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Sample records for marker cd133 associates

  1. Evaluation of cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, CD24: association with AKT isoforms and radiation resistance in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sahlberg, Sara Häggblad; Spiegelberg, Diana; Glimelius, Bengt; Stenerlöw, Bo; Nestor, Marika

    2014-01-01

    The cell surface proteins CD133, CD24 and CD44 are putative markers for cancer stem cell populations in colon cancer, associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. It is important to understand how these markers may predict treatment outcomes, determined by factors such as radioresistance. The scope of this study was to assess the connection between EGFR, CD133, CD24, and CD44 (including isoforms) expression levels and radiation sensitivity, and furthermore analyze the influence of AKT isoforms on the expression patterns of these markers, to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cell. Three colon cancer cell-lines were used, HT-29, DLD-1, and HCT116, together with DLD-1 isogenic AKT knock-out cell-lines. All three cell-lines (HT-29, HCT116 and DLD-1) expressed varying amounts of CD133, CD24 and CD44 and the top ten percent of CD133 and CD44 expressing cells (CD133high/CD44high) were more resistant to gamma radiation than the ten percent with lowest expression (CD133low/CD44low). The AKT expression was lower in the fraction of cells with low CD133/CD44. Depletion of AKT1 or AKT2 using knock out cells showed for the first time that CD133 expression was associated with AKT1 but not AKT2, whereas the CD44 expression was influenced by the presence of either AKT1 or AKT2. There were several genes in the cell adhesion pathway which had significantly higher expression in the AKT2 KO cell-line compared to the AKT1 KO cell-line; however important genes in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway (CDH1, VIM, TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, FN1, FOXC2 and CDH2) did not differ. Our results demonstrate that CD133high/CD44high expressing colon cancer cells are associated with AKT and increased radiation resistance, and that different AKT isoforms have varying effects on the expression of cancer stem cell markers, which is an important consideration when targeting AKT in a clinical setting.

  2. CD133 is a marker of gland-forming cells in gastric tumors and Sox17 is involved in its regulation.

    PubMed

    Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Shu; Ito, Kosei; Ito, Yoshiaki; Yuasa, Yasuhito

    2011-07-01

    CD133 is a universal marker of tissue stem/progenitor cells as well as cancer stem cells, but its physiological significance remains to be elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between expression of CD133 and features of gastric epithelial cells, and found that CD133-positive (CD133[+]) tumor cell lines formed well-differentiated tumors while CD133-negative (CD133[-]) lines formed poorly differentiated ones when subcutaneously injected into nude mice. We also found that CD133(+) and CD133(-) cell populations co-existed in some cell lines. FACS analysis showed that CD133(+) cells were mother cells because CD133(+) cells formed both CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells, but CD133(-) cells did not form CD133(+) cells. In these cell lines, CD133(+) cells formed well-differentiated tumors while CD133(-) cells formed poorly differentiated ones. In human gastric cancers, CD133 was exclusively expressed on the luminal surface membrane of gland-forming cells, and it was never found on poorly differentiated diffuse-type cells. Considering that poorly differentiated tumors often develop from well-differentiated tumors during tumor progression, these results suggest that loss of expression of CD133 might be related to gastric tumor progression. Microarray analysis showed that CD133(+) cells specifically expressed Sox17, a tumor suppressor in gastric carcinogenesis. Forced expression of SOX17 induced expression of CD133 in CD133(-) cells, and reduction of SOX17 caused by siRNA in CD133(+) cells induced a reduction in the level of CD133. These results indicate that Sox17 might be a key transcription factor controlling CD133 expression, and that it might also play a role in the control of gastric tumor progression. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Non-Invasive In Vivo Imaging of Tumor-Associated CD133/Prominin

    PubMed Central

    Tsurumi, Chizuko; Esser, Norbert; Firat, Elke; Gaedicke, Simone; Follo, Marie; Behe, Martin; Elsässer-Beile, Ursula; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Graeser, Ralph; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer stem cells are thought to play a pivotal role in tumor maintenance, metastasis, tumor therapy resistance and relapse. Hence, the development of methods for non-invasive in vivo detection of cancer stem cells is of great importance. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe successful in vivo detection of CD133/prominin, a cancer stem cell surface marker for a variety of tumor entities. The CD133-specific monoclonal antibody AC133.1 was used for quantitative fluorescence-based optical imaging of mouse xenograft models based on isogenic pairs of CD133 positive and negative cell lines. A first set consisted of wild-type U251 glioblastoma cells, which do not express CD133, and lentivirally transduced CD133-overexpressing U251 cells. A second set made use of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells, which uniformly express CD133 at levels comparable to primary glioblastoma stem cells, and a CD133-negative HCT116 derivative. Not surprisingly, visualization and quantification of CD133 in overexpressing U251 xenografts was successful; more importantly, however, significant differences were also found in matched HCT116 xenograft pairs, despite the lower CD133 expression levels. The binding of i.v.-injected AC133.1 antibodies to CD133 positive, but not negative, tumor cells isolated from xenografts was confirmed by flow cytometry. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results show that non-invasive antibody-based in vivo imaging of tumor-associated CD133 is feasible and that CD133 antibody-based tumor targeting is efficient. This should facilitate developing clinically applicable cancer stem cell imaging methods and CD133 antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:21187924

  4. Association of Vasculogenic Mimicry Formation and CD133 Expression with Poor Prognosis in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Yang, Bo; Cao, Qinying; Wu, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the association of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation and CD133 expression with the clinical outcomes of patients with ovarian cancer. This retrospective study was performed in 120 ovarian carcinoma samples. VM formation and CD133 expression was identified with CD31/periodic acid-Schiff double-staining and CD133 immunohistochemical staining. Collected clinical and pathological data included age at diagnosis, histologic type, tumor grade, tumor stage, lymph node metastases and response to chemotherapy. The overall survival time was calculated. VM was identified in 52 (43%) of 120 ovarian carcinoma tissues and CD133 expression was found in 56 (47%) cases. Both VM formation and CD133 expression were associated with advanced tumor stage, high-grade carcinoma and non-response to chemotherapy (p < 0.05). They were also associated with shorter overall survival time (p < 0.05) by log-rank test. Combined marker of VM formation and CD133 expression was associated with high-grade ovarian carcinoma, late-stage disease, non-response to chemotherapy and shorter overall survival time (p < 0.05). VM formation and CD133 expression can provide additional prognostic information for patients with ovarian cancer. Combined marker of VM formation and CD133 expression may be a potent predictor for poor prognosis for patients with ovarian cancer. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. [Expression Level of Membrane-associated Proteins Numb in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma and Its Relationship with Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD117, CD133, ALDH1.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Ya-Li; Bai, Li-Ping; Zheng, Ai

    2016-11-01

    To explore the expression level of membrane-associated protein Numb in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and its relationship with ovarian cancer stem cell markers CD117,CD133,acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1(ALDH1). A total of 136 patients who had ovarian tumors and 22 patients who had not ovarian tumors in Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics,West China Second University Hospital,Sichuan University were chosen as the study subjects.According to the histopathologic examination results,they were divided into epithelial ovarian carcinoma group (n=92),ovarian borderline tumor group (n=23),ovarian benign tumor group (n=21) and normal ovary group (n=22).Expression levels of Numb protein,CD117,CD133 and ALDH1 in ovarian tissue were detected by immunohistochemical SP method and these several kinds of protein expression differences and correlation statistical analysis were performend. 1 The positive expression rate of Numb protein in epithelial ovarian carcinoma group was higher than that in benign tumor or normal ovary group,also Numb protein positive expression rate in ovarian borderline tumor group was higher than that in normal ovary group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).2 Numb protein positive expression rate in ovarian tissue in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma FIGO stage1-2 was lower than that in stage 3-4,also the same in no lymph nodes metastasis compared with lymph nodes invasion,and the differences of positive expression rate were statistically significant (P<0.05).While there were no significant differences among different age,histopathological types,pathological grades and residual tumor size (P>0.05).3 There was no correlation between Numb protein and CD117 and CD133 positive expression rate in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissue [correlation coefficient (r)=0.116,P=0.261; r=0.083,P=0.425].However,the positive expression rate of Numb protein and ALDH1 was positively correlated (r=0.296,P=0.261). The expression of Numb protein

  6. High CD133 Expression Is Associated with Worse Prognosis in Patients with Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Huanran; Lv, Shengqing; Yang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    The CD133 antigen has been identified as a putative stem cell marker in gliomas. However, the prognostic significance of CD133 expression in glioblastoma patients remained controversial. A meta-analysis of published data was performed to comprehensively assess the prognostic role of CD133 expression in glioblastoma patients. Publications assessing the prognostic significance of CD133 expression in glioblastoma patients were identified in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science up to November 2014. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated using meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic significance of CD133 expression in glioblastoma. Ten studies with a total of 715 glioblastoma patients were included into the meta-analysis. Overall, high CD133 expression was associated with poorer overall survival in patients with glioblastoma (HR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.46-2.64, P < 0.001). In addition, high CD133 expression was also associated with poorer progression-free survival in patients with glioblastoma (HR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.43-2.88, P < 0.001). Meta-analyses of studies with high quality showed that high CD133 expression was associated with both poorer overall survival (HR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.77-3.23, P < 0.001) and poorer progression-free survival (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.60-2.94, P < 0.001) in patients with glioblastoma. Meta-analysis of studies with adjusted estimates further showed that high CD133 expression was an independent prognostic factor of glioblastoma. High CD133 expression is associated with worse prognosis in patients with glioblastoma. More prospective studies with well-design are needed to confirm this finding.

  7. STAT3 is a key transcriptional regulator of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Sarani; Fuchs, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133 was found to be upregulated in many cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism of CD133 regulation in the liver tumor microenvironment has remained elusive. In this study Won and colleagues report that interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) signaling and hypoxia enhance the expression of CD133 and promote the progression of HCC. PMID:27275460

  8. Colon cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous hepatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hun Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Hyeong Rok

    2015-04-01

    CD44 and CD133 mRNA expression as cancer stem cell markers in colorectal cancer were correlated with synchronous hepatic metastases and the clinicopathological factors, including patient survival. The CD44 and CD133 mRNA levels in 36 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas with synchronous hepatic metastasis were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, with normalization relative to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on samples with typical mRNA expression patterns to investigate protein expression. Both CD44 and CD133 gene expressions were highest in hepatic metastasis tissue, followed by colorectal cancer and normal mucosa. The differences were statistically significant among groups of normal mucosa, colorectal cancer and hepatic metastasis tissue. CD44 mRNA expression was significantly associated with the tumor location (P=0.019) and histology (P=0.026). With a median follow-up period of 38 months, the 5-year disease-free survival rate of the patients with high CD44 mRNA expression in the CD44 hepatic metastasis tissue group was significantly lower than that of the patients with low expression (P=0.002). While the mRNA expressions in groups of CD44 colorectal tumor, CD133 colorectal tumor, and CD133 hepatic metastasis tissue were not significant. CD44 and CD133 mRNA were highly correlatively co-expressed in colorectal cancer with hepatic metastases. CD44 expression was an independent factor associated with patient survival, while CD133 did not show this pattern. Thus, CD44 is a more reliable marker for predicting hepatic metastases and survival. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  9. Expression status of CD44 and CD133 as a prognostic marker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Koichi; Ninomiya, Itasu; Ohbatake, Yoshinao; Hirose, Atsushi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Sakai, Seisho; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Hidehiro, Tajima; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Fushida, Sachio; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2016-12-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have self-renewal and pluripotency capabilities and contribute to cancer progression and chemoresistance. It has been proposed that the treatment resistance and heterogeneity of CSCs are deeply involved in the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The objective of this study was to identify the influence of the expression status of the CSC markers CD44 and CD133 on chemotherapeutic efficacy and prognosis in ESCC patients who underwent radical esophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Endoscopically biopsied specimens taken before NAC and surgically resected specimens after NAC were immunohistochemically assessed for CD44 and CD133 expression for 47 ESCC patients who underwent NAC followed by radical esophagectomy. The correlation between CD44 and CD133 expression status and clinicopathological findings and the prognosis of ESCC patients after NAC followed by esophagectomy were analyzed. The percentages of CD44-positive cells and CD133-positive cells in specimens were increased after NAC. CD44 and CD133 expression status before NAC did not correlate with the degree of tumor progression and had no impact on the chemotherapeutic effect. However, strong expression of CD44 or CD133 and a high proportion of CD133-expressing cells before NAC were significantly associated with poorer esophageal cancer-specific survival. Patients with strong expression of CD44 or CD133 and those with a high ratio of CD133-positive tumor cells showed significantly poor prognosis regardless of the effect of chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that simultaneous strong expression of CD44 and CD133 before NAC, a high rate of CD133-positive tumor cells before NAC, and primary tumor remission assessed by preoperative endoscopy were significant independent prognostic factors for ESCC. Our data indicate that CD44 and CD133 expression status prior to treatment dictates the malignant potential of ESCC and may be a novel

  10. CD133 EXPRESSION COULD BE A PREDICTIVE MARKER OF PERIODONTAL REGENERATION.

    PubMed

    Lucarini, G; Zizzi, A; Ferrante, L; D'Angelo, A B; Rubini, C; Aspriello, S D

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration needs formation of new connective tissue at the root surface, involving periodontal fibre development and angiogenesis. CD133 or prominin-1, is an important regulator of apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis. CD133 positive cells seem to be influenced in number and distribution by periodontal inflammatory changes. Studies showed different clinical and radiographic outcomes achieved with the used of Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allografts (DFDBA) for periodontal intrabony defects treatment. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between CD133 expression in gingival biopsies before periodontal treatment and periodontal tissue response in the same site at 12 months post-surgery. We selected fifty-six patients with at least one intrabony defect with clinical attachment level (CAL)≥6 mm and needing periodontal regeneration. A gingival biopsy for each patient was obtained for CD133 immunostaining. Clinical and radiographical parameters were taken at baseline and 12 months post-surgery. We found a positive correlation between gingival CD133 expression and CAL gain achieved by use of DFDBA and measured 12 months post-surgery. Our results suggest that gingival CD133 expression could be a predictive marker of favourable periodontal healing. The CAL gain after periodontal regeneration seems to be related with a native gingival regenerative capacity.

  11. CD133 Is Not Suitable Marker for Isolating Melanoma Stem Cells from D10 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Fomeshi, Motahareh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Firouzi, Javad; Khosravani, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cutaneous melanoma is the most hazardous malignancy of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for malignancy in most of cancers including melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare two common methods for melanoma stem cell enriching; isolating based on the CD133 cell surface marker and spheroid cell culture. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, melanoma stem cells were enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the CD133 protein expression and spheroid culture of D10 melanoma cell line,. To determine stemness features, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT4-A and -B genes as well as colony and spheroid formation assays were utilized in unsorted CD133+, CD133- and spheroid cells. Significant differences of the two experimental groups were compared using student’s t tests and a two-tailed value of P<0.05 was statistically considered as a significant threshold. Results Our results demonstrated that spheroid cells had more colony and spheroid forming ability, rather than CD133+ cells and the other groups. Moreover, melanospheres expressed higher mRNA expression level of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN and OCT4-A com- pared to other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Although CD133+ derived melanoma cells represented stemness fea- tures, our findings demonstrated that spheroid culture could be more effective meth- od to enrich melanoma stem cells. PMID:27054115

  12. CD133 Is Not Suitable Marker for Isolating Melanoma Stem Cells from D10 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Rajabi Fomeshi, Motahareh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Firouzi, Javad; Khosravani, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most hazardous malignancy of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for malignancy in most of cancers including melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare two common methods for melanoma stem cell enriching; isolating based on the CD133 cell surface marker and spheroid cell culture. In this experimental study, melanoma stem cells were enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the CD133 protein expression and spheroid culture of D10 melanoma cell line,. To determine stemness features, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT4-A and -B genes as well as colony and spheroid formation assays were utilized in unsorted CD133(+), CD133(-) and spheroid cells. Significant differences of the two experimental groups were compared using student's t tests and a two-tailed value of P<0.05 was statistically considered as a significant threshold. Our results demonstrated that spheroid cells had more colony and spheroid forming ability, rather than CD133(+) cells and the other groups. Moreover, melanospheres expressed higher mRNA expression level of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN and OCT4-A com- pared to other groups (P<0.05). Although CD133(+) derived melanoma cells represented stemness fea- tures, our findings demonstrated that spheroid culture could be more effective meth- od to enrich melanoma stem cells.

  13. Regulatory role of hexosamine biosynthetic pathway on hepatic cancer stem cell marker CD133 under low glucose conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Hai; Liu, Tengfei; Ming, Xiaoyan; Tang, Zhi; Fu, Li; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kanawati, Basem; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Cancer was hypothesized to be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs), but the metabolic determinants of CSC-like phenotype still remain elusive. Here, we present that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) at least in part rescues cancer cell fate with inactivation of glycolysis. Firstly, metabolomic analysis profiled cellular metabolome in CSCs of hepatocellular carcinoma using CD133 cell-surface marker. The metabolic signatures of CD133-positive subpopulation compared to CD133-negative cells highlighted HBP as one of the distinct metabolic pathways, prompting us to uncover the role of HBP in maintenance of CSC-like phenotype. To address this, CSC-like phenotypes and cell survival were investigated in cancer cells under low glucose conditions. As a result, HBP inhibitor azaserine reduced CD133-positive subpopulation and CD133 expression under high glucose condition. Furthermore, treatment of N-Acetylglucosamine in part restores CD133-positive subpopulation when either 2.5 mM glucose in culture media or glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose in HCC cell lines was applied, enhancing CD133 expression as well as promoting cancer cell survival. Together, HBP might be a key metabolic determinant in the functions of hepatic CSC marker CD133.

  14. Prominin-1 (CD133) Expression in the Prostate and Prostate Cancer: A Marker for Quiescent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pellacani, Davide; Oldridge, Emma E; Collins, Anne T; Maitland, Norman J

    2013-01-01

    The origin and phenotype of stem cells in human prostate cancer remains a subject of much conjecture. In this scenario, CD133 has been successfully used as a stem cell marker in both normal prostate and prostate cancer. However, cancer stem cells have been identified without the use of this marker, opening up the possibility of a CD133 negative cancer stem cell. In this chapter, we review the current literature regarding prostate cancer stem cells, with specific reference to the expression of CD133 as a stem cell marker to identify and purify stem cells in normal prostate epithelium and prostate cancer.

  15. DDX4 (DEAD box polypeptide 4) colocalizes with cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Kang, Yun-Jeong; Jo, Jin-Ok; Ock, Mee Sun; Moon, Soo Hyun; Suh, Dong Soo; Yoon, Man Soo; Park, Eun-Sil; Jeong, Namkung; Eo, Wan-Kyu; Kim, Heung Yeol; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Germ cell marker DDX4 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer. • Ovarian cancer stem cell marker CD133 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer. • DDX4 and CD133 were mostly colocalized in various types of ovarian cancer tissues. • CD133 positive ovarian cancer cells also express DDX4 whereas CD133-negative cells did not possess DDX4. • Germ cell marker DDX4 has the potential of ovarian cancer stem cell marker. - Abstract: DDX4 (DEAD box polypeptide 4), characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), is an RNA helicase which is implicated in various cellular processes involving the alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. DDX4 is known to be a germ cell-specific protein and is used as a sorting marker of germline stem cells for the production of oocytes. A recent report about DDX4 in ovarian cancer showed that DDX4 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and disrupts a DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint. We investigated the relationship between DDX4 and ovarian cancer stem cells by analyzing the expression patterns of DDX4 and the cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers via tissue microarray. Both DDX4 and CD133 were significantly increased in ovarian cancer compared to benign tumors, and showed similar patterns of expression. In addition, DDX4 and CD133 were mostly colocalized in various types of ovarian cancer tissues. Furthermore, almost all CD133 positive ovarian cancer cells also express DDX4 whereas CD133-negative cells did not possess DDX4, suggesting a strong possibility that DDX4 plays an important role in cancer stem cells, and/or can be used as an ovarian cancer stem cell marker.

  16. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li; Wu, Menglin; Sun, Longhao; Li, Weidong; Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Xuening; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent years, CD44 and CD133 have been identified as 2 common used cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers in gastric cancer remains controversial; moreover, there is lack of comparison of these 2 markers’ roles in clinical applications. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate these markers’ clinicopathological features and association with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified and odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Heterogeneity and sensitivity were analyzed as well. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger tests. Results: The meta-analysis included 26 studies involving 4729 patients. High expression of CD44 was associated with Lauren type (intestinal type) (OR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.02–2.30]; P = 0.038) and lymphatic vessel invasion (OR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.06–1.76]; P = 0.021). CD133 overexpression was related to high TNM stage (III/IV) (OR, 3.18 [95% CI, 2.48–4.07]; P = 0.000), high depth of invasion (T3/T4) (OR, 2.97 [95% CI, 2.20–4.03]; P = 0.000), lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.82 [95% CI, 2.16–3.69]; P = 0.000), vascular invasion (OR, 6.71 [95% CI, 1.63–27.63]; P = 0.008), and distant metastasis (OR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.64–3.29]; P = 0.000). In addition, survival analysis demonstrated a significant association between CD44, as well as CD133 and poor 5-year overall survival (HR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.55–2.26]; P = 0.000; HR, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.76–2.44]; P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: These data suggest that upregulated expression of CD44 and CD133 correlates with several clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. Since the related features do not overlap, combined detection of CD44 and CD133 expression can be an especially effective tool for pathological diagnosis

  17. CD133 and CD44 are universally overexpressed in GIST and do not represent cancer stem cell markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junwei; Guo, Tianhua; Zhang, Lei; Qin, Li-Xuan; Singer, Samuel; Maki, Robert G; Taguchi, Takahiro; Dematteo, Ronald; Besmer, Peter; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2012-02-01

    Although imatinib mesylate has been a major breakthrough in the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), complete responses are rare and most patients eventually develop resistance to the drug. Thus, the possibility of an imatinib-insensitive cell subpopulation within GIST tumors, harboring stem cell characteristics, may be responsible for the clinical failures. However, the existence of a cancer stem cell component in GIST has not been yet established. This study was aimed to determine whether expression of commonly used stem cell markers in other malignancies, that is, CD133 and CD44, might identify cells with characteristics of cancer stem/progenitor cells in human GIST. CD133 and CD44 expression in GIST explants was analyzed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and gene expression. Their transcription levels were correlated with clinical and molecular factors in a large, well-annotated cohort of GIST patients. FACS sorted GIST cells based on CD133 and CD44 expression were isolated and used to assess phenotypic characteristics, ability to maintain their surface expression, sensitivity to imatinib, and expression signature. The enrichment in CD133/CD44 cells in the side population (SP) assay was also investigated. CD133 expression was consistently found in GIST. CD133(-) cells formed more colonies, were more invasive in a matrigel assay, and showed enrichment in the SP cells, compared to CD133(+) cells. CD133 expression was also detected in the two imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines, while was absent in the imatinib-resistant lines. Our results show that CD133 and CD44 are universally expressed in GIST, and may represent a lineage rather than a cancer stem cell marker.

  18. Frequency and pattern of expression of the stem cell marker CD133 have strong prognostic effect on the surgical outcome of colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shusaku; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro; Shida, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Mineji; Sato, Yutaka; Saji, Yutaka; Ozaki, Michitaka; Todo, Satoru

    2010-11-01

    CD133 has been reported to be a cancer stem cell marker in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and pattern of CD133 expression by immunohistochemical methods and evaluate their correlation with clinicopathological features, including patient survival (PS) and recurrence. Tissue specimens of 151 CRC patients who underwent surgical treatment for well-differentiated/moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and stage I-IV tumors (TNM classification) were immunostained for analyzing CD133 expression. The frequency of CD133 expression was 91.4% (138/151), and the pattern of expression was divided into membranous and cytoplasmic expression. Of the 151 patients, 136 (90.1%) showed membranous expression, whereas 44 (29.1%) showed cytoplasmic expression. Both expression patterns were seen in 42 (27.8%) patients. The frequency of CD133 overexpression (>50% of stained cells) was 27.2% (41/151); univariate analysis showed CD133 overexpression to be significantly associated with PS, but not recurrence, and multivariate analysis indicated it to be an independent prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed membranous overexpression (>50% of stained tumor cells on the membrane), which significantly correlated with histology and chemoresistance of recurrent and stage IV tumors, to be an independent prognostic factor for PS and recurrence. However, multivariate analysis did not indicate cytoplasmic expression, which significantly correlated with histology, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and lymphatic invasion, as an independent prognostic factor for PS and recurrence. Our results demonstrated that evaluation of the frequency and pattern of CD133 expression is useful for predicting prognosis, recurrence, and chemosensitivity in CRC patients.

  19. CD133 protein N-glycosylation processing contributes to cell surface recognition of the primitive cell marker AC133 epitope.

    PubMed

    Mak, Anthony B; Blakely, Kim M; Williams, Rashida A; Penttilä, Pier-Andrée; Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Osman, Khan T; Kasimer, Dahlia; Ketela, Troy; Moffat, Jason

    2011-11-25

    The AC133 epitope expressed on the CD133 glycoprotein has been widely used as a cell surface marker of numerous stem cell and cancer stem cell types. It has been recently proposed that posttranslational modification and regulation of CD133 may govern cell surface AC133 recognition. Therefore, we performed a large scale pooled RNA interference (RNAi) screen to identify genes involved in cell surface AC133 expression. Gene hits could be validated at a rate of 70.5% in a secondary assay using an orthogonal RNAi system, demonstrating that our primary RNAi screen served as a powerful genetic screening approach. Within the list of hits from the primary screen, genes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis were significantly enriched as determined by Ingenuity Canonical Pathway analyses. Indeed, inhibiting biosynthesis of the N-glycan precursor using the small molecule tunicamycin or inhibiting its transfer to CD133 by generating N-glycan-deficient CD133 mutants resulted in undetectable cell surface AC133. Among the screen hits involved in N-glycosylation were genes involved in complex N-glycan processing, including the poorly characterized MGAT4C, which we demonstrate to be a positive regulator of cell surface AC133 expression. Our study identifies a set of genes involved in CD133 N-glycosylation as a direct contributing factor to cell surface AC133 recognition and provides biochemical evidence for the function and structure of CD133 N-glycans.

  20. CD133 Is a Marker For Long-Term Repopulating Murine Epidermal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Charruyer, A; Strachan, LR; Yue, L; Toth, AS; Mancianti, ML; Ghadially, R

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance, repair and renewal of the epidermis are thought to depend on a pool of dedicated epidermal stem cells. Like for many somatic tissues, isolation of a nearly pure population of stem cells is a primary goal in cutaneous biology. We used a quantitative transplantation assay, using injection of keratinocytes into subcutis combined with limiting dilution analysis, to assess the long-term repopulating ability of putative murine epidermal stem populations. Putative epidermal stem cell populations were isolated by FACS sorting. The CD133+ population and the subpopulation of CD133+ cells that exhibits high mitochondrial membrane potential (DΨmhi), were enriched for long-term repopulating epidermal stem cells vs. unfractionated cells (3.9 and 5.2-fold, respectively). Evidence for self-renewal capacity was obtained by serial transplantation of long-term epidermal repopulating units derived from CD133+ and CD133+ΔΨmhi keratinocytes. CD133+ keratinocytes were multipotent and produced significantly more hair follicles than CD133− cells. CD133+ cells were a subset of the previously described integrin α6+CD34+ bulge cell population and 28.9±8.6% were label retaining cells. Thus, murine keratinocytes within the CD133+ and CD133+ΔΨmhi populations contain epidermal stem cells that regenerate epidermis for the long-term, are self-renewing, multipotent, and label-retaining cells. PMID:22763787

  1. Clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic value of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan; Yin, Songcheng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Weiguang; Chen, Bo; Xing, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background The association of CD133 overexpression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. We thus performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the role of CD133 expression in the development and prognosis of breast cancer. Methods The databases PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (updated to August 1, 2016) were searched. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to evaluate the impact of CD133 expression on clinicopathological features, overall survival, and disease-free survival. Results A total of 1,734 patients from 13 studies were subject to final analysis. The results showed a significant association between overexpression of CD133 and estrogen receptor status (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18–0.70), progesterone receptor status (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43–0.74), human epidermal growth factor-2 status (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.33–2.45), lymph node metastasis (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.34–2.92), and tumor histological grade (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.26–2.54) in breast cancer. However, no significant correlation was found between upregulation of CD133 expression and onset age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.70–1.53) or tumor size (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.80–2.09). Moreover, CD133-positive breast cancer patients had a higher risk of mortality (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.21–3.03) and disease progression (HR 2.70, 95% CI 1.05–6.95). Conclusion This meta-analysis suggested that CD133 might be a predictor of clinical outcomes as well as prognosis and could be a potentially new gene therapy target for breast cancer patients. PMID:28243121

  2. The Importance of the Stem Cell Marker Prominin-1/CD133 in the Uptake of Transferrin and in Iron Metabolism in Human Colon Cancer Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Garcion, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    As the pentaspan stem cell marker CD133 was shown to bind cholesterol and to localize in plasma membrane protrusions, we investigated a possible function for CD133 in endocytosis. Using the CD133 siRNA knockdown strategy and non-differentiated human colon cancer Caco-2 cells that constitutively over-expressed CD133, we provide for the first time direct evidence for a role of CD133 in the intracellular accumulation of fluorescently labeled extracellular compounds. Assessed using AC133 monoclonal antibody, CD133 knockdown was shown to improve Alexa488-transferrin (Tf) uptake in Caco-2 cells but had no impact on FITC-dextran or FITC-cholera-toxin. Absence of effect of the CD133 knockdown on Tf recycling established a role for CD133 in inhibiting Tf endocytosis rather than in stimulating Tf exocytosis. Use of previously identified inhibitors of known endocytic pathways and the positive impact of CD133 knockdown on cellular uptake of clathrin-endocytosed synthetic lipid nanocapsules supported that CD133 impact on endocytosis was primarily ascribed to the clathrin pathway. Also, cholesterol extraction with methyl-β-cyclodextrine up regulated Tf uptake at greater intensity in the CD133high situation than in the CD133low situation, thus suggesting a role for cholesterol in the inhibitory effect of CD133 on endocytosis. Interestingly, cell treatment with the AC133 antibody down regulated Tf uptake, thus demonstrating that direct extracellular binding to CD133 could affect endocytosis. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy established that down regulation of CD133 improved the accessibility to the TfR from the extracellular space, providing a mechanism by which CD133 inhibited Tf uptake. As Tf is involved in supplying iron to the cell, effects of iron supplementation and deprivation on CD133/AC133 expression were investigated. Both demonstrated a dose-dependent down regulation here discussed to the light of transcriptional and post-transciptional effects. Taken

  3. Tunneling nanotubes mediate the transfer of stem cell marker CD133 between hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Doreen; Scheinpflug, Julia; Karbanová, Jana; Freund, Daniel; Bornhäuser, Martin; Corbeil, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Deciphering all mechanisms of intercellular communication used by hematopoietic progenitors is important, not only for basic stem cell research, but also in view of their therapeutic relevance. Here, we investigated whether these cells can produce the thin F-actin-based plasma membrane protrusions referred to as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), which are known to bridge cells over long distances without contact with the substratum and transfer cargo molecules along them in various biological processes. We found that human primary CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors and leukemic KG1a cells develop such structures upon culture on primary mesenchymal stromal cells or specific extracellular-matrix-based substrata. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that cell dislodgement is the primary mechanism responsible for TNT biogenesis. Surprisingly, we found that, among various cluster of differentiation (CD) markers, only the stem cell antigen CD133 is transferred between cells. It is selectively and directionally transported along the surface of TNTs in small clusters, such as cytoplasmic phospho-myosin light chain 2, suggesting that the latter actin motor protein might be implicated in this process. Our data provide new insights into the biology of hematopoietic progenitors that can contribute to our understanding of all facets of intercellular communication in the bone marrow microenvironment under healthy or cancerous conditions.

  4. Cell-surface Vimentin: A mislocalized protein for isolating csVimentin(+) CD133(-) novel stem-like hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing EMT markers.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Abhisek; Satelli, Arun; Xia, Xueqing; Cutrera, Jeffrey; Mishra, Lopa; Li, Shulin

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in cancer stem cell biology have shown that cancer stem-like cells with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes are more aggressive and cause relapse; however, absence of a specific marker to isolate these EMT stem-like cells hampers research in this direction. Cell surface markers have been identified for isolating cancer stem-like cells, but none has been identified for isolating cancer stem-like cells with EMT phenotype. Recently, we discovered that Vimentin, an intracellular EMT tumor cell marker, is present on the surface of colon metastatic tumor nodules in the liver. In our study, we examined the potential of targeting cell surface Vimentin (CSV) to isolate stem-like cancer cells with EMT phenotype, by using a specific CSV-binding antibody, 84-1. Using this antibody, we purified the CSV-positive, CD133-negative (csVim(+) CD133(-) ) cell population from primary liver tumor cell suspensions and characterized for stem cell properties. The results of sphere assays and staining for the stem cell markers Sox2 and Oct4A demonstrated that csVim(+) CD133(-) cells have stem-like properties similar to csVim(-) CD133(+) population. Our investigation further revealed that the csVim(+) CD133(-) cells had EMT phenotypes, as evidenced by the presence of Twist and Slug in the nucleus, the absence of EpCAM on the cell surface and basal level of expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin. The csVimentin-negative CD133-positive stem cells do not have any EMT phenotypes. csVim(+) CD133(-) cells exhibited more aggressively metastatic in livers than csVim(-) CD133(+) cells. Our findings indicate that csVim(+) CD133(-) cells are promising targets for treatment and prevention of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Identification of carcinogenic potential-associated molecular mechanisms in CD133(+) A549 cells based on microRNA profiles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Yong; Jiao, De-Min; Zhu, Ya; Hu, Huizhen; Wang, Jian; Tang, Xiali; Chen, Jun; Yan, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify carcinogenic potential-related molecular mechanisms in cancer stem cells (CSCs) in lung cancer. CD133(+) and CD133(-) subpopulations were sorted from A549 cells using magnetic-activated cell sorting. The abilities to form sphere and clone, proliferate, migrate, and invade were compared between CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells, as well as drug sensitivity. Thereafter, microRNA (miRNA) profiles were performed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs between CD133(+) and CD133(-) subpopulation. Following, bioinformatic methods were used to predict target genes for differentially expressed miRNAs and perform enrichment analysis. Furthermore, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways and CSC property-associated signaling pathways were explored and visualized in regulatory network among competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA), miRNA, and target gene. CD133(+) subpopulation showed greater oncogenic potential than CD133(-) subpopulation. In all, 14 differentially expressed miRNAs were obtained and enriched in 119 pathways, including five upregulated (hsa-miR-23b-3p, -23a-3p, -15b-5p, -24-3p, and -4734) and nine downregulated (hsa-miR-1246, -30b-5p, -5096, -6510-5p, has-miR-7110-5p, -7641, -3197, -7108-5p, and -6791-5p). For mTOR signaling pathway, eight differential miRNAs (hsa-miR-23b-3p, -23a-3p, -15b-5p, -24-3p, -4734, -1246, -7641, and -3197) and 39 target genes (e.g., AKT1, AKT2, PIK3CB, PIK3CG, PIK3R1, PIK3CA, and PIK3CD) were involved, as well as some ceRNAs. Besides, for CSC property-related signaling pathways, six miRNAs (hsa-miR-1246, -15b-5p, -30b-5p, -3197, -4734, and -7110-5p) were dramatically enriched in Hedgehog, Notch, and Wnt signaling pathways via regulating 108 target genes (e.g., DVL1, DVL3, WNT3A, and WNT5A). The mTOR and CSC property-associated signaling pathways may be important oncogenic molecular mechanisms in CD133(+) A549 cells.

  6. CD133 is a temporary marker of cancer stem cells in small cell lung cancer, but not in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fei; Wang, Jian; Chen, Duan; Chen, Yi-Jiang

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current investigations in the field of cancer research have intensively focused on the 'cancer stem cell' or 'tumor-initiating cell'. While CD133 was initially considered as a stem cell marker only in the hematopoietic system and the nervous system, the membrane antigen also identifies tumorigenic cells in certain solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the human lung cancer cell lines A549, H157, H226, Calu-1, H292 and H446. The results of real-time PCR analysis after chemotherapy drug selection and the fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that CD133 only functioned as a marker in the small cell lung cancer line H446. The sorted CD133+ subset presented stem cell-like features, including self-renewal, differentiation, proliferation and tumorigenic capacity in subsequent assays. Furthermore, a proportion of the CD133+ cells had a tendency to remain stable, which may explain the controversies arising from previous studies. Therefore, the CD133+ subset should provide an enriched source of tumor-initiating cells among H446 cells. Moreover, the antigen could be used as an investigative marker of the tumorigenic process and an effective treatment for small cell lung cancer.

  7. Clinical significance of radiation-induced CD133 expression in residual rectal cancer cells after chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Aya; Tanaka, Koji; Saigusa, Susumu; Toiyama, Yuji; Morimoto, Yuhki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Takashi; Matsushita, Kohei; Yokoe, Takeshi; Yasuda, Hiromi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2012-03-01

    CD133 and CD44 have been considered as markers for colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs). The association of CD133 and CD44 expression with radiation has not been fully examined in rectal cancer. Both CD133 (PROM) and CD44 mRNA levels were measured in post-chemoradiotherapy (CRT) specimens of 52 rectal cancer patients using real-time RT-PCR and compared to clinicopathological variables and clinical outcome. Their protein levels were examined in the radiation-treated HT29 human colon cancer cell line. Post-CRT CD133 in residual cancer cells was significantly higher than matched pre-CRT CD133 in biopsy specimens (n=30). By contrast, CD44 was significantly lower in post-CRT specimens (P<0.01). CD133 was associated with distant recurrence after CRT followed by surgery (P<0.05). Patients with elevated CD133 in residual cancer cells showed poor disease-free survival (P<0.05). No significant association between post-CRT CD44 and clinical outcome was found. The in vitro study showed that CD133 protein was increased in a radiation dose-dependent manner, despite of the decreased number of clonogenic radiation-surviving cells. CD44 protein was decreased after irradiation. CD133, but not CD44, was increased in radiation-resistant surviving colon cancer cells. Post-CRT CD133 in residual cancer cells may predict metachronous distant recurrence and poor survival of rectal cancer patients after CRT.

  8. Mutation of N-linked glycosylation at Asn548 in CD133 decreases its ability to promote hepatoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Ren, Shifang; Xie, Liqi; Cui, Chunhong; Xing, Yang; Liu, Chanjuan; Cao, Benjin; Yang, Fan; Li, Yinan; Chen, Xiaoning; Wei, Yuanyan; Lu, Haojie; Jiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-21

    The membrane glycoprotein CD133 is a popular marker for cancer stem cells and contributes to cancer initiation and invasion in a number of tumor types. CD133 promotes tumorigenesis partly through an interaction between its phosphorylated Y828 residue and the PI3K regulatory subunit p85, and the interaction with β-catenin. Although CD133 glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its functions remains unclear. Here we analyzed the exact site(s) of N-glycosylation in CD133 by mass spectrometry and found that all eight potential N-glycosylation sites of CD133 could be indeed occupied by N-glycans. Loss of individual N-glycosylation sites had no effect on the level of expression or membrane localization of CD133. However, mutation at glycosylation site Asn548 significantly decreased the ability of CD133 to promote hepatoma cell growth. Furthermore, mutation of Asn548 reduced the interaction between CD133 and β-catenin and inhibited the activation of β-catenin signaling by CD133 overexpression. Our results identified the characteristics and function of CD133 glycosylation sites. These data could potentially shed light on molecular regulation of CD133 by glycosylation and enhance our understanding of the utility of glycosylated CD133 as a target for cancer therapies.

  9. Mutation of N-linked glycosylation at Asn548 in CD133 decreases its ability to promote hepatoma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liqi; Cui, Chunhong; Xing, Yang; Liu, Chanjuan; Cao, Benjin; Yang, Fan; Li, Yinan; Chen, Xiaoning; Wei, Yuanyan; Lu, Haojie; Jiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    The membrane glycoprotein CD133 is a popular marker for cancer stem cells and contributes to cancer initiation and invasion in a number of tumor types. CD133 promotes tumorigenesis partly through an interaction between its phosphorylated Y828 residue and the PI3K regulatory subunit p85, and the interaction with β-catenin. Although CD133 glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its functions remains unclear. Here we analyzed the exact site(s) of N-glycosylation in CD133 by mass spectrometry and found that all eight potential N-glycosylation sites of CD133 could be indeed occupied by N-glycans. Loss of individual N-glycosylation sites had no effect on the level of expression or membrane localization of CD133. However, mutation at glycosylation site Asn548 significantly decreased the ability of CD133 to promote hepatoma cell growth. Furthermore, mutation of Asn548 reduced the interaction between CD133 and β-catenin and inhibited the activation of β-catenin signaling by CD133 overexpression. Our results identified the characteristics and function of CD133 glycosylation sites. These data could potentially shed light on molecular regulation of CD133 by glycosylation and enhance our understanding of the utility of glycosylated CD133 as a target for cancer therapies. PMID:26029999

  10. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mohamed Ashraf; Hraběta, Jan; Groh, Tomáš; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, Helena; Eckschlager, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133− populations were examined by flow cytometry. We performed bisulfite conversion followed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess the methylation status of CD133 promoters P1 and P3. Our results revealed that VPA induced CD133 expression that was associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4. On treatment with VPA and cytostatics, CD133+ cells were mainly detected in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and they showed less activated caspase-3 compared to CD133− cells. UKF-NB-3 neuroblastoma cells which express CD133 displayed higher colony and neurosphere formation capacities when treated with VPA, unlike IMR-32 which lacks for CD133 protein. Induction of CD133 in UKF-NB-3 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated Akt and pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox2. VPA did not induce CD133 expression in cell lines with methylated P1 and P3 promoters, where the CD133 protein was not detected. Applying the demethylating agent 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine to the cell lines with methylated promoters resulted in CD133 re-expression that was associated with a drop in P1 and P3 methylation level. In conclusion, CD133 expression in neuroblastoma can be regulated by histone acetylation and/or methylation of its CpG promoters. VPA can induce CD133+ cells which display high proliferation potential and low sensitivity to cytostatics in neuroblastoma. These results give new insight into the possible

  11. A rational approach for cancer stem-like cell isolation and characterization using CD44 and prominin-1(CD133) as selection markers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Jen; Wu, Chang-Cheng; Li, Jhy-Wei; Ou, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Tseng, Hsiu-Hsueh; Kao, Ming-Ching; Liu, Jah-Yao

    2016-01-01

    The availability of adequate cancer stem cells or cancer stem-like cell (CSC) is important in cancer study. From ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3 and OVCAR3, we induced peritoneal ascites tumors in immunodeficient mice. Among the cells (SKOV3.PX1 and OVCAR3.PX1) from those tumors, we sorted both CD44 and CD133 positive cells (SKOV3.PX1_133+44+, OVCAR3.PX1_133+44+), which manifest the characteristics of self-renewal, multi-lineage differentiation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity, those of cancer stem-like cells (CSLC). Intraperitoneal transplantation of these CD44 and CD133 positive cells resulted in poorer survival in the engrafted animals. Clinically, increased CD133 expression was found in moderately and poorly differentiated (grade II and III) ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas. The ascites tumor cells from human ovarian cancers demonstrated more CD133 and CD44 expressions than those from primary ovarian or metastatic tumors and confer tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice. Compared to their parental cells, the SKOV3.PX1_133+44+ and OVCAR3.PX1_133+44+ cells uniquely expressed 5 CD markers (CD97, CD104, CD107a, CD121a, and CD125). Among these markers, CD97, CD104, CD107a, and CD121a are significantly more expressed in the CD133+ and CD44+ double positive cells of human ovarian ascites tumor cells (Ascites_133+44+) than those from primary ovarian or metastatic tumors. The cancer stem-like cells were enriched from 3% to more than 70% after this manipulation. This intraperitoneal enrichment of cancer stem-like cells, from ovarian cancer cell lines or primary ovarian tumor, potentially provides an adequate amount of ovarian cancer stem-like cells for the ovarian cancer study and possibly benefits cancer therapy. PMID:27655682

  12. Co-expression of CD133, CD44v6 and human tissue factor is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Li, Zhonghu; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yujun; Jiang, Yan; He, Yu; Li, Xiaowu

    2014-08-01

    The metastasis-related molecules CD133, CD44v6 and human tissue factor (TF) have been shown to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to determine whether co-expression of these three molecules was associated with metastasis and overall prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma. We analyzed the expression profiles of these three molecules by immunohistochemistry and evaluated the relationship of their expression profiles with metastasis and prognosis in 109 pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that the expression levels of CD133, CD44v6 and TF were increased in pancreatic carcinoma. Co-expression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF (tri-expression) was also detected in pancreatic carcinoma. Clinical analysis showed that individual expression of CD133, CD44v6 or TF was associated with vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis, while tri-expression was associated with lymph node metastasis. Survival analysis showed that patients with co-expression of CD133 and TF or tri-expression had lower and the lowest overall survival rates, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that T-factor, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, and individual levels or tri-expression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF were survival risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that tri-expression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF was an independent predictor of survival. These results suggest that overexpression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF is associated with pancreatic carcinoma metastasis. Tri-expression of these three molecules may be a useful predictor for pancreatic carcinoma prognosis.

  13. Patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells are killed by CD133-specific CAR T cells but induce the T cell aging marker CD57

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuekai; Prasad, Shruthi; Gaedicke, Simone; Hettich, Michael; Firat, Elke; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The AC133 epitope of CD133 is a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker for many tumor entities, including the highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have developed an AC133-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and show that AC133-CAR T cells kill AC133+ GBM stem cells (GBM-SCs) both in vitro and in an orthotopic tumor model in vivo. Direct contact with patient-derived GBM-SCs caused rapid upregulation of CD57 on the CAR T cells, a molecule known to mark terminally or near-terminally differentiated T cells. However, other changes associated with terminal T cell differentiation could not be readily detected. CD57 is also expressed on tumor cells of neural crest origin and has been preferentially found on highly aggressive, undifferentiated, multipotent CSC-like cells. We found that CD57 was upregulated on activated T cells only upon contact with CD57+ patient-derived GBM-SCs, but not with conventional CD57-negative glioma lines. However, CD57 was not downregulated on the GBM-SCs upon their differentiation, indicating that this molecule is not a bona fide CSC marker for GBM. Differentiated GBM cells still induced CD57 on CAR T cells and other activated T cells. Therefore, CD57 can apparently be upregulated on activated human T cells by mere contact with CD57+ target cells. PMID:25426558

  14. Patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells are killed by CD133-specific CAR T cells but induce the T cell aging marker CD57.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuekai; Prasad, Shruthi; Gaedicke, Simone; Hettich, Michael; Firat, Elke; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The AC133 epitope of CD133 is a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker for many tumor entities, including the highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have developed an AC133-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and show that AC133-CAR T cells kill AC133+ GBM stem cells (GBM-SCs) both in vitro and in an orthotopic tumor model in vivo. Direct contact with patient-derived GBM-SCs caused rapid upregulation of CD57 on the CAR T cells, a molecule known to mark terminally or near-terminally differentiated T cells. However, other changes associated with terminal T cell differentiation could not be readily detected. CD57 is also expressed on tumor cells of neural crest origin and has been preferentially found on highly aggressive, undifferentiated, multipotent CSC-like cells. We found that CD57 was upregulated on activated T cells only upon contact with CD57+ patient-derived GBM-SCs, but not with conventional CD57-negative glioma lines. However, CD57 was not downregulated on the GBM-SCs upon their differentiation, indicating that this molecule is not a bona fide CSC marker for GBM. Differentiated GBM cells still induced CD57 on CAR T cells and other activated T cells. Therefore, CD57 can apparently be upregulated on activated human T cells by mere contact with CD57+ target cells.

  15. ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 positivity and response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Francesca; Bernasconi, Sergio; Porcu, Luca; Erba, Eugenio; Panini, Nicolò; Fruscio, Robert; Sina, Federica; Torri, Valter; Broggini, Massimo; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    The prognostic/predictive role of both CD133 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression in human ovarian cancer remains elusive. This is an observational study that investigated the expression of CD133 and of ALDH enzymatic activity in fresh ovarian cancer samples and their association with different clinic-pathological patient' characteristics and explored their possible predictive/prognostic role. We analyzed the expression of CD133 and ALDH enzymatic activity in 108 human ovarian cancer samples. We found that among the total patients analyzed, 13% of them was completely negative for ALDH activity and 26% was negative for CD133 staining. Both markers were variably expressed within the samples and when both studied in the same tumor sample, no statistically significant correlation between ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 expression was found. No statistical significant correlation was found also between the percentage values of positive ALDH and CD133 cells and the number of serial passages patient's cultures underwent, suggesting that these markers do not confer by themselves a self-renewal growth advantage to the cultures. Lower levels of CD133 were associated with higher tumor grade. No correlation with response to therapy, progression free survival and overall survival was found. Our data suggest that neither ALDH enzymatic activity nor CD133 expression provide additional predictive/prognostic information in ovarian cancer patients.

  16. Expression of CD133 in acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tolba, Fetnat M; Foda, Mona E; Kamal, Howyda M; Elshabrawy, Deena A

    2013-06-01

    There have been conflicting results regarding a correlation between CD133 expression and disease outcome. To assess CD133 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to evaluate its correlation with the different clinical and laboratory data as well as its relation to disease outcome, the present study included 60 newly diagnosed acute leukemic patients; 30 ALL patients with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and their ages ranged from 9 months to 48 years, and 30 AML patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 and their ages ranged from 17 to 66 years. Flow cytometric assessment of CD133 expression was performed on blast cells. In ALL, no correlations were elicited between CD133 expression and some monoclonal antibodies, but in AML group, there was a significant positive correlation between CD133 and HLA-DR, CD3, CD7 and TDT, CD13 and CD34. In ALL group, patients with negative CD133 expression achieved complete remission more than patients with positive CD133 expression. In AML group, there was no statistically significant association found between positive CD133 expression and treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier curve illustrated a high significant negative correlation between CD133 expression and the overall survival of the AML patients. CD133 expression is an independent prognostic factor in acute leukemia, especially ALL patients and its expression could characterize a group of acute leukemic patients with higher resistance to standard chemotherapy and relapse. CD133 expression was highly associated with poor prognosis in acute leukemic patients.

  17. Androgen Receptor Increases CD133 Expression and Progenitor-Like Population That Associate With Cisplatin Resistance in Endometrial Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lumin; Chang, Wei-Chun; Hung, Yao-Ching; Chang, Ying-Yi; Bao, Bo-Yin; Huang, Hsin-Ching; Chung, Wei-Min; Shyr, Chih-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EMC) is a sex steroid hormone-related female malignancy. Androgen and androgen receptor (androgen/AR) signals have been implicated in EMC progression. Cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) are suspected to link to chemoresistance in patients with EMC. In this study, we examined the androgen/AR roles in cisplatin resistance and CSPC population. We found AR expression increased naive EMC side population, CSPC population, cell migration, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Meanwhile, it decreased cisplatin cytotoxic effect on EMC cells. Collaterally, endogenous AR expressions in EMC cells were upregulated in the cisplatin-resisting state. Moreover, AR expression could further enhance CD133 expression, CSPC-related markers, and drug-resistance gene messenger RNA expression in EMC cells. Finally, the AR-associated gene expression might go through indirect regulation. This is the first report revealing AR function on EMC cells’ CSPC and cisplatin resistance. PMID:23962788

  18. CD133, Selectively Targeting the Root of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmohl, Jörg U.; Vallera, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are capable of promoting tumor initiation and self-renewal, two important hallmarks of carcinoma formation. This population comprises a small percentage of the tumor mass and is highly resistant to chemotherapy, causing the most difficult problem in the field of cancer research, drug refractory relapse. Many CSC markers have been reported. One of the most promising and perhaps least ubiquitous is CD133, a membrane-bound pentaspan glycoprotein that is frequently expressed on CSC. There is evidence that directly targeting CD133 with biological drugs might be the most effective way to eliminate CSC. We have investigated two entirely unrelated, but highly effective approaches for selectively targeting CD133. The first involves using a special anti-CD133 single chain variable fragment (scFv) to deliver a catalytic toxin. The second utilizes this same scFv to deliver components of the immune system. In this review, we discuss the development and current status of these CD133 associated biological agents. Together, they show exceptional promise by specific and efficient CSC elimination. PMID:27240402

  19. Cell-Surface MMP-9 Protein Is a Novel Functional Marker to Identify and Separate Proangiogenic Cells from Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells Derived from CD133(+) Cells.

    PubMed

    Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Uchida, Eriko; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2016-05-01

    To develop cell therapies for ischemic diseases, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been expected to play a pivotal role in vascular regeneration. It is desirable to use a molecular marker that is related to the function of the cells. Here, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction array revealed that early EPCs derived from CD133(+) cells exhibited significant expression of MMP-9. Some populations of early EPCs expressed MMP-9 on the cell surface and others did not. We also attempted to separate the proangiogenic fraction from early EPCs derived from CD133(+) cells using a functional cell surface marker, and we then analyzed the MMP-9(+) and MMP-9(-) cell fractions. The MMP-9(+) cells not only revealed higher invasion ability but also produced a high amount of IL-8. Moreover, the stimulative effect of MMP-9(+) cells on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo was prohibited by anti-IL-8 antibody. These data indicate that MMP-9 is one of the useful cell surface markers for the separation of angiogenic cells. Our treatment of early EPCs with hyaluronidase caused not only a downregulation of cell-surface MMP-9 but also a decrease in invasion ability, indicating that membrane-bound MMP-9, which is one of the useful markers for early EPCs, plays an important role in angiogenesis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1251-1262. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  20. Abnormal DNA Methylation of CD133 in Colorectal and Glioblastoma Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Joo Mi; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; Glöckner, Sabine C.; Lin, Steven; Ohm, Joyce E.; Easwaran, Hari; James, C. David; Costello, Joseph F.; Riggins, Gregory; Eberhart, Charles G.; Laterra, John; Vescovi, Angelo L.; Ahuja, Nita; Herman, James G.; Schuebel, Kornel E.; Baylin, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent effort has focused on identifying and characterizing cellular markers that distinguish tumor propagating cells (TPCs) from more differentiated progeny. We report here an unusual promoter DNA methylation pattern for one such marker, the cell surface antigen CD133 (Prominin 1). This protein has been extensively used to enrich putative cancer propagating stem-like cell populations in epithelial tumors, and especially, glioblastomas. We find that, within individual cell lines of cultured colon cancers and glioblastomas, the promoter CpG island of CD133 is DNA methylated, primarily, in cells with absent or low expression of the marker protein whereas lack of such methylation is evident in purely CD133+ cells. Differential histone modification marks of active versus repressed genes accompany these DNA methylation changes. This heterogeneous CpG island DNA methylation status in the tumors is unusual in that other DNA hypermethylated genes tested in such cultures preserve their methylation patterns between separated CD133+ and CD133− cell populations. Furthermore, the CD133 DNA methylation seems to constitute an abnormal promoter signature since it is not found in normal brain and colon but only in cultured and primary tumors. Thus, the DNA methylation is imposed on the transition between the active versus repressed transcription state for CD133 only in tumors. Our findings provide additional insight for the dynamics of aberrant DNA methylation associated with aberrant gene silencing in human tumors. PMID:18829568

  1. HERV-K activation is strictly required to sustain CD133+ melanoma cells with stemness features.

    PubMed

    Argaw-Denboba, Ayele; Balestrieri, Emanuela; Serafino, Annalucia; Cipriani, Chiara; Bucci, Ilaria; Sorrentino, Roberta; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Gambacurta, Alessandra; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Matteucci, Claudia

    2017-01-26

    Melanoma is a heterogeneous tumor in which phenotype-switching and CD133 marker have been associated with metastasis promotion and chemotherapy resistance. CD133 positive (CD133+) subpopulation has also been suggested as putative cancer stem cell (CSC) of melanoma tumor. Human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) has been described to be aberrantly activated during melanoma progression and implicated in the etiopathogenesis of disease. Earlier, we reported that stress-induced HERV-K activation promotes cell malignant transformation and reduces the immunogenicity of melanoma cells. Herein, we investigated the correlation between HERV-K and the CD133+ melanoma cells during microenvironmental modifications. TVM-A12 cell line, isolated in our laboratory from a primary human melanoma lesion, and other commercial melanoma cell lines (G-361, WM-115, WM-266-4 and A375) were grown and maintained in the standard and stem cell media. RNA interference, Real-time PCR, flow cytometry analysis, self-renewal and migration/invasion assays were performed to characterize cell behavior and HERV-K expression. Melanoma cells, exposed to stem cell media, undergo phenotype-switching and expansion of CD133+ melanoma cells, concomitantly promoted by HERV-K activation. Notably, the sorted CD133+ subpopulation showed stemness features, characterized by higher self-renewal ability, embryonic genes expression, migration and invasion capacities compared to the parental cell line. RNA interference-mediated downregulation experiments showed that HERV-K has a decisive role to expand and maintain the CD133+ melanoma subpopulation during microenvironmental modifications. Similarly, non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) efavirenz and nevirapine were effective to restrain the activation of HERV-K in melanoma cells, to antagonize CD133+ subpopulation expansion and to induce selective high level apoptosis in CD133+ cells. HERV-K activation promotes melanoma cells phenotype

  2. Characterization of CD133+ parenchymal cells in the liver: Histology and culture

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Seiichi; Zen, Yoh; Fujii, Takahiko; Sato, Yasunori; Ohta, Tetsuo; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To reveal the characteristics of CD133+ cells in the liver. METHODS: This study examined the histological characteristics of CD133+ cells in non-neoplastic and neoplastic liver tissues by immunostaining, and also analyzed the biological characteristics of CD133+ cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. RESULTS: Immunostaining revealed constant expression of CD133 in non-neoplastic and neoplastic biliary epithelium, and these cells had the immunophenotype CD133+/CK19+/HepPar-1-. A small number of CD133+/CK19-/HepPar-1+ cells were also identified in HCC and combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. In addition, small ductal structures, resembling the canal of Hering, partly surrounded by hepatocytes were positive for CD133. CD133 expression was observed in three HCC (HuH7, PLC5 and HepG2) and two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (HuCCT1 and CCKS1). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) revealed that CD133+ and CD133- cells derived from HuH7 and HuCCT1 cells similarly produced CD133+ and CD133- cells during subculture. To examine the relationship between CD133+ cells and the side population (SP) phenotype, FACS was performed using Hoechst 33342 and a monoclonal antibody against CD133. The ratios of CD133+/CD133- cells were almost identical in the SP and non-SP in HuH7. In addition, four different cellular populations (SP/CD133+, SP/CD133-, non-SP/CD133+, and non-SP/CD133-) could similarly produce CD133+ and CD133- cells during subculture. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that CD133 could be a biliary and progenitor cell marker in vivo. However, CD133 alone is not sufficient to detect tumor-initiating cells in cell lines. PMID:19842219

  3. MiR-139-5p reverses CD44+/CD133+-associated multidrug resistance by downregulating NOTCH1 in colorectal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Shen, Ke; Liang, Xin; Li, Yueqi; Nagao, Norio; Li, Jiyu; Liu, Jianwen; Yin, Peihao

    2016-01-01

    MiRNAs may promote or inhibit tumor recurrence and drug resistance. MiR-139-5p is reportedly downregulated in colorectal cancer patient samples, but it is unknown whether and how miR-139-5p regulates drug resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are postulated to be important promoters of multiple drug resistance (MDR). In this study, we established a MDR cell model which strongly expressed the CSC-associated biomarkers CD44 and CD133. MiR-139-5p expression was reduced in MDR cell lines, while overexpression of miR-139-5p reversed CD44+/CD133+-associated MDR. We also identified NOTCH1, an important protein for stem cell maintenance and function, as a direct target of miR-139-5p, both in vitro and in a knockout mouse model. Notch1 expression was upregulated in tumor samples and inversely correlated with expression of miR-139-5p. Silencing NOTCH1 exerted an effect similar to overexpression of miR-139-5p by inhibiting the CD44+ and CD133+ population and reversing the drug-resistant phenotype. In conclusion, miR-139-5p downregulated NOTCH1 signaling to reverse CD44+/CD133+-associated MDR in colorectal cancer cells. Given this insight into the miRNA regulation of MDR, miR-139-5p could be a promising therapeutic target for colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:27738333

  4. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles conjugated with CD133 aptamers for targeted salinomycin delivery to CD133+ osteosarcoma cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Miaozhong; Xiong, Min; Zhang, Xinchao; Cai, Guoping; Chen, Huaiwen; Zeng, Qingmin; Yu, Zuochong

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess the characteristics associated with normal stem cells and are responsible for cancer initiation, recurrence, and metastasis. CD133 is regarded as a CSCs marker of osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone malignancy in childhood and adolescence. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, has been shown to kill various CSCs, including osteosarcoma CSCs. However, salinomycin displayed poor aqueous solubility that hinders its clinical application. The objective of this study was to develop salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles to eliminate CD133+ osteosarcoma CSCs. Methods The salinomycin-loaded PEGylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (SAL-NP) conjugated with CD133 aptamers (Ap-SAL-NP) were developed by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method, and the targeting and cytotoxicity of Ap-SAL-NP to CD133+ osteosarcoma CSCs were evaluated. Results The nanoparticles are of desired particle size (~150 nm), drug encapsulation efficiency (~50%), and drug release profile. After 48 hours treatment of the Saos-2 CD133+ osteosarcoma cells with drugs formulated in Ap-SAL-NP, SAL-NP, and salinomycin, the concentrations needed to kill 50% of the incubated cells were found to be 2.18, 10.72, and 5.07 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting that Ap-SAL-NP could be 4.92 or 2.33 fold more effective than SAL-NP or salinomycin, respectively. In contrast, Ap-SAL-NP was as effective as SAL-NP, and less effective than salinomycin in Saos-2 CD133− cells, suggesting that Ap-SAL-NP possess specific cytotoxicity toward Saos-2 CD133+ cells. Ap-SAL-NP showed the best therapeutic effect in Saos-2 osteosarcoma xenograft mice, compared with SAL-NP or salinomycin. Significantly, Ap-SAL-NP could selectively kill CD133+ osteosarcoma CSCs both in vitro and in vivo, as reflected by the tumorsphere formation and proportion of Saos-2 CD133+ cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that CD133 is a potential target for drug delivery to osteosarcoma CSCs

  5. CD133+ Renal Progenitor Cells Contribute to Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Stefania; Bussolati, Benedetta; Grange, Cristina; Collino, Federica; Efrem Graziano, Manuela; Ferrando, Ugo; Camussi, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that resident progenitor cells may contribute to tumor vascularization and growth. CD133+ cells were isolated from 30 human renal carcinomas and characterized as renal resident progenitor cells on the basis of the expression of renal embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell markers. CD133+ progenitors differentiated into endothelial and epithelial cells as the normal CD133+ counterpart present in renal tissue. In the presence of tumor-derived growth factors, these cells were committed to differentiate into endothelial cells able to form vessels in vivo in SCID mice. Undifferentiated CD133+ progenitors were unable to form tumors when transplanted alone in SCID mice. When co-transplanted with renal carcinoma cells, CD133+ progenitors significantly enhanced tumor development and growth. This effect was not attributable to the tumorigenic nature of CD133+ progenitor cells because the same results were obtained with CD133+ cells from normal kidney. CD133+ progenitors contributed to tumor vascularization as the majority of neoformed vessels present within the transplanted tumors were of human origin and derived from the co-transplanted CD133+ progenitors. In conclusion, these results indicate the presence of a renal progenitor cell population in renal carcinomas that may differentiate in endothelial cells and favor vascularization and tumor growth. PMID:17148683

  6. Quantitative analyses of CD133 expression facilitate researches on tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yongqiang; Hu, Xiaotong; Huang, Xuefeng; He, Chao

    2010-01-01

    CD133 is regarded as a marker of tumor initiating cells in many tumors, including colorectal cancer. O'Brien and Ricci et al. have proved that in primary colorectal tumors there are colorectal tumor stem cells (initiating cells) which are marked by CD133 antigen. Using a genetic knockin lacZ reporter mouse model, Shmelkov et al. challenged this increasingly influential viewpoint and drew two important conclusions that challenge former opinions. First, CD133 is widely distributed throughout the full range of tumor epithelial cells in the colon as opposed to being limited to a few cells. Second, CD133 negative cells of colon tumors are also tumorigenic, and are more inclined to metastasize. Based on these two opinions, we hypothesize that the expression of CD133 is different among tumor cells, and that quantitative but not qualitative analyses of CD133 abundance are necessary to determine the relationship between CD133 expression and tumor stem cell characteristics. To verify this hypothesis, colorectal cancer cell line SW620 was cultured and sorted into CD133(Hi), CD133(Mid) and CD133(Low) subgroups using magnetic microbeads to compare their xenograft biological characteristics. The results showed that the CD133(Hi) subgroup of SW620 is more close to the tumor initiating cells in terms of biological characteristics than CD133(Mid) and CD133(low) subgroups, but the CD133(low) subgroup still maintains the ability of tumorigenicity. It supported that tumor initiating cells are more correlated to the abundance of CD133.

  7. CD133+ subpopulation of the HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line exhibits cancer stem-like characteristics.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bao-Hua; Liu, Ai-Guo; Gu, Wen-Guang; Deng, Liang; Cheng, Xian-Gyang; Tong, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory holds that a minority population within tumors possesses stem cell properties of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity and provides the initiating cells from which tumors are derived and sustained. However, verifying the existence of these CSCs has been a significant challenge. The CD133 antigen is a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein proposed to be a CSC marker for cancer-initiating subpopulations in the brain, colon and various other tissues. Here, CD133+ cells were obtained and characterized from the HT1080 cell line to determine the utility of this marker for isolating CSCs from human fibrosarcoma cells. In this study, CD133+ cells were separated from HT1080 cells using magnetic beads and characterized for their proliferation rate and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin and doxorubicin, by MTS assay. Relative expression of tumor-associated genes Sox2, Oct3/4, Nanog, c-Myc, Bmi-1 and ABCG2 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clonal sphere formation and the ability of CD133+ cells to initiate tumors in BALB/c nude mice was also evaluated. We found that CD133+ cells showed a high proliferation rate, increased resistance to chemotherapy drugs and overexpression of tumor-associated genes compared with these features in CD133- cells. Additionally, CD133+ cells were able to form spherical clusters in serum-free medium with high clonogenic efficiency, indicating a significantly greater tumor-initiating potential when compared with CD133- cells. These findings indicate that CD133+ cells identified within the HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line possess many CSC properties and may facilitate the development of improved therapies for fibrosarcoma.

  8. CD133-Positive Membrane Particles in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Inflammatory and Degenerative Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bobinger, Tobias; May, Lisa; Lücking, Hannes; Kloska, Stephan P.; Burkardt, Petra; Spitzer, Philipp; Maler, Juan M.; Corbeil, Denis; Huttner, Hagen B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a frequently used diagnostic tool in a variety of neurological diseases. Recent studies suggested that investigating membrane particles enriched with the stem cell marker CD133 may offer new avenues for studying neurological disease. In this study, we evaluated the amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 in human CSF in neuroinflammatory and degenerative diseases. Methods: We compared the amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 in CSF samples collected from 45 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, parkinsonism, dementia, and cognitive impairment, chronic inflammatory diseases and 10 healthy adult individuals as controls. After ultracentrifugation of CSF, gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using anti-CD133 monoclonal antibody 80B258 were performed. Antigen-antibody complexes were detected using chemiluminescence. Results: The amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 was significantly increased in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (p < 0.001), parkinsonism (p = 0.011) as well as in patients with chronic inflammatory disease (p = 0.008). Analysis of CSF of patients with dementia and cognitive impairment revealed no significant change compared with healthy individuals. Furthermore, subgroup analysis of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases demonstrated significantly elevated levels in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (p = 0.023) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS; p = 0.010). Conclusion: Collectively, our study revealed elevated levels of membrane particle-associated CD133 in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, parkinsonism as well as relapsing-remitting and SPMS. Membrane glycoprotein CD133 may be of clinical value for several neurological diseases. PMID:28396625

  9. CD133 expression in oral lichen planus correlated with the risk for progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Feng, Jinqiu; Ma, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Zengtong

    2013-12-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a potentially malignant disorder associated with an increased risk for progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study to determine protein expression of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in tissue samples of patients with OLP and evaluate the correlation between CD133 expression and the risk of progression to OSCC. In this longitudinal case-control study, a total of 110 patients with OLP who received a mean follow-up of 56 months were enrolled, including 100 patients who did not progress to OSCC and 10 patients who had progressed to OSCC. CD133 expression was determined using immunohistochemistry in samples from these patients. Analysis of 10 cases of normal oral mucosa and 6 cases of postmalignant OSCC form previously diagnosed OLP was also performed. The results showed that CD133 expression was observed in 29% cases of nonprogressing OLP and in 80% cases of progressing OLP (P = .002). CD133 was not expressed in normal oral mucosa, but it positively expressed in the 100% cases of OSCC. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of malignant progression in the patients with CD133-positive expression was significantly higher than those with CD133 negativity (odds ratio, 9.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.96-48.92; P = .005). Collectively, CD133 expression was significantly associated with malignant progression in a longitudinal series of patients with OLP. Our findings suggested that CD133 may serve as a novel candidate biomarker for risk assessment of malignant potential of OLP. © 2013.

  10. Highly enriched CD133(+)CD44(+) stem-like cells with CD133(+)CD44(high) metastatic subset in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-li; Pan, Feng; Jiang, Heng; Chen, Jian-fang; Pei, Li; Xie, Fang-wei; Liang, Hou-jie

    2011-12-01

    Stem-like cancer cells (SLCCs) are distinct cellular subpopulation in colon cancer that is essential for tumor maintenance. Previous studies indicated that SLCCs accounted for only a minor subset in a given cancer model. However, we found that SLCCs frequency varied among a panel of colon cancer cell lines, with HCT116 cells composed mainly of SLCCs, as demonstrated by colonosphere forming capability and CD133 expression. Indeed, flow cytometric analysis revealed more than 60% HCT116 cells co-expressed the putative SLCCs markers CD133 and CD44. Compared with non-CD133(+)CD44(+) cells, FACS sorted CD133(+)CD44(+) cells were undifferentiated, endowed with extensive self-renewal and epithelial lineage differentiation capacity in vitro. CD133(+)CD44(+) exhibited enhanced tumorigeneicity in NOD/SCID mice. One thousand CD133(+)CD44(+) cells initiated xenograft tumors efficiently (3/6) while 1 × 10(5) non-CD133(+)CD44(+) cells could only form palpable nodule with much slower growth rate (1/6). More interestingly, long-term cultured self-renewing CD133(+)CD44(+) cells enriched CD133(+)CD44(high) subset, which expressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition marker, were more invasive in vitro and responsible solely for liver metastasis in vivo. In conclusion, these data demonstrated for the first time that CD133(+)CD44(+) SLCCs were highly enriched in HCT116 cells and that metastatic SLCCs resided exclusively in a CD133(+)CD44(high) subpopulation.

  11. CD133/prominin1 is prognostic for GBM patient's survival, but inversely correlated with cysteine cathepsins' expression in glioblastoma derived spheroids.

    PubMed

    Ardebili, Seyed Y; Zajc, Irena; Gole, Boris; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Drmota, Sara; Lah, Tamara T

    2011-06-01

    CD133 is a marker for a population of glioblastoma (GBM) and normal neural stem cells (NNSC). We aimed to reveal whether the migratory potential and differentiation of these stem cells is associated with CD133 expression and with cathepsin proteases (Cats). MATERIALS AND METHODS.: The invasiveness of normal NNSC, GBM/CD133+ cell lines and GBM spheroids was evaluated in 3D collagen, as well as of U87-MG and normal astrocytes (NHA) grown in monolayers in 2D Matrigel. Expression of Cats B, L and S was measured at mRNA and activity levels and their relation to invasiveness, to CD133 mRNA in 26 gliomas, and to the survival of these patients. The average yield of CD133+ cells from GBM samples was 9.6 %. Survival of patients with higher CD133 mRNA expression was significantly shorter (p< 0.005). Invasion, associated with proteolytic degradation of matrix, was higher in normal stem cells and GBM spheroids and cells than in isolated GBM CD133+ cells. In glioma samples, there was no correlation between CD133 mRNA expression and Cat mRNAs, but there was an inverse correlation with Cat activities. The study confirms CD133 as a prognostic marker for the survival of GBM patients. We demonstrated that NNSC have higher invasion potential and invade the collagen matrix in a mode different from that of GBM, initiating stem cell spheres. This result could have implications for the design of new therapeutics, including protease inhibitors that specifically target invasive tumour stem cells. Increased activity of cathepsins in CD133- cells suggests their role in the invasive behaviour of GBM.

  12. Hypoxia promotes radioresistance of CD133-positive Hep-2 human laryngeal squamous carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Maoxin; Li, Xiaoming; Qu, Yongtao; Xu, Ou; Sun, Qingjia

    2013-07-01

    Hypoxia promotes the radioresistance of laryngeal carcinomas and CD133 is one of the markers expressed by tumor-initiating, human laryngeal carcinoma cells. In order to investigate whether CD133-positive Hep-2 cells exhibit a radioresistant phenotype and to determine whether hypoxia promotes this phenotype, we performed a series of experiments. Hep-2 cells, and Hep-2 cells stably expressing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions and were treated with varying doses of γ-rays (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy). MTT and cell cycle assays were subsequently performed. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), CD133-positive Hep-2 cells and CD133-positive HIF-siRNA Hep-2 cells were isolated. These cells were grown as spheres under hypoxic and normoxic conditions for MTT and soft agar colony formation assays. The expression levels of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), survivin, p53 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) were also assayed using flow cytometry. The data showed that the growth of Hep-2 cells exposed to hypoxic conditions and treated with 10 Gy radiation (group A) was less compared to that of groups B-D (P<0.05). In addition, more cells in group A were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle compared to groups B-D (P<0.05). The percentage of CD133+ cells detected after radiation increased and was the highest for group A (P<0.05). In sphere formation assays, significantly more CD133+ cells grew in spheres than CD133- cells (P<0.001). Moreover, sphere formation was the highest for CD133+ Hep-2 cells grown under hypoxic conditions and exposed to irradiation (group E) (P<0.05). Lastly, expression of DNA-PKcs and survivin for group E was the highest (P<0.05), while ATM and p53 levels remained largely unchanged (P>0.05). In conclusion, CD133-positive Hep-2 cells exhibited a radioresistant phenotype that was enhanced with hypoxia. Furthermore, an increase in

  13. CD133(+) CD44(+) Cells Mediate in the Lung Metastasis of Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    He, Aina; Yang, Xiaojing; Huang, Yujing; Feng, Tao; Wang, Yonggang; Sun, Yuanjue; Shen, Zan; Yao, Yang

    2015-08-01

    CD133 and CD44 are commonly used markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are characterized by their ability for self-renewal and tumorigenicity. However, the clinical value and significance of CD133 and CD44 in lung metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CD133(+) CD44(+) cells mediates the metastasis of OS. We identified the CD133(+) CD44(+) cells in lung metastatic lesions and OS cell lines, and next demonstrated CD133(+) CD44(+) cells were more aggressive in sphere formation, migration and invasiveness compared with CD133(+) CD44(-) , CD133(-) CD44(+) , or CD133(-) CD44(-) cells. We finally sorted the CD133(+) CD44(+) and CD133(-) CD44(-) cells from Saos-2 cell lines, after intratibial xenograft in nude mice, these cells developed primary tumors, and CD133(+) CD44(+) cells are more potential to form lung metastatic tumors. Thus we concluded that CD133(+) CD44(+) cells may mediate in the lung metastasis of OS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. microRNA-143 is associated with the survival of ALDH1+CD133+ osteosarcoma cells and the chemoresistance of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiahui; Chen, Yuxiang; Zhao, Jingfeng; Zhang, Kexiang; Wang, Jianlong; Chen, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of miR-143 in the chemoresistance of osteosarcoma tumor cells and the associated mechanisms. Real-time PCR was used to measure miR-143 levels. Western blot was used to detect protein expression. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay and Matrigel colony formation assay. Forced miR-143 expression was established by adenoviral vector infection. Cell death was detected by Hoechst33342 staining. Loss of miR-143 expression was observed in osteosarcomas, which correlated with shorter survival of patients with osteosarcomas underlying chemotherapy. In chemoresistant SAOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcomas cells, miR-143 levels were significantly downregulated and accompanied by increases in ATG2B, Bcl-2, and/or LC3-II protein levels, high rate of ALDH1+CD133+ cells, and an increase in Matrigel colony formation ability. H2O2 upregulated p53 and miR-143, but downregulated ATG2B, Bcl-2, and LC3-I expression in U2OS cells (wild-type p53) but not in SAOS-2 (p53-null) cells. Forced miR-143 expression significantly reversed chemoresistance as well as downregulation of ATG2B, LC3-I, and Bcl-2 expression in SAOS-2- and U2OS-resistant cells. Forced miR-143 expression significantly inhibited tumor growth in xenograft SAOS-2-Dox and U2OS-Dox animal models. Loss of miR-143 expression is associated with poor prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma underlying chemotherapy. The chemoresistance of osteosarcoma tumor cells to doxorubicin is associated with the downregulation of miR-143 expression, activation of ALDH1+CD133+ cells, activation of autophagy, and inhibition of cell death. miR-143 may play a crucial role in the chemoresistance of osterosarcoma tumors. PMID:25576341

  15. Establishment of CMab-43, a Sensitive and Specific Anti-CD133 Monoclonal Antibody, for Immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Itai, Shunsuke; Fujii, Yuki; Nakamura, Takuro; Chang, Yao-Wen; Yanaka, Miyuki; Saidoh, Noriko; Handa, Saori; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-09-14

    CD133, also known as prominin-1, was first described as a cell surface marker on early progenitor and hematopoietic stem cells. It is a five-domain transmembrane protein composed of an N-terminal extracellular tail, two small cytoplasmic loops, two large extracellular loops containing seven potential glycosylation sites, and a short C-terminal intracellular tail. CD133 has been used as a marker to identify cancer stem cells derived from primary solid tumors and as a prognostic marker of gliomas. Herein, we developed novel anti-CD133 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and characterized their efficacy in flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. We expressed the full length of CD133 in LN229 glioblastoma cells, immunized mice with LN229/CD133 cells, and performed the first screening using flow cytometry. After limiting dilution, we established 100 anti-CD133 mAbs, reacting with LN229/CD133 cells but not with LN229 cells. Subsequently, we performed the second and third screening with Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. Among 100 mAbs, 11 strongly reacted with CD133 in Western blot analysis. One of 11 clones, CMab-43 (IgG2a, kappa), showed a sensitive and specific reaction against colon cancer cells, warranting the use of CMab-43 in detecting CD133 in pathological analyses of CD133-expressing cancers.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell-like properties of CD133+ glioblastoma initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Sibov, Tatiana Tais; de Oliveira, Daniela Mara; Marti, Luciana C.; Cabral, Francisco Romero; de Souza, Jean Gabriel; Boufleur, Pamela; Malheiros, Suzana M.F.; de Paiva Neto, Manuel A.; da Cruz, Edgard Ferreira; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa; Cavalheiro, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is composed of dividing tumor cells, stromal cells and tumor initiating CD133+ cells. Recent reports have discussed the origin of the glioblastoma CD133+ cells and their function in the tumor microenvironment. The present work sought to investigate the multipotent and mesenchymal properties of primary highly purified human CD133+ glioblastoma-initiating cells. To accomplish this aim, we used the following approaches: i) generation of tumor subspheres of CD133+ selected cells from primary cell cultures of glioblastoma; ii) analysis of the expression of pluripotency stem cell markers and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers in the CD133+ glioblastoma-initiating cells; iii) side-by-side ultrastructural characterization of the CD133+ glioblastoma cells, MSC and CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood (UCB); iv) assessment of adipogenic differentiation of CD133+ glioblastoma cells to test their MSC-like in vitro differentiation ability; and v) use of an orthotopic glioblastoma xenograft model in the absence of immune suppression. We found that the CD133+ glioblastoma cells expressed both the pluripotency stem cell markers (Nanog, Mush-1 and SSEA-3) and MSC markers. In addition, the CD133+ cells were able to differentiate into adipocyte-like cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the CD133+ glioblastoma-initiating cells had ultrastructural features similar to those of undifferentiated MSCs. In addition, when administered in vivo to non-immunocompromised animals, the CD133+ cells were also able to mimic the phenotype of the original patient's tumor. In summary, we showed that the CD133+ glioblastoma cells express molecular signatures of MSCs, neural stem cells and pluripotent stem cells, thus possibly enabling differentiation into both neural and mesodermal cell types. PMID:27244897

  17. Chemoresistance of CD133(+) colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133(+) colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133(-) cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133(+) and siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133(+) cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133(+) cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133(+) cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133(+) cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133(+) colon cancer.

  18. Characterization of CD133{sup +} hepatocellular carcinoma cells as cancer stem/progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nagaki, Masahito . E-mail: mnagaki@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp; Aoki, Hitomi; Motohashi, Tsutomu; Kunisada, Takahiro; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2006-12-29

    The CD133 antigen, identified as a hematopoietic stem cell marker, appears in various human embryonic epithelia including the neural tube, gut, and kidney. We herein investigated whether CD133{sup +} cells isolated from human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines possess cancer stem/progenitor cell-like properties. Among the three cell lines studied, the CD133 antigen was found to be expressed only on the surface of Huh-7 cells. CD133{sup +} cells from Huh-7 performed a higher in vitro proliferative potential and lower mRNA expressions of mature hepatocyte markers, glutamine synthetase and cytochrome P450 3A4, than CD133{sup -} population of Huh-7 cells. When either CD133{sup +} or CD133{sup -} cells were subcutaneously injected into SCID mice, CD133{sup +} cells formed tumors, whereas CD133{sup -} cells induced either a very small number of tumors or none at all. Taken together, the identification of CD133{sup +} cells could thus be a potentially powerful tool to investigate the tumorigenic process in the hepatoma system and to also develop effective therapies targeted against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133{sup +} colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133{sup −} cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133{sup +} and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133{sup +} cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133{sup +} cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133{sup +} cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133{sup +} cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133{sup +} colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} cells and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133{sup +} colon cancer cells.

  20. CD133 is a predictor of poor survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Canis, Martin; Lechner, Axel; Mack, Brigitte; Zengel, Pamela; Laubender, Rüdiger Paul; Koehler, Udo; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Gires, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The pentaspan protein CD133 (Prominin-1) is a predictive marker and part of the signature of tumour-initiating cells (TICs) for various cancer entities. The correlation of CD133 expression with clinical parameters was assessed in primary samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (n=98) and normal mucosas (n=24). A gradual and inversely proportional correlation between CD133 expression in primary tumours and decreased overall survival was observed, along with a positive correlation with the presence of lymph node metastases. CD133 has the potential of being a novel clinically relevant prognostic marker for head and neck malignancies, which is possibly involved in regulation of tumourigenicity.

  1. Identification and characterization of CD133+CD44+ cancer stem cells from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Wu, Yongyan; Gao, Wei; Li, Fei; Bo, Yunfeng; Zhu, Meixia; Fu, Rong; Liu, Qingqing; Wen, Shuxin; Wang, Binquan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma ranks second among head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Cancer stem cells can support cancer growth and malignant behavior. Therefore, cancer stem cells isolated from laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissue could be used to investigate the initiation, progression, and treatment strategies of this cancer. Methods: We isolated CD133-CD44-, CD133-CD44+, CD133+CD44- and CD133+CD44+ cell populations from laryngeal squamous-cell carcinoma cell lines Hep2 and TU-177 by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Sphere formation, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation, resistance to radio- and chemotherapy, and in vivo tumorigenicity of these populations were evaluated. Moreover, we investigated the expression of the stem-cell markers (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) in CD133-CD44-, CD133-CD44+, CD133+CD44-, CD133+CD44+ cell populations and parental Hep2 and TU-177 cells. Results: As compared with CD133-CD44-, CD133-CD44+, CD133+CD44- populations and parental cells, CD133+CD44+ cells showed higher cell viability, migration and invasive capability and colony formation ability as well as stronger resistance to cisplatin and irradiation. Moreover, levels of SOX2 and OCT4 and tumorigenicity in nude mice were greater in CD133+CD44+ Hep2 and TU-177 cells than other cell populations and parental cells. Conclusion: The CD133+CD44+ population of laryngeal squamous-cell carcinoma Hep2 and TU-177 cells have stem cell properties and showed more malignant features than CD133+CD44- and CD133-CD44+ cell populations. CD133+CD44+ cancer stem cells may be a promising target for developing anticancer drugs and treatment strategies for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:28261352

  2. Identification of CD133-Positive Radioresistant Cells in Atypical Teratoid/ Rhabdoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Yi-Wei; Chien, Chien-Shu; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Lo, Jeng-Fan; Chen, Yann-Jang; Ku, Hung-Hai; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Wong, Tai-Tong

    2008-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an extremely malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system (CNS) which occurs in infancy and childhood. Recent studies suggested that CD133 could be considered a marker for brain cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). However, the role of CD133 in AT/RT has never been investigated. Herein we report the isolation of CD133-positive cells (CD133+), found to have the potential to differentiate into three germ layer tissues, from tissues of nine AT/RT patients. The migration/invasion/malignancy and radioresistant capabilities of CD133+ were significantly augmented when compared to CD133−. The clinical data showed that the amount of CD133+ in AT/RTs correlated positively with the degree of resistance to radiation therapy. Using cDNA microarray analysis, the genotoxic–response profiles of CD133+ and CD133− irradiated with 10 Gy ionizing radiation (IR) were analyzed 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h post-IR. We then validated these microarray data and showed increased phosphorylation after IR of p-ATM, p-RAD17, and p-CHX2 as well as increased expression of BCL-2 protein in CD133+ compared to CD133−. Furthermore, we found that CD133+ can effectively resist IR with cisplatin- and/or TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the up-regulated expression of p-ATM and BCL-2 proteins in IR-treated CD133+ xenotransgrafts in SCID mice but not in IR-treated CD133−. Importantly, the effect of IR in CD133+ transplanted mice can be significantly improved by a combination of BCL-2 siRNA with debromohymenialdisine, an inhibitor of checkpoint kinases. In sum, this is the first report indicating that CD133+ AT/RT cells demonstrate the characteristics of CSCs. The IR-resistant and anti-apoptotic properties in CD133+ may reflect the clinical refractory malignancy of AT/RTs and thus the activated p-ATM pathway and BCL-2 expression in CD133+ could be possible targets to improve future treatment of deadly diseases like AT/RT. PMID

  3. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3‐mediated CD133 up‐regulation contributes to promotion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Won, Cheolhee; Kim, Byung‐Hak; Yi, Eun Hee; Choi, Kyung‐Ju; Kim, Eun‐Kyung; Jeong, Jong‐Min; Lee, Jae‐Ho; Jang, Ja‐June; Yoon, Jung‐Hwan; Jeong, Won‐Il; Park, In‐Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Bae, Sun Sik; Factor, Valentina M.; Ma, Stephanie; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced expression of the cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, CD133, is closely associated with a higher rate of tumor formation and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Despite its clinical significance, the molecular mechanism underlying the deregulation of CD133 during tumor progression remains to be clarified. Here, we report on a novel mechanism by which interleukin‐6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL‐6/STAT3) signaling up‐regulates expression of CD133 and promotes HCC progression. STAT3 activated by IL‐6 rapidly bound to CD133 promoter and increased protein levels of CD133 in HCC cells. Reversely, in hypoxic conditions, RNA interference silencing of STAT3 resulted in decrease of CD133 levels, even in the presence of IL‐6, with a concomitant decrease of hypoxia‐inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF‐1α) expression. Active STAT3 interacted with nuclear factor kappa B (NF‐κB) p65 subunit to positively regulate the transcription of HIF‐1α providing a mechanistic explanation on how those three oncogenes work together to increase the activity of CD133 in a hypoxic liver microenvironment. Activation of STAT3 and its consequent induction of HIF‐1α and CD133 expression were not observed in Toll‐like receptor 4/IL‐6 double‐knockout mice. Long‐term silencing of CD133 by a lentiviral‐based approach inhibited cancer cell‐cycle progression and suppressed in vivo tumorigenicity by down‐regulating expression of cytokinesis‐related genes, such as TACC1, ACF7, and CKAP5. We also found that sorafenib and STAT3 inhibitor nifuroxazide inhibit HCC xenograft formation by blocking activation of STAT3 and expression of CD133 and HIF‐1α proteins. Conclusion: IL‐6/STAT3 signaling induces expression of CD133 through functional cooperation with NF‐κB and HIF‐1α during liver carcinogenesis. Targeting STAT3‐mediated CD133 up‐regulation may represent a novel, effective treatment by eradicating the liver

  4. Intragenic G-quadruplex structure formed in the human CD133 and its biological and translational relevance.

    PubMed

    Zizza, Pasquale; Cingolani, Chiara; Artuso, Simona; Salvati, Erica; Rizzo, Angela; D'Angelo, Carmen; Porru, Manuela; Pagano, Bruno; Amato, Jussara; Randazzo, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Gilson, Eric; Stassi, Giorgio; Leonetti, Carlo; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2016-02-29

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in several solid malignancies and are now emerging as a plausible target for drug discovery. Beside the questionable existence of CSCs specific markers, the expression of CD133 was reported to be responsible for conferring CSC aggressiveness. Here, we identified two G-rich sequences localized within the introns 3 and 7 of the CD133 gene able to form G-quadruplex (G4) structures, bound and stabilized by small molecules. We further showed that treatment of patient-derived colon CSCs with G4-interacting agents triggers alternative splicing that dramatically impairs the expression of CD133. Interestingly, this is strongly associated with a loss of CSC properties, including self-renewing, motility, tumor initiation and metastases dissemination. Notably, the effects of G4 stabilization on some of these CSC properties are uncoupled from DNA damage response and are fully recapitulated by the selective interference of the CD133 expression.In conclusion, we provided the first proof of the existence of G4 structures within the CD133 gene that can be pharmacologically targeted to impair CSC aggressiveness. This discloses a class of potential antitumoral agents capable of targeting the CSC subpopulation within the tumoral bulk. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Intragenic G-quadruplex structure formed in the human CD133 and its biological and translational relevance

    PubMed Central

    Zizza, Pasquale; Cingolani, Chiara; Artuso, Simona; Salvati, Erica; Rizzo, Angela; D'Angelo, Carmen; Porru, Manuela; Pagano, Bruno; Amato, Jussara; Randazzo, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Gilson, Eric; Stassi, Giorgio; Leonetti, Carlo; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in several solid malignancies and are now emerging as a plausible target for drug discovery. Beside the questionable existence of CSCs specific markers, the expression of CD133 was reported to be responsible for conferring CSC aggressiveness. Here, we identified two G-rich sequences localized within the introns 3 and 7 of the CD133 gene able to form G-quadruplex (G4) structures, bound and stabilized by small molecules. We further showed that treatment of patient-derived colon CSCs with G4-interacting agents triggers alternative splicing that dramatically impairs the expression of CD133. Interestingly, this is strongly associated with a loss of CSC properties, including self-renewing, motility, tumor initiation and metastases dissemination. Notably, the effects of G4 stabilization on some of these CSC properties are uncoupled from DNA damage response and are fully recapitulated by the selective interference of the CD133 expression. In conclusion, we provided the first proof of the existence of G4 structures within the CD133 gene that can be pharmacologically targeted to impair CSC aggressiveness. This discloses a class of potential antitumoral agents capable of targeting the CSC subpopulation within the tumoral bulk. PMID:26511095

  6. Combination use of anti-CD133 antibody and SSA lectin can effectively enrich cells with high tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Kenta; Okudo, Kumiko; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Takeishi, Shunsaku; Sawaki, Hiromichi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Tanemura, Masahiro; Ishii, Hideshi; Mori, Masaki; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2011-06-01

    Glycans exhibit characteristic changes in their structures during development and thus have been used as markers for stem/progenitor cells. However, the glycan structures unique to cancer stem cells (CSC) remain unknown. In the present study, we examined glycan structures in CD133+ CD13+ CSC, which were recently found to have a high CSC ability, by means of a lectin microarray. Seven sialylated glycan-recognizing lectins, MAL-I, SNA, SSA, TJA-I, ACG, ABA and MAH, showed higher affinity to CD133+ CD13+ CSC than CD133+ cells with a lower CSC ability. In addition, we demonstrated that CD133+ SSA+ cells isolated from Huh7 cells had a significantly higher ability to form tumors in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID) mice and spheres under serum-free conditions than CD133+ SSA- cells. These results suggest that hepatic CSC highly express sialylated glycans and that SSA lectin can be used as a tool for isolating CSC. This study is the first report to demonstrate the characteristic glycan structures in CSC and to indicate a new methodology involving lectins for isolating CSC. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. A comprehensive promoter landscape identifies a novel promoter for CD133 in restricted tissues, cancers, and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sompallae, Ramakrishna; Hofmann, Oliver; Maher, Christopher A.; Gedye, Craig; Behren, Andreas; Vitezic, Morana; Daub, Carsten O.; Devalle, Sylvie; Caballero, Otavia L.; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Cebon, Jonathan; Hide, Winston

    2013-01-01

    PROM1 is the gene encoding prominin-1 or CD133, an important cell surface marker for the isolation of both normal and cancer stem cells. PROM1 transcripts initiate at a range of transcription start sites (TSS) associated with distinct tissue and cancer expression profiles. Using high resolution Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) sequencing we characterize TSS utilization across a broad range of normal and developmental tissues. We identify a novel proximal promoter (P6) within CD133+ melanoma cell lines and stem cells. Additional exon array sampling finds P6 to be active in populations enriched for mesenchyme, neural stem cells and within CD133+ enriched Ewing sarcomas. The P6 promoter is enriched with respect to previously characterized PROM1 promoters for a HMGI/Y (HMGA1) family transcription factor binding site motif and exhibits different epigenetic modifications relative to the canonical promoter region of PROM1. PMID:24194746

  8. IL-6 promotes growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CD133+ cells of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Ok; Yang, Xiaodong; Duan, Shanzhou; Tsai, Ying; Strojny, Laura R; Keng, Peter; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2016-02-09

    We examined IL-6 effects on growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and metastatic ability of CD133+ and CD133- cell subpopulations isolated from three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines: A549, H157, and H1299. We developed IL-6 knocked-down and scramble (sc) control cells of A549 and H157 cell lines by lentiviral infection system, isolated CD133+ and CD133- sub-populations, and investigated the IL-6 role in self-renewal/growth of these cells. IL-6 showed either an inhibitory or lack of effect in modulating growth of CD133- cells depending on intracellular IL-6 levels, but there was higher self-renewal ability of IL-6 expressing CD133+ cells than IL-6 knocked down cells, confirming the promoter role of IL-6 in CD133+ cells growth. We then examined tumor growth of xenografts developed from CD133+ cells of A549IL-6si vs. A549sc cell lines. Consistently, there was retarded growth of tumors developed from A549IL-6si, CD133+ cells compared to tumors originating from A549sc, CD133+ cells. The effect of IL-6 in promoting CD133+ self-renewal was due to hedgehog (Hhg) and Erk signaling pathway activation and higher Bcl-2/Bcl-xL expression. We also investigated whether IL-6 regulates the EMT process of CD133- and CD133+ cells differently. Expression of the EMT/metastasis-associated molecules in IL-6 expressing cells was higher than in IL-6 knocked down cells. Together, we demonstrated dual roles of IL-6 in regulating growth of CD133- and CD133+ subpopulations of lung cancer cells and significant regulation of IL-6 on EMT/metastasis increase in CD133+ cells, not in CD133- cells.

  9. Notch1 directly induced CD133 expression in human diffuse type gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Hidetomo; Asano, Naoki; Imatani, Akira; Kimura, Osamu; Kondo, Yutaka; Jin, Xiaoyi; Kanno, Takeshi; Hatta, Waku; Ara, Nobuyuki; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    CD133 is considered as a stem-like cell marker in some cancers including gastric cancers, and Notch1 signaling is known to play an important role in the maintenance and differentiation of stem-like cells. We aimed to investigate whether Notch1 signaling contributes to the carcinogenesis of gastric cancers and CD133 induction. CD133 expression was detected in 51.4% of diffuse type gastric cancers while it was not detected in intestinal type gastric cancers. Similarly, only poorly-differentiated gastric cancer cell lines expressed CD133 and activated-Notch1. Inhibiting Notch1 signaling resulted in decreased CD133 expression, side population cells, cell proliferation and anchorage independent cell growth. Chromatin immunoprecipitation suggested that this Notch1 dependent regulation of CD133 was caused by direct binding of activated-Notch1 to the RBP-Jκ binding site in the 5′ promoter region of CD133 gene. In addition, knocking down RBP-Jκ reduced CD133 induction in activated-Notch1 transfected cells. These findings suggested that Notch1 signaling plays an important role in the maintenance of the cancer stem-like phenotype in diffuse type gastric cancer through an RBP-Jκ dependent pathway and that inhibiting Notch1 signaling could be an effective therapy against CD133 positive diffuse type gastric cancers. PMID:27489358

  10. Oct-4 Expression Maintained Cancer Stem-Like Properties in Lung Cancer-Derived CD133-Positive Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tung-Hu; How, Chorng-Kuang; Wang, Chien-Ying; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Ming-Long; Lee, Yi-Yen; Ku, Hung-Hai; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    CD133 (prominin-1), a 5-transmembrane glycoprotein, has recently been considered to be an important marker that represents the subset population of cancer stem-like cells. Herein we report the isolation of CD133-positive cells (LC-CD133+) and CD133-negative cells (LC-CD133−) from tissue samples of ten patients with non-small cell lung cancer (LC) and five LC cell lines. LC-CD133+ displayed higher Oct-4 expressions with the ability to self-renew and may represent a reservoir with proliferative potential for generating lung cancer cells. Furthermore, LC-CD133+, unlike LC-CD133−, highly co-expressed the multiple drug-resistant marker ABCG2 and showed significant resistance to chemotherapy agents (i.e., cisplatin, etoposide, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel) and radiotherapy. The treatment of Oct-4 siRNA with lentiviral vector can specifically block the capability of LC-CD133+ to form spheres and can further facilitate LC-CD133+ to differentiate into LC-CD133−. In addition, knock-down of Oct-4 expression in LC-CD133+ can significantly inhibit the abilities of tumor invasion and colony formation, and increase apoptotic activities of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Finally, in vitro and in vivo studies further confirm that the treatment effect of chemoradiotherapy for LC-CD133+ can be improved by the treatment of Oct-4 siRNA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Oct-4 expression plays a crucial role in maintaining the self-renewing, cancer stem-like, and chemoradioresistant properties of LC-CD133+. Future research is warranted regarding the up-regulated expression of Oct-4 in LC-CD133+ and malignant lung cancer. PMID:18612434

  11. CD133-Positive Cells Might Be Responsible for Efficient Proliferation of Human Meningioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hailiang; Gong, Ye; Mao, Ying; Xie, Qing; Zheng, Mingzhe; Wang, Daijun; Zhu, Hongda; Wang, Xuanchun; Chen, Hong; Chen, Xiancheng; Zhou, Liangfu

    2012-01-01

    Owing to lack of appropriate model systems, investigations of meningioma biology have come to a stop. In this study, we developed a comprehensive digestion method and defined a culture system. Using this method and system, primary meningioma cells in conditioned suspension medium and a hypoxic environment could be amplified in spheres and were passaged for more than ten generations. Meningioma sphere cells were positive for meningioma cell markers and negative for markers of neural cell types. Importantly, we found the cells expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, but not nestin. All of the tumor sphere cell populations showed a slower degree of cell proliferation than that of human glioma cells and fetal neural stem cells (NSCs). Further studies showed that the proliferative rate was positively correlated with CD133 expression. The higher the CD133 expression, the faster the cell proliferation. With the increase in cell generations, the cell proliferation rate gradually slowed down, and CD133 expression also decreased. Single CD133+ cells rather than CD133− cells could form spheres. Thus, the results above indicated that those cells expressing CD133 in spheres might be stem-like cells, which may be responsible for efficient amplification of human meningioma cells. Decreased expression of CD133 may lead to the failure of long-term passaging. PMID:22754374

  12. Role of CD44(high)/CD133(high) HCT-116 cells in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin-Yong; Chen, Min; Ma, Long; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Yu-Gen; Liu, Shen-Lin

    2016-02-16

    This study aimed to explore cell surface biomarkers related to cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their role in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer. Various colon cancer cell lines were screened for CD133 and CD44 expression. CD44(high)/CD133(high) and CD44(low)/CD133(low) cells were separately isolated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). The cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle characteristics, and tumorigenic properties in CD44(high)/CD133(high) and CD44(low)/CD133(low) cells were investigated through in vitro experiments and in vivo tumor xenograft models. The expression profiles of stem cell-related genes were examined by RT-PCR. With HCT-116 cells, flow cytometry analysis revealed that CD44(high)/CD133(high) cells had higher proliferation potency than CD44(low)/CD133(low) cells. Compared to CD44(low)/CD133(low) cells, CD44(high)/CD133(high) cells had more stem cell-related genes, and displayed increased tumorigenic ability. In summary, CD44(high)/CD133(high) cells isolated from HCT-116 cells harbor CSC properties that may be related to the tumor growth of colon cancer. These results suggest that CD44 and CD133 could be strong markers of colorectal cancer stem cells.

  13. CD133 Regulates IL-1β Signaling and Neutrophil Recruitment in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Yong; Kim, Jun-Kyum; Jeon, Hee-Young; Ham, Seok Won; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-01-01

    CD133, a pentaspan transmembrane glycoprotein, is generally used as a cancer stem cell marker in various human malignancies, but its biological function in cancer cells, especially in glioma cells, is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that forced expression of CD133 increases the expression of IL-1β and its downstream chemokines, namely, CCL3, CXCL3 and CXCL5, in U87MG glioma cells. Although there were no apparent changes in cell growth and sphere formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, in vitro trans-well studies and in vivo tumor xenograft assays showed that neutrophil recruitment was markedly increased by the ectopic expression of CD133. In addition, the clinical relevance between CD133 expression and IL-1β gene signature was established in patients with malignant gliomas. Thus, these results imply that glioma cells expressing CD133 are capable of modulating tumor microenvironment through the IL-1β signaling pathway. PMID:28736425

  14. Identification and Characterization of CD133(pos) Subpopulation Cells From a Human Laryngeal Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hai-ou; Wang, Huifang; Che, Na; Li, Dong; Mao, Yong; Zeng, Qiao; Ge, Rongming

    2016-04-06

    Recent research indicates that CD133 are expressed in several kinds of stem cells, among which, its high expression in laryngeal carcinoma has caused wide concern. To further explore efficaciously targeting drugs to laryngeal carcinoma stem cells (CSCs), we transplanted a solid tumor from CSCs into abdominal subcutaneous tissue of nude mice, and then compared the biological characteristics of laryngeal solid tumors with or without cisplatin intervention. In this study, the expression of CD133 was detected in the Hep-2 cell line by flow cytometry. By applying magnetic cell sorting (MACS) technology, we reported the results of purifying CD133-positive cells from a Hep-2 cell line. Cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor-forming ability were examined in vitro and in vivo to identify the marker of CSCs in Hep-2 cell line. Upon flow cytometry analysis, CD133 was expressed constantly on 40.12±1.32% in Hep-2 cell line. Cell proliferation and colony formation ability were higher in CD133-positive cells compared to CD133-negative cells, and the in vivo tumorigenesis experiment showed the same results as in vitro assay. The 2 subpopulations cells were both sensitive to DDP, among which, the effect of DPP on proliferation ability and tumor-forming ability of CD133-positive cells was obviously greater than that of CD133-negative cells. Above all, our study revealed that CD133-positive cells have properties of higher proliferation, colony formation, and tumorigenesis in Hep-2 cell line, indicating that CD133 could be a marker to characterize laryngeal cancer stem cells.

  15. Specific detection of CD133-positive tumor cells with iron oxide nanoparticles labeling using noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Pan, Huay-Ben; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chou, Chen-Pin

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles to visualize cells has been applied clinically, showing the potential for monitoring cells in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO conjugated with anti-CD133 antibodies (USPIO-CD133 Ab) that recognize the CD133 molecule, a cancer stem cell marker in a variety of cancers, was studied as a novel and potent agent for MRI contrast enhancement of tumor cells. Anti-CD133 antibodies were used to conjugate with USPIO via interaction of streptavidin and biotin for in vivo labeling of CD133-positive cells in xenografted tumors and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced brain tumors. The specific binding of USPIO-CD133 Ab to CD133-positive tumor cells was subsequently detected by Prussian blue staining and MRI with T2-weighted, gradient echo and multiple echo recombined gradient echo images. In addition, the cellular toxicity of USPIO-CD133 Ab was determined by analyzing cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production. USPIO-CD133 Ab specifically recognizes in vitro and labels CD133-positive cells, as validated using Prussian blue staining and MRI. The assays of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production showed no significant differences in tumor cells with or without labeling of USPIO-CD133 Ab. In vivo imaging of CD133-positive cells was demonstrated by intravenous injection of USPIO-CD133 Ab in mice with HT29 xenografted tumors. The MRI of HT29 xenografts showed several clusters of hypotensive regions that correlated with CD133 expression and Prussian blue staining for iron. In rat, brain tumors induced by transplacental ENU mutagenesis, several clusters of hypointensive zones were observed in CD133-expressing brain tumors by MRI and intravenously administered USPIO-CD133 Ab. Combination of USPIO-CD133 Ab and MRI is valuable in recognizing CD133-expressing tumor cells in vitro, extracellularly labeling for cell tracking and detecting CD133

  16. Specific detection of CD133-positive tumor cells with iron oxide nanoparticles labeling using noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Pan, Huay-Ben; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chou, Chen-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles to visualize cells has been applied clinically, showing the potential for monitoring cells in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO conjugated with anti-CD133 antibodies (USPIO-CD133 Ab) that recognize the CD133 molecule, a cancer stem cell marker in a variety of cancers, was studied as a novel and potent agent for MRI contrast enhancement of tumor cells. Materials and methods Anti-CD133 antibodies were used to conjugate with USPIO via interaction of streptavidin and biotin for in vivo labeling of CD133-positive cells in xenografted tumors and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced brain tumors. The specific binding of USPIO-CD133 Ab to CD133-positive tumor cells was subsequently detected by Prussian blue staining and MRI with T2-weighted, gradient echo and multiple echo recombined gradient echo images. In addition, the cellular toxicity of USPIO-CD133 Ab was determined by analyzing cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production. Results USPIO-CD133 Ab specifically recognizes in vitro and labels CD133-positive cells, as validated using Prussian blue staining and MRI. The assays of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production showed no significant differences in tumor cells with or without labeling of USPIO-CD133 Ab. In vivo imaging of CD133-positive cells was demonstrated by intravenous injection of USPIO-CD133 Ab in mice with HT29 xenografted tumors. The MRI of HT29 xenografts showed several clusters of hypotensive regions that correlated with CD133 expression and Prussian blue staining for iron. In rat, brain tumors induced by transplacental ENU mutagenesis, several clusters of hypointensive zones were observed in CD133-expressing brain tumors by MRI and intravenously administered USPIO-CD133 Ab. Conclusion Combination of USPIO-CD133 Ab and MRI is valuable in recognizing CD133-expressing tumor cells in vitro, extracellularly

  17. AEG-1 expression correlates with CD133 and PPP6c levels in human glioma tissues

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Chen, Xin; Xi, Ruxing; Chang, Yuwei; Zhang, Xuanwei; Zhang, Xiaozhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is associated with tumor genesis and progression in a variety of human cancers. This study aimed to explore the significance of AEG-1 in glioma and investigate whether it correlated with radioresistance of glioma cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the intensity of AEG-1, CD133 and PPP6c protein expression in glioma tissues increased significantly, mainly in the cytoplasm. The expression rate of AEG-1, CD133 and PPP6c were 85.9% (67/78), 60.3% (47/78) and 65.8% (51/78), respectively. AEG-1 expression was correlated with age (r = 0.227, P = 0.045), clinical stage (r = 0.491, P<0.001) and clinical grade (r = 0.450, P<0.001). No correlation was found between AEG-1 expression and other clinicopathologic parameters (P>0.05). The expression of AEG-1 was positively correlated with the expression of CD133 (r = 0.240, P  =  0.035) and PPP6c (r =  0.250, P  =  0.027). In addition, retrieved data on TCGA implied co-occurrence of genomic alterations of AEG-1 and PPP6c in glioblastoma. Our findings indicate that AEG-1 is positively correlated with CD133 and AEG-1 expression. It may play an important role in the progression of glioma and may serve as potential novel marker of chemoresistance and radioresistance. PMID:25332711

  18. Adult Human CD133/1+ Kidney Cells Isolated from Papilla Integrate into Developing Kidney Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather H.; Romero, Elsa; Welford, Angela; Pickett, Gavin; Bacallao, Robert; Gattone, Vincent H.; Ness, Scott A.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Roitbak, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 60,000 patients in the US are waiting for a kidney transplant due to genetic, immunologic and environmentally caused kidney failure. Adult human renal stem cells could offer opportunities for autologous transplant and repair of damaged organs. Current data suggest that there are multiple progenitor types in the kidney with distinct localizations. In the present study, we characterize cells derived from human kidney papilla and show their capacity for tubulogenesis. In situ, nestin+ and CD133/1+ cells were found extensively intercalated between tubular epithelia in the loops of Henle of renal papilla, but not of the cortex. Populations of primary cells from the renal cortex and renal papilla were isolated by enzymatic digestion from human kidneys unsuited for transplant and immuno-enriched for CD133/1+ cells. Isolated CD133/1+ papillary cells were positive for nestin, as well as several human embryonic stem cell markers (SSEA4, Nanog, SOX2, and OCT4/POU5F1) and could be triggered to adopt tubular epithelial and neuronal like phenotypes. Isolated papillary cells exhibited morphologic plasticity upon modulation of culture conditions and inhibition of asymmetric cell division. Labeled papillary cells readily associated with cortical tubular epithelia in co-culture and 3-dimensional collagen gel cultures. Heterologous organ culture demonstrated that CD133/1+ progenitors from the papilla and cortex, became integrated into developing kidney tubules. Tubular epithelia did not participate in tubulogenesis. Human renal papilla harbor cells with the hallmarks of adult kidney stem/progenitor cells that can be amplified and phenotypically modulated in culture while retaining the capacity to form new kidney tubules. PMID:21255643

  19. The Ribonucleic Complex HuR-MALAT1 Represses CD133 Expression and Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Elisa; Carelli, Stephana; Raimondi, Ivan; D'Agostino, Vito; Castiglioni, Ilaria; Zucal, Chiara; Moro, Giacomina; Luciani, Andrea; Ghilardi, Giorgio; Monti, Eleonora; Inga, Alberto; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo; Provenzani, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a core process underlying cell movement during embryonic development and morphogenesis. Cancer cells hijack this developmental program to execute a multi-step cascade, leading to tumorigenesis and metastasis. CD133 (PROM1), a marker of cancer stem cells, has been shown to facilitate EMT in various cancers, but the regulatory networks controlling CD133 gene expression and function in cancer remain incompletely delineated. In this study, we show that a ribonucleoprotein complex including the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 and the RNA-binding protein HuR (ELAVL1) binds the CD133 promoter region to regulate its expression. In luminal nonmetastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HuR silencing was sufficient to upregulate N-cadherin (CDH2) and CD133 along with a migratory and mesenchymal-like phenotype. Furthermore, we found that in the basal-like metastatic cell line MDA-MB-231 and primary triple-negative breast cancer tumor cells, the repressor complex was absent from the CD133-regulatory region, but was present in the MCF-7 and primary ER+ tumor cells. The absence of the complex from basal-like cells was attributed to diminished expression of MALAT1, which, when overexpressed, dampened CD133 levels. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the failure of a repressive complex to form or stabilize in breast cancer promotes CD133 upregulation and an EMT-like program, providing new mechanistic insights underlying the control of prometastatic processes. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2626-36. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Overactivation of Ras signaling pathway in CD133+ MPNST cells.

    PubMed

    Borrego-Diaz, Emma; Terai, Kaoru; Lialyte, Kristina; Wise, Amanda L; Esfandyari, Tuba; Behbod, Fariba; Mautner, Victor F; Spyra, Melanie; Taylor, Sarah; Parada, Luis F; Upadhyaya, Meena; Farassati, Faris

    2012-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be the regenerative pool of cells responsible for repopulating tumors. Gaining knowledge about the signaling characteristics of CSCs is important for understanding the biology of tumors and developing novel anti-cancer therapies. We have identified a subpopulation of cells positive for CD133 (a CSC marker) from human primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells which were absent in non-malignant Schwann cells. CD133 was also found to be expressed in human tissue samples and mouse MPNST cells. CD133+ cells were capable of forming spheres in non-adherent/serum-free conditions. The activation levels of Ras and its downstream effectors such as ERK, JNK, PI3K, p38K, and RalA were significantly increased in this population. Moreover, the CD133+ cells showed enhanced invasiveness which was linked to the increased expression of β-Catenin and Snail, two important proteins involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and Paxilin, a focal adhesion protein. Among other important characteristics of the CD133+ population, endoplasmic reticulum stress marker IRE1α was decreased, implying the potential sensitivity of CD133+ to the accumulation of unfolded proteins. Apoptotic indicators seemed to be unchanged in CD133+ cells when compared to the wild (unsorted) cells. Finally, in order to test the possibility of targeting CD133+ MPNST cells with Ras pathway pharmacological inhibitors, we exposed these cells to an ERK inhibitor. The wild population was more sensitive to inhibition of proliferation by this inhibitor as compared with the CD133+ cells supporting previous studies observing enhanced chemoresistance of these cells.

  1. CD133 expression correlates with membrane beta-catenin and E-cadherin loss from human hair follicle placodes during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gay, Denise L; Yang, Chao-Chun; Plikus, Maksim V; Ito, Mayumi; Rivera, Charlotte; Treffeisen, Elsa; Doherty, Laura; Spata, Michelle; Millar, Sarah E; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies suggest that the major events of human hair follicle development are similar to those in mice, but detailed analyses of this process are lacking. In mice, hair follicle placode "budding" is initiated by invagination of Wnt-induced epithelium into the underlying mesenchyme. Modification of adherens junctions (AJs) is clearly required for budding. Snail-mediated downregulation of AJ component E-cadherin is important for placode budding in mice. Beta-catenin, another AJ component, has been more difficult to study owing to its essential functions in Wnt signaling, a prerequisite for hair follicle placode induction. Here, we show that a subset of human invaginating hair placode cells expresses the stem cell marker CD133 during early morphogenesis. CD133 associates with membrane beta-catenin in early placodes, and its continued expression correlates with loss of beta-catenin and E-cadherin from the cell membrane at a time when E-cadherin transcriptional repressors Snail and Slug are not implicated. Stabilization of CD133 via anti-CD133 antibody treatment of human fetal scalp explants depresses beta-catenin and E-cadherin membrane localization. We discuss this unique correlation and suggest a hypothetical model whereby CD133 promotes morphogenesis in early hair follicle placodes through the localized removal of membrane beta-catenin proteins and subsequent AJ dissolution.

  2. The CD133+ cell as advanced medicinal product for myocardial and limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Dario; Bassetti, Beatrice; Gambini, Elisa; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; Achilli, Felice; Scacciatella, Paolo; Carbucicchio, Corrado; Pompilio, Giulio

    2014-10-15

    Ischemic diseases are the major cause of death and morbidity in Western countries. In the last decade, cell therapy has been suggested to be a promising treatment both in acute/chronic myocardial and peripheral ischemia. Different cell lineages have been tested, including endothelial progenitor cells. A subpopulation of bone marrow-derived immature ECPs, expressing the highly conserved stem cell glycoprotein antigen prominin-1 or CD133 marker, was shown to possess pro-angiogenic and antiapoptotic effects on ischemic tissues. The mechanisms implicated in CD133+ cells ability to contribute to neovascularization processes have been attributed to their ability to directly differentiate into newly forming vessels and to indirectly activate pro-angiogenic signaling by paracrine mechanisms. A large body of in vivo experimental evidences has demonstrated the potential of CD133+ cells to reverse ischemia. Moreover, several clinical trials have reported promising beneficial effects after infusion of autologous CD133+ into ischemic heart and limbs exploiting various delivery strategies. These trials have contributed to characterize the CD133+ manufacturing process as an advanced cell product (AMP). The aim of this review is to summarize available experimental and clinical data on CD133+ cells in the context of myocardial and peripheral ischemia, and to focus on the development of the CD133+ cell as an anti-ischemic AMP.

  3. A Fraction of CD133+ CNE2 Cells Is Made of Giant Cancer Cells with Morphological Evidence of Asymmetric Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qingping; Zhang, Qianbing; Wang, Shuang; Xie, Siming; Fang, Weiyi; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jinsong; Yao, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    CD133 has been suggested as a broad-spectrum marker for cancer stem cells(CSCs). The present study investigated the expression of CD133 in biopsy tissues of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), NPC cell lines and the immortalized cell line NP69 by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. CD133+ cancer cells were isolated using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. The study demonstrated that CD133+ cells are rare in NPC tissues and cell lines and that their self-renewal and proliferation abilities are stronger than those of CD133- cells and suggested that CD133+ NPC cells have characteristics of cancer stem cells. We further observed CD133+ cancer cells using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Generally, CD133+ cells are small, regular and round with small microvilli. On the other hand, CD133- cells are more polymorphic and larger with long micromicrovilli. Additionally, in some fields, several giant cancer cells (GCCs) in the CD133+ cell group were identified under the light microscope. Most of them were polynuclear cells. Under the scanning electron microscope, we found indefinite regular small bodies on the surface of or surrounding the giant cancer cells, some of which appeared to be creeping out the parental cells. This phenomenon was not observed in the CD133- cell groups. Through comparison with descriptions of apoptotic bodies in the literature and from the results of the acridine orange test, we propose that some of the small bodies are daughter cells of the GCCs. This phenomenon is a mode of division of cancer cells called neosis, or budding, which is a form of reproduction for simple organisms. Budding is satisfied with the rapid speed of tumor development. GCCs could be isolated by CD133 beads because the daughter cells have stem-cell characteristics and express stem-cell markers. PMID:26535065

  4. Resistance of glioma cells to nutrient-deprived microenvironment can be enhanced by CD133-mediated autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kai; Li, Peng; Han, Shuo; Li, Ruizhi; Su, Ming; Zeng, Wotan; Liu, Jinwen; Guo, Jinhai; Liu, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; He, Qihua; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    CD133 is a pentaspan transmembrane protein that can serve as a biomarker for cancer stem cells, although its biochemical mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that CD133 expression enhances glioma cell tolerance of a nutrient-deprived microenvironment. Under starvation conditions, CD133-positive cells exhibited higher survival and decreased levels of apoptosis. These changes were dependent on activation of autophagy-associated gene signaling and were impaired by the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine. Furthermore, rapamycin up-regulated the level of autophagy and inversely reduced CD133 expression. Immunofluorescence confirmed that starvation promoted release of CD133 from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm, with CD133 also partially co-localizing with LC3 upon starvation. Additionally, CD133 partially co-localized with Beclin1, Atg5, and lysosomes, indicating that CD133 directly participates in the autophagosome membrane fusion process and ultimately undergoes lysosomal degradation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CD133 contributes to cell survival by regulating autophagy, and that targeting CD133-linked signaling and autophagy may be useful in improving anti-cancer treatments. PMID:27780926

  5. Therapeutics targeting CD90-integrin-AMPK-CD133 signal axis in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ching; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Yen, Meng-Chi; Huang, Hau-Lun; Cho, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chih-Yang; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Lai, Po-Ting; Chen, Ching-Shih; Lin, Yih-Jyh; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2015-12-15

    CD90 is used as a marker for cancer stem cell in liver cancer. We aimed to study the mechanism by which CD90 promoted liver cancer progression and identify the new therapeutic targets on CD90 signal pathway. Ectopic expression of CD90 in liver cancer cell lines enhanced anchorage-independent growth and tumor progression. Furthermore, CD90 promoted sphere formation in vitro and upregulated the expression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133. The CD133 expression was higher in CD45-CD90+ cells in liver cancer specimen. The natural carcinogenic molecules TGF-β-1, HGF, and hepatitis B surface antigen increased the expression of CD90 and CD133. Inhibition of CD90 by either shRNA or antibody attenuated the induction of CD133 and anchorage-independent growth. Lentiviral delivery of CD133 shRNA abolished the tumorigenicity induced by CD90. Ectopic expression of CD90 induced mTOR phosphorylation and AMPK dephosphorylation. Mutation of integrin binding-RLD domain in CD90 attenuated the induction of CD133 and anchorage-independent growth. Similar results were observed after silencing β3 integrin. Signaling analyses revealed that AMPK/mTOR and β3 integrin were required for the induction of CD133 and tumor formation by CD90. Importantly, the energy restriction mimetic agent OSU-CG5 reduced the CD90 population in fresh liver tumor sample and repressed the tumor growth. In contrast, sorafenib did not decrease the CD90+ population. In conclusion, the signal axis of CD90-integrin-mTOR/AMPK-CD133 is critical for promoting liver carcinogenesis. Molecules inhibiting the signal axis, including OSU-CG5 and other inhibitors, may serve as potential novel cancer therapeutic targets in liver cancer.

  6. Blocking the NOTCH pathway can inhibit the growth of CD133-positive A549 cells and sensitize to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Juntao; Mao, Zhangfan; Huang, Jie; Xie, Songping; Liu, Tianshu; Mao, Zhifu

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Notch signaling pathway members are expressed lower levels in CD133+ cells. • CD133+ cells are not as sensitive as CD133− cells to chemotherapy. • GSI could inhibit the growth of both CD133+ and CD133− cells. • Blockade of Notch signaling pathway enhanced the effect of chemotherapy with CDDP. • DAPT/CDDP co-therapy caused G2/M arrest and elimination in CD133+ cells. - Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to play an important role in tumor growth and recurrence. These cells exhibit self-renewal and proliferation properties. CSCs also exhibit significant drug resistance compared with normal tumor cells. Finding new treatments that target CSCs could significantly enhance the effect of chemotherapy and improve patient survival. Notch signaling is known to regulate the development of the lungs by controlling the cell-fate determination of normal stem cells. In this study, we isolated CSCs from the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. CD133 was used as a stem cell marker for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We compared the expression of Notch signaling in both CD133+ and CD133− cells and blocked Notch signaling using the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT (GSI-IX). The effect of combining GSI and cisplatin (CDDP) was also examined in these two types of cells. We observed that both CD133+ and CD133− cells proliferated at similar rates, but the cells exhibited distinctive differences in cell cycle progression. Few CD133+ cells were observed in the G{sub 2}/M phase, and there were half as many cells in S phase compared with the CD133− cells. Furthermore, CD133+ cells exhibited significant resistance to chemotherapy when treated with CDDP. The expression of Notch signaling pathway members, such as Notch1, Notch2 and Hes1, was lower in CD133+ cells. GSI slightly inhibited the proliferation of both cell types and exhibited little effect on the cell cycle. The inhibitory effects of DPP on these two types of cells were

  7. Human CD133+ Renal Progenitor Cells Induce Erythropoietin Production and Limit Fibrosis After Acute Tubular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Shikhar; Grange, Cristina; Iampietro, Corinne; Camussi, Giovanni; Bussolati, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    Persistent alterations of the renal tissue due to maladaptive repair characterize the outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI), despite a clinical recovery. Acute damage may also limit the renal production of erythropoietin, with impairment of the hemopoietic response to ischemia and possible lack of its reno-protective action. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a cell therapy using human CD133+ renal progenitor cells on maladaptive repair and fibrosis following AKI in a model of glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. In parallel, we evaluated the effect of CD133+ cells on erythropoietin production. Administration of CD133+ cells promoted the restoration of the renal tissue, limiting the presence of markers of injury and pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, it promoted angiogenesis and protected against fibrosis up to day 60. No effect of dermal fibroblasts was observed. Treatment with CD133+ cells, but not with PBS or fibroblasts, limited anemia and increased erythropoietin levels both in renal tissue and in circulation. Finally, CD133+ cells contributed to the local production of erythropoietin, as observed by detection of circulating human erythropoietin. CD133+ cells appear therefore an effective source for cell repair, able to restore renal functions, including erythropoietin release, and to limit long term maldifferentiation and fibrosis. PMID:27853265

  8. CD133-targeted gene transfer into long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Christian; Goebel, Benjamin; Daniela, Abriss; Brugman, Martijn; Kneissl, Sabrina; Schwäble, Joachim; Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Müller-Kuller, Uta; Kunkel, Hana; Chen-Wichmann, Linping; Abel, Tobias; Serve, Hubert; Bystrykh, Leonid; Buchholz, Christian J; Grez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy for hematological disorders relies on the genetic modification of CD34(+) cells, a heterogeneous cell population containing about 0.01% long-term repopulating cells. Here, we show that the lentiviral vector CD133-LV, which uses a surface marker on human primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as entry receptor, transfers genes preferentially into cells with high engraftment capability. Transduction of unstimulated CD34(+) cells with CD133-LV resulted in gene marking of cells with competitive proliferative advantage in vitro and in immunodeficient mice. The CD133-LV-transduced population contained significantly more cells with repopulating capacity than cells transduced with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-LV, a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. Upon transfer of a barcode library, CD133-LV-transduced cells sustained gene marking in vivo for a prolonged period of time with a 6.7-fold higher recovery of barcodes compared to transduced control cells. Moreover, CD133-LV-transduced cells were capable of repopulating secondary recipients. Lastly, we show that this targeting strategy can be used for transfer of a therapeutic gene into CD34(+) cells obtained from patients suffering of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. In conclusion, direct gene transfer into CD133(+) cells allows for sustained long-term engraftment of gene corrected cells.

  9. Type 1 collagen as a potential niche component for CD133-positive glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Hiroaki; Kamoshima, Yuuta; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2014-08-01

    Cancer stem cells are thought to be closely related to tumor progression and recurrence, making them attractive therapeutic targets. Stem cells of various tissues exist within niches maintaining their stemness. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are located at tumor capillaries and the perivascular niche, which are considered to have an important role in maintaining GSCs. There were some extracellular matrices (ECM) on the perivascular connective tissue, including type 1 collagen. We here evaluated whether type 1 collagen has a potential niche for GSCs. Imunohistochemical staining of type 1 collagen and CD133, one of the GSCs markers, on glioblastoma (GBM) tissues showed CD133-positive cells were located in immediate proximity to type 1 collagen around tumor vessels. We cultured human GBM cell lines, U87MG and GBM cells obtained from fresh surgical tissues, T472 and T555, with serum-containing medium (SCM) or serum-free medium with some growth factors (SFM) and in non-coated (Non-coat) or type 1 collagen-coated plates (Col). The RNA expression levels of CD133 and Nestin as stem cell markers in each condition were examined. The Col condition not only with SFM but SCM made GBM cells more enhanced in RNA expression of CD133, compared to Non-coat/SCM. Semi-quantitative measurement of CD133-positive cells by immunocytochemistry showed a statistically significant increase of CD133-positive cells in Col/SFM. In addition, T472 cell line cultured in the Col/SFM had capabilities of sphere formation and tumorigenesis. Type 1 collagen was found in the perivascular area and showed a possibility to maintain GSCs. These findings suggest that type 1 collagen could be one important niche component for CD133-positive GSCs and maintain GSCs in adherent culture. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  10. Expansion of CD133+ colon cancer cultures retaining stem cell properties to enable cancer stem cell target discovery

    PubMed Central

    Fang, D D; Kim, Y J; Lee, C N; Aggarwal, S; McKinnon, K; Mesmer, D; Norton, J; Birse, C E; He, T; Ruben, S M; Moore, P A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite earlier studies demonstrating in vitro propagation of solid tumour cancer stem cells (CSCs) as non-adherent tumour spheres, it remains controversial as to whether CSCs can be maintained in vitro. Additional validation of the CSC properties of tumour spheres would support their use as CSC models and provide an opportunity to discover additional CSC cell surface markers to aid in CSC detection and potential elimination. Methods: Primary tumour cells isolated from 13 surgically resected colon tumour specimens were propagated using serum-free CSC-selective conditions. The CSC properties of long-term cultured tumour spheres were established and mass spectrometry-based proteomics performed. Results: Freshly isolated CD133+ colorectal cancer cells gave rise to long-term tumour sphere (or spheroids) cultures maintaining CD133 expression. These spheroid cells were able to self-renew and differentiate into adherent epithelial lineages and recapitulate the phenotype of the original tumour. Relative to their differentiated progeny, tumour spheroid cells were more resistant to the chemotherapeutic irinotecan. Finally, CD44, CD166, CD29, CEACAM5, cadherin 17, and biglycan were identified by mass spectrometry to be enriched in CD133+ tumour spheroid cells. Conclusion: Our data suggest that ex vivo-expanded colon CSCs isolated from clinical specimens can be maintained in culture enabling the identification of CSC cell surface-associated proteins. PMID:20332776

  11. Urinary CD133+ Extracellular Vesicles Are Decreased in Kidney Transplanted Patients with Slow Graft Function and Vascular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dimuccio, Veronica; Ranghino, Andrea; Praticò Barbato, Loredana; Fop, Fabrizio; Biancone, Luigi; Camussi, Giovanni; Bussolati, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in the urine are mainly released from cells of the nephron and can therefore provide information on kidney function. We here evaluated the presence of vesicles expressing the progenitor marker CD133 in the urine of normal subjects and of patients undergoing renal transplant. We found that EV expressing CD133 were present in the urine of normal subjects, but not of patients with end stage renal disease. The first day after transplant, urinary CD133+ EVs were present at low levels, to increase thereafter (at day 7). Urinary CD133+ EVs significantly increased in patients with slow graft function in respect to those with early graft function. In patients with a severe pre-transplant vascular damage of the graft, CD133+ EVs did not increase at day 7. At variance, the levels of EVs expressing the renal exosomal marker CD24 did not vary in the urine of patients with end stage renal disease or in transplanted patients in respect to controls. Sorted CD133+ EVs were found to express glomerular and proximal tubular markers. These data indicate that urinary CD133+ EVs are continuously released during the homeostatic turnover of the nephron and may provide information on its function or regenerative potential. PMID:25100147

  12. Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis and Increased Radiosensitivity in CD133-Positive Cells Derived From Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.-L.; Huang, P.-I; Tsai, P.-H.; Tsai, M.-L.; Lo, J.-F.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chiou, S.-H.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: CD133 has recently been proposed as a marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in brain tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of resveratrol (RV) in radiosensitivity of CD133-positive/-negative cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT-CD133{sup +/-}). Materials and Methods: AT/RT-CD133{sup +/-} were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and then treated with RV at different doses. Migratory ability, colony formation, apoptotic activity, and xenotransplantation were assessed for RV alone, ionizing radiation (IR) alone, and IR with RV conditions. Results: AT/RT-CD133{sup +} displayed enhanced self-renewal and highly coexpressed 'stem cell' genes and drug-resistant genes, in addition to showing significant resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy as compared with CD133{sup -} cells. After treatment with 200 {mu}M RV, the in vitro proliferation rates and in vivo tumor restoration abilities of ATRT-CD133{sup +} were dramatically inhibited. Importantly, treatment with 150 {mu}M RV can effectively inhibit the expression of drug-resistant genes in AT/RT-CD133{sup +}, and further facilitate to the differentiation of CD133{sup +} into CD133{sup -}. In addition, treatment with 150 {mu}M RV could significantly enhance the radiosensitivity and IR-mediated apoptosis in RV-treated ATRT-CD133{sup +/-}. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of mice with ATRT-CD133{sup +} that were treated with IR could be significantly improved when IR was combined with 150 {mu}M RV treatment. Conclusions: AT/RT-CD133{sup +} exhibit CSC properties and are refractory to IR treatment. Our results suggest that RV treatment plays crucial roles in antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and radiosensitizing effects on treated-CD133{sup +/-}; RV may therefore improve the clinical treatment of AT/RT.

  13. Blocking the NOTCH pathway can inhibit the growth of CD133-positive A549 cells and sensitize to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juntao; Mao, Zhangfan; Huang, Jie; Xie, Songping; Liu, Tianshu; Mao, Zhifu

    2014-02-21

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to play an important role in tumor growth and recurrence. These cells exhibit self-renewal and proliferation properties. CSCs also exhibit significant drug resistance compared with normal tumor cells. Finding new treatments that target CSCs could significantly enhance the effect of chemotherapy and improve patient survival. Notch signaling is known to regulate the development of the lungs by controlling the cell-fate determination of normal stem cells. In this study, we isolated CSCs from the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. CD133 was used as a stem cell marker for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We compared the expression of Notch signaling in both CD133+ and CD133- cells and blocked Notch signaling using the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT (GSI-IX). The effect of combining GSI and cisplatin (CDDP) was also examined in these two types of cells. We observed that both CD133+ and CD133- cells proliferated at similar rates, but the cells exhibited distinctive differences in cell cycle progression. Few CD133+ cells were observed in the G2/M phase, and there were half as many cells in S phase compared with the CD133- cells. Furthermore, CD133+ cells exhibited significant resistance to chemotherapy when treated with CDDP. The expression of Notch signaling pathway members, such as Notch1, Notch2 and Hes1, was lower in CD133+ cells. GSI slightly inhibited the proliferation of both cell types and exhibited little effect on the cell cycle. The inhibitory effects of DPP on these two types of cells were enhanced when combined with GSI. Interestingly, this effect was especially significant in CD133+ cells, suggesting that Notch pathway blockade may be a useful CSC-targeted therapy in lung cancer.

  14. CD133-positive dermal papilla-derived Wnt ligands regulate postnatal hair growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Carpenter, April; Lang, Richard A; Andl, Thomas; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-10-01

    Active Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the dermal papilla (DP) is required for postnatal hair cycling. In addition, maintenance of the hair-inducing ability of DP cells in vitro requires external addition of Wnt molecules. However, whether DP cells are a critical source of Wnt ligands and induce both autocrine and paracrine signaling cascades to promote adult hair follicle growth and regeneration remains elusive. To address this question, we generated an animal model that allows inducible ablation of Wntless (Wls), a transmembrane Wnt exporter protein, in CD133-positive (CD133+) DP cells. CD133+ cells have been shown to be a specific subpopulation of cells in the DP, which possesses the hair-inducing capability. Here, we show that ablation of Wls expression in CD133+ DP cells results in a shortened period of postnatal hair growth. Mutant hair follicles were unable to enter full anagen (hair growth stage) and progressed toward a rapid regression. Notably, reduced size of the DP and decreased expression of anagen DP marker, versican, were observed in hair follicles when CD133+ DP cells lost Wls expression. Further analysis showed that Wls-deficient CD133+ DP cells led to reduced proliferation and differentiation in matrix keratinocytes and melanocytes that are needed for the generation of the hair follicle structure and a pigmented hair shaft. These findings clearly demonstrate that Wnt ligands produced by CD133+ DP cells play an important role in postnatal hair growth by maintaining the inductivity of DP cells and mediating the signaling cross-talk between the mesenchyme and the epithelial compartment. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Overexpression of Bmi‑1 promotes epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in CD133+Hep G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Wang, Qiyi; Bu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Chuangqiang; Chen, Hao; Sha, Weihong; Liu, Wanwei

    2017-08-24

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) are critical factors contributing to tumor metastasis and recurrence. The BMI1 proto‑oncogene (Bmi‑1) promotes the development and progression of hematologic malignancies and of several types of solid tumors. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism by which Bmi‑1 may promote invasion and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells. CD133 antigen is a transmembrane glycoprotein and regarded as a cancer stem cells marker in hepatocellular carcinoma. CD133+Hep G2 cells were enriched by magnetic‑activated cell sorting and exhibited greater viability compared with CD133‑Hep G2 cells, as measured by Cell Counting kit‑8 assay. Then, Bmi‑1 was overexpressed in CD133+Hep G2 cells by transfection with the Bmi‑1/pcDNA3.1(+) expression plasmid, and overexpression was confirmed by reverse‑transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Overexpression of Bmi‑1in CD133+Hep G2 cells resulted in the downregulation of E‑cadherin and upregulation of Vimentin at the protein level. The invasion and migration abilities of CD133+Hep G2 cells were increased in the Bmi‑1/pcDNA3.1(+)‑transfected group, as measured by Transwell invasion and wound healing assays, respectively. In conclusion, Bmi‑1 promoted invasion and migration of CD133+Hep G2 cells most likely through inducing EMT. The present findings may offer a potential novel target for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma therapies.

  16. Rapid selection and proliferation of CD133+ cells from cancer cell lines: chemotherapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah E; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Greco, Adelaide; Howard, Candace M; Sollars, Vincent E; Primerano, Donald A; Valluri, Jagan V; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2010-04-08

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered a subset of the bulk tumor responsible for initiating and maintaining the disease. Several surface cellular markers have been recently used to identify CSCs. Among those is CD133, which is expressed by hematopoietic progenitor cells as well as embryonic stem cells and various cancers. We have recently isolated and cultured CD133 positive [CD133+] cells from various cancer cell lines using a NASA developed Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB) (Celdyne, Houston, TX). For comparison, another bioreactor, the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) manufactured by Synthecon (Houston, TX) was used. Both the HFB and the RCCS bioreactors simulate aspects of hypogravity. In our study, the HFB increased CD133+ cell growth from various cell lines compared to the RCCS vessel and to normal gravity control. We observed a +15-fold proliferation of the CD133+ cellular fraction with cancer cells that were cultured for 7-days at optimized conditions. The RCCS vessel instead yielded a (-)4.8-fold decrease in the CD133+cellular fraction respect to the HFB after 7-days of culture. Interestingly, we also found that the hypogravity environment of the HFB greatly sensitized the CD133+ cancer cells, which are normally resistant to chemo treatment, to become susceptible to various chemotherapeutic agents, paving the way to less toxic and more effective chemotherapeutic treatment in patients. To be able to test the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in vitro prior to their use in clinical setting on cancer cells as well as on cancer stem cells may pave the way to more effective chemotherapeutic strategies in patients. This could be an important advancement in the therapeutic options of oncologic patients, allowing for more targeted and personalized chemotherapy regimens as well as for higher response rates.

  17. CD133-positive dermal papilla-derived Wnt ligands regulate postnatal hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Carpenter, April; Lang, Richard A.; Andl, Thomas; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-01-01

    Active Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the dermal papilla (DP) is required for postnatal hair cycling. In addition, maintenance of the hair-inducing ability of DP cells in vitro requires external addition of Wnt molecules. However, whether DP cells are a critical source of Wnt ligands and induce both autocrine and paracrine signaling cascades to promote adult hair follicle growth and regeneration remains elusive. To address this question, we generated an animal model that allows inducible ablation of Wntless (Wls), a transmembrane Wnt exporter protein, in CD133-positive (CD133+) DP cells. CD133+ cells have been shown to be a specific subpopulation of cells in the DP, which possesses the hair-inducing capability. Here, we show that ablation of Wls expression in CD133+ DP cells results in a shortened period of postnatal hair growth. Mutant hair follicles were unable to enter full anagen (hair growth stage) and progressed toward a rapid regression. Notably, reduced size of the DP and decreased expression of anagen DP marker, versican, were observed in hair follicles when CD133+ DP cells lost Wls expression. Further analysis showed that Wls-deficient CD133+ DP cells led to reduced proliferation and differentiation in matrix keratinocytes and melanocytes that are needed for the generation of the hair follicle structure and a pigmented hair shaft. These findings clearly demonstrate that Wnt ligands produced by CD133+ DP cells play an important role in postnatal hair growth by maintaining the inductivity of DP cells and mediating the signaling cross-talk between the mesenchyme and the epithelial compartment. PMID:27462123

  18. Rapid Selection and Proliferation of CD133(+) Cells from Cancer Cell Lines: Chemotherapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sarah E.; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Greco, Adelaide; Howard, Candace M.; Sollars, Vincent E.; Primerano, Donald A.; Valluri, Jagan V.; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered a subset of the bulk tumor responsible for initiating and maintaining the disease. Several surface cellular markers have been recently used to identify CSCs. Among those is CD133, which is expressed by hematopoietic progenitor cells as well as embryonic stem cells and various cancers. We have recently isolated and cultured CD133 positive [CD133(+)] cells from various cancer cell lines using a NASA developed Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB) (Celdyne, Houston, TX). For comparison, another bioreactor, the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) manufactured by Synthecon (Houston, TX) was used. Both the HFB and the RCCS bioreactors simulate aspects of hypogravity. In our study, the HFB increased CD133(+) cell growth from various cell lines compared to the RCCS vessel and to normal gravity control. We observed a (+)15-fold proliferation of the CD133(+) cellular fraction with cancer cells that were cultured for 7-days at optimized conditions. The RCCS vessel instead yielded a (−)4.8-fold decrease in the CD133(+)cellular fraction respect to the HFB after 7-days of culture. Interestingly, we also found that the hypogravity environment of the HFB greatly sensitized the CD133(+) cancer cells, which are normally resistant to chemo treatment, to become susceptible to various chemotherapeutic agents, paving the way to less toxic and more effective chemotherapeutic treatment in patients. To be able to test the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in vitro prior to their use in clinical setting on cancer cells as well as on cancer stem cells may pave the way to more effective chemotherapeutic strategies in patients. This could be an important advancement in the therapeutic options of oncologic patients, allowing for more targeted and personalized chemotherapy regimens as well as for higher response rates. PMID:20386701

  19. CD133 is not present on neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone, but on embryonic neural stem cells, ependymal cells, and glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pfenninger, Cosima V; Roschupkina, Teona; Hertwig, Falk; Kottwitz, Denise; Englund, Elisabet; Bengzon, Johan; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2007-06-15

    Human brain tumor stem cells have been enriched using antibodies against the surface protein CD133. An antibody recognizing CD133 also served to isolate normal neural stem cells from fetal human brain, suggesting a possible lineage relationship between normal neural and brain tumor stem cells. Whether CD133-positive brain tumor stem cells can be derived from CD133-positive neural stem or progenitor cells still requires direct experimental evidence, and an important step toward such investigations is the identification and characterization of normal CD133-presenting cells in neurogenic regions of the embryonic and adult brain. Here, we present evidence that CD133 is a marker for embryonic neural stem cells, an intermediate radial glial/ependymal cell type in the early postnatal stage, and for ependymal cells in the adult brain, but not for neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone. Our findings suggest two principal possibilities for the origin of brain tumor stem cells: a derivation from CD133-expressing cells, which are normally not present in the adult brain (embryonic neural stem cells and an early postnatal intermediate radial glial/ependymal cell type), or from CD133-positive ependymal cells in the adult brain, which are, however, generally regarded as postmitotic. Alternatively, brain tumor stem cells could be derived from proliferative but CD133-negative neurogenic astrocytes in the adult brain. In the latter case, brain tumor development would involve the production of CD133.

  20. Effect of MUC1/β-catenin interaction on the tumorigenic capacity of pancreatic CD133(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Andreia Mota; Rei, Margarida; Freitas, Rita; Ricardo, Sara; Caffrey, Thomas; David, Leonor; Almeida, Raquel; Hollingsworth, Michael Anthony; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that the biological function of cluster of differentiation (CD)133 remains unclear, this glycoprotein is currently used in the identification and isolation of tumor-initiating cells from certain malignant tumors, including pancreatic cancer. In the present study, the involvement of mucin 1 (MUC1) in the signaling pathways of a highly tumorigenic CD133+ cellular subpopulation sorted from the pancreatic cancer cell line HPAF-II was evaluated. The expression of MUC1-cytoplasmic domain (MUC1-CD) and oncogenic signaling transducers (epidermal growth factor receptor, protein kinase C delta, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2), as well as the association between MUC1 and β-catenin, were characterized in HPAF-II CD133+ and CD133low cell subpopulations and in tumor xenografts generated from these cells. Compared with HPAF CD133(low) cells, HPAF-II CD133+ cancer cells exhibited increased tumorigenic potential in immunocompromised mice, which was associated with overexpression of MUC1 and with the accordingly altered expression profile of MUC1-associated signaling partners. Additionally, MUC1-CD/β-catenin interactions were increased both in the HPAF-II CD133+ cell subpopulation and derived tumor xenografts compared with HPAF CD133(low) cells. These results suggest that, in comparison with HPAF CD133(low) cells, CD133+ cells exhibit higher expression of MUC1, which contributes to their tumorigenic phenotype through increased interaction between MUC1-CD and β-catenin, which in turn modulates oncogenic signaling cascades.

  1. Prognostic impact of MGMT promoter methylation and MGMT and CD133 expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New biomarkers are needed for the prognosis of advanced colorectal cancer, which remains incurable by conventional treatments. O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation and protein expression have been related to colorectal cancer treatment failure and tumor progression. Moreover, the presence in these tumors of cancer stem cells, which are characterized by CD133 expression, has been associated with chemoresistance, radioresistance, metastasis, and local recurrence. The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic value of CD133 and MGMT and their possible interaction in colorectal cancer patients. Methods MGMT and CD133 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 123 paraffin-embedded colorectal adenocarcinoma samples, obtaining the percentage staining and intensity. MGMT promoter methylation status was obtained by using bisulfite modification and methylation-specific PCR (MSP). These values were correlated with clinical data, including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), tumor stage, and differentiation grade. Results Low MGMT expression intensity was significantly correlated with shorter OS and was a prognostic factor independently of treatment and histopathological variables. High percentage of CD133 expression was significantly correlated with shorter DFS but was not an independent factor. Patients with low-intensity MGMT expression and ≥50% CD133 expression had the poorest DFS and OS outcomes. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that MGMT expression may be an OS biomarker as useful as tumor stage or differentiation grade and that CD133 expression may be a predictive biomarker of DFS. Thus, MGMT and CD133 may both be useful for determining the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients and to identify those requiring more aggressive adjuvant therapies. Future studies will be necessary to determine its clinical utility. PMID:25015560

  2. Expansion of CD133-positive glioma cells in recurrent de novo glioblastomas after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kaoru; Aoyagi, Masaru; Ando, Noboru; Ogishima, Takahiro; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Ohno, Kikuo

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a glioma stem cell subpopulation may determine the biological behavior of tumors, including resistance to therapy. To investigate this hypothesis, the authors examined varying grades of gliomas for stem cell marker expressions and histopathological changes between primary and recurrent tumors. Tumor samples were collected during surgery from 70 patients with varying grades of gliomas (Grade II in 12 patients, Grade III in 16, and Grade IV in 42) prior to any adjuvant treatment. The samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for MIB-1, factor VIII, GFAP, and stem cell markers (CD133 and nestin). Histopathological changes were compared between primary and recurrent tumors in 31 patients after radiation treatment and chemotherapy, including high-dose irradiation with additional stereotactic radiosurgery. CD133 expression on glioma cells was confined to de novo glioblastomas but was not observed in lower-grade gliomas. In de novo glioblastomas, the mean percentage of CD133-positive glioma cells in sections obtained at recurrence was 12.2% ± 10.3%, which was significantly higher than that obtained at the primary surgery (1.08% ± 1.78%). CD133 and Ki 67 dual-positive glioma cells were significantly increased in recurrent de novo glioblastomas as compared with those in primary tumors (14.5% ± 6.67% vs 2.16% ± 2.60%, respectively). In contrast, secondary glioblastomas rarely expressed CD133 antigen even after malignant progression following radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The authors' results indicate that CD133-positive glioma stem cells could survive, change to a proliferative cancer stem cell phenotype, and cause recurrence in cases with de novo glioblastomas after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  3. Efficient Expansion of SALL4-Transduced Umbilical Cord Blood Derived CD133+Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mossahebi-Mohammadi, Majid; Atashi, Amir; Kaviani, Saeid; Soleimani, Masoud

    2017-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were characterized by self-renewal and multilineage potential. Umbilical cord blood-derived (UCB) as an alternative source of HSCs is widely used especially in children for stem cells transplant (SCT). The main limitation in using UCB for transplantation especially in adults is low cell dose. To overcome this limitation besides using double dose UCB, ex vivo expansion is the most important way to increase cell number for transplantation. HSCs are mainly isolated using CD133 or CD34. CD133, as the most primitive marker, shows important physiological role in maintenance and expansion of HSCs. SALL4 plays crucial role in the development and maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal ability of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as well as HSCs. Moreover, SALL4 act as a regulator of HSCs expansion, normal hematopoiesis, and hematological malignancies. In the present study, CD133+ cells positively selected and ex vivo expanded in SALL-4 and GFP-transduced group. CD133 expression assessed using flow cytometry at day 0, 7 and 10. Moreover, multilineage differentiation and proliferation potential of expanded cells in both groups evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) assay, and cells count assay. Karyotyping analysis was performed to assess any chromosomal instability after 7 days of expansion. Obtained results demonstrated that SALL-4 transduced cells showed significant increase in cell number compared to control group. Moreover, immunophenotyping results showed higher expression level of CD133 at day 7 and 10 following expansion in SALL-4 transduced (62 % and 42%) compared to control group (51% and 20.6%). Our results illustrated that SALL4 could act as a positive factor for the expansion of CD133+ derived UCB cells besides maintaining self-renewal and differentiation ability of expanded cell without any numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations .

  4. [Expressions of CD133 and CD82/KAI1 in bladder urothelial carcinoma and their correlation with vasculogenic mimicry].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Wu, Shiwu; Zhou, Lei; Song, Wenqing; Wang, Danna

    2013-09-01

    To explore the expressions of CD133 and CD82/KAI1 in bladder urothelial carcinoma, their association with the clinicopathological factors and their roles in vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in the tumor. The expressions of CD133 and CD82/KAI1 and VM were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry in 90 specimens of bladder urothelial carcinoma and 20 specimens of normal bladder epithelium tissue. The positivity rates of CD133, CD82/KAI1 and VM in normal bladder epithelium tissue were 0, 90% and 0, showing significant differences from the rates of 65.6%, 31.1% and 31.1% in urothelial carcinoma, respectively (P<0.01). Positive expressions of CD133, CD82/KAI1 and VM were significantly correlated with pTNM stage and tumor relapse (P<0.01) but not with gender, age, or tumor numbers (P>0.05). CD133 expression was positively correlated with VM (P=0.487, P<0.05), and CD82/KAI1 expression was negatively correlated with VM (r=-0.452, P<0.01) and CD133 (r=-0.776, P<0.05). The expressions of CD133 and CD82/KAI1 proteins are involved in the occurrence of VM in bladder urothelial carcinoma to contribute to the invasion and relapse of bladder carcinoma.

  5. CD133 Expression Is Not Synonymous to Immunoreactivity for AC133 and Fluctuates throughout the Cell Cycle in Glioma Stem-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Renovanz, Mirjam; Eich, Marcus; Braukmann, Alina; Sprang, Bettina; Spirin, Pavel; Pardo, Luis A; Giese, Alf; Kim, Ella L

    2015-01-01

    A transmembrane protein CD133 has been implicated as a marker of stem-like glioma cells and predictor for therapeutic response in malignant brain tumours. CD133 expression is commonly evaluated by using antibodies specific for the AC133 epitope located in one of the extracellular domains of membrane-bound CD133. There is conflicting evidence regarding the significance of the AC133 epitope as a marker for identifying stem-like glioma cells and predicting the degree of malignancy in glioma cells. The reasons for discrepant results between different studies addressing the role of CD133/AC133 in gliomas are unclear. A possible source for controversies about CD133/AC133 is the widespread assumption that expression patterns of the AC133 epitope reflect linearly those of the CD133 protein. Consequently, the readouts from AC133 assessments are often interpreted in terms of the CD133 protein. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and to what extent do the readouts obtained with anti-AC133 antibody correspond to the level of CD133 protein expressed in stem-like glioma cells. Our study reveals for the first time that CD133 expressed on the surface of glioma cells is poorly immunoreactive for AC133. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the level of CD133 occupancy on the surface of glioma cells fluctuates during the cell cycle. Our results offer a new explanation for numerous inconsistencies regarding the biological and clinical significance of CD133/AC133 in human gliomas and call for caution in interpreting the lack or presence of AC133 epitope in glioma cells.

  6. Clinicopathologic Significance of Survivin Expression in Relation to CD133 Expression in Surgically Resected Stage II or III Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanlu; Lee, Mi-Ra; Choi, EunHee; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer stem cells have been investigated as new targets for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. We recently reported that CD133+ colon cancer cells showed chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil through increased survivin expression and proposed the survivin inhibitor YM155 as an effective therapy for colon cancer in an in vitro study. Here, we investigate the relationship between survivin and CD133 expression in surgically resected CRC to identify whether the results obtained in our in vitro study are applicable to clinical samples. Methods We performed immunohistochemical staining for survivin and CD133 in surgically resected tissue from 187 stage II or III CRC patients. We also comparatively analyzed apoptosis according to survivin and CD133 expression using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling. Results The results of the Mantel-Haenszel test established a linear association between nuclear survivin and CD133 expression (p = .018), although neither had prognostic significance, according to immunohistochemical expression level. No correlation was found between survivin expression and the following pathological parameters: invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, or histologic differentiation (p > .05). The mean apoptotic index in survivin+ and CD133+ tumors was higher than that in negative tumors: 5.116 ± 4.894 in survivin+ versus 4.103 ± 3.691 in survivin– (p = .044); 5.165 ± 4.961 in CD133+ versus 4.231 ± 3.812 in CD133– (p = .034). Conclusions As observed in our in vitro study, survivin expression is significantly related to CD133 expression. Survivin may be considered as a new therapeutic target for chemoresistant CRC. PMID:27989099

  7. Biology and clinical implications of CD133{sup +} liver cancer stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Stephanie

    2013-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, accounting for 80%–90% of all liver cancers. The disease ranks as the fifth most common cancer worldwide and is the third leading cause of all cancer-associated deaths. Although advances in HCC detection and treatment have increased the likelihood of a cure at early stages of the disease, HCC remains largely incurable because of late presentation and tumor recurrence. Only 25% of HCC patients are deemed suitable for curative treatment, with the overall survival at just a few months for inoperable patients. Apart from surgical resection, loco-regional ablation and liver transplantation, current treatment protocols include conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. But due to the highly resistant nature of the disease, the efficacy of the latter regimen is limited. The recent emergence of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept lends insight into the explanation of why treatment with chemotherapy often may seem to be initially successful but results in not only a failure to eradicate the tumor but also possibly tumor relapse. Commonly used anti-cancer drugs in HCC work by targeting the rapidly proliferating and differentiated liver cancer cells that constitute the bulk of the tumor. However, a subset of CSCs exists within the tumor, which are more resistant and are able to survive and maintain residence after treatment, thus, growing and self-renewing to generate the development and spread of recurrent tumors in HCC. In the past few years, compelling evidence has emerged in support of the hierarchic CSC model for solid tumors, including HCC. And in particular, CD133 has drawn significant attention as a critical liver CSC marker. Understanding the characteristics and function of CD133{sup +} liver CSCs has also shed light on HCC management and treatment, including the implications for prognosis, prediction and treatment resistance. In this review, a detailed summary of the recent progress

  8. Investigating the Link between Molecular Subtypes of Glioblastoma, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and CD133 Cell Surface Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zarkoob, Hadi; Taube, Joseph H.; Singh, Sheila K.; Mani, Sendurai A.; Kohandel, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, we use genetic data to provide a three-faceted analysis on the links between molecular subclasses of glioblastoma, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CD133 cell surface protein. The contribution of this paper is three-fold: First, we use a newly identified signature for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human mammary epithelial cells, and demonstrate that genes in this signature have significant overlap with genes differentially expressed in all known GBM subtypes. However, the overlap between genes up regulated in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and in the EMT signature was more significant than other GBM subtypes. Second, we provide evidence that there is a negative correlation between the genetic signature of EMT and that of CD133 cell surface protein, a putative marker for neural stem cells. Third, we study the correlation between GBM molecular subtypes and the genetic signature of CD133 cell surface protein. We demonstrate that the mesenchymal and neural subtypes of GBM have the strongest correlations with the CD133 genetic signature. While the mesenchymal subtype of GBM displays similarity with the signatures of both EMT and CD133, it also exhibits some differences with each of these signatures that are partly due to the fact that the signatures of EMT and CD133 are inversely related to each other. Taken together these data shed light on the role of the mesenchymal transition and neural stem cells, and their mutual interaction, in molecular subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:23734191

  9. In vivo myogenic potential of human CD133+ muscle-derived stem cells: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Elisa; Riederer, Ingo; Chaouch, Soraya; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Di Santo, James; Torrente, Yvan; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Mouly, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, numerous reports have identified in mouse different sources of myogenic cells distinct from satellite cells that exhibited a variable myogenic potential in vivo. Myogenic stem cells have also been described in humans, although their regenerative potential has rarely been quantified. In this study, we have investigated the myogenic potential of human muscle-derived cells based on the expression of the stem cell marker CD133 as compared to bona fide satellite cells already used in clinical trials. The efficiency of these cells to participate in muscle regeneration and contribute to the renewal of the satellite cell pool, when injected intramuscularly, has been evaluated in the Rag2(-/-) gammaC(-/-) C5(-/-) mouse in which muscle degeneration is induced by cryoinjury. We demonstrate that human muscle-derived CD133+ cells showed a much greater regenerative capacity when compared to human myoblasts. The number of fibers expressing human proteins and the number of human cells in a satellite cell position are all dramatically increased when compared to those observed after injection of human myoblasts. In addition, CD133+/CD34+ cells exhibited a better dispersion in the host muscle when compared to human myoblasts. We propose that muscle-derived CD133+ cells could be an attractive candidate for cellular therapy.

  10. In Vivo Myogenic Potential of Human CD133+ Muscle-derived Stem Cells: A Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Elisa; Riederer, Ingo; Chaouch, Soraya; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Di Santo, James; Torrente, Yvan; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Mouly, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, numerous reports have identified in mouse different sources of myogenic cells distinct from satellite cells that exhibited a variable myogenic potential in vivo. Myogenic stem cells have also been described in humans, although their regenerative potential has rarely been quantified. In this study, we have investigated the myogenic potential of human muscle–derived cells based on the expression of the stem cell marker CD133 as compared to bona fide satellite cells already used in clinical trials. The efficiency of these cells to participate in muscle regeneration and contribute to the renewal of the satellite cell pool, when injected intramuscularly, has been evaluated in the Rag2−/− γC−/− C5−/− mouse in which muscle degeneration is induced by cryoinjury. We demonstrate that human muscle–derived CD133+ cells showed a much greater regenerative capacity when compared to human myoblasts. The number of fibers expressing human proteins and the number of human cells in a satellite cell position are all dramatically increased when compared to those observed after injection of human myoblasts. In addition, CD133+/CD34+ cells exhibited a better dispersion in the host muscle when compared to human myoblasts. We propose that muscle-derived CD133+ cells could be an attractive candidate for cellular therapy. PMID:19623164

  11. CD133(+) human umbilical cord blood stem cells enhance angiogenesis in experimental chronic hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Elkhafif, Nagwa; El Baz, Hanan; Hammam, Olfat; Hassan, Salwa; Salah, Faten; Mansour, Wafaa; Mansy, Soheir; Yehia, Hoda; Zaki, Ahmed; Magdy, Ranya

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo angiogenic potential of transplanted human umbilical cord blood (UCB) CD133(+) stem cells in experimental chronic hepatic fibrosis induced by murine schistosomiasis was studied. Enriched cord blood-derived CD133(+) cells were cultured in primary medium for 3 weeks. Twenty-two weeks post-Schistosomiasis infection in mice, after reaching the chronic hepatic fibrotic stage, transplantation of stem cells was performed and mice were sacrificed 3 weeks later. Histopathology and electron microscopy showed an increase in newly formed blood vessels and a decrease in the fibrosis known for this stage of the disease. By immunohistochemical analysis the newly formed blood vessels showed positive expression of the human-specific angiogenic markers CD31, CD34 and von Willebrand factor. Few hepatocyte-like polygonal cells showed positive expression of human vascular endothelial growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The transplanted CD133(+) human stem cells primarily enhanced hepatic angiogenesis and neovascularization and contributed to repair in a paracrine manner by creating a permissive environment that enabled proliferation and survival of damaged cells rather than by direct differentiation to hepatocytes. A dual advantage of CD133(+) cell therapy in hepatic disease is suggested based on its capability of hematopoietic and endothelial differentiation.

  12. Enhanced radiosensitivity and radiation-induced apoptosis in glioma CD133-positive cells by knockdown of SirT1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.-J.; Hsu, C.-C.; Yung, M.-C.; Chen, K.-Y.; Tzao Ching; Wu, W.-F.; Chou, H.-Y.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Lu, K.-H.; Chiou, S.-H.; Ma, H.-I

    2009-03-06

    CD133-expressing glioma cells play a critical role in tumor recovery after treatment and are resistant to radiotherapy. Herein, we demonstrated that glioblastoma-derived CD133-positive cells (GBM-CD133{sup +}) are capable of self-renewal and express high levels of embryonic stem cell genes and SirT1 compared to GBM-CD133{sup -} cells. To evaluate the role of SirT1 in GBM-CD133{sup +}, we used a lentiviral vector expressing shRNA to knock-down SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1) in GBM-CD133{sup +}. Silencing of SirT1 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of GBM-CD133{sup +} to radiation and increased the level of radiation-mediated apoptosis. Importantly, knock-down of SirT1 increased the effectiveness of radiotherapy in the inhibition of tumor growth in nude mice transplanted with GBM-CD133{sup +}. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of GBM-CD133{sup +} mice treated with radiotherapy was significantly improved by Sh-SirT1 as well. In sum, these results suggest that SirT1 is a potential target for increasing the sensitivity of GBM and glioblastoma-associated cancer stem cells to radiotherapy.

  13. CD133+CD54+CD44+ circulating tumor cells as a biomarker of treatment selection and liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cun; Huang, Qiaorong; Meng, Wentong; Yu, Yongyang; Yang, Lie; Peng, Zhihai; Hu, Jiankun; Li, Yuan; Mo, Xianming; Zhou, Zongguang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Liver is the most common site of distant metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment selection decides overall prognosis of patients. However, current diagnostic measures were basically imaging but not functional. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) known as hold the key to understand the biology of metastatic mechanism provide a novel and auxiliary diagnostic strategy for CRC with liver metastasis (CRC-LM). Results The expression of CD133+ and CD133+CD54+CD44+ cellular subpopulations were higher in the peripheral blood of CRC-LM patients when compared with those without metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis proved the association between the expression of CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation and the existence of CRC-LM (P<0.001). The combination of abdominal CT/MRI, CEA and the CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation showed increased detection and discrimination rate for liver metastasis, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 92.4%. Meanwhile, it also show accurate predictive value for liver metastasis (OR=2.898, 95% C.I.1.374–6.110). Materials and Method Flow cytometry and multivariate analysis was performed to detect the expression of cancer initiating cells the correlation between cellular subpopulations and liver metastasis in patients with CRC. The receiver operating characteristic curves combined with the area under the curve were generated to compare the predictive ability of the cellular subpopulation for liver metastasis with current CT and MRI images. Conclusions The identification, expression and application of CTC subpopulations will provide an ideal cellular predictive marker for CRC liver metastasis and a potential marker for further investigation. PMID:27764803

  14. Detection and Characterization of CD133+ Cancer Stem Cells in Human Solid Tumours

    PubMed Central

    d'Aquino, Riccardo; De Francesco, Francesco; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Galderisi, Umberto; Cavaliere, Carlo; De Rosa, Alfredo; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumour of bone. Solid tumours are made of heterogeneous cell populations, which display different goals and roles in tumour economy. A rather small cell subset can hold or acquire stem potentials, gaining aggressiveness and increasing expectancy of recurrence. The CD133 antigen is a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein, which has been proposed as a cancer stem cell marker, since it has been previously demonstrated to be capable of identifying a cancer initiating subpopulation in brain, colon, melanoma and other solid tumours. Therefore, our aim was to observe the possible presence of cells expressing the CD133 antigen within solid tumour cell lines of osteosarcoma and, then, understand their biological characteristics and performances. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, using SAOS2, MG63 and U2OS, three human sarcoma cell lines isolated from young Caucasian subjects, we were able to identify and characterize, among them, CD133+ cells showing the following features: high proliferation rate, cell cycle detection in a G2\\M phase, positivity for Ki-67, and expression of ABCG2 transporters. In addition, at the FACS, we were able to observe the CD133+ cell fraction showing side population profile and forming sphere-clusters in serum-free medium with a high clonogenic efficiency. Conclusions Taken together, our findings lead to the thought that we can assume that we have identified, for the first time, CD133+ cells within osteosarcoma cell lines, showing many features of cancer stem cells. This can be of rather interest in order to design new therapies against the bone cancer. PMID:18941626

  15. CD133+ cancer stem cells promoted by VEGF accelerate the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Hao, Meijun; Ouyang, Yabo; Zheng, Jiasheng; Chen, Dexi

    2017-01-01

    The role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in inducing the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains unclear. Here, we found that a dramatic increase in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and an induction of local CD133+ CSCs are associated with early HCC recurrence, suggesting that VEGF expression and tumour stemness contribute to the relapse. In vitro studies demonstrated that VEGF, via activation of VEGFR2, increased the number of CD133+ CSCs and enhanced their capacity for self-renewal by inducing the expression of Nanog. In vivo studies further demonstrated that VEGF-treated CD133+ CSCs formed tumours larger than those developing from unstimulated cells and VEGF pre-treatment increased the tumorigenic cell frequency of primary HCC cells dependently on the presence of Nanog and VEGFR2. In HCC tissue derived from patients with early recurrence, almost all CD133+ cells were Nanog and p-VEGFR2 positive, suggesting that activation of VEGFR2 is critical for RFA-induced tumour stemness in HCC. In summary, RFA-induced VEGF promotes tumour stemness and accelerates tumourigenesis in HCC in a manner dependent on Nanog and VEGFR2, which is valuable for the prediction of HCC recurrence after RFA and the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:28134312

  16. Expression of CD133 and CD44 in glioblastoma stem cells correlates with cell proliferation, phenotype stability and intra-tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel V.; Filiz, Gulay; Daniel, Paul M.; Hollande, Frédéric; Dworkin, Sebastian; Amiridis, Stephanie; Kountouri, Nicole; Ng, Wayne; Morokoff, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a heterogeneous tumor of the brain with a poor prognosis due to recurrence and drug resistance following therapy. Genome-wide profiling has revealed the existence of distinct GBM molecular subtypes that respond differently to aggressive therapies. Despite this, molecular subtype does not predict recurrence or drug resistance and overall survival is similar across subtypes. One of the key features contributing to tumor recurrence and resistance to therapy is proposed to be an underlying subpopulation of resistant glioma stem cells (GSC). CD133 expression has been used as a marker of GSCs, however recent evidence suggests the relationship between CD133 expression, GSCs and molecular subtype is more complex than initially proposed. The expression of CD133, Olig2 and CD44 was investigated using patient derived glioma stem-like cells (PDGCs) in vitro and in vivo. Different PDGCs exhibited a characteristic equilibrium of distinct CD133+ and CD44+ subpopulations and the influence of environmental factors on the intra-tumor equilibrium of CD133+ and CD44+ cells in PDGCs was also investigated, with hypoxia inducing a CD44+ to CD133+ shift and chemo-radiotherapy inducing a CD133+ to CD44+ shift. These data suggest that surveillance and modulation of intra-tumor heterogeneity using molecular markers at initial surgery and surgery for recurrent GBM may be important for more effective management of GBM. PMID:28241049

  17. [Application of genome-wide genechip for screening and identifying genes related to CD133(+)CD200(+) colorectal cancer stem cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Li, Lixuan; Huang, Zaiwei; Xin, Xiaomin; Xiao, Bing

    2013-12-01

    To screen and identity genes related to CD133(+)CD200(+) colorectal cancer stem cells. The two subpopulations of colorectal cancer cells, namely CD133(+)CD200(+) and CD133(-)CD200(-) cells, were sorted and verified by flow cytometry. The gene expression profiles of CD133(+)CD200(+)and CD133(-)CD200(-) colorectal cancer cells were examined using Affymetrix Human U133 Plus2.0 genome-wide genechip. The differentially expressed genes between the two cell subpopulations were analyzed to identify the genes responsible for the main effect in association with colorectal cancer stem cells. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to confirm some of the differentially expressed genes identified by genechip. The genechip result showed that 655 genes were differentially expressed in CD133(+)CD200(+) colorectal cancer stem cells by at least 3 folds, including 290 up-regulated and 365 down-regulated ones. Bioinformatics analysis and gene co-expression network building identified 3 genes (MDM2, PRKACG, and CACNA1G) with specific expression in CD133(+)CD200(+) colorectal cancer stem cells, and this result was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. A specific gene expression profile of colorectal cancer stem cells has been established through screening and identifying genes related to CD133(+)CD200(+)colorectal cancer stem cells by gene genechip technique, which provides a basis for further study of gene targeting therapy of colorectal cancer.

  18. Cobalt chloride improves angiogenic potential of CD133+ cells.

    PubMed

    Zan, Tao; Du, Zijing; Li, Hua; Li, QingFeng; Gu, Bin

    2012-06-01

    Umbilical cord blood-derived CD133+ cells exhibit the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and induce new blood vessel growth. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a regulator of hypoxia or the hypoxia-mimetic agent response, actives the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway and thus plays an important role in angiogenesis in-vivo. In this study we aim to investigate whether CD133+ cells enhance angiogenic ability through hypoxia or CoCl2 in vitro. The CD133+ cells were cultured in normoxia (20 Percent O2), hypoxia (10 Percent O2, 3 Percent O2), or in various concentrations of CoCl2 (50 microM/L, 100 microM/L, 200 microM/L) and subjected to in vitro flow cytometric analysis, tubule formation, as well as migration and proliferation assays. The results demonstrate that both environmental hypoxia and CoCl2 induced hypoxia result in significantly increased CD133+ cell migration, proliferation, and tubule-like structure formation compared with normoxia culture conditions. The HIF-1a, SDF-1, and VEGF protein and gene expression level in conditions of hypoxia is higher than that found in normaxia conditions. Collectively, these data suggest that angiogenic potential of CD133+ cells is influenced by hypoxia or a hypoxia mimetic agent in vitro.

  19. Tumour-initiating cells vs. cancer 'stem' cells and CD133: What's in the name?

    SciTech Connect

    Neuzil, Jiri; E-mail: j.neuzil@griffith.edu.au; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Chladova, Jaromira; Wang, Xiufang; Prochazka, Lubomir; Dong, Lanfeng; Andera, Ladislav; Ralph, Stephen J.

    2007-04-20

    Recent evidence suggests that a subset of cells within a tumour have 'stem-like' characteristics. These tumour-initiating cells, distinct from non-malignant stem cells, show low proliferative rates, high self-renewing capacity, propensity to differentiate into actively proliferating tumour cells, resistance to chemotherapy or radiation, and they are often characterised by elevated expression of the stem cell surface marker CD133. Understanding the molecular biology of the CD133{sup +} cancer cells is now essential for developing more effective cancer treatments. These may include drugs targeting organelles, such as mitochondria or lysosomes, using highly efficient and selective inducers of apoptosis. Alternatively, agents or treatment regimens that enhance sensitivity of these therapy-resistant 'tumour stem cells' to the current or emerging anti-tumour drugs would be of interest as well.

  20. Expression of CXCR4 in cord blood-derived CD133+ cells treated with platelet micro-particles.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Farzaneh; Oodi, Arezoo; Nikougoftar Zarif, Mahin; Amani, Maryam; Amirizadeh, Naser

    2016-11-01

    Platelet micro-particles (MPs) contain CXCR4 markers and are able to transfer them into hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, effect of platelet MPs (PMPs) on the expression levels of CXCR4 and CD34 markers in these cells was examined. Isolated CD 133+ cells cultivated for 5 d in the stem span medium and PMPs. Fold increase of CD34+ cells in the presence of 5 and 10 g/ml of PMPs was increased significantly. CXCR4+ cell percent in the presence of 10 g/ml PMPs compared with control cells (63.8 ± 6.4) was increased (P < 0.05). PMPs were no affect on clonogenicity of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Cord blood CD133+ cells are able to maintain long-term hematopoiesis and to differentiate to hematopoietic lineages. CXCR4 over expression is involved in homing and successful transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow. PMPs contain CXCR4 markers and are able to transfer them into hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, considering the importance of CD133+ cells as primitive HSCs, the effect of PMPs on the expression levels of CXCR4 and CD34 markers in these cells was examined. Cord blood CD133+ cells were isolated by MACS. Isolated cells were divided into three groups: (i) control cells, (ii) cells treated with 5 μg/ml PMPs, (iii) cells treated with 10 μg/ml PMPs. Cells were cultivated for 5 d in the stem span medium. Expression of CD 133, CD34, and CXCR4 surface marker was analyzed by flow cytometry. Total cell numbers were counted by hemocytometer and clonogenicity were measured by colony assay. PMPs were no effect on CD133+ cells proliferation, but fold increase of CD34+ cells in the presence of 5 and 10 g/ml of PMPs was increased significantly. CXCR4+ cell percent in the presence of 10 g/ml PMPs compared with control cells (63.8 ± 6.4) was increased (P < 0.05). PMPs were no affect on clonogenicity of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Exposure of CD133+ cells isolated from cord blood to PMPs with 10

  1. Embryonic retinal tumors in SV40 T-Ag transgenic mice contain CD133+ tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Lalita; Bond, Wesley S; Perlaky, Laszlo; Overbeek, Paul A; Hurwitz, Mary Y; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Hurwitz, Richard L

    2012-06-08

    Human retinoblastomas form during the proliferative phase of retina development and are caused by mutations that result in absent or functionally defective Rb protein. Similar tumors occur in mice only when multiple Rb gene family members are absent. We asked if retinal tumors can arise from an undifferentiated retinal cell. The tumor-initiating cells isolated from these tumors that formed in early embryonic murine retinas were characterized. Transgenic mice were created using a Pax6 promoter to target expression of SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag) in the undifferentiated murine embryonic retina. T-Ag, which sequesters all Rb family proteins and p53, is expressed in the retina and lens by murine embryonic day 10 (E10) and tumors are observed by E12.5. A cell line that is adherent in serum-containing media and forms neurospheres in supplemented serum-free media was developed from retinal tumors isolated on postnatal day 7. In all, 1.5% of attached cells form neurospheres when transferred to serum-free medium. All cultured cells express T-Ag, confirming that they derive from the original tumors; 0.5% of adherent cells express detectable levels of CD133. CD133+ FACS-sorted cells cultured in serum-free medium form 3-fold more neurospheres than do CD133- cells. Six of seven mice injected with CD133+ cells and one of seven mice injected with CD133- cells formed tumors during a 6-month period. Unlike primary adherent cells, primary and secondary tumors heterogeneously express markers of stem cells and differentiation similar to human retinoblastoma. CD133+ tumor-initiating cells can originate from proliferating undifferentiated precursor cells.

  2. Prominin-1 (CD133) Reveals New Faces of Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Cancer Stem Cells: Current Knowledge and Therapeutic Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation-based therapies were proven successful for type 1 diabetes mellitus, but an extreme shortage of pancreatic islets has motivated recent efforts to develop renewable sources of islet-replacement tissue. Pancreatic progenitor cells hold a promising potential, yet attempts at their prospective isolation are scarce due to the lack of specific marker. We found that prominin-1 (often referred to as CD133 in humans) is expressed by the undifferentiated epithelial cells in the mouse embryonic pancreas. Putative pancreatic epithelial stem and progenitor cells were prospectively enriched in prominin-1(+) cell population by cell sorting and characterized. CD133 is also a cell surface marker of human pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSC), which are resistant to conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, a considerable interest in the specific targeting and eradication of CSC is emerging for the cancer therapy, and CD133 may represent a good molecular target. In this chapter, I will summarize our current knowledge about prominin-1/CD133 in mouse and human pancreas.

  3. CD133+ brain tumor-initiating cells are dependent on STAT3 signaling to drive medulloblastoma recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Garg, N; Bakhshinyan, D; Venugopal, C; Mahendram, S; Rosa, D A; Vijayakumar, T; Manoranjan, B; Hallett, R; McFarlane, N; Delaney, K H; Kwiecien, J M; Arpin, C C; Lai, P-S; Gómez-Biagi, R F; Ali, A M; de Araujo, E D; Ajani, O A; Hassell, J A; Gunning, P T; Singh, S K

    2017-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant paediatric brain tumor, is currently treated using a combination of surgery, craniospinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Owing to MB stem cells (MBSCs), a subset of MB patients remains untreatable despite standard therapy. CD133 is used to identify MBSCs although its functional role in tumorigenesis has yet to be determined. In this work, we showed enrichment of CD133 in Group 3 MB is associated with increased rate of metastasis and poor clinical outcome. The signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway are selectively activated in CD133+ MBSCs and promote tumorigenesis through regulation of c-MYC, a key genetic driver of Group 3 MB. We screened compound libraries for STAT3 inhibitors and treatment with the selected STAT3 inhibitors resulted in tumor size reduction in vivo. We propose that inhibition of STAT3 signaling in MBSCs may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to treat patients with recurrent MB. PMID:27775079

  4. CD133(+) brain tumor-initiating cells are dependent on STAT3 signaling to drive medulloblastoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Garg, N; Bakhshinyan, D; Venugopal, C; Mahendram, S; Rosa, D A; Vijayakumar, T; Manoranjan, B; Hallett, R; McFarlane, N; Delaney, K H; Kwiecien, J M; Arpin, C C; Lai, P-S; Gómez-Biagi, R F; Ali, A M; de Araujo, E D; Ajani, O A; Hassell, J A; Gunning, P T; Singh, S K

    2017-02-02

    Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant paediatric brain tumor, is currently treated using a combination of surgery, craniospinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Owing to MB stem cells (MBSCs), a subset of MB patients remains untreatable despite standard therapy. CD133 is used to identify MBSCs although its functional role in tumorigenesis has yet to be determined. In this work, we showed enrichment of CD133 in Group 3 MB is associated with increased rate of metastasis and poor clinical outcome. The signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway are selectively activated in CD133(+) MBSCs and promote tumorigenesis through regulation of c-MYC, a key genetic driver of Group 3 MB. We screened compound libraries for STAT3 inhibitors and treatment with the selected STAT3 inhibitors resulted in tumor size reduction in vivo. We propose that inhibition of STAT3 signaling in MBSCs may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to treat patients with recurrent MB.

  5. CD133 induces tumour-initiating properties in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Canis, Martin; Lechner, Axel; Mack, Brigitte; Zengel, Pamela; Laubender, Rüdiger Paul; Koehler, Udo; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Gires, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    The pentaspan protein CD133 (Prominin-1) is part of the signature of tumour-initiating cells for various cancer entities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of ectopic CD133 expression on tumourigenic properties of otherwise CD133-negative, non-tumourigenic cells in vitro and in vivo. CD133 was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) which was then sorted for the expression of CD133. The effects of CD133 on cell proliferation were assessed upon standard cell counting of sorted cells at various time points. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice (n = 30) were injected with HEK293 CD133(high) and CD133(low) transfectants (5 × 10(3), 1 × 10(5), or 5 × 10(6) cells per injection). The expression of CD133, Ki67, CD44s, CD44v6, and EpCAM was analysed upon immunohistochemical staining of cryosections with specific antibodies. In vitro, ectopic expression of CD133 did influence neither cell proliferation nor cell cycle distribution of otherwise CD133-negative HEK293 cells. However, CD133(high) cells generated tumours in vivo in SCID mice with at least 1,000-fold increased frequency compared to CD133(low) cells. Tumour load was also significantly increased in CD133(high) cells as compared to those tumours formed by high numbers of CD133(low) cells. Immunohistochemistry stainings disclosed no changes in Ki67, CD44s, CD44v6, or EpCAM once tumours were formed by either cell type. CD133 induces tumour-initiating properties in HEK293 cells in vivo and is potentially involved in the regulation of tumourigenicity. Future research will aim at the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of CD133-induced tumourigenicity.

  6. Malignant behaviorial characteristics of CD133(+/-) glioblastoma cells from a Northern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhi; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhongmin; Wang, Junfei; Su, Zhiguo; Li, Gang; Yu, Shizhu; Liu, Zhenlin

    2013-01-01

    Following emergence of the tumor stem cell theory, the increasing number of related studies demonstrates the theory's growing importance in cancer research and its potential for clinical applications. Few studies have addressed the in vitro or in vivo properties of glioma stem cells from a Han Chinese population. In the present study, surgically obtained glioblastoma tissue was classified into two subtypes, CD133(+) and CD133(-). The hierarchy, invasiveness, growth tolerance under low nutrient conditions and colony forming abilities of the tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, the characteristics of tumor cells transplanted subcutaneously or re-transplanted into nude mice were observed. The results demonstrated that CD133(+) glioblastoma cells derived from Han Chinese glioma specimens were more prone to primitive cell differentiation and more invasive than CD133(-) glioblastoma cells, leading to increased tumor malignancy compared with CD133(-) cells. The tumor formation rates of CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells in mice were 26/30 and 2/30, respectively. A comparison of tumor subtypes demonstrated that CD133(+) glioblastoma cells had a lower incidence of cell apoptosis in the tumor tissue and higher protein expression levels of Oct4, Sox2, PCNA, EGFR, Ang2, MMP2 and MMP9 compared with CD133(-) cells. Flow cytometry revealed that in the CD133(+) and CD133(-) glioblastoma cell-induced tumors, the percentage of CD133(+) cells was 2.47±0.67 and 0.44±0.14%, respectively. The tumor formation rates following the re-transplantation of CD133(+) or CD133(-) tumors into nude mice were 10/10 and 4/10, respectively. These findings suggest that the CD133(+) glioblastoma cell subpopulation has a stronger malignant cell phenotype than the CD133(-) subpopulation and that its recurrence rate is increased compared with the primitive tumorigenic rate following in vivo transplantation.

  7. Gefitinib resistance in HCC mahlavu cells: upregulation of CD133 expression, activation of IGF-1R signaling pathway, and enhancement of IGF-1R nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, Adam S; Wei, Zhengyu; Hurtt, Reginald; Gu, Tina; Doria, Cataldo

    2012-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major form of primary liver cancer which accounts for more than half million deaths annually worldwide. While the incidence of HCC is still on the rise, options of treatment are limited and the overall survival rate is poor. The acquisition of cancer drug resistance remains one of the key hurdles to successful treatment. Clearly, a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms is needed for new strategies to design novel treatments and/or to improve the current therapies. In the present study, we examined the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133, the activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling, and the nuclear translocation of IGF-1R in HCC Mahlavu cells under the treatment of gefitinib, a cancer drug that inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Our results demonstrated that Mahlavu cells exhibited strong gefitinib resistance and the CD133 expression level was dramatically increased (from 3.88% to 32%) after drug treatment. In addition, the gefitinib treated cells displayed increased levels of phosphorylation in IGF-1R and Akt, indicating the intensified activation of this cancer-associated signaling pathway. Moreover, we revealed that IGF-1R underwent nuclear translocation in gefitinib treated cells using confocal microscopy. The IGF-1R nuclear translocation was enhanced under gefitinib treatment and appeared in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that increased IGF-1R nuclear translocation after gefitinib treatment may contribute to the drug resistance and IGF1-R activation, which might also associate with the upregulation of CD133 expression.

  8. Role of ursolic acid chalcone, a synthetic analogue of ursolic acid, in inhibiting the properties of CD133+ sphere-forming cells in liver stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rui-Xin; Gong, Lu-Lu; Fan, Li-Mei; Zhao, Zhong-Kai; Yang, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    The expression of CD133 decreases with differentiation of tumor cell, indicating that CD133 is a specific marker for isolation and identification of CSCs. In the present study the effect of Ursolic acid chalcone (UAC) on CD133+ hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC CSCs) differentiation, their self-renewal, tumorigenic capacity and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs was studied. The results demonstrated that UAC inhibits the expression of CD133+ in a dose and time-dependent manner in PLC/PRF/5 and Huh7 HCC cells. The inhibition was significant at 50 μM and on day 8. The percentage of CD133+ cells decreased from an initial 59.3% in PLC/PRF/5 to 37.1% and 78.2% in Huh7 to 59.2% on treatment with UAC. There was inhibition of Oct4, Tert, Bmi1, β-catenin, ABCG2, and tumor sphere-related gene Ep300. In addition it also decreased number of CK19-positive cells and increased number of CK8/18-positive cells. UAC treatment caused a decrease in self-renewal capability and increase in sensitivity to doxorubicin and vincristine drugs in CD133+ HCC CSCs. Therefore, UAC can be a potent therapeutic agent to target differentiation of CSC in HCC. PMID:25973027

  9. CD20-related signaling pathway is differently activated in normal and dystrophic circulating CD133(+) stem cells.

    PubMed

    Parolini, D; Meregalli, M; Belicchi, M; Razini, P; Lopa, R; Del Carlo, B; Farini, A; Maciotta, S; Bresolin, N; Porretti, L; Pellegrino, M; Torrente, Y

    2009-02-01

    Among the heterogeneous population of circulating hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors, we identified a subpopulation of CD133(+) cells displaying myogenic properties. Unexpectedly, we observed the expression of the B-cell marker CD20 in blood-derived CD133(+) stem cells. The CD20 antigen plays a role in the modulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis through signaling pathways activation. Several observations suggest that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) could be involved in the etiology of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we show that a CD20-related signaling pathway able to induce an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) is differently activated after brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulation of normal and dystrophic blood-derived CD133(+) stem cells, supporting the assumption of a "CD20-related calcium impairment" affecting dystrophic cells. Presented findings represent the starting point toward the expansion of knowledge on pathways involved in the pathology of DMD and in the behavior of dystrophic blood-derived CD133(+) stem cells.

  10. Differentiation potential of human CD133 positive hematopoietic stem cells into motor neuron- like cells, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Sepideh Alavi; Yousefi, Behnam; Sanooghi, Davood; Faghihi, Faezeh; Hayati Roodbari, Nasim; Bana, Nikoo; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Pooyan, Paria; Arjmand, Babak

    2017-07-25

    Spinal cord injuries and motor neuron-related disorders impact on life of many patients around the world. Since pharmacotherapy and surgical approaches were not efficient to regenerate these types of defects; stem cell therapy as a good strategy to restore the lost cells has become the focus of interest among the scientists. Umbilical cord blood CD133(+) hematopoietic stem cells (UCB- CD133(+) HSCs) with self- renewal property and neural lineage differentiation capacity are ethically approved cell candidate for use in regenerative medicine. In this regard the aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the capability of these cells to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells (MNL), in vitro. CD133(+) HSCs were isolated from human UCB using MACS system. After cell characterization using flow cytometry, the cells were treated with a combination of Retinoic acid, Sonic hedgehog, Brain derived neurotrophic factor, and B27 through a 2- step procedure for two weeks. The expression of MN-specific markers was examined using qRT- PCR, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. By the end of the two-week differentiation protocol, CD133(+) cells acquired unipolar MNL morphology with thin and long neurites. The expression of Isl-1(62.15%), AChE (41.83%), SMI-32 (21.55%) and Nestin (17.46%) was detected using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The analysis of the expression of PAX6, ISL-1, ACHE, CHAT and SMI-32 revealed that MNLs present these neural markers at levels comparable with undifferentiated cells. In Conclusion Human UCB- CD133(+) HSCs are remarkably potent cell candidates to transdifferentiate into motor neuron-like cells, in vitro. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Wnt Interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Le, Thuc T.; G, Mary; Johlfs, Ronald R. Fiscus; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤ 40 nm; intermediates ~40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. PMID:23318676

  12. Identification of a distinct population of CD133+CXCR4+ cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Michele; D’Alterio, Crescenzo; Camerlingo, Rosalba; Tirino, Virginia; Consales, Claudia; Riccio, Anna; Ieranò, Caterina; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Greggi, Stefano; Pignata, Sandro; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Scala, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    CD133 and CXCR4 were evaluated in the NCI-60 cell lines to identify cancer stem cell rich populations. Screening revealed that, ovarian OVCAR-3, -4 and -5 and colon cancer HT-29, HCT-116 and SW620 over expressed both proteins. We aimed to isolate cells with stem cell features sorting the cells expressing CXCR4+CD133+ within ovarian cancer cell lines. The sorted population CD133+CXCR4+ demonstrated the highest efficiency in sphere formation in OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4 and OVCAR-5 cells. Moreover OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and NANOG were highly expressed in CD133+CXCR4+ sorted OVCAR-5 cells. Most strikingly CXCR4+CD133+ sorted OVCAR-5 and -4 cells formed the highest number of tumors when inoculated in nude mice compared to CD133−CXCR4−, CD133+CXCR4−, CD133−CXCR4+ cells. CXCR4+CD133+ OVCAR-5 cells were resistant to cisplatin, overexpressed the ABCG2 surface drug transporter and migrated toward the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12. Moreover, when human ovarian cancer cells were isolated from 37 primary ovarian cancer, an extremely variable level of CXCR4 and CD133 expression was detected. Thus, in human ovarian cancer cells CXCR4 and CD133 expression identified a discrete population with stem cell properties that regulated tumor development and chemo resistance. This cell population represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26020117

  13. Identification of a distinct population of CD133(+)CXCR4(+) cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Michele; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Camerlingo, Rosalba; Tirino, Virginia; Consales, Claudia; Riccio, Anna; Ieranò, Caterina; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Greggi, Stefano; Pignata, Sandro; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Scala, Stefania

    2015-05-28

    CD133 and CXCR4 were evaluated in the NCI-60 cell lines to identify cancer stem cell rich populations. Screening revealed that, ovarian OVCAR-3, -4 and -5 and colon cancer HT-29, HCT-116 and SW620 over expressed both proteins. We aimed to isolate cells with stem cell features sorting the cells expressing CXCR4(+)CD133(+) within ovarian cancer cell lines. The sorted population CD133(+)CXCR4(+) demonstrated the highest efficiency in sphere formation in OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4 and OVCAR-5 cells. Moreover OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and NANOG were highly expressed in CD133(+)CXCR4(+) sorted OVCAR-5 cells. Most strikingly CXCR4(+)CD133(+) sorted OVCAR-5 and -4 cells formed the highest number of tumors when inoculated in nude mice compared to CD133(-)CXCR4(-), CD133(+)CXCR4(-), CD133(-)CXCR4(+) cells. CXCR4(+)CD133(+) OVCAR-5 cells were resistant to cisplatin, overexpressed the ABCG2 surface drug transporter and migrated toward the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12. Moreover, when human ovarian cancer cells were isolated from 37 primary ovarian cancer, an extremely variable level of CXCR4 and CD133 expression was detected. Thus, in human ovarian cancer cells CXCR4 and CD133 expression identified a discrete population with stem cell properties that regulated tumor development and chemo resistance. This cell population represents a potential therapeutic target.

  14. Autologous CD133+ bone marrow cells and bypass grafting for regeneration of ischaemic myocardium: the Cardio133 trial.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Boris A; Ebell, Wolfram; Dandel, Michael; Kukucka, Marian; Gebker, Rolf; Doltra, Adelina; Knosalla, Christoph; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Hetzer, Roland; Stamm, Christof

    2014-05-14

    Intra-myocardial transplantation of CD133(+) bone marrow stem cells (BMC) yielded promising results in clinical pilot trials. We now performed the double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled CARDIO133 trial to determine its impact on left ventricular (LV) function and clinical symptoms. Sixty patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease and impaired LV function (left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF <35%) were randomized to undergo either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and injection of CD133(+) BMC in the non-transmural, hypokinetic infarct border zone (CD133), or CABG and placebo injection (placebo). Pre-operative LVEF was 27 ± 6% in CD133 patients and 26 ± 6% in placebo patients. Outcome was assessed after 6 months, and the primary endpoint was LVEF measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at rest. The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups. There was no difference in 6-min walking distance, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure score, or Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class between groups at follow-up, and New York Heart Association class improved more in the placebo group (P = 0.004). By cardiac MRI, LVEF at 6 months was 33 ± 8% in the placebo group and 31 ± 7% in verum patients (P = 0.3), with an average inter-group difference of -2.1% (95% CI -6.3 to 2.1). Systolic or diastolic LV dimensions at 6 months were not different, either. In the CD133 group, myocardial perfusion at rest recovered in more LV segments than in the placebo group (9 vs. 2%, P < 0.001). Scar mass decreased by 2.2 ± 5 g in CD133(+) patients (P = 0.05), but was unchanged in the placebo group (0.3 ± 4 g, P = 0.7; inter-group difference in change = 2 g (95% CI -1.1 to 5)). By speckle-tracking echocardiography, cell-treated patients showed a better recovery of regional wall motion when the target area was posterior. Although there may be some improvements in scar size and regional perfusion, intra-myocardial injection of CD133(+) BMC has no

  15. Optimized flow cytometric analysis of central nervous system tissue reveals novel functional relationships among cells expressing CD133, CD15, and CD24.

    PubMed

    Panchision, David M; Chen, Hui-Ling; Pistollato, Francesca; Papini, Daniela; Ni, Hsiao-Tzu; Hawley, Teresa S

    2007-06-01

    Although flow cytometry is useful for studying neural lineage relationships, the method of dissociation can potentially bias cell analysis. We compared dissociation methods on viability and antigen recognition of mouse central nervous system (CNS) tissue and human CNS tumor tissue. Although nonenzymatic dissociation yielded poor viability, papain, purified trypsin replacement (TrypLE), and two purified collagenase/neutral protease cocktails (Liberase-1 or Accutase) each efficiently dissociated fetal tissue and postnatal tissue. Mouse cells dissociated with Liberase-1 were titrated with antibodies identifying distinct CNS precursor subtypes, including CD133, CD15, CD24, A2B5, and PSA-NCAM. Of the enzymes tested, papain most aggressively reduced antigenicity for mouse and human CD24. On human CNS tumor cells, CD133 expression remained highest after Liberase-1 and was lowest after papain or Accutase treatment; Liberase-1 digestion allowed magnetic sorting for CD133 without the need for an antigen re-expression recovery period. We conclude that Liberase-1 and TrypLE provide the best balance of dissociation efficiency, viability, and antigen retention. One implication of this comparison was confirmed by dissociating E13.5 mouse cortical cells and performing prospective isolation and clonal analysis on the basis of CD133/CD24 or CD15/CD24 expression. Highest fetal expression of CD133 or CD15 occurred in a CD24(hi) population that was enriched in neuronal progenitors. Multipotent cells expressed CD133 and CD15 at lower levels than did these neuronal progenitors. We conclude that CD133 and CD15 can be used similarly as selectable markers, but CD24 coexpression helps to distinguish fetal mouse multipotent stem cells from neuronal progenitors and postmitotic neurons. This particular discrimination is not possible after papain treatment. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  16. Chemoresistance to 5-FU inhibited by 635 nm LED irradiation in CD133+ KB cell line.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghwi; Park, Mineon; Jang, Hyunwoong; Hyun, Hoon; Lim, Wonbong

    2017-09-27

    Consistent with cancer stem cell theory, a small fraction of cancer cells, described as cancer stem cells (CSCs), may promote tumor recurrence and anti-cancer drug resistance. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to the development of CSC targeted therapy to vanquish drug resistance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of multiple light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation treatments with conventional anti-cancer drugs on CSC-like oral cancer cells that acquired stemness by ectopic over expression of CD133. To evaluate combined LED irradiation anti-cancer drug effects, we investigated the chemosensitizing effect of 635 nm irradiation on 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-treated KB(CD133+) and KB(Vec) cells, interrogating the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with stemness and apoptosis that are responsible for chemopreventive activity. In addition, combination therapy with LED irradiation and 5-FU treatment was carried out in KB(CD133+) and KB(Vec) cell-inoculated mouse models. LED irradiation of 635 nm inhibited CSC-like properties consistent with a decrease in OCT4 and NANOG protein expression, reducing colony-forming ability. In addition, LED irradiation enhanced 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and improved 5-FU chemosensitivity in KB(CD133+) via enhancement of apoptosis. These findings were validated in vivo, wherein LED irradiation combined with 5-FU treatment inhibited tumor growth in KB(CD133+)-inoculated mice. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence for 635 nm irradiation-induced 5-FU chemosensitization of CSC in oral cancer. In addition, this research highlights that 635 nm LED irradiation may serve as an adjunct treatment to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in patients with oral cancer.

  17. CD133 positive progenitor endothelial cell lines from human cord blood.

    PubMed

    Paprocka, Maria; Krawczenko, Agnieszka; Dus, Danuta; Kantor, Aneta; Carreau, Aude; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-08-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) modulate postnatal vascularization and contribute to vessel regeneration in adults. Stem cells and progenitor cells were found in umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and mobilized peripheral blood cells, from where they were isolated and cultured. However, the yield of progenitor cells is usually not sufficient for clinical application and the quality of progenitor cells varies. The aim of the study was the immortalization of early progenitor cells with high proliferative potential, capable to differentiate to EPCs and, further, toward endothelial cells. Two cell lines, namely HEPC-CB.1 and HEPC-CB.2 (human endothelial progenitor cells-cord blood) were isolated. As assessed by specific antibody labeling and flow cytometric analysis, they express a panel of stem cell markers: CD133, CD13, CD271, CD90 and also endothelial cell markers: CD202b, CD309 (VEGFR2), CD146, CD105, and CD143 but they do not present markers of finally differentiated endothelial cells: CD31, vWf, nor CD45 which is a specific hematopoietic cell marker. Using the multiplex Cytometric Bead Assay, the simultaneous production of proangiogenic cytokines IL8, angiogenin, and VEGF was demonstrated in normoxia and was shown to be increased by hypoxia. Both cell lines, similarly as mature endothelial cells, underwent in vitro pre-angiogenic process, formed pseudovessel structures and present an accelerated angiogenesis in hypoxic conditions. To date, these are the first CD133 positive established cell lines from human cord blood cells. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. Bilateral Administration of Autologous CD133+ Cells in Ambulatory Patients with Refractory Critical Limb Ischemia: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Randomized, Double blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amish N.; Schmuck, Eric; Tefera, Girma; Leitzke, Cathlyn; Ark, Cassondra Vander; Hei, Derek; Centanni, John M.; de Silva, Ranil; Koch, Jill; Chappell, Richard; Hematti, Peiman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction CD133+ cells confer angiogenic potential and may be beneficial for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, patient selection, blinding methods and endpoints for clinical trials is challenging. We hypothesized that bilateral intramuscular administration of cytokine mobilized CD133+ cells in ambulatory patients with refractory CLI would be feasible and safe. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial, subjects received subcutaneous injections of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (10 mcg/kg/d) for 5 days, followed by leukapheresis, and intramuscular administration of 50-400 million sorted CD133+ cells delivered into both legs. Control subjects received normal saline injections, sham leukapheresis and intramuscular injection of placebo buffered solution. Subjects were followed for 1 year. An aliquot of CD133+ cells was collected from each subject to test for genes associated with cell senescence. Results 70 subjects were screened, of whom 10 were eligible. Subject enrollment was suspended due to a high rate of mobilization failure in subjects randomized to treatment. Of 10 subjects enrolled (7 randomized to treatment, 3 randomized to control), there were no differences in serious adverse events at 12 months and blinding was preserved. There were non-significant trends toward improved amputation free survival, 6 minute walk distance, walking impairment questionnaire and quality of life in subjects randomized to treatment. Successful CD133+ mobilizers expressed fewer senescence associated genes compared to poor mobilizers. Conclusion Bilateral administration of autologous CD133+ cell in ambulatory CLI subjects was safe and blinding was preserved. However, poor mobilization efficiency combined with high CD133+ senescence suggests futility in this approach. PMID:25239491

  19. CCL21/CCR7 Axis Contributed to CD133+ Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cell Metastasis via EMT and Erk/NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lirong; Wang, Dongqing; Li, Yumei; Liu, Yanfang; Xie, Xiaodong; Wu, Yingying; Zhou, Yuepeng; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhu, Haitao; Su, Zhaoliang

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor metastasis is driven by malignant cells and stromal cell components of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for metastasis by altering the tumor microenvironment. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes contribute to specific stages of the metastatic cascade, promoted by cytokines and chemokines secreted by stromal cell components in the tumor microenvironment. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) interacts with its ligand, chemokine ligand 21(CCL21), to mediate metastasis in some cancer cells lines. This study investigated the role of CCL21/CCR7 in promoting EMT and metastasis of cluster of differentiation 133+ (CD133+) pancreatic cancer stem-like cells. Methods Panc-1, AsPC-1, and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells were selected because of their aggressive invasive potentials. CCR7 expression levels were examined in total, CD133+ and CD133− cell fractions by Immunofluorescence analysis and real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The role of CCL21/CCR7 in mediating metastasis and survival of CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells was detected by Transwell assays and flow cytometry, respectively. EMT and lymph node metastasis related markers (E-cadherin, N- cadherin, LYVE-1) were analyzed by western blot. CCR7 expression levels were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and RT-qPCR in resected tumor tissues, metastatic lymph nodes, normal lymph nodes and adjacent normal tissues from patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Results CCR7 expression was significantly increased in CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells, resected pancreatic cancer tissues, and metastatic lymph nodes, compared with CD133− cancer cells, adjacent normal tissues and normal lymph nodes, respectively. CCL21/CCR7 promoted metastasis and survival of CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and regulated CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells metastasis by modulating EMT and Erk/NF-κB pathway

  20. Effect of CXCR4 and CD133 co-expression on the prognosis of patients with stage II~III colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Yong-Yan; Liu, Ai-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between CXCR4, CD133 co-expression and clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of patients with phase II~III colon cancer. Forty-nine paraffin-embedded samples of tumor tissue and epithelial tissue adjacent to cancer were collected from patients with colon cancer undergoing radical surgery in Baotou Cancer Hospital from January, 2010 to June, 2011. CXCR4 and CD133 expression was detected using immunohistochemistry and its relationship with clinicopathological features and the 3-year survival rate was analyzed. In the tumor tissue and colonic epithelial tissue adjacent to cancer, the positive expression rates of CXCR4 were respectively 61.2% (30/49) and 8.16% (4/49), while those of CD133 being 36.7% (18/49) and 6.12% (3/49). CXCR4 and CD133 expression in tumor tissue was not related to patient age, gender, primary focal sites, tumor size, TNM staging, histological type, tumor infiltration depth and presence or absence of lymphatic metastasis, but CXCR4 and CD133 co-expression was associated with TNM staging and lymphatic metastasis. The 3-year survival rate of patients with CXCR4 and CD133 co-expression was 27.3% (3/11), and that of the remainderwas 76.3% (29/38), the difference being significant (χ2=7.0206, p=0.0081). CXCR4 and CD133 co-expression may be a risk factor for poor prognosis of patients with stage II~III colon cancer.

  1. CD133-targeted paclitaxel delivery inhibits local tumor recurrence in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Suresh Kumar; Roger, Emilie; Toti, Udaya; Niu, Lin; Ohlfest, John R; Panyam, Jayanth

    2013-11-10

    Expression of the membrane protein CD133 marks a subset of cancer cells with drug resistant phenotype and enhanced tumor initiating ability in xenotransplantation assays. Because drug resistance and tumor relapse are significant problems, approaches to eliminate these cells are urgently needed. As a step towards achieving this goal, we developed polymeric nanoparticles targeting CD133 by conjugating an anti-CD133 monoclonal antibody to nanoparticles formulated using poly(D,L lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Nanoparticles were loaded with paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing anticancer agent, as well as with 6-coumarin, a fluorescent probe. CD133-targeted nanoparticles (CD133NPs) were efficiently internalized by Caco-2 cells, which abundantly express CD133 (>9-fold higher uptake than non-targeted control nanoparticles). The effectiveness of CD133NPs in reducing tumor initiating cell (TIC) fraction was investigated using mammosphere formation and soft-agar colony formation assays. Free paclitaxel treatment was not effective in decreasing the TIC population relative to untreated control, whereas CD133NPs effectively decreased the number of mammospheres and colonies formed. In vivo studies in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model showed that free paclitaxel was initially effective in inhibiting tumor growth but the tumors rebounded rapidly once the treatment was stopped. Tumor regrowth was significantly lower when paclitaxel was delivered through CD133NPs (tumor volume was 518.6±228 vs. 1370.9±295mm(3) for free paclitaxel at 63days; P<0.05). Our studies thus show that encapsulation of paclitaxel in CD133NPs results in a significant decrease in the TIC population and improved therapeutic efficacy compared to that with free paclitaxel treatment. These results indicate the potential of targeting anticancer therapeutics to CD133+ cells for reducing tumor recurrence. © 2013.

  2. Magnetic targeting of human peripheral blood CD133+ cells for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Shingo; Kamei, Naosuke; Kamei, Goki; Shi, Ming; Adachi, Nobuo; Deie, Masataka; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2013-08-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries often leave lasting functional damage or pain. Muscle injuries are routinely treated conservatively, but the most effective treatment to promote the repair of injured muscles has not yet been established. Our previous report demonstrated that human peripheral blood-derived CD133(+) cell transplantation to rat skeletal muscle injury models inhibited fibrosis and enhanced myogenesis after injury. However, the acquisition of a sufficient number of cells remains the limitation for clinical application, as the CD133(+) population is rare in human blood. In this study, we applied a magnetic cell targeting system to accumulate transplanted cells in the muscle injury site and to enhance the regenerative effects of CD133(+) cell transplantation, focusing on the fact that CD133(+) cells are labeled with a magnetic bead for isolation. For the magnetic cell targeting, the magnet field generator was set up to adjust the peak of the magnetic gradient to the injury site of the tibialis anterior muscle, and 1×10(4) human peripheral blood CD133(+) cells were locally injected into the injury site. This cell number is 10% of that used in the previous study. In another group, the same number of CD133(+) cells was injected without magnetic force. The CD133(+) cells transplanted with the magnetic force were more accumulated in the muscle injury site compared with the CD133(+) cells transplanted without the magnetic force. In addition, the transplantation of CD133(+) cells under the magnetic control inhibited fibrous scar formation and promoted angiogenesis and myogenesis, and also upregulated the mRNA expression of myogenic transcription factors, including Pax7, MyoD1 and Myogenin. However, the transplantation of CD133(+) cells without the magnetic force failed to demonstrate these effects. Thus, our magnetic cell targeting system enables transplantation of a limited number of CD133(+) cells to promote the repair of skeletal muscle injury.

  3. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Le, Thuc T.; Johlfs, Mary G.; Fiscus, Ronald R.; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in

  4. Anti-CSC effects in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and Eca109/9706 cells induced by nanoliposomal quercetin alone or combined with CD 133 antiserum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nai-Gang; Mo, Sai-Jun; Li, Jin-Ping; Wu, Jing-Lan

    2014-01-01

    CD133 was recently reported to be a cancer stem cell and prognostic marker. Quercetin is considered as a potential chemopreventive agent due to its involvement in suppression of oxidative stress, proliferation and metastasis. In this study, the expression of CD133/CD44 in esophageal carcinomas and Eca109/9706 cells was explored. In immunoflurorescence the locations of CD133+ and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR 1)+ in the same E-cancer cells were coincident, mainly in cytomembranes. In esophageal squamous cell carcinomas detected by double/single immunocytochemistry, small CD133+ cells were located in the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelium, determined as CSLC (cancer stem like cells); CD44+ surrounding the cells appeared in diffuse pattern, and the larger CD44+ (hi) cells were mainly located in the prickle cell layer of the epithelium, as progenitor cells. In E-cancer cells exposed to nanoliposomal quercetin (nLQ with cytomembrane permeability), down-regulation of NF-κBp65, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and cyclin D1 and up-regulation of caspase-3 were shown by immunoblotting, and attenuated HDAC1 with nuclear translocation and promoted E-cadherin expression were demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. In particular, enhanced E-cadherin expression reflected the reversed epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) capacity of nLQ, acting as cancer attenuator/preventive agent. nLQ acting as an HDAC inhibitor induced apoptotic cells detected by TUNEL assay mediated via HDAC-NF-κB signaling. Apoptotic effects of liposomal quercetin (LQ, with cytomembrane-philia) combined with CD133 antiserum were also detected by CD133 immunocytochemistry combined with TUNEL assay. The combination could induce greater apoptotic effects than nLQ induced alone, suggesting a novel anti-CSC treatment strategy.

  5. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in CD133+ population in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Qiang; Tan, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bao-Wei; Wu, Tao; Liu, Ping; Sun, Shao-Jun; Cao, Yin-Guang

    2016-03-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the role of 3-bromopyruvate in inhibition of CD133+ U87 human glioma cell population growth. The results demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate inhibited the viability of both CD133+ and parental cells derived from U87 human glioma cell line. However, the 3-bromopyruvate-induced inhibition in viability was more prominent in CD133+ cells at 10 μM concentration after 48 h. Treatment of CD133+ cells with 3-bromopyruvate caused reduction in cell population and cell size, membrane bubbling, and degradation of cell membranes. Hoechst 33258 staining showed condensation of chromatin material and fragmentation of DNA in treated CD133+ cells after 48 h. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibited the migration rate of CD133+ cells significantly compared to the parental cells. Flow cytometry revealed that exposure of CD133+ cells to 3-bromopyruvate increased the cell population in S phase from 24.5 to 37.9 % with increase in time from 12 to 48 h. In addition, 3-bromopyruvate significantly enhanced the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase 3 in CD133+ cells compared to the parental cells. Therefore, 3-bromopyruvate is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of glioma by targeting stem cells selectively.

  6. Transcatheter Arterial Infusion of Autologous CD133+ Cells for Diabetic Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lian, Weishuai; Lou, Wensheng; Han, Shilong; Lu, Chenhui; Zuo, Keqiang; Su, Haobo; Xu, Jichong; Cao, Chuanwu; Tang, Tao; Jia, Zhongzhi; Jin, Tao; Uzan, Georges; Gu, Jianping; Li, Maoquan

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular lesion in diabetic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) still cannot be resolved by current surgical and interventional technique. Endothelial cells have the therapeutic potential to cure microvascular lesion. To evaluate the efficacy and immune-regulatory impact of intra-arterial infusion of autologous CD133+ cells, we recruited 53 patients with diabetic PAD (27 of CD133+ group and 26 of control group). CD133+ cells enriched from patients' PB-MNCs were reinfused intra-arterially. The ulcer healing followed up till 18 months was 100% (3/3) in CD133+ group and 60% (3/5) in control group. The amputation rate was 0 (0/27) in CD133+ group and 11.54% (3/26) in control group. Compared with the control group, TcPO2 and ABI showed obvious improvement at 18 months and significant increasing VEGF and decreasing IL-6 level in the CD133+ group within 4 weeks. A reducing trend of proangiogenesis and anti-inflammatory regulation function at 4 weeks after the cells infusion was also found. These results indicated that autologous CD133+ cell treatment can effectively improve the perfusion of morbid limb and exert proangiogenesis and anti-inflammatory immune-regulatory impacts by paracrine on tissue microenvironment. The CD133+ progenitor cell therapy may be repeated at a fixed interval according to cell life span and immune-regulatory function. PMID:26981134

  7. Autocrine interleukin-23 promotes self-renewal of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kailong; Yin, Pin; Jiang, Lupin; Liang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a group of cells which possess the ability of self-renewing and unlimited proliferation. And these CSCs are thought to be the cause of metastasis, recurrence and resistance. Recent study has found that pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemotactic factor mediate the self-renewing and differentiation of most of CSCs. Thus we speculate that ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) can also maintain the ability of self-renewing and differentiation by releasing inflammatory factor. This report we discuss the biological characteristics and the specific molecular mechanism mediated by interleukin-23 (IL-23) and its receptor on the self-renewing of OCSCs. We found that OCSCs had high expression of IL-23 and IL-23R. IL-23 could promote the self-renewal ability of OCSCs and played a very important role to maintain the stable expression of stem cell markers in vitro. Moreover, we verified that IL-23 could maintain the potential tumorigenic of OCSCs in vivo and mediate the self-renewal ability and the formation of tumor in OCSCs by activating the signal pathways of STAT3 and NF-κB. In addition, human low differentiation tissues showed overexpression of IL-23. And IL-23 positively correlated to the expression level of CD133, Nanog and Oct4. In conclusion, Our discoveries demonstrate that autocrine IL-23 contribute to ovarian cancer malignancy through promoting the self-renewal of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem-like cells, and this suggests that IL-23 and its signaling pathway might serve as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:27738346

  8. Convenient and efficient enrichment of the CD133+ liver cells from rat fetal liver cells as a source of liver stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-hui; Li, Ren; Dou, Ke-feng

    2011-03-01

    Although the stem cells are commonly isolated by FACS or MACS, they are very expensive and these is no specific marker for liver stem/progentior cells (LSPCs). This paper applied a convenient and efficient method to enrich LSPCs. The fetal liver cells (FLCs) were firstly enriched by Percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation (PDGC) from the rat fetal liver. Then the FLCs in culture were purified to be homogeneous in size by differential trypsinization and differential adherence (DTDA). Flow cytometric analysis revealed more than half of the purified FLCs expressed alternative markers of LSPCs (CD117, c-Met, Sca-1, CD90, CD49f and CD133). In other words, the purified FLCs were heterogeneous. Therefore, they were sequentially layered into six fractions by Percoll continuous gradient centrifugation (PCGC). Both CD133 and CD49f expressed decreasingly from fraction 1 to 6. In fraction 1 and 2, about 85% FLCs expressed CD133, which were revealed to be LSPCs by high expressions of AFP and CK-19, low expressions of G-6-P and ALB. To conclude, the purity of CD133(+) LSPCs enriched by combination of PDGC, DTDA and PCGC is close to that obtained by MACS. This study will greatly contribute to two important biological aspects: liver stem cells isolation and liver cell therapy.

  9. Prominin-1 (CD133) and the Cell Biology of Neural Progenitors and Their Progeny.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Alex M; Huttner, Wieland B

    2013-01-01

    Our group discovered prominin-1 in search for markers to study the cell polarity of neural stem and progenitor cells in the developing brain. Over the past 15 years, prominin-1, also called CD133, has not only become a frequently used marker of neural stem cells and neural cancer stem cells, as is in fact the case of somatic (cancer) stem cells in general, but has also been used to understand the symmetric versus asymmetric division of the neural stem cells in the context of their apical-basal polarity. Moreover, studying prominin-1 on neural stem cells has revealed a novel fate of the midbody, that is, midbody release, and key differences in this release between normal stem cells and cancer-derived cells. Other subcellular aspects of neural stem cells, the understanding of which has been promoted by studying prominin-1, pertain to the organization of plasma membrane protrusions and the membrane microdomains they contain. Of particular relevance in this context is the primary cilium of neuroepithelial cells and its transformation into the outer segment of retinal photoreceptor cells, a process in which prominin-1 exerts a vital role.

  10. Characterization of a new human melanoma cell line with CD133 expression.

    PubMed

    Gil-Benso, Rosario; Monteagudo, Carlos; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Callaghan, Robert C; Pinto, Sandra; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; San-Miguel, Teresa; Cigudosa, Juan C; López-Ginés, Concha

    2012-06-01

    A novel human malignant melanoma cell line, designated MEL-RC08, was established from a pericranial metastasis of a malignant melanoma of the skin. The cell line has been subcultured for more than 150 passages and is tumorigenic in nude mice. Growth kinetics, cytogenetics, flow cytometry, and molecular techniques for analysis of the genes implicated in cell cycle control; mutations in BRAF, NRAS, C-KiT, RB, and TP53 genes; and amplification of MDM2, CDK4, and cyclin D1 have been studied. Cytogenetically, the tumor and the cell line showed a hypertriploid karyotype with many clonal numeric and structural abnormalities. DNA flow cytometry showed an aneuploid peak with a DNA index value of 1.5. Mutations in TP53 and BRAF genes were demonstrated in both tumor and cell line. Furthermore, stem cell marker CD133 expression was detected in most cells, together with other stem cell markers, suggesting the presence of cells with tumor-initiating potential in this cell line.

  11. Magnet-Bead Based MicroRNA Delivery System to Modify CD133+ Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wiekhorst, Frank; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Aim. CD133+ stem cells bear huge potential for regenerative medicine. However, low retention in the injured tissue and massive cell death reduce beneficial effects. In order to address these issues, we intended to develop a nonviral system for appropriate cell engineering. Materials and Methods. Modification of human CD133+ stem cells with magnetic polyplexes carrying microRNA was studied in terms of efficiency, safety, and targeting potential. Results. High microRNA uptake rates (~80–90%) were achieved without affecting CD133+ stem cell properties. Modified cells can be magnetically guided. Conclusion. We developed a safe and efficient protocol for CD133+ stem cell modification. Our work may become a basis to improve stem cell therapeutical effects as well as their monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27795713

  12. CD133 marks a stem cell population that drives human primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Triviai, Ioanna; Stübig, Thomas; Niebuhr, Birte; Hussein, Kais; Tsiftsoglou, Asterios; Fehse, Boris; Stocking, Carol; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, megakaryocyte atypia, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. To date the stem cell that undergoes the spatial and temporal chain of events during the development of this disease has not been identified. Here we describe a CD133+ stem cell population that drives the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis. Patient-derived circulating CD133+ but not CD34+CD133− cells, with a variable burden for JAK2V617F mutation, had multipotent cloning capacity in vitro. CD133+ cells engrafted for up to 10 months in immunocompromised mice and differentiated into JAK2-V617F+ myeloid but not lymphoid progenitors. We observed the persistence of human, atypical JAK2-V617F+ megakaryocytes, the initiation of a prefibrotic state, bone marrow/splenic fibrosis and transition to acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemic cells arose from a subset of CD133+ cells harboring EZH2D265H but lacking a secondary JAK2V617F mutation, consistent with the hypothesis that deregulation of EZH2 activity drives clonal growth and increases the risk of acute myeloid leukemia. This is the first characterization of a patient-derived stem cell population that drives disease resembling both chronic and acute phases of primary myelofibrosis in mice. These results reveal the importance of the CD133 antigen in deciphering the neoplastic clone in primary myelofibrosis and indicate a new therapeutic target for myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:25724578

  13. The effect of anti-CD133/fucoidan bio-coatings on hemocompatibility and EPC capture.

    PubMed

    Su, Hong; Xue, Guoneng; Ye, Changrong; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Ansha; Huang, Nan; Li, Jingan

    2017-09-19

    Surface modification by immobilizing biomolecules has been widely proved to enhance biocompatibility of cardiovascular implanted devices. Here, we aimed at developing a multifunctional surface that not only provides good hemocompatibility but also functions well in capturing circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the blood flow to improve the surface endothelialization. In the present work, we preferred to chemically co-immobilize (Michael addition and Schiff base reaction) the anti-CD133 (EPC-specific antibody) and fucoidan (EPC-mobilization factor, which also contribute to better hemocompatibility) onto a polydopamine (PDA) film which is famous for its stability and endothelial cell (EC) compatibility. The quantality of anti-CD133 and other surface characterization (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurement) demonstrated successful preparation of the CD133/fucoidan coating. The platelets adhesion/activation test suggested improved hemocompatibility of this bio-coating. The ex vivo experiment on New Zealand white rabbits showed that the anti-CD133/fucoidan coating had good ability on capture the circulating EPC. In addition, the quartz crystal microbalance-D indicated that the EPC behaviors, including adhesion, spreading and extracellular matrix re-molding, were related to the density of anti-CD133 in the coating. We hope this anti-CD133/fucoidan multi-functional coating may provide potential application on surface modification of cardiovascular biomaterials.

  14. [Investigation of self-renewal mechanism about CD133+ cancer stem cells in human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cell line].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xudong; He, Jian; Gao, Jiangxia; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jingyu

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the self-renewal mechanism of CD133+ cancer stem cells from Hep-2 cell line. The CD133+ cells were sorted by flow cytometry from Hep-2 cell line. Then the sorted CD133+ cells were cultured in RPMI1640. The ability of self-renewal of CD133+ cells were tested by MTT assay. mRNA and protein expression of self-renewal related genes were detected by western blot and RT- PCR. (3.10 ± 0.21)% of Hep-2 cells expressed the membrane antigen CD133. CD133+ fraction was raised to (90.20 ± 5.51)% by flow cytometry. In vitro culture and growth curve showed CD133+ cells had more active proliferation ability than CD133- cells, which showed statistically significant difference between these two group (P < 0.01). RT- PCR and western blot results showed upregulated mRNA and protein expression of Fas, c-myc, survivin in CD133+ group (P < 0.01). In the same time, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax gene expression was obviously increased in CD133+ group. Self-renewal related gene such as β-catenin, SHH, SMOH and Bmi-1,Gli-1 were all up-regulated in CD133+ group both in mRNA and protein. On the contrary, PTCH gene was down-regulated. CD133 positive cells are a small proportion of a Hep-2 cell line. The results of this experiment verified that CD133 positive cells owned the properties of cancer stem cells. Upregulated anti-apoptotic gene is the foundatiom of self-renewal mechanism of CD133+ cells. Cancer stem cells related signal pathways such as Hedgehog, Wnt and Bmi-1 pathway are in state of activation. The identification of self-renewal mechanism about cancer stem cell provides a powerful tool to investigate the tumorigenic process in the larynx and to develop therapies targeting to these signal pathways.

  15. Cobblestone-Area Forming Cells Derived from Patients with Mantle Cell Lymphoma Are Enriched for CD133+ Tumor-Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Daniel J.; Abass-Shereef, Jeneba; Walton, Kelly; Goodell, Lauri; Aviv, Hana; Strair, Roger K.; Budak-Alpdogan, Tulin

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is associated with a significant risk of therapeutic failure and disease relapse, but the biological origin of relapse is poorly understood. Here, we prospectively identify subpopulations of primary MCL cells with different biologic and immunophenotypic features. Using a simple culture system, we demonstrate that a subset of primary MCL cells co-cultured with either primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) or murine MS-5 cells form in cobblestone-areas consisting of cells with a primitive immunophenotype (CD19−CD133+) containing the chromosomal translocation t (11;14)(q13;q32) characteristic of MCL. Limiting dilution serial transplantation experiments utilizing immunodeficient mice revealed that primary MCL engraftment was only observed when either unsorted or CD19−CD133+ cells were utilized. No engraftment was seen using the CD19+CD133− subpopulation. Our results establish that primary CD19−CD133+ MCL cells are a functionally distinct subpopulation of primary MCL cells enriched for MCL-initiating activity in immunodeficient mice. This rare subpopulation of MCL-initiating cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MCL. PMID:24722054

  16. Up-modulation of PLC-β2 reduces the number and malignancy of triple-negative breast tumor cells with a CD133(+)/EpCAM(+) phenotype: a promising target for preventing progression of TNBC.

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Federica; Grassilli, Silvia; Lanuti, Paola; Marchisio, Marco; Al-Qassab, Yasamin; Vezzali, Federica; Capitani, Silvano; Bertagnolo, Valeria

    2017-09-04

    The malignant potential of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is also dependent on a sub-population of cells with a stem-like phenotype. Among the cancer stem cell markers, CD133 and EpCAM strongly correlate with breast tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that simultaneous targeting of the two surface antigens may be beneficial in treatment of TNBC. Since in TNBC-derived cells we demonstrated that PLC-β2 induces the conversion of CD133(high) to CD133(low) cells, here we explored its possible role in down-modulating the expression of both CD133 and EpCAM and, ultimately, in reducing the number of TNBC cells with a stem-like phenotype. A magnetic step-by-step cell isolation with antibodies directed against CD133 and/or EpCAM was performed on the TNBC-derived MDA-MB-231 cell line. In the same cell model, PLC-β2 was over-expressed or down-modulated and cell proliferation and invasion capability were evaluated by Real-time cell assays. The surface expression of CD133, EpCAM and CD44 in the different experimental conditions were measured by multi-color flow cytometry immunophenotyping. A CD133(+)/EpCAM(+) sub-population with high proliferation rate and invasion capability is present in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Over-expression of PLC-β2 in CD133(+)/EpCAM(+) cells reduced the surface expression of both CD133 and EpCAM, as well as proliferation and invasion capability of this cellular subset. On the other hand, the up-modulation of PLC-β2 in the whole MDA-MB-231 cell population reduced the number of cells with a CD44(+)/CD133(+)/EpCAM(+) stem-like phenotype. Since selective targeting of the cells with the highest aggressive potential may have a great clinical importance for TNBC, the up-modulation of PLC-β2, reducing the number of cells with a stem-like phenotype, may be a promising goal for novel therapies aimed to prevent the progression of aggressive breast tumors.

  17. Activation of β-Catenin Signaling in CD133-Positive Dermal Papilla Cells Drives Postnatal Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linli; Xu, Mingang; Yang, Yongguang; Yang, Kun; Wickett, Randall R.; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) contains a unique prominin-1/CD133-positive (CD133+) cell subpopulation, which has been shown to possess hair follicle-inducing capability. By assaying for endogenous CD133 expression and performing lineage tracing using CD133-CreERT2; ZsGreen1 reporter mice, we find that CD133 is expressed in a subpopulation of DP cells during the growth phase of the murine hair cycle (anagen), but is absent at anagen onset. However, how CD133+ DP cells interact with keratinocytes to induce hair regenerative growth remains unclear. Wnt/β-catenin has long been recognized as a major signaling pathway required for hair follicle morphogenesis, development, and regeneration. Nuclear Wnt/β-catenin activity is observed in the DP during the hair growth phase. Here we show that induced expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin in CD133+ DP cells significantly accelerates spontaneous and depilation-induced hair growth. However, hair follicle regression is not affected in these mutants. Further analysis indicates that CD133+ DP-expressed β-catenin increases proliferation and differentiation of epithelial matrix keratinocytes. Upregulated Wnt/β-catenin activity in CD133+ DP cells also increases the number of proliferating DP cells in each anagen follicle. Our data demonstrate that β-catenin signaling potentiates the capability of CD133+ DP cells to promote postnatal hair growth. PMID:27472062

  18. KITENIN promotes glioma invasiveness and progression, associated with the induction of EMT and stemness markers

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se-Jeong; Kim, Ok; Joo, Young-Eun; Bae, Jeong-A; Yoon, Somy; Ryu, Hyang-Hwa; Jung, Shin; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2015-01-01

    KITENIN (KAI1 COOH-terminal interacting tetraspanin) promotes tumor invasion and metastasis in various cancers. This study assessed the association between KITENIN expression and advanced glioma grade in patients. In vitro assays revealed that KITENIN knockdown inhibited the invasion and migration of glioma cells, whereas KITENIN overexpression promoted their invasion and migration. In orthotopic mouse tumor models, mice transplanted with KITENIN-transfected glioma cells had significantly shorter survival than mice transplanted with mock-transfected cells. Patients with low KITENIN expression showed a significantly longer progression-free survival than patients with high KITENIN expression. KITENIN induced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (N-cadherin, ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAIL and SLUG) as well as the glioma stemness markers (CD133, ALDH1 and EPH-B1). Taken together, these findings showed that high levels of KITENIN increased glioma invasiveness and progression, associated with the up-regulation of EMT and stemness markers. PMID:25605251

  19. Microenvironment-Modulated Metastatic CD133+/CXCR4+/EpCAM- Lung Cancer-Initiating Cells Sustain Tumor Dissemination and Correlate with Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giulia; D'Amico, Lucia; Moro, Massimo; Landoni, Elena; Perego, Paola; Miceli, Rosalba; Gatti, Laura; Andriani, Francesca; Wong, Donald; Caserini, Roberto; Tortoreto, Monica; Milione, Massimo; Ferracini, Riccardo; Mariani, Luigi; Pastorino, Ugo; Roato, Ilaria; Sozzi, Gabriella; Roz, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for lung cancer-related mortality, but little is known about specific determinants of successful dissemination from primary tumors and metastasis initiation. Here, we show that CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) cancer-initiating cells (CIC) directly isolated from patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of non-small cell lung cancer are endowed with superior ability to seed and initiate metastasis at distant organs. We additionally report that CXCR4 inhibition successfully prevents the increase of cisplatin-resistant CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) cells in residual tumors and their metastatization. Immunophenotypic analysis of lung tumor cells intravenously injected or spontaneously disseminated to murine lungs demonstrated the survival advantage and increased colonization ability of a specific subset of CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) with reduced expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM(-)), which also shows the greatest in vitro invasive potential. We next prove that recovered disseminated cells from lungs of PDX-bearing mice enriched for CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/EpCAM(-) CICs are highly tumorigenic and metastatic. Importantly, microenvironment stimuli eliciting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, including signals from cancer-associated fibroblasts, are able to increase the dissemination potential of lung cancer cells through the generation of the CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/EpCAM(-) subset. These findings also have correlates in patient samples where disseminating CICs are enriched in metastatic lymph nodes (20-fold, P = 0.006) and their detection in primary tumors is correlated with poor clinical outcome (disease-free survival: P = 0.03; overall survival: P = 0.05). Overall, these results highlight the importance of specific cellular subsets in the metastatic process, the need for in-depth characterization of disseminating tumor cells, and the potential of therapeutic strategies targeting both primary tumor and tumor-microenvironment interactions.

  20. Differentiation of CD133+ Stem Cells From Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Into Preneuron Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Héctor R.; Caro-Osorio, Enrique; Cruz-Vega, Delia E.; Hernández-Torre, Martin; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in quality of life and life expectancy have been observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients transplanted with CD133+ stem cells into their frontal motor cortices. However, questions have emerged about the capacity of cells from these patients to engraft and differentiate into neurons. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro capacity of CD133+ stem cells from 13 ALS patients to differentiate into neuron lineage. Stem cells were obtained through leukapheresis and cultured in a control medium or a neuroinduction medium for 2–48 hours. Expression of neuronal genes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical techniques. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that CD133+ stem cells from ALS patients incubated for 48 hours in a neuroinduction medium increased the detection of neuronal proteins such as nestin, β-tubulin III, neuronal-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. RT-PCR assays demonstrated an increase in the expression of β-tubulin III, nestin, Olig2, Islet-1, Hb9, and Nkx6.1. No correlation was found between age, sex, or ALS functional scale and the CD133+ stem cell response to the neuroinduction medium. We conclude that CD133+ stem cells from ALS patients, like the stem cells of healthy subjects, are capable of differentiating into preneuron cells. PMID:23341441

  1. Cancer/testis antigens can be immunological targets in clonogenic CD133+ melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gedye, Craig; Quirk, Juliet; Browning, Judy; Svobodová, Suzanne; John, Thomas; Sluka, Pavel; Dunbar, P Rod; Corbeil, Denis; Cebon, Jonathan; Davis, Ian D

    2009-10-01

    "Cancer stem cells" that resist conventional treatments may be a cause of therapeutic failure in melanoma. We report a subpopulation of clonogenic melanoma cells that are characterized by high prominin-1/CD133 expression in melanoma and melanoma cell lines. These cells have enhanced clonogenicity and self-renewal in vitro, and serve as a limited in vitro model for melanoma stem cells. In some cases clonogenic CD133(+) melanoma cells show increased expression of some cancer/testis (CT) antigens. The expression of NY-ESO-1 in an HLA-A2 expressing cell line allowed CD133(+) clonogenic melanoma cells to be targeted for killing in vitro by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Our in vitro findings raise the hypothesis that if melanoma stem cells express CT antigens in vivo that immune targeting of these antigens may be a viable clinical strategy for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma.

  2. CD133/Src Axis Mediates Tumor Initiating Property and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Meng-Ju; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Shu-Chun; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Lo, Jeng-Fan

    2011-01-01

    Background Head and Neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a human lethal cancer with clinical, pathological, phenotypical and biological heterogeneity. Caner initiating cells (CICs), which are responsible for tumor growth and coupled with gain of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), have been identified. Previously, we enriched a subpopulation of head and neck cancer initiating cells (HN-CICs) with up-regulation of CD133 and enhancement of EMT. Others demonstrate that Src kinase interacts with and phosphorylates the cytoplasmic domain of CD133. However, the physiological function of CD133/Src signaling in HNSCCs has not been uncovered. Methodology/Principal Finding Herein, we determined the critical role of CD133/Src axis modulating stemness, EMT and tumorigenicity of HNSCC and HN-CICs. Initially, down-regulation of CD133 significantly reduced the self-renewal ability and expression of stemness genes, and promoted the differentiation and apoptotic capability of HN-CICs. Additionally, knockdown of CD133 in HN-CICs also lessened both in vitro malignant properties including cell migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth, and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay. In opposite, overexpression of CD133 enhanced the stemness properties and tumorigenic ability of HNSCCs. Lastly, up-regulation of CD133 increased phosphorylation of Src coupled with EMT transformation in HNSCCs, on the contrary, silence of CD133 or treatment of Src inhibitor inversely abrogated above phenotypic effects, which were induced by CD133 up-regulation in HNSCCs or HN-CICs. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggested that CD133/Src signaling is a regulatory switch to gain of EMT and of stemness properties in HNSCC. Finally, CD133/Src axis might be a potential therapeutic target for HNSCC by eliminating HN-CICs. PMID:22140506

  3. Blocking NOTCH Pathway can Enhance the Effect of EGFR Inhibitor through Targeting CD133+ Endometrial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chao; Lang, Bin; Meng, Li-Rong

    2016-10-28

    ABSTACT Although the molecular therapeutics targeting key biomarkers such as epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) shows some success in clinical trials, some internally existing challenges in endothelial cancer biology hinder the drug effects. One of the major challenges stems from cancer stem cell-derived drug resistance. CD133 positive cells are well believed as cancer stem cells (CSC) in endometrial cancers and NOTCH pathway plays a critical role in retaining CD133+ cells by promoting CSC self-renewal and chemoresistance. Here, we initiated a therapeutic strategy to improve effects of EGFR inhibition by targeting NOTCH pathway of CD133+ cells in endometrial cancers. We first detected and purified the CD133+ cell fraction in endometrial cancer cell line Ishikawa (IK), and validated activation of NOTCH pathway in the CD133+ cells that have higher proliferation rate and lower apoptosis rate, comparing to CD133- cells. Results of nude mouse xenograft experiments further demonstrated CD133+ cells retain higher tumorigenesis capacity than CD133- cells, indicating their tumor-initiating property. Last, we applied both NOTCH inhibitor DAPT and EGFR inhibitor AG1478 treatment on endometrial cancer lines IK and HEC-1A and the results suggested improvement effects of the combination therapy compared to the treatments of DAPT or AG1478 alone. These findings indicated targeting NOTCH pathway in CD133+ cells, combining with EGFR inhibition, which provides a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial cancer diseases.

  4. Ex-vivo expanded human blood-derived CD133+ cells promote repair of injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Naosuke; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Alev, Cantas; Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Kiyotaka; Masuda, Haruchika; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Ochi, Mitsuo; Asahara, Takayuki

    2013-05-15

    Human blood-derived CD133(+) cell populations, which are believed to represent a hematopoietic/endothelial progenitor fraction, have the ability to promote the repair of injured spinal cord in animal models. However, the mechanisms by which CD133(+) cell transplantation promotes spinal cord regeneration remain to be clarified. Another possible hurdle on the way to clinical applicability of these cells is their scarce representation in the overall population of mononuclear cells. We therefore analyzed and compared ex-vivo expanded human cord blood derived CD133(+) cells with freshly isolated CD133(+) cells as well as corresponding CD133(-) control mononuclear cells in respect to their ability to promote spinal cord repair using in vitro assays and cell transplantation into a mouse spinal cord injury model. In vitro, expanded cells as well as fresh CD133(+) cells formed endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) colonies, whereas CD133(-) cells formed no EPC colonies. In vivo, the administration of fresh CD133(+) and expanded cells enhanced angiogenesis, astrogliosis, axon growth and functional recovery after injury. In contrast, the administration of CD133(-) cells failed to promote axon growth and functional recovery, but moderately enhanced angiogenesis and astrogliosis. In addition, high-dose administration of expanded cells was highly effective in the induction of regenerative processes at the injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CD133+CD24lo defines a 5-Fluorouracil-resistant colon cancer stem cell-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Amy V.; Yang, Dafeng; Lu, Chunwan; Redd, Priscilla S.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Heaton, Christopher M.; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Nayak-Kapoor, Asha; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most commonly used drug for patients with advanced colon cancer. However, development of resistance to 5-FU is inevitable in almost all patients. The mechanism by which colon cancer develops 5-FU resistance is still unclear. One recently proposed theory is that cancer stem-like cells underlie colon cancer 5-FU resistance, but the phenotypes of 5-FU-resistant colon cancer stem cells are still controversial. We report here that 5-FU treatment selectively enriches a subset of CD133+ colon cancer cells in vitro. 5-FU chemotherapy also increases CD133+ tumor cells in human colon cancer patients. However, sorted CD133+ colon cancer cells exhibit no increased resistance to 5-FU, and CD133 levels exhibit no correlation with colon cancer patient survival or cancer recurrence. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression between sorted CD133+ colon cancer cells and 5-FU-selected colon cancer cells identifies 207 differentially expressed genes. CD24 is one of the genes whose expression level is lower in the CD133+ and 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cells as compared to CD133+ and 5-FU-sensitive colon cancer cells. Consequently, CD133+CD24lo cells exhibit decreased sensitivity to 5-FU. Therefore, we determine that CD133+CD24lo phenotype defines 5-FU-resistant human colon cancer stem cell-like cells. PMID:27659530

  6. Platelet released growth factors boost expansion of bone marrow derived CD34(+) and CD133(+) endothelial progenitor cells for autologous grafting.

    PubMed

    Lippross, Sebastian; Loibl, Markus; Hoppe, Sven; Meury, Thomas; Benneker, Lorin; Alini, Mauro; Verrier, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell based autologous grafting has recently gained mayor interest in various surgical fields for the treatment of extensive tissue defects. CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells that can be isolated from the pool of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) are capable of differentiating into mature endothelial cells in vivo. These endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are believed to represent a major portion of the angiogenic regenerative cells that are released from bone marrow when tissue injury has occurred. In recent years tissue engineers increasingly looked at the process of vessel neoformation because of its major importance for successful cell grafting to replace damaged tissue. Up to now one of the greatest problems preventing a clinical application is the large scale of expansion that is required for such purpose. We established a method to effectively enhance the expansion of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells by the use of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) as a media supplement. PRGF were prepared from thrombocyte concentrates and used as a media supplement to iscove's modified dulbecco's media (IMDM). EPC were immunomagnetically separated from human bone morrow monocyte cells and cultured in IMDM + 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), IMDM + 5%, FCS + 5% PRGF and IMDM + 10% PRGF. We clearly demonstrate a statistically significant higher and faster cell proliferation rate at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of culture when both PRGF and FCS were added to the medium as opposed to 10% FCS or 10% PRGF alone. The addition of 10% PRGF to IMDM in the absence of FCS leads to a growth arrest from day 14 on. In histochemical, immunocytochemical, and gene-expression analysis we showed that angiogenic and precursor markers of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells are maintained during long-term culture. In summary, we established a protocol to boost the expansion of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells. Thereby we provide a technical step towards the clinical application of autologous stem cell

  7. Tenascin-C: a novel candidate marker for cancer stem cells in glioblastoma identified by tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Nie, Song; Gurrea, Mikel; Zhu, Jianhui; Thakolwiboon, Smathorn; Heth, Jason A; Muraszko, Karin M; Fan, Xing; Lubman, David M

    2015-02-06

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor, with dismal survival outcomes. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been demonstrated to play a role in therapeutic resistance and are considered to be the most likely cause of cancer relapse. The identification of CSCs is an important step toward finding new and effective ways to treat GBM. Tenascin-C (TNC) protein has been identified as a potential marker for CSCs in gliomas based on previous work. Here, we have investigated the expression of TNC in tissue microarrays including 17 GBMs, 18 WHO grade III astrocytomas, 15 WHO grade II astrocytomas, 4 WHO grade I astrocytomas, and 7 normal brain tissue samples by immunohistochemical staining. TNC expression was found to be highly associated with the grade of astrocytoma. It has a high expression level in most of the grade III astrocytomas and GBMs analyzed and a very low expression in most grade II astrocytomas, whereas it is undetectable in grade I astrocytomas and normal brain tissues. Double-immunofluorescence staining for TNC and CD133 in GBM tissues revealed that there was a high overlap between theses two positive populations. The results were further confirmed by flow cytometry analysis of TNC and CD133 in GBM-derived stem-like neurospheres in vitro. A limiting dilution assay demonstrated that the sphere formation ability of CD133(+)/TNC(+) and CD133(-)/TNC(+) cell populations is much higher than that of the CD133(+)/TNC(-) and CD133(-)/TNC(-) populations. These results suggest that TNC is not only a potential prognostic marker for GBM but also a potential marker for glioma CSCs, where the TNC(+) population is identified as a CSC population overlapping with part of the CD133(-) cell population.

  8. Putative CD133+ melanoma cancer stem cells induce initial angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Rüdiger M; Matthiesen, Peter; Kreher, Fritjof; Kampmann, Andreas; Spalthoff, Simon; Jehn, Philipp; Bittermann, Gido; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Tavassol, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, and is regulated by a complex network of various types of cells, chemokines, and stimulating factors. In contrast to sprouting angiogenesis, tumor angiogenesis is also influenced by hypoxia, inflammation, and the attraction of bone-marrow-derived cells. Recently, cancer stem cells have been reported to mimic vascularization by differentiating into endothelial cells and inducing vessel formation. In this study, the influence of cancer stem cells on initial angiogenesis was evaluated for the metastatic melanoma cell line D10. Following flow cytometry, CD133+ and CD133- cells were isolated using magnetic cell separation and different cell fractions were transferred to porcine gelatin sponges, which were implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of immunocompromised mice. Angiogenesis was analyzed based on microvessel density over a 10-day period using in vivo fluorescence microscopy, and the results were verified using immunohistology. CD133+ D10 cells showed a significant induction of early angiogenesis in vivo, contrary to CD133- D10 cells, unsorted D10 cells, and negative control. Neovascularization was confirmed by visualizing endothelial cells by immunohistology using an anti-CD31 antibody. Because CD133+ cells are rare in clinical specimens and hardly amenable to functional assays, the D10 cell line provides a suitable model to study the angiogenic potential of putative cancer stem cells and the leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the dorsal skinfold chamber in vivo. This cancer stem cell model might be useful in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents targeting tumors.

  9. CD133+ cell selection is an alternative to CD34+ cell selection for ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kobari, L; Giarratana, M C; Pflumio, F; Izac, B; Coulombel, L; Douay, L

    2001-04-01

    CD133 is a new stem cell antigen that may provide an alternative to CD34 for the selection and expansion of hematopoietic cells for transplantation. This study compared the expansion capacities of CD133(+) and CD34(+) cells isolated from the same cord blood (CB) samples. After 14 days culture in stroma-free, serum-free medium in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF), Flt3-1, megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), the CD133(+) and CD34(+) fractions displayed comparable expansion of the myeloid compartment (CFC, LTC-IC, and E-LTC-IC). The expansion of CD133(+) CB cells was up to 1262-fold for total cells, 99-fold for CD34(+) cells, 109-fold for CD34(+) CD133(+) cells, 133-fold for CFU-GM, 14.5-fold for LTC-IC, and 7.5-fold for E-LTC-IC. Moreover, the expanded population was able to generate lymphoid B (CD19(+)), NK (CD56(+)), and T (CD4(+) CD8(+)) cells in liquid or fetal thymic organ cultures, while expression of the homing antigen CXCR4 was similar on expanded and nonexpanded CD133(+) or CD34(+) cells. Thus, the CD133(+) subset could be expanded in the same manner as the CD34(+) subset and conserved its multilineage capacity, which would support the relevance of CD133 for clinical hematopoietic selection.

  10. Identification of a CD133−CD55− population functions as a fetal common skeletal progenitor

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lihong; Hu, Xingbin; Kumar, Bijender; Garcia, Mayra; Todorov, Ivan; Jung, Xiaoman; Marcucci, Guido; Forman, Stephen J.; Chen, Ching-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we identified a CD105+CD90.1−CD133−CD55− (CD133−CD55−) population in the fetal skeletal element that can generate bone and bone marrow. Besides osteoblasts and chondrocytes, the CD133−CD55− common progenitors can give rise to marrow reticular stromal cells and perivascular mesenchymal progenitors suggesting they function as the fetal common skeletal progenitor. Suppression of CXCL12 and Kitl expression in CD133−CD55− common progenitors severely disrupted the BM niche formation but not bone generation. Thus, CD133−CD55− common progenitors are the main source of CXCL12 and Kitl producing cells in the developing marrow. PMID:27929130

  11. Human α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) epithelial prostate stem cells express low levels of active androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Stuart C; Hepburn, Anastasia C; Wilson, Laura; Coffey, Kelly; Ryan-Munden, Claudia A; Pal, Deepali; Leung, Hing Y; Robson, Craig N; Heer, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are thought to be the cell of origin in malignant transformation in many tissues, but their role in human prostate carcinogenesis continues to be debated. One of the conflicts with this model is that cancer stem cells have been described to lack androgen receptor (AR) expression, which is of established importance in prostate cancer initiation and progression. We re-examined the expression patterns of AR within adult prostate epithelial differentiation using an optimised sensitive and specific approach examining transcript, protein and AR regulated gene expression. Highly enriched populations were isolated consisting of stem (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE)), transiently amplifying (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE)) and terminally differentiated (α(2)β(1)(LOW) CD133(-VE)) cells. AR transcript and protein expression was confirmed in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) and CD133(-VE) progenitor cells. Flow cytometry confirmed that median (±SD) fraction of cells expressing AR were 77% (±6%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells and 68% (±12%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE) transiently amplifying cells. However, 3-fold lower levels of total AR protein expression (peak and median immunofluorescence) were present in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells compared with differentiated cells. This finding was confirmed with dual immunostaining of prostate sections for AR and CD133, which again demonstrated low levels of AR within basal CD133(+VE) cells. Activity of the AR was confirmed in prostate progenitor cells by the expression of low levels of the AR regulated genes PSA, KLK2 and TMPRSS2. The confirmation of AR expression in prostate progenitor cells allows integration of the cancer stem cell theory with the established models of prostate cancer initiation based on a functional AR. Further study of specific AR functions in prostate stem and differentiated cells may highlight novel mechanisms of prostate homeostasis and insights into tumourigenesis.

  12. Pediatric medulloblastoma xenografts including molecular subgroup 3 and CD133+ and CD15+ cells are sensitive to killing by oncolytic herpes simplex viruses

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K.; Moore, Blake P.; Nan, Li; Kelly, Virginia M.; Etminan, Tina; Langford, Catherine P.; Xu, Hui; Han, Xiaosi; Markert, James M.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Gillespie, G. Yancey

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood medulloblastoma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality that is compounded by neurotoxicity for the developing brain caused by current therapies, including surgery, craniospinal radiation, and chemotherapy. Innate therapeutic resistance of some aggressive pediatric medulloblastoma has been attributed to a subpopulation of cells, termed cancer-initiating cells or cancer stemlike cells (CSCs), marked by the surface protein CD133 or CD15. Brain tumors characteristically contain areas of pathophysiologic hypoxia, which has been shown to drive the CSC phenotype leading to heightened invasiveness, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Novel therapies that target medulloblastoma CSCs are needed to improve outcomes and decrease toxicity. We hypothesized that oncolytic engineered herpes simplex virus (oHSV) therapy could effectively infect and kill pediatric medulloblastoma cells, including CSCs marked by CD133 or CD15. Methods Using 4 human pediatric medulloblastoma xenografts, including 3 molecular subgroup 3 tumors, which portend worse patient outcomes, we determined the expression of CD133, CD15, and the primary HSV-1 entry molecule nectin-1 (CD111) by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Infectability and cytotoxicity of clinically relevant oHSVs (G207 and M002) were determined in vitro and in vivo by FACS, immunofluorescent staining, cytotoxicity assays, and murine survival studies. Results We demonstrate that hypoxia increased the CD133+ cell fraction, while having the opposite effect on CD15 expression. We established that all 4 xenografts, including the CSCs, expressed CD111 and were highly sensitive to killing by G207 or M002. Conclusions Pediatric medulloblastoma, including Group 3 tumors, may be an excellent target for oHSV virotherapy, and a clinical trial in medulloblastoma is warranted. PMID:26188016

  13. Selected CD133⁺ progenitor cells to promote angiogenesis in patients with refractory angina: final results of the PROGENITOR randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Quevedo, Pilar; Gonzalez-Ferrer, Juan Jose; Sabate, Manel; Garcia-Moll, Xavier; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Llorente, Leopoldo; Bernardo, Esther; Ortega-Pozzi, Aranzazu; Hernandez-Antolin, Rosana; Alfonso, Fernando; Gonzalo, Nieves; Escaned, Javier; Bañuelos, Camino; Regueiro, Ander; Marin, Pedro; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Neves, Barbara Das; Del Trigo, Maria; Fernandez, Cristina; Tejerina, Teresa; Redondo, Santiago; Garcia, Eulogio; Macaya, Carlos

    2014-11-07

    Refractory angina constitutes a clinical problem. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and the feasibility of transendocardial injection of CD133(+) cells to foster angiogenesis in patients with refractory angina. In this randomized, double-blinded, multicenter controlled trial, eligible patients were treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, underwent an apheresis and electromechanical mapping, and were randomized to receive treatment with CD133(+) cells or no treatment. The primary end point was the safety of transendocardial injection of CD133(+) cells, as measured by the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event at 6 months. Secondary end points analyzed the efficacy. Twenty-eight patients were included (n=19 treatment; n=9 control). At 6 months, 1 patient in each group had ventricular fibrillation and 1 patient in each group died. One patient (treatment group) had a cardiac tamponade during mapping. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to efficacy parameters; however, the comparison within groups showed a significant improvement in the number of angina episodes per month (median absolute difference, -8.5 [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -4.0]) and in angina functional class in the treatment arm but not in the control group. At 6 months, only 1 simple-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) parameter: summed score improved significantly in the treatment group at rest and at stress (median absolute difference, -1.0 [95% confidence interval, -1.9 to -0.1]) but not in the control arm. Our findings support feasibility and safety of transendocardial injection of CD133(+) cells in patients with refractory angina. The promising clinical results and favorable data observed in SPECT summed score may set up the basis to test the efficacy of cell therapy in a larger randomized trial. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Neurogenic and neuro-protective potential of a novel subpopulation of peripheral blood-derived CD133+ ABCG2+CXCR4+ mesenchymal stem cells: development of autologous cell-based therapeutics for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Joan E; Niles, Jean A; DeWitt, Douglas; Prough, Donald; Parsley, Margaret; Vega, Stephanie; Cantu, Andrea; Lee, Eric; Cortiella, Joaquin

    2013-01-06

    Nervous system injuries comprise a diverse group of disorders that include traumatic brain injury (TBI). The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into neural cell types has aroused hope for the possible development of autologous therapies for central nervous system injury. In this study we isolated and characterized a human peripheral blood derived (HPBD) MSC population which we examined for neural lineage potential and ability to migrate in vitro and in vivo. HPBD CD133+, ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2)+, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)+ MSCs were differentiated after priming with β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) combined with trans-retinoic acid (RA) and culture in neural basal media containing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) or co-culture with neuronal cell lines. Differentiation efficiencies in vitro were determined using flow cytometry or fluorescent microscopy of cytospins made of FACS sorted positive cells after staining for markers of immature or mature neuronal lineages. RA-primed CD133+ABCG2+CXCR4+ human MSCs were transplanted into the lateral ventricle of male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hours after sham or traumatic brain injury (TBI). All animals were evaluated for spatial memory performance using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) Test. Histological examination of sham or TBI brains was done to evaluate MSC survival, migration and differentiation into neural lineages. We also examined induction of apoptosis at the injury site and production of MSC neuroprotective factors. CD133+ABCG2+CXCR4+ MSCs consistently expressed markers of neural lineage induction and were positive for nestin, microtubule associated protein-1β (MAP-1β), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuron specific nuclear protein (NEUN) or type III beta-tubulin (Tuj1). Animals in the primed MSC treatment group exhibited MWM latency results similar to the uninjured (sham) group with both groups showing improvements in

  15. A Pilot Study Assessing the Potential Role of non-CD133 Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells as Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Langan, Russell C.; Mullinax, John E.; Ray, Satyajit; Raiji, Manish T.; Schaub, Nicholas; Xin, Hong-Wu; Koizumi, Tomotake; Steinberg, Seth M.; Anderson, Andrew; Wiegand, Gordon; Butcher, Donna; Anver, Miriam; Bilchik, Anton J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Rudloff, Udo; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Over 50% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) will progress and/or develop metastases. Biomarkers capable of predicting progression, risk stratification and therapeutic benefit are needed. Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, dissemination and treatment failure. Therefore, we hypothesized that CRC cancer stem cell markers (CRCSC) will identify a group of patients at high risk for progression. Methods: Paraffin-embedded tissue cores of normal (n=8), and histopathologically well-defined primary (n= 30) and metastatic (n=10) CRC were arrayed in duplicate on tissue microarrays (TMAs). Expression profiles of non-CD133 CRCSC (CD29, CD44, ALDH1A1, ALDH1B1, EpCam, and CD166) were detected by immunohistochemistry and the association with clinicopathological data and patient outcomes was determined using standard statistical methodology. An independent pathologist, blinded to the clinical data scored the samples. Scoring included percent positive cells (0 to 4, 0 = <10%, 1 = 10 - 24%, 2 = 25 - 49%, 3 = 50 - 74%, 4 = 75 - 100%), and the intensity of positively stained cells (0 to 4; 0 = no staining, 1 = diminutive intensity, 2 = low intensity, 3 = intermediate intensity, 4 = high intensity). The pathologic score represents the sum of these two values, reported in this paper as a combined IHC staining score (CSS). Results: Of 30 patients 7 were AJCC stage IIA, 10 stage IIIB, 7 stage IIIC and 6 stage IV. Median follow-up was 113 months. DFI was 17 months. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached. Stage-specific OS was: II - not reached; III - not reached; IV - 11 months. In a univariate analysis, poor OS was associated with loss of CD29 expression; median OS, 32 months vs. not reached for CSS 3-7 vs. >7.5, respectively; p=0.052 comparing entire curves, after adjustment. In a Cox model analysis, loss of CD29 exhibited a trend toward association with survival (p=0.098) after adjusting for the effect of stage (p=0

  16. Role of ADAM17 in invasion and migration of CD133-expressing liver cancer stem cells after irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung Woo; Hur, Wonhee; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Jung-Hee; Hwang, Daehee; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biological role of CD133-expressing liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) enriched after irradiation of Huh7 cells in cell invasion and migration. We also explored whether a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) influences the metastatic potential of CSC-enriched hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells after irradiation. A CD133-expressing Huh7 cell subpopulation showed greater resistance to sublethal irradiation and specifically enhanced cell invasion and migration capabilities. We also demonstrated that the radiation-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzyme activities as well as the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were increased more predominantly in Huh7CD133+ cell subpopulations than Huh7CD133− cell subpopulations. Furthermore, we showed that silencing ADAM17 significantly inhibited the migration and invasiveness of enriched Huh7CD133+ cells after irradiation; moreover, Notch signaling was significantly reduced in irradiated CD133-expressing liver CSCs following stable knockdown of the ADAM17 gene. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CD133-expressing liver CSCs have considerable metastatic capabilities after irradiation of HCC cells, and their metastatic capabilities might be maintained by ADAM17. Therefore, suppression of ADAM17 shows promise for improving the efficiency of current radiotherapies and reducing the metastatic potential of liver CSCs during HCC treatment. PMID:26993601

  17. Galectin-1 is overexpressed in CD133+ human lung adenocarcinoma cells and promotes their growth and invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Li, Dan; Wang, Xianguo; Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that a subpopulation of cancer cells, which are CD133 positive (CD133+) feature higher invasive and metastatic abilities, are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). By using tumor cells derived from patients with lung adenocarcinoma, we found that galectin-1 is highly overexpressed in the CD133+ cancer cells as compared to the normal cancer cells (CD133−) from the same patients. We overexpressed galectin-1 in CD133− cancer cells and downregulated it in CSCs. We found that overexpression of galectin-1 promoted invasiveness of CD133− cells, while knockdown of galectin-1 suppressed proliferation, colony formation and invasiveness of CSCs. Furthermore, tumor growth was significantly inhibited in CSCs xenografts with knockdown of galectin-1 as compared to CSCs treated with scramble siRNAs. Biochemical studies revealed that galectin-1 knockdown led to the suppression of COX-2/PGE2 and AKT/mTOR pathways, indicating galectin-1 might control the phenotypes of CSCs by regulating these signaling pathways. Finally, a retrospective study revealed that galectin-1 levels in blood circulation negatively correlates with overall survival and positively correlates with lymph node metastasis of the patients. Taken together, these findings suggested that galectin-1 plays a major role on the tumorigenesis and invasiveness of CD133+ cancer cells and might serve as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of human patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:25605013

  18. Full-length dysferlin expression driven by engineered human dystrophic blood derived CD133+ stem cells.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Mirella; Navarro, Claire; Sitzia, Clementina; Farini, Andrea; Montani, Erica; Wein, Nicolas; Razini, Paola; Beley, Cyriaque; Cassinelli, Letizia; Parolini, Daniele; Belicchi, Marzia; Parazzoli, Dario; Garcia, Luis; Torrente, Yvan

    2013-12-01

    The protein dysferlin is abundantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles, where its main function is membrane repair. Mutations in the dysferlin gene are involved in two autosomal recessive muscular dystrophies: Miyoshi myopathy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. Development of effective therapies remains a great challenge. Strategies to repair the dysferlin gene by skipping mutated exons, using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), may be suitable only for a subset of mutations, while cell and gene therapy can be extended to all mutations. AON-treated blood-derived CD133+ stem cells isolated from patients with Miyoshi myopathy led to partial dysferlin reconstitution in vitro but failed to express dysferlin after intramuscular transplantation into scid/blAJ dysferlin null mice. We thus extended these experiments producing the full-length dysferlin mediated by a lentiviral vector in blood-derived CD133+ stem cells isolated from the same patients. Transplantation of engineered blood-derived CD133+ stem cells into scid/blAJ mice resulted in sufficient dysferlin expression to correct functional deficits in skeletal muscle membrane repair. Our data suggest for the first time that lentivirus-mediated delivery of full-length dysferlin in stem cells isolated from Miyoshi myopathy patients could represent an alternative therapeutic approach for treatment of dysferlinopathies.

  19. Clinical significance of putative markers of cancer stem cells in gastric cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    He, Du; Lu, Zheng-Hao; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Wei-Han; Wang, Wei; Li, Chang-Chun; Xue, Lian; Zhao, Lin-Yong; Yang, Kun; Liu, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun; Mo, Xian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought as the source of tumor maintaining and many CSCs markers have been identified. Regarding the heterogeneity in gastric cancer (GC), TNM stage is not enough to accurately predict the prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of CSCs markers (Lgr5, Oct4, CD133, EpCAM, CD54 and Sox2) and establish a new model based on these markers to accurately predict prognosis of GC. We retrospectively enrolled 377 GC tissues from January 2006 to October 2012 to perform immunohistochemistry (IHC), and 93 pairs of GC tissues and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues to perform quantitative PCR (qPCR) from December 2011 to October 2012. The clinicopathological and follow-up characteristics were collected. In IHC, Oct4, CD133 and EpCAM were independently related to tumor progression, while Sox2 were associated with well or moderate differentiation (all p<0.05). Cox regression showed that Oct4-EpCAM was an independently prognostic factor, indicating that double low expression of Oct4-EpCAM group had significantly better prognosis than control group (p=0.035). Regarding qPCR, CD133 was an independent prognostic factor, showing that the prognosis of patients with CD133 high expression was significantly worse than that of patients with CD133 low expression (p<0.001). The prognostic prediction accuracy of nomogram based on Oct4-EpCAM expression in IHC was significantly better than TNM stage alone (p=0.003). Low expressions of Oct4-EpCAM in IHC and CD133 in qPCR were favorable prognostic factors in GC. The nomogram based on Oct4-EpCAM was valuable in prognostic prediction of GC patients. PMID:27557490

  20. Intramyocardial delivery of human CD133+ cells in a SCID mouse cryoinjury model: Bone marrow vs. cord blood-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Ladilov, Yury; Moebius, Jeannette M; Ong, Leelee; Piechaczek, Christoph; Dávid, Arpád; Kaminski, Alexander; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Li, Wenzhong; Egger, Dietmar; Stamm, Christof; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2006-07-01

    The regenerative potential of endothelial and hematopoietic progenitor cells in the heart may vary according to their origin. This study was designed to compare the functional effects of CD133+ cells from human cord blood and bone marrow in a mouse model of myocardial injury. 5 x 10(5) CD133+ cells from bone marrow (BM(CD133)) or cord blood (UCB(CD133)) were injected in the necrosis border zone of NOD/SCID (non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency) mice with left ventricular cryoinjury (CI+). Transplanted cells were tracked by immunostaining for hNuclear antigen and by PCR for hDNA. Echocardiography was used to measure contractility. Scar size, capillary density, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were evaluated by histology. In addition, the myogenic and endothelial differentiation capacity of BM(CD133) and UCB(CD133) was compared in vitro. DNA was detected 4 weeks after cell injection by PCR, but hNuc+ cells were found by immunostaining only after 48 h. Capillary density in both BM(CD133) and UCB(CD133) cell-treated CI+ mice was higher than in control CI+ mice, but not different between BM(CD133) and UCB(CD133) cell-treated hearts. There were no differences in scar size and myocardial mass among BM(CD133), UCB(CD133) and control CI+ mice, but cardiomyocyte apoptosis was reduced by both BM(CD133) and UCB(CD133) cells. The post-injury deterioration of shortening fraction (46.2+/-1% in sham-operated mice and 41.3+/-0.8% in control CI+ mice) was prevented by BM(CD133) cells (45.4+/-0.9%), but not by UCB(CD133) cells (40.8+/-0.7%). On the other hand, both BM(CD133) and UCB(CD133) cells abolished post-injury mortality. In vitro, neither cultivated BM(CD133) or UCB(CD133) cells developed into myocytes, but both readily differentiated towards an endothelial cell phenotype. While both cord blood and marrow CD133+ cells have some beneficial effects on post-injury angiogenesis and survival, only marrow cells appear to improve myocardial contractility.

  1. Prognostic value of changes in the expression of stem cell markers in the peripheral blood of patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Padín-Iruegas, Maria-Elena; Herranz-Carnero, Michel; Aguin-Losada, Santiago; Brozos-Vazquez, Elena; Anido-Herranz, U; Antunez-Lopez, Jose-Ramon; Ruibal-Morell, Alvaro; López-López, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    Cancer stem cells play an important role in carcinogenesis and resistance to treatment and may lead to metastasis. The isolation of circulating stem cells involves cell sorting based on the presence of cell surface markers. Many surface markers such as CD133, c-Kit, SOX, OCT4 and TWIST have been reported. In the present study, we determined the expression of different stem cell markers and their variation in expression at different stages of the treatment process. Samples of EDTA blood were collected from metastatic colorectal cancer patients, and circulating cancer stem cells were isolated for the analysis of the expression of stem cell markers using RT-PCR. These findings were correlated with the response to therapy. All statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad Prism 5.03 software. Significant differences were found in the expression levels of the markers CD133, SOX2, OCT4 and TWIST1. No differences were found in c-Kit expression. Correlation in the expression levels of most of the markers was observed. Expression of CD133, OCT4, SOX2 and TWIST1 had a predictive value for colon cancer behavior. Evaluation of this stem cell gene expression panel may be useful for predicting the response during the process of treatment, and the relative easy access to samples facilitates this method. Moreover the correlation between CD133 and TWIST1 expression may be associated with tumor regrowth and metastatic relapse.

  2. Microenvironment mediated alterations to metabolic pathways confer increased chemo-resistance in CD133+ tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Alice; Dauer, Patricia; Gupta, Vineet; McGinn, Olivia; Arora, Nivedita; Majumdar, Kaustav; III, Charles Uhlrich; Dalluge, Joseph; Dudeja, Vikas; Saluja, Ashok; Banerjee, Sulagna

    2016-01-01

    Chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer has been attributed to tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a minor sub-population of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of chemo-resistance in these cells is still unclear. In the current study, immunohistochemical analysis of LSL-KrasG12D; LSL-Trp53R172H; PdxCre (KPC) murine tumors indicated that hypoxic regions developed through tumor progression. This hypoxic “niche” correlated with increased CD133+ population that had an increased HIF1A activity. Consistent with this observation, CD133+ cells had increased glucose uptake and activity of glycolytic pathway enzymes compared to CD133− cells. Mass spectrometric analysis (UPLC-TQD) following metabolic labeling of CD133+ cells with [13C]-U6 glucose confirmed this observation. Furthermore, although both populations had functionally active mitochondria, CD133+ cells had low mitochondrial complex I and complex IV activity and lesser accumulation of ROS in response to standard chemotherapeutic compounds like paclitaxel, 5FU and gemcitabine. CD133+ cells also showed increased resistance to all three chemotherapeutic compounds and treatment with Glut1 inhibitor (STF31) reversed this resistance, promoting apoptotic death in these cells similar to CD133− cells. Our study indicates that the altered metabolic profile of CD133+ pancreatic TIC protects them against apoptosis, by reducing accumulation of ROS induced by standard chemotherapeutic agents, thereby confering chemoresistance. Since resistance to existing chemotherapy contributes to the poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer, our study paves the way for identifying novel therapeutic targets for managing chemoresistance and tumor recurrence in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27472388

  3. GMP-based CD133+ cells isolation maintains progenitor angiogenic properties and enhances standardization in cardiovascular cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gaipa, Giuseppe; Tilenni, Manuela; Straino, Stefania; Burba, Ilaria; Zaccagnini, Germana; Belotti, Daniela; Biagi, Ettore; Valentini, Marco; Perseghin, Paolo; Parma, Matteo; Campli, Cristiana Di; Biondi, Andrea; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Pompilio, Giulio; Pesce, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a good manufacturing practice (GMP) compliant procedure for the preparation of bone marrow (BM) derived CD133+ cells for cardiovascular repair. Starting from available laboratory protocols to purify CD133+ cells from human cord blood, we implemented these procedures in a GMP facility and applied quality control conditions defining purity, microbiological safety and vitality of CD133+ cells. Validation of CD133+ cells isolation and release process were performed according to a two-step experimental program comprising release quality checking (step 1) as well as ‘proofs of principle’ of their phenotypic integrity and biological function (step 2). This testing program was accomplished using in vitro culture assays and in vivo testing in an immunosuppressed mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. These criteria and procedures were successfully applied to GMP production of CD133+ cells from the BM for an ongoing clinical trial of autologous stem cells administration into patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Our results show that GMP implementation of currently available protocols for CD133+ cells selection is feasible and reproducible, and enables the production of cells having a full biological potential according to the most recent quality requirements by European Regulatory Agencies. PMID:19627397

  4. [Clinical significance of CD44 and CD133 expression in oral potentially malignant disorder and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jiajia, Qi; Yan, Sun; Changqing, Yuan; Wenjing, Jiang; Han, Zhao; Yuanpan, Cao; Qiuyan, Liu

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the expression and relationship of CD44 and CD133 in normal oral mucosa, oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This work also analyzes the relationship between such expression and clinical factors. This study intends to evaluate the clinical value of using CD44 and CD133 as indices to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of OPMD. Clinical data from 60 patients with OPMD, 60 patients with OSCC, and 10 cases of normal oral mucosa were analyzed. Double immunohistochemical analysis was applied to investigate the expression of CD44 and CD133 in paraffin sections of normal oral mucosa, OPMD, and OSCC tissues. Subsequently, the relationships between such expression and clinical factors were analyzed. The positive rates of CD44 expression in the normal oral mucosa, OPMD, and OSCC tissues were 100.00%, 96.67%, and 71.67% (P<0.05), respectively. Meanwhile, the positive rates of CD133 expression in the normal oral mucosa, OPMD, and OSCC tissues were 0.00%, 35.00%, and 63.33% (P<0.05), respectively. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was found to be correlated (P<0.05). Such expression was related to the clinical stages and lymphatic metastasis of OSCC (P<0.05). CD44 and CD133 can be used individually as clinical indices to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of OPMD.
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  5. Convenient and efficient enrichment of the CD133+ liver cells from rat fetal liver as a source of liver stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihui; You, Nan; Dou, Kefeng

    2012-01-01

    Although stem cells are commonly isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or magnetic affinity cell sorting, they are very expensive, and they need known markers. However, there is no specific marker for liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs). Here, we describe a convenient and efficient method (three-step method) to enrich LSPCs. The fetal liver cells (FLCs) were firstly enriched by Percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation from the rat fetal liver. Then the FLCs in culture were purified to be homogeneous in size by differential trypsinization and differential adherence. Finally, fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPCs) were enriched from purified FLCs by Percoll continuous gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometric analysis combining with marker CD133 was used to detect the purity of FLSPCs and evaluate the isolating effects of the three-step method.

  6. Expansion of CD133+ Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells on a Biocompatible Microwells

    PubMed Central

    Soufizomorrod, Mina; Soleimani, Masoud; Hajifathali, Abbas; Mohammadi, Majid Mossahebi; Abroun, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord Blood (UCB) as a source of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor cells (HSPCs) used for Umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). The main obstacle in application of this source as an appropriate source of HSPCs is low volume of this product. So ex vivo expansion of these cells in a microenvironment which mimic body condition is important. In current study we designed biocompatible microwells in which collagene type I is coated by softlitography method. Our findings designated that in 3-Dimensional (3D) microenvironment CD133+ UCB derived HSC expanded significantly compared to 2-Dimensional (2D) microenvironment. PMID:24505514

  7. Imaging and Selective Elimination of Glioblastoma Stem Cells with Theranostic Near-Infrared-Labeled CD133-Specific Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Hua; Weidensteiner, Claudia; Reichardt, Wilfried; Gaedicke, Simone; Zhu, Xuekai; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), which employs monoclonal antibody (mAb)-phototoxic phthalocyanine dye IR700 conjugates, permits the specific, image-guided and spatiotemporally controlled elimination of tumor cells. Here, we report the highly efficient NIR-PIT of human tumor xenografts initiated from patient-derived cancer stem cells (CSCs). Using glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) expressing the prototypic CSC marker AC133/CD133, we also demonstrate here for the first time that NIR-PIT is highly effective against brain tumors. The intravenously injected theranostic AC133 mAb conjugate enabled the non-invasive detection of orthotopic gliomas by NIR fluorescence imaging, and reached AC133+ GBM-SCs at the invasive tumor front. AC133-targeted NIR-PIT induced the rapid cell death of AC133+ GBM-SCs and thereby strong shrinkage of both subcutaneous and invasively growing brain tumors. A single round of NIR-PIT extended the overall survival of mice with established orthotopic gliomas by more than a factor of two, even though the harmless NIR light was applied through the intact skull. Humanised versions of this theranostic agent may facilitate intraoperative imaging and histopathological evaluation of tumor borders and enable the highly specific and efficient eradication of CSCs. PMID:27162556

  8. The IMPACT-CABG trial: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial of CD133(+) stem cell therapy during coronary artery bypass grafting for ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Noiseux, Nicolas; Mansour, Samer; Weisel, Richard; Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Der Sarkissian, Shant; Tsang, Katherine; Crean, Andrew M; Larose, Eric; Li, Shu-Hong; Wintersperger, Bernd; Vu, Minh Quan; Prieto, Ignacio; Li, Ren-Ke; Roy, Denis Claude; Yau, Terrence M

    2016-12-01

    The IMPACT-CABG trial is the first North American multicenter phase II randomized study of intramyocardial delivery of autologous CD133(+) stem cells in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The primary objective was to demonstrate safety, including freedom from major adverse cardiac events. The secondary objective was to evaluate feasibility of same-day autologous cell preparation. Although the trial was not powered to evaluate LV function, exploratory data were collected. After 7 open-label patients who received cells, patients randomly received stem cells or placebo (N = 40 total, 20 per center). After completion of coronary anastomoses, up to 10 million CD133(+), CD34(+), CD45(+) triple-positive cells or placebo were injected into the infarct and border zones. Patients were followed up clinically and underwent magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively and after 6 months. There were no procedural complications from bone marrow isolation and cell injection, no in-hospital mortality, and no protocol-related complications. Four patients had transient renal insufficiency, with 1 death during 6-month follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions improved in all patients (no difference between groups). The trial successfully met both primary and secondary objectives, demonstrating that same-day isolation and autologous CD133(+) cell delivery with coronary artery bypass grafting is safe and feasible. The positive findings support a larger randomized, multicenter trial, with higher numbers of transplanted cells to demonstrate beneficial effects. The upcoming IMPACT-CABG II trial will evaluate higher cell doses and pharmacologic enhancement to determine whether these cells improve perfusion and myocardial function. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coencapsulation of epirubicin and metformin in PEGylated liposomes inhibits the recurrence of murine sarcoma S180 existing CD133+ cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Chunling; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Jing; Deng, Yihui

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, which constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells, are key drivers of tumorigenesis and potential recurrence of cancer. The CSC theory has brought new opportunities as well as challenges to the development of sophisticated drug delivery systems for treating cancer. In the present study, CD133+ cells were sorted from S180 cell lines by magnetic activated cell sorting and a fraction (approximately 1.01%) of CD133+ cells with higher proliferative potential and stronger tumorigenicity in vivo compared with CD133- cells was identified. Furthermore, a procedure for the coencapsulation of epirubicin (EPI) and metformin (MET) was developed with the primary goal of eradicating the bulk population of CD133- cells and the rare population of CD133+ cancer stem-like cells, thus ultimately preventing tumor relapse. The inhibitory effect of free MET was more potent in CD133+cells than in CD133- cells; in addition, EPI- and MET-coencapsulated liposomes exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD133+ cells compared with liposomal EPI alone. Meanwhile, tumors in KM mice were completely eliminated upon multiple intravenous injections of liposomal EPI and MET, and tumors virtually eliminated in the experimental period, which could be attributed to the arrest of CD133+ cells in the G0/G1 phase. The coencapsulation of an anti-CSC agent with conventional chemotherapy drugs in liposomes may be a promising drug delivery strategy for fighting cancer and eradicating tumor stem cells.

  10. Dysplasia of human prostate CD133(hi) sub-population in NOD-SCIDS is blocked by c-myc anti-sense.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, S M; Amatangelo, M D; Stearns, M E

    2009-05-15

    The CD133(hi) sub-population of prostate epithelial cells has been demonstrated to possess tumor-initiating capacity consistent with that of the cancer stem cell theory. However, the involvement of oncogenes such as c-myc has not been fully elucidated in the CD133(hi) sub-population. We have isolated primary prostate cell strains (IBC-10a) and immortalized them by transfection with hTERT. The in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic capacity of isolated CD133(hi) and CD133(lo) cells was evaluated with respect to c-myc expression using specific sense and anti-sense oligonucleotides. Freshly immortalized cells consisted of <3.3% CD133(hi)/CD24(hi) sub-population (SP). "Prostaspheres" generated from single CD133(hi) cells in the presence of EGF consisted of approximately 10% CD133(hi) SPs in 12-21 day cultures. A single Prostasphere generated from single CD133(hi) cells (6-10 cell stage at day 6 injected i.t.) produced dysplastic lesions in NOD-SCID mice (n = 4/5). Treatment of Prostaspheres from CD133(hi) SPs in vitro with c-myc or cyclin D1 anti-sense oligonucleotides totally blocked colony forming ability and growth. Furthermore, treatment of fully formed, 6-day Prostaspheres for 48 hr with c-myc anti-sense significantly reduced c-myc expression and their ability to generate lesions in NOD-SCIDs (n = 10 Prostaspheres injected i.t./mouse). These data demonstrate for the first time that a single CD133(hi) cell is competent to generate Prostaspheres in vitro and that CD133(hi) Prostaspheres require c-myc to grow and form dysplastic lesions in vivo. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Adenovirus-mediated truncated Bid overexpression induced by the Cre/LoxP system promotes the cell apoptosis of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Qifang; Yang, Ru; Lu, Weixian; Zhu, Weipei; Zhou, Jundong; Zheng, Cui; Zhou, Dongmei; Yu, Ling; Wu, Jinchang

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are a small subset of cancer cells that contribute to cancer progression, metastasis, chemoresistance and recurrence. CD133-positive (CD133+) ovarian cancer cells have been identified as ovarian cancer stem cells. Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy is an innovative therapeutic method for cancer treatment. In the present study, we aimed to develop a new gene therapy to specifically eliminate CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells by targeting CD133. We used the Cre/LoxP system to augment the selective expression of the truncated Bid (tBid) gene as suicide gene therapy in CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. The adenovirus (Ad)-CD133-Cre expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the CD133 promoter and Ad-CMV-LoxP-Neo-LoxP-tBid expressing tBid under the control of the CMV promoter were successfully constructed using the Cre/LoxP switching system. The co-infection of Ad-CMV-LoxP-Neo-LoxP-tBid and Ad-CD133-Cre selectively induced tBid overexpression, which inhibited cell growth and triggered the cell apoptosis of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. The Cre/LoxP system-mediated tBid overexpression activated the pro-apoptotic signaling pathway and augmented the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. Furthermore, in xenograft experiments, co-infection with the two recombinant adenoviruses markedly suppressed tumor growth in vivo and promoted cell apoptosis in tumor tissues. Taken together, the present study provides evidence that the adenovirus-mediated tBid overexpression induced by the Cre/LoxP system can effectively eliminate CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells, representing a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  12. Human Skeletal Muscle-derived CD133(+) Cells Form Functional Satellite Cells After Intramuscular Transplantation in Immunodeficient Host Mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jinhong; Chun, Soyon; Asfahani, Rowan; Lochmüller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of muscular dystrophies. In addition to muscle fiber formation, reconstitution of functional stem cell pool by donor cells is vital for long-term treatment. We show here that some CD133(+) cells within human muscle are located underneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers, in the position of the muscle satellite cell. Cultured hCD133(+) cells are heterogeneous and multipotent, capable of forming myotubes and reserve satellite cells in vitro. They contribute to extensive muscle regeneration and satellite cell formation following intramuscular transplantation into irradiated and cryodamaged tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient Rag2-/γ chain-/C5-mice. Some donor-derived satellite cells expressed the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, indicating that they were activated. In addition, when transplanted host muscles were reinjured, there was significantly more newly-regenerated muscle fibers of donor origin in treated than in control, nonreinjured muscles, indicating that hCD133(+) cells had given rise to functional muscle stem cells, which were able to activate in response to injury and contribute to a further round of muscle regeneration. Our findings provide new evidence for the location and characterization of hCD133(+) cells, and highlight that these cells are highly suitable for future clinical application.

  13. Human skeletal muscle-derived CD133(+) cells form functional satellite cells after intramuscular transplantation in immunodeficient host mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jinhong; Chun, Soyon; Asfahani, Rowan; Lochmüller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of muscular dystrophies. In addition to muscle fiber formation, reconstitution of functional stem cell pool by donor cells is vital for long-term treatment. We show here that some CD133(+) cells within human muscle are located underneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers, in the position of the muscle satellite cell. Cultured hCD133(+) cells are heterogeneous and multipotent, capable of forming myotubes and reserve satellite cells in vitro. They contribute to extensive muscle regeneration and satellite cell formation following intramuscular transplantation into irradiated and cryodamaged tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient Rag2-/γ chain-/C5-mice. Some donor-derived satellite cells expressed the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, indicating that they were activated. In addition, when transplanted host muscles were reinjured, there was significantly more newly-regenerated muscle fibers of donor origin in treated than in control, nonreinjured muscles, indicating that hCD133(+) cells had given rise to functional muscle stem cells, which were able to activate in response to injury and contribute to a further round of muscle regeneration. Our findings provide new evidence for the location and characterization of hCD133(+) cells, and highlight that these cells are highly suitable for future clinical application.

  14. GMP-conformant on-site manufacturing of a CD133(+) stem cell product for cardiovascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Skorska, Anna; Müller, Paula; Gaebel, Ralf; Große, Jana; Lemcke, Heiko; Lux, Cornelia A; Bastian, Manuela; Hausburg, Frauke; Zarniko, Nicole; Bubritzki, Sandra; Ruch, Ulrike; Tiedemann, Gudrun; David, Robert; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2017-02-10

    CD133(+) stem cells represent a promising subpopulation for innovative cell-based therapies in cardiovascular regeneration. Several clinical trials have shown remarkable beneficial effects following their intramyocardial transplantation. Yet, the purification of CD133(+) stem cells is typically performed in centralized clean room facilities using semi-automatic manufacturing processes based on magnetic cell sorting (MACS®). However, this requires time-consuming and cost-intensive logistics. CD133(+) stem cells were purified from patient-derived sternal bone marrow using the recently developed automatic CliniMACS Prodigy® BM-133 System (Prodigy). The entire manufacturing process, as well as the subsequent quality control of the final cell product (CP), were realized on-site and in compliance with EU guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practice. The biological activity of automatically isolated CD133(+) cells was evaluated and compared to manually isolated CD133(+) cells via functional assays as well as immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the regenerative potential of purified stem cells was assessed 3 weeks after transplantation in immunodeficient mice which had been subjected to experimental myocardial infarction. We established for the first time an on-site manufacturing procedure for stem CPs intended for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases using an automatized system. On average, 0.88 × 10(6) viable CD133(+) cells with a mean log10 depletion of 3.23 ± 0.19 of non-target cells were isolated. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these automatically isolated cells bear proliferation and differentiation capacities comparable to manually isolated cells in vitro. Moreover, the automatically generated CP shows equal cardiac regeneration potential in vivo. Our results indicate that the Prodigy is a powerful system for automatic manufacturing of a CD133(+) CP within few hours. Compared to conventional manufacturing processes, future clinical

  15. Paracrine proangiopoietic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived purified CD133+ cells--implications for stem cell therapies in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda; Mierzejewska, Kasia; Marlicz, Wojciech; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Greco, Nicholas J; Tendera, Michal; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2013-02-01

    CD133+ cells purified from hematopoietic tissues are enriched mostly for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, but also contain some endothelial progenitor cells and very small embryonic-like stem cells. CD133+ cells, which are akin to CD34+ cells, are a potential source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. However, the lack of convincing donor-derived chimerism in the damaged organs of patients treated with these cells suggests that the improvement in function involves mechanisms other than a direct contribution to the damaged tissues. We hypothesized that CD133+ cells secrete several paracrine factors that play a major role in the positive effects observed after treatment and tested supernatants derived from these cells for the presence of such factors. We observed that CD133+ cells and CD133+ cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) express mRNAs for several antiapoptotic and proangiopoietic factors, including kit ligand, insulin growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin-8. These factors were also detected in a CD133+ cell-derived conditioned medium (CM). More important, the CD133+ cell-derived CM and MVs chemoattracted endothelial cells and display proangiopoietic activity both in vitro and in vivo assays. This observation should be taken into consideration when evaluating clinical outcomes from purified CD133+ cell therapies in regenerative medicine.

  16. Identification and analysis of CD133(+) melanoma stem-like cells conferring resistance to taxol: An insight into the mechanisms of their resistance and response.

    PubMed

    El-Khattouti, Abdelouahid; Selimovic, Denis; Haïkel, Youssef; Megahed, Mosaad; Gomez, Christian R; Hassan, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    The presence and the involvement of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in tumor initiation and progression, and chemo-resistance are documented. Herein, we functionally analyzed melanoma stem-like cells (MSC)/CD133(+) cells on their resistance and response to taxol-induced apoptosis. Besides being taxol resistant, the CD133(+) cells demonstrated a growth advantage over the CD133(-) subpopulation. Taxol induced apoptosis on CD133(-) cells, but not on CD133(+) cells. In the CD133(-) subpopulation, the exposure to taxol induced the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase1 (ASK1)/c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways and Bax expression, while in CD133(+) cells taxol was able only to enhance the activity of the ERK pathway. In CD133(+) cells, the direct gene transfer of Bax overcame the acquired resistance to taxol. Taken together, our data provide an insight into the mechanistic cascade of melanoma resistance to taxol and suggest Bax gene transfer as a complementary approach to chemotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Nerve growth factor regulates CD133 function to promote tumor cell migration and invasion via activating ERK1/2 signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xin, Beibei; He, Xiaodan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti; Shen, Xiaohong

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is extremely high frequency among the various metastatic routes in pancreatic cancer. Nerve growth factor, secreted by astroglial cells, exerts effects on tumor invasion in some cancer cells, but its function on migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer is still unclear. In the present study, we determined the effects of NGF on modulating tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. NGF and CD133 expression were detected in tumor tissues using immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting analysis. The effects of NGF on the regulation of CD133 expression and the promotion of cancer migration and invasion were investigated using wound healing and matrigel transwell assay. A related mechanism that NGF regulates CD133's function via activating ERK1/2 signaling also was observed. NGF/CD133 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and promotes the migration and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells through the activation of the ERK/CD133 signaling cascade. NGF/ERK signaling modulates the cancer cell EMT process, migration and invasion through the regulation of CD133 expression and its subcellular localization. NGF/CD133 signaling initiated the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. NGF/CD133 might be an effective and potent therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer metastasis, particularly in PNI. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. VCAM-1 expression on dystrophic muscle vessels has a critical role in the recruitment of human blood-derived CD133+ stem cells after intra-arterial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gavina, Manuela; Belicchi, Marzia; Rossi, Barbara; Ottoboni, Linda; Colombo, Fabio; Meregalli, Mirella; Battistelli, Maurizio; Forzenigo, Laura; Biondetti, Piero; Pisati, Federica; Parolini, Daniele; Farini, Andrea; Issekutz, Andrew C; Bresolin, Nereo; Rustichelli, Franco; Constantin, Gabriela; Torrente, Yvan

    2006-10-15

    Recently our group demonstrated the myogenic capacity of human CD133(+) cells isolated from peripheral blood when delivered in vivo through the arterial circulation into the muscle of dystrophic scid/mdx mice. CD133(+) stem cells express the adhesion molecules CD44, LFA-1, PSGL-1, alpha4-integrins, L-selectin, and chemokine receptor CCR7. Moreover these cells adhere in vitro to VCAM-1 spontaneously and after stimulation with CCL19. Importantly, after muscle exercise, we found that the expression of VCAM-1 is strongly up-regulated in dystrophic muscle vessels, whereas the number of rolling and firmly adhered CD133(+) stem cells significantly increased. Moreover, human dystrophin expression was significantly increased when muscle exercise was performed 24 hours before the intra-arterial injection of human CD133(+) cells. Finally, treatment of exercised dystrophic mice with anti-VCAM-1 antibodies led to a dramatic blockade of CD133(+) stem cell migration into the dystrophic muscle. Our results show for the first time that the expression of VCAM-1 on dystrophic muscle vessels induced by exercise controls muscle homing of human CD133(+) stem cells, opening new perspectives for a potential therapy of muscular dystrophy based on the intra-arterial delivery of CD133(+) stem cells.

  19. Association Between Expression of Cancer Stem Cell Markers and Poor Differentiation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis (PRISMA).

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Shen, Yuan; Nan, Kejun; Mi, Baibing; Wu, Tao; Guo, Jinyue; Li, Miaojing; Lv, Yi; Guo, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The role of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis to first investigate the association between expression of CSC markers (CD133, CD90, CD44, and EpCAM) and poor differentiation of HCC, and second, to determine if these CSC markers can be classified as biomarkers for patient classification and HCC differentiated therapy.The relevant literature was searched using PubMed, EMBASE, Elsevier, and Chinese Biological Medicine databases for association between CSC markers and HCC from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2014. Data were synthesized using random-effect or fixed-effect models. The effect sizes were estimated by measuring odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).The meta-analysis included 27 studies consisting of 2897 patients with HCC. The positive expression of CSC markers was associated with poor differentiation (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 2.03-2.77, P < 0.00001). Similarly, the positive expression of CSC markers was only associated with HCC tissues compared with noncancerous liver tissues (OR = 9.26, 95% CI = 3.10-27.65, P < 0.0001). CD90 has a specificity of 91.9% for HCC and a sensitivity of 48.22% in predicting poor differentiation.The positive expression of CSC markers is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive phenotype of patients with HCC. The CD90 marker might be a promising target for patient with HCC classification and differentiation therapy.

  20. Marker imputation in barley association studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Association mapping requires higher marker density than linkage mapping, potentially leading to more missing marker data and to higher genotyping costs. In human genetics, methods exist to impute missing marker data and whole markers that were typed in a reference panel but not in the experimental d...

  1. Monoclonal Antibodies 13A4 and AC133 Do Not Recognize the Canine Ortholog of Mouse and Human Stem Cell Antigen Prominin-1 (CD133)

    PubMed Central

    Thamm, Kristina; Graupner, Sylvi; Werner, Carsten; Huttner, Wieland B.; Corbeil, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein prominin-1 (CD133) is widely used in medicine as a cell surface marker of stem and cancer stem cells. It has opened new avenues in stem cell-based regenerative therapy and oncology. This molecule is largely used with human samples or the mouse model, and consequently most biological tools including antibodies are directed against human and murine prominin-1. Although the general structure of prominin-1 including its membrane topology is conserved throughout the animal kingdom, its primary sequence is poorly conserved. Thus, it is unclear if anti-human and -mouse prominin-1 antibodies cross-react with their orthologs in other species, especially dog. Answering this issue is imperative in light of the growing number of studies using canine prominin-1 as an antigenic marker. Here, we address this issue by cloning the canine prominin-1 and use its overexpression as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine its immunoreactivity with antibodies against human or mouse prominin-1. We used immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and immunoblotting techniques and surprisingly found no cross-species immunoreactivity. These results raise some caution in data interpretation when anti-prominin-1 antibodies are used in interspecies studies. PMID:27701459

  2. Intrathecal injection of CD133-positive enriched bone marrow progenitor cells in children with cerebral palsy: feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Zali, Alireza; Arab, Leila; Ashrafi, Farzad; Mardpour, Soura; Niknejhadi, Maryam; Hedayati-Asl, Amir Abbas; Halimi-Asl, Aliasghar; Ommi, Davood; Hosseini, Seyyedeh-Esmat; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have proposed that cellular transplantation may have some regenerative and functional efficacy in the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP); however, much remains to be understood regarding its safety, feasibility and efficacy. This study was initiated to evaluate the safety of autologous bone marrow-derived CD133(+) cell intrathecal injection. Children (n = 12), aged 4 to 12 years, who were diagnosed with different types of CP underwent BM aspiration. CD133(+) cells were enriched from the BM samples and intrathecally injected. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), UK FIM+FAM, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) were assessed at baseline and 6 months after the procedure. Patients' ability to balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and severity of spasticity was evaluated by the Modified Ashworth Scale. Magnetic resonance imaging was done at baseline and 6 months after therapy. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01404663). There were no adverse events detected by clinical and laboratory tests or imaging studies, with the exception of a seizure in 1 patient. A significant improvement was observed 6 months after cell transplantation versus baseline according to GMFM, GMFCS, FIM+FAM, Ashworth Scale, and BBS outcomes. Subarachnoid injection of CD133-positive enriched bone marrow progenitor cells in children with CP is a safe approach. The results suggest a possible short-term improvement in neurological function. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of The Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor кB and RANK Ligand on In Vitro Differentiation of Cord Blood CD133+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Nasim; Abroun, Saeid; Soleimani, Masoud; Kaviani, Saeid; Azad, Mehdi; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Habibi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) appears to be an osteoclast-activating factor, bearing an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Some studies demonstrated that U-266 myeloma cell line and primary myeloma cells expressed RANK and RANKL. It had been reported that the expression of myeloid and monocytoid markers was increased by co-culturing myeloma cells with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). This study also attempted to show the molecular mechanism of RANK and RANKL on differentiation capability of human cord blood HSC to osteoclast, as well as expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) on cord blood HSC surface. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood and cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. Osteoclast differentiation was characterized by using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, giemsa staining, immunophenotyping, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for specific genes. Results Hematopoietic stem cells expressed RANK before and after differentiation into osteoclast. Compared to control group, flow cytometric results showed an increased expression of RANK after differentiation. Expression of CTR mRNA showed TRAP reaction was positive in some differentiated cells, including osteoclast cells. Conclusion Presence of RANKL and M-CSF in bone marrow could induce HSCs differentiation into osteoclast. PMID:27602313

  4. LNA aptamer based multi-modal, Fe3O4-saturated lactoferrin (Fe3O4-bLf) nanocarriers for triple positive (EpCAM, CD133, CD44) colon tumor targeting and NIR, MRI and CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2015-12-01

    This is the first ever attempt to combine anti-cancer therapeutic effects of emerging anticancer biodrug bovine lactoferrin (bLf), and multimodal imaging efficacy of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) together, as a saturated Fe3O4-bLf. For cancer stem cell specific uptake of nanocapsules/nanocarriers (NCs), Fe3O4-bLf was encapsulated in alginate enclosed chitosan coated calcium phosphate (AEC-CP) NCs targeted (Tar) with locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified aptamers against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nucleolin markers. The nanoformulation was fed orally to mice injected with triple positive (EpCAM, CD133, CD44) sorted colon cancer stem cells in the xenograft cancer stem cell mice model. The complete regression of tumor was observed in 70% of mice fed on non-targeted (NT) NCs, with 30% mice showing tumor recurrence after 30 days, while only 10% mice fed with Tar NCs showed tumor recurrence indicating a significantly higher survival rate. From tumor tissue analyses of 35 apoptotic markers, 55 angiogenesis markers, 40 cytokines, 15 stem cell markers and gene expression studies of important signaling molecules, it was revealed that the anti-cancer mechanism of Fe3O4-bLf was intervened through TRAIL, Fas, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) mediated phosphorylation of p53, to induce activation of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC)/DIABLO (inhibiting survivin) and mitochondrial depolarization leading to release of cytochrome C. Induction of apoptosis was observed by inhibition of the Akt pathway and activation of cytokines released from monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells (interleukin (IL) 27, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)). On the other hand, the recurrence of tumor in AEC-CP-Fe3O4-bLf NCs fed mice mainly occurred due to activation of alternative pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and Wnt signaling leading to an increase in expression of survivin

  5. CD133+, CD166+CD44+, and CD24+CD44+ phenotypes fail to reliably identify cell populations with cancer stem cell functional features in established human colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Manuele Giuseppe; Mele, Valentina; Däster, Silvio; Han, Junyi; Heberer, Michael; Cesare Spagnoli, Giulio; Iezzi, Giandomenica

    2012-08-01

    Increasing evidence that cancers originate from small populations of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies and regenerating the original tumor, urges the development of novel CSC-targeted treatments. Screening of new anticancer compounds is conventionally conducted on established tumor cell lines, providing sufficient material for high-throughput studies. Whether tumor cell lines might comprise CSC populations resembling those of primary tumors, however, remains highly debated. We have analyzed the expression of defined phenotypic profiles, including CD133+, CD166+CD44+, and CD24+CD44+, reported as CSC-specific in human primary colorectal cancer (CRC), on a panel of 10 established CRC cell lines and evaluated their correlation with CSC properties. None of the putative CSC phenotypes consistently correlated with stem cell-like features, including spheroid formation ability, clonogenicity, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, and side population phenotype. Importantly, CRC cells expressing putative CSC markers did not exhibit increased survival when treated with chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro or display higher tumorigenicity in vivo. Thus, the expression of CD133 or the coexpression of CD166/CD44 or CD24/CD44 did not appear to reliably identify CSC populations in established CRC cell lines. Our findings question the suitability of cell lines for the screening of CSC-specific therapies and underline the urgency of developing novel platforms for anticancer drug discovery.

  6. Culturing in serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I-coated plate increases expression of CD133 and retains original phenotype of HT-29 cancer stem cell.

    PubMed

    Arab-Bafrani, Zahra; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mehdi; Saberi, Alihossein; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Manshaee, Samira

    2016-01-01

    A sub-population of tumor cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) has an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and recurrence. Selecting a suitable procedure for isolation and enrichment of CSCs is the biggest challenge in the study of CSCs. In the present study, the role of the combination of stem cell culture medium and collagen type-I was evaluated for successful isolation and enrichment of HT-29 CSCs. HT-29 cells were cultured in serum-containing medium (parental culture medium: Medium + 10% fetal bovine serum) and serum-free medium (stem cell culture medium); both on collagen-coated plates. Spheres forming ability and CD133 expression, as a potential marker of colorectal CSCs, were evaluated in two culture mediums. The results show spheroids usually give rise completely within 15 days in the stem cell culture medium on the collagen-coated plate. CD133 expression in spheroid cells (84%) is extensively higher than in parental cells (25%). Moreover, relative to parental cells, spheroid cells were more radioresistance. Finding of this study suggested that CSCs derived from colon cancer cell line (HT-29) can be propagated and form colonospheres in serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I. According to maintenance of their original phenotype in these conditions, it seems serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I is a suitable way to drug screening of HT-29 CSCs.

  7. An alternatively spliced variant of CXCR3 mediates the metastasis of CD133+ liver cancer cells induced by CXCL9.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qiang; Xia, Yujia; Ding, Shuping; Lu, Panpan; Sun, Liang; Liu, Mei

    2016-03-22

    Metastasis of liver cancer is closely linked to tumor microenvironment, in which chemokines and their receptors act in an important role. The CXCR3, the receptor of chemokine CXCL9, belongs to a superfamily of rhodopsin-like seven transmembrane GPCRs and CXCR subfamily. In HCC tissues, CXCR3 was frequently upregulated and correlated with tumor size, tumor differentiation, portal invasion and metastasis. In the study, CXCR3-A isoform that was bound by CXCL9 was found to cause significant change of ERK1/2 phosphorylation level in the MAPK signaling pathway, consequently upregulating the MMP2 and MMP9 expression and promoting invasion and metastasis of CD133+ liver cancer cells. Also, CXCR3-A suppressed the adhesion ability of CD133+ liver cancer cells that stimulated by CXCL9 for 24h. These findings suggest that CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 could promote the metastasis of liver cancer cells and might be a potential target for the intervention of liver cancer metastasis.

  8. Paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles decorated with anti-CD133 antibody: a targeted therapy for liver cancer stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cheng; Yang, Zhaoxu; Yang, Jingyue; Li, Haimin; He, Yong; An, Jiaze; Bai, Ling; Dou, Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the existence of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs). Therefore, there is an urgent need for new and effective treatment strategies specific to liver CSCs. In this work, the poly( d, l-lactide-coglycolide) nanoparticles containing paclitaxel were prepared by emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticles decorated with anti-CD133 antibody, termed targeted nanoparticles, were prepared by carbodiimide chemistry for liver CSCs. The physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles (i.e., encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, morphology, and in vitro release) were investigated. Cellular uptake and accumulation in tumor tissue of nanoparticles were observed. To assess anti-tumor activity of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo, cell survival assay and tumor regression study were carried out using liver cancer cell lines (Huh7 and HepG2) and their xenografts. Particle size of targeted nanoparticles was 429.26 ± 41.53 nm with zeta potential of -11.2 mV. Targeted nanoparticles possessed spherical morphology and high encapsulation efficiency (87.53 ± 5.9 %). The accumulation of targeted nanoparticles depends on dual effects of passive and active targeting. Drug-loaded nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity on the tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Targeted nanoparticles resulted in significant improvement in therapeutic response through selectively eliminating CD133 positive subpopulation. These results suggested that the novel nanoparticles could be a promising candidate with excellent therapeutic efficacy for targeting liver CSCs.

  9. Self-renewal of CD133hi cells by IL6/Notch3 signalling regulates endocrine resistance in metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Pasquale; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Berishaj, Marjan; Chang, Qing; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K.; Perna, Fabiana; Bowman, Robert L.; Vidone, Michele; Daly, Laura; Nnoli, Jennifer; Santini, Donatella; Taffurelli, Mario; Shih, Natalie N. C.; Feldman, Michael; Mao, Jun J.; Colameco , Christopher; Chen, Jinbo; DeMichele, Angela; Fabbri, Nicola; Healey, John H.; Cricca, Monica; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Lyden, David; Bonafé, Massimiliano; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of metastatic progression from hormonal therapy (HT) are largely unknown in luminal breast cancer. Here we demonstrate the enrichment of CD133hi/ERlo cancer cells in clinical specimens following neoadjuvant endocrine therapy and in HT refractory metastatic disease. We develop experimental models of metastatic luminal breast cancer and demonstrate that HT can promote the generation of HT-resistant, self-renewing CD133hi/ERlo/IL6hi cancer stem cells (CSCs). HT initially abrogates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) generating self-renewal-deficient cancer cells, CD133hi/ERlo/OXPHOSlo. These cells exit metabolic dormancy via an IL6-driven feed-forward ERlo-IL6hi-Notchhi loop, activating OXPHOS, in the absence of ER activity. The inhibition of IL6R/IL6-Notch pathways switches the self-renewal of CD133hi CSCs, from an IL6/Notch-dependent one to an ER-dependent one, through the re-expression of ER. Thus, HT induces an OXPHOS metabolic editing of luminal breast cancers, paradoxically establishing HT-driven self-renewal of dormant CD133hi/ERlo cells mediating metastatic progression, which is sensitive to dual targeted therapy. PMID:26858125

  10. Self-renewal of CD133(hi) cells by IL6/Notch3 signalling regulates endocrine resistance in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Pasquale; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Berishaj, Marjan; Chang, Qing; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Perna, Fabiana; Bowman, Robert L; Vidone, Michele; Daly, Laura; Nnoli, Jennifer; Santini, Donatella; Taffurelli, Mario; Shih, Natalie N C; Feldman, Michael; Mao, Jun J; Colameco, Christopher; Chen, Jinbo; DeMichele, Angela; Fabbri, Nicola; Healey, John H; Cricca, Monica; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Lyden, David; Bonafé, Massimiliano; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2016-02-09

    The mechanisms of metastatic progression from hormonal therapy (HT) are largely unknown in luminal breast cancer. Here we demonstrate the enrichment of CD133(hi)/ER(lo) cancer cells in clinical specimens following neoadjuvant endocrine therapy and in HT refractory metastatic disease. We develop experimental models of metastatic luminal breast cancer and demonstrate that HT can promote the generation of HT-resistant, self-renewing CD133(hi)/ER(lo)/IL6(hi) cancer stem cells (CSCs). HT initially abrogates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) generating self-renewal-deficient cancer cells, CD133(hi)/ER(lo)/OXPHOS(lo). These cells exit metabolic dormancy via an IL6-driven feed-forward ER(lo)-IL6(hi)-Notch(hi) loop, activating OXPHOS, in the absence of ER activity. The inhibition of IL6R/IL6-Notch pathways switches the self-renewal of CD133(hi) CSCs, from an IL6/Notch-dependent one to an ER-dependent one, through the re-expression of ER. Thus, HT induces an OXPHOS metabolic editing of luminal breast cancers, paradoxically establishing HT-driven self-renewal of dormant CD133(hi)/ER(lo) cells mediating metastatic progression, which is sensitive to dual targeted therapy.

  11. Mobilization of human CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133(-) stem cells in vivo by consumption of an extract from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae--related to modulation of CXCR4 expression by an L-selectin ligand?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Hart, Aaron N; Zaske, Lue A M; Drapeau, Christian; Gupta, Niraj; Schaeffer, David J; Cruickshank, J Alex

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate effects on human stem cells in vitro and in vivo of an extract from the edible cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) enriched for a novel ligand for human CD62L (L-selectin). Ligands for CD62L provide a mechanism for stem cell mobilization in conjunction with down-regulation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor for stromal derived factor 1. Affinity immunoprecipitation was used to identify a novel ligand for CD62L from a water extract from AFA. The effects of AFA water extract on CD62L binding and CXCR4 expression was tested in vitro using human bone marrow CD34+ cells and the two progenitor cell lines, KG1a and K562. A double-blind randomized crossover study involving 12 healthy subjects evaluated the effects of consumption on stem cell mobilization in vivo. An AFA extract rich in the CD62L ligand reduced the fucoidan-mediated externalization of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor on bone marrow CD34+ cells by 30% and the CD62L+ CD34+ cell line KG1A by 50% but did not alter the CXCR4 expression levels on the CD34(-) cell line K562. A transient, 18% increase in numbers of circulating CD34+ stem cells maximized 1 hour after consumption (P<.0003). When 3 noncompliant volunteers were removed from analysis, the increase in CD34+ cells was 25% (P<.0001). AFA water extract contains a novel ligand for CD62L. It modulates CXCR4 expression on CD34+ bone marrow cells in vitro and triggers the mobilization of CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133(-) cells in vivo.

  12. Jagged-1 Signaling in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment Promotes Endothelial Progenitor Cell Expansion and Commitment of CD133+ Human Cord Blood Cells for Postnatal Vasculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ishige-Wada, Mika; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Eguchi, Masamichi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Iwaguro, Hideki; Matsumoto, Taro; Fukuda, Noboru; Mugishima, Hideo; Masuda, Haruchika; Asahara, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling is involved in cell fate decisions during murine vascular development and hematopoiesis in the microenvironment of bone marrow. To investigate the close relationship between hematopoietic stem cells and human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the bone marrow niche, we examined the effects of Notch signals [Jagged-1 and Delta-like ligand (Dll)-1] on the proliferation and differentiation of human CD133+ cell-derived EPCs. We established stromal systems using HESS-5 murine bone marrow cells transfected with human Jagged-1 (hJagged-1) or human Dll-1 (hDll-1). CD133+ cord blood cells were co-cultured with the stromal cells for 7 days, and then their proliferation, differentiation, and EPC colony formation was evaluated. We found that hJagged-1 induced the proliferation and differentiation of CD133+ cord blood EPCs. In contrast, hDll-1 had little effect. CD133+ cells stimulated by hJagged-1 differentiated into CD31+/KDR+ cells, expressed vascular endothelial growth factor-A, and showed enhanced EPC colony formation compared with CD133+ cells stimulated by hDll-1. To evaluate the angiogenic properties of hJagged-1- and hDll-1-stimulated EPCs in vivo, we transplanted these cells into the ischemic hindlimbs of nude mice. Transplantation of EPCs stimulated by hJagged-1, but not hDll-1, increased regional blood flow and capillary density in ischemic hindlimb muscles. This is the first study to show that human Notch signaling influences EPC proliferation and differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment. Human Jagged-1 induced the proliferation and differentiation of CD133+ cord blood progenitors compared with hDll-1. Thus, hJagged-1 signaling in the bone marrow niche may be used to expand EPCs for therapeutic angiogenesis.

  13. Jagged-1 Signaling in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment Promotes Endothelial Progenitor Cell Expansion and Commitment of CD133+ Human Cord Blood Cells for Postnatal Vasculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ishige-Wada, Mika; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Eguchi, Masamichi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Iwaguro, Hideki; Matsumoto, Taro; Fukuda, Noboru; Mugishima, Hideo; Masuda, Haruchika; Asahara, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling is involved in cell fate decisions during murine vascular development and hematopoiesis in the microenvironment of bone marrow. To investigate the close relationship between hematopoietic stem cells and human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the bone marrow niche, we examined the effects of Notch signals [Jagged-1 and Delta-like ligand (Dll)-1] on the proliferation and differentiation of human CD133+ cell-derived EPCs. We established stromal systems using HESS-5 murine bone marrow cells transfected with human Jagged-1 (hJagged-1) or human Dll-1 (hDll-1). CD133+ cord blood cells were co-cultured with the stromal cells for 7 days, and then their proliferation, differentiation, and EPC colony formation was evaluated. We found that hJagged-1 induced the proliferation and differentiation of CD133+ cord blood EPCs. In contrast, hDll-1 had little effect. CD133+ cells stimulated by hJagged-1 differentiated into CD31+/KDR+ cells, expressed vascular endothelial growth factor-A, and showed enhanced EPC colony formation compared with CD133+ cells stimulated by hDll-1. To evaluate the angiogenic properties of hJagged-1- and hDll-1-stimulated EPCs in vivo, we transplanted these cells into the ischemic hindlimbs of nude mice. Transplantation of EPCs stimulated by hJagged-1, but not hDll-1, increased regional blood flow and capillary density in ischemic hindlimb muscles. This is the first study to show that human Notch signaling influences EPC proliferation and differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment. Human Jagged-1 induced the proliferation and differentiation of CD133+ cord blood progenitors compared with hDll-1. Thus, hJagged-1 signaling in the bone marrow niche may be used to expand EPCs for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:27846321

  14. Overexpression of angiopoietin-1 increases CD133+/c-kit+ cells and reduces myocardial apoptosis in db/db mouse infarcted hearts.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Heng; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Jian-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cells have been shown to be involved in myocardial healing following myocardial infarction (MI). Previously we demonstrated that angiopoietin-1(Ang-1) is beneficial in the repair of diabetic infarcted hearts. We now investigate whether Ang-1 affects CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cell recruitment to the infarcted myocardium thereby mediating cardiac repair in type II (db/db) diabetic mice. db/db mice were administered either adenovirus Ang-1 (Ad-Ang-1) or Ad-β-gal systemically immediately after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Overexpression of Ang-1 resulted in a significant increase in CXCR-4/SDF-1α expression and promoted CD133(+)/c-kit(+), CD133(+)/CXCR-4(+) and CD133(+)/SDF-1α(+) cell recruitment into ischemic hearts. Overexpression of Ang-1 led to significant increases in number of CD31(+) and smooth muscle-like cells and VEGF expression in bone marrow (BM). This was accompanied by significant decreases in cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis and an increase in myocardial capillary density. Ang-1 also upregulated Jagged-1, Notch3 and apelin expression followed by increases in arteriole formation in the infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, overexpression of Ang-1 resulted in a significant improvement of cardiac functional recovery after 14 days of ischemia. Our data strongly suggest that Ang-1 attenuates cardiac apoptosis and promotes cardiac repair by a mechanism involving in promoting CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cells and angiogenesis in diabetic db/db mouse infarcted hearts.

  15. Elevated expression of Nrf2 mediates multidrug resistance in CD133+ head and neck squamous cell carcinoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bao-Cai; Li, Jing; Yu, Wen-Fa; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Hui-Min; Ma, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein ABC sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) in cancer stem cells (CSCs) plays a major role in chemotherapeutic drug efflux, which results in therapy failure and tumor relapse. In addition to downregulating apoptosis in CSCs, it has been reported that the transcriptional upregulation of the redox sensing factor Nrf2 is involved in the upregulation of ABCG2 expression and consequent chemoresistance. The current study investigated the presence of cancer stem-like side population (SP) cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) samples, and evaluated the Nrf2 expression profile and multidrug resistance properties of HNSCC stem cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used for SP cells detection, while reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for the analysis of Nrf2 expression. The present study identified ~2.1% SP cells present in HNSCC specimens, which were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)133 expression and displayed significantly elevated messenger RNA expression of Nrf2, compared with non-SP cells. These data suggest that the ABC transporter ABCG2 is highly upregulated in SP cells, and this results in multidrug resistance. In addition, these CD133+ cells underwent rapid proliferation and exhibited high self-renewal and tumorigenic properties. Taken together, the present findings suggest that elevated expression of Nrf2 mediated drug resistance in HNSCC CSCs, which may be one of the causative factors for cancer treatment failure. Therefore, novel anti-cancer drugs that downregulate the Nrf2 signaling pathway could effectively improve the treatment and survival rate of patients with HNSCC. PMID:28101198

  16. Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma Cell Lines: Implication of MGMT, MMR, P-Glycoprotein and CD133 Expression.

    PubMed

    Perazzoli, Gloria; Prados, Jose; Ortiz, Raul; Caba, Octavio; Cabeza, Laura; Berdasco, Maria; Gónzalez, Beatriz; Melguizo, Consolación

    2015-01-01

    The use of temozolomide (TMZ) has improved the prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients. However, TMZ resistance may be one of the main reasons why treatment fails. Although this resistance has frequently been linked to the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) it seems that this enzyme is not the only molecular mechanism that may account for the appearance of drug resistance in glioblastoma multiforme patients as the mismatch repair (MMR) complex, P-glycoprotein, and/or the presence of cancer stem cells may also be implicated. Four nervous system tumor cell lines were used to analyze the modulation of MGMT expression and MGMT promoter methylation by TMZ treatment. Furthermore, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate the MGMT promoter and O(6)-benzylguanine to block GMT activity. In addition, MMR complex and P-glycoprotein expression were studied before and after TMZ exposure and correlated with MGMT expression. Finally, the effect of TMZ exposure on CD133 expression was analyzed. Our results showed two clearly differentiated groups of tumor cells characterized by low (A172 and LN229) and high (SF268 and SK-N-SH) basal MGMT expression. Interestingly, cell lines with no MGMT expression and low TMZ IC50 showed a high MMR complex expression, whereas cell lines with high MGMT expression and high TMZ IC50 did not express the MMR complex. In addition, modulation of MGMT expression in A172 and LN229 cell lines was accompanied by a significant increase in the TMZ IC50, whereas no differences were observed in SF268 and SK-N-SH cell lines. In contrast, P-glycoprotein and CD133 was found to be unrelated to TMZ resistance in these cell lines. These results may be relevant in understanding the phenomenon of TMZ resistance, especially in glioblastoma multiforme patients laking MGMT expression, and may also aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of TMZ in glioblastoma multiforme patients.

  17. HGF and SDF-1-mediated mobilization of CD133+ BMSC for hepatic regeneration following extensive liver resection.

    PubMed

    Lehwald, Nadja; Duhme, Constanze; Wildner, Marina; Kuhn, Stephanie; Fürst, Günter; Forbes, Stuart J; Jonas, Sven; Robson, Simon C; Knoefel, Wolfram T; Schmelzle, Moritz; Schulte Am Esch, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) mobilization and homing to the liver after partial hepatectomy (PH) remain largely unexplored. Functional liver volume loss and regain was determined by computerized tomography (CT) volumetry in 30 patients following PH. Peripheral HSC mobilization was investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assays. Migration of purified HSC towards hepatic growth factor (HGF) and stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) gradients was tested in vitro. Mice after 70% PH were examined for HSC mobilization by FACS and cytokine mRNA expression in the liver. FACS-sorted HSC were administered after PH and hepatocyte proliferation was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for Ki67. Impaired liver function was noted after extended hepatic resection when compared to smaller resections. Patients with large liver resections were characterized by significantly higher levels of peripheral HSC which were positively correlated with the extent of resected liver volume and its regain after 3 weeks. Increased plasma levels of HGF, SDF-1 and insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) were evident within the first 6 hours post resection. Migration assays of human HSC in vitro showed a specific target-demonstrated migration towards recombinant HGF and SDF-1 gradients in a concentration and specific receptor (c-Met and CXCR4) dependent manner. The evaluation of peripheral human alpha foetoprotein expression demonstrated pronounced stemness following increased CD133(+) HSC in the course of liver regeneration following PH. Our human data were further validated in a murine model of PH and furthermore demonstrated increased hepatocyte proliferation subsequent to CD133(+) HSC treatment. HGF and SDF-1 are required for effective HSC mobilization and homing to the liver after hepatic resection. These findings have significant implications for potential therapeutic strategies targeting

  18. Crosstalk-eliminated quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular cancer stem cells based on concurrent monitoring of CD133, CD44, and aldehyde dehydrogenase1.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hee; Shim, Yumi; Arumugam, Parthasarathy; Song, Joon Myong

    2016-01-22

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), known as tumor initiating cells, have become a critically important issue for cancer therapy. Although much research has demonstrated the induction of hepato cellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1, the formation of hepatocellular CSCs and their quantitative determination is hardly reported. In this work, it was found that hepatocellular CSCs were produced from HepG2 cells by aflatoxin B1-induced mutation, and their amount was quantitatively determined using crosstalk-eliminated multicolor cellular imaging based on quantum dot (Qdot) nanoprobes and an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). Hepatocellular CSCs were acquired via magnetic bead-based sorting and observed using concurrent detection of three different markers: CD133, CD44, and aldehyde dehydrogenase1 (ALDH1). The DNA mutation of HepG2 cells caused by aflatoxin B1 was quantitatively observed via absorbance spectra of aflatoxin B1-8, 9-epoxide-DNA adducts. The percentages of hepatocellular CSCs formed in the entire HepG2 cells were determined to be 9.77±0.65%, 10.9±1.39%, 11.4±1.32%, and 12.8±0.7%, respectively, at 0 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, and 20 μM of aflatoxin B1. The results matched well with those obtained utilizing flow cytometry. This study demonstrates that aflatoxin mediated mutation induced the conversion of hepatic cancer cell to hepatic CSCs by using a Qdot based constructed multicolor cellular imaging system.

  19. Quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133(+) cancer stem cells of human colorectal HT29 cancer cell line and enhances anticancer effects of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Movahhed, Tahereh Komeili; Barzegar, Elmira; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Azizi, Ebrahim

    2015-07-01

    The colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) with the CD133(+) phenotype are a rare fraction of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation and resistance to treatment. Quercetin has anticancer effects with the advantage of exhibiting low side effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anticancer effects of quercetin and doxorubicin (Dox) in HT29 cancer cells and its isolated CD133(+) CSCs. The CSCs from HT29 cells were isolated using CD133 antibody conjugated to magnetic beads by MACS. Anticancer effects of quercetin and Dox alone and in combination on HT29 cells and CSCs were evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. The CD133(+) CSCs comprised about 10% of HT29 cells. Quercetin and Dox alone and in combination inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. Quercetin enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of Dox at low concentration in both cell populations. Quercetin and Dox and their combination induced G2/M arrest in the HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. The CSCs were a minor population with a significantly high level of drug resistance within the HT29 cancer cells. Quercetin alone exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells and also increased cytoxicity of Dox in combination therapy. Altogether, our data showed that adding quercetin to Dox chemotherapy is an effective strategy for treatment of both CSCs and bulk tumor cells.

  20. Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma Cell Lines: Implication of MGMT, MMR, P-Glycoprotein and CD133 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Jose; Caba, Octavio; Cabeza, Laura; Berdasco, Maria; Gónzalez, Beatriz; Melguizo, Consolación

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of temozolomide (TMZ) has improved the prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients. However, TMZ resistance may be one of the main reasons why treatment fails. Although this resistance has frequently been linked to the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) it seems that this enzyme is not the only molecular mechanism that may account for the appearance of drug resistance in glioblastoma multiforme patients as the mismatch repair (MMR) complex, P-glycoprotein, and/or the presence of cancer stem cells may also be implicated. Methods Four nervous system tumor cell lines were used to analyze the modulation of MGMT expression and MGMT promoter methylation by TMZ treatment. Furthermore, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate the MGMT promoter and O(6)-benzylguanine to block GMT activity. In addition, MMR complex and P-glycoprotein expression were studied before and after TMZ exposure and correlated with MGMT expression. Finally, the effect of TMZ exposure on CD133 expression was analyzed. Results Our results showed two clearly differentiated groups of tumor cells characterized by low (A172 and LN229) and high (SF268 and SK-N-SH) basal MGMT expression. Interestingly, cell lines with no MGMT expression and low TMZ IC50 showed a high MMR complex expression, whereas cell lines with high MGMT expression and high TMZ IC50 did not express the MMR complex. In addition, modulation of MGMT expression in A172 and LN229 cell lines was accompanied by a significant increase in the TMZ IC50, whereas no differences were observed in SF268 and SK-N-SH cell lines. In contrast, P-glycoprotein and CD133 was found to be unrelated to TMZ resistance in these cell lines. Conclusions These results may be relevant in understanding the phenomenon of TMZ resistance, especially in glioblastoma multiforme patients laking MGMT expression, and may also aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of TMZ in glioblastoma

  1. Effect of hepatitis B virus infection on trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo) and choriocarcinoma cell line (JEG3) is linked to CD133-2 (AC141) expression.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Chen, Jing; Na, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the chronic carrier state in China. In our studies, the response of trophoblast cell and choriocarcinoma cell to HBV infection regarding the expression of CD133-2 (AC141) was evaluated. Western blot and RT-PCR showed that a high level of CD133-2 protein and mRNA in HTR-8/SVneo cells, but a low level in JEG-3 cells. Lower proliferation and mobility, and higher apoptosis were observed in HTR-8/SVneo cells and JEG-3-CD133-2(+) cells after HBV infection than those in HTR-8-CD133-2(-) cells and JEG-3 cells. Our main finding is that CD133-negative cells (HTR-8-CD133-2(-) and JEG-3) are prone to HBV infection. In the last, our data indicated that the activation of Smad signaling pathway and the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CD133-negative cells after HBV infection. In summary, our study demonstrated that CD133 is a key factor that mediated HBV infection to trophoblast cell and choriocarcinoma cell.

  2. Wogonin suppresses stem cell-like traits of CD133 positive osteosarcoma cell via inhibiting matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Do Luong; Kwon, Taeho; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Sharma, Neelesh; Gera, Meeta; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Kim, Nameun; Kim Cho, Somi; Lee, Dong Sun; Park, Yang Ho; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2017-06-12

    Several efforts have been deployed to cure osteosarcoma, a high-grade malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents. However, some challenges such as drug resistance, relapse, and tumour metastasis remain owing to the existence of cancer stem cells (CSC). There is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and safe therapies. Wogonin, an extract from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has long been considered as a promising natural and safe compound for anti-tumourigenesis, particularly to inhibit tumour invasion and metastasis. Hoechst 33,342 staining, wound healing assay, sphere formation assay, western blotting, and gelatin zymography assays were performed in CD133 positive osteosarcoma cell. In this study, we examined the effect of Wogonin on the mobility of human osteosarcoma CSC. Wogonin induces apoptosis of human osteosarcoma CSC, inhibits its mobility in vitro via downregulation of MMP-9 expression, and represses its renewal ability. We demonstrated that Wogonin decreases the renewal capacity of CSC. By inhibiting the formation of and reducing the size of spheres, Wogonin at a concentration of 40-80 μM effectively minimizes potential risk from CSC. Taken together, we have demonstrated a new approach for developing a potential therapy for osteosarcoma.

  3. Inflammatory markers associated with seizures.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hong Seok; Kim, Sung Keun; Lee, Seo-Young

    2016-03-01

    Seizures can produce systemic changes, including elevated body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein levels, which raises concern for potential infection. We describe seizure-induced inflammation-like responses and discuss how these changes may be distinguished from those associated with infection. We prospectively investigated 140 consecutive visits to the emergency room, in which patients presented with seizures. We defined elevated body temperature, white blood cell count, or C-reactive protein levels as inflammation-like responses. We investigated the occurrence of inflammation-like responses, characteristics of the seizures, neurological status at the initial visit, outcomes, and clinical findings to determine the presence of infection. We ascertained whether the patients had infection or not based on the overall information post-discharge. An inflammation-like response was observed in 56.3% of all visits and 19.3% were diagnosed with concurrent infection. Among the visits with inflammation-like response, 34.7% were shown to have an infection. Increases in body temperature and C-reactive protein levels were milder (<39°C and <6 mg/dl, respectively) in patients without infection compared to those with infection, whereas there was no difference in leukocytosis, with regard to the presence or absence of infection. Increased body temperature occurred only in cases of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, whereas leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein levels were reported in patients with any type of seizure. Body temperatures returned to normal within eight hours in uncomplicated cases. Seizures frequently induce an increase in body temperature, white blood cell count, or C-reactive protein levels, making it challenging to distinguish these changes from those associated with infection. Nonetheless, elevated body temperature in the absence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, above 39̊C, or persisting for more than eight hours after

  4. Dissecting Stages of Human Kidney Development and Tumorigenesis with Surface Markers Affords Simple Prospective Purification of Nephron Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pode-Shakked, Naomi; Pleniceanu, Oren; Gershon, Rotem; Shukrun, Rachel; Kanter, Itamar; Bucris, Efrat; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Tam, Gal; Tam, Hadar; Caspi, Revital; Pri-Chen, Sara; Vax, Einav; Katz, Guy; Omer, Dorit; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Kalisky, Tomer; Dekel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    When assembling a nephron during development a multipotent stem cell pool becomes restricted as differentiation ensues. A faulty differentiation arrest in this process leads to transformation and initiation of a Wilms’ tumor. Mapping these transitions with respective surface markers affords accessibility to specific cell subpopulations. NCAM1 and CD133 have been previously suggested to mark human renal progenitor populations. Herein, using cell sorting, RNA sequencing, in vitro studies with serum-free media and in vivo xenotransplantation we demonstrate a sequential map that links human kidney development and tumorigenesis; In nephrogenesis, NCAM1+CD133− marks SIX2+ multipotent renal stem cells transiting to NCAM1+CD133+ differentiating segment-specific SIX2− epithelial progenitors and NCAM1−CD133+ differentiated nephron cells. In tumorigenesis, NCAM1+CD133− marks SIX2+ blastema that includes the ALDH1+ WT cancer stem/initiating cells, while NCAM1+CD133+ and NCAM1−CD133+ specifying early and late epithelial differentiation, are severely restricted in tumor initiation capacity and tumor self-renewal. Thus, negative selection for CD133 is required for defining NCAM1+ nephron stem cells in normal and malignant nephrogenesis. PMID:27020553

  5. Dissecting Stages of Human Kidney Development and Tumorigenesis with Surface Markers Affords Simple Prospective Purification of Nephron Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pode-Shakked, Naomi; Pleniceanu, Oren; Gershon, Rotem; Shukrun, Rachel; Kanter, Itamar; Bucris, Efrat; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Tam, Gal; Tam, Hadar; Caspi, Revital; Pri-Chen, Sara; Vax, Einav; Katz, Guy; Omer, Dorit; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Kalisky, Tomer; Dekel, Benjamin

    2016-03-29

    When assembling a nephron during development a multipotent stem cell pool becomes restricted as differentiation ensues. A faulty differentiation arrest in this process leads to transformation and initiation of a Wilms' tumor. Mapping these transitions with respective surface markers affords accessibility to specific cell subpopulations. NCAM1 and CD133 have been previously suggested to mark human renal progenitor populations. Herein, using cell sorting, RNA sequencing, in vitro studies with serum-free media and in vivo xenotransplantation we demonstrate a sequential map that links human kidney development and tumorigenesis; In nephrogenesis, NCAM1(+)CD133(-) marks SIX2(+) multipotent renal stem cells transiting to NCAM1(+)CD133(+) differentiating segment-specific SIX2(-) epithelial progenitors and NCAM1(-)CD133(+) differentiated nephron cells. In tumorigenesis, NCAM1(+)CD133(-) marks SIX2(+) blastema that includes the ALDH1(+) WT cancer stem/initiating cells, while NCAM1(+)CD133(+) and NCAM1(-)CD133(+) specifying early and late epithelial differentiation, are severely restricted in tumor initiation capacity and tumor self-renewal. Thus, negative selection for CD133 is required for defining NCAM1(+) nephron stem cells in normal and malignant nephrogenesis.

  6. Associations between STR autosomal markers and longevity.

    PubMed

    Bediaga, N G; Aznar, J M; Elcoroaristizabal, X; Albóniga, O; Gómez-Busto, F; Artaza Artabe, I; Rocandio, Ana; de Pancorbo, M M

    2015-10-01

    Life span is a complex and multifactorial trait, which is shaped by genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and stochastic factors. The possibility that highly hypervariable short tandem repeats (STRs) associated with longevity has been largely explored by comparing the genotypic pools of long lived and younger individuals, but results so far have been contradictory. In view of these contradictory findings, the present study aims to investigate whether HUMTHO1 and HUMCSF1PO STRs, previously associated with longevity, exert a role as a modulator of life expectancy, as well as to assess the extent to which other autosomal STR markers are associated with human longevity in population from northern Spain. To that end, 21 autosomal microsatellite markers have been studied in 304 nonagenarian individuals (more than 90 years old) and 516 younger controls of European descent. Our results do not confirm the association found in previous studies between longevity and THO1 and CSF1PO loci. However, significant association between longevity and autosomal STR markers D12S391, D22S1045, and DS441 was observed. Even more, when we compared allelic frequency distribution of the 21 STR markers between cases and controls, we found that 6 out of the 21 STRs studied showed different allelic frequencies, thus suggesting that the genomic portrait of the human longevity is far complex and probably shaped by a high number of genomic loci.

  7. Application of affinity aqueous two-phase systems for the fractionation of CD133(+) stem cells from human umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    González-González, Mirna; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In a further attempt to establish a novel stem cell primary recovery strategy, the use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) complemented with the use of antibodies (known as immunoaffinity ATPS) is explored in this work. This type of liquid-liquid extraction systems exploits antigen-antibody affinity and represents a novel and selective approach for the purification of stem cells. The proposed bioengineering strategies include the implementation of traditional [polyethylene glycol (PEG), dextran (DEX) and ficoll] and novel (Ucon) immunoaffinity ATPS to prove the viability of cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133(+) ) stem cells from human umbilical cord blood. Furthermore, the addition of the antibody is implemented to identify conditions under which contaminants and stem cells of interest concentrate in opposite phases. The objective of this work is to establish the initial basis for the development of a novel and scalable purification bioprocess for the selective recovery of CD133(+) stem cells employing immunoaffinity ATPS. The reported methodology allows a partitioning of 62% CD133(+) stem cells to the top phase of the ficoll 400,000-DEX 70,000 immunoaffinity ATPS. In PEG 8,000-DEX 500,000 and Ucon-DEX 75,000 systems, no difference was observed when compared with the conventional ATPS (without antibody addition), as the CD133 antibody does not have preference for the desired clean top phase. In all experiments, cell viability was at least 98% after ATPS recovery. This research highlights the challenges that must be addressed to allow the potential establishment of a separation process using immunoaffinity ATPS for the recovery and purification of stem cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Long-term clinical results of autologous bone marrow CD 133+ cell transplantation in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirgizova, M. A.; Suslova, T. E.; Markov, V. A.; Karpov, R. S.; Ryabov, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was investigate the long-term results of autologous bone marrow CD 133+ cell transplantation in patients with primary ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Methods and results: From 2006 to 2007, 26 patients with primary STEMI were included in an open randomized study. Patients were randomized to two groups: 1st - included patients underwent PCI and transplantation of autologous bone marrow CD 133+ cell (n = 10); 2nd - patients with only PCI (n = 16). Follow-up study was performed 7.70±0.42 years after STEMI and consisted in physical examination, 6-min walking test, Echo exam. Total and cardiovascular mortality in group 1 was lower (20% (n = 2) vs. 44% (n = 7), p = 0.1 and 22% (n = 2) vs. 25% (n = 4), (p=0.53), respectively). Analysis of cardiac volumetric parameters shows significant differences between groups: EDV of 100.7 ± 50.2 mL vs. 144.40±42.7 mL, ESV of 56.3 ± 37.8 mL vs. 89.7 ± 38.7 mL in 1st and 2nd groups, respectively. Data of the study showed positive effects of autologous bone marrow CD 133+ cell transplantation on the long-term survival of patients and structural status of the heart.

  9. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Capture and Directional Differentiation into Vascular Endothelial Cells for Metal Stent-Coated Chitosan/Hyaluronic Acid Loading CD133 Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Feng, Bo; Fan, Qingyu; Yang, Feng; Shang, Debin; Sui, Jinghan; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A series of metal stents coated with chitosan/hyaluronic acid (CS/HA) loading antibodies by electrostatic self-assembled method were prepared, and the types of cells captured by antibodies and their differentiation in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) evaluated by molecular biology and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that CD133 stent can selectively capture hematopoietic stem cells (HSC),which directionally differentiate into vascular ECs in peripheral blood by (CS/HA) induction, and simultaneously inhibit migration and proliferation of immune cells and vascular smooth muscle cells (MCs). CD34 stent can capture HSC, hematopoietic progenitor cells that differentiate into vascular ECs and immune cells, promoting smooth MCs growth, leading to thrombosis, inflammation, and rejection. CD133 stent can be implanted into miniature pig heart coronary and can repair vascular damage by capturing own HSC, thus contributing to the rapid natural vascular repair, avoiding inflammation and rejection, thrombosis and restenosis. These studies demonstrated that CD133 stent of HSC capture will be an ideal coated metal stent providing a new therapeutic approach for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:25404533

  10. Prognostic significance of stem cell-related marker expression and its correlation with histologic subtypes in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunhyang; Park, Soo Young; Sun, Ping-Li; Jin, Yan; Kim, Ji Eun; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Kwhanmien; Lee, Choon Taek

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of tumor cells that exhibit stem cell-like properties and contribute in treatment failure. To clarify the expression and prognostic significance of several CSC markers in non-small cell lung cancer, we retrospectively analyzed 368 patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 226) or squamous cell carcinoma (n = 142). We correlated the expression of six CSC markersCD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), octamer binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), and Nanog – with clinicopathologic and molecular variables and survival outcomes. In adenocarcinoma, CD133, ALDH1 and CD44 expression was associated with low pathologic stage and absence of lymphovascular invasion, while Nanog expression correlated with high histologic grade, lymphatic invasion and increased expression of Snail-1, a transcription factor associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CSC marker expression was also associated with histologic subtypes in adenocarcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that high Nanog expression was an independent factor associated with a poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma. CSC markers had no prognostic value in squamous cell carcinoma. These results suggest that Nanog is an independent negative prognostic factor that may be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27285762

  11. Prognostic Value of Cancer Stem Cell Markers in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhaona; Li, Mianxiang; Chen, Xiaobing; Wang, Juan; Liang, Xueyi; Wang, Hongfei; Wang, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Xia, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Bmi-1, CD133, Nanog and Oct-4 have been reported as cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the prognostic value of them in HNSCC remains controversial. Hence, this meta-analysis was conducted to access the association between the four CSC markers and survival outcome of HNSCC patients. A total of 22 articles with 27 studies met the inclusion criteria and the combined hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Data analysis showed that high expression of CSC markers was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.46–2.55, P < 0.001) and disease free survival (DFS) (HR = 4.78; 95% CI: 2.95–7.75, P < 0.001) but not disease specific survival (DSS) (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.74–1.84, P = 0.50) of HNSCC patients. Subgroup analysis indicted that high expression of CD133 (HR = 2.33, 95%CI: 1.42–3.83, P < 0.001), Oct-4(HR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.36–3.22, P = 0.007) and Nanog (HR = 2.49, 95%CI: 1.66–3.72, P < 0.001) could predict poor OS in HNSCC patients respectively whereas overexpression of Bmi-1 was not related to the reduced OS in HNSCC patients (HR = 1.32, 95%CI: 0.66–2.65, P = 0.43). Therefore, we concluded that CSC markers, especially CD133, Nanog and Oct-4, might be predictive factors in HNSCC patients. PMID:28220856

  12. Distinctive effects of CD34- and CD133-specific antibody-coated stents on re-endothelialization and in-stent restenosis at the early phase of vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xue; Yin, Tieying; Tian, Jie; Tang, Chaojun; Huang, Junli; Zhao, Yinping; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Yu, Donghong; Wang, Guixue

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear what effects of CD34- and CD133-specific antibody-coated stents have on re-endothelialization and in-stent restenosis (ISR) at the early phase of vascular injury. This study aims at determining the capabilities of different coatings on stents (e.g. gelatin, anti-CD133 and anti-CD34 antibodies) to promote adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The in vitro study revealed that the adhesion force enabled the EPCs coated on glass slides to withstand flow-induced shear stress, so that allowing for the growth of the cells on the slides for 48 h. The in vivo experiment using a rabbit model in which the coated stents with different substrates were implanted showed that anti-CD34 and anti-CD133 antibody-coated stents markedly reduced the intima area and restenosis than bare mental stents (BMS) and gelatin-coated stents. Compared with the anti-CD34 antibody-coated stents, the time of cells adhesion was longer and earlier present in the anti-CD133 antibody-coated stents and anti-CD133 antibody-coated stents have superiority in re-endothelialization and inhibition of ISR. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that anti-CD133 antibody as a stent coating for capturing EPCs is better than anti-CD34 antibody in promoting endothelialization and reducing ISR. PMID:26813006

  13. Intramyocardial delivery of CD133+ bone marrow cells and coronary artery bypass grafting for chronic ischemic heart disease: safety and efficacy studies.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Christof; Kleine, Hans-Dieter; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Dunkelmann, Simone; Lauffs, Jan-Arne; Lorenzen, Björn; David, Arpad; Liebold, Andreas; Nienaber, Christoph; Zurakowski, David; Freund, Mathias; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2007-03-01

    Cell therapy may offer novel therapeutic options for chronic ischemic heart disease. In a clinical trial, we first assessed the feasibility and safety of intramyocardial CD133+ bone marrow cell injection together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We then tested the hypothesis that CABG plus CD133+ cell injection would result in better contractile function than CABG alone. Fifteen patients took part in the safety study, followed by 40 patients who underwent either CABG with cell therapy or CABG alone. Bone marrow was harvested from the iliac crest one day before surgery, and purified CD133+ progenitor cells were injected in the infarct border zone during the CABG operation. LV function was measured by echocardiography and myocardial perfusion by SPECT. In the safety study, no procedure-related complications were observed for up to 3 years. LV injection fraction (LVEF) increased from 39.0% +/- 8.7% preoperatively to 50.2% +/- 8.5% at 6 months and 47.9% +/- 6.0% at 18 months (F = 6.03, P = .012). In the efficacy study, LCEF rose form 37.4% +/- 8.4% to 47.1% +/- 8.3% at 6 months in the group with CABG and cell therapy (F = 24.16, P < .0001) but only from 37.9% +/- 10.3% to 41.3% +/- 9.1% in the CABG-only group (F = 7.72, P = .012). LVEF was significantly higher at 6 months in the group with CABG and cell therapy than in the CABG-only group (P = .03). Similarly, perfusion of the infarcted myocardium improved more in patients treated with CABG and cell therapy than in those treated with CABG alone. Intramyocardial delivery of purified bone marrow stem cells together with CABG surgery is safe and provides beneficial effects, though it remains to be seen whether thewe effects produce a lasting clinical advantage.

  14. Prospectively isolated CD133/CD24-positive ependymal cells from the adult spinal cord and lateral ventricle wall differ in their long-term in vitro self-renewal and in vivo gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pfenninger, Cosima V; Steinhoff, Christine; Hertwig, Falk; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to ependymal cells located above the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult lateral ventricle wall (LVW), adult spinal cord (SC) ependymal cells possess certain neural stem cell characteristics. The molecular basis of this difference is unknown. In this study, antibodies against multiple cell surface markers were applied to isolate pure populations of SC and LVW ependymal cells, which allowed a direct comparison of their in vitro behavior and in vivo gene expression profile. Isolated CD133(+)/CD24(+)/CD45(-)/CD34(-) ependymal cells from the SC displayed in vitro self-renewal and differentiation capacity, whereas those from the LVW did not. SC ependymal cells showed a higher expression of several genes involved in cell division, cell cycle regulation, and chromosome stability, which is consistent with a long-term self-renewal capacity, and shared certain transcripts with neural stem cells of the embryonic forebrain. They also expressed several retinoic acid (RA)-regulated genes and responded to RA exposure. LVW ependymal cells showed higher transcript levels of many genes regulated by transforming growth factor-β family members. Among them were Dlx2, Id2, Hey1, which together with Foxg1 could explain their potential to turn into neuroblasts under certain environmental conditions.

  15. Detection of Putative Stem-cell Markers in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast by Immunohistochemistry: Does It Improve Prognostic/Predictive Assessments?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Souza, Valéria B; Souza, Philipi C; Soares, Fernando A; Vassallo, José; Rocha, Rafael M; Schenka, André A

    2017-07-17

    Experimental evidences from the last 2 decades supports the existence of a special type of neoplastic cell with stem-like features [cancer stem cell (CSC)] and their role in the pathophysiology and therapeutic resistance of breast cancer. However, their clinical value in human breast cancer has not been fully determined. An immunohistochemistry panel of 10 putative CSC markers (CD34, C-KIT, CD10, SOX-2, OCT 3/4, p63, CD24, CD44, CD133, and ESA/EPCAM) was applied to 74 cases of breast cancer, followed in a Regional Cancer Center of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 2004 to 2006. Possible associations between CSC markers and classic variables of clinicopathologic relevance were investigated. The most frequently positive CSC markers were CD44, CD24, CD133, and ESA (the others were present in <15% of the cases). Two CSC profiles were defined: CD24/CD44 (CSC-1) and CD133/ESA (CSC-2). CSC-1 was significantly associated to patients older than 40 years, tumors of <2.0 cm in diameter, early clinical stages (P<0.05), and increased death risk of 4 times (P=0.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-14.41). CSC-2 was related to increased relapse risk of 3.75 times (P=0.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-13.69). The detection of the most frequently positive CSC markers by immunohistochemistry is of clinicopathologic and prognostic relevance.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  16. CD133+ ovarian cancer stem-like cells promote non-stem cancer cell metastasis via CCL5 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wei; Huang, Jiani; Chen, Junying; He, Luhang; Liang, Zhiqing; Guo, Bo; Li, Yongsheng; Xie, Rongkai; Zhu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called cancer stem-like cells, CSLCs) can function as “seed cells” for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Here, we report that, in the presence of CD133+ ovarian CSLCs, CD133− non-CSLCs can undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process and display enhanced metastatic capacity in vitro and in vivo. Highly elevated expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and its receptors chemokine (C-C motif) receptor (CCR) 1/3/5 are observed in clinical and murine metastatic tumor tissues from epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Mechanistically, paracrine CCL5 from ovarian CSLCs activates the NF-κB signaling pathway in ovarian non-CSLCs via binding CCR1/3/5, thereby inducing EMT and tumor invasion. Taken together, our results redefine the metastatic potential of non-stem cancer cells and provide evidence that targeting the CCL5:CCR1/3/5-NF-κB pathway could be an effective strategy to prevent ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:25788271

  17. Expression Patterns of Cancer Stem Cell Markers During Specific Celecoxib Therapy in Multistep Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Salim, Elsayed I; Hegazi, Mona M; Kang, Jin Seok; Helmy, Hager M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) during chemicallyinduced rat multi-step colon carcinogenesis with or without the treatment with a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor drug (celecoxib). Two experiments were performed, the first, a short term 12 week colon carcinogenesis bioassay in which only surrogate markers for colon cancer, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions, were formed. The other experiment was a medium term colon cancer rat assay in which tumors had developed after 32 weeks. Treatment with celecoxib lowered the numbers of ACF, as well as the tumor volumes and multiplicities after 32 weeks. Immunohistochemical proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes LI (%) were downregulated after treatment by celecoxib. Also different cell surface antigens known to associate with CSCs such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD44 and CD133 were compared between the two experiments and showed differential expression patterns depending on the stage of carcinogenesis and treatment with celecoxib. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the numbers of CD133 cells were increased in the colonic epithelium after 12 weeks while those of CD44 but not CD133 cells were increased after 32 weeks. Moreover, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity levels in the colonic epithelium (a known CSC marker) detected by ELISA assay were found down-regulated after 12 weeks, but were up-regulated after 32 weeks. The data have also shown that the protective effect of celecoxib on these specific markers and populations of CSCs and on other molecular processes such as apoptosis targeted by this drug may vary depending on the genetic and phenotypic stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, uncovering these distinction roles of CSCs during different phases of carcinogenesis and during specific treatment could be useful for targeted therapy.

  18. High BAALC expression associates with other molecular prognostic markers, poor outcome, and a distinct gene-expression signature in cytogenetically normal patients younger than 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) study.

    PubMed

    Langer, Christian; Radmacher, Michael D; Ruppert, Amy S; Whitman, Susan P; Paschka, Peter; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Baldus, Claudia D; Vukosavljevic, Tamara; Liu, Chang-Gong; Ross, Mary E; Powell, Bayard L; de la Chapelle, Albert; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Larson, Richard A; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2008-06-01

    BAALC expression is considered an independent prognostic factor in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), but has yet to be investigated together with multiple other established prognostic molecular markers in CN-AML. We analyzed BAALC expression in 172 primary CN-AML patients younger than 60 years of age, treated similarly on CALGB protocols. High BAALC expression was associated with FLT3-ITD (P = .04), wild-type NPM1 (P < .001), mutated CEBPA (P = .003), MLL-PTD (P = .009), absent FLT3-TKD (P = .005), and high ERG expression (P = .05). In multivariable analysis, high BAALC expression independently predicted lower complete remission rates (P = .04) when adjusting for ERG expression and age, and shorter survival (P = .04) when adjusting for FLT3-ITD, NPM1, CEBPA, and white blood cell count. A gene-expression signature of 312 probe sets differentiating high from low BAALC expressers was identified. High BAALC expression was associated with overexpression of genes involved in drug resistance (MDR1) and stem cell markers (CD133, CD34, KIT). Global microRNA-expression analysis did not reveal significant differences between BAALC expression groups. However, an analysis of microRNAs that putatively target BAALC revealed a potentially interesting inverse association between expression of miR-148a and BAALC. We conclude that high BAALC expression is an independent adverse prognostic factor and is associated with a specific gene-expression profile.

  19. Impact of intracoronary injection of CD133+ bone marrow stem cells on coronary atherosclerotic progression in patients with STEMI: a COMPARE-AMI IVUS substudy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fuyu; Maehara, Akiko; El Khoury, Ramez; Généreux, Philippe; LaSalle, Laura; Mintz, Gary S; Noiseux, Nicolas; Roy, Denis-Claude; Gobeil, François; Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Reeves, François; Leclerc, Guy; Rivard, Alain; Mansour, Samer

    2016-01-01

    Adverse effects of intracoronary injection of stem cells on in-stent restenosis and atherosclerotic progression remain unclear. We sought to evaluate the adverse effects of intracoronary injection of CD133 cells on in-stent restenosis and atherosclerotic progression in the infarct-related and contralateral arteries using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis. Baseline and 4-month follow-up IVUS images were obtained from 17 patients treated with intracoronary stem cell injection and 20 placebo patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the COMPARE-AMI trial. In the infarct-related artery, the stented segment, 5 mm proximal and distal reference segments, and proximal and distal nonstented segments were analyzed every 1 mm; the entire segment of a contralateral artery was also analyzed every 1 mm. In the infarct-related artery analysis, the median percentage of in-stent neointimal hyperplasia (12.1 vs. 7.6%, P=0.95), the reduction in the minimum lumen area (MLA; -1.6 vs. -1.5 mm(2), P=0.97), and the MLA at follow-up (4.3 vs. 5.3 mm(2), P=0.21) were found to be similar between the stem cell and placebo groups. Changes in proximal and distal nonstented segment lumen areas and plaque burden were also similar between the stem cell and placebo groups; however, there was a decrease in the maximum arc of the attenuated plaque behind the stent from baseline to follow-up in the placebo group (P=0.004), but not in the stem cell group. In the contralateral artery, there were no differences in changes in MLA, plaque burden, or attenuated plaque between stem cell and placebo patients. Intracoronary injection of CD133(+) bone marrow stem cells has no IVUS-detectable effect on neointimal hyperplasia or atherosclerosis progression in either infarct-related or contralateral arteries.

  20. Differential distribution of erbB receptors in human glioblastoma multiforme: expression of erbB3 in CD133-positive putative cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Duhem-Tonnelle, Véronique; Bièche, Ivan; Vacher, Sophie; Loyens, Anne; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Collier, Francis; Baroncini, Marc; Blond, Serge; Prevot, Vincent; Sharif, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most common CNS tumors in adults, and they remain resistant to current treatments. ErbB1 signaling is frequently altered in these tumors, which indicates that the erbB receptor family is a promising target for molecular therapy. However, data on erbB signaling in glioblastomas are still sparse. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of erbB receptor and ligand expression profiles in a panel of nine glioblastomas that were compared to non-neoplastic cerebral tissue containing neocortex and corresponding portions of subcortical convolutional white matter and we determined the distribution patterns of erbB receptors among the main neural cell types that are present in these tumors, particularly the putative tumoral stem cell population. Using quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, we showed that erbB1 signaling and erbB2 receptors exhibited highly variable deregulation profiles among tumors, ranging from under- to overexpression, while erbB3 and erbB4 were down-regulated. Immunohistochemistry revealed an important inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity in all four erbB expression profiles. However, each receptor exhibited a distinct repartition pattern among the GFAP-, Olig2-, NeuN- and CD133-positive populations. Interestingly, while erbB1 immunoreactivity was only detected in small subsets of CD133-positive putative tumoral stem cells, erbB3 immunoreactivity was prominent in this cell population thus suggesting that erbB3 may represent a new potential target for molecular therapy. PMID:20467331

  1. Cancer stem cell markers predict a poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Yang, Guosheng; Jiang, Rui; Cheng, Yong; Yang, Haifan; Pei, Lijun; Qiu, Xiaofu

    2016-01-01

    Background Relevant markers of CSCs may serve as prognostic biomarkers of RCC. However, their actual prognostic significance remains inconclusive. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to reevaluate the association of CSCs-relevant markers (CXCR4, CD133, CD44, CD105) expression with RCC prognosis more precisely. Methods PubMed and Embase were searched to look for eligible studies. The pooled hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to reassess the association of CSCs markers expression and RCC prognosis of overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Results There were 25 relevant articles, encompassing 2673 RCC patients, eligible for meta-analysis. Overall pooled analysis suggested that high CSCs markers expression predicted poor OS (HR, 2.10, 95% CI: 1.73–2.55) and DFS (HR, 3.77, 95% CI: 2.30–6.19). High CXCR4 expression predicted worse OS (HR, 2.57, 95% CI: 1.95–3.40), CSS (HR,1.97, 95% CI: 1.50–2.59), and DFS (HR, 5.82, 95% CI: 3.01–11.25). CD44 over-expression correlated with a poor OS(HR,1.58, 95% CI: 1.14–2.18), CSS (HR, 2.58, 95% CI: 1.27–5.23), and DFS (HR, 4.49, 95% CI: 2.12–9.53) in RCC patients. CD133 was an independent favorable prognostic factor for CSS (HR, 0.4, 95% CI: 0.29–0.54). Conclusions The presence of CSCs markers correlates with poor RCC outcome. CSCs may be potentially utilized as prognostic markers to stratify RCC patients, probably representing also a novel potential therapeutic target. PMID:27588469

  2. (64)Cu-ATSM therapy targets regions with activated DNA repair and enrichment of CD133(+) cells in an HT-29 tumor model: Sensitization with a nucleic acid antimetabolite.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Kiyono, Yasushi; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-06-28

    (64)Cu-diacetyl-bis (N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM) is a potential theranostic agent targeting the over-reduced state under hypoxia within tumors. Recent clinical Cu-ATSM positron emission tomography studies have revealed a correlation between uptake and poor prognosis; however, the reason is unclear. Here, using a human colon carcinoma HT-29 model, we demonstrated that the intratumoral (64)Cu-ATSM high-uptake regions exhibited malignant characteristics, such as upregulated DNA repair and elevated %CD133(+) cancer stem-like cells. Based on this evidence, we developed a strategy to enhance the efficacy of (64)Cu-ATSM internal radiotherapy (IRT) by inhibiting DNA repair with a nucleic acid (NA) antimetabolite. The results of the analyses showed upregulation of pathways related to DNA repair along with NA incorporation (bromodeoxyuridine uptake) and elevation of %CD133(+) cells in (64)Cu-ATSM high-uptake regions. In an in vivo(64)Cu-ATSM treatment study, co-administration of an NA antimetabolite and (64)Cu-ATSM synergistically inhibited tumor growth, with little toxicity, and effectively reduced %CD133(+) cells. (64)Cu-ATSM therapy targeted malignant tumor regions with activated DNA repair and high concentrations of CD133(+) cells in the HT-29 model. NA antimetabolite co-administration can be an effective approach to enhance the therapeutic effect of (64)Cu-ATSM IRT.

  3. Nasal Polyp-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Exhibit Lack of Immune-Associated Molecules and High Levels of Stem/Progenitor Cells Markers

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Pedro Wey Barbosa; Pezato, Rogério; Agudelo, Juan Sebastian Henao; Perez-Novo, Claudina Angela; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Câmara, Niels Olsen; de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Gregorio, Luís Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered adult progenitor stem cells and have been studied in a multitude of tissues. In this context, the microenvironment of nasal polyp tissue has several inflammatory cells, but their stroma compartment remains little elucidated. Hence, we isolated MSCs from nasal polyps Polyp-MSCs (PO-MSCs) and compared their molecular features and gene expression pattern with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). Initially, both PO-MSCs and BM-MSCs were isolated, cultivated, and submitted to morphologic, differentiation, phenotypic, immunosuppressive, and gene expression assays. Compared to BM-MSCs, PO-MSCs showed normal morphology and similar osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation potential, but their immunophenotyping showed lack of immune-associated molecules (e.g., CD117, HLA-DR, PDL-1, and PDL-2), which was linked with less immunoregulatory abilities such as (i) inhibition of lymphocytes proliferation and (ii) regulatory T cell expansion. Furthermore, we detected in the PO-MSCs a distinct gene expression profile in comparison with BM-MSCs. PO-MSC expressed higher levels of progenitor stem cells specific markers (e.g., CD133 and ABCB1), while BM-MSCs showed elevated expression of cytokines and growth factors (e.g., FGF10, KDR, and GDF6). The gene ontology analysis showed that the differentially modulated genes in PO-MSC were related with matrix remodeling process and hexose and glucose transport. For BM-MSCs, the highly expressed genes were associated with behavior, angiogenesis, blood vessel morphogenesis, cell–cell signaling, and regulation of response to external stimulus. Thus, these results suggest that PO-MSCs, while sharing similar aspects with BM-MSCs, express a different profile of molecules, which presumably can be implicated in the development of nasal polyp tissue. PMID:28194153

  4. Autologous cell therapy with CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells for refractory Asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy: a pilot cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Xavier; Cabanillas, Sergio; Cervelló, Irene; Arbona, Cristina; Raga, Francisco; Ferro, Jaime; Palmero, Julio; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Could cell therapy using autologous peripheral blood CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) offer a safe and efficient therapeutic approach for patients with refractory Asherman's syndrome (AS) and/or endometrial atrophy (EA) and a wish to conceive? In the first 3 months, autologous cell therapy, using CD133+ BMDSCs in conjunction with hormonal replacement therapy, increased the volume and duration of menses as well as the thickness and angiogenesis processes of the endometrium while decreasing intrauterine adhesion scores. AS is characterized by the presence of intrauterine adhesions and EA prevents the endometrium from growing thicker than 5 mm, resulting in menstruation disorders and infertility. Many therapies have been attempted for these conditions, but none have proved effective. This was a prospective, experimental, non-controlled study. There were 18 patients aged 30-45 years with refractory AS or EA were recruited, and 16 of these completed the study. Medical history, physical examination, endometrial thickness, intrauterine adhesion score and neoangiogenesis were assessed before and 3 and 6 months after cell therapy. After the initial hysteroscopic diagnosis, BMDSC mobilization was performed by granulocyte-CSF injection, then CD133+ cells were isolated through peripheral blood aphaeresis to obtain a mean of 124.39 million cells (range 42-236), which were immediately delivered into the spiral arterioles by catheterization. Subsequently, endometrial treatment after stem cell therapy was assessed in terms of restoration of menses, endometrial thickness (by vaginal ultrasound), adhesion score (by hysteroscopy), neoangiogenesis and ongoing pregnancy rate. The study was conducted at Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valencia and IVI Valencia (Spain). All 11 AS patients exhibited an improved uterine cavity 2 months after stem cell therapy. Endometrial thickness increased from an average of 4.3 mm (range 2.7-5) to 6.7 mm (range 3.1-12) ( ITALIC! P = 0

  5. Validation of genetic markers associated with chalkbrood resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chalkbrood is one of the major fungal diseases of honey bee brood. Systemic mycoses caused by the fungus, Ascosphaera apis, may significantly reduce brood population, and consequently, colony strength and productivity. Developing genetic marker(s) associated with the enhanced brood survival will be ...

  6. STAT3 signaling pathway is necessary for cell survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +} stem cell-like human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Li; Fuchs, James; Li, Chenglong; Olson, Veronica; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Lin, Jiayuh

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 inhibits P-STAT3 and STAT3 target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of STAT3 resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced numbers of tumorspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is required for survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a novel treatment approach for colon cancer. -- Abstract: Persistent activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in colon cancer. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of a small population of colon cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells may be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Whether STAT3 plays a role in colon cancer-initiating cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate colon cancer stem-like cells from three independent human colon cancer cell lines characterized by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and CD133-positive subpopulation (ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +}). The effects of STAT3 inhibition in colon cancer stem-like cells were examined. The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells and was reduced by a STAT3-selective small molecular inhibitor, FLLL32. FLLL32 also inhibited the expression of potential STAT3 downstream target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells including survivin, Bcl-XL, as well as Notch-1, -3, and -4, which may be involved in stem cell function. Furthermore, FLLL32 inhibited cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induced cleaved caspase-3 in colon cancer stem-like cells. FLLL32 is more potent than curcumin as evidenced with lower

  7. Effects of flavopiridol on critical regulation pathways of CD133high/CD44high lung cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozok Cetintas, Vildan; Acikgoz, Eda; Yigitturk, Gurkan; Demir, Kenan; Oktem, Gulperi; Tezcanli Kaymaz, Burçin; Oltulu, Fatih; Aktug, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Flavopiridol a semisynthetic flavone that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and has growth-inhibitory activity and induces a blockade of cell-cycle progression at G1-phase and apoptosis in numerous human tumor cell lines and is currently under investigation in phase II clinical trials. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are comprised of subpopulation of cells in tumors that have been proposed to be responsible for recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of flavopiridol in cancer stem cell cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in CSCs. Methods: The cells were treated with flavopiridol to determine the inhibitory effect. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by using the WST-1 assay. Caspase activity and immunofluorescence analyses were performed for the evaluation of apoptosis, cell cytoskeleton, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. The effects of flavopiridol on the cell cycle were also evaluated. Flow cytometric analysis was used to detect the percentages of CSCs subpopulation. We analyzed the gene expression patterns to predict cell cycle and cell cytoskeleton in CSCs by RT-PCR. Results: Flavopiridol-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at the IC50 dose, resulting in a significant increase expression of caspases activity. Cell cycle analyses revealed that flavopiridol induces G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Flavopiridol significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of the genes that regulate the cell cytoskeleton and cell cycle components and cell motility in CSCs. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Flavopiridol has activity against lung CSCs and may be effective chemotherapeutic molecule for lung cancer treatment. PMID:27787370

  8. Human Cord Blood-Derived CD133(+)/C-Kit(+)/Lin(-) Cells Have Bipotential Ability to Differentiate into Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Outgrowth Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Carlos; Kwon, Ja-Young; Maeng, Yong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from bone marrow and cord blood can differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs). However, controversy exists as to whether MNCs have the pluripotent capacity to differentiate into MSCs or OECs or are a mixture of cell lineage-determined progenitors of MSCs or OECs. Here, using CD133(+)/C-kit(+)/Lin(-) mononuclear cells (CKL- cells) isolated from human umbilical cord blood using magnetic cell sorting, we characterized the potency of MNC differentiation. We first found that CKL- cells cultured with conditioned medium of OECs or MSCs differentiated into OECs or MSCs and this differentiation was also induced by cell-to-cell contact. When we cultured single CKL- cells on OEC- or MSC-conditioned medium, the cells differentiated morphologically and genetically into OEC- or MSC-like cells, respectively. Moreover, we confirmed that OECs or MSCs differentiated from CKL- cells had the ability to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel and differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Finally, using microarray analysis, we identified specific factors of OECs or MSCs that could potentially be involved in the differentiation fate of CKL- cells. Together, these results suggest that cord blood-derived CKL- cells possess at least bipotential differentiation capacity toward MSCs or OECs.

  9. Human Cord Blood-Derived CD133+/C-Kit+/Lin− Cells Have Bipotential Ability to Differentiate into Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Outgrowth Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Carlos; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from bone marrow and cord blood can differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs). However, controversy exists as to whether MNCs have the pluripotent capacity to differentiate into MSCs or OECs or are a mixture of cell lineage-determined progenitors of MSCs or OECs. Here, using CD133+/C-kit+/Lin− mononuclear cells (CKL− cells) isolated from human umbilical cord blood using magnetic cell sorting, we characterized the potency of MNC differentiation. We first found that CKL− cells cultured with conditioned medium of OECs or MSCs differentiated into OECs or MSCs and this differentiation was also induced by cell-to-cell contact. When we cultured single CKL− cells on OEC- or MSC-conditioned medium, the cells differentiated morphologically and genetically into OEC- or MSC-like cells, respectively. Moreover, we confirmed that OECs or MSCs differentiated from CKL− cells had the ability to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel and differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Finally, using microarray analysis, we identified specific factors of OECs or MSCs that could potentially be involved in the differentiation fate of CKL− cells. Together, these results suggest that cord blood-derived CKL− cells possess at least bipotential differentiation capacity toward MSCs or OECs. PMID:28074098

  10. A cancer/testis antigen, NY-SAR-35, induces EpCAM, CD44, and CD133, and activates ERK in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Myung-Ha; Kim, Ye-Rin; Bae, Jae-Ho; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Yull

    2017-03-04

    The cancer/testis (CT) antigen NY-SAR-35 gene is located on the X chromosome and is aberrantly expressed in various cancers but not in normal tissues, other than testes. Previously, we reported the expression of NY-SAR-35 enhanced cell growth, proliferation, and invasion in HEK293 and cancer cells. To extend understanding of the NY-SAR-35 gene, we used a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. NY-SAR-35 expression induced growth, proliferation, metastasis, and stemness genes, as indicated by the up-regulations of CXCR4, EpCAM, CD133, and CD44, at the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of NY-SAR-35 in HEK293 cells significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, but not the phosphorylation of AKT. In HEK293/NY-SAR-35 cells, the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins, including p53, Bax, and p21, were reduced and that of cyclin E was increased. Also, NY-SAR-35 increased the expressions of pluripotency genes (Nanog, Oct-4, and Sox2) and the ability of HEK293 cells to form colonies. Taken together, the present study indicates NY-SAR-35 functions as a CT antigen that triggers oncogenesis and self-renewal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomolecular markers of cancer-associated thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Diana L.; White, Richard H.; Wun, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) is associated with a poor prognosis in most malignancies and is a major cause of death among cancer patients. Universal anticoagulation for primary thromboprophylaxis in the outpatient setting is precluded by potential bleeding complications, especially without sufficient evidence that all patients would benefit from such prophylaxis. Therefore, appropriately targeting cancer patients for thromboprophylaxis is key to reducing morbidity and perhaps mortality. Predictive biomarkers could aid in identifying patients at high risk for VTE. Possible biomarkers for VTE include C-reactive protein, platelet and leukocyte counts, D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1+2, procoagulant factor VIII, tissue factor, and soluble P-selectin. Evidence is emerging to support the use of risk assessment models in selecting appropriate candidates for primary thromboprophylaxis in the cancer setting. Further studies are needed to optimize these models and determine utility in reducing morbidity and mortality from cancer-associated thromboembolism. PMID:23522921

  12. [Biomolecular markers in cancer-associated thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Marco, Pascual; Marco, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of developing thromboembolism, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and hinders its clinical management. Cancer generates a hypercoagulable state that increases the generation of thrombin. This coagulation activation, along with the inflammatory changes fostered by the neoplastic cells, favors tumor progression at the local and distal level. In this review, we present the most salient aspects of the pathophysiology of hypercoagulability in cancer and list the hemostatic biomarkers that reflect this biological situation of hypercoagulability. These parameters can be used as risk factors to predict the probability of developing thrombosis, which help identify patients who can benefit from antithrombotic prophylaxis.

  13. Human renal tubular cells contain CD24/CD133 progenitor cell populations: Implications for tubular regeneration after toxicant induced damage using cadmium as a model.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Swojani; Somji, Seema; Sens, Donald A; Slusser-Nore, Andrea; Patel, Divyen H; Savage, Evan; Garrett, Scott H

    2017-09-15

    The proximal tubules of the kidney are target sites of injury by various toxicants. Cadmium (Cd(+2)), an environmental nephrotoxicant can cause adverse effects and overt renal damage. To decipher the mechanisms involved in nephrotoxicity, an in vitro model system is required. Mortal cultures of human proximal tubule (HPT) cells have served, as models but are difficult to acquire and do not lend themselves to stable transfection. The immortalized human proximal tubule cell line HK-2, has served as a model but it lacks vectorial active transport and shows signs of lost epithelial features. Recently a new proximal tubule cell line was developed, the RPTEC/TERT1, and the goal of this study was to determine if this cell line could serve as a model to study nephrotoxicity. Global gene expression analysis of this cell line in comparison to the HK-2 and HPT cells showed that the RPTEC/TERT1 cells had gene expression patterns similar to HPT cells when compared to the HK-2 cells. The HPT and the RPTEC/TERT1 cell line had an increased population of stem/progenitor cells co-expressing CD24 and CD133 when compared to the HK-2 cells. The level of expression of cadherins, claudins and occludin molecules was also similar between the RPTEC/TERT1 and the HPT cells. Acute exposure to Cd(+2) resulted in necrosis of the RPTEC/TERT1 cells when compared to the HK-2 cells which died by apoptosis. Thus, the RPTEC/TERT1 cells are similar to HPT cells and can serve as a good model system to study mechanisms involved in toxicant induced renal damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intradialytic hypertension and its association with endothelial cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Inrig, Jula K; Van Buren, Peter; Kim, Catherine; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Povsic, Thomas J; Toto, Robert D

    2011-08-01

    Intradialytic hypertension is associated with adverse outcomes, yet the mechanism is uncertain. Patients with intradialytic hypertension exhibit imbalances in endothelial-derived vasoregulators nitric oxide and endothelin-1, indirectly suggesting endothelial cell dysfunction. We hypothesized that intradialytic hypertension is associated in vivo with endothelial cell dysfunction, a novel predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We performed a case-control cohort study including 25 hemodialysis (HD) subjects without (controls) and 25 with intradialytic hypertension (an increase in systolic BP pre- to postdialysis ≥10 mmHg ≥4/6 consecutive HD sessions). The primary outcome was peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) assessed by aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(br)) and cell surface marker expression (CD34(+)CD133(+)). We also assessed endothelial function by ultrasonographic measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) normalized for shear stress. Parametric and nonparametric t tests were used to compare EPCs, FMD, and BP. Baseline characteristics and comorbidities were similar between groups. Compared with controls, 2-week average predialysis systolic BP was lower among subjects with intradialytic hypertension (144.0 versus 155.5 mmHg), but postdialysis systolic BP was significantly higher (159.0 versus 128.1 mmHg). Endothelial cell function was impaired among subjects with intradialytic hypertension as measured by decreased median ALDH(br) cells and decreased CD34(+)CD133(+) cells (ALDH(br), 0.034% versus 0.053%; CD34(+)CD133(+), 0.033% versus 0.059%). FMD was lower among subjects with intradialytic hypertension (1.03% versus 1.67%). Intradialytic hypertension is associated with endothelial cell dysfunction. We propose that endothelial cell dysfunction may partially explain the higher event rates observed in these patients.

  15. Associations of Coffee Drinking with Systemic Immune and Inflammatory Markers.

    PubMed

    Loftfield, Erikka; Shiels, Meredith S; Graubard, Barry I; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Trabert, Britton; Pinto, Ligia A; Kemp, Troy J; Shebl, Fatma M; Mayne, Susan T; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Purdue, Mark P; Hildesheim, Allan; Sinha, Rashmi; Freedman, Neal D

    2015-07-01

    Coffee drinking has been inversely associated with mortality as well as cancers of the endometrium, colon, skin, prostate, and liver. Improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation are among the hypothesized mechanisms by which coffee drinking may affect cancer risk; however, associations between coffee drinking and systemic levels of immune and inflammatory markers have not been well characterized. We used Luminex bead-based assays to measure serum levels of 77 immune and inflammatory markers in 1,728 older non-Hispanic Whites. Usual coffee intake was self-reported using a food frequency questionnaire. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to examine associations between coffee and dichotomized marker levels. We conducted statistical trend tests by modeling the median value of each coffee category and applied a 20% false discovery rate criterion to P values. Ten of the 77 markers were nominally associated (P trend < 0.05) with coffee drinking. Five markers withstood correction for multiple comparisons and included aspects of the host response namely chemotaxis of monocytes/macrophages (IFNγ, CX3CL1/fractalkine, CCL4/MIP-1β), proinflammatory cytokines (sTNFRII), and regulators of cell growth (FGF-2). Heavy coffee drinkers had lower circulating levels of IFNγ [odds ratios (OR), 0.35; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.16-0.75], CX3CL1/fractalkine (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.64), CCL4/MIP-1β (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.99), FGF-2 (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.28-1.38), and sTNFRII (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.79) than non-coffee drinkers. Lower circulating levels of inflammatory markers among coffee drinkers may partially mediate previously observed associations of coffee with cancer and other chronic diseases. Validation studies, ideally controlled feeding trials, are needed to confirm these associations. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Baseline genetic associations in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI).

    PubMed

    Nalls, Mike A; Keller, Margaux F; Hernandez, Dena G; Chen, Lan; Stone, David J; Singleton, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    The Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative is an international multicenter study whose main goal is investigating markers for Parkinson's disease (PD) progression as part of a path to a treatment for the disease. This manuscript describes the baseline genetic architecture of this study, providing not only a catalog of disease-linked variants and mutations, but also quantitative measures with which to adjust for population structure. Three hundred eighty-three newly diagnosed typical PD cases, 65 atypical PD and 178 healthy controls, from the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative study have been genotyped on the NeuroX or Immunochip arrays. These data are freely available to all researchers interested in pursuing PD research within the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative. The Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative represents a study population with low genetic heterogeneity. We recapitulate known PD associations from large-scale genome-wide association studies and refine genetic risk score models for PD predictability (area under the curve, ∼0.74). We show the presence of six LRRK2 p.G2019S and nine GBA p.N370S mutation carriers. The Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative study and its genetic data are useful in studies of PD biomarkers. The genetic architecture described here will be useful in the analysis of myriad biological and clinical traits within this study. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Dietary micronutrient intakes are associated with markers of inflammation but not with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C C; Alonso, Alvaro; Lee, Duk-Hee; Delclos, George L; Jenny, Nancy S; Jiang, Rui; Lima, Joao A; Symanski, Elaine; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2011-08-01

    Few studies have examined associations of dietary micronutrients with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. The present study investigated associations of heme iron, nonheme iron, zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), β-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E with C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, total homocysteine (tHcy), fibrinogen, coronary artery calcium, and common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness. Micronutrient intakes and markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis were studied in 5,181 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were aged 45-84 y and free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Models were adjusted for energy intake, demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and BMI. Dietary nonheme iron and Mg intakes were inversely associated with tHcy concentrations (mean tHcy: 9.11, 8.86, 8.74, 8.71, and 8.50 μmol/L, and 9.20, 9.00, 8.65, 8.76, and 8.33 μmol/L across increasing quintiles of nonheme iron and Mg, respectively; P-trend < 0.001 for both). However, dietary Zn and heme iron were positively associated with CRP [mean: 1.73, 1.75, 1.78, 1.88, and 1.96 mg/L across increasing quintiles of Zn and 1.72, 1.76, 1.83, 1.86, and 1.94 mg/L across increasing quintiles of heme iron (P-trend = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively). Other tested micronutrient-marker associations were not significant. In conclusion, of the 49 tested associations, only 7 were significant. Although this study does not provide strong support for associations between the micronutrients and markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis, the results are consistent with dietary guidelines that advocate for a balanced diet that includes a variety of plant foods containing Mg, Zn, and nonheme iron.

  18. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Cuyabano, Beatriz Castro Dias; Børglum, Anders D; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case-control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism and immunological responses, which previously have been implicated with schizophrenia based on experimental and observational studies. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Association of genetic markers in cattle receiving differing implant protocols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential interaction of growth-promoting implants and genetic markers previously reported to be associated with growth, carcass traits, and tenderness was evaluated. Two implant protocols were applied to subsets of steers (n=383) and heifers (n=65) that were also genotyped for 47 SNP reported ...

  20. Identification of novel plasma glycosylation-associated markers of aging.

    PubMed

    Catera, Mariangela; Borelli, Vincenzo; Malagolini, Nadia; Chiricolo, Mariella; Venturi, Giulia; Reis, Celso A; Osorio, Hugo; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Capri, Miriam; Monti, Daniela; Ostan, Rita; Franceschi, Claudio; Dall'Olio, Fabio

    2016-02-16

    The pro- or anti-inflammatory activities of immunoglobulins G (IgGs) are controlled by the structure of the glycan N-linked to Asn297 of their heavy chain. The age-associated low grade inflammation (inflammaging) is associated with increased plasmatic levels of agalactosylated IgGs terminating with N-acetylglucosamine (IgG-G0) whose biogenesis has not been fully explained. Although the biosynthesis of glycans is in general mediated by glycosyltransferases associated with internal cell membranes, the extracellular glycosylation of circulating glycoproteins mediated by plasmatic glycosyltransferases has been recently demonstrated. In this study we have investigated the relationship between plasmatic glycosyltransferases, IgG glycosylation and inflammatory and aging markers. In cohorts of individuals ranging from infancy to centenarians we determined the activity of plasmatic β4 galactosyltransferase(s) (B4GALTs) and of α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, the glycosylation of IgG, the GlycoAge test (a glycosylation-based marker of aging) and the plasma level of inflammatory and liver damage markers. Our results show that: 1) plasmatic B4GALTs activity is a new marker of aging, showing a linear increase throughout the whole age range. 2) plasmatic ST6GAL1 was high only in children and in people above 80, showing a quadratic relationship with age. 3) Neither plasmatic glycosyltransferase correlated with markers of liver damage. 4) plasmatic ST6GAL1 showed a positive association with acute phase proteins in offspring of short lived parents, but not in centenarians or in their offspring. 5) Although the glycosylation of IgGs was not correlated with the level of the two plasmatic glycosyltransferases, it showed progressive age-associated changes consistent with a shift toward a pro-inflammatory glycotype.

  1. Identification of novel plasma glycosylation-associated markers of aging

    PubMed Central

    Catera, Mariangela; Borelli, Vincenzo; Malagolini, Nadia; Chiricolo, Mariella; Venturi, Giulia; Reis, Celso A.; Osorio, Hugo; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M.; Capri, Miriam; Monti, Daniela; Ostan, Rita; Franceschi, Claudio; Dall'Olio, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The pro- or anti-inflammatory activities of immunoglobulins G (IgGs) are controlled by the structure of the glycan N-linked to Asn297 of their heavy chain. The age-associated low grade inflammation (inflammaging) is associated with increased plasmatic levels of agalactosylated IgGs terminating with N-acetylglucosamine (IgG-G0) whose biogenesis has not been fully explained. Although the biosynthesis of glycans is in general mediated by glycosyltransferases associated with internal cell membranes, the extracellular glycosylation of circulating glycoproteins mediated by plasmatic glycosyltransferases has been recently demonstrated. In this study we have investigated the relationship between plasmatic glycosyltransferases, IgG glycosylation and inflammatory and aging markers. In cohorts of individuals ranging from infancy to centenarians we determined the activity of plasmatic β4 galactosyltransferase(s) (B4GALTs) and of α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, the glycosylation of IgG, the GlycoAge test (a glycosylation-based marker of aging) and the plasma level of inflammatory and liver damage markers. Our results show that: 1) plasmatic B4GALTs activity is a new marker of aging, showing a linear increase throughout the whole age range. 2) plasmatic ST6GAL1 was high only in children and in people above 80, showing a quadratic relationship with age. 3) Neither plasmatic glycosyltransferase correlated with markers of liver damage. 4) plasmatic ST6GAL1 showed a positive association with acute phase proteins in offspring of short lived parents, but not in centenarians or in their offspring. 5) Although the glycosylation of IgGs was not correlated with the level of the two plasmatic glycosyltransferases, it showed progressive age-associated changes consistent with a shift toward a pro-inflammatory glycotype. PMID:26840264

  2. Analysis of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Markers in Ovarian Cancer Reveals Phenotypic Heterogeneity and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Robert; Li, Zong-Yi; Liu, Ying; Beyer, Ines; Persson, Jonas; Sova, Pavel; Möller, Thomas; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli; Hamerlik, Petra; Drescher, Charles; Urban, Nicole; Bartek, Jiri; Lieber, André

    2011-01-01

    In our studies of ovarian cancer cells we have identified subpopulations of cells that are in a transitory E/M hybrid stage, i.e. cells that simultaneously express epithelial and mesenchymal markers. E/M cells are not homogenous but, in vitro and in vivo, contain subsets that can be distinguished based on a number of phenotypic features, including the subcellular localization of E-cadherin, and the expression levels of Tie2, CD133, and CD44. A cellular subset (E/M-MP) (membrane E-cadherinlow/cytoplasmic E-cadherinhigh/CD133high, CD44high, Tie2low) is highly enriched for tumor-forming cells and displays features which are generally associated with cancer stem cells. Our data suggest that E/M-MP cells are able to differentiate into different lineages under certain conditions, and have the capacity for self-renewal, i.e. to maintain a subset of undifferentiated E/M-MP cells during differentiation. Trans-differentiation of E/M-MP cells into mesenchymal or epithelial cells is associated with a loss of stem cell markers and tumorigenicity. In vivo xenograft tumor growth is driven by E/M-MP cells, which give rise to epithelial ovarian cancer cells. In contrast, in vitro, we found that E/M-MP cells differentiate into mesenchymal cells, in a process that involves pathways associated with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We also detected phenotypic plasticity that was dependent on external factors such as stress created by starvation or contact with either epithelial or mesenchymal cells in co-cultures. Our study provides a better understanding of the phenotypic complexity of ovarian cancer and has implications for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:21264259

  3. Associations of coffee drinking with systemic immune and inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Loftfield, Erikka; Shiels, Meredith S.; Graubard, Barry I.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Trabert, Britton; Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Mayne, Susan T.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Purdue, Mark P.; Hildesheim, Allan; Sinha, Rashmi; Freedman, Neal D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coffee drinking has been inversely associated with mortality as well as cancers of the endometrium, colon, skin, prostate, and liver. Improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation are among the hypothesized mechanisms by which coffee drinking may affect cancer risk; however, associations between coffee drinking and systemic levels of immune and inflammatory markers have not been well characterized. Methods We used Luminex bead-based assays to measure serum levels of 77 immune and inflammatory markers in 1,728 older non-Hispanic Whites. Usual coffee intake was self-reported using a food frequency questionnaire. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to examine associations between coffee and dichotomized marker levels. We conducted statistical trend tests by modeling the median value of each coffee category and applied a 20% false discovery rate criterion to P-values. Results Ten of the 77 markers were nominally associated (P-value for trend<0.05) with coffee drinking. Five markers withstood correction for multiple comparisons and included aspects of the host response namely chemotaxis of monocytes/macrophages (IFNγ, CX3CL1/fractalkine, CCL4/MIP-1β), pro-inflammatory cytokines (sTNFRII) and regulators of cell growth (FGF-2). Heavy coffee drinkers had lower circulating levels of IFNγ (OR=0.35; 95% CI 0.16–0.75), CX3CL1/fractalkine (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.10–0.64), CCL4/MIP-1β (OR=0.48; 95% CI 0.24–0.99), FGF-2 (OR=0.62; 95% CI 0.28–1.38), and sTNFRII (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.15–0.79) than non-coffee drinkers. Conclusions Lower circulating levels of inflammatory markers among coffee drinkers may partially mediate previously observed associations of coffee with cancer and other chronic diseases. Impact Validation studies, ideally controlled feeding trials, are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:25999212

  4. Association of grip strength with cardiovascular risk markers.

    PubMed

    Gubelmann, Cédric; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying the association between grip strength and cardiovascular mortality are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the association of grip strength with a panel of cardiovascular risk markers. Design The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 3468 adults aged 50-75 years (1891 women) from a population-based sample in Lausanne, Switzerland. Methods Grip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. Cardiovascular risk markers included anthropometry, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiposity, inflammatory and other metabolic markers. Results In both genders, grip strength was negatively associated with fat mass (Pearson correlation coefficient: women: -0.170, men: -0.198), systolic blood pressure (women: -0.096, men: -0.074), fasting glucose (women: -0.048, men: -0.071), log-transformed leptin (women: -0.074, men: -0.065), log-transformed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (women: -0.101, men: -0.079) and log-transformed homocysteine (women: -0.109, men: -0.060). In men, grip strength was also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (0.068), total (0.106) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.082), and negatively associated with interleukin-6 (-0.071); in women, grip strength was negatively associated with triglycerides (-0.064) and uric acid (-0.059). After multivariate adjustment, grip strength was negatively associated with waist circumference (change per 5 kg increase in grip strength: -0.82 cm in women and -0.77 cm in men), fat mass (-0.56% in women; -0.27% in men) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-6.8% in women; -3.2% in men) in both genders, and with body mass index (0.22 kg/m(2)) and leptin (-2.7%) in men. Conclusion Grip strength shows only moderate associations with cardiovascular risk markers. The effect of muscle strength as measured by grip strength on cardiovascular disease does not seem to be mediated by cardiovascular risk markers.

  5. Fn14 hepatic progenitor cells are associated with liver fibrosis in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lulu; Lv, Zhibao; Gong, Zhenhua; Sheng, Qingfeng; Gao, Zhimei; Zhang, Yuting; Yu, Shenghua; Zhou, Junmei; Xi, Zhengjun; Wang, Xueli

    2017-05-01

    The liver in biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressing fibrosis which is promoted by unclear reasons. We aimed to understand the factors influencing liver fibrosis. This study hypothesized that HPCs (hepatic progenitor cells) are activated and associated with liver fibrosis in biliary atresia. Liver samples from biliary atresia patients are as BA group, and the normal liver derived from hepatoblastoma infants during operation are control group. The extent of fibrosis in liver samples was blindly evaluated by two experienced pathologists depending on Ishak system. The BA liver samples were divided into mild liver fibrosis group (grade I-IV, BAa) and severe liver fibrosis group (grade V-VI, BAb) to detect Fn14 protein expression. In mRNA level, Fn14 expression was 21.23 ± 8.3 vs. 1.00 ± 0.17, p = 0.023 < 0.05 and CD133 expression was 6.02 ± 2.16 vs. 1.14 ± 0.75, p = 0.008 < 0.01 between BA group and control group. Fn14 cells co-expressed the progenitor marker CD133 in liver, and activated in BA. Fn14 andα-SMA were co-location in fibrous area in liver. Compared to the control group, Fn14, CD133, and α-SMA protein expression were 2.10 ± 0.53 vs. 0.97 ± 0.2, p = 0.001, 2.23 ± 0.57 vs. 1.00 ± 0.03, p = 0.000, 4.96 ± 2.4 vs. 1.00 ± 0.22, p = 0.001. The Fn14 protein expression was 2.60 ± 0.35 vs. 1.86 ± 0.42, p = 0.012, between BAb and BAa group. Fn14 cells, which co-express the progenitor marker CD133 in liver, are HPCs and activated in BA. Fn14 + HPCs are associated with liver fibrosis in BA.

  6. The associations of HLA and other genetic markers with glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Rashid, H U; Papiha, S S; Agroyannis, B; Morley, A R; Ward, M K; Roberts, D F; Kerr, D N

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine patients with various forms of glomerulonephritis confirmed histologically were tested for HLA A and B antigens: Thirty-four with membranous glomerulonephritis were also typed for DR antigens. One hundred and forty-one of these patients were further tested for blood group, red cell enzyme, and plasma protein systems. The minimal-change and the mesangio-capillary glomerulonephritis showed a significant association with B8 and Bw44 antigens respectively, whereas the membranous nephritis in addition to B8 was also found to be associated with DR3 antigen. Previously described associations with Henoch-Schönlein and Berger's nephritis were not proved. A large group with nonspecific proliferative glomerulonephritis did not show any association with HLA. Among the other single-gene characters studied, a significant association was found with Bf (Factor B or C3 proactivator) and adenosine deaminase, both markers thought to be involved in the immune response. The close association of the markers located on chromosome 6 and glomerulonephritis indicates that there may be an immunological component in the aetiology of the disease. The significance of the various associations found is discussed.

  7. Improved Mobilization of the CD34+ and CD133+ Bone Marrow-Derived Circulating Progenitor Cells by Freshly Isolated Intracoronary Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bozdag-Turan, Ilkay; Ortak, Jasmin; Akin, Ibrahim; Kische, Stephan; Schneider, Henrik; Turan, Cem Hakan; Rehders, Tim Christopher; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Kleinfeldt, Tilo; Adolph, Ester; Brehm, Micheal; Yokus, Sedat; Steiner, Stephan; Sahin, Kurtulus; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Ince, Hüseyin

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising novel option for treatment of cardiovascular disease. Because the role of bone marrow-derived circulating progenitor cells (BM-CPCs) after cell therapy is less clear, we analyzed in this randomized, controlled study the influence of intracoronary autologous freshly isolated bone marrow cell transplantation (BMC-Tx) by using a point-of-care system on cardiac function and on the mobilization of BM-CPCs in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Fifty-six patients with IHD were randomized to either receive freshly isolated BMC-Tx or a control group that did not receive cell therapy. Peripheral blood concentrations of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ CPCs were measured by flow cytometry pre-, immediately post-, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postprocedure in both groups. Global ejection fraction and the size of infarct area were determined by left ventriculography. We observed in patients with IHD after intracoronary transplantation of autologous freshly isolated BMCs-Tx at 3 and 12 months follow-up a significant reduction of the size of infarct area and increase of global ejection fraction as well as infarct wall movement velocity. The mobilization of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs significantly increased at 3, 6, and 12 months after cell therapy when compared with baseline in patients with IHD, although no significant changes were observed between pre- and immediately postintracoronary cell therapy administration. In the control group without cell therapy, there was no significant difference of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs mobilization between pre- and at 3, 6, and 12 months postcoronary angiography. Intracoronary transplantation of autologous freshly isolated BMCs by using a point-of-care system in patients with IHD may enhance and prolong the mobilization of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs in peripheral blood and this might increase the regenerative potency in IHD. PMID:21190450

  8. Tumour markers in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Zheng, Xing-Ju; Ji, Yu-Lin; Liang, Zong-An; Liang, Bin-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common pulmonary extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the pathogenesis of RA-ILD is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tumour markers levels in patients of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) and to explore the diagnostic value of serum tumour markers for RA-ILD. Twenty-eight patients with RA-ILD and 83 patients with RA only were included. Serum levels of tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA) 15-3, CA125, and CA19-9 were measured. Tumour markers CA15-3, CA125 and CA19-9 were increased in RA-ILD patients compared with RA without ILD patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (OR=1.06, 95% CI=[1.02-1.11]) and higher CA125 (OR=1.03, 95% CI=[1.01-1.05]) related to the increased risk of RA-ILD. ROC curve analysis showed the relationship between CA125 and RA-ILD was moderate (area under ROC curve (AUC)=0.78, 95% CI=[0.68-0.88]). In addition, CA125 levels above the normal reference (<35 U/ml) raised the risk of RA-ILD (OR=6.00, 95% CI=[2.37-15.16]). RA patient with older age and elevated tumour markers especially CA125 levels should be evaluated to check whether there is a potential of ILD.

  9. Exploring the clonal evolution of CD133/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1)-positive cancer stem-like cells from primary to recurrent high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). A study of the Ovarian Cancer Therapy-Innovative Models Prolong Survival (OCTIPS) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Ruscito, Ilary; Cacsire Castillo-Tong, Dan; Vergote, Ignace; Ignat, Iulia; Stanske, Mandy; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Ganapathi, Ram N; Glajzer, Jacek; Kulbe, Hagen; Trillsch, Fabian; Mustea, Alexander; Kreuzinger, Caroline; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Gourley, Charlie; Gabra, Hani; Kessler, Mirjana; Sehouli, Jalid; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Braicu, Elena Ioana

    2017-07-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) causes 80% of all ovarian cancer (OC) deaths. In this setting, the role of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is still unclear. In particular, the evolution of CSC biomarkers from primary (pOC) to recurrent (rOC) HGSOCs is unknown. Aim of this study was to investigate changes in CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) CSC biomarker expression in pOC and rOC HGSOCs. Two-hundred and twenty-four pOC and rOC intrapatient paired tissue samples derived from 112 HGSOC patients were evaluated for CD133 and ALDH1 expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC); pOCs and rOCs were compared for CD133 and/or ALDH1 levels. Expression profiles were also correlated with patients' clinicopathological and survival data. Some 49.1% of the patient population (55/112) and 37.5% (42/112) pOCs were CD133+ and ALDH1+ respectively. CD133+ and ALDH1+ samples were detected in 33.9% (38/112) and 36.6% (41/112) rOCs. CD133/ALDH1 coexpression was observed in 23.2% (26/112) and 15.2% (17/112) of pOCs and rOCs respectively. Pairwise analysis showed a significant shift of CD133 staining from higher (pOCs) to lower expression levels (rOCs) (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, all CD133 + pOC patients were International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)-stage III/IV (p < 0.0001) and had significantly worse progression-free interval (PFI) (p = 0.04) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, CD133/ALDH1 coexpression in pOCs was identified as independent prognostic factor for PFI (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.03-2.60; p = 0.036) and OS (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.01-2.88; p = 0.045). Analysis on 52 pts patients with known somatic BRCA status revealed that BRCA mutations did not influence CSC biomarker expression. The study showed that CD133/ALDH1 expression impacts HGSOC patients' survival and first suggests that CSCs might undergo phenotypic change during the disease course similarly to non stem-like cancer cells, providing also a first

  10. Nested Association Mapping for Identification of Functional Markers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baohong; Sleper, David A.; Beavis, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of functional markers (FMs) provides information about the genetic architecture underlying complex traits. An approach that combines the strengths of linkage and association mapping, referred to as nested association mapping (NAM), has been proposed to identify FMs in many plant species. The ability to identify and resolve FMs for complex traits depends upon a number of factors including frequency of FM alleles, magnitudes of their genetic effects, disequilibrium among functional and nonfunctional markers, statistical analysis methods, and mating design. The statistical characteristics of power, accuracy, and precision to identify FMs with a NAM population were investigated using three simulation studies. The simulated data sets utilized publicly available genetic sequences and simulated FMs were identified using least-squares variable selection methods. Results indicate that FMs with simple additive genetic effects that contribute at least 5% to the phenotypic variability in at least five segregating families of a NAM population consisting of recombinant inbred progeny derived from 28 matings with a single reference inbred will have adequate power to accurately and precisely identify FMs. This resolution and power are possible even for genetic architectures consisting of disequilibrium among multiple functional and nonfunctional markers in the same genomic region, although the resolution of FMs will deteriorate rapidly if more than two FMs are tightly linked within the same amplicon. Finally, nested mating designs involving several reference parents will have a greater likelihood of resolving FMs than single reference designs. PMID:20551444

  11. Probing the Association between Early Evolutionary Markers and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Saurabh; Bettella, Francesco; Hassani, Sahar; Wang, Yunpeng; Witoelar, Aree; Schork, Andrew J.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Collier, David A.; Desikan, Rahul S.; Melle, Ingrid; Dale, Anders M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is suggested to be a by-product of the evolution in humans, a compromise for our language, creative thinking and cognitive abilities, and thus, essentially, a human disorder. The time of its origin during the course of human evolution remains unclear. Here we investigate several markers of early human evolution and their relationship to the genetic risk of schizophrenia. We tested the schizophrenia evolutionary hypothesis by analyzing genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia and other human phenotypes in a statistical framework suited for polygenic architectures. We analyzed evolutionary proxy measures: human accelerated regions, segmental duplications, and ohnologs, representing various time periods of human evolution for overlap with the human genomic loci associated with schizophrenia. Polygenic enrichment plots suggest a higher prevalence of schizophrenia associations in human accelerated regions, segmental duplications and ohnologs. However, the enrichment is mostly accounted for by linkage disequilibrium, especially with functional elements like introns and untranslated regions. Our results did not provide clear evidence that markers of early human evolution are more likely associated with schizophrenia. While SNPs associated with schizophrenia are enriched in HAR, Ohno and SD regions, the enrichment seems to be mediated by affiliation to known genomic enrichment categories. Taken together with previous results, these findings suggest that schizophrenia risk may have mainly developed more recently in human evolution. PMID:28081145

  12. Assessment of genetic markers and glioblastoma stem-like cells in activation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Aysel; Haydaroglu, Ayfer; Biray Avci, Cigir; Gunduz, Cumhur; Oktar, Nezih; Dalbasti, Tayfun; Caglar, Hasan Onur; Attar, Rukset; Kitapcioglu, Gul

    2013-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive intraparenchymal primary brain tumor in adults. The principal reasons for the poor outcomes of GBM are the high rates of recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of tailored cellular therapy for GBM with a poor prognosis and compare the activity of dendritic cells (DCs) that have encountered GBM cells. Detecting the correlations between methylation and expression of MGMT and PTEN genes and GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers after co-cultures with a mononuclear cell cocktail are also aims for this study. Allogenic umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived DCs were labeled with the CD11a and CD123 for immature DCs, and CD80 and CD11c for mature DCs. CD34, CD45, and CD56 cells were isolated from allogenic UCB for using in DCs maturation. GBM CSCs were detected with CD133/1 and CD111 antibodies after co-culture studies. DC activation was carried out via GBM cells including CD133 and CD111 cells and a mononuclear cells cocktail including CD34, CD45, and CD56 natural killer cells. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression and promoter methylation status of PTEN and MGMT genes. The expression of CSCs markers was found in all GBM cases, and a statistically significant correlation was found among them after co-culture studies. The most pronounced affinity of DCs to GBM cells was observed at dilutions between 1/4 and 1/256 in co-cultures. There was a statistically significant correlation between cellularity and granularity ratios for CD123 and CD11c. PTEN and MGMT gene expression and methylation values were evaluated with respect to CSCs expression and no statistical significance was found. Activation of DCs might associate with CSCs and the mononuclear cells cocktail including CD34, CD45, and CD56 cells which were obtained from allogenic UCB.

  13. Association between 7q31 markers and Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Anzaldúa, Adriana; Joober, Ridha; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Dion, Yves; Lespérance, Paul; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois; Rouleau, Guy Armand

    2004-05-15

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex neuropychiatric disorder with a strong genetic basis. Although no specific susceptibility genes have been identified for TS, cytogenetic studies in selected cases suggest the existence of a predisposing gene located in the 7q31 chromosomal region. In order to test the hypothesis of a possible relationship between this region and TS at the population level, we undertook a family based association study in a sample of French Canadian patients from Quebec. For this purpose, markers D7S522, D7S523, and D7S1516 were tested using the extended transmission disequilibrium test (e-TDT). Marker D7S522 showed a biased transmission of alleles from heterozygote parents to their TS offsprings (allele-wise TDT chi(2) = 12.61, 4 df, P = 0.013, genotype-wise TDT chi(2) = 15.49, 7 df, P = 0.030). When the analysis was restricted to patients without ADHD or OCD comorbidity, similar results were observed both allele and genotype-wise (chi(2) = 10.68, 4 df, P = 0.03 and chi(2) = 12.55, 5 df, P = 0.028, respectively). In addition, marker D7S523 was also associated (allele-wise TDT chi(2) = 18.37, 7 df, P = 0.01 and genotype-wise TDT chi(2) = 46.26, 17 df, P = 0.00016), and showed a tendency for association in the comorbidity-free subgroup (genotype-wise TDT chi(2) = 18.7, 10 df, P = 0.044). Finally, marker D7S1516, contained in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2 like (IMMP2L) gene, also showed a tendency for association (genotype-wise TDT chi(2) = 32.87, 21 df, P = 0.048). These results may reflect the proximity of markers D7S522, D7S523, and possibly D7S1516 to a gene or regulatory region relevant to TS predisposition. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  15. Increased plasma microRNA and CD133/CK18-positive cancer cells in the pleural fluid of a pancreatic cancer patient with liver and pleural metastases and correlation with chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chuanli; Chen, Hui; Han, Chongxu; Wang, Daxin; Fu, Deyuan

    2012-10-01

    We report a case of notably increased plasma levels of microRNA (miR)-21, miR-25, miR-103 and miR-151 in a pancreatic cancer patient with liver and pleural metastases. CD45-coated immunomagnetic beads detected an enrichment of malignant cancer cells in the pleural fluid, and CD133(+)CK18(+) cancer cells were identified. Using computer tomography (CT) combined with cancer cells stained in the pleural fluid, a previously healthy 60-year-old male was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer with multiple liver tumor metastases. Cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamate-transpeptidase (γ-GT) were notably increased in the serum, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was increased in the pleural fluid. The patient succumbed to the disease three months following standard chemotherapy. The increased levels of plasma miR-21, miR-25, miR-103 and miR-151, as well as the identification of CD133(+)CK18(+) cells in the pleural fluid of a pancreatic cancer patient with liver metastases, may regulate the molecular mechanisms involved in chemoresistance. The patient was insensitive to chemotherapy and succumbed 3 months later. Full elucidation of the molecular and pathological features of pancreatic cancer may be a novel strategy for diagnosis and tailored therapy.

  16. Activation of D2 Dopamine Receptors in CD133+ve Cancer Stem Cells in Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma Inhibits Proliferation, Clonogenic Ability, and Invasiveness of These Cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Soumyabrata; Lu, Kai; Nayak, Mukti Kant; Bhuniya, Avishek; Ghosh, Tithi; Kundu, Suman; Ghosh, Sarbari; Baral, Rathindranath; Dasgupta, Partha Sarathi; Basu, Sujit

    2017-01-13

    Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and among this cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprises the majority of cases. Furthermore, recurrence and metastasis of NSCLC correlate well with CD133+ve tumor cells, a small population of tumor cells that have been designated as cancer stem cells (CSC). We have demonstrated for the first time high expression of D2 dopamine (DA) receptors in CD133+ve adenocarcinoma NSCLC cells. Also, activation of D2 DA receptors in these cells significantly inhibited their proliferation, clonogenic ability, and invasiveness by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT, as well as down-regulation of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) expression and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion by these cells. These results are of significance as D2 DA agonists that are already in clinical use for treatment of other diseases may be useful in combination with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy for better management of NSCLC patients by targeting both tumor cells and stem cell compartments in the tumor mass. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The Role of Apoptosis Associated Markers in Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-08-28

    To Compare the Serum Apoptosis-associated Markers Between Patients With Active TB and Patients With LTBI; To Evaluate the Efficiency of Apoptosis-associated Markers to Differentiate Potential of Active TB From LTBI

  18. Associations of genetic markers in cattle receiving differing implant protocols.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Shackelford, S D; McDaneld, T G; Kuehn, L A; Kemp, C M; Smith, T P L; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2012-07-01

    The potential interaction of growth-promoting implants and genetic markers previously reported to be associated with growth, carcass traits, and tenderness was evaluated. Two implant protocols were applied to subsets of steers (n = 383) and heifers (n = 65) that were also genotyped for 47 SNP reported to be associated with variation in growth, fat thickness, LM area, marbling, or tenderness. The "mild" protocol consisted of a single terminal implant [16 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 80 mg trenbalone acetate (TBA) or 8 mg EB, 80 mg TBA given to steers and heifers, respectively]. The "aggressive" protocol consisted of both a growing implant (8 mg EB, 40 mg TBA) for the lightest half of the animals on the aggressive protocol and 2 successive implants (28 mg EB, 200 mg TBA) given to all animals assigned to the aggressive treatment. Implant protocol had measurable impact on BW and ADG (P < 0.05), with the aggressive protocol increasing these traits before the terminal implant (relative to the mild protocol), whereas the mild protocol increased ADG after the terminal implant so that the final BW and ADG over the experimental period were similar between protocols. Animals on the aggressive protocol had significantly increased (P < 0.05) LM area (1.9 cm(2)), slice shear force (1.4 kg), and intact desmin (0.05 units), but decreased (P < 0.05) marbling score (49 units) and adjusted fat thickness (0.1 cm), and yield grade (0.15 units). Among both treatments, 8 of 9 growth-related SNP were associated with BW or ADG, and 6 of 17 tenderness-related SNP were associated with slice shear force or intact desmin. Favorable growth alleles generally were associated with increased carcass yield traits but decreased tenderness. Similarly, favorable tenderness genotypes for some markers were associated with decreased BW and ADG. Some interactions of implant protocol and genotype were noted, with some growth SNP alleles increasing the effect of the aggressive protocol. In contrast, putative

  19. Association between Immune Markers and Surrogate Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in HIV Positive Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Alinda G.; Hulzebosch, Annelieke; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Barth, Roos E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Background HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic low-grade immune activation is likely one of the driving mechanisms. This systematic review provides an overview of the evidence addressing the relation between immune markers and surrogate markers of CVD (except CIMT) in HIV infection. Methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library identifying all articles from 1996 to April 2015. It addressed the relation between immune markers and surrogate markers of CVD (except Carotid Intima-media Thickness) in HIV-positive adults. Two authors, using predefined criteria, independently conducted the selection of articles, critical appraisal and extraction of the data. Analysis focused on immune markers that were assessed most frequently. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline and performed as part of an overarching review registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014010516). Findings Twenty-nine articles were selected, describing 34 immune markers and nine different CVD surrogate outcomes: coronary calcium score (13 times) and flow-mediated dilation (10 times) were used most frequently. Twenty-seven studies had a cross-sectional design. CRP, IL-6 and sVCAM-1 were assessed most frequently. None of the immune markers were clearly associated with any of the surrogate CVD outcomes. No effect estimate could be calculated due to marked heterogeneity in study populations, immune markers, outcomes and statistical approaches. Interpretation This review could not identify a clear association between any of the immune markers and surrogate CVD outcomes. This may reflect a true lack of association, or may be explained by heterogeneity across studies and lack of follow-up data. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies measuring a select set of immune markers and surrogate CVD outcomes awaiting the primary outcome of clinical cardiovascular events. PMID:28085961

  20. Association of susceptible genetic markers and autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vasanth Konda; Ganesan, Nalini; Gopalakrishnan, Rajasekhar

    2014-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology resulting in inflammation of the synovium, cartilage and bone. The disease has a heterogeneous character, consisting of clinical subsets of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and APCA-negative disease. Although, the pathogenesis of RA is incompletely understood, genetic factors play a vital role in susceptibility to RA as the heritability of RA is between 50 and 60%, with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus accounting for at least 30% of overall genetic risk. Non-HLA genes, i.e. tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) within the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) have also been investigated for association with RA. Although, some contradictory results have originated from several studies on TNF-α gene, the data published so far indicate the possible existence of TNF-α gene promoter variants that act as markers for disease severity and response to treatment in RA. The correlation of HLA and non-HLA genes within MHC region is apparently interpreted. A considerable number of confirmed associations with RA and other autoimmune disease susceptibility loci including peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT4), cluster of differentiation 244 (CD244) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), located outside the MHC have been reported recently. In this review, we aim to give an update on recent progress in RA genetics, the importance of the combination of HLA-DRB1 alleles, non-HLA gene polymorphism, its detection and autoantibodies as susceptibility markers for early RA disease.

  1. Increased expression of astrocyte markers in schizophrenia: Association with neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Catts, Vibeke Sørensen; Wong, Jenny; Fillman, Stu Gregory; Fung, Samantha Jane; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2014-08-01

    While schizophrenia may have a progressive component, the evidence for neurodegenerative processes as indicated by reactive astrocytes is inconclusive. We recently identified a subgroup of individuals with schizophrenia with increased expression of inflammatory markers in prefrontal cortex, and hypothesized that this subgroup would also have reactive astrocytes. We measured glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein levels by immunoblotting in grey matter homogenate from 37 individuals with schizophrenia and 37 unaffected controls. We examined the morphology of GFAP-positive astrocytes in immunostained sections of middle frontal gyrus. We tested if GFAP expression or astrocyte morphology were altered in people with schizophrenia with increased expression of inflammatory markers. We used RNA-Seq data on a subset of patients and controls (n=20/group) to ascertain whether mRNA transcripts associated with astrogliosis were elevated in the individuals with active neuroinflammation. GFAP (mRNA and protein) levels and astrocyte morphology were not significantly different between people with schizophrenia and controls overall. However, individuals with schizophrenia with neuroinflammation had increased expression of GFAP mRNA (t(33)=2.978, p=0.005), hypertrophic astrocyte morphology (χ(2)(2)=6.281, p=0.043), and statistically significant elevated expression of three mRNA transcripts previously associated with astrogliosis. We found clear evidence of astrogliosis in a subset of people with schizophrenia. We suggest that the lack of astrogliosis reported in previous studies may be due to cohort differences in aetiopathology, illness stage, treatment exposure, or a failure to examine subsets of people with schizophrenia. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  2. Associations between Early Markers of Parkinson's Disease and Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Drey, Michael; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Krenovsky, Jan-Peter; Hobert, Markus A.; Straub, Stefanie; Elshehabi, Morad; von Thaler, Anna-Katharina; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Suenkel, Ulrike; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sarcopenia and Parkinson's disease (PD) are both common age-related syndromes, and there is preliminary evidence that the probability of the co-occurrence of these syndromes within one individual is higher than expected. However, it is unclear to date whether one of the syndromes induces the other, or whether there may be common underlying causes. This pilot study thus aimed at investigating the association of the features of increased risk for PD with early stage sarcopenia (ESS). Method: Two hundred and fifty-five community-dwelling individuals were recruited from the Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of NeuroDegeneration (TREND) study. The following features that are associated with an increased risk for future PD were evaluated: the motor part of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS-III), hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra, prevalence of lifetime depression, hyposmia, REM sleep behavior disorder and the recently introduced probability score for prodromal PD. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, which was adapted to this cohort of healthy adults. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify associations of PD-related features with ESS. Results: The UPDRS-III score was significantly associated with ESS. The result remained significant after the adjustment for age, gender and physical activity. No association was found between the other PD-related features and ESS. Conclusion: The significant association of the UPDRS-III score with ESS in this cohort might indicate a common and early pathway in both diseases and supports the existence of an “extended neurodegenerative overlap syndrome.” Moreover, the potential of EES to serve as a prodromal marker of PD should be evaluated in future studies. PMID:28326036

  3. Evaluation of the expression of stem cell markers in human breast cancer reveals a correlation with clinical progression and metastatic disease in ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martin, Tracey Amanda; Jiang, Wen Guo

    2014-01-01

    The tumor stem cell theory could explain how patients with metastatic disease show clinical relapse several months after starting treatment due to the survival of a small group of cells with unique characteristics. We examined the distribution and expression of a panel of stem cell markers in human breast cancer primary tumors. Human breast tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry, and RNA was extracted for analysis by quantitative-PCR. Immunohistochemical assay revealed that CD44 was strongly expressed in background endothelia and epithelia. CD133 expression was lost in tumor-associated endothelial cells. Conversely, CD49b was strongly stained in the tumors, associated vessels and ducts but was weakly stained in the background epithelia. q-PCR analysis revealed that CD44 and PSCA were reduced in patients with poor outcome (metastatic disease and death from breast cancer), with a marked reduction in ductal carcinoma, particularly with metastasis to bone although these did not reach significant difference. CD133 was significantly reduced in patients with metastatic disease and was also significantly reduced in patients with ductal carcinoma/bone metastasis. Conversely, CD49F was increased in patients with a poor outcome and those with ductal cancer and bone metastases. This is the first study to determine the distribution and expression pattern of these stem cell markers in human breast cancer. There was a significant association between loss of expression and metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer. Such differential expression may play a part in breast cancer disease progression, and suggests that the current stem cell theory may not hold true for all cancer types.

  4. Molecular markers associated with cold-hardiness in Camellia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers from expressed sequence tag-polymerase chain reaction (EST-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were developed with the goal to separate cold hardy camellias from non-cold hardy ones. A total of 28 cold hardy and non-cold h...

  5. Are oxidative stress markers associated with unexplained male infertility?

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Torres, B J M; Camargