal cord. The visceral pain pathway activated by acute noxious distension of the terminal 15 mm of mouse colorectum is transmitted predominantly, if not solely, through

  17. Gastric necrosis after fundoplication: a novel approach for esophageal preservation.

    PubMed

    Bass, K D; Meagher, D P; Haase, G M

    1998-11-01

    An 11-year-old boy presented moribund, with massive abdominal distension. A Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy tube had been established at age 2 years. After attempts to pass a nasogastric tube were unsuccessful, the old gastrostomy site was used to gain percutaneous access to the stomach resulting in release of gastric contents and stabilization of blood pressure and perfusion. During operation, massive gastric distention with gastric necrosis was found. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed with stapled closure of the distal intraabdominal esophagus and prepyloric region. Sump suction was placed in the proximal esophagus and the abdomen was drained widely. A distal esophageal perforation was apparent on postoperative day 19 confirmed by imaging and endoscopy. A nasoesophageal tube was passed into the abdomen, tied to a Jackson-Pratt drain, and the composite tube repositioned in the midesophagus allowing controlled proximal and distal drainage. Six months later, a Hunt-Laurence esophagojejunal pouch was created. At age 13, the child is clinically well, and enjoys 50% of his nutritional needs orally, with the remainder delivered overnight via tube feedings. This case describes gastric necrosis after gas bloat syndrome as a late complication of Nissen fundoplication. A novel approach to the management of distal esophageal perforation allowed preservation of a functional, intact native esophagus.

  18. Gastric necrosis and perforation in a patient with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Georgina; D'Souza, Nigel; Thomas, Rhys; Brar, Ranjeet

    2017-09-27

    Acute gastric necrosis is a very rare but potentially fatal condition which has been reported in patients with abnormal eating behaviours.We describe the case of a 24-year-old female with a background of Asperger's syndrome, who presented with abdominal pain and gross distension. She underwent an emergency exploratory laparotomy and was found to have a massively distended, necrotic stomach. A total gastrectomy was performed with interval reconstruction planned. This case reports the surgical management of a rarely seen condition and highlights the importance of recognising gastric necrosis and its causes, which include patients with abnormal eating behaviours, the majority of whom are young females. This is the first report highlighting gastric necrosis in a patient with Asperger's syndrome and coincides with a growing recognition of the association between eating disorders and the autistic spectrum. It is also a rare example of patient survival following total gastric necrosis with perforation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Trichobezoar - A Rare Cause of Abdominal Mass and Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Ana; Viveiro, Carolina; Capelão, Gustavo; Nobre, João; Laureano, Mónica; Gonçalves, Inês; Clara, Paulo; Amado, Sandra; Rezende, Teresa; Inácio, Ana; Santos, Miguel Coelho

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the clinical case of a 14-year old girl with weight loss, anorexia, epigastric abdominal pain and postprandial vomiting with 5 months duration. There was a background of trichophagia for 2 years without evidence of alopecia or psychiatric history. The physical examination revealed an epigastric mass motionless, stony, with poorly defined limits, painful on palpation and about 7 cm diameter. Abdominal ultrasonography showed thickening of the gastric wall and antrum with gastric distension. The abdominal tomography scan and endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a bulky trichobezoar occupying almost the entire gastric lumen. It was decided to undergo gastrotomy and extraction of the bezoar. The postoperative period was uneventful.

  20. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-09-25

    We have recently demonstrated that orexin acts centrally in the brain to induce antinociceptive action against colonic distension through orexin 1 receptors in conscious rats. Although the dopaminergic system can induce antinociceptive action for somatic pain, the association between changes in the dopaminergic system and visceral pain perception has not been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the dopaminergic system may be involved in visceral nociception, and if so, the dopaminergic system may mediate the orexin-induced visceral antinociception. Visceral sensation was evaluated using the colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternal injection of D1 (SKF38398) or D2 (quinpirole) dopamine receptor agonist increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH23390 or sulpiride, respectively) potently blocked the centrally injected orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that dopaminergic signaling via D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain may induce visceral antinociception and that the dopaminergic signaling may be involved in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension.

  1. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  2. Stress and strain analysis of contractions during ramp distension in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian; Gregersen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated morphological and biomechanical remodeling in the intestine proximal to an obstruction. The present study aimed to obtain stress and strain thresholds to initiate contraction and the maximal contraction stress and strain in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments. Partial obstruction and sham operations were surgically created in mid-jejunum of male guinea pigs. The animals survived 2, 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. Animals not being operated on served as normal controls. The segments were used for no-load state, zero-stress state and distension analyses. The segment was inflated to 10 cmH2O pressure in an organ bath containing 37°C Krebs solution and the outer diameter change was monitored. The stress and strain at the contraction threshold and at maximum contraction were computed from the diameter, pressure and the zero-stress state data. Young’s modulus was determined at the contraction threshold. The muscle layer thickness in obstructed intestinal segments increased up to 300%. Compared with sham-obstructed and normal groups, the contraction stress threshold, the maximum contraction stress and the Young’s modulus at the contraction threshold increased whereas the strain threshold and maximum contraction strain decreased after 7 days obstruction (P<0.05 and 0.01). In conclusion, in the partially obstructed intestinal segments, a larger distension force was needed to evoke contraction likely due to tissue remodeling. Higher contraction stresses were produced and the contraction deformation (strain) became smaller. PMID:21632056

  3. Stress and strain analysis of contractions during ramp distension in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian; Gregersen, Hans

    2011-07-28

    Previous studies have demonstrated morphological and biomechanical remodeling in the intestine proximal to an obstruction. The present study aimed to obtain stress and strain thresholds to initiate contraction and the maximal contraction stress and strain in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments. Partial obstruction and sham operations were surgically created in mid-jejunum of male guinea pigs. The animals survived 2, 4, 7 and 14 days. Animals not being operated on served as normal controls. The segments were used for no-load state, zero-stress state and distension analyses. The segment was inflated to 10 cmH(2)O pressure in an organ bath containing 37°C Krebs solution and the outer diameter change was monitored. The stress and strain at the contraction threshold and at maximum contraction were computed from the diameter, pressure and the zero-stress state data. Young's modulus was determined at the contraction threshold. The muscle layer thickness in obstructed intestinal segments increased up to 300%. Compared with sham-obstructed and normal groups, the contraction stress threshold, the maximum contraction stress and the Young's modulus at the contraction threshold increased whereas the strain threshold and maximum contraction strain decreased after 7 days obstruction (P<0.05 and 0.01). In conclusion, in the partially obstructed intestinal segments, a larger distension force was needed to evoke contraction likely due to tissue remodeling. Higher contraction stresses were produced and the contraction deformation (strain) became smaller. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New models of experimental parotitis and parotid gland distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A significant reduction of the escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the lateral facial skin was observed bilaterally at days 2 and 3 after unilateral complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) administration into parotid gland. A slight reduction of mechanical escape threshold was also observed in rats with saline administration. The parotid gland inflammation was verified and quantified by measuring the tissue Evans' blue dye extravasation. The Evans' blue concentration in the parotid gland tissues was significantly greater in the CFA-injected rats than that of the saline-injected rats at 72 h after treatment. On day 10 after CFA administration into the parotid gland, the Evans' blue concentration was recovered to the control level. The administration of capsaicin into the parotid gland did not alter neuronal activities in the transition zone between the trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis (Vi/Vc). In contrast, capsaicin administration induced significant increases in the receptive field size and mechanical and cold responses of neurons located in superficial laminae of the C1/C2. The subgroup of C1/C2 neurons responded to mechanical distension of the parotid gland, whereas no Vi/Vc neurons responded to parotid distension.

  5. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  6. Chronic Gastric Ischemia Leading to Gastric Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lundsmith, Emma; Zheng, Matthew; McCue, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension presented with 3 months of diffuse abdominal pain that worsened with meals, weight loss, and dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography revealed findings consistent with chronic gastric ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis. Gastric ischemia eventually led to perforation. We discuss causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of gastric ischemia, an underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28119945

  7. [The contribution of capsular distension to the treatment of primary adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a comparative study versus rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Elleuch, M H; Yahia, A; Ghroubi, S; Kharrat, O; Mezghanni, M; Ayedi, K

    2008-12-01

    To describe the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with primitive adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder treated by capsular distension and then rehabilitation; to evaluate the short-, mid- and long-term efficiency of this therapeutic protocol and compare it with rehabilitation alone. This was a two-year prospective study. Sixty patients were included and divided into populations P1 (capsular distension and rehabilitation) and P2 (rehabilitation only). Assessment of the treatments' efficacy was based on the following parameters: pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), joint motion in several axes, a simplified Constant score (functional ability) and the SF-36 quality of life score. Thirty patients (mean age: 56) underwent capsular distension. The Constant score was judged to be poor in over half of the patients. All the quality of life parameters were modified. When compared with P2, the P1 group showed a statistically significant improvement in terms of the pain score (p=0.005), anterior elevation (p=0.001), lateral elevation (p=0.005), external rotation (p=0.006) and the Constant score (p<0.001) one week after capsular distension. One year after capsular distension, this gain persisted in a statistically significant manner for all functional parameters and all SF-36 dimensions (p<0.001 for PF, RP, BP, SF and RE; p=0.01 for GH and VT and p=0.002 for MH). Our results show that capsular distension and subsequent intensive rehabilitation have a beneficial effect. This combination enables rapid, significant improvement from the first week onwards. The improvement phase lasts for one month and may hold steady for up to 12 months.

  8. Assessment of arterial distension based on continuous wave Doppler ultrasound with an improved Hilbert-Huang processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Su, Nafeng; Li, Zhiyao; Gou, Zhengpin; Chen, Qiuying; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach based on continuous wave (CW) Doppler ultrasound and the Hilbert-Huang transform with end-effect restraint by mirror extending is proposed to assess arterial distension. In the approach, bidirectional Doppler signals were first separated using the phasing-filter technique from the mixed quadrature Doppler signals, which were produced by bidirectional blood and vessel wall movements. Each separated unidirectional signal was decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the empirical mode decomposition with end effect restraint by mirror extending algorithm, and then the relevant IMFs that contribute to the vessel wall components were identified. Finally, the displacement waveforms of the vessel wall were calculated by integrating its moving velocity waveforms, which were extracted from the bidirectional Hilbert spectrum estimated from the identified wall IMFs. This approach was applied to simulated and clinical Doppler signals from normal common carotid arteries (CCAs). In the simulation study, the estimated wall moving velocity and displacement waveforms were compared with the theoretical ones, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of the root-mean-square errors between the estimated and theoretical wall distension of the 30 realizations was 4.2 +/- 0.4 microm. In the clinical study, peak-to-peak distension was extracted in a subject and then averaged over 15 cardiac cycles, resulting in 603 +/- 22 microm. The mean and standard deviation of the CCA distension averaged over the experimental measurements of 12 healthy subjects gave the result of 620 +/- 154 microm. The clinical results were in agreement with those measured by using the multigate Doppler ultrasound and echo tracking systems. The results show that based on the CW Doppler ultrasound, the proposed approach is practical for extracting arterial wall peak-to-peak distension correctly and could be an alternative method for the vessel wall distension estimation.

  9. Gastric Rupture in Pregnancy: Case Series from a Tertiary Institution in Rwanda and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ntirushwa, David; Rulisa, Stephen; Muhorakeye, Febronie; Bazzett-Matabele, Lisa; Rurangwa, Theogene; Small, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric rupture is a rare, life-threatening condition during pregnancy. Case study We present three cases of gastric perforation during pregnancy and the puerperium. The first patient presented with gastric perforation 4 days following an uncomplicated cesarean delivery for obstetric indications. She initially complained of epigastric pain; however, those symptoms resolved. She later demonstrated worsening abdominal distension, intra-abdominal free fluid, and signs of peritonitis. At laparotomy, an ascariasis-associated gastric rupture was diagnosed. She died from sepsis 4 days following the laparotomy. The second patient presented 19 days following a normal vaginal delivery. She presented with hemodynamic instability and underwent emergent laparotomy due to suspected septic shock peritonitis. Gastric rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively. She improved clinically and was discharged home. The third patient underwent emergency cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status in the setting of preeclampsia. She was initially diagnosed with ascites and pulmonary edema as a result of preeclampsia. Later in her course, she developed features in favor of acute abdomen and signs of sepsis. At the time of emergent laparotomy, a gastric rupture was identified and repaired. She died 2 days later from sepsis. Conclusion We report the management and outcome of three cases of pregnancy-related gastric rupture. To our knowledge, these three cases represent the largest series of pregnancy-related gastric ruptures from a single institution. PMID:28078172

  10. On denture marking.

    PubMed

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  11. Non-invasive quantification of peripheral arterial volume distensibility and its non-linear relationship with arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2009-05-29

    Arterial wall function is associated with different physiological and clinical factors. Changes in arterial pressure cause major changes in the arterial wall. This study presents a simple non-invasive method to quantify arterial volume distensibility changes with different arterial pressures. The electrocardiogram, finger and ear photoplethysmogram were recorded from 15 subjects with the right arm at five different positions (90 degrees , 45 degrees , 0 degrees , -45 degrees and -90 degrees referred to the horizontal level). Arm pulse propagation time was determined by subtracting ear pulse transit time from finger pulse transit time, and was used to obtain arterial volume distensibility. The mean arterial blood pressure with the arm at the horizontal level was acquired, and changes with position were calculated using the hydrostatic principle that blood pressure in the arm is linearly related to its vertical distance from the horizontal level. The mean arm pulse propagation times for the five different positions were 88, 72, 57, 54 and 52ms, with the corresponding mean arterial volume distensibility of 0.234%, 0.158%, 0.099%, 0.088% and 0.083% per mmHg. For all consecutive changes in arm position, arm pulse propagation time and arterial volume distensibility, were significantly different (all probability P<0.05). The slopes of arm pulse propagation time and arterial volume distensibility against arterial pressure decreased significantly between each consecutive arm position from 90 degrees to -45 degrees (all P<0.01), indicating significant non-linearity. The experimental results fitted the physiological exponential model and Langewouters' arctangent model well, and were also comparable to published data with arterial volume distensibility approximately tripling for transmural pressure changes from 101 to 58mmHg. In conclusion, the inverse and non-linear relationship between arterial volume distensibility and arterial pressure has been quantified using a simple

  12. Gastric stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Ovali, Gülgün Yilmaz; Tarhan, Serdar; Serter, Selim; Pabuşçu, Yüksel

    2005-06-01

    Gastric stromal tumors are rare neoplasms of the stomach. In this report we present a gastric stromal tumor with an exophytic growth pattern, and describe magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography findings.

  13. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  14. SU-E-T-129: Are Knowledge-Based Planning Dose Estimates Valid for Distensible Organs?

    SciTech Connect

    Lalonde, R; Heron, D; Huq, M; Readshaw, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Knowledge-based planning programs have become available to assist treatment planning in radiation therapy. Such programs can be used to generate estimated DVHs and planning constraints for organs at risk (OARs), based upon a model generated from previous plans. These estimates are based upon the planning CT scan. However, for distensible OARs like the bladder and rectum, daily variations in volume may make the dose estimates invalid. The purpose of this study is to determine whether knowledge-based DVH dose estimates may be valid for distensible OARs. Methods: The Varian RapidPlan™ knowledge-based planning module was used to generate OAR dose estimates and planning objectives for 10 prostate cases previously planned with VMAT, and final plans were calculated for each. Five weekly setup CBCT scans of each patient were then downloaded and contoured (assuming no change in size and shape of the target volume), and rectum and bladder DVHs were recalculated for each scan. Dose volumes were then compared at 75, 60,and 40 Gy for the bladder and rectum between the planning scan and the CBCTs. Results: Plan doses and estimates matched well at all dose points., Volumes of the rectum and bladder varied widely between planning CT and the CBCTs, ranging from 0.46 to 2.42 for the bladder and 0.71 to 2.18 for the rectum, causing relative dose volumes to vary between planning CT and CBCT, but absolute dose volumes were more consistent. The overall ratio of CBCT/plan dose volumes was 1.02 ±0.27 for rectum and 0.98 ±0.20 for bladder in these patients. Conclusion: Knowledge-based planning dose volume estimates for distensible OARs are still valid, in absolute volume terms, between treatment planning scans and CBCT’s taken during daily treatment. Further analysis of the data is being undertaken to determine how differences depend upon rectum and bladder filling state. This work has been supported by Varian Medical Systems.

  15. An unusual cause of abdominal distension: intraperitoneal bladder perforation secondary to intermittent self-catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer; Convie, Liam; Mark, David; McClure, Mark

    2015-02-25

    We report a strikingly unusual case of traumatic intraperitoneal perforation of an augmented bladder from clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC), which presented a unique diagnostic challenge. This case describes a 48-year-old T1 level paraplegic, who had undergone clamshell ileocystoplasty for detrusor overactivity, presenting with abdominal distension, vomiting and diarrhoea. Initial investigations were suggestive of disseminated peritoneal malignancy with ascitic fluid collections, but the ascitic fluid was found to be intraperitoneal urine from a perforation of the urinary bladder. This was associated with an inflammatory response in the surrounding structures causing an appearance of colonic thickening and omental disease. Although the diagnostic process was complex due to this patient's medical history, the treatment plan initiated was non-operative, with insertion of an indwelling urinary catheter and radiologically guided drainage of pelvic and abdominal collections. Overdistension perforations of augmented urinary bladders have been reported, but few have described perforation from CISC.

  16. Flow and distension in the carotid artery from magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Peter J.; Demarco, J. K.

    2004-04-01

    Hemodynamic conditions in the carotid artery may be associated with progression of carotid artery (CA) disease and with the risk of stroke. A methodology for objective measurement of distension (DCA) and blood-flow (QCA) waveform from phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is presented. Measurement of DCA is obtained using a modified Hough Transform (mHT) applied to the magnitude-component of the PC MR. The mHT is based on the optimization of an objective function which is the sum of the gradient magnitude of the image sampled at 10° increments around the circle using bilinear interpolation. The mHT detects the boundary of the vessel in the cross-sectional image at 0.05-pixel resolution. Measurement of QCA is obtained by integration of the image intensity in the phase-component of the PC MR within the circular region detected by the mHT.

  17. Nitric Oxide Synthase Promotes Distension-Induced Tracheal Venular Leukocyte Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Moldobaeva, Aigul; Rentsendorj, Otgonchimeg; Jenkins, John; Wagner, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The process of leukocyte recruitment to the airways in real time has not been extensively studied, yet airway inflammation persists as a major contributor to lung pathology. We showed previously in vivo, that neutrophils are recruited acutely to the large airways after periods of airway distension imposed by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Given extensive literature implicating products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in lung injury after ventilatory over-distension, we questioned whether similar mechanisms exist in airway post-capillary venules. Yet, endothelial nitric oxide has been shown to be largely anti-inflammatory in other systemic venules. Using intravital microscopy to visualize post-capillary tracheal venules in anesthetized, ventilated mice, the number of adherent leukocytes was significantly decreased in eNOS-/- mice under baseline conditions (2±1 cell/60 min observation) vs wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (7±2 cells). After exposure to PEEP (8 cmH2O for 1 min; 5 times), adherent cells increased significantly (29±5 cells) in WT mice while eNOS-/- mice demonstrated a significantly decreased number of adherent cells (11±4 cells) after PEEP. A similar response was seen when thrombin was used as the pro-inflammatory stimulus. In addition, mouse tracheal venular endothelial cells studied in vitro after exposure to cyclic stretch (18% elongation) or thrombin both demonstrated increased p-selectin expression that was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) and excess BH4. In vivo treatment with the ROS inhibitor NACA or co-factor BH4 abolished completely the PEEP-induced leukocyte adherence. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory stimuli cause leukocyte recruitment to tracheal endothelium in part due to eNOS uncoupling. PMID:25181540

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brachial artery distensibility and blood pressure among children residing near an oil refinery

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Urbina, Elaine M.; Khoder, Mamdouh; Alghamdi, Mansour; Shabaj, Ibrahim; Alam, Mohammed S.; Harrison, Roy M.; Shamy, Magdy

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced by the burning and processing of fuel oils, and have been associated with oxidant stress, insulin resistance and hypertension in adults. Few studies have examined whether adolescents are susceptible to cardiovascular effects of PAHs. Objective To study associations of PAH exposure with blood pressure (BP) and brachial artery distensibility (BAD), an early marker of arterial wall stiffness, in young boys attending three schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in varying proximity to an oil refinery. Methods Air samples collected from the three schools were analyzed for PAHs. PAH metabolites (total hydroxyphenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene) were measured in urine samples from 184 adolescent males, in whom anthropometrics, heart rate, pulse pressure, brachial artery distensibility and blood pressure were measured. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess relationships of school location and urinary PAH metabolites with cardiovascular measures. Results Total suspended matter was significantly higher (444 ± 143 µg/m3) at the school near the refinery compared to a school located near a ring road (395 ± 65 µg/m3) and a school located away from vehicle traffic (232 ± 137 µg/m3), as were PAHs. Systolic (0.47 SD units, p = 0.006) and diastolic (0.53 SD units, p < 0.001) BP Z-scores were highest at the school near the refinery, with a 4.36-fold increase in prehypertension (p = 0.001), controlling for confounders. No differences in pulse pressure, BAD and heart rate were noted in relationship to school location. Urinary total hydroxyphenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions Proximity to an oil refinery in Saudi Arabia is associated with prehypertension and increases in PAH and particulate matter exposures. Further study including insulin resistance measurements, better control for confounding, and longitudinal measurement is

  19. Numerical simulation of unsteady generalized Newtonian blood flow through differently shaped distensible arterial stenoses.

    PubMed

    Sarifuddin; Chakravarty, S; Mandal, P K; Layek, G C

    2008-01-01

    An updated numerical simulation of unsteady generalized Newtonian blood flow through differently shaped distensible arterial stenoses is developed. A shear-thinning fluid modelling the deformation dependent viscosity of blood is considered for the characterization of generalized Newtonian behaviour of blood. The arterial model is treated as two-dimensional and axisymmetric with an outline of the stenosis obtained from a three-dimensional casting of a mildly stenosed artery. The full Navier-Stokes equations governing blood flow are written in the dimensionless form and the solution is accomplished by finite time-step advancement through their finite difference staggered grid representations. The marker and cell (MAC) method comprising the use of a set of marker particles moving with the fluid is used for the purpose. Results are obtained for three differently shaped stenoses - irregular, smooth and cosine curve representations. The present results do agree well with those of existing investigations in the steady state, but contrary to their conclusions the present findings demonstrate that the excess pressure drop across the cosine and the smooth stenoses is caused by neither their smoothness nor their higher degree of symmetry relative to the irregular stenosis, but is rather an effect of area cover with respect to the irregular stenosis. This effect clearly prevails throughout the entire physiological range of Reynolds numbers. Further the in-depth study in flow patterns reveals the development of flow separation zones in the diverging part of the stenosis towards the arterial wall, and they are influenced by non-Newtonian blood rheology, distensibility of the wall and flow unsteadiness in order to validate the applicability of the present model.

  20. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies.

    PubMed

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.

  1. Giant mesenteric cyst: a rare cause of abdominal distension diagnosed with CT and managed with ultrasound-guided drainage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Alexander; Ayre, Karyn; Wijeyekoon, Sanjaya

    2012-09-03

    This rare cystic lesion has an approximate incidence of 1 in 200,000. This patient complained of abdominal distension and was diagnosed with a giant mesenteric cyst measuring 26 cm in height using CT imaging. She underwent a successful ultrasound-guided drainage, which is not previously reported in the literature. This represents utilisation of an established procedure in a novel situation.

  2. [Gastric and intestinal bezoars].

    PubMed

    Larbi, Noureddine; Kaâbi, Samarra; Ben Salah, Khiareddine

    2003-12-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of 10 cases of gastric and small bowel bezoars. There was one gastric trichobezoar diagnosed by an abdominal mass and 9 small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoars. All patients underwent surgery: the gastric trichobezoar was removed through a gastrotomy; small bowel bezoars were treated either by enterotomy (n = 3), fragmentation (n = 5) or bowel resection (n = 1). Non operative treatment is efficient in gastric phytobezoars. Surgery is advisable for trichobezoars and small bowel bezoars. Prevention is main and patients who have gastric surgery must be alarmed from consumption of cactus in our country Tunisia.

  3. Gastric juice long noncoding RNA used as a tumor marker for screening gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yongfu; Ye, Meng; Jiang, Xiaoming; Sun, Weiliang; Ding, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhong; Ye, Guoliang; Zhang, Xinjun; Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming

    2014-11-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. However, the value of lncRNAs in the diagnosis of gastric cancer remains unknown. To identify whether lncRNA-AA174084 is a potential marker for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC), the authors investigated its levels in tissues, blood, and gastric juices from patients with various stage of gastric tumorigenesis. Total RNA in 860 specimens from patients and healthy controls was extracted. Levels of AA174084 in 134 paired GC tissues, 127 gastric mucosal tissues, 335 plasma samples, and 130 gastric juice samples at each stage of gastric tumorigenesis were measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The potential association between AA174084 levels and patients' clinicopathologic features were analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating GC patients from controls. Expression levels of AA174084 were down-regulated significantly in 95 of 134 GC tissues (71%) compared with the levels in paired, adjacent, normal tissues (P < .001). AA174084 levels had significant, negative correlations with age (P = .031), Borrmann type (P = .016), and perineural invasion (P = .032). Plasma AA174084 levels in patients with GC dropped markedly on day 15 after surgery compared with preoperative levels (P < .001) and were associated with invasion (P = .049) and lymphatic metastasis (P = .042). AA174084 levels in gastric juice from patients with GC were significantly higher than the levels in normal mucosa or in patients with minimal gastritis, gastric ulcers, and atrophic gastritis (P < .001). The area under ROC was up to 0.848 (P < .001). AA174084 may have potential as marker for the early diagnosis of GC. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  4. Marking: A Critical Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Having pupils critique their own work is an alternative to marking that is worthy of consideration. Pupil critique fosters in students a willingness to take responsibility for the quality of their work products. (RM)

  5. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  6. Acupuncture transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces discomfort associated with barostat-induced rectal distension: a randomized-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wing-Wa; Jones, Alice Y M; Ng, Simon S M; Wong, Cherry Y N; Lee, Janet F Y

    2013-01-21

    To explore the effectiveness of acupuncture transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (Acu-TENS), a non-invasive modality in reduction of rectal discomfort during barostat-induced rectal distension. Forty healthy subjects were randomized to receive 45 min of either Acu-TENS or placebo-TENS (no electrical output) over acupuncture points Hegu (large-intestine 4), Neiguan (pericardium 6) and Zusanli (stomach 36). A balloon catheter attached to a dual-drive barostat machine was then inserted into the subjects' rectum. A step-wise (4 mmHg) increase in balloon pressure was induced until maximal tolerable or 48 mmHg. Visual analogue scale and a 5-point subjective discomfort scale (no perception, first perception of distension, urge to defecate, discomfort/pain and extreme pain) were used to assess rectal discomfort at each distension pressure. Blood beta-endorphin levels were measured before, immediately after intervention, at 24 mmHg and at maximal tolerable distension pressure. There was no difference in the demographic data and baseline plasma beta-endorphin levels between the two groups. Perception threshold levels were higher in the Acu-TENS group when compared to the placebo group, but the difference reached statistical significance only at the sensations "urge to defecate" and "pain". The distension pressures recorded at the "urge to defecate" sensation for the Acu-TENS and placebo-TENS groups were 28.0 ± 4.5 mmHg and 24.6 ± 5.7 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.043); and the pressures recorded for the "pain" sensation for these two groups were 36.0 ± 4.2 mmHg and 30.5 ± 4.3 mmHg respectively (P = 0.002). Compared to the placebo group, a higher number of participants in the Acu-TENS group tolerated higher distension pressures (> 40 mmHg) (65% in Acu-TENS vs 25% in placebo, P = 0.02). The plasma beta-endorphin levels of the Acu-TENS group were significantly higher than that of the placebo group at barostat inflation pressure of 24 mmHg (1.31 ± 0.40 ng/mL vs 1.04 ± 0

  7. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  8. Posterior Wall Gastric Leiomyoma: Endoscopic Tattooing Facilitates Laparoscopic Resection

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Dhiren; Zelen, Johnathan; Fogler, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the application of tattooing for the intraoperative localization of posterior wall gastric leiomyoma during laparoscopic resection. The preoperative injection of Indian ink in the tumor-bearing area of the posterior gastric wall eliminates the need to perform anterior wall gastrostomy or intraoperative upper endoscopic tumor localization. Methods: A patient with posterior wall gastric leiomyoma was marked with Indian ink during preoperative upper endoscopy. The dye was visualized intraoperatively facilitating wedge resection of the tumor-bearing area with the Endo GIA. Results: The patient had an uneventful surgery and recovery. Complete excision of the tumor was accomplished. Conclusion: The preoperative endoscopic marking of gastric lesions, facilitates the intraoperative localization and resection of these lesions. PMID:9876718

  9. The hypersensitivity to colonic distension of IBS patients can be transferred to rats through their fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, L; Gaultier, E; Del'Homme, C; Cartier, C; Delmas, E; Dapoigny, M; Fioramonti, J; Bernalier-Donadille, A

    2013-04-01

    Alterations of intestinal microbiota and hypersensitivity to colonic distension are two features of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the role of intestinal microbiota in visceral hypersensitivity of IBS patients is far to be established. The aim of our study was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota is involved in the visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. The painful response to colorectal distension and colonic mucosal parameters were assessed in gnotobiotic rats. Germfree (GF) rats were inoculated with the fecal microbiota from IBS patients characterized by hypersensitivity to colorectal distension (IBS HMA rats) or from non-hypersensitive healthy volunteers (Healthy HMA rats). Conventional rats were studied as normosensitivity control. Fecal microbial analyses were carried out in human and HMA rats fecal samples using cultural and molecular approaches. The microbial dysbiosis of the IBS gut microbiota (more sulfate-reducing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and less bifidobacteria) could be maintained in gnotobiotic rats. The number of abdominal contractions in response to colorectal distensions was significantly higher in IBS HMA rats than in healthy HMA rats. No difference was observed between healthy HMA and conventional rats. Colorectal compliance, epithelial paracellular permeability, and density of colonic mucosal mast cells were similar in the three groups of rats. We herein showed that sensitivity to colonic distension of IBS patients can be transferred to rats by the fecal microbiota. Mucosal alterations associated with microbiota transfer are not involved in this hypersensitivity. The altered IBS microbiota may have important role in the hypersensitivity characterizing IBS patients through specific bacterial metabolites. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Chronic hypoxia augments uterine artery distensibility and alters the circumferential wall stress-strain relationship during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mateev, Stephanie N; Mouser, Rhonda; Young, David A; Mecham, Robert P; Moore, Lorna G

    2006-06-01

    Pregnancy-associated increases in uterine artery (UA) blood flow are due, in part, to vasoactive and growth-related changes that enlarge UA diameter. Although active and passive mechanical factors can contribute to this enlargement, their role is less well understood. We hypothesized that pregnancy increased UA distensibility and/or decreased myogenic tone. Given the fetal growth restriction and lower UA flow seen under chronic hypoxia, we further hypothesized that chronic hypoxia opposed these normal active and passive mechanical changes. UA were isolated from 12 nonpregnant and 12 pregnant (0.7 gestation) guinea pigs housed under normoxia or chronic hypoxia (3,960 m) and studied by pressure myography. Pregnancy increased UA diameter similarly under normoxia and hypoxia. Although chronic hypoxia raised resting tone in UA from nonpregnant guinea pigs to approximately 20% and tone was greater in preconstricted pregnant chronically hypoxic vs. normoxic UA (both P<0.01), there was an absence of myogenic response (i.e., an increase in tone with rising pressure) in all groups. Pregnancy increased UA distensibility 1.5-fold but did not change stiffness or the stress-strain relationship. Compared with vessels from normoxic pregnant animals, hypoxic pregnancy raised UA distensibility fourfold, decreased stiffness (rate constant b=3.80+/-1.06 vs. 8.92+/-1.25, respectively, P<0.01), lowered elastin by 50%, and shifted the stress-strain relationship upward such that four times as much strain was present at a given stress. We concluded that increased distensibility and low myogenic tone contribute to enlarging UA diameter and raising UA blood flow during pregnancy. Chronic hypoxia exaggerates the rise in distensibility and alters the stress-strain relationship in ways that may provoke vascular injury.

  11. Response of the Upper Esophageal Sphincter to Esophageal Distension is Affected by Posture, Velocity, Volume, and Composition of the Infusate

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Arash; Dua, Kulwinder; Naini, Sohrab Rahimi; Lee, Justin; Katib, Omar; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond; Shaker, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Studies of the pressure response of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) to simulated or spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux have shown conflicting results. These discrepancies could result from uncontrolled influence of variables such as posture, volume, and velocity of distension. We characterized in humans the effects of these variables on UES pressure response to esophageal distension. Methods We studied 12 healthy volunteers (average 27±5 years old, 6 male) using concurrent esophageal infusion and high-resolution manometry to determine UES, lower esophageal sphincter, and intraesophageal pressure values. Reflux events were simulated by distal esophageal injections of room-temperature air and water (5, 10, 20, and 50 ml) in individuals in 3 positions (upright, supine and semi-supine). Frequencies of various UES responses were compared using χ2 analysis. Multinomial logistical regression analysis was used to identify factors that determine the UES response. Results UES contraction and relaxation were the overriding responses to esophageal water and air distension, respectively, in a volume-dependent fashion (P<.001). Water-induced UES contraction and air-induced UES relaxation were the predominant responses among individuals in supine and upright positions, respectively (P<.001). The prevalence of their respective predominant response significantly decreased in the opposite position. Proximal esophageal dp/dt significantly and independently differentiated the UES response to infusion with water or air. Conclusions The UES response to esophageal distension is affected by combined effects of posture (spatial orientation of the esophagus), physical properties, and volume of refluxate, as well as the magnitude and rate of increase in intraesophageal pressure. The UES response to esophageal distension can be predicted using a model that incorporates these factors. PMID:22248662

  12. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  13. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies.

  14. Gastric cancer: Basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Molina-Castro, Silvia; Pereira-Marques, Joana; Figueiredo, Ceu; Machado, Jose C; Varon, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most incident and deadliest malignancies in the world. Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the end point of a long and multistep process, which results from the stepwise accumulation of numerous (epi)genetic alterations, leading to dysregulation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways. Gastric cancer stem cells have emerged as fundamental players in cancer development and as contributors to gastric cancer heterogeneity. For this special issue, we will report last year's update on the gastric cancer molecular classification, and in particular address the gastric cancer groups who could benefit from immune checkpoint therapy. We will also review the latest advances on gastric cancer stem cells, their properties as gastric cancer markers and therapeutic targets, and associated signaling pathways. The understanding of the molecular basis underlying gastric cancer heterogeneity and of the role played by gastric cancer stem cells in cancer development and heterogeneity is of major significance, not only for identifying novel targets for cancer prevention and treatment, but also for clinical management and patient stratification for targeted therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Obesity at adolescence and gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Minkyo; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Yang, Jae Jeong; Sung, Hyuna; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Hwi-Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kang, Daehee

    2015-02-01

    During the last few decades, prevalence of obesity has risen rapidly worldwide, markedly in children and adolescents. Epidemiologic studies have associated obesity to several cancer types, yet little is known for the effect of early life exposure to obesity on cancer risk in later life, especially in gastric cancer. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) of adolescence and the risk of gastric cancer. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Korea with 1,492 incident gastric cancer cases and 1,492 controls matched by age and sex. The BMI at age 18 was calculated by using weight and height from questionnaire. The association with the risk of gastric cancer was evaluated using odds ratios by logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounding factors. Compared with BMI 21.75 kg/m(2), higher BMI at age 18 was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer showing a nonlinear, threshold effect. Statistically significant odds ratio was observed in men with BMI higher than 25.3 kg/m(2) (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01-1.27) and in women with BMI 25.3 kg/m(2) and above (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.01-1.55). Similar to some other cancer types, overweight or obese in adolescence was found to be associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer. The results imply for stratified approach of tactics in prevention of gastric cancer in different population.

  16. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  17. Sox2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Abby; Huebner, Aaron J; Sulahian, Rita; Anselmo, Anthony; Xu, Xinsen; Flattery, Kyle; Desai, Niyati; Sebastian, Carlos; Yram, Mary Anna; Arnold, Katrin; Rivera, Miguel; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bronson, Roderick; Bass, Adam J; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    Sox2 expression marks gastric stem and progenitor cells, raising important questions regarding the genes regulated by Sox2 and the role of Sox2 itself during stomach homeostasis and disease. By using ChIP-seq analysis, we have found that the majority of Sox2 targets in gastric epithelial cells are tissue specific and related to functions such as endoderm development, Wnt signaling, and gastric cancer. Unexpectedly, we found that Sox2 itself is dispensable for gastric stem cell and epithelial self-renewal, yet Sox2(+) cells are highly susceptible to tumorigenesis in an Apc/Wnt-driven mouse model. Moreover, Sox2 loss enhances, rather than impairs, tumor formation in Apc-deficient gastric cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription and upregulating intestinal metaplasia-associated genes, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed phenotype. Together, these data identify Sox2 as a context-dependent tumor suppressor protein that is dispensable for normal tissue regeneration but restrains stomach adenoma formation through modulation of Wnt-responsive and intestinal genes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  19. Influence of amino acids on gastric adaptive relaxation (accommodation) in rats as evaluated with a barostat

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of selected straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric adaptive relaxation, as these have previously been shown to have differing effects on gastric emptying. Materials and Methods: Gastric adaptive relaxation was evaluated using a barostat in rats under urethane anesthesia. The pressure within the balloon, introduced from the mouth to the stomach, was changed stepwise from 1 to 8 mmHg. The increased volume just after the increase of balloon pressure was defined as distension-induced gastric adaptive relaxation (accommodation). Amino acids were administered orally or intravenously. Results: As compared with control rats administered with distilled water, those rats that were orally administered amino acids having straight alkyl chain and extra hydroxylated alkyl chain, such as glycine and l-serine, had significantly enhanced gastric adaptive relaxation, but administration of l-alanine and l-threonine did not. Branched chain amino acids, such as l-isoleucine, l-leucine and l-valine, also did not significantly influence gastric adaptive relaxation. Glycine and l-serine showed the same efficacy when administered intravenously. Conclusion: Among the amino acids evaluated in the present study, glycine and l-serine significantly enhanced gastric adaptive relaxation, suggesting that short alkyl chain amino acids may enhance gastric adaptive relaxation as compared with the other amino acids. These findings may suggest that glycine and l-serine would be useful in the therapy of functional dyspepsia, especially for early satiety, because the dysfunction of adaptive relaxation is one of the causes of early satiety. PMID:27558952

  20. Influence of amino acids on gastric adaptive relaxation (accommodation) in rats as evaluated with a barostat.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of selected straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric adaptive relaxation, as these have previously been shown to have differing effects on gastric emptying. Gastric adaptive relaxation was evaluated using a barostat in rats under urethane anesthesia. The pressure within the balloon, introduced from the mouth to the stomach, was changed stepwise from 1 to 8 mmHg. The increased volume just after the increase of balloon pressure was defined as distension-induced gastric adaptive relaxation (accommodation). Amino acids were administered orally or intravenously. As compared with control rats administered with distilled water, those rats that were orally administered amino acids having straight alkyl chain and extra hydroxylated alkyl chain, such as glycine and l-serine, had significantly enhanced gastric adaptive relaxation, but administration of l-alanine and l-threonine did not. Branched chain amino acids, such as l-isoleucine, l-leucine and l-valine, also did not significantly influence gastric adaptive relaxation. Glycine and l-serine showed the same efficacy when administered intravenously. Among the amino acids evaluated in the present study, glycine and l-serine significantly enhanced gastric adaptive relaxation, suggesting that short alkyl chain amino acids may enhance gastric adaptive relaxation as compared with the other amino acids. These findings may suggest that glycine and l-serine would be useful in the therapy of functional dyspepsia, especially for early satiety, because the dysfunction of adaptive relaxation is one of the causes of early satiety.

  1. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  2. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  3. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  5. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  6. Little Jiffy, Mark IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Rice, John

    1974-01-01

    In this paper three changes and one new development for the method of exploratory factor analysis (a second generation Little Jiffy) developed by Kaiser are described. Following this short description a step-by-step computer algorithm of the revised method, dubbed Little Jiffy, Mark IV is presented. (MP)

  7. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  8. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  9. Curiosity Leaves Its Mark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-29

    This image shows a close-up of track marks from the first test drive of NASA Curiosity rover. The rover arm is visible in the foreground. A close inspection of the tracks reveals a unique, repeating pattern: Morse code for JPL.

  10. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  11. Rehab Mark. Trainer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; And Others

    This manual is written for trainers working in the RehabMark system of employer development in vocational rehabilitation services. Videotapes are available to accompany lectures and other training activities, and materials for transparencies are provided in an appendix. After an introductory chapter, the first half of the manual contains training…

  12. Rehab Mark. Participant's Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; And Others

    This manual is the employer-focused component workbook of a vocational rehabilitation program. Goals of the RehabMark approach include increased exposure of the rehabilitation agency in the local community, expanded contributions by the agency to community members, and services benefiting numerous clients simultaneously. The first half of the…

  13. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  14. Intussusception caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in small intestine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anand, Priyanka; Singh, Sompal; Sarin, Namrata

    2017-09-12

    Intestinal intussusception is the most frequent cause of small bowel obstruction in children between the ages of 2 months and 5 years and often remains idiopathic in etiology, even after surgery. On microscopic examination, in intussusception normal mucosa is noted but in a few cases heterotopic tissue can be seen. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the small intestine is extremely rare except for its occurrence in remnants of Meckel's diverticulum. In view of the rarity of this condition, we report a case of ectopic gastric mucosa in the small intestine that was not associated with remnants of vitelline duct. A 6-year-old boy of Indo-Aryan ethnicity from India presented with episodes of acute abdominal pain and distension with vomiting and non-passage of stools. On ultrasonography intussusception was suspected. A laparotomy was done and the ileal segment (tip of intussusception) was sent for histopathological examination. On histopathology, sections from the tip of intussusception showed extensive gastric metaplasia of the mucosa. A definitive diagnosis of heterotopic gastric mucosa is established by histopathological examination and it is important to differentiate heterotopia, which is a developmental anomaly, from metaplasia, which is an acquired condition. Heterotopic gastric mucosa is usually clinically silent and surgical intervention can be considered in patients with complications such as gastrointestinal hemorrhage and intestinal obstruction.

  15. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  16. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  17. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Effects of Wall Distensibility in Hemodynamic Simulations of an Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    McGah, Patrick M.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e. mechanical homeostasis. The current study presents fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of a patient-specific model of a mature arteriovenous fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. The FSI results are compared with previously published data of the same model but with rigid walls. Ultrasound-derived wall motion measurements are also used to validate the FSI simulations of the wall motion. Very large time-averaged shear stresses, 10–15 Pa, are calculated at the fistula anastomosis in the FSI simulations, values which are much larger than what is typically thought to be the normal homeostatic shear stress in the peripheral vasculature. Although this result is systematically lower by as much as 50% compared to the analogous rigid-walled simulations, the inclusion of distensible vessel walls in hemodynamic simulations does not reduce the high anastomotic shear stresses to “normal” values. Therefore, rigid-walled analyses may be acceptable for identifying high shear regions of arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:24037281

  19. Effects of wall distensibility in hemodynamic simulations of an arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Aliseda, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. The current study presents fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of a patient-specific model of a mature arteriovenous fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. The FSI results are compared with previously published data of the same model but with rigid walls. Ultrasound-derived wall motion measurements are also used to validate the FSI simulations of the wall motion. Very large time-averaged shear stresses, 10-15 Pa, are calculated at the fistula anastomosis in the FSI simulations, values which are much larger than what is typically thought to be the normal homeostatic shear stress in the peripheral vasculature. Although this result is systematically lower by as much as 50% compared to the analogous rigid-walled simulations, the inclusion of distensible vessel walls in hemodynamic simulations does not reduce the high anastomotic shear stresses to "normal" values. Therefore, rigid-walled analyses may be acceptable for identifying high shear regions of arteriovenous fistulae.

  20. Neuroanatomic and behavioral correlates of urinary dysfunction induced by vaginal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Palacios, J L; Juárez, M; Morán, C; Xelhuantzi, N; Damaser, M S; Cruz, Y

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to use a model of simulated human childbirth in rats to determine the damage to genitourinary structures and behavioral signs of urinary dysfunction induced by vaginal distension (VD) in female rats. In experiment 1, the length of the genitourinary tract and the nerves associated with it were measured immediately after simulated human delivery induced by VD or sham (SH) procedures. Electroneurograms of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) were also recorded. In experiment 2, histological characteristics of the bladder and major pelvic ganglion of VD and SH rats were evaluated. In experiment 3, urinary parameters were determined in conscious animals during 6 h of dark and 6 h of light before and 3 days after VD or SH procedures. VD significantly increased distal vagina width (P < 0.001) and the length of the motor branch of the sacral plexus (P < 0.05), DNC (P < 0.05), and vesical nerves (P < 0.01) and decreased DNC frequency and amplitude of firing. VD occluded the pelvic urethra, inducing urinary retention, hematomas in the bladder, and thinness of the epithelial (P < 0.05) and detrusor (P < 0.01) layers of the bladder. Major pelvic ganglion parameters were not modified after VD. Rats dripped urine in unusual places to void, without the stereotyped behavior of micturition after VD. The neuroanatomic injuries after VD occur alongside behavioral signs of urinary incontinence as determined by a new behavioral tool for assessing micturition in conscious animals.

  1. Water deprivation increases Fos expression in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor neurons induced by right atrial distension in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Mauricio; Rorato, Rodrigo; Castro, Margaret; Machado, Benedito H; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L K

    2008-11-01

    Atrial mechanoreceptors, sensitive to stretch, contribute in regulating heart rate and intravascular volume. The information from those receptors reaches the nucleus tractus solitarius and then the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), known to have a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Neurons in the PVN synthesize CRF, AVP, and oxytocin (OT). Stimulation of atrial mechanoreceptors was performed in awake rats implanted with a balloon at the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium. Plasma ACTH, AVP, and OT concentrations and Fos, CRF, AVP, and OT immunolabeling in the PVN were determined after balloon inflation in hydrated and water-deprived rats. The distension of the balloon increased the plasma ACTH concentrations, which were higher in water-deprived than in hydrated rats (P < 0.05). In addition, the distension in the water-deprived group decreased plasma AVP concentrations (P < 0.05), compared with the respective control group. The distension increased the number of Fos- and double-labeled Fos/CRF neurons in the parvocellular PVN, which was higher in the water-deprived than in the hydrated group (P < 0.01). There was no difference in the Fos expression in magnocellular PVN neurons after distension in hydrated and water-deprived groups, compared with respective controls. In conclusion, parvocellular CRF neurons showed an increase of Fos expression induced by stimulation of right atrial mechanoreceptors, suggesting that CRF participates in the cardiovascular reflex adjustments elicited by volume loading. Activation of CRF neurons in the PVN by cardiovascular reflex is affected by osmotic stimulation.

  2. Effect of personalized external aortic root support on aortic root motion and distension in Marfan syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Izgi, Cemil; Nyktari, Evangelia; Alpendurada, Francisco; Bruengger, Annina Studer; Pepper, John; Treasure, Tom; Mohiaddin, Raad

    2015-10-15

    Personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) is a novel surgical approach with the aim of stabilizing the aortic root size and decreasing risk of dissection in Marfan syndrome patients. A bespoke polymer mesh tailored to each patient's individual aorta shape is produced by modeling and then surgically implanted. The aim of this study is to assess the mechanical effects of PEARS on the aortic root systolic downward motion (an important determinant of aortic wall stress), aortic root distension and on the left ventricle (LV). A cohort of 27 Marfan patients had a prophylactic PEARS surgery between 2004 and 2012 with 24 having preoperative and follow-up cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging studies. Systolic downward aortic root motion, aortic root distension, LV volumes/mass and mitral annular systolic excursion before the operation and in the latest follow-up were measured randomly and blinded. After a median follow-up of 50.5 (IQR 25.5-72) months following implantation of PEARS, systolic downward motion of aortic root was significantly decreased (12.6±3.6mm pre-operation vs 7.9±2.9mm latest follow-up, p<0.00001). There was a tendency for a decrease in systolic aortic root distension but this was not significant (median 4.5% vs 2%, p=0.35). There was no significant change in LV volumes, ejection fraction, mass and mitral annular systolic excursion in follow-up. PEARS surgery decreases systolic downward aortic root motion which is an important determinant of longitudinal aortic wall stress. Aortic wall distension and Windkessel function are not significantly impaired in the follow-up after implantation of the mesh which is also supported by the lack of deterioration of LV volumes or mass. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Giant mesenteric cyst: a rare cause of abdominal distension diagnosed with CT and managed with ultrasound-guided drainage

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Alexander; Ayre, Karyn; Wijeyekoon, Sanjaya

    2012-01-01

    This rare cystic lesion has an approximate incidence of 1 in 200 000. This patient complained of abdominal distension and was diagnosed with a giant mesenteric cyst measuring 26 cm in height using CT imaging. She underwent a successful ultrasound-guided drainage, which is not previously reported in the literature. This represents utilisation of an established procedure in a novel situation. PMID:22948982

  4. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology.

  5. Obstruction Marking and Lighting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-09-01

    Overhead Wires. Markers displayed on overhead wires should be spherical in shape with a diameter of not less than 20 incites, or may be of another shape...150 feet, or fraction thereof, of the overall length of the overhead line. These markers should be placed at equal intervals not more than 150 feet...obstructions by "colors." The distance between mark- ers on overhead wires located more than 15,000 feet from the refer- ence point of any landing area

  6. Role of endogenous gastric mucosal prostaglandins in the formation of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol, HCl and CH3COOH.

    PubMed

    Amioka, I; Arima, T; Nagashima, H

    1987-06-01

    The role of endogenous mucosal prostaglandins (PGs) in the production of acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML) was examined in rats. Aspirin, ethanol or 0.6 N-HCl was given intragastrically and 20% acetic acid was injected into the gastric wall. Endogenous gastric mucosal PG (A + B), PGE and PGF were determined by radioimmunoassay. Their gastric contents were markedly reduced by aspirin administration (p less than 0.001). The level of gastric mucosal PGs still remained low (p less than 0.001) after the aspirin-induced AGML began to heal. Furthermore, rats with AGML induced by ethanol, HCl or acetic acid, showed no decrease in endogenous gastric mucosal PGs compared with the controls. These findings indicated that endogenous PGs are not necessary for either the induction or healing of experimental AGML.

  7. Mist1 Expressing Gastric Stem Cells Maintain the Normal and Neoplastic Gastric Epithelium and Are Supported by a Perivascular Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Stancikova, Jitka; Sakitani, Kosuke; Asfaha, Samuel; Renz, Bernhard W; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A; Shibata, Wataru; Wang, Hongshan; Westphalen, Christoph B; Chen, Xiaowei; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Kim, Woosook; Khurana, Shradha S; Tailor, Yagnesh; Nagar, Karan; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Setlik, Wanda; Gershon, Michael D; Saha, Subhrajit; Ding, Lei; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G; Friedman, Richard A; Konieczny, Stephen F; Worthley, Daniel L; Korinek, Vladimir; Wang, Timothy C

    2015-12-14

    The regulation and stem cell origin of normal and neoplastic gastric glands are uncertain. Here, we show that Mist1 expression marks quiescent stem cells in the gastric corpus isthmus. Mist1(+) stem cells serve as a cell-of-origin for intestinal-type cancer with the combination of Kras and Apc mutation and for diffuse-type cancer with the loss of E-cadherin. Diffuse-type cancer development is dependent on inflammation mediated by Cxcl12(+) endothelial cells and Cxcr4(+) gastric innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). These cells form the perivascular gastric stem cell niche, and Wnt5a produced from ILCs activates RhoA to inhibit anoikis in the E-cadherin-depleted cells. Targeting Cxcr4, ILCs, or Wnt5a inhibits diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis, providing targets within the neoplastic gastric stem cell niche.

  8. Micro-CT image-derived metrics quantify arterial wall distensibility reduction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roger H.; Karau, Kelly L.; Molthen, Robert C.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2000-04-01

    We developed methods to quantify arterial structural and mechanical properties in excised rat lungs and applied them to investigate the distensibility decrease accompanying chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Lungs of control and hypertensive (three weeks 11% O2) animals were excised and a contrast agent introduced before micro-CT imaging with a special purpose scanner. For each lung, four 3D image data sets were obtained, each at a different intra-arterial contrast agent pressure. Vessel segment diameters and lengths were measured at all levels in the arterial tree hierarchy, and these data used to generate features sensitive to distensibility changes. Results indicate that measurements obtained from 3D micro-CT images can be used to quantify vessel biomechanical properties in this rat model of pulmonary hypertension and that distensibility is reduced by exposure to chronic hypoxia. Mechanical properties can be assessed in a localized fashion and quantified in a spatially-resolved way or as a single parameter describing the tree as a whole. Micro-CT is a nondestructive way to rapidly assess structural and mechanical properties of arteries in small animal organs maintained in a physiological state. Quantitative features measured by this method may provide valuable insights into the mechanisms causing the elevated pressures in pulmonary hypertension of differing etiologies and should become increasingly valuable tools in the study of complex phenotypes in small-animal models of important diseases such as hypertension.

  9. Pediatric primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Laszewski, M J

    1992-04-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma in the pediatric population is rare. We have described a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Burkitt's type) manifested as a gastric mass. Despite its rarity in children, this tumor should be treated aggressively, since long-term survival has been reported.

  10. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. Methods A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. Results The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×108 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26657453

  11. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan; Dong, Quanjiang

    2016-03-01

    Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×10 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis.

  12. Neural mechanism of acupuncture-modulated gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Qing; Zhu, Bing; Rong, Pei-Jing; Ben, Hui; Li, Yan-Hua

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the acupuncture-modulated gastric motility and its underlying neural mechanism. METHODS: Intragastric pressure and/or waves of gastric contraction in rats were recorded by intrapyloric balloon and changes of gastric motility induced by acupuncture stimulation were compared with the background activity before any stimulation. Gastro-vagal or splanchnic-sympathetic nerves were recorded or cut respectively for investigating the involvement of autonomic nerve pathways. Spinalization experiment was also performed. RESULTS: Acupuncture-stimulation by exciting Aδ and/or C afferent fibers, could only modulate gastric motility. Acupuncture-stimulation on fore- and hind-limbs evoked a moderate gastric motility followed by increased vagus discharges with unchanged sympathetic activity, while the same stimulus to the acupoints in abdomen resulted in reversed effects on gastric motility and autonomic nervous activities. The inhibitory gastric response was completely abolished by splanchnic denervation, but the facilitative gastric response to stimulation of acupoints in limbs was not influenced, which was opposite to the effect when vagotomy was performed. The similar depressive effects were produced by the stimulation at the acupoints homo-segmental to the gastric innervation in the animals with or without spinalization. However, the facilitation induced by the stimulation at the acupoints hetero-segmental to the gastric innervation was not observed in the spinalized animals. CONCLUSION: Facilitative effects of stimulating hetero-segmental acupoints are involved in the intact preparation of vagal nerves and spinal cord, while the inhibitory response induced by stimulating homo-segmental acupoints is involved in the intact preparation of sympathetic nerves. Only the acupuncture-stimulation with intensity over the threshold of Aδ and/or C afferent fibers can markedly modulate gastrointestinal motility. PMID:17278193

  13. Increased carotid intima-media thickness and reduced distensibility in human class III obesity: independent and differential influences of adiposity and blood pressure on the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Xiao L; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B; Dart, Anthony M; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity.

  14. Diabetic gastroparesis: an abnormality of gastric emptying of solids.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Clemente, R; Wathen, R

    1985-06-01

    Gastric emptying is delayed in subjects with gastroparesis diabeticorum. To ascertain whether solid or fluid gastric emptying is affected by visceral autonomic neuropathy, ten severe diabetics with gastroparesis and ten nondiabetic disease matched controls were studied. Subjects were screened to identify the presence or absence of autonomic neuropathy. The gastric emptying of fluids and solids was assessed by standard methodology utilizing a simultaneous dual radionuclide technique. If delayed gastric emptying was present on the initial study, metoclopramide (10mg IV bolus) was administered in a repeat study on a separate day. Screening modalities for autonomic neuropathy were markedly positive for the diabetic group, and were negative in the control group. The gastric emptying rate of fluids was normal in both groups and was not statistically different from previous standards developed using the same methodology (p = 0.53, analysis of covariance). The gastric emptying of solids was markedly delayed in the diabetic group in relation to the control group (p = .0035, analysis of covariance). Metoclopramide normalized delayed solid emptying rates without affecting fluid emptying rates.

  15. Obesity and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yongning; Qiao, Liang

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is an important public health problem worldwide. It increases the risk of many chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, obesity is a major risk factor for several types of cancer including gastric cancer. Possible mechanisms linking obesity with gastric cancer may include obesity associated gastro-oesophageal reflux, insulin resistance, altered levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and an abnormally increased blood level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have revealed an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection in obese patients, providing another clue for the increased incidence of gastric cancer in obese population. If this connection can be confirmed in animal models and a large cohort of patients, then eradicating H. pylori together with life style modification in obese individuals may help prevent the development of gastric cancer in the increasingly obese population.

  16. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  17. Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodin, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

  18. Mark 3 system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The Mark 3 very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) system, comprising a complete end to end VLBI system optimized for both high accuracy geodesy and radio astronomy, is described. The data flow, the data base handler system, and the field station component and configurations are briefly discussed. The use of mobile and transportable stations allows measurements to be taken from a large number of sites with relatively few sets of equipment. Fixed stations form a long term reference network for tying together the measurements with the mobile and transportable stations.

  19. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

  20. Case control study to identify risk factors for simple colonic obstruction and distension colic in horses.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, M H; Taylor, F G R; Proudman, C J; Edwards, G B; Smith, J E; French, N P

    2002-07-01

    A case control study was performed to identify risk factors for colic caused by simple colonic obstruction and distension (SCOD) in the horse. Case horses were recruited from 2 veterinary school clinics. Control horses were population based and matched by time of year. A number of risk factors were considered in the following areas: general carer and premises information; exercise information; husbandry information (housing- and pasture-related); feeding information; breeding information; behavioural information; travel information; preventive medicine information and previous medical information. All variables with a P value of <0.2 in the univariable analysis were considered for possible inclusion in a multivariable model. A final model, produced by a forward stepwise method, identified crib-biting or windsucking, an increasing number of hours spent in a stable, a recent change in a regular exercise programme, the absence of administration of an ivermectin or moxidectin anthelmintic in the previous 12 months and a history of travel in the previous 24 h as associated with a significantly increased risk of SCOD. An alternative final model, produced by a backwards elimination method, identified the same variables as the forward model with, in addition, a history of residing on the current establishment for less than 6 months, a history of a previous colic episode and the fewer times per year the teeth were checked/treated as associated with a significantly increased risk of SCOD. Three of the risk factors in this model were associated with a large increase in risk: stabling for 24 h/day, crib-biting/windsucking and travel in the previous 24 h.

  1. Effects and mechanisms of auricular electroacupuncture on visceral pain induced by colorectal distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Hu, Shasha; Zhang, Jianbin; Zhou, Jingzhu; Ran, Hongxing; Tang, Yichun; Chen, Jiande; Wang, Yinping

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of auricular electroacupuncture (AEA) on visceral pain induced by colorectal distension (CRD). Twenty-nine female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control; untreated CRD; CRD+AEA; and CRD+sham electroacupuncture (SEA). An electromyogram (EMG) was recorded for 120 min in the conscious state. After a 30 min baseline recording, CRD was performed in untreated CRD, AEA and SEA groups and lasted for 90 min. AEA and SEA were started at 30 min and lasted for 30 min. The EMG was recorded and analysed to evaluate the severity of visceral pain, indicated by the magnitude of the vasomotor response (VMR). mRNA expression of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1a (5-HT1a) receptor was measured separately in the colon and raphe nuclei using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. No differences were seen in the baseline EMG among the four groups (p>0.05). During pre-stimulation, VMR magnitude in the CRD, AEA and SEA groups increased compared with that in the control group (p<0.05). During stimulation, the VMR magnitude was significantly decreased in AEA but not SEA groups relative to the (untreated) CRD group. Similarly, mRNA expression of the 5-HT1a receptor in both the colon and raphe nuclei was lower in AEA but not SEA groups compared with the CRD group (p<0.05). AEA can ameliorate CRD-induced visceral pain in rats, and increase mRNA expression of the 5-HT1a receptor peripherally (in the colon) and centrally (in the raphe nuclei), suggesting a serotonergic mechanism of action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Baskın, Veysel; Bilge, S Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Güzel, Hasan; İlkaya, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    To investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness in colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral pain model. Male Sprague-Dawley (250-300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously. Paracetamol 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg did not change the visceromotor response (VMR) when compare with the control group. Meloxicam 2 and 4 mg/kg showed no effect but at doses of 6 mg/kg meloxicam significantly ([51.9 ± 6.4%] [P < 0.001]) decreased VMR compared with the control group. Metamizole 200 mg/kg did not change responses but dose of 400 and 600 mg/kg metamizole reduced VMR. Dexketoprofen 2 and 4 mg/kg did not cause a change in VMR but 6 mg/kg dose significantly reduced response compared with the control group ([43.9 ± 3.9%, 36.8 ± 2.8%, 34.8 ± 2.5%, 42.1 ± 4.8%, 40.7 ± 3.5%, 36.4 ± 2.7%, and 26.1 ± 2.2%]; from 10 min to 70 min, respectively, [P < 0.05]). Metamizole, dexketoprofen and meloxicam show antinociceptive effect with different duration of action on CRD-induced visceral pain model. This condition can be explained due to different chemical structures and different mechanisms which play a role in modulation of pain.

  3. Anterior Chamber Depth and Refractive Change in Late Postoperative Capsular Bag Distension Syndrome: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min Kyu; Wee, Won Ryang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Han, Young Keun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the characteristic findings and effects of laser capsulotomy in patients with late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS). Methods Twenty patients diagnosed with late postoperative CBDS between July 2010 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Before and 1 week after capsulotomy, changes in the anterior chamber depth (ACD) were assessed using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Changes in the refractive status and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) were also measured 1 week and 1 month after capsulotomy. For patients who received bilateral cataract surgery, preoperative ACD and axial length measured by IOLMaster were compared between the two eyes. Results Twenty-two eyes from 20 patients who had undergone laser capsulotomy showed a mean UCVA improvement of 0.27 ± 0.24 logMAR (range, 0.00–0.90). ACD was increased by an average of +0.04 mm (95% confidence interval, +0.01 to +0.06 mm, p = 0.034), equivalent to predicted refractive change of +0.10 D. The discrepancy between actual (+1.33 D) and predicted refractive change after capsulotomy suggests that refractive change may not be generated from IOL displacement in late postoperative CBDS. Preoperative ACD was deeper in the eye with late postoperative CBDS in all bilaterally pseudophakic patients (mean, 3.68 mm vs. 3.44 mm in the fellow eye, p = 0.068). Conclusions Late postoperative CBDS showed refractive changes that were resolved successfully after laser capsulotomy. The convex lens effects of opalescent material in the distended capsular bag may play a major role in myopic shift. A larger preoperative ACD is possibly associated with the development of late postoperative CBDS. PMID:25910003

  4. Anterior chamber depth and refractive change in late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Kyu; Wee, Won Ryang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Han, Young Keun

    2015-01-01

    To assess the characteristic findings and effects of laser capsulotomy in patients with late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS). Twenty patients diagnosed with late postoperative CBDS between July 2010 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Before and 1 week after capsulotomy, changes in the anterior chamber depth (ACD) were assessed using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Changes in the refractive status and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) were also measured 1 week and 1 month after capsulotomy. For patients who received bilateral cataract surgery, preoperative ACD and axial length measured by IOLMaster were compared between the two eyes. Twenty-two eyes from 20 patients who had undergone laser capsulotomy showed a mean UCVA improvement of 0.27 ± 0.24 logMAR (range, 0.00-0.90). ACD was increased by an average of +0.04 mm (95% confidence interval, +0.01 to +0.06 mm, p = 0.034), equivalent to predicted refractive change of +0.10 D. The discrepancy between actual (+1.33 D) and predicted refractive change after capsulotomy suggests that refractive change may not be generated from IOL displacement in late postoperative CBDS. Preoperative ACD was deeper in the eye with late postoperative CBDS in all bilaterally pseudophakic patients (mean, 3.68 mm vs. 3.44 mm in the fellow eye, p = 0.068). Late postoperative CBDS showed refractive changes that were resolved successfully after laser capsulotomy. The convex lens effects of opalescent material in the distended capsular bag may play a major role in myopic shift. A larger preoperative ACD is possibly associated with the development of late postoperative CBDS.

  5. Lung distensibility and airway function in intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (Pi MZ).

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, S F; Pereira, R P; Hunter, D; Blundell, G; Pride, N B

    1979-01-01

    We examined the role of intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency in predisposing to abnormalities of lung distensibility and airway function in 20 heterozygotes (Pi MZ) who were individually matched with a control Pi M subject of similar age, height, and smoking habits drawn from the same male, working population. There were no significant differences between the heterozygotes and their controls in the results of spirometry, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves (breathing air), single breath nitrogen test, arterialised capillary blood oxygen pressure, or single breath carbon monoxide transfer. Additional studies were made in 12 of the pairs of Pi MZ and Pi M subjects. Comparison of maximum expiratory flow-volume curves breathing air and 80% helium-20% oxygen showed no differences between the Pi MZ and Pi M subjects. Although airway function was similar in the two groups, four of 12 Pi MZ subjects showed abnormalities of the pressure-volume curve of the lung (reduction in lung recoil pressure, abnormal shape factor, increase in functional residual capacity). Abnormalities of washout of a helium-sulphur hexafluoride gas mixture, of a type previously described as characteristic of emphysema, were found in two of the men with abnormal pressure-volume curves. The results suggest that Pi MZ subjects have an increased susceptibility to alveolar abnormalities without increased abnormalities of airway function; this may explain the increased frequency of emphysema at necropsy despite many studies showing no predisposition to abnormal airway function in life. The functional changes we observed would be unlikely to cause symptoms. The risk of disablement from chronic lung disease appears to be only slightly enhanced by intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:316207

  6. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Baskın, Veysel; Bilge, S. Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Güzel, Hasan; İlkaya, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness in colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral pain model. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley (250–300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously. Results: Paracetamol 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg did not change the visceromotor response (VMR) when compare with the control group. Meloxicam 2 and 4 mg/kg showed no effect but at doses of 6 mg/kg meloxicam significantly ([51.9 ± 6.4%] [P < 0.001]) decreased VMR compared with the control group. Metamizole 200 mg/kg did not change responses but dose of 400 and 600 mg/kg metamizole reduced VMR. Dexketoprofen 2 and 4 mg/kg did not cause a change in VMR but 6 mg/kg dose significantly reduced response compared with the control group ([43.9 ± 3.9%, 36.8 ± 2.8%, 34.8 ± 2.5%, 42.1 ± 4.8%, 40.7 ± 3.5%, 36.4 ± 2.7%, and 26.1 ± 2.2%]; from 10 min to 70 min, respectively, [P < 0.05]). Conclusion: Metamizole, dexketoprofen and meloxicam show antinociceptive effect with different duration of action on CRD-induced visceral pain model. This condition can be explained due to different chemical structures and different mechanisms which play a role in modulation of pain. PMID:27114637

  7. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  8. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  9. Correlation between Fas and FasL proteins expression in normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gryko, Mariusz; Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna; Pryczynicz, Anna; Cepowicz, Dariusz; Kukliński, Adam; Czyżewska, Jolanta; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2011-01-01

    The study's objective was to assess the expressions of Fas and FasL proteins in gastric cancer in correlation with chosen clinicohistological parameters. Fas and FasL expression was analyzed in 68 patients with gastric cancer, using the immunohistochemical method. The expression of Fas was found to be lower in gastric cancer cells than in healthy mucosa, both in the lining epithelium and in glandular tubes (28% vs. 48% and 44%; p < 0.001). The expression of FasL was also markedly lower in cancer cells than in glandular tubes, yet higher than in the lining epithelium (51% vs. 73% and 14%; p < 0.01). Positive expressions of FasL and Fas were lower in less advanced gastric cancer cells (T1, T2), than in more advanced tumors (T3, T4), but only in the case of FasL was this difference statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our findings seem to confirm the theory of the impact of apoptotic disorders at the level of Fas receptor and FasL protein in the process of gastric cancer formation and growth, which is manifested in the varied expressions of these proteins in gastric cancer and in the normal lining and glandular epithelium of the stomach. However, the lack of significant differences in the expressions of Fas and FasL in correlation to other clinicohistological parameters indicates the existence of mechanisms that have a greater impact on the process of differentiation of gastric cancers. This in our opinion eliminates these proteins as prognostic factors.

  10. Laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Antonakis, Pantelis T; Ashrafian, Hutan; Isla, Alberto Martinez

    2014-10-21

    Gastric cancer poses a significant public health problem, especially in the Far East, due to its high incidence in these areas. Surgical treatment and guidelines have been markedly different in the West, but nowadays this debate is apparently coming to an end. Laparoscopic surgery has been employed in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer for two decades now, but with controversies about the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy. Despite these difficulties, the apparent advantages of the laparoscopic approach helped its implementation in early stage and distal gastric cancer, with an increase on the uptake for distal gastrectomy for more advanced disease and total gastrectomy. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence about the laparoscopic approach yet. In this review article we present and analyse the current status of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  11. [Gastric micropneumatosis: a rare endoscopic entity].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Miklós; Garamszegi, Mária; Bogner, Barna; Beró, Tamás

    2007-04-29

    The rarely described gastric micropneumatosis is caused by accumulating air in the mucus membrane. It may associate mainly with Helicobacter pylori positive atrophic gastritis or with pneumatosis due to gas producing bacteria or non-infectious causes. In our case the disorder was diagnosed in a 69 years old patient, taking clopidogrel, living in a nursing home, with history of hypertension, general arteriosclerosis, cerebral infarction, who was admitted to our department because of melaena and hematemesis. Upper endoscopy revealed a map-like, slightly raised, palm-sized area with yellowish spots on the posterior wall of the markedly inflamed stomach at the level of fundus - corpus border. Based on histology findings, that showed empty spaces among corpus glands, 10-20 microm in diameter, with no epithelial lining, the diagnosis was gastric micropneumatosis. The impaired mucosal integrity caused by mesenteric ischaemia and repeated vomiting were supposed as possible etiological factors, because 72 hours after the patient had stopped vomiting, control endoscopy showed regression, and the empty spaces were no more detectable in the histology samples. By this case report the authors would like to draw attention to a seldom diagnosed gastric injury, and discuss the factors that may predispose the development of gastric micropneumatosis.

  12. [Empirical study in the relation of gastric mucosal lesion with gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-feng; Xue, Ying-wei

    2008-09-01

    To study the precise cause and the specific procedure about gastric mucosal lesion in rats with water immersion-restraint stress(WRS). One hundred and forty-four Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups randomly: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I group. There were 16 rats in each group. A, B and C groups underwent gastric emptying determination. Emptying rate of gastric fluid was determined with radiate nuclide (99m)Tc. D, E and F groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after cleaning gastric contents and pylorus ligation. G, H and I groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after pylorus ligation without cleaning gastric contents. Gastric mucosal lesion ulcer index(UI) was evaluated. The relationship between of gastric mucosal lesion and gastric emptying rate and gastric acid secretion were examined. Gastric emptying rate decreased obviously when the WRS time was prolonged. There were significant differences among B (WRS 2 h), C group (WRS 4 h) and A group (controlled group) (P<0.01). There was also significant difference between B and C group (P<0.01).The rats' gastric acid secretion was inhibited significantly. The differences among E (WRS 2 h), F (WRS 4 h) and D groups (controlled group) were significant (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between F and E groups (P>0.05). The gastric mucosal lesions were aggravated with time of stress. Gastric contents cleaning could effectively prevent gastric mucosal lesions originated by stress .The operation had no influence on this test. There were significant gastric mucosal lesion UI in B and C groups compared with A group (P<0.01). The difference between B and C group was significant (P<0.01).There were no gastric mucosal lesions in A, D, E, F and G groups. However, There was significant difference between I and F group (P<0.01). No significant difference were found among A, D, E, F and G groups (P>0.05). There were significant difference between H and B group and also between I and C group

  13. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  14. Genetics of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Strand, Matthew S; Lockhart, Albert Craig; Fields, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer represents a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide despite a declining incidence. New molecular classification schemes developed from genomic and molecular analyses of gastric cancer have provided a framework for understanding this heterogenous disease, and early findings suggest these classifications will be relevant for designing and implementing new targeted therapies. The success of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively, has not been duplicated in gastric cancer, but trastuzumab and ramucirumab have demonstrated efficacy in select populations. New markers that predict therapeutic response are needed to improve patient selection for both targeted and immunotherapies.

  15. Chronic Gastric Volvulus with Laparoscopic Gastropexy after Endoscopic Reduction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Yeon; Park, Jung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon clinical entity. There are three types of gastric volvulus; organoaxial, mesenteroaxial and combined type. This condition can lead to a closed-loop obstruction or strangulation. Traditional surgical therapy for gastric volvulus is based on an open approach. Here we report a successful case of a patient with chronic gastric volvulus with a laparoscopic treatment. A 79-year-old woman came to the emergency department with epigastric pain accompanied by nausea for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography revealed markedly distended stomach with transposition of gastroesophageal Junction and gastric antrum. Barium meal study revealed presence of the antrum was folded over 180 degrees that was located above gastroesophageal junction. We attempted an endoscopic reduction, but it was unsuccessful. The patient got laparoscopic anterior gastropexy. Based on our result, laparoscopic gastropexy can be considered as a good choice of the treatment for gastric volvulus. PMID:26161290

  16. Lower Esophageal Thickening Due to a Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band.

    PubMed

    Makker, Jitin; Conklin, Jeffrey; Muthusamy, V Raman

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) is a surgical device to treat obesity that is widely used and generally considered to be safe. We report an adverse event related to the physiological and mechanical changes that occur after LAGB placement, namely chronic obstruction resulting in marked lower esophageal thickening.

  17. Lower Esophageal Thickening Due to a Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jitin; Conklin, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) is a surgical device to treat obesity that is widely used and generally considered to be safe. We report an adverse event related to the physiological and mechanical changes that occur after LAGB placement, namely chronic obstruction resulting in marked lower esophageal thickening. PMID:26504870

  18. Local steroid injection into the artificial ulcer created by endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric cancer: prevention of gastric deformity.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Rafiq, K; Kobara, H; Fujihara, S; Nishiyama, N; Kobayashi, M; Himoto, T; Haba, R; Hagiike, M; Izuishi, K; Okano, K; Suzuki, Y; Masaki, T

    2012-07-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of large gastric lesions results in an extensive artificial ulcer that can lead to marked gastric deformity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate therapeutic efficacy in the prevention of gastric deformity of local triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) injection into the extensive artificial ulcer following ESD. A total of 45 patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned by the sealed-envelope randomization method to either local TCA injections (n = 21) or sham-control (n = 20) groups. Two clips were placed at the two maximum outer edges of the artificial ulcer after the lesion had been resected (Day 0). Local TCA injections were performed on postoperative Day 5 and Day 12. The distance between the two clips was measured by endoscopic measuring forceps on Days 5, 12, 30, and 60. Granulation formation and gastric deformity were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) on Days 30 and 60. Local TCA injection did not alter clip-to-clip distance on postoperative Day 60, and formation of flat granulation tissue over the ulcer was followed by regenerative mucosa without any gastric deformity. The sham-control group showed significant shortening of clip-to-clip distance compared with the local steroid-injected group and protruded forms of granulation tissue with mucosal convergence. Histological evaluation revealed prominent growth of neovessels, swelling, and marked increases in endothelial cells in the local steroid-injected group compared with the sham-control group. Local steroid injection into the floor of a post-ESD artificial ulcer promotes the formation of granulation tissue at an early stage of the healing process leading to regeneration of gastric mucosa without mucosal convergence or gastric deformity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Neonatal gastric outlet obstruction by isolated pyloric atresia, an often forgotten diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mboyo, Antoine; Clermidi, Pauline; Podevin, Guillaume; Patkowski, Dariusz; Baglaj, Maciej; Gerus, Sylwester; Lalioui, Abdelfetah; Napoli-Cocci, Stéphan de; Robert, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Pyloric atresia (PA) is a rare condition, and may be misdiagnosed and especially confused for duodenal atresia pre-operatively. We looked for clues to avoiding pre-operative misdiagnosis and hence allow the best neonatal medical and surgical management. A retrospective case-note review was carried out of the five patients managed in four centres with the diagnosis of isolated PA. We focused on antenatal ultrasound findings, postnatal clinical and radiological features, operative findings, surgical procedures and outcomes. Four patients had polyhydramnios and one double bubble sign on antenatal ultrasound. After birth, non-bilious vomiting and upper abdominal distension were the main symptoms. Gastric decompression showed non-bilious gastric fluid. Radiological findings were a large gastric air bubble with no gas beyond in all cases. The diagnosis of duodenal atresia was postulated at first in all cases. The diagnosis of PA was established peroperatively. One patient referred late, died 13-day post-operatively of cardiopulmonary failure secondary to a severe pneumonia that may be related to aspiration syndrome. Outcomes were otherwise satisfactory. Even though it is a rare diagnosis, PA has a specific clinical and radiological presentation underlined here that should be kept in mind when managing a neonate with a gastric outlet obstruction.

  20. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up.

  1. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up. PMID:27162596

  2. Rabeprazole exhibits antiproliferative effects on human gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    GU, MENGLI; ZHANG, YAN; ZHOU, XINXIN; MA, HAN; YAO, HANGPING; JI, FENG

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H+/K+-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the α- and β-subunits of H+/K+-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent. PMID:25202402

  3. Gastric Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... much you can eat or by reducing the absorption of nutrients, or both. Gastric bypass and other ... you can eat at one sitting and reducing absorption of nutrients. The surgeon cuts across the top ...

  4. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  5. Dermatoglyphs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zivanović-Posilović, Gordana; Milicić, Jasna; Bozicević, Dubravko

    2003-06-01

    Gastric cancer is very common malignant disease, etiology of which is still unknown. Some studies consider that it is caused by a joint activity of both genetic and environmental factors. Digito-palmar dermatoglyphs were already used to determine hereditary base of some malignant diseases (breast, lung and colorectal cancer) and it was the reason for investigations of the correlation of their quantity features at patients with gastric cancer (36 males and 32 females) and the control groups of phenotypically healthy persons (50 males and 50 females). By performing statistical data processing of the multivariate and univariate analysis, as well as of discriminant ones, it was possible to prove the existence of heterogeneity between the investigated groups. Higher incidence of gastric cancer and the blood group A could be confirmed, as well. From the obtained findings can be concluded, that the results of quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphs affirm the existence of genetic predisposition for development of gastric cancer.

  6. Diet after gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  7. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  8. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  9. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  10. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, H; Perry, A; Stewart, C J; Jones, R; Krishnan, A; Robertson, A G; Bourke, S; Doe, S; Cummings, S P; Anderson, A; Forrest, T; Griffin, S M; Brodlie, M; Pearson, J; Ward, C

    2016-06-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance.

  11. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  12. Importance of gastrin in the pathogenesis and treatment of gastric tumors

    PubMed Central

    Burkitt, Michael D; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D Mark

    2009-01-01

    In addition to regulating acid secretion, the gastric antral hormone gastrin regulates several important cellular processes in the gastric epithelium including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, tissue remodelling and angiogenesis. Elevated serum concentrations of this hormone are caused by many conditions, particularly hypochlorhydria (as a result of autoimmune or Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-induced chronic atrophic gastritis or acid suppressing drugs) and gastrin producing tumors (gastrinomas). There is now accumulating evidence that altered local and plasma concentrations of gastrin may play a role during the development of various gastric tumors. In the absence of H pylori infection, marked hypergastrinemia frequently results in the development of gastric enterochromaffin cell-like neuroendocrine tumors and surgery to remove the cause of hypergastrinemia may lead to tumor resolution in this condition. In animal models such as transgenic INS-GAS mice, hypergastrinemia has also been shown to act as a cofactor with Helicobacter infection during gastric adenocarcinoma development. However, it is currently unclear as to what extent gastrin also modulates human gastric adenocarcinoma development. Therapeutic approaches targeting hypergastrinemia, such as immunization with G17DT, have been evaluated for the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma, with some promising results. Although the mild hypergastrinemia associated with proton pump inhibitor drug use has been shown to cause ECL-cell hyperplasia and to increase H pylori-induced gastric atrophy, there is currently no convincing evidence that this class of agents contributes towards the development of gastric neuroendocrine tumors or gastric adenocarcinomas in human subjects. PMID:19115463

  13. Role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension during experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Wim; De Man, Joris G; De Schepper, Heiko U; Bult, Hidde; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2013-01-05

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptor antagonists and their synergism on the visceromotor responses during experimental colitis in rats. Colitis was induced in rats by a TNBS/ethanol enema at day 0 and was assessed at day 3 using endoscopy, histology and a myeloperoxidase assay. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension (10-80 mmHg) was evaluated in conscious rats before (control condition) and 3 days after 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) administration (colitis condition). At day 3, visceromotor responses were assessed before and after treatment with a TRPV1 (BCTC) or TRPA1 (TCS-5861528) receptor antagonist either alone or in combination and either after intraperitoneal or intrathecal administration. Endoscopy, microscopy and myeloperoxidase activity indicated severe colonic tissue damage 3 days after TNBS administration. Colorectal distension-evoked visceromotor responses demonstrated a 2.9-fold increase during acute colitis (day 3) compared to control conditions. Intraperitoneal and intrathecal administration of BCTC or TCS-5861528 partially reversed the colitis-induced increase in visceromotor responses compared to control conditions (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal blockade of TRPA1 plus TRPV1 further decreased the enhanced visceromotor responses at high distension pressures (40-80 mmHg) compared to blockade of either TRPV1 or TRPA1 alone. This synergistic effect was not seen after combined intrathecal blockade of TRPA1 plus TRPV1. The present study demonstrates that in the rat, TRPV1 and TRPA1 play a pivotal role in visceral hypersensitivity at the peripheral and spinal cord level during acute TNBS colitis. Target interaction, however, is presumably mediated via a peripheral site of action.

  14. Effect of BL-21 (Wei-Yu) acupoint stimulation on gastric motility following preanesthetic treatment in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, H Y; Kwon, O K; Nam, T C

    2000-12-01

    In acupuncture practice of animals, preanesthetics sometimes are needed. The purpose of this study was to select the ideal chemical restraint at acupuncture for gastric motility. Nine healthy mixed breed dogs weighed 10-21 kg and aged 1-3 years old were used in this study. Two EMG surface electrodes were placed between the seromuscular and the mucosal layer of pylorus. Twenty minutes after feeding normal gastric motility was recorded for 60 minutes using physiograph (Narco-Biosystem). Then preanesthetic treated-gastric motility was observed for 30 minutes. Preanesthetics used were xylazine, diazepam, and acepromazine. Acupuncture needles were inserted to BL-21 (Wei-Yu) acupoint, and then changes of gastric motility were recorded for 60 minutes. The gastric motility following xylazine administration (1 mg/kg, IV) was markedly decreased. BL-21 (Wei-Yu) acupoints stimulation did not alter xylazine-induced depression of gastric motility. The diazepam (1 mg/kg IV) treated-gastric motility was increased mildly 20 minutes after drug administration. BL-21 (Wei-Yu) acupoint stimulation after diazepam administration enhanced gastric motility significantly. The gastric motility following acepromazine (0.3 mg/kg, IM) administration was not changed compared with normal gastric motility. Application of traditional acupuncture at BL-21 (Wei-Yu) significantly increased the gastric motility. Based on these results, acepromazine and diazepam could be acceptable chemical restraints for acupuncture therapy of gastric motility, but xylazine couldn't be.

  15. Inhibitory Effects and Sympathetic Mechanisms of Distension in the Distal Organs on Small Bowel Motility and Slow Waves in Canine.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2015-12-01

    Rectal distension (RD) is known to induce intestinal dysmotility. Few studies were performed to compare effects of RD, colon distension (CD) and duodenal distension (DD) on small bowel motility. This study aimed to investigate effects and underlying mechanisms of distensions in these regions on intestinal motility and slow waves. Eight dogs chronically implanted with a duodenal fistula, a proximal colon fistula, and intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in six sessions: control, RD, CD, DD, RD + guanethidine, and CD + guanethidine. Postprandial intestinal contractions and slow waves were recorded for the assessment of intestinal motility. The electrocardiogram was recorded for the assessment of autonomic functions. (1) Isobaric RD and CD suppressed intestinal contractions (contractile index: 6.0 ± 0.4 with RD vs. 9.9 ± 0.9 at baseline, P = 0.001, 5.3 ± 0.2 with CD vs. 7.7 ± 0.8 at baseline, P = 0.008). Guanethidine at 3 mg/kg iv was able to partially block the effects. (2) RD and CD reduced the percentage of normal intestinal slow waves from 92.1 ± 2.8 to 64.2 ± 3.4 % (P < 0.001) and from 90 ± 2.7 to 69.2 ± 3.7 % (P = 0.01), respectively. Guanethidine could eliminate these inhibitory effects. (3) DD did not induce any changes in small intestinal contractions and slow waves (P > 0.05). (4) The spectral analysis of the heart rate variability showed that both RD and CD increased sympathetic activity (LF) and reduced vagal activity (HF) (P < 0.05). Isobaric RD and CD could inhibit postprandial intestinal motility and impair intestinal slow waves, which were mediated via the sympathetic pathway. However, DD at a site proximal to the measurement site did not seem to impair small intestinal contractions or slow waves.

  16. A case report of chylous ascites after gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Capristo, Esmeralda; Spuntarelli, Valerio; Treglia, Giorgio; Arena, Vincenzo; Giordano, Alessandro; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2016-01-01

    We described the case of a highly aggressive antral gastric carcinoma with a scarce symptomatology, in a patient undergone Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) for obesity. A 61 year-old white man in apparent good health, who underwent laparoscopic RYGB for obesity 18 months earlier, with a loss of 30kg, reported a sudden abdominal distension and breath shortness with a weight gain of 5kg in few days. Endoscopy of both upper gastro-intestinal tract and the colon were performed along with CT-scan and positron-emission tomography (PET) CT- scan. A biopsy of the palpable lymph node in the left supraclavicular fossa was taken for analysis. Abdominal paracentesis produced milky fluid, while citrine pleural fluid was aspirated by thoracentesis. Immunochemistry studies of the lymph node biopsy revealed tumor cells positive for cytokeratin (CK)7 and CK20, CDX2 and CAM 5.2 and negative for HER2 and TTF1 suggesting colon cancer. The colon and upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were normal. A CT-scan and positron-emission tomography (PET) with 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) showed an intense FDG-uptake in the gastric antrum and in the lymph nodal chains. Given these findings, a diagnosis of poorly differentiated antral gastric carcinoma with multiple lymph node metastases was raised.The patients died 4 months after diagnosis. RYGB is a widely performed bariatric operation and no data are reported on the risk of developing gastric cancer in the excluded stomach. This case report suggests that great attention should be devoted to post-RYGB patients for an early diagnosis of malignant gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Excessive coupling of the salience network with intrinsic neurocognitive brain networks during rectal distension in adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolin; Silverman, Alan; Kern, Mark; Ward, B. Douglas; Li, Shi-Jiang; Shaker, Reza; Sood, Manu R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The neural network mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are incompletely understood. It has been proposed that an intrinsic salience network plays an important role in chronic pain and IBS symptoms. Using neuroimaging, we examined brain responses to rectal distension in adolescent IBS patients, focusing on determining the alteration of salience network integrity in IBS and its functional implications in current theoretical frameworks. We hypothesized that (1) brain responses to visceral stimulation in adolescents are similar to those in adults, and (2) IBS is associated with an altered salience network interaction with other neurocognitive networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), as predicted by the theoretical models. Methods IBS patients and controls received subliminal and liminal rectal distension during imaging. Stimulus-induced brain activations were determined. Salience network integrity was evaluated by functional connectivity of its seed regions activated by rectal distension in the insular and cingulate cortices. Key Results Compared with controls, IBS patients demonstrated greater activation to rectal distension in neural structures of the homeostatic afferent and emotional arousal networks, especially the anterior cingulate and insular cortices. Greater brain responses to liminal vs. subliminal distension were observed in both groups. Particularly, IBS is uniquely associated with an excessive coupling of the salience network with the DMN and ECN in their key frontal and parietal node areas. Conclusions & Inferences Our study provided consistent evidence supporting the theoretical predictions of altered salience network functioning as a neuropathological mechanism of IBS symptoms. PMID:26467966

  18. Levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2016-02-01

    Levodopa possesses antinociceptive actions against several somatic pain conditions. However, we do not know at this moment whether levodopa is also effective to visceral pain. The present study was therefore performed to clarify whether levodopa is effective to visceral pain and its mechanisms. Visceral sensation was evaluated by colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Subcutaneously (80 mg/rat) or intracisternally (2.5 μg/rat) administered levodopa significantly increased the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR in conscious rats. The dose difference to induce the antinociceptive action suggests levodopa acts centrally to exert its antinociceptive action against colonic distension. While neither sulpiride, a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, nor SCH23390, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist by itself changed the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR, the intracisternally injected levodopa-induced antinociceptive action was significantly blocked by pretreatment with subcutaneously administered sulpiride but not SCH23390. Treatment with intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, significantly blocked the subcutaneously administered levodopa-induced antinociceptive action. These results suggest that levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain.

  19. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  20. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  1. Research pilot Mark Pestana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-16

    Mark Pestana is a research pilot and project manager at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. He is a pilot for the Beech B200 King Air, the T-34C and the Predator B. He flies the F-18 Hornet as a co-pilot and flight test engineer. Pestana has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of military and civilian flight experience. He was also a flight engineer on the NASA DC-8 flying laboratory. Pestana was the project manager and pilot for the Hi–rate Wireless Airborne Network Demonstration flown on the NASA B200 research aircraft. He flew B200 research missions for the X-38 Space Integrated Inertial Navigation Global Positioning System experiment. Pestana also participated in several deployments of the DC-8, including Earth science expeditions ranging from hurricane research over the Caribbean Sea to ozone studies over the North Pole, atmospheric chemistry over the South Pacific, rain forest health in Central America, Rocky Mountain ice pack assessment, and volcanic and tectonic activity around the Pacific Rim. He came to Dryden as a DC-8 mission manager in June 1998 from NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, where he served as the Earth and Space Science discipline manager for the International Space Station Program at Johnson. Pestana also served as a flight crew operations engineer in the Astronaut Office, developing the controls, displays, tools, crew accommodations and procedures for on-orbit assembly, test, and checkout of the International Space Station. He led the analysis and technical negotiations for modification of the Russian Soyuz spacecraft as an emergency crew return vehicle for space station crews. He joined the U.S. Air Force Reserve in 1991 and held various positions as a research and development engineer, intelligence analyst, and Delta II launch vehicle systems engineer. He retired from the U.S. Air Force Reserve with the rank of colonel in 2005. Prior to 1990, Pestana was on active duty with the U.S. Air Force as the director of mi

  2. Effect of psychotropic drugs on gastric ulcers induced by immobilization: Increased protective effect of amitriptyline caused by chlordiazepoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, J. E.; Huerlimann, A.

    1980-01-01

    Amitriptyline, but not chlordiazepoxide, protects rats from the occurrence of gastric erosions and ulcers following immobilization. When, however, chlordiazepoxide is given together with amitriptyline the protective effect of the latter is markedly increased.

  3. A review on gastric diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future. PMID:22257431

  4. Gastric dysrhythmias and transient sleep impairment in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Lin, Hans Hsienhong

    2004-02-01

    Studies have shown that impaired sleep quality is associated with exacerbation of gastrointestinal problems. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectrical activity and visceral perception to fullness before and after a water load in healthy volunteers with or without transient sleep impairment. Twenty-eight male subjects (mean age, 39.3 years; range, 14-58 years) were studied. The subjective sleep quality was measured by visual analogue scale (bad [0] to very good [100]. Gastric myoelectrical activity was recorded and analyzed before and after the subjects ingested water until full. Subjects were stratified into two groups, i.e., with impaired sleep quality (Group A [Gr-A]; n = 15; mean age, 35.1 years) and with fine sleep quality (Group B [Gr-B]; n = 13; mean age, 40.7 years). Gr-A subjects ingested less water (514 +/- 21 ml) compared to the Gr-B subjects (621 +/- 50 ml: P < 0.05). After ingestion of the water load, Gr-A had significantly less 2.5- to 3.75-cpm activity (28.0 +/- 4%) by 21-30 min and more tachygastric activity (28 +/- 2 and 30 +/- 4%) by 11-30 min compared with Gr-B (43 +/- 5, 20 +/- 2, and 18 +/- 2%, respectively; P < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between sleep quality and the percentage of power in the normal range by 21-30 min after the water load (r = 0.5, P < 0.01). In contrast, a negative correlation was observed between sleep quality and tachygastric activity by 11-20 min (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) and 21-30 min (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) after ingestion of water. Transient sleep impairment is associated with increases in gastric dysrhythmia and altered perception to gastric distension in response to the water load. The study provides a potential clue that transient sleep impairment might influence gastric myoelectrical functioning in healthy individuals.

  5. Effects of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for oesophago-gastric cancer on neuro-muscular gastric function.

    PubMed

    Sung, E Z H; Arasaradnam, R P; Jarvie, E M; James, S; Goodyear, S J; Borman, R A; Snead, D; Sanger, G J; Nwokolo, C U

    2012-12-01

    Delayed gastric emptying symptoms are often reported after chemotherapy. This study aims to characterise the effects of chemotherapy on gastric neuro-muscular function. Patients undergoing elective surgery for oesophago-gastric cancer were recruited. Acetylcholinesterase, nNOS, ghrelin receptor and motilin expressions were studied in gastric sections from patients receiving no chemotherapy (n = 3) or oesophageal (n = 2) or gastric (n = 2) chemotherapy. A scoring system quantified staining intensity (0-3; no staining to strong). Stomach sections were separately suspended in tissue baths for electrical field stimulation (EFS) and exposure to erythromycin or carbachol; three patients had no chemotherapy; four completed cisplatin-based chemotherapy within 6 weeks prior to surgery. AChE expression was markedly decreased after chemotherapy (scores 2.3 ± 0.7, 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0 ± 0 in non-chemotherapy, oesophageal- and gastric-chemotherapy groups (p < 0.03 each) respectively. Ghrelin receptor and motilin expression tended to increase (ghrelin: 0.7 ± 0.4 vs 2.0 ± 0.4 and 1.2 ± 0.2 respectively; p = 0.04 and p = 0.2; motilin: 0.7 ± 0.5 vs 2.2 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.7; p = 0.06 and p = 0.16). Maximal contraction to carbachol was 3.7 ± 0.7 g and 1.9 ± 0.8 g (longitudinal muscle) and 3.4 ± 0.4 g and 1.6 ± 0.6 (circular) in non-chemotherapy and chemotherapy tissues respectively (p < 0.05 each). There were loss of AChE and reduction in contractility to carbachol. The tendency for ghrelin receptors to increase suggests an attempt to upregulate compensating systems. Our study offers a mechanism by which chemotherapy markedly alters neuro-muscular gastric function.

  6. Primary gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Akwaa, Ahmad M; Siddiqui, Neelam; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this review is to describe the various aspects of primary gastric lymphoma and the treatment options currently available. METHODS: After a systematic search of Pubmed, Medscape and MDconsult, we reviewed and retrieved literature regarding gastric lymphoma. RESULTS: Primary gastric lymphoma is rare however, the incidence of this malignancy is increasing. Chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been considered a major predisposing factor for MALT lymphoma. Immune histochemical marker studies and molecular biology utilizing polymerase chain reaction have facilitated appropriate diagnosis and abolished the need for diagnostic surgical resection. Advances in imaging techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) have helped evaluation of tumor extension and invasion. The clinical course and prognosis of this disease is dependent on histopathological sub-type and stage at the time of diagnosis. Controversy remains regarding the best treatment for early stages of this disease. Chemotherapy, surgery and combination have been studied and shared almost comparable results with survival rate of 70%-90%. However, chemotherapy possesses the advantage of preserving gastric anatomy. Radiotherapy alone has been tried and showed good results. Stage IIIE, IVE disease treatment is solely by chemotherapy and surgical resection has been a remote consideration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that methods of diagnosis and staging of the primary gastric lymphoma have dramatically improved. The modalities of treatment are many and probably chemotherapy is superior because of high success rate, preservation of stomach and tolerable complications. PMID:14695759

  7. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  8. Drugs and gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Cooke, A R

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aspirin, salicylate formulations and substitutes, smoking (nicotine), indomethacin, corticosteroids, phenylbutazone, ethanol, caffeine and reserpine on the gastric mucosa are discussed. The damaging effects of the drugs are considered in terms of the gastric mucosal barrier, gastric erosions, microbleeding and haematemesis and melaena and finally whether they cause peptic ulcer. There is suggestive evidence that unbuffered aspirin is a cause of haematemesis and melaena and of gastric ulcer but the incidence rates for hospital admission are low, being 10 to 15 per 100,000 heavy users per year. Aspirin in solution as acetylsalicylate buffered to maintain a neutral pH protects against gastric damage. Newer aspirin substitutes (mefenamic acid, fenoprofen, naproxen, tolmetin and ibuprofen) appear to cause less faecal blood loss than aspirin but their long-term effects have not been fully evaluated. Smoking is definitely associated with peptic ucler but the mechanism is unknown. Corticosteroids are probably not ulcerogenic despite clinical bias that they are. Indomethacin and phenylbutazone may be ulcerogenic but there is insufficient evidence to make firm judgements. Ethanol, caffeine and reserpine, on available evidence, are probably not ulcerogenic.

  9. Impaired gastric ulcer healing in diabetic mice: role of methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Naito, Y; Takagi, T; Oya-Ito, T; Okada, H; Suzuki, T; Hirata, I; Hirai, M; Uchiyama, K; Handa, O; Uchida, K; Yoshikawa, T

    2009-12-01

    Methylglyoxal is a reactive dicarbonyl compound produced from cellular glycolytic intermediates that reacts non-enzymatically with proteins to form products such as argpyrimidine at arginine residue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of methylglyoxal in the delayed healing of gastric ulcer in diabetes, and to identify the methylglyoxal-modified proteins as a target molecule of this modification. Using male C57BL/6 mice, diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin and gastric ulcers were produced by the focal application of 40% of acetic acid to the serosal surface of the stomach. In order to evaluate the effect of OPB-9195, an inhibitor of methylglyoxal modification, on gastric ulcer healing, mice were given orally OPB-9195 (30 mg/kg) twice daily for 14 days, one week before and after the injection of streptozotocin. The area of gastric ulcer on day 7 was significantly increased in diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice, indicating delayed ulcer healing. This increase in ulcer area in diabetic mice was significantly reversed by the treatment with OPB-9195 without affecting blood glucose levels. Proteomics analysis showed the methylglyoxal-modification of peroxiredoxin 6 proteins in the diabetic gastric mucosa around gastric ulcer, and this modification was markedly inhibited by the treatment with OPB-9195. In conclusion, the present study suggests a link of increased methylglyoxal modification of proteins including peroxiredoxin 6 to the delayed gastric ulcer healing in diabetes, and also shows the therapeutic potential of the inhibitor of methylglyoxal modification for the treatment of diabetic gastric ulcers.

  10. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  11. SSAT State-of-the-Art Conference: Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jeffrey A; Kim, Teresa; Kim, Joseph; McCarter, Martin D; Kelly, Kaitlyn J; Wong, Joyce; Sicklick, Jason K

    2017-08-14

    The current era of gastric surgery is marked by low morbidity and mortality rates, innovative strategies to approach resections with a minimally invasive fashion or hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), as well as improved understanding of the biology of sporadic and hereditary stromal, neuroendocrine, and epithelial malignancies. In 2017, the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract convened a State-of-the-Art Conference on Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors with both international experts and emerging leaders in the field of gastric surgery. Martin D. McCarter, MD of the University of Colorado discussed the current management of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Kaitlyn J. Kelly, MD of the University of California, San Diego discussed the management of gastric carcinoid tumors. Jeffrey A. Norton of Stanford University discussed recent advances in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma including a focus on hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Joseph Kim, MD of Stony Brook University discussed a systematic approach to minimally invasive gastrectomy for cancer. Joyce Wong, MD of Pennsylvania State University discussed the role for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC for gastric adenocarcinoma. This review provides gastrointestinal surgeons with a concise update on the current surgical management of gastric tumors.

  12. HOTTIP and HOXA13 are oncogenes associated with gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuai; Liu, Junsong; Guo, Shaochun; He, Shicai; Qiu, Guanglin; Lu, Jing; Wang, Jin; Fan, Lin; Zhao, Wei; Che, Xiangming

    2016-06-01

    A long non-coding RNA named HOTTIP (HOXA transcript at the distal tip) coordinates the activation of various 5' HOXA genes which encode master regulators of development through targeting the WDR5/MLL complex. HOTTIP acts as an oncogene in several types of cancers, whereas its biological function in gastric cancer has never been studied. In the present study, we investigated the role of HOTTIP in gastric cancer. We found that HOTTIP was upregulated in gastric cancer cell lines. Knockdown of HOTTIP in gastric cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, downregulation of HOTTIP led to decreased expression of homeobox protein Hox-A13 (HOXA13) in gastric cancer cell lines. HOXA13 was involved in HOTTIP‑induced malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer cells. Our data showed that the levels of HOTTIP and HOXA13 were both markedly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with their counterparts in non-tumorous tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of HOTTIP and HOXA13 were both higher in gastric cancer which was poorly differentiated, at advanced TNM stages and exhibited lymph node-metastasis. Spearman analyses indicated that HOTTIP and HOXA13 had a highly positive correlation both in non-tumor mucosae and cancer lesions. Collectively, these findings suggest that HOTTIP and HOXA13 play important roles in gastric cancer progression and provide a new insight into therapeutic treatment for the disease.

  13. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    PubMed

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  14. Noise and gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Tomei, F; Papaleo, B; Baccolo, T P; Persechino, B; Spanò, G; Rosati, M V

    1994-09-01

    In view of the increasing incidence of diseases such as gastritis and ulcers in workers exposed to noise, we assessed whether noise does in fact affect gastric secretion. Then, considering the conflicting findings published on the effects of noise on gastric secretion, we also investigated whether the response was related to differences in baseline secretion, and whether it was further modified by a hydroalcoholic meal. We studied 50 dyspeptic subjects engaged in various types of work but not occupationally exposed to noise. They were exposed to a "pink noise" stimulus of 95 dB administered through earphones, lasting 15 minutes. Gastric secretion sometimes remained unchanged, sometimes increased, or sometimes even decreased in relation to the baseline hydrochloric acid secretion. The hydroalcoholic meal did not generally modify the effects of noise. These findings might help explain the differences in previous reports on this question.

  15. The Mark III VLBI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Levine, J. I.; Nesman, E. F.; Webber, J. C.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geodetic measurements have errors in centimeter range. Collection of three reports describes both equipment and results of some measurements taken with Mark III very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. Has demonstrated high accuracy over short baselines, where phase-delay measurements used. Advanced hardware, called Mark III A, developed to improve system performance and efficiency. Original Mark III hardware and III A subsystem upgrades developed as part of NASA Crustal Dynamics Project at Haystack Observatory.

  16. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  17. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  18. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  19. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  20. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are…

  1. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are…

  2. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  3. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  4. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ŁaŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young; Penny, Robert; Gardner, Johanna; Kemkes, Ariane; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Curley, Erin; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Engel, Jay; Bartlett, John; Albert, Monique; Park, Do-Youn; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Landreneau, Rodney; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; Cho, Eunjung; Ladanyi, Marc; Tang, Laura; McCall, Shannon J.; Park, Young S.; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Ajani, Jaffer; Camargo, M. Constanza; Alonso, Shelley; Ayala, Brenda; Jensen, Mark A.; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Walton, Jessica; Wan, Yunhu; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Sheth, Margi; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Davidsen, Tanja; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Burton, Robert; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  5. Myelinated primary afferents of the sacral spinal cord responding to slow filling and distension of the cat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Häbler, H J; Jänig, W; Koltzenburg, M

    1993-04-01

    1. A total of sixty-five sacral afferent neurones with myelinated fibres supplying the urinary bladder was recorded from the sacral roots S2 in anaesthetized cats. All afferent units were identified with electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve. The discharge properties were quantitatively evaluated using slow filling at rates of 1-2 ml min-1 and isotonic distension to preset pressure levels. Eight afferents were studied prior to and after acute sacral de-efferentation of the urinary bladder. 2. All afferent units were silent when the bladder was empty and responded in a graded manner to an increase of intravesical pressure. During slow filling the level of afferent activity correlated closely with the level of the intravesical pressure. All afferents behaved like slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with both a dynamic and static component of their discharge. With the exception of two units the intraluminal pressure threshold was below 25 mmHg. Thus virtually all myelinated afferents respond in the pressure range that is reached during a non-painful micturition cycle. 3. The stimulus-response functions of the afferents were similar regardless of whether intravesical pressure was increased by slow filling or by distension. However, during slow filling stimulation response functions often exhibited steeper slopes between 5 and 25 mmHg indicating that relatively small changes of intravesical pressure result in large changes of afferent activity. Nevertheless, all units displayed monotonically increasing stimulus response functions throughout the innocuous and noxious pressure level. 4. The stimulus-response functions of the afferent neurones did not change after acute de-efferentation of the urinary bladder, although the rapid phasic fluctuations of afferent activity that are produced by small contractions of the urinary bladder under normal conditions largely disappeared. This means that contractions and distension activate the afferent endings by a common mechanism

  6. Myelinated primary afferents of the sacral spinal cord responding to slow filling and distension of the cat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Häbler, H J; Jänig, W; Koltzenburg, M

    1993-01-01

    1. A total of sixty-five sacral afferent neurones with myelinated fibres supplying the urinary bladder was recorded from the sacral roots S2 in anaesthetized cats. All afferent units were identified with electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve. The discharge properties were quantitatively evaluated using slow filling at rates of 1-2 ml min-1 and isotonic distension to preset pressure levels. Eight afferents were studied prior to and after acute sacral de-efferentation of the urinary bladder. 2. All afferent units were silent when the bladder was empty and responded in a graded manner to an increase of intravesical pressure. During slow filling the level of afferent activity correlated closely with the level of the intravesical pressure. All afferents behaved like slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with both a dynamic and static component of their discharge. With the exception of two units the intraluminal pressure threshold was below 25 mmHg. Thus virtually all myelinated afferents respond in the pressure range that is reached during a non-painful micturition cycle. 3. The stimulus-response functions of the afferents were similar regardless of whether intravesical pressure was increased by slow filling or by distension. However, during slow filling stimulation response functions often exhibited steeper slopes between 5 and 25 mmHg indicating that relatively small changes of intravesical pressure result in large changes of afferent activity. Nevertheless, all units displayed monotonically increasing stimulus response functions throughout the innocuous and noxious pressure level. 4. The stimulus-response functions of the afferent neurones did not change after acute de-efferentation of the urinary bladder, although the rapid phasic fluctuations of afferent activity that are produced by small contractions of the urinary bladder under normal conditions largely disappeared. This means that contractions and distension activate the afferent endings by a common mechanism

  7. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  8. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  9. The effect of haemorrhage on gastric circulation and acid output in the dog.

    PubMed

    Szabó, G; Benyó, I; Sándor, J

    1979-02-01

    Blood flow in the portal vein and the left gastric artery was measured electromagnetically and gastric mucosal perfusion was determined by pertechnetate clearance in anaesthetized dogs. Bleeding the animals to arterial pressures of 100 and 60 mmHg respectively reduced portal venous flow and markedly increased the mesenteric inflow resistance. Left gastric arterial and gastric mucosal blood flow were decreased without significant vascular resistance change only in proportion to perfusion pressure reduction. Gastric acid output decreased but did not stop even at the lower level of haemorrhagic hypotension. It is concluded that ischaemia and acid, probably in the presence of regurgitated bile, may play an important role in the development of stress ulcers.

  10. Observations on the relation between alcohol absorption and the rate of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S

    1981-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is absorbed slowly from the stomach and rapidly from the small intestine, and the rate of its absorption depends on the rate of gastric emptying. When gastric emptying is fast, the absorption of alcohol is fast. When gastric emptying is slow the absorption of alcohol is delayed and peak blood alcohol concentrations are reduced. Alterations of the gastric emptying rate, which may have a physiologic, pharmacologic or pathologic cause, markedly influence the rate of alcohol absorption. The gastric emptying rate makes an important contribution to inter- and intraindividual variations in the rate of alcohol absorption and therefore the timing and magnitude of the acute intoxicating effect of an oral dose of alcohol. PMID:7459787

  11. EARLY ORAL RE-FEEDING ON ONCOLOGY PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO GASTRECTOMY FOR GASTRIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    LAFFITTE, Andressa Madalozo; POLAKOWSKI, Camila Brandão; KATO, Massakazu

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no advantage in maintaining patients on oral fasting after gastrointestinal elective resection. The early feeding up to 48 h can be beneficial, because it reduces infectious complications and hospital stay. Aim: Evaluate the evolution and tolerance of early oral diet in postoperative period after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: Anthropometric assessment was performed on the day of surgery, weight, height, body mass index and weight loss were measured. Acceptance of diet was evaluated as food intake (amount accepted) and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distension, postoperative complications and hospital stay. Results: The sample consisted of 23 patients, 17 with partial gastrectomy and six with total gastrectomy. In the assessment of nutritional status 9% were malnourished, 54.5% normal weight, 9% overweight and 27.2% obese, but 54% had weight loss. There was good acceptance of the diet in 96,9% of the sample. Nausea and abdominal distension were present in 4,3% and 65.2% constipation. Surgical complications according to the Clavien scalle, 13% had grade V, 4.3% grade IIIA, 8.7% grade I and 73% did not have complications. The length of hospital stay was 5±2.2 days. Conclusion: Early postoperative re-feeding in total and partial gastrectomy was well tolerated by patients. PMID:26537147

  12. Swash mark and grain flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    1981-01-01

    Swash marks composed entirely of coarse sand are commonly found on coarse-sand beaches. These swash marks are 10 to 30 centimeters in width and a few millimeters to one centimeter in height. Previous observations, mostly on finer-sand beaches, indicate swash marks are seldom over a few millimeters in height and are commonly composed of material readily floated by surface tension (e.g., mica flakes and shell fragments). Swash marks composed of coarse sand have both fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size. Apparently, the leading margin of a wave upwash drives a highly concentrated flow of grains in which both grain size and grain velocity decrease with depth. Therefore, large grains are transported at greater velocities than are smaller grains. Thus, at the maximum advance of an upwash, a swash mark is deposited which has the observed fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size.

  13. A comparison of rigid registration methods for prostate localization on CBCT and the dependence on rectum distension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boydev, C.; Pasquier, D.; Derraz, F.; Peyrodie, L.; Taleb-Ahmed, A.; Thiran, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated automatic three-dimensional intensity-based rigid registration (RR) methods for prostate localization on CBCT scans and studied the impact of rectum distension on registration quality. 106 CBCT scans of 9 prostate patients were used. Each one was registered to the planning computed tomography (CT) scan using different methods: (a) global registration, (b) pelvis bony structure registration, (c) bony registration refined by a local prostate registration using the CT clinical target volume (CTV) expanded with 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15 or 20-mm margin. Automatic CBCT contours were generated after propagation of the manual CT contours. To evaluate results, a radiation oncologist was asked to manually delineate the CTV on the CBCT scans (gold standard). The Dice similarity coefficients between propagated and manual CBCT contours were calculated.

  14. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W.; Bhatia, Abhijit S.; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  15. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  16. Distension test in passive external rotation: Validation of a new clinical test for the early diagnosis of shoulder adhesive capsulitis.

    PubMed

    Noboa, E; López-Graña, G; Barco, R; Antuña, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal validity of a clinical test for the early diagnosis of shoulder adhesive capsulitis, called the Distension Test in Passive External Rotation (DTPER). The DTPER is performed with the patient standing up, the arm adducted, and the elbow bent at 90°. From this position, a smooth passive external rotation is started, the affected arm being supporting at the wrist with one hand of the examiner and the other maintaining the adducted elbow until the maximum painless point of the rotation is reached. From this point of maximum external rotation with the arm in adduction and with no pain, an abrupt distension movement is made, increasing the external rotation, causing pain in the shoulder if the test is positive. This term was performed on a group of patients with shoulder pain of many origins, in order to analyse the predictive values, sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio. The DTPER showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 91.8 to 100%) and a specificity of 90% (95% CI; 82.4 to 94.8%). The positive predictive value was 0.62 and a likelihood ratio of 10.22 (95% CI; 5.5 to 19.01). False positives were only found in patients with subscapular tendinopathies or glenohumeral arthrosis. The DTPER has a high sensitivity for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis, and is excluded when it is practically negative. False positives can easily be identified if there is external rotation with no limits (subscapular tendinopathy) or with a simple shoulder X-ray (glenohumeral arthrosis). Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of chemotherapy in gastric cancer-related microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a previously well 46-year-old man who presented with microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA) of unknown origin. After extensive investigations, he was diagnosed with cancer-related microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (CR-MAHA) secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma. Initial treatment with plasmapheresis was ineffective, but the patient’s haematological abnormalities improved markedly with chemotherapy directed against his gastric cancer. Our case amplifies previous experience of gastric cancer-associated MAHA which responded to treatment with chemotherapy. We review current understanding of the proposed pathophysiology of CR-MAHA and conclude that this condition is ideally treated with chemotherapy. PMID:28280630

  18. Mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Michal; Gilbert, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    An objective of randomized placebo-controlled preventive HIV vaccine efficacy (VE) trials is to assess the relationship between vaccine effects to prevent HIV acquisition and continuous genetic distances of the exposing HIVs to multiple HIV strains represented in the vaccine. The set of genetic distances, only observed in failures, is collectively termed the 'mark.' The objective has motivated a recent study of a multivariate mark-specific hazard ratio model in the competing risks failure time analysis framework. Marks of interest, however, are commonly subject to substantial missingness, largely due to rapid post-acquisition viral evolution. In this article, we investigate the mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks and develop two inferential procedures based on (i) inverse probability weighting (IPW) of the complete cases, and (ii) augmentation of the IPW estimating functions by leveraging auxiliary data predictive of the mark. Asymptotic properties and finite-sample performance of the inferential procedures are presented. This research also provides general inferential methods for semiparametric density ratio/biased sampling models with missing data. We apply the developed procedures to data from the HVTN 502 'Step' HIV VE trial.

  19. The voluntary intake of hay and silage by lactating cows in response to ruminal infusion of acetate or propionate, or both, with or without distension of the rumen by a balloon.

    PubMed

    Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H; Forbes, J M

    1993-05-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that negative feedback signals from abdominal receptors are integrated in an additive manner in the control of voluntary food intake, cows with rumen fistulas were given intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate or sodium propionate, or both, with or without distension of the rumen by balloon. Intakes were monitored during the 3 h experimental period and for 2 h after and samples of rumen fluid were taken for estimation of short-chain fatty acid concentrations and osmolality. Six cows in mid-lactation were fed on hay and concentrates and given, into the rumen, 5.5 mol sodium acetate, 5.2 mol sodium propionate and 7.5 l of distension. Compared with the control (water infusion), neither acetate, propionate nor distension significantly depressed hay intake when given separately. When given in combination, however, the following significantly depressed intake during the 3 h treatment period: propionate + distension, acetate + distension, acetate + propionate + distension. Seven cows in early lactation were fed on silage and concentrates and given, into the rumen, 9.0 mol sodium acetate, 4.0 mol sodium propionate and 10.0 litres of distension. Again, none of the three given alone depressed silage intake to a significant extent during the 3 h treatment period, whereas the following combinations had a significant effect: propionate + distension, acetate + distension, acetate + propionate + distension. Basal rumen osmolalities were similar for the two types of feed but infusion of the sodium salts caused a very much greater increase with silage than with hay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. CE Marking - the Essential Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Mervyn

    The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

  1. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  2. Histological Effect of Certain Pickles on the Human Gastric Mucos

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, W. C.; Anderson, F. H.; Hashimoto, S.

    1967-01-01

    The histological effects of several types of pickles and control substances were assessed by repeated suction (per os) biopsies of the gastric antrum in three healthy men. The ingestion of 30 ounces of fukujinzuke (assorted vegetables pickled in soy sauce) or of vinegared gherkins over a three-day period caused marked changes in the surface epithelium and gastric pits in all three subjects. The abnormalities consisted of loss of cellular mucus, nuclear enlargement, prominent nuclear chromatin and an increased number of mitotic figures. All control biopsies were normal, as were biopsies after the ingestion of 30 ounces of raw carrots or cucumbers over a three-day period. This study shows that eating a sufficient quantity of certain types of pickles causes marked changes in the human stomach. Peroral suction biopsy of the gastric antrum appears to be a practical method for testing the effect of various foods on the human gastric mucosa. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5aFig. 5b PMID:6026337

  3. Stromal-Based Signatures for the Classification of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Uhlik, Mark T; Liu, Jiangang; Falcon, Beverly L; Iyer, Seema; Stewart, Julie; Celikkaya, Hilal; O'Mahony, Marguerita; Sevinsky, Christopher; Lowes, Christina; Douglass, Larry; Jeffries, Cynthia; Bodenmiller, Diane; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Fischl, Anthony; Gerald, Damien; Xue, Qi; Lee, Jee-Yun; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Sui, Yunxia; Desai, Keyur; Doman, Thompson; Aggarwal, Amit; Carter, Julia H; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Jaminet, Shou-Ching; Ginty, Fiona; Nasir, Aejaz; Nagy, Janice A; Dvorak, Harold F; Benjamin, Laura E

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of metastatic gastric cancer typically involves chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies targeting HER2 (ERBB2) and VEGFR2 (KDR). However, reliable methods to identify patients who would benefit most from a combination of treatment modalities targeting the tumor stroma, including new immunotherapy approaches, are still lacking. Therefore, we integrated a mouse model of stromal activation and gastric cancer genomic information to identify gene expression signatures that may inform treatment strategies. We generated a mouse model in which VEGF-A is expressed via adenovirus, enabling a stromal response marked by immune infiltration and angiogenesis at the injection site, and identified distinct stromal gene expression signatures. With these data, we designed multiplexed IHC assays that were applied to human primary gastric tumors and classified each tumor to a dominant stromal phenotype representative of the vascular and immune diversity found in gastric cancer. We also refined the stromal gene signatures and explored their relation to the dominant patient phenotypes identified by recent large-scale studies of gastric cancer genomics (The Cancer Genome Atlas and Asian Cancer Research Group), revealing four distinct stromal phenotypes. Collectively, these findings suggest that a genomics-based systems approach focused on the tumor stroma can be used to discover putative predictive biomarkers of treatment response, especially to antiangiogenesis agents and immunotherapy, thus offering an opportunity to improve patient stratification. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2573-86. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions hereditary diffuse gastric cancer hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder ...

  5. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters.

  6. Evaluation of the use of ultrasonography in the study of liquid gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Marzio, L.; Giacobbe, A.; Conoscitore, P.; Facciorusso, D.; Frusciante, V.; Modoni, S.

    1989-05-01

    Gastric emptying of two different test liquid meals (500 ml isotonic saline and 500 ml skimmed milk, 1.8% fat) has been measured in 10 (saline) and in 19 (milk) normal volunteers by means of real-time ultrasonography (RUS) and scintigraphy, employed simultaneously. In each subject, saline and milk contained 37 MBq of diethylenetriaminopentacetic acid (DPTA) marked with 99mTc. Determinations were made thereafter every 5 min up to 45 min with saline and every 30 min up to a maximum of 220 min with milk. The determination of gastric emptying by RUS was obtained indirectly through the measurement of gastric dimensions, with a single scan performed at the epigastrium, while the subject was kept in a standing position. At each observation, the percent decrease of gastric measurements and the decay in radioactivity over the gastric region were calculated, blind, by two independent examiners. Linear regression and correlation coefficient were subsequently computed for gastric measurements and decay in radioactivity. The results show that the values obtained with RUS do not differ grossly from the ones obtained with scintigraphy. This suggests that the ultrasonographic determination of gastric dimensions with a single section of the stomach may be a valuable method for use in the evaluation of gastric emptying of liquids.

  7. Expression and clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase-17 and -25 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YING; YU, SHI-JIE; LI, YAN-XIA; LUO, HE-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and clinicopathological features of matrix metalloproteinase 17 (MMP17; also known as MT4-MMP) and MMP25 (also known as MT6-MMP) in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the expression of MMP17 and MMP25 in 42 cases of gastric carcinoma and normal tissues, and 40 cases of atrophic gastritis. The expression of MMP17 in the normal gastric and atrophic gastritis tissues was significantly lower than that in the gastric cancer tissues (P<0.05). The expression of MMP25 in the gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis tissues was markedly higher compared with the normal gastric tissues (P<0.05). The expression of MMP17 and MMP25 was significantly associated with the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and serous membrane involvement (P<0.05), but not with patient age and gender, or lesion length, site and histological grade (P>0.05). Therefore, this indicates that the expression of MMP17 and MMP25 is increased with the degree of progress of gastric carcinoma. The detection of MMP17 and MMP25 expression may have clinical value in predicting the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:25621036

  8. 19 CFR 134.21 - Special marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Marking of Containers or Holders § 134.21 Special marking. This subpart includes only country of origin marking requirements and exceptions under section 304(b), Tariff Act of 1930,...

  9. 46 CFR 160.064-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufacturer or distributor). (Lot No.). (b) Durability of marking. Marking shall be of a type which will be... instructions for use. (b) Durability of marking. Marking must be of a type which will be durable and legible...

  10. Inflectional marking in Hungarian aphasics.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J

    1991-08-01

    How do aphasics deal with the rich inflectional marking available in agglutinative languages like Hungarian? For the Hungarian noun alone, aphasics have to deal with over 15 basic case markings and dozens of possible combinations of these basic markings. Using the picture description task of MacWhinney and Bates (1978), this study examined the use of inflectional markings in nine Broca's and five Wernicke's aphasic speakers of Hungarian. The analysis focused on subject, direct object, indirect object, and locative nominal arguments. Compared to normals, both groups had a much higher rate of omission of all argument types. Subject ellipsis was particularly strong, as it is in normal Hungarian. There was a tendency for Broca's to omit the indirect object and for Wernicke's to omit the direct object. Across argument types, Wernicke's had a much higher level of pronoun usage than did Broca's. Broca's also showed a very high level of article omission. Compared to similar data reported by Slobin (this issue) for Turkish, the Hungarian aphasics showed an elevated level of omission of case markings. Addition errors were quite rare, but there were 14 substitutions of one case marking for another. These errors all involved the substitution of some close semantic competitor. There were no errors in the basic rules for vowel harmony or morpheme order. Overall the results paint a picture of a group of individuals whose grammatical abilities are damaged and noisy, but still largely functional. Neither the view of Broca's as agrammatic nor the view of Wernicke's as paragrammatic was strongly supported.

  11. Nasogastric tube feedings and gastric residual volume: a regional survey.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shoaib; Le, Vu; Kaitha, Sindhu; Morton, Jordan; Ali, Tauseef

    2012-08-01

    To maintain adequate nutrition for patients who are in need, enteral feeding via nasogastric tube (NGT) is necessary. Although the literature suggests the safety of continued NGT feeding at a gastric residual volume of <400 mL, inconsistencies in withholding tube feeding based on residual volume have been observed in clinical practice. We performed a regional survey to determine the range of current practice among nursing staff regarding the decision to withhold NGT feeding based on residual volume and the factors that influence the decision-making process. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate nursing practice patterns regarding the decision of withholding NGT feeding based on a certain residual volume, which was distributed to the nursing staff at all major hospitals in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. Statistical analysis was done with the Fisher exact test. All of the statistical tests were carried out at α = 0.05. A total of 582 nurses completed the survey. Residual volumes (milliliters) resulting in the termination of NGT feeding occurred in 89% of nurses at volumes <300 mL and only 3% of nurses at volumes >400 mL. Three main reasons for nurses to withhold NGT feeding were risk of aspiration (90%), potential feeding intolerance (81%), and risk of regurgitation (67%). Other less common concerns were abdominal distension and abdominal discomfort. The decision of withholding NGT feeding varied among the nursing staff that were surveyed. A consensus is necessary for the standardization of withholding NGT feeding in clinical practice among nursing staff.

  12. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  13. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  14. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients.

  15. Comparison of gastric and other bowel perforations in preterm infants: a review of 20 years' experience in a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Shim, So Yeon; Cho, Su Jin; Lee, Sun Wha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we aimed to review the clinical presentation of preterm infants with gastrointestinal perforations and compare the clinical features of gastric perforation with other intestinal perforations. Methods The medical records of preterm neonates with pneumoperitoneum, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1994 and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Results Twenty-one preterm infants underwent exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of the pneumoperitoneum. The sample consisted of five patients (23.8%) with gastric perforation and 16 patients (76.2%) with intestinal perforation. No statistical differences were found in the birth history and other perinatal factors between the two groups. Underlying necrotizing enterocolitis, bilious vomiting, and paralytic ileus preceding the perforation were statistically more common in the intestinal perforation group. All preterm infants with gastric perforation survived to discharge; however, six preterm infants with intestinal perforation expired during treatment in the NICU. In the gastric perforation group, sudden pneumoperitoneum was the most common finding, and the mean age at diagnosis was 4.4±1.7 days of life. The location and size of the perforations varied, and simple closure or partial gastrectomy was performed. Conclusion Patients with gastric perforation did not have a common clinical finding preceding the perforation diagnosis. Although mortality in previous studies was high, all patients survived to discharge in the present study. When a preterm infant aged less than one week presents with sudden abdominal distension and pneumoperitoneum, gastric perforation should first be excluded. Prompt exploratory laparotomy will increase the survival rates of these infants. PMID:26388893

  16. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  17. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  18. Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality.

  19. A simulation environment for validating ultrasonic blood flow and vessel wall imaging based on fluid-structure interaction simulations: ultrasonic assessment of arterial distension and wall shear rate.

    PubMed

    Swillens, Abigail; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Lovstakken, Lasse; Segers, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a commonly used vascular imaging tool when screening for patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, current blood flow and vessel wall imaging methods are hampered by several limitations. When optimizing and developing new ultrasound modalities, proper validation is required before clinical implementation. Therefore, the authors present a simulation environment integrating ultrasound and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations, allowing construction of synthetic ultrasound images based on physiologically realistic behavior of an artery. To demonstrate the potential of the model for vascular ultrasound research, the authors studied clinically relevant imaging modalities of arterial function related to both vessel wall deformation and arterial hemodynamics: Arterial distension (related to arterial stiffness) and wall shear rate (related to the development of atherosclerosis) imaging. An in-house code ("TANGO") was developed to strongly couple the flow solver FLUENT and structural solver ABAQUS using an interface quasi-Newton technique. FIELD II was used to model realistic transducer and scan settings. The input to the FSI-US model is a scatterer phantom on which the US waves reflect, with the scatterer displacement derived from the FSI flow and displacement fields. The authors applied the simulation tool to a 3D straight tube, representative of the common carotid artery (length: 5 cm; and inner and outer radius: 3 and 4 mm). A mass flow inlet boundary condition, based on flow measured in a healthy subject, was applied. A downstream pressure condition, based on a noninvasively measured pressure waveform, was chosen and scaled to simulate three different degrees of arterial distension (1%, 4%, and 9%). The RF data from the FSI-US coupling were further processed for arterial wall and flow imaging. Using an available wall tracking algorithm, arterial distensibility was assessed. Using an autocorrelation estimator, blood velocity and shear

  20. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Dehydroeffusol markedly inhibits gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry. • Dehydroeffusol suppresses the expression of vasculogenic mimicry key gene VE-cadherin. • Dehydroeffusol decreases the MMP2 expression and activity in gastric cancer cells. • Dehydroeffusol is a potential anti-cancer drug candidate with very low toxicity.

  1. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ

  2. The effect of fentanyl, DNQX and MK-801 on dorsal horn neurones responsive to colorectal distension in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, C M; Bountra, C; Grundy, D

    2000-06-01

    Certain dorsal horn neurones respond in a graded manner to noxious colorectal distension (CRD). Morphine inhibits these responses in the spinalized rat, but the role of excitatory amino acids in baseline visceral nociceptive transmission is less clear. This study examines the effect of the mu-opiate receptor agonist fentanyl, and the non-NMDA and NMDA antagonists DNQX and MK-801, respectively, on such responses to CRD in the sodium pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rat. Male rats were prepared for extracellular recording from the lumbosacral spinal cord. 90 neurones responsive to CRD, located throughout the dorsal horn, were classified according to their response duration and latency to 60 mmHg distension, as SL-A (short latency-abrupt; 59%), SL-S (short latency-sustained; 23%), L-L (long-latency; 10%) and Inhib (inhibited; 8%). Convergent cutaneous receptive fields were mapped for 79/90 neurones and classified as LT (low threshold), WDR (wide dynamic range) or HT (high threshold). CRD (20-100 mm Hg) elicited graded responses in most neurones. In 6/6 SL-S neurones, fentanyl (1-8 microg kg-1) dose-dependently inhibited the response to 60 mm Hg CRD, in a naloxone-sensitive manner, with an ID50 value (+/-95% confidence limits) of 2.48 (1.7-3. 7) microg kg-1. In 6/6 SL-A neurones, fentanyl had no significant effect on the response to CRD. DNQX (0.03-3 mg kg-1) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the response to CRD in 5/5 SL-A neurones, with an ID50 value of 0.32 (0.01-41.1) mg kg-1. MK-801 (0. 03-0.3 mg kg-1) had no significant effect on responses to CRD in 6/6 SL-A neurones. The differential inhibitory effects of fentanyl on two neuronal subtypes may indicate functional differences. In SL-A neurones AMPA/kainate, but not NMDA receptors are involved in mediating baseline nociceptive neurotransmission.

  3. [Cytology by gastric washing in the diagnosis of gastric neoplasms].

    PubMed

    González Espínola, G; Esquivel López, A; García Garduño, J R; Valenzuela Tamariz, J; Guerrero Hernández, M

    1980-01-01

    A prospective and comparative study between the citology obtained through gastric washing and endoscopic (biopsy and brushing) for the diagnostic of the gastric neoplasias was carried at the Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico La Raza. Twenty one patients with benign gastric ulcer and 18 patients with gastric neoplasia (Two lymphomas and 16 adenocarcinomas) which we checked through surgery, necropsy or clinic evolution were studied. From 21 cases of gastric ulcer, the washing produced enough material for diagnosis in 17 of them (81%); in 16 of these neoplasia was excluded (94.1%) with false positive (5.9%). The endoscopic regained 100% of useful material and in a 100% ignored neoplasia. From 18 neoplasia cases, gastric washing produced material for 14 of them (77.8%); in 10 of these (71.4%) it made a diagnostic with 4 false negatives (28.6%); Endoscopic collected material in a 100% and the accuracy diagnostic was of 17 (94.4%) with one false negative (5.6%). Gastric washing has a high index of uselless for diagnostic from 39 samples, 8 were useless and from these, autolisis was the mein cause. Citology through gastric washing is usefull for neoplasm diagnosis in those cases in which endoscopy would be contraindicated or in those in which it is absent.

  4. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; de Micheaux, Hugo Lafaye; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  5. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736, Pliva, Croatia). Full and distended stomach, and vascular response.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Brcic, L; Blagaic, A B; Zoricic, I; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Keller, N; Sipos, K; Jakir, A; Udovicic, M; Tonkic, A; Kokic, N; Turkovic, B; Mise, S; Anic, T

    2006-12-01

    Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, safe in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL 10, PLD 116, PLD 14736, Pliva, Croatia)) has a particular cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotective activity. The cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotection researches largely neglect that stomach distension could per se jeopardize the mucosal integrity, with constantly stretched mucosa and blood vessels, and sphincters more prone for reflux induction. After absolute alcohol instillation in fully distended rat stomach, gastric, esophageal and duodenal lesions occur. Throughout next 3 min, left gastric artery blood vessels clearly disappear at the serosal site, indicative for loss of vessels both integrity and function. Contrary, constant vessels presentation could predict the beneficial effect of applied agent. After pentadecapeptide BPC 157 instillation into the stomach the vessels presentation remains constant, and lesions of stomach, esophagus, and duodenum are inhibited. Standards (atropine, ranitidine, omeprazole) could only slightly improve the vessels presentation compared to control values, and they have only a partial effect on the lesions. In this review we emphasize BPC 157 unusual stability, and some of its important effects: effectiveness against various lesions in gastrointestinal tract, on nitric oxide (NO)-system, and NO-agents effects, on somatosensory neurons, salivary glands function, recovery of AMP-ADP-ATP system, endothelium protection, effect on endothelin, and on angiogenesis promotion. It also antagonizes other alcohol effects, including acute and chronic intoxication. Given peripherally, it counteracts the consequence of central dopamine system disturbances (receptor blockade), and induces serotonin release in substantia nigra. Therapeutic potential of BPC 157 as a cytoprotective agent is also seen in its capability to heal various wounds. Given directly into the stomach, BPC 157 instantly recovers disturbed lower esophageal

  6. [Gastric perforation caused by a lactobezoar in an infant: a case report].

    PubMed

    Gambart, M; Breinig, S; Breton, A; Vial, J; Herbault-Barres, B; Bouali, O

    2012-09-01

    Lactobezoar is a compact mass of undigested milk concretions and mucous secretions in the gastrointestinal tract. It is usually located in the stomach, resulting in various degrees of gastric outlet obstruction. Lactobezoar is the most common type of bezoar in infancy. We report the case of rare and complicated gastric outlet obstruction secondary to lactobezoar. A female infant, 35weeks and 4days' gestation, one of dichorionic, diamniotic twins (birth weight, 1.890kg), was referred to our center at 5days of life for shock and food intolerance. She was on discontinuous oral feedings with a maltodextrin-enriched infant formula. On examination on day 4, there was a tender mass palpable in the left hypochondrium and on day 5, there was abdominal distension with signs of hemodynamic instability and sepsis. Plain abdominal X-ray showed a pneumoperitoneum associated with a heterogeneous mass in a distended stomach, consistent with a bezoar. An emergency laparotomy revealed a gastric perforation secondary to a large lactobezoar, with necrosis of the greater curvature and anterior wall of the stomach. Surgical treatment consisted of extraction of the lactobezoar, partial gastrectomy (resection of necrotic areas), and gastrostomy. Pathological examination confirmed the necrosis of the gastric mucosa. The postoperative course was complicated by prolonged sepsis. The child was kept NPO for 21days. On day 21 postsurgery, an upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed a well-dimensioned stomach, with a good pyloric passage. Gastrostomy and oral feedings were then initiated with good outcome at 6months. Etiopathogenic factors of lactobezoar are prematurity, low birth weight, altered gastric secretions and disturbed gastric emptying, hypercaloric and predominantly casein-based formulas, and inadequate milk composition. Lactobezoar should be considered in infants with symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction with evocative images. Conservative management with nil per os

  7. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Overview Gastric cancer has been traditionally defined by the Correa paradigm as a progression of sequential pathological events that begins with chronic inflammation [1]. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the typical explanation for why the stomach becomes chronically inflamed. Acute gastric inflammation then leads to chronic gastritis, atrophy particularly of acid-secreting parietal cells, metaplasia due to mucous neck cell expansion from trans-differentiation of zymogenic cells to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma [2]. The chapter contains an overview of gastric anatomy and physiology to set the stage for signaling pathways that play a role in gastric tumorigenesis. Finally, the major known mouse models of gastric transformation are critiqued in terms of the rationale behind their generation and contribution to our understanding of human cancer subtypes. PMID:27573785

  8. Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying and ultrasonographic assessment of antral area: relation to appetite.

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, K; Jones, K L; Chatterton, B E; Horowitz, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound measurement of gastric emptying has potential advantages over scintigraphy, but there is little information about its accuracy. AIMS: The relation between ultrasonographic measurements of antral area and (a) scintigraphic measurements of gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of liquids (b) postprandial satiation, were evaluated. SUBJECTS: Seven normal volunteers were studied. METHOD: Each subject drank 75 g dextrose dissolved in 350 ml of water (300 kcal) or beef soup (20 kcal), both labelled with technetium-99m sulphur colloid on separate days and had measurement of gastric emptying by scintigraphy and ultrasound. RESULTS: Scintigraphic and ultrasound 50% emptying times (T50s) were comparable and longer (p < 0.001) for dextrose than soup mean (SEM) (dextrose 107 (16) min v 108 (18) min, soup 24 (4) min v 23 (5) min). There were close correlations between scintigraphic and ultrasound T50s (dextrose r = 0.94, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and between the time at which the distal stomach content decreased from its maximum value by 50% (measured scintigraphically) and the ultrasound T50 (dextrose r = 0.95, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). In contrast, there was no significant relation between the distal stomach content when expressed as a percentage of the maximum content in the total stomach and the ultrasound T50. After dextrose, fullness was related (r = 0.92, p < 0.01) to the postprandial increase in antral area measured by ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound measurements of gastric emptying are: (a) of comparable sensitivity to scintigraphy in quantifying emptying of both low and high nutrient liquids (b) correlate with postprandial satiation, suggesting that the latter may be mediated by antral distension. PMID:8984016

  9. Two important criteria for reducing the risk of postoperative ulcers at the gastrojejunostomy site after gastric bypass: patient compliance and type of gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Scheffel, Oliver; Daskalakis, Markos; Weiner, Rudolf A

    2011-01-01

    Ulcers at the gastrojejunostomy site are a common problem after gastric surgery. Their postoperative development seems to be associated with Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis or abuse of nicotine, alcohol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but is also dependent on the choice of surgical method (Roux-en-Y or B-II gastric bypass). This study evaluated the follow-up of 1,908 patients over a period of 5 years (January 2006-December 2010). In 1,861 cases, we performed a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and in 47 cases a B-II gastric bypass. All patients (n = 407) with symptoms such as dysphagia, reflux, nausea, vomiting or epigastric pain underwent gastroscopy. In 52 cases, ulcers were found at the gastrojejunostomy site. Of these patients, 39 (75%; p < 0.0001) had consumed alcohol, nicotine or NSAIDs; in 14 patients (27%; p < 0.0001) we detected H. pylorirelated gastritis. A total of 2.4% of the patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (45/1,861) and 14.9% of the patients after B-II gastric bypass (7/47) developed ulcers at the gastroenteral junction. The difference is clearly significant (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0002). Furthermore, there were significant differences regarding the recurrence rate: 86% of the B-II gastric bypass group and 13.3% of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group needed to be treated several times. Every patient needs to be informed preoperatively that there is a markedly increased risk of ulcers at the gastroenteral junction, particularly if the patient cannot avoid potential risk factors (nicotine, alcohol, NSAIDs). Preoperative gastroscopy with H. pylori testing and subsequent eradication can also reduce the risk of ulcers. An increased incidence of peptic ulcers after B-II gastric bypass was noted. All of these patients were converted to Roux-en-Y. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  11. Therapeutic strategies in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, J E L; Ito, Y; Correa, P; Peeters, K C M J; van de Velde, C J H; Sasako, M; Macdonald, J

    2003-12-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be a major public health problem and is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. These statistics led the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) International Affairs Committee to choose gastric cancer as the topic for the International Symposium held at the 2003 ASCO Annual Meeting. Dr Yoshiaki Ito will discuss the role of RUNX3 in the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer. Dr Pelayo Correa will present a compelling argument on the use of Helicobacter pylori therapy and antioxidants in selected high-risk population as chemoprevention strategies for gastric cancer. The controversy regarding the role of extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer will be discussed by Dr Cornelis J.H. Van De Velde and Dr Mitsuru Sasako. Dr Van De Velde will present the European surgical approach to gastric cancer, and Dr Sasako will review the Japanese experience. The issues of whether certain patients benefit from more aggressive surgical dissection and the potential risks compared with benefits will also be discussed. Dr John Macdonald will discuss the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in resected gastric cancer, as well as the role of chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer.

  12. Gut microbiota and gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, Dolores; Miranda, Agnese; Romano, Lorenzo; Romano, Marco

    2017-02-15

    The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other. In fact microscopic structures of gastric mucosa (mucus layer and luminal contents) influence local microflora and vice versa. In this article our attention is directed specifically to explain the effects of this "cross-talk" on gastric homeostais. The gastric microbiota grossly consists of two macrogroups: HP and non-HP bacteria. Here, we review the relationship between these two populations and their role in the development of the different gastric disorders: functional dyspepsia, gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and gastric cancer. Moreover we focus on the effects on the gastric microbiota of exogenous interference as diet and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).

  13. Supersaturation in human gastric fluids.

    PubMed

    Bevernage, Jan; Hens, Bart; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    The current study reports on supersaturation, precipitation and excipient mediated precipitation inhibition of five poorly soluble drugs (loviride, glibenclamide, itraconazole, danazol, and etravirine) in human and simulated gastric fluids. Upon induction of supersaturation in human gastric fluids (HGFs), simulated gastric fluid (SGF), and fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) using a solvent shift method, supersaturation and precipitation were assessed as a function of time. In addition, the precipitation inhibitory capacity of three polymers (Eudragit® E PO, HPMC-E5, and PVP K25) was investigated. Supersaturation in human gastric fluids was observed for all model compounds, but proved to be relatively unstable (fast precipitation), except for itraconazole. Only modest excipient-mediated stabilizing effects on supersaturation were observed using HPMC-E5 and Eudragit® E PO whereas PVP K25 exerted no effect. In contrast to SGF, the observed precipitation behavior in FaSSGF was similar to the behavior in human gastric fluids. The present study demonstrates that supersaturation stability of drugs in human gastric fluids is in general inferior to supersaturation stability in intestinal fluids. As the potential for excipient mediated precipitation inhibition in gastric fluids was only limited, our data suggest that supersaturation should preferably be targeted to the intestine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensing vascular distension in skeletal muscle by slow conducting afferent fibers: neurophysiological basis and implication for respiratory control.

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe; Chenuel, Bruno; Huszczuk, Andrew

    2004-02-01

    This review examines the evidence that skeletal muscles can sense the status of the peripheral vascular network through group III and IV muscle afferent fibers. The anatomic and neurophysiological basis for such a mechanism is the following: 1) a significant portion of group III and IV afferent fibers have been found in the vicinity and the adventitia of the arterioles and the venules; 2) both of these groups of afferent fibers can respond to mechanical stimuli; 3) a population of group III and IV fibers stimulated during muscle contraction has been found to be inhibited to various degrees by arterial occlusion; and 4) more recently, direct evidence has been obtained showing that a part of the group IV muscle afferent fibers is stimulated by venous occlusion and by injection of vasodilatory agents. The physiological relevance of sensing local distension of the vascular network at venular level in the muscles is clearly different from that of the large veins, since the former can directly monitor the degree of tissue perfusion. The possible involvement of this sensing mechanism in respiratory control is discussed mainly in the light of the ventilatory effects of peripheral vascular occlusions during and after muscular exercise. It is proposed that this regulatory system anticipates the chemical changes that would occur in the arterial blood during increased metabolic load and attempts to minimize them by adjusting the level of ventilation to the level of muscle perfusion, thus matching the magnitudes of the peripheral and pulmonary gas exchange.

  15. Hippocampal microglial activation and glucocorticoid receptor down-regulation precipitate visceral hypersensitivity induced by colorectal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Zhao, Bing-Xue; Hua, Rong; Kang, Jie; Shao, Bo-Ming; Carbonaro, Theresa M; Zhang, Yong-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is a common characteristic in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other disorders with visceral pain. Although the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity remains speculative due to the absence of pathological changes, the long-lasting sensitization in neuronal circuitry induced by early life stress may play a critical role beyond the digestive system even after complete resolution of the initiating event. The hippocampus integrates multiple sources of afferent inputs and sculpts integrated autonomic outputs for pain and analgesia regulation. Here, we examined the hippocampal mechanism in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity with a rat model induced by neonatal and adult colorectal distensions (CRDs). Neither neonatal nor adult CRD evoked behavioral abnormalities in adulthood; however, adult re-exposure to CRD induced persistent visceral hypersensitivity, depression-like behaviors, and spatial learning impairment in rats that experienced neonatal CRD. Rats that experienced neonatal and adult CRDs presented a decrease in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunofluorescence staining and protein expression, and increases in hippocampal microglial activation and cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) accumulation. The decrease in hippocampal GR expression and increase in hippocampal IL-1β and TNF-α accumulation could be prevented by hippocampal local infusion of minocycline, a microglial inhibitor. These results suggest that neonatal CRD can increase the vulnerability of hippocampal microglia, and adult CRD challenge facilitates the hippocampal cytokine release from the sensitized microglia, which down-regulates hippocampal GR protein expression and, subsequently, precipitates visceral hypersensitivity.

  16. Better marking means cheaper pruning.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth R. Eversole

    1953-01-01

    Careful selection of trees to be pruned can make the difference between profit and loss on the pruning investment, especially in stands where no thinning is contemplated. Expert marking is required to make sure that the pruned trees will grow rapidly. The most important variable influencing the cost of clear wood produced by pruning is growth rate. For example, at 3...

  17. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  18. Reference Point Marking in Emai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Ronald P.

    Semantic noun classes in Emai, an Edoid language of Nigeria, are examined with respect to a process of Reference Point Marking (RPM) in order to explore the relationship between discourse and lexical semantics. Across pre- and post-verbal positions subcategorized by verbs like "rere" ("to be far"), these classes are shown to…

  19. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  20. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  1. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  2. Spear-Marked Black Moth

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Werner; Bruce H. Baker

    1977-01-01

    The spear-marked black moth, Rheumaptera hastata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a serious defoliator of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) in interior Alaska. Epidemic populations have occurred at 15- to 17- year intervals, persisted for 2 years, and then collapsed. Recorded outbreaks occurred in 1941, acreage unknown; from 1957 to 1958, 5 million acres (2...

  3. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  4. Lack of gastric toxicity of nitric oxide-releasing indomethacin, NCX-530, in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Mizoguchi, H; Araki, H; Komoike, Y; Suzuki, K

    2001-08-01

    The effects of a nitric oxide (NO) releasing derivative of indomethacin (NCX-530) on gastric ulcerogenic and healing responses were evaluated in rats and mice, in comparison with the parent compound indomethacin. Indomethacin (per os) produced damage in the rat stomach in a dose-dependent manner. NCX-530 (per os) itself, however, was not ulcerogenic and even showed a dose-dependent protection against HCl/ethanol-induced lesions in the rat stomach. Likewise, indomethacin given repeatedly delayed healing of gastric ulcers induced in mice by thermal cauterization, while NCX-530 did not affect the healing response and significantly promoted the healing as compared to indomethacin. These actions of NCX-530 were mimicked by the combined administration of a NO donor NOR-3 with indomethacin. The amount of NO metabolites was increased in both the gastric contents and serum when NCX-530, but not indomethacin, was given in pylorus-ligated stomachs. Neither indomethacin nor NCX-530 influenced gastric acid secretion and transmucosal potential difference, yet NCX-530 caused a marked increase of gastric mucosal blood flow, which was preventable by carboxy-PTIO, a scavenger of NO. Gastric motility was increased by indomethacin but not by NCX-530. In addition, NCX-530 inhibited PGE2 generation in both the intact and ulcerated gastric mucosa and showed antiinflammatory action on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, as effectively as indomethacin. These results suggest that unlike indomethacin, NCX-530 caused neither an irritating action on the stomach nor healing impairment effect on the preexisting gastric ulcers, but conferred gastric protection against HCl/ethanol, despite causing cyclooxygenase inhibition and antiinflammatory action, as effectively as indomethacin. This NO-releasing indomethacin, probably by releasing NO, exerts protective influences, such as an increase of gastric mucosal blood flow, that counteract the potential damaging effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition by

  5. Protective effect of Calotropis procera latex extracts on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rat.

    PubMed

    Bharti, S; Wahane, V D; Kumar, V L

    2010-02-03

    Calotropis procera is a wild growing plant with multifarious medicinal properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera and its methanol extract (MeDL) against gastric ulcers induced in rats. Aqueous suspension of DL (20 and 100mg/kg) and MeDL (10 and 50mg/kg) were given orally to 36h fasted rats and ulcers were induced by ethanol, pyloric ligation and aspirin. Parameters like ulcer score and levels of oxidative stress markers were measured in all the models. The effect on gastric hemorrhage and tissue histology was studied in ethanol model and on acidity, pH and volume of gastric secretion was evaluated in pyloric ligation model. The protective effect of DL and MeDL was compared with that of standard anti-ulcer drug famotidine (20 mg/kg). DL and MeDL produced 85-95% inhibition of gastric mucosal damage in ethanol model and 70-80% inhibition in aspirin model. The protective effect of these extracts was associated with marked reduction in gastric hemorrhage, maintenance of tissue integrity and normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers like glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase. Like famotidine, DL and MeDL decreased the gastric acidity from 376.17+/-21.47 mequiv./l to 163.88+/-6.86 and 201.48+/-8.86 mequiv./l respectively in pyloric ligation model. These extracts increased the gastric pH without affording any protection to gastric mucosa in this model. The latex of Calotropis procera has the therapeutic potential to relieve gastric hyperacidity and to prevent gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  7. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Yun, Nari; Han, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101) on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25610477

  8. [Hereditary gastric and pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Langner, C

    2017-05-01

    Most cases of gastric and pancreatic cancer are sporadic, but familial clustering can be observed in approximately 10% of cases. Hereditary gastric cancer accounts for a very low percentage of cases (1-3%) and two syndromes have been characterized: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). Gastric and pancreatic cancer can develop in the setting of other hereditary cancer syndromes, such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), or various hamartomatous polyposis syndromes, including juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis carry an increased risk of cancer (40-55%).

  9. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  10. Studies on Natural Gastric Flora

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Maxine A.; Skoryna, Stanley C.

    1971-01-01

    The present report deals with the survival of micro-organisms in the gastric lumen of fasting human subjects. Studies were carried out on hospitalized adult patients during the day, at night and over a 24-hour period. It is concluded that the survival of bacteria in the gastric lumen depends on the pH of the gastric juice. The duration of survival of the organisms at the pH <3.0 varied; however, at pH> 4.0, when a subsequent rapid drop in pH occurred, the clearing of viable organisms occurred within the hour sampling period in most cases. It is possible that medications which decrease gastric acidity favour an increase in the growth of gastric bacteria, while substances with a low pH may decrease bacterial growth. PMID:5128711

  11. The effect of FAAH, MAGL, and Dual FAAH/MAGL inhibition on inflammatory and colorectal distension-induced visceral pain models in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Sakin, Y S; Dogrul, A; Ilkaya, F; Seyrek, M; Ulas, U H; Gulsen, M; Bagci, S

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies showed that the pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid degrading enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL) elicit promising analgesic effects in a variety of nociceptive models without serious side effects. However, the full spectrum of activities is not observed upon inhibition of either FAAH or MAGL enzymes alone and thus dual FAAH and MAGL inhibitors have been described. Visceral pain is strongly associated with inflammation and distension of the gut. Thus, we explored the comparable effects of FAAH, MAGL, and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors on inflammatory and mechanically evoked visceral pain models. Visceral inflammatory and distension-induced pain were assessed with the 0.6% acetic acid writhing test in mice and colorectal distension (CRD) test in rats, respectively. The selective FAAH inhibitor PF 3845, MAGL inhibitor JZL 184, dual inhibitor JZL 195, and the cannabis analog CP 55,940 were given systemically 30 min prior to nociceptive testing. PF 3845 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), JZL 184 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), and JZL 195 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) elicit dose-dependent antinociceptive in the acetic acid writhing test. In the CRD model, while JZL 195 (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) and PF3845 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects comparable to those of CP 55,940 (0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg), JZL 184 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) alone did not alter the visceromotor response (VMR). The selective FAAH inhibitor and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors were effective in both inflammatory and mechanically evoked visceral pain, while the MAGL inhibitor elicited an analgesic effect in inflammatory, but not in distension-induced, visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Misoprostol versus uterine straightening by bladder distension for pain relief in postmenopausal patients undergoing diagnostic office hysteroscopy: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Usama M; Elshaer, Hesham S; Elsetohy, Khaled A; Youssef, Mohamed A

    2016-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of misoprostol with uterine straightening by bladder distension in minimising the pain experienced by postmenopausal patients during diagnostic office hysteroscopy. Seventy-six postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to the misoprostol group or to the bladder distension group. Patients in the misoprostol group were instructed to insert two misoprostol tablets (400μg) in the vagina 12h before office hysteroscopy. Patients in the bladder distension group were instructed to drink one litre of water and to avoid urination during a period of 2h before office hysteroscopy. The severity of pain experienced by the patients during and at 30min after the procedure was measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The ease of passing the hysteroscope through the cervical canal was assessed by the hysteroscopists using a 100-mm VAS. The passage of the hysteroscope through the cervical canal was easier in the misoprostol group [60.37±15.78 vs. 50.05±19.88, p=0.015]. The mean VAS pain score during the procedure was significantly lower in the misoprostol group [39.47±13.96 vs. 50.18±15.44, p=0.002]. The mean VAS pain score 30min post-procedure was comparable between both groups [11.82±3.71 vs. 12.61±4.06, p=0.379]. Vaginal misoprostol is more effective than uterine straightening by bladder distension in relieving the pain experienced by postmenopausal patients during office hysteroscopy. Clinicaltrials.gov [NCT02328495]. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02328495. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of the law of herbal administration in treating lung-distension by TCM physicians through history using cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen; Li, Feng-Sen; Upur, Halmurat

    2011-12-01

    To review the herbal drugs used most often for treating lung-distension by determining those used by physicians throughout history; to study their property, taste, and channel tropism; and to explore their compatibility. Historical prescriptions for treating lung-distension were collected and sorted. Property, taste and channel tropism were determined, and the law of herbal administration was determined by cluster analysis. One hundred and ninety five prescriptions were found, involving 166 herbal drugs, with a total appearance frequency of 1296 drugs. The herbs involved 8 properties (total appearance frequency, 1296), 7 forms of taste (total appearance frequency, 1991) and involved all 12 regular channels (total appearance frequency, 3382). Sixteen herbal drugs were used most often and formed 4 cluster prescriptions: C1: Xing Ren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), and Ban Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae); C2: Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi), Wu Wei Zi (Fructus Schisandrae), and Sheng Jiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens); C3: Da Zao (Fructus Jujubae), Ma Huang (Herba Ephedrae), and Shi Gao (Gypsum Fibrosum); and C4: Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae), Jie Geng (Radix Platycodi), Fu Ling (Poria), Sang Bai Pi (Cortex Mori), Xi Xin (Herba Asari), Gan Jiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis), and Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Alba). In treating lung-distension, phlegm retention has been traditionally considered the underlying pathology, emphasizing regulation of the lung and spleen as key and stressing patient nourishment and mental improvement. Prescriptions for lung-distension should be made with reference to the property, taste, channel tropism, and effectiveness of the chosen herbal drugs.

  14. Pediatric Gastric Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Ramos, Marco Cesar; Mendizábal-Méndez, Ana Luisa; Ríos-Contreras, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Montes, Claudia Esther

    2010-01-01

    Neoplasms from germ cell origin are a heterogeneous group of tumors rarely seen in the pediatric population, teratoma is the most frequent among them. They can occur in either gonadal or extragonadal locations. Extragonadal teratoma arising from abdominal viscera is very unusual. There are less than a hundred reported cases of gastric teratoma in the worldwide literature. Since the occurrence of this pathology in the pediatric age group is quite rare, we describe a case of a teratoma located in the lesser curvature of the stomach in an infant with an emphasis in radiologic-pathologic correlation. PMID:22470691

  15. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer using endoscopy with Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Jie; Shen, Lei; Luo, He-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Demarcation of early gastric cancers is sometimes unclear. Indigo carmine chromoendoscopy has usually been used as a diagnostic method for tumor margins as it enhances mucosal irregularities and differences in color. Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE), a recently developed virtual chromoendoscopic system, can explore the entire mucosal surface (of structures and vessels). Here we report a case of a patient with early gastric cancer who underwent a successful endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using endoscopy with FICE. A 58-year-old man with early gastric cancer underwent an ESD. Demarcation of the lesion was not clear through normal endoscopy. Therefore, an endoscopy was performed with FICE, which clearly revealed the demarcation. An ESD was carried out after spots were marked circumferentially. We identified the positional relationship between the demarcation and all markings on the magnifying model. A resection of the lesion was performed on the area outside the markings. Finally, the lesion was Histopathologically diagnosed as a well-differentiated adeno-carcinoma confined in the mucosal region, and the margins were free from carcinoma. FICE, especially combined with the magnifying model, is useful in the identification of the demarcation of early gastric cancer. This method may be useful in increasing the rate of complete resection by ESD for early gastric cancer.

  16. Reply to the commentary by Hillman et al. on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    PubMed

    Filogonio, Renato; Costa Leite, Cléo Alcantara; Wang, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Our meta-analysis (Filogonio et al., 2017) on central vascular blood flows in a snake (Crotalus durissus) and a turtle (Trachemys scripta) was motivated by Hillman et al.'s (2014) analysis on amphibians to investigate whether cardiac shunt patterns depend on cardiac output and vascular distensibilities. In contrast to Hillman et al. (2014), we did not uncover a general trend that supports the notion that cardiac shunts in reptiles are dictated by vascular distensibilities. In addition to our response to the criticism raised by Hillman et al. (2017), we suggest that future experiments should consider (i) both compliance and distensibility of the major arteries; (ii) differences in volume of the systemic and pulmonary circuits to account for the accommodation of stroke volume; and (iii) an evaluation of the pulsatile pressures in both the ventricle and the major arteries to consider the timing of the ventricular ejection provided by opening of the ventricular valves. We hope these suggestions may help future clarification of the relative importance of passive arterial mechanical properties compared to autonomic regulation in determining intracardiac shunts in both amphibians and reptiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Helicobacter pylori chronic infection and mucosal inflammation switches the human gastric glycosylation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Nairn, Alison V.; Rosa, Mitche dela; Ferreira, Rui M.; Junqueira-Neto, Susana; Freitas, Daniela; Gomes, Joana; Oliveira, Patrícia; Santos, Marta R.; Marcos, Nuno T.; Xiaogang, Wen; Figueiredo, Céu; Oliveira, Carla; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Moremen, Kelley W.; David, Leonor; Reis, Celso A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori exploits host glycoconjugates to colonize the gastric niche. Infection can persist for decades promoting chronic inflammation, and in a subset of individuals lesions can silently progress to cancer. This study shows that H. pylori chronic infection and gastric tissue inflammation result in a remodeling of the gastric glycophenotype with increased expression of sialyl-Lewis a/x antigens due to transcriptional up-regulation of the B3GNT5, B3GALT5, and FUT3 genes. We observed that H. pylori infected individuals present a marked gastric local proinflammatory signature with significantly higher TNF-α levels and demonstrated that TNF-induced activation of the NF-kappaB pathway results in B3GNT5 transcriptional up-regulation. Furthermore, we show that this gastric glycosylation shift, characterized by increased sialylation patterns, favors SabA-mediated H. pylori attachment to human inflamed gastric mucosa. This study provides novel clinically relevant insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying H. pylori modulation of host glycosylation machinery, and phenotypic alterations crucial for life-long infection. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways here identified as responsible for gastric mucosa increased sialylation, in response to H. pylori infection, can be exploited as drug targets for hindering bacteria adhesion and counteract the infection chronicity. PMID:26144047

  18. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng; Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy.

  19. 15 CFR 272.3 - Approved markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE, AND IMITATION FIREARMS MARKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE AND IMITATION FIREARMS § 272.3 Approved markings. The following markings are...

  20. Ulcer-protecting effects of naringenin on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rat: role of endogenous prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Motilva, V; Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Martín, M J

    1994-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the cytoprotective properties of naringenin and the involvement of endogenous prostaglandins on mucosal injury produced by absolute ethanol. Gastric glands were also histologically analysed. Oral pretreatment with the highest dose of naringenin (200 mg kg-1), 240 min before absolute ethanol, was the most effective in ulcer prevention. Subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (10 mg kg-1) to the animals treated with naringenin (200 mg kg-1) partially inhibited the gastric protection but there was no increase in prostaglandin E2. All treated groups showed a marked increase in gastric mucus, although this increase was less in animals pretreated with indomethacin. Total proteins and hexosamine content decreased in the groups receiving indomethacin. Histomorphometric evaluation of the gastric damage, with the highest dose of naringenin (200 mg kg-1), confirmed a significant increase of mucus production accompanied by a parallel reduction of gastric lesion.

  1. Traffic Noise Exposure Increases Gastric Pepsin Secretion in Rat.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Azam; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Rouhbakhsh, Nematollah; Sotudeh, Masoud; Salimi, Ehsan; Barzegar Behrooz, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Noise is considered as one of the most severe sources of environmental and workplace constraints. Many noise effects are well known on immune function, hormonal levels, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study, our aim is to evaluate the effects of traffic noise exposure on basal and stimulated gastric pepsin secretion. 48 male rats were exposed to traffic noise (86 dB) for a short term of (8h/day for 1 day) and a long term of (8h/day for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) as well as a control group. The gastric contents were collected by the wash-out technique. Pepsin secretion was measured by employing the Anson method. Histological studies were carried out on the epithelial layer. The corticosteroid hormone was measured in the serum for the stress augmentation. The present finding indicated no changes in pepsin secretion content in the short term, but in the 14 and 21 days traffic noise exposure, basal gastric pepsin secretion increased markedly compared to the control group. Histological results showed that the number of oxyntic glands and cell nuclei decreased in comparison with the control group while the thickness of the epithelial layer increases. In addition, the corticosterone levels increase in all groups in comparison with the control. It seems that the increase of gastric pepsin secretion is due to the description and translation processes in the peptic cells and needs enough time for completion.

  2. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.

  3. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  4. Helicobacter pylori CagA inhibits PAR1-MARK family kinases by mimicking host substrates.

    PubMed

    Nesić, Dragana; Miller, Marshall C; Quinkert, Zachary T; Stein, Markus; Chait, Brian T; Stebbins, C Erec

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  5. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1/MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Neišić, Dragana; Miller, Marshall C.; Quinkert, Zachary T.; Stein, Markus; Chait, Brian T.; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors, and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the co-crystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2. PMID:19966800

  6. Laser marking of component parts

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Permanent identification of components and subassemblies for traceability and historical purposes is essential for assemblies subject to long term storage. Marketing requirements run the gamut from simple functional alphanumerics for terminal or wire numbers to complex component identification involving program nomenclature, part number, manufacturer's code, serial number, data code, and lot or batch number. The wide range of opaque materials marked includes both ferrous and nonferrous materials, plastics, composites, and ceramics.

  7. Demethylchlortetracycline-binding proteins in uninvolved gastric mucosa of gastric carcinoma and gastric ulcer patients. Demonstration of a difference between the uninvolved mucosa of ulcer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lo, E; Thronton, H; Orwell, R L; Piper, D W

    1976-01-01

    The uninvolved gastric mucosa of gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma patients has been compared in in vitro studies as regards their capacity to bind demethylchlortetracycline (DMCT). Dialysis experiments demonstrated excessive binding of DMCT in gastric cancer. Several electrophoretic fractions were observed that bound DMCT; it was demonstrated that these fractions differed in the uninvolved mucosa of gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients.

  8. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Propeller-based wireless device for active capsular endoscopy in the gastric district.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Giuseppe; Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Rieber, Fabian; Schurr, Marc Oliver

    2009-01-01

    An innovative approach to active locomotion for capsular endoscopy in the gastric district is reported in this paper. Taking advantage of the ingestion of 500 ml of transparent liquid by the patient, an effective distension of the stomach is safely achieved for a timeframe of approximately 30 minutes. Given such a scenario, an active swallowable capsule able to navigate inside the stomach thanks to a four propeller system has been developed. The capsule is 15 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and it is composed of a supporting shell containing a wireless microcontroller, a battery and four motors. The motors enable the rotation of propellers located in the rear side of the device, thus obtaining a reliable locomotion and steering of the capsule in all directions in a liquid. The power consumption has been properly optimized in order to achieve an operative lifetime consistent with the time of the diagnostic inspection of the gastric district, assumed to be no more than 30 minutes. The capsule can be easily remotely controlled by the endoscopist using a joystick together with a purposely developed graphical user interface. The capsule design, prototyping, in vitro, ex vivo and preliminary in vivo tests are described in this work.

  10. Extreme gastric dilation caused by chronic lead poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Begovic, Vesna; Nozic, Darko; Kupresanin, Srdjan; Tarabar, Dino

    2008-04-28

    Lead is a toxic metal that affects many organ systems and functions in humans. In the majority of adults, chronic lead poisoning comes from exposures to work places and can occur in numerous work settings, such as manufacturing, lead smelting and refinement, or due to use of batteries, pigments, solder, ammunitions, paint, car radiators, cable and wires, certain cosmetics. In some countries, lead is added to petrol. We present a rare case of gastric dilation caused by long-term petrol ingestion. A 16-year-old young man was admitted to our hospital due to a 6-mo history of exhaustion, dizziness, nausea, abdominal cramps and constipation. X-ray examination revealed dilated stomach descending into the pelvis and small bowel distension. After a long clinical observation, we found that the reason for the chronic lead poisoning of the patient was due to a 3-year history of petrol ingestion. The patient spontaneously recovered and stomach returned to its normal position and size. Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration in all unexplained cases of gastric dilation.

  11. Using digital photo technology to improve visualization of gastric lumen CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrgioti, M.; Kyriakidis, A.; Chrysostomou, S.; Panaritis, V.

    2006-12-01

    In order to evaluate the gastric lumen CT images better, a new method is being applied to images using an Image Processing software. During a 12-month period, 69 patients with various gastric symptoms and 20 normal (as far as it concerns the upper gastrointestinal system) volunteers underwent computed tomography of the upper gastrointestinal system. Just before the examination the patients and the normal volunteers underwent preparation with 40 ml soda water and 10 ml gastrografin. All the CT images were digitized with an Olympus 3.2 Mpixel digital camera and further processed with an Image Processing software. The administration per os of gastrografin and soda water resulted in the distension of the stomach and consequently better visualization of all the anatomic parts. By using an Image Processing software in a PC, all the pathological and normal images of the stomach were better diagnostically estimated. We believe that the photo digital technology improves the diagnostic capacity not only of the CT image but also in MRI and probably many other imaging methods.

  12. Role of peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jiang; Song, Xiuqi

    2016-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline, appearing to be overexpressed in numerous carcinomas. The current study aimed to investigate the expression of PADI4 in gastric cancer tissues and its effect on the biological activities of SGC-7901 and AGS tumor cell lines. The expression of PADI4 was determined in gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa tissues using western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gastric cancer cell lines were divided into the following groups: Mock group (subjected to transfection reagent); negative group [subjected to small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection]; PADI4 siRNA group (subjected to PADI4 siRNA transfection); 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) group (subjected to 5-Fu); and 5-Fu + siRNA transfection group (subjected to 5-Fu and PADI4 siRNA transfection). The effects of silencing PADI4 with the above measures on the proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 and AGS cells were determined by MTT and Transwell chamber assays. In addition, propidium iodide staining was performed to detect the effects of PADI4 on the cell cycle. A significant increase in the expression of PADI4 mRNA in gastric cancer tissue compared with normal mucosa tissue was identified (P<0.05). The proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 and AGS cells were significantly decreased in the PADI4 siRNA group. Furthermore, flow cytometry DNA analysis revealed that silencing PADI4 resulted in significant S phase arrest and marked decrease of cells in the G2/M phase. PADI4 siRNA coupled with 5-Fu significantly enhanced its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, PADI4 demonstrated high expression in gastric cancer and served an important role in the biological activities of gastric cancer cells involving cell proliferation, invasion and cell cycle. As a result, PADI4 may be a valid cancer susceptibility gene and potential target for cancer

  13. Obesity and related risk factors in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Olefson, Sidney; Moss, Steven F

    2015-01-01

    Over recent decades, the incidence of cancers of the gastroesophageal junction, including gastric cardia tumors, has increased markedly. This is a trend that has been well documented, especially in studies from the USA and northern Europe that have also demonstrated a concomitant rise in the ratio of cardia to distal gastric cancers. The rise in the prevalence of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has been paralleled by the worldwide obesity epidemic, with almost all epidemiological studies reporting increased body mass index and obesity increase the risk of cardia cancer development. However, the strength of this association is less marked than the link between obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma, and the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Other possible confounders of the relationship between obesity and cardia cancer include the decline in Helicobacter pylori infection and the widespread use of proton pump inhibitors, although these have rarely been controlled for in case-control and cohort studies investigating associations between obesity and cardia cancer. We review these epidemiological trends and discuss proposed mechanisms for the association, drawing attention to controversies over the difficulty of defining cardia cancer. The relative paucity of high-quality epidemiological studies from other regions of the world should prompt further investigation of this issue, especially in populations undergoing rapid socioeconomic change.

  14. Effect of Bladder Distension on Dose Distribution of Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer: Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Plan Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cengiz, Mustafa Guerdalli, Salih; Selek, Ugur; Yildiz, Ferah; Saglam, Yuecel; Ozyar, Enis; Atahan, I. Lale

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of bladder volume on the dose distribution during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Patients: The study was performed on 10 women with cervical cancer who underwent brachytherapy treatment. After insertion of the brachytherapy applicator, the patients were transferred to the computed tomography unit. Two sets of computed tomography slices were taken, including the pelvis, one with an empty bladder and one after the bladder was filled with saline. The target and critical organs were delineated by the radiation oncologist and checked by the expert radiologist. The radiotherapy plan was run on the Plato planning system, version 14.1, to determine the dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, and maximal dose points. The doses and organ volumes were compared with the Wilcoxon signed ranks test on a personal computer using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 11.0, statistical program. Results: No significant difference regarding the dose distribution and target volumes between an empty or full bladder was observed. Bladder fullness significantly affected the dose to the small intestine, rectum, and bladder. The median of maximal doses to the small intestine was significantly greater with an empty bladder (493 vs. 284 cGy). Although dosimetry revealed lower doses for larger volumes of bladder, the median maximal dose to the bladder was significantly greater with a full bladder (993 vs. 925 cGy). The rectal doses were also affected by bladder distension. The median maximal dose was significantly lower in the distended bladder (481vs. 628 cGy). Conclusions: Bladder fullness changed the dose distributions to the bladder, rectum, and small intestine. The clinical importance of these changes is not known and an increase in the use of three-dimensional brachytherapy planning will highlight the answer to this question.

  15. Regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery distensibility in young to middle-age stage 1 hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Saladini, Francesca; Benetti, Elisabetta; Mos, Lucio; Mazzer, Adriano; Casiglia, Edoardo; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of physical activity with small artery elasticity in the early stage of hypertension. We examined 366 young-to-middle-age stage 1 hypertensives (mean blood pressure 145.6±10.3/92.5±5.8 mmHg), divided into two categories of physical activity, sedentary (n=264) and non-sedentary (n=102) subjects. The augmentation index was measured using the Specaway DAT System. Small artery compliance (C2) was measured by applanation tonometry, at the radial artery, with an HDI CR2000 device. After 6 years of follow-up, arterial distensibility assessment was repeated in 151 subjects. Heart rate was lower in active than in sedentary subjects (71.2±8.9 vs 76.6±9.7 bpm, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, heart rate, smoking, and blood pressure, C2 was higher (8.0±2.6 vs 6.4±3.0 ml/mmHg × 100, p=0.008) in non-sedentary than in sedentary patients. The augmentation index was smaller in the former (8.8±20.1 vs 16.8±26.5%, p=0.044) but the difference lost statistical significance after further adjustment for blood pressure. After 6 years, C2 was still higher in the non-sedentary than sedentary subjects. In addition, an improvement in the augmentation index accompanied by a decline in total peripheral resistance was found in the former. These data show that regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery elasticity in the early phase of hypertension. This association persists over time and is independent of blood pressure and heart rate.

  16. At high cardiac output, diesel exhaust exposure increases pulmonary vascular resistance and decreases distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Aurélien; Vicenzi, Marco; De Becker, Benjamin; Riga, Jean-Philippe; Esmaeilzadeh, Fatemeh; Faoro, Vitalie; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; van de Borne, Philippe; Argacha, Jean-François

    2015-12-15

    Air pollution has recently been associated with the development of acute decompensated heart failure, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. A pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of air pollution, combined with its systemic effects, may precipitate decompensated heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) under resting and stress conditions but also to determine whether air pollution may potentiate acquired pulmonary hypertension. Eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to ambient air (AA) or dilute DE with a particulate matter of <2.5 μm concentration of 300 μg/m(3) for 2 h in a randomized, crossover study design. The effects of DE on PVR, on the coefficient of distensibilty of pulmonary vessels (α), and on right and left ventricular function were evaluated at rest (n = 18), during dobutamine stress echocardiography (n = 10), and during exercise stress echocardiography performed in hypoxia (n = 8). Serum endothelin-1 and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were also measured. At rest, exposure to DE did not affect PVR. During dobutamine stress, the slope of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship increased from 2.8 ± 0.5 mmHg · min · l (-1) in AA to 3.9 ± 0.5 mmHg · min · l (-1) in DE (P < 0.05) and the α coefficient decreased from 0.96 ± 0.15 to 0.64 ± 0.12%/mmHg (P < 0.01). DE did not further enhance the hypoxia-related upper shift of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship. Exposure to DE did not affect serum endothelin-1 concentration or fractional exhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, acute exposure to DE increased pulmonary vasomotor tone by decreasing the distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels at high cardiac output. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Marked Initial Pitch in Questions Signals Marked Communicative Function.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Mark A; Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    In conversation, the initial pitch of an utterance can provide an early phonetic cue of the communicative function, the speech act, or the social action being implemented. We conducted quantitative acoustic measurements and statistical analyses of pitch in over 10,000 utterances, including 2512 questions, their responses, and about 5000 other utterances by 180 total speakers from a corpus of 70 natural conversations in 10 languages. We measured pitch at first prominence in a speaker's utterance and discriminated utterances by language, speaker, gender, question form, and what social action is achieved by the speaker's turn. Through applying multivariate logistic regression we found that initial pitch that significantly deviated from the speaker's median pitch level was predictive of the social action of the question. In questions designed to solicit agreement with an evaluation rather than information, pitch was divergent from a speaker's median predictably in the top 10% of a speakers range. This latter finding reveals a kind of iconicity in the relationship between prosody and social action in which a marked pitch correlates with a marked social action. Thus, we argue that speakers rely on pitch to provide an early signal for recipients that the question is not to be interpreted through its literal semantics but rather through an inference.

  18. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  19. Analysis of the cold-water restraint procedure in gastric ulceration and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2004-10-15

    Gastric mucosal injury induced by body restraint can be enhanced when combined with cold-water immersion. Based on this fact, the present study had two main purposes: (i) to examine the contribution of each of these two forms of stress on the development of gastric ulceration and regulation of body temperature and (ii) to investigate the importance of the animal's consciousness on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint. Independent groups of animals were exposed for 3 h to one of the following stressful treatments: body restraint plus cold-water (20+1 degrees C) immersion, body restraint alone or cold-water immersion alone. Control animals were not exposed to any form of stress. Half of the animals submitted to each of the four treatments were anesthetized with thionembutal (35 mg/kg), whereas the other half was injected with saline. Results indicated that body restraint alone was not sufficient to induce gastric ulceration or changes in body temperature. On the other hand, cold-water exposure, either alone or in conjunction with body restraint, induced the same amount of stomach erosions and hypothermia. Therefore, it appears that body restraint does not play an important role on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint procedure. Present results also indicated that conscious and anesthetized animals immersed in cold water presented robust gastric ulceration and a marked drop in body temperature. However, conscious animals developed more severe gastric damage in comparison to anesthetized animals although both groups presented the same degree of hypothermia. These findings suggest that hypothermia resulting from cold-water exposure has a deleterious effect on gastric ulceration but the animal's conscious activity during the cold-water immersion increases the severity of gastric mucosal damage. It is concluded that cold-water restraint is a useful procedure for the study of the underlying mechanisms involved in stress

  20. Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-02-05

    The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser therapy of stretch marks.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, David H

    2002-01-01

    Striae distensae, better known as stretch marks, are a common disfiguring skin disorder of significant cosmetic concern. Many sources have reported the use of lasers to diminish the appearance of striae. Controlled clinical studies of the various treatment modalities available for striae are relatively uncommon, and much of the clinical data are anecdotal. The use of lasers alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities can provide a safe and effective reduction in the appearance of both red and white striae distensae. Many of these therapies require special measures for darker skin phototypes. This article reviews the historical use of laser therapy for this disorder and discusses current therapeutic options.

  2. Recent results for Mark III

    SciTech Connect

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-..pi../sup 0/'s D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to K..pi pi.. is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. A unique solar marking construct.

    PubMed

    Sofaer, A; Zinser, V; Sinclair, R M

    1979-10-19

    An assembly of stone slabs on an isolated butte in New Mexico collimates sunlight onto spiral petroglyphs carved on a cliff face. The light illuminates the spirals in a changing pattern throughout the year and marks the solstices and equinoxes with particular images. The assembly can also be used to observe lunar phenomena. It is unique in archeoastronomy in utilizing the changing height of the midday sun throughout the year rather than its rising and setting points. The construct appears to be the result of deliberate work of the Anasazi Indians, the builders of the great pueblos in the area.

  4. Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori, which infects 50% of the world’s population and is now known to be responsible for inducing chronic gastric inflammation that progresses to atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in elucidating the bacterial properties responsible for colonization of the stomach, persistence in the stomach, and triggering of inflammation, as well as the host factors that have a role in determining whether gastritis progresses to gastric cancer. We also discuss how the increased understanding of the relationship between inflammation and gastric cancer still leaves many questions unanswered regarding recommendations for prevention and treatment. PMID:17200707

  5. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    PubMed

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  6. [Uterine metastasis revealing gastric adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mambrini, P; Giovanini, M; Seitz, J F; Perrier, H; Allemand, I; Rabia, I; Monges, G; Lebreuil, G

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of metastasis to the uterine corpus revealing a primary gastric adenocarcinoma. A 26-year-old woman suffered from weight loss, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain. An endometrial curettage showed apparently metastatic adenocarcinoma. The primary site of the tumour was gastric. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an ulcus and aspect of linitis plastica in the fundus. Biopsies showed diffuse type adenocarcinoma. Because of extensive disease, laparotomy was not performed and exclusive palliative chemotherapy was started. The patient died 10 months after the diagnosis. Metastasis from primary gastric cancer to the female genital tract are rare and are usually observed in young premenopausal women with diffuse type gastric adenocarcinoma. This case report underlines the interest, for those patients of careful gynaecologic examination at the initial staging and after treatment.

  7. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    PubMed

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  8. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the record by placing the protective marking conspicuously on the.... 552 and 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. (d) Other types of records. In the case of non-paper records that...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and simple push button type starter switches, must be plainly marked as to its function and method...

  11. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... from a distance of three feet. (b) Prominence. Each marking required in paragraph (d) of this section, except vital care and use instructions, if any, must be less prominent and in smaller print than markings... smaller than required markings. The marking “ADULT” must be in at least 18 mm (3/4 inch) high bold capital...

  12. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... from a distance of three feet. (b) Prominence. Each marking required in paragraph (d) of this section, except vital care and use instructions, if any, must be less prominent and in smaller print than markings... smaller than required markings. The marking “ADULT” must be in at least 18 mm (3/4 inch) high bold capital...

  13. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67...

  14. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  15. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  16. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  17. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  18. Reading Skill, Textbook Marking, and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kenneth E.; Limber, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…

  19. Gastric intubation: assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Damon B; Asturi, Elizabeth

    2004-12-01

    When gastric intubation is the chosen method of providing enteral nutrition, a variety of factors must be considered. To choose the proper tube, whether it resides in the gastric area or is postpyloric, it is important to consider the patient's level of consciousness, the duration of feeding, and the patient's overall status. Proper assessment, confirmation of tube placement, and nursing vigilance greatly reduce the likelihood of complications.

  20. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  1. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations.

  2. Endovascular management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E

    2014-11-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices is a major complication of portal hypertension. Although less common than bleeding associated with esophageal varices, gastric variceal bleeding has a higher mortality. From an endovascular perspective,transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) to decompress the portal circulation and/or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) are utilized to address bleeding gastric varices. Until recently, there was a clear medical cultural divide between the strategy of decompressing the portal circulation (TIPS creation, for example) and transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices. However, the practice of BRTO is gaining acceptance in the United States and its practice is spreading rapidly. Recently, the American College of Radiology has identified BRTO to be a viable alternative to TIPS in particular anatomical and clinical scenarios. However, the anatomical and clinical applications of BRTO were not defined beyond the conservative approach of resorting to BRTO in non-TIPS candidates. The article discusses the outcomes of BRTO and TIPS for the management of gastric varices individually or in combination. Definitions, endovascular technical concepts and contemporary vascular classifications of gastric variceal systems are described in order to help grasp the complexity of the hemodynamic pathology and hopefully help define the pathology better for future reporting and lay the ground for more defined stratification of patients not only based on comorbidity and hepatic reserve but on anatomy and hemodynamic classifications.

  3. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The electrochemical behavior of nitinol in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Pound, Bruce G

    2016-08-29

    Increased use is being made of nitinol for implants that are exposed to gastric fluid. However, few corrosion studies have involved nitinol in an appropriate acidified chloride solution. In this work, the electrochemical behavior of electropolished (EP) nitinol was examined in simulated gastric fluid, the corresponding neutral solution with the same concentration (0.6%) of NaCl, and 0.9% NaCl. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization was used to evaluate the susceptibility to pitting corrosion, while electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to examine the passive oxide film. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the susceptibility of EP nitinol to pitting corrosion is affected by chloride concentration and pH. Acidification, in particular, resulted in the susceptibility being markedly higher in gastric fluid compared with that in the corresponding neutral NaCl solution. The impedance data could be fitted using a parallel resistance-capacitance (as a constant phase element) circuit associated with the oxide film. The thickness of the oxide was determined from the capacitive component and found to be little affected by chloride concentration. In contrast, acidification increased the solubility of the oxide enough to decrease the thickness of the film from 5.3 nm in 0.6% NaCl to 4.2 nm in gastric fluid. The resistivity of the oxide obtained from the resistance was affected by chloride concentration (0.7 × 10(11) and 1.7 × 10(11) Ω m in 0.9% and 0.6% NaCl, respectively) and particularly by pH (6.3 × 10(11) Ω m in gastric fluid). The resistivity values suggest that the oxide was more defective in the neutral solutions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  5. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  6. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  7. Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Achim; Thomas, Schraner; Melanie, Fruehauf; Rabia, Liamlahi; Klaghofer, Richard; Weiss, Markus; Kellenberger, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional gastric antral area (GAA) measurements by ultrasonography (US) have been proposed for preoperative assessment of gastric volume in adults but not been validated in children. This study investigates whether in children gastric volumes can be predicted by US performed in different patient positions. Gastric fluid and air volumes were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before or up to 120 min after ingestion of 7 ml·kg(-1) diluted raspberry syrup in healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. GAA was measured with US three times each in supine (SUP), elevated 45° degree supine (E45) and right decubital (RDC) position using imaging planes defined by vascular landmarks. Correlation coefficients (Pearson) between GAA and gastric volumes were calculated and Bland-Altman analysis performed. Sixteen children aged from 6.4 to 12.8 (9.2) years were included in 23 examinations: 6 after overnight fasting, 3 directly after, and 14 with a delay of 74 ± 35 min after fluid intake. GAA was 221 ± 116, 218 ± 112, and 347 ± 188 mm(2) for SUP, E45, and RDC position, respectively. The best correlation between body weight corrected total gastric/gastric fluid volume (TGV(w)/GFV(w)) with GAA was found for RDC position (R = 0.79; P < 0.01/R = 0.78; P < 0.01). Bias and precision of calculated and measured GFV(w) was 0 ± 2.8 ml·kg(-1). Correlations between GAA and TGV(w) or GFV(w) in children are best in the RDC position, but not sufficient to predict GFV(w) with a given GAA. Interpretation of isolated GAA values may be misleading. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Colon Hypersensitivity to Distension, Rather Than Excessive Gas Production, Produces Carbohydrate-Related Symptoms in Individuals With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Major, Giles; Pritchard, Sue; Murray, Kathryn; Alappadan, Jan Paul; Hoad, Caroline L; Marciani, Luca; Gowland, Penny; Spiller, Robin

    2017-01-01

    reached the symptom threshold after inulin intake, peak symptom intensity correlated with peak colonic gas (r = 0.57; P < .05). Changes in MRI features and peak breath hydrogen levels were similar in patients who did and did not reach the symptom threshold. Patients with IBS and healthy individuals without IBS (controls) have similar physiological responses after intake of fructose or inulin; patients reported symptoms more frequently after inulin than controls. In patients with a response to inulin, symptoms related to levels of intraluminal gas, but peak gas levels did not differ significantly between responders, nonresponders, or controls. This indicates that colonic hypersensitivity to distension, rather than excessive gas production, produces carbohydrate-related symptoms in patients with IBS. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT01776853. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation between coronary artery disease, risk factors and intima-media thickness of carotid artery, arterial distensibility, and stiffness index.

    PubMed

    Alan, Sait; Ulgen, Mehmet S; Ozturk, Onder; Alan, Bircan; Ozdemir, Levent; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a diffuse process that involves vessel structures. In recent years, the relation of noninvasive parameters such as intima-media thickening (IMT), arterial distensibility (AD), and stiffness index (SI) to cardiovascular diseases has been researched. However, we have not found any study that has included all these parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors to AD, SI, and IMT, which are the noninvasive predictors of atherosclerotic process in the carotid artery. Included in the study were 180 patients who were diagnosed as having CAD by coronary angiography (those with at least > or = 30% stenosis in the coronary arteries) and, as a control group, 53 persons who had normal appearing coronary angiographies. IMT, AD, and SI values of all the patients in the study were measured by echo-Doppler imaging (AD formula = 2 x (AoS - AoD)/PP x AoD, SI formula = (SBP/DBP)/([AoS - AoD]/AoD). Significantly increased IMT (0.82 +/- 0.1, 0.57 +/- 0.1, p<0.05), decreased AD (0.25 +/- 0.9, 0.37 +/- 0.1, p<0.05), and increased SI (13 +/- 4, 8 +/- 3, p<0.05) values were detected in the CAD group compared to the control group. A significant correlation was found between IMT and presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and presence of plaque in carotids, and age. In the coronary artery disease group there was a significant correlation between AD and age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol levels, while there was no significant correlation with plaque development. A significant correlation was also found between stiffness index and systolic blood pressure and age; however, there was no relation between number of involved vessels and IMT, AD, and SI. We found sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values for CAD diagnosis to be 70%, 75%, 77%, and 66%, respectively. In CAD cases, according to data in

  10. Protective effects of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiming; Liao, Huijun; Liu, Yuhong; Zheng, Yifeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Su, Zuqing; Zhang, Xie; Lai, Zhengquan; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Su, Ziren

    2015-01-01

    We examined the protective effect of pogostone (PO), a chemical constituent isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of PO at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion effectively protected the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesions were significantly ameliorated by all doses of PO as compared to the vehicle group. Pre-treatment with PO prevented the oxidative damage and the decrease of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content. In addition, PO pretreatment markedly increased the mucosa levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), relative to the vehicle group. In the mechanistic study, significant elevation of non-protein-sulfhydryl (NP-SH) was observed in the gastric mucosa pretreated by PO. Analysis of serum cytokines indicated that PO pretreatment obviously elevated the decrease of interleukin-10 (IL-10) level, while markedly mitigated the increment of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretions in ethanol-induced rats. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that PO could exert a gastro-protective effect against gastric ulceration, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the stimulation of PGE2, improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status, as well as preservation of NP-SH.

  11. CASPASE-8 gene is inactivated by somatic mutations in gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Lee, Jong Woo; Kim, Su Young; Jang, Jin; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Won Sang; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2005-02-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that deregulation of apoptosis is involved in the mechanisms of cancer development. Caspase-8 activation plays a central role in the initiation phase of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that genetic alteration of CASPASE-8 gene is involved in the development of human cancers, including gastric cancers. We have analyzed the entire coding region of human CASPASE-8 gene for the detection of somatic mutations in 162 gastric carcinomas (40 early and 122 advanced cancers), 185 non-small cell lung cancers, 93 breast carcinomas, and 88 acute leukemias by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism. Of the cancers analyzed, 13 cancers harbored CASPASE-8 somatic mutations. Interestingly, all of the mutations were detected in the advanced gastric cancers (10.7% of the 122 samples). We expressed the tumor-derived caspase-8 mutants in 293T, 293, and HT1080 cells and found that most of the mutants (9 of the 10 mutations tested) markedly decreased the cell death activity of caspase-8. In addition, in the cells with the inactivating caspase-8 mutants, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was markedly reduced compared with that of wild-type caspase-8. The occurrence of CASPASE-8 mutation and the inactivation of cell death activity by the mutants suggest that CASPASE-8 gene mutation may affect the pathogenesis of gastric cancers, especially at the late stage of gastric carcinogenesis.

  12. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-30

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  13. Small bowel hydro-MR imaging for optimized ileocecal distension in Crohn's disease: should an additional rectal enema filling be performed?

    PubMed

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas C; Langhorst, Jost; Kuehle, Christiane; Goyen, Mathias; Zoepf, Thomas; Ruehm, Stefan G; Gerken, Guido; Debatin, Jorg F; Goehde, Susanne C

    2005-07-01

    To assess the impact of an additional rectal enema filling in small bowel hydro-MRI in patients with Crohn's disease. A total of 40 patients with known Crohn's disease were analyzed retrospectively: 20 patients only ingested an oral contrast agent (group A), the other 20 subjects obtained an additional rectal water enema (group B). For small bowel distension, a solution containing 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) and 2.5% mannitol was used. In all patients, a breathhold contrast-enhanced T1w three-dimensional volumetric interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) sequence was acquired. Comparative analysis was based on image quality and bowel distension as well as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements. MR findings were compared with those of conventional colonoscopy, as available (N = 25). The terminal ileum and rectum showed a significantly higher distension following the rectal administration of water. Furthermore, fewer artifacts were seen within group B. This resulted in a higher reader confidence for the diagnosis of bowel disease, not only in the colon, but also in the ileocecal region. Diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing inflammation of the terminal ileum was 100% in group B; in the nonenema group there were three false-negative diagnoses of terminal ileitis. Our data show that the additional administration of a rectal enema is useful in small bowel MRI for the visualization of the terminal ileum. The additional time needed for the enema administration was minimal, and small and large bowel pathologies could be diagnosed with high accuracy. Thus, we suggest that a rectal enema in small bowel MR imaging be considered.

  14. Reduced ascending aorta distensibility relates to adverse ventricular mechanics in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome: noninvasive study using wave intensity analysis.

    PubMed

    Biglino, Giovanni; Schievano, Silvia; Steeden, Jennifer A; Ntsinjana, Hopewell; Baker, Catriona; Khambadkone, Sachin; de Leval, Marc R; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Taylor, Andrew M; Giardini, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the aortic arch elastic properties and ventriculoarterial coupling efficiency in patients with single ventricle physiology, with and without a surgically reconstructed arch. We studied 21 children with single ventricle physiology after bidirectional superior cavopulmonary surgery: 10 with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, who underwent surgical arch reconstruction, and 11 with other types of single ventricle physiology but without arch reconstruction. All children underwent pre-Fontan magnetic resonance imaging. No patient exhibited aortic recoarctation. Data on aortic wave speed, aortic distensibility and wave intensity profiles were all extracted from the magnetic resonance imaging studies using an in-house-written plug-in for the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine viewer OsiriX. Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome had significantly greater wave speed (P = .002), and both stiffer (P = .004) and larger (P < .0001) ascending aortas than the patients with a nonreconstructed arch. Aortic distensibility was not influenced by ventricular stroke volume but depended on a combination of increased aortic diameter and abnormal wall mechanical properties. Those with hypoplastic left heart syndrome had a lower peak wave intensity and reduced energy carried by the forward compression and the forward expansion waves, even after correction for stroke volume, suggesting an abnormal systolic and diastolic function. Lower wave energy was associated with an increased aortic diameter. Using a novel, noninvasive technique based on image analysis, we have demonstrated that aortic arch reconstruction in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome is associated with reduced aortic distensibility and unfavorable ventricular-vascular coupling compared with those with single ventricle physiology without aortic arch reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress-strain analysis of jejunal contractility in response to flow and ramp distension in type 2 diabetic GK rats: effect of carbachol stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Pengmin; Gregersen, Hans

    2013-09-27

    Investigation of intestinal motility in a genetic model of GK rats abandons the possible neurotoxic effect of streptozotocin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Seven GK male rats (GK group) and nine normal Wistar rats (Normal group) were used in the study. The motility experiments were carried out in an organ bath containing physiological Krebs solution. Before and after 10(-5)M carbachol application, the pressure and diameter changes of jejunum were obtained in relation to (1) basic contraction, (2) flow-induced contraction with different outlet resistance pressures and (3) contractions induced by ramp distension. The frequency and amplitude of contractions were analyzed from pressure-diameter curves. Distension-induced contraction thresholds and maximum contraction amplitude of basic and flow-induced contractions were calculated in terms of stress and strain. (1) The contraction amplitude increased to the peak value in less than 10s after adding carbachol. More than two peaks were observed in the GK group. (2) Carbachol decreased the pressure and stress threshold and Young's modulus in the GK group (P<0.01). (3) Carbachol increased the maximum pressure and stress of flow-induced contractions at most outlet pressure levels in both two groups (P<0.001). Furthermore, the flow-induced contractions were significantly bigger at low outlet pressure levels in GK group (P<0.05 and P<0.01). (4) The contraction frequency, the strain threshold and the maximum contraction strain did not differ between the two groups (P>0.05) and between before and after carbachol application (P>0.05). In GK diabetic rats, the jejunal contractility was hypersensitive to flow and distension stimulation after carbachol application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen, and the positive allosteric modulator, CGP7930, inhibit visceral pain-related responses to colorectal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Brusberg, Mikael; Ravnefjord, Anna; Martinsson, Rakel; Larsson, Håkan; Martinez, Vicente; Lindström, Erik

    2009-02-01

    Activation of GABA(B) receptors by the selective agonist baclofen produces anti-nociceptive effects in animal models of somatic pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of baclofen and the GABA(B) receptor positive allosteric modulator CGP7930 on pseudo-affective responses to colorectal distension in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to repeated, noxious colorectal distension (CRD) (12 distensions at 80 mmHg, for 30 s with 5 min intervals). The visceromotor response (VMR) and cardiovascular responses (mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR)) to CRD were monitored in conscious, telemetrized animals. Baclofen (0.3-3 micromol/kg, i.v.) reduced the VMR to CRD dose-dependently, reaching a 61% maximal inhibition (p < 0.001). The highest doses of baclofen attenuated CRD-evoked increases in ABP by 17% (p > 0.05) and reduced the change in HR by 48% (p < 0.01). CGP7930 (3-30 micromol/kg, i.v.) reduced the VMR to CRD in a dose-dependent fashion with a maximal inhibition of 31% (p < 0.05). The highest dose of CGP7930 also attenuated the increase in ABP by 18% (p > 0.05) and inhibited the increase in HR by 24% (p < 0.05) associated with CRD. Neither baclofen nor CGP7930 affected colorectal compliance. The results suggest that activation of GABA(B) receptors produces anti-nociceptive effects in a rat model of mechanically induced visceral pain. While CGP7930 was less efficacious than baclofen overall, positive allosteric modulation of GABA(B) receptors may represent a valid approach in the treatment of visceral pain conditions, with the possibility of an improved safety profile compared to full agonism.

  17. Schlafen 4-expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-08-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori-infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype.

  18. [The Soupault-Bucaillle operation in the treatment of Billroth II gastric resection syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, M; Biffoni, M; Tartaglia, F; Nobili-Benedetti, R; Picchi, P; Pugliese, F R; Lentini, A; Stocco, F; Campana, F P

    1992-04-01

    The study analyzes the benefits related to the gastroduodenojejunoplasty (GDJP) according to Soupault & Bucaille, adopted as the corrective treatment of the Billroth II gastric resection syndrome in those cases resistant to the dieting-pharmacological supports. Our experience is based on 18 cases (13 males, 5 females, mean age 39 yrs), treated from 1982 to 1987 with GDJP for a gastric resection syndrome. The patients were observed 5 years after their resection: 10 presented with an atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy and all had a diffuse acute phlogosis in presence of biliary storage. Manual anastomoses were performed in the first 8 cases, while staplers were used in the remaining cases. Results were quite satisfying; no operative mortality or specific complications, nor pain and biliary vomiting were registered; 14 patients over 18 (77%) gained weight significantly; only 1 patient reported low-intense early "dumping-like" symptoms easily controlled by medical therapy. Endoscopy showed no biliary reflux in all cases. Biopsies of the stump, carried on before and after the GDJP intervention, showed a marked reduction of the inflammatory aspects in 76% (13) of the patients. Among the 10 patients with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy, only 2 (20%) presented a significant increase in the number of gastric parietal cells and gastric principal cells.

  19. Gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease: patients with and without response fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Djaldetti, R; Baron, J; Ziv, I; Melamed, E

    1996-04-01

    Delayed gastric emptying may be an important pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying some of the response fluctuations that develop after long-term levodopa therapy. We performed a radionuclide gastric emptying study using a standard Tc-99m colloid-labeled solid meal in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 fluctuators with "delayed-on" and "no-on" phenomena, and 15 nonfluctuators. Fasting patients were given the standard meal, and gastric emptying was monitored with a gamma camera positioned over the stomach, recording data for 1 hour. PD patients had prolonged gastric emptying measured after 60 minutes compared with the normal control subjects (70.7 +/- 16% versus < 60%). Gastric retention measured after 1 hour was increased in patients with fluctuations compared with patients without fluctuations (77.4 +/- 15.5% versus 64.0 +/- 14.3%; p < 0.05). Half-time emptying was significantly delayed in patients with, as compared with those without, response fluctuations (221 +/- 202 minutes versus 85 +/- 31 minutes; p < 0.05). This demonstrates that delayed gastric emptying is common in PD patients and is more marked in those with response fluctuations. The stomach is an important target organ in PD, affected either by the basic PD pathology, chronic drug administration, or both.

  20. Effects of sodium polyacrylate (PANa) on acute esophagitis by gastric juice in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Ozawa, Y; Furuta, Y; Miyazaki, H

    1982-06-01

    Sodium polyacrylate (PANa) is a water-soluble, high-molecular compound, and its aqueous solution shows a very high viscosity and stringiness. In the present study, preventive effects of PANa on three kinds of esophageal lesions induced by gastric juice were examined in comparison with those of aceglutamide aluminum and sodium alginate. The influences of PANa on gastric contents were also studied. The preventive effect of PANa given intraesophageally on esophageal lesions induced by the intraesophageal application of gastric juice was more potent than aceglutamide aluminum and sodium alginate. Oral administration of PANa inhibited the formation of esophageal ulcer by pylorus ligation more markedly than aceglutamide aluminum, whereas sodium alginate had no effect in a high dose of 500 mg/kg. In preventing gastric ulcer which occurred simultaneously with the esophageal ulcer after the pylorus ligation, aceglutamide aluminum was most potent, and PANa was as potent as sodium alginate. Oral administration of PANa showed a more protective effect than aceglutamide aluminum on the esophageal ulceration induced by the simultaneous ligations of the pylorus and limiting ridge, whereas sodium alginate in a high dose of 500 mg/kg had little effect on the ulcer formation. PANa caused only a slight increase in the pH of gastric juice and a slight decrease in pepsin activity. From the results, it may be concluded that PANa showed an antiulcerogenic activity mainly due to its mucosa covering action against gastric juice.

  1. Gastric acid barrier to ingested microorganisms in man: studies in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Giannella, R A; Broitman, S A; Zamcheck, N

    1972-04-01

    Reassessment of the ;gastric bactericidal barrier' to enteric bacteria in man included studies of the bactericidal activity of (1) the normal and achlorhydric stomach in vivo and (2) normal and achlorhydric gastric juice and other media in vitro. Within 30 minutes virtually all bacteria (Serratia marcescens) were eliminated in the normal stomach whereas no reduction occurred in the achlorhydric stomach in one hour. In vitro, identical bactericidal activity was observed at the same pH (from 2.0 to 7.0) in normal gastric juice, achlorhydric gastric juice, aqueous HCl, and nutrient broth. At pH less than 4.0, 99.9% of the bacteria were killed within 30 minutes. The presence of profuse bacterial flora, including coliforms, found in markedly acid-deficient but not in normal stomachs, correlates well with the absence of bactericidal activity. Thus, the ;gastric bactericidal barrier' is primarily pH-hydrochloric acid dependent, with other constituents of gastric juice contributing little, if any, detectable effect on the destruction of microorganisms.

  2. Gastric acid barrier to ingested microorganisms in man: studies in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1972-01-01

    Reassessment of the `gastric bactericidal barrier' to enteric bacteria in man included studies of the bactericidal activity of (1) the normal and achlorhydric stomach in vivo and (2) normal and achlorhydric gastric juice and other media in vitro. Within 30 minutes virtually all bacteria (Serratia marcescens) were eliminated in the normal stomach whereas no reduction occurred in the achlorhydric stomach in one hour. In vitro, identical bactericidal activity was observed at the same pH (from 2·0 to 7·0) in normal gastric juice, achlorhydric gastric juice, aqueous HCl, and nutrient broth. At pH less than 4·0, 99·9% of the bacteria were killed within 30 minutes. The presence of profuse bacterial flora, including coliforms, found in markedly acid-deficient but not in normal stomachs, correlates well with the absence of bactericidal activity. Thus, the `gastric bactericidal barrier' is primarily pH-hydrochloric acid dependent, with other constituents of gastric juice contributing little, if any, detectable effect on the destruction of microorganisms. PMID:4556018

  3. Schlafen 4–expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M.; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori–infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype. PMID:27427984

  4. Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit (Lamiaceae), a medicinal plant protects the stomach against several gastric ulcer models.

    PubMed

    Jesus, N Z T; Falcão, H S; Lima, G R M; Caldas Filho, M R D; Sales, I R P; Gomes, I F; Santos, S G; Tavares, J F; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Batista, L M

    2013-12-12

    Hyptis suaveolens is used by the traditional population in several parts of the world to treat inflammation, gastric ulcer and infection and is used as a crude drug to relieve symptoms related with gastric ulcer or gastritis in northeaster and central region of Brazil. the standardized ethanolic extract (Hs-EtOHE) and hexanic fraction (Hs-HexF) of Hyptis suaveolens (62,5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated in several models of acute gastric ulcers. The participation of NO was evaluated by pretreatment with L-NAME and non-protein sulfyhydryls by NEM in the gastroprotective effect. Hs-EtOHE and Hs-HexF markedly reduced the gastric lesions induced by all ulcerogenic agents (HCl/ethanol, ethanol, NSAIDs and hypothermic restraint-stress). Gastric ulcerations were exacerbated by administration of NEM suggesting that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of Hs-EtOHE and Hs-HexF involves sulfhydryl groups. Ours results show that an extract of Hyptis suaveolens, administered orally to rodents, present gastro protective activity in different models of acute of gastric ulcer and give some support to the reported claims on the use of this plant as a gastro protective agent. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Gastric microbiota is altered in oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus and further modified by proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Amir, Itay; Konikoff, Fred M; Oppenheim, Michal; Gophna, Uri; Half, Elizabeth E

    2014-09-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux can cause inflammation, metaplasia, dysplasia and cancer of the oesophagus. Despite the increased use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to treat reflux, the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased rapidly in Europe and in the United States in the last 25 years. The reasons for this increase remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the microbiota of the gastric refluxate and oesophageal biopsies differs between patients with heartburn and normal-appearing oesophageal mucosa versus patients with abnormal oesophageal mucosa [oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus (BE)] and to elucidate the effect of PPIs on the bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Significant differences in the composition of gastric fluid bacteria were found between patients with heartburn and normal oesophageal tissue versus patients with oesophagitis or BE, but in the oesophagus-associated microbiota differences were relatively modest. Notably, increased levels of Enterobacteriaceae were observed in the gastric fluid of oesophagitis and BE patients. In addition, treatment with PPIs had dramatic effects on microbial communities both in the gastric fluids and the oesophageal tissue. In conclusion, gastric fluid microbiota is modified in patients with oesophagitis and BE compared with heartburn patients with normal biopsies. Furthermore, PPI treatment markedly alters gastric and oesophageal microbial populations. Determining whether the changes in bacterial composition caused by PPIs are beneficial or harmful will require further investigation. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The protective effect of copper complexes against gastric mucosal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    el-Saadani, M A; Nassar, A Y; Abou el-Ela, S H; Metwally, T H; Nafady, A M

    1993-09-14

    The study examines the anti-ulcer activity of Cu(I)-(nicotinic acid)2Cl [CuCl(HNA)2]. A dose of 8 mg (23 mumol) of complex/kg body mass was suspended in 0.25% Tween-80 in saline solution and administered intragastrically to male Wistar albino rats which had developed gastric ulcers as a result of pyloric ligation (Shay-rat model). Another group of animals received 5 mg (25 mumol)/kg body mass of the copper-glycinate complex Cu(II)(glycinate)2 [Cu(II)(Gly)2]. Both protected as shown by reduction in the ulcer index, inhibition of gastric perforation and death. Significant increases in gastric juice volume and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gastric mucosa and blood plasma were found with both copper complexes, while the gastric juice prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content was significantly decreased in the Cu(II)(Gly)2-treated group, it was significantly increased in the gastric mucosa of the CuCl(HNA)2-treated group. The copper complex-treated animals, especially those which received Cu(II)(Gly)2 had a marked fall in thromboxane A2 (TXA2) levels. These results suggest that intragastric administration of either CuCl(HNA)2 or Cu(II)(Gly)2 produced anti-ulcerogenic activity, with different modes of action.

  7. EF24 induces ROS-mediated apoptosis via targeting thioredoxin reductase 1 in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Feng, Zhiguo; Chen, Tongke; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Zhe; Qiu, Chenyu; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, and finding novel agents for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is of urgent need. Diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24), a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, exhibits potent anti-tumor activities by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. Although EF24 demonstrates potent anticancer efficacy in numerous types of human cancer cells, the cellular targets of EF24 have not been fully defined. We report here that EF24 may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, EF24 induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to EF24 treatment. In vivo, EF24 treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden, and displays synergistic lethality with 5-FU against gastric cancer cells. Targeting TrxR1 with EF24 thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of EF24, and reveals that TrxR1 is a good target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26919110

  8. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  9. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  10. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-14

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  11. The electrophoresis of human gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    Piper, D. W.; Stiel, Mirjam C.; Builder, Janet E.

    1962-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of normal human gastric juice is described. The effect of autodigestion of gastric juice and of the peptic digestion of albumin is described. The fallacies involved in the study of gastric juice proteins where peptic digestion of the protein constituent has not been prevented are emphasized. In this study the gastric juice was neutralized within the stomach to prevent changes due to autodigestion. PMID:13943717

  12. The effect of anticholinergic drugs on the electrolyte content of gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    Piper, D. W.; Stiel, Mirjam C.

    1961-01-01

    Gastric secretion was stimulated by insulin hypoglycaemia and the effect of increasing doses of anticholinergic drugs on the volume, acid, and electrolyte content of gastric juice was studied. The sodium and potassium output was depressed to a far less extent than the acid output and the drop in volume of secretion and acid output after anticholinergic drugs is almost entirely due to decreased acid secretion. With increasing anticholinergic suppression of the volume of secretion, there is a marked fall in potassium output and a lesser fall in sodium output. The potassium concentration showed a slight fall and there was a rise in sodium concentration. PMID:14486842

  13. Gastric juice miR-129 as a potential biomarker for screening gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing; Luo, Lin; Wu, Yibo; Yu, Xiuchong; Liu, Yang; Yu, Xuelin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinjun; Cui, Long; Ye, Guoliang; Le, Yanping; Guo, Junming

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles during the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Conventional serological tests for screening gastric cancer have limits on sensitivity and specificity. Several miRNAs in peripheral blood have been used as biomarkers of gastric cancer. However, most of these miRNAs are shared by several types of cancer. Thanks to the tissue specificity of gastric juice, here we examined the feasibility of using gastric juice miR-129-1/2, which are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer, to screen gastric cancer. Total of 141 gastric juices samples from gastric cancer, gastric ulcer, atrophic gastritis, and minimal gastritis patients or subjects with normal mucosa were collected by gastroscopy. The gastric juice miR-129-1/2 levels were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating patients with gastric cancer from patients with benign gastric diseases. We showed that, compared with patients with benign gastric diseases, patients with gastric cancer had significantly lower levels of gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p. The areas under ROC curve (AUC) were 0.639 and 0.651 for miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p, respectively. Using the parallel combination test, the AUC was up to 0.656. In summary, our results suggest that gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p are potential biomarkers for the screening gastric cancer, and the detection of gastric juice miRNAs is a convenient non-invasion method for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  14. Treatment of resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dikken, Johan L.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Coit, Daniel G.; Shah, Manish A.; Verheij, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, despite its declining overall incidence. Although there are differences in incidence, etiology and pathological factors, most studies do not separately analyze cardia and noncardia gastric cancer. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for advanced, resectable gastric cancer, but locoregional relapse rate is high with a consequently poor prognosis. To improve survival, several preoperative and postoperative treatment strategies have been investigated. Whereas perioperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiation (CRT) are considered standard therapy in the Western world, in Asia postoperative monochemotherapy with S-1 is often used. Several other therapeutic options, although generally not accepted as standard treatment, are postoperative combination chemotherapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and preoperative radiotherapy and CRT. Postoperative combination chemotherapy does show a statistically significant but clinically equivocal survival advantage in several meta-analyses. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is mainly performed in Asia and is associated with a higher postoperative complication rate. Based on the currently available data, the use of postoperative radiotherapy alone and the use of intraoperative radiotherapy should not be advised in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. Western randomized trials on gastric cancer are often hampered by slow or incomplete accrual. Reduction of toxicity for preoperative and especially postoperative treatment is essential for the ongoing improvement of gastric cancer care. PMID:22282708

  15. [Gastric tumors and tumor precursors].

    PubMed

    Röcken, C

    2017-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth (men) and sixth (women) most common cause of cancer-related death in Germany. Despite a declining incidence of distal gastric cancer, the prognosis remains dismal: the 5‑year survival rate ranges between 35% for women and 31% for men. The majority are adenocarcinomas, which occur sporadically, familial or hereditary. Adenomas and intraepithelial neoplasms are considered as precursor lesions. Recently, whole genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular profiling described four molecular subtypes of gastric cancer: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive, microsatellite unstable, chromosomal unstable and genomically stable gastric cancer. Currently, only the TNM classification has stood the test of time for the assessment of patient prognosis. Neuroendocrine tumor types 1-3 and soft tissue tumors occur significantly less often in the stomach. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors and inflammatory fibroid polyps are among the more common soft tissue tumors of the stomach and show distinct phenotypes. This review gives an overview of the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of gastric tumors.

  16. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  17. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  18. Readers of histone methylarginine marks.

    PubMed

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Bedford, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) that alters roughly 0.5% of all arginine residues in the cells. There are three types of arginine methylation: monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). These three PTMs are enriched on RNA-binding proteins and on histones, and also impact signal transduction cascades. To date, over thirty arginine methylation sites have been cataloged on the different core histones. These modifications alter protein structure, impact interactions with DNA, and also generate docking sites for effector molecules. The primary "readers" of methylarginine marks are Tudor domain-containing proteins. The complete family of thirty-six Tudor domain-containing proteins has yet to be fully characterized, but at least ten bind methyllysine motifs and eight bind methylarginine motifs. In this review, we will highlight the biological roles of the Tudor domains that interact with arginine methylated motifs, and also address other types of interactions that are regulated by these particular PTMs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mark III results from SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, W.

    1983-11-01

    First results from the MARK III detector at SPEAR are presented based on 2.7 million J/psi decays. The eta/sub c/ is observed in three modes, J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..eta/sub c/, (eta/sub c/ ..-->.. rho anti rho, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/, and phi phi). Using the phi phi mode, the eta/sub c/ spin-parity is determined to be 0/sup -/. The known radiative J/psi decays J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..f(f ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..eta'(eta' ..-->.. ..gamma..rho/sup 0/, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..f'(f' ..-->.. kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/), ..gamma..theta(theta ..-->.. kappa anti kappa), and ..gamma..iota(iota ..-->.. ..pi..kappa anti kappa) are observed and their branching ratios found to be in agreement with previous measurements. In the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/ mode a new state is observed at 2.22 GeV and in the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..rho/sup 0/ and ..gamma..eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ modes evidence for new structures near 1.4 GeV is presented. 29 references.

  20. [Marked hemosiderosis in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Klinz, C

    1999-01-29

    A 68-year-old man was admitted because of symptoms of lumbar pain. He was known to have chronic anemia with ring sideroblasts and diabetes melitus and to be in heart failure. Three months before he had been given 7 units of red cell concentrate. On admission the outstanding features were brown discoloration of the skin, absent body hair, tachycardia, hepatomegaly and small testicles. He had a normocytic anemia, hyperglycemia and raised transaminases, hypogonadism and vitamin D3 deficiency. The serum levels of iron, transferrin saturation and feritin were markedly elevated. Liver iron content/g dried liver was 4.2 g (by biomagnetometer). Radiology of the lumbar vertebrae showed osteoporosis and sonography confirmed hepatomegaly. The known myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) had fed to secondary hemosiderosis with heart failure, liver involvement, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and osteoporosis. Symptomatic treatment was unsuccessfully complemented by desferoxamine (up to 4 g/12 h) to release iron. But very good iron excretion was then achieved with deferiprone (3 x 1 g/d). The patient later died of the sequelae of hemosiderosis. Even when they have not required transfusions, patients with long-standing MDS should be examined regularly for the possible development of secondary hemosiderosis so that iron-chelating agents can be administered as needed.

  1. Temperature can influence gastric accommodation and sensitivity in functional dyspepsia with epigastric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Feng; Ke, Mei-Yun; Fang, Xiu-Cai; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Li-Ming; Zhang, Jing

    2013-09-01

    Functional dyspepsia-epigastric pain syndrome (FD-EPS) is characterized pathophysiologically by visceral hypersensitivity, but the effect of the temperature stimulation on gastric function has been seldom studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of liquid nutrients at different temperatures on the gastric accommodation, sensitivity, and gastric-wall compliance of healthy subjects (HS) and FD-EPS patients. Ten FD-EPS patients (Roma III criteria) and ten HS were recruited into the study. Intragastric pressure (IGP) and gastric perfusion were measured and compared following the administration of liquid nutrients at 37 °C on day 1 and at 8 °C on day 2. Seven patients developed abdominal discomfort or abdominal pain after being given cold liquid nutrient. The administration of liquid nutrient at 8 °C resulted in an increase of IGP in HS (P=0.044), a significant decrease in gastric perfusion (P<0.0001), a marked increase in IGP (P=0.015), and a dramatic reduction in gastric wall compliance (P=0.012) in patients compared to the effects of liquid nutrient at 37 °C. In addition, IGP in patients was lower than that in HS at 37 °C liquid nutrient (P=0.036), and the gastric perfusion volume in patients at maximal satiety was also significantly reduced at 8 °C liquid nutrient compared with HS (P=0.017). Cold stimulation can increase the IGP in HS and FD-EPS patients, elevate the visceral sensitivity and reduce the gastric volume of FD-EPS patients. FD-EPS patients who are sensitive to cold may develop epigastric discomfort or pain.

  2. Chk1 inhibition potentiates the therapeutic efficacy of PARP inhibitor BMN673 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuping; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Ruikang; Chang, Weilong; Li, Ruidong; Xie, Gengchen; Liu, Weizhen; Zhang, Lihong; Kapoor, Prabodh; Song, Shumei; Ajani, Jaffer; Mills, Gordon B; Chen, Jianying; Tao, Kaixiong; Peng, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Globally, gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths because of the lack of effective treatments for patients with advanced tumors when curative surgery is not possible. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify molecular targets in gastric cancer that can be used for developing novel therapies and prolonging patient survival. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a crucial regulator of cell cycle transition in DNA damage response (DDR). In our study, we report that Chk1 plays an important role in promoting gastric cancer cell survival and growth, which serves as an effective therapeutic target in gastric cancer. First, Chk1 ablation by small interfering RNA could significantly inhibit cell proliferation and sensitize the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment in both p53 wild type gastric cancer cell line AGS, and p53 mutant cell line MKN1. Secondly, we tested the anticancer effects of Chk1 chemical inhibitor LY2606368, which is a novel Chk1/2 targeted drug undergoing clinical trials in many malignant diseases. We found that LY2606368 can induce DNA damage, and remarkably suppress cancer proliferation and induce apoptosis in AGS and MKN1 cells. Moreover, we identified that LY2606368 can significantly inhibit homologous recombination (HR) mediated DNA repair and thus showed marked synergistic anticancer effect in combination with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BMN673 in both in vitro studies and in vivo experiments using a gastric cancer PDx model. The synergy between LY2606368 and PARP1 was likely caused by impaired the G2M checkpoint due to LY2606368 treatment, which forced mitotic entry and cell death in the presence of BMN673. In conclusion, we propose that Chk1 is a valued target for gastric cancer treatment, especially Chk1 inhibitor combined with PARP inhibitor may be a more effective therapeutic strategy in gastric cancer. PMID:28401005

  3. Chk1 inhibition potentiates the therapeutic efficacy of PARP inhibitor BMN673 in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuping; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Ruikang; Chang, Weilong; Li, Ruidong; Xie, Gengchen; Liu, Weizhen; Zhang, Lihong; Kapoor, Prabodh; Song, Shumei; Ajani, Jaffer; Mills, Gordon B; Chen, Jianying; Tao, Kaixiong; Peng, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Globally, gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths because of the lack of effective treatments for patients with advanced tumors when curative surgery is not possible. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify molecular targets in gastric cancer that can be used for developing novel therapies and prolonging patient survival. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a crucial regulator of cell cycle transition in DNA damage response (DDR). In our study, we report that Chk1 plays an important role in promoting gastric cancer cell survival and growth, which serves as an effective therapeutic target in gastric cancer. First, Chk1 ablation by small interfering RNA could significantly inhibit cell proliferation and sensitize the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment in both p53 wild type gastric cancer cell line AGS, and p53 mutant cell line MKN1. Secondly, we tested the anticancer effects of Chk1 chemical inhibitor LY2606368, which is a novel Chk1/2 targeted drug undergoing clinical trials in many malignant diseases. We found that LY2606368 can induce DNA damage, and remarkably suppress cancer proliferation and induce apoptosis in AGS and MKN1 cells. Moreover, we identified that LY2606368 can significantly inhibit homologous recombination (HR) mediated DNA repair and thus showed marked synergistic anticancer effect in combination with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BMN673 in both in vitro studies and in vivo experiments using a gastric cancer PDx model. The synergy between LY2606368 and PARP1 was likely caused by impaired the G2M checkpoint due to LY2606368 treatment, which forced mitotic entry and cell death in the presence of BMN673. In conclusion, we propose that Chk1 is a valued target for gastric cancer treatment, especially Chk1 inhibitor combined with PARP inhibitor may be a more effective therapeutic strategy in gastric cancer.

  4. Agmatine induces gastric protection against ischemic injury by reducing vascular permeability in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Masri, Abeer A; El Eter, Eman

    2012-05-14

    To investigate the effect of administration of agmatine (AGM) on gastric protection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Three groups of rats (6/group); sham, gastric I/R injury, and gastric I/R + AGM (100 mg/kg, i.p. given 15 min prior to gastric ischemia) were recruited. Gastric injury was conducted by ligating celiac artery for 30 min and reperfusion for another 30 min. Gastric tissues were histologically studied and immunostained with angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and Ang-2. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured in gastric tissue homogenate. To assess whether AKt/phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) mediated the effect of AGM, an additional group was pretreated with Wortmannin (WM) (inhibitor of Akt/PI3K, 15 μg/kg, i.p.), prior to ischemic injury and AGM treatment, and examined histologically and immunostained. Another set of experiments was run to study vascular permeability of the stomach using Evan's blue dye. AGM markedly reduced Evan's blue dye extravasation (3.58 ± 0.975 μg/stomach vs 1.175 ± 0.374 μg/stomach, P < 0.05), VEGF (36.87 ± 2.71 pg/100 mg protein vs 48.4 ± 6.53 pg/100 mg protein, P < 0.05) and MCP-1 tissue level (29.5 ± 7 pg/100 mg protein vs 41.17 ± 10.4 pg/100 mg protein, P < 0.01). It preserved gastric histology and reduced congestion. Ang-1 and Ang-2 immunostaining were reduced in stomach sections of AGM-treated animals. The administration of WM abolished the protective effects of AGM and extensive hemorrhage and ulcerations were seen. AGM protects the stomach against I/R injury by reducing vascular permeability and inflammation. This protection is possibly mediated by Akt/PI3K.

  5. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  8. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  9. 46 CFR 160.002-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof...

  10. 46 CFR 160.005-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in...

  11. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  12. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  13. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  14. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  15. 46 CFR 160.026-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (b) Other marking. In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing carton or box in which emergency drinking water containers are placed prior to shipment, each carton or box shall be...

  16. Esophageal motility disorders after gastric banding.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Deveney, C W; McConnell, D B; Wolfe, B M; Jobe, B A

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effects of gastric banding on esophageal function are not well described. This report describes a 28-year-old woman who developed signs and symptoms of abnormal esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter hypotension after gastric banding for morbid obesity. The current literature addressing the effects of gastric banding on esophageal function in light of this case report is discussed.

  17. Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susan

    2003-01-01

    A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

  18. Family history of gastric cancer correlates with decreased expression of HINT1 tumor suppressor gene in gastric mucosa of dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    ZUK, KAROLINA; PECZEK, LUKASZ; STEC-MICHALSKA, KRYSTYNA; MEDREK, MARTA; NAWROT, BARBARA

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Approximately 10% of gastric cancers are hereditary and a small percentage of these cases (1–3%) have been classified as a single hereditary syndrome (hereditary diffuse gastric cancer). We previously demonstrated that a family history of gastric cancer (FHGC) contributes to a predisposition towards the development of gastric cancer. Our data revealed that for dyspeptic patients whose first-degree relative(s) succumbed to GC, the levels of the fragile histidine triad pro-apoptotic protein in gastric mucosa were decreased. Another member of the histidine triad protein superfamily is histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), a novel tumor suppressor that plays an inhibitory role in the control of gene transcription. The study comprised 38 ethnically homogeneous patients with dyspeptic symptoms without concomitant chronic diseases (18 controls/20 patients with FHGC). The results showed that the samples from the control patients predominantly exhibited non-atrophic changes (approximately 90%), whereas atrophic changes occurred more frequently in patients with FHGC. Notably, the expression levels of the HINT1 gene were markedly higher in the samples with atrophy taken from the antrum of FHGC patients compared to the non-atrophic samples. Moreover, the levels of HINT1 mRNA in samples obtained from the antrum of patients with FHGC were lower compared to analogous samples from the control individuals. The decreased levels of HINT1 mRNA in the antrum samples of patients with the FHGC indicate that it is a factor predisposing those patients to the development of gastric cancer. PMID:22740884

  19. Preliminary results of thoracoscopic Belsey Mark IV antireflux procedure.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N T; Schauer, P R; Hutson, W; Landreneau, R; Weigel, T; Ferson, P F; Keenan, R J; Luketich, J D

    1998-06-01

    Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication has replaced open approaches for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in many major medical centers. Here we report our preliminary results of the Belsey Mark IV antireflux procedure performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS-Belsey). Fifteen patients underwent VATS-Belsey. The indications for surgery included GERD refractory to medical therapy (n=10), achalasia (n=2), diffuse esophageal spasms (n=1), epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum (n=1), and paraesophageal hernia (n=1). The median operative time was 235 min. There were three conversions to open minithoracotomy (8-10 cm) necessitated by severe adhesions (n=2) and repair of a gastric perforation (n=1). The median hospital stay was 4 days. Postoperative complications included persistent air leaks, requiring discharge with a Heimlich valve in one patient. There were no perioperative deaths. At a median follow-up of 19 months, ten patients (66%) were asymptomatic and were not taking any antacids. One patient who had taken proton pump inhibitors preoperatively required postoperative H2 blockers for mild heartburn. In three patients, recurrent GERD symptoms (mean follow-up 6 months) led to laparoscopic takedown of the Belsey and Nissen fundoplication. One patient with achalasia, who had recurrent dysphagia after 1 year of relief following VATS myotomy and Belsey, underwent esophagectomy. The Belsey Mark IV antireflux procedure is technically feasible by VATS with minimal morbidity. However, our preliminary results suggest that open thoracotomy for Belsey Mark IV should remain the standard operation for GERD with poor esophageal motility when a thoracic approach is desired. We have modified our approach to laparoscopic partial fundoplications (Toupet or Dor) for severe GERD and poor esophageal motility when an abdominal approach is possible.

  20. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  1. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  2. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  3. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  4. Degradation Modeling of Polyurea Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS THESIS Jonathan D. Needham, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEM/ENV/11-M05 DEPARTMENT OF THE...DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Management Graduates School of...DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS Jonathan D. Needham, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  5. The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

    1989-01-01

    Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

  6. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking devices. 221.14 Section 221.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  12. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the record by placing the protective marking conspicuously on the top, and the distribution... types of records. In the case of non-paper records that contain SSI, including motion picture films...

  13. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...

  14. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant fuel...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 27.1555 Section 27.1555... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the position...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant fuel...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75763, December 2, 2011. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and simple push button type starter...

  19. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  20. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...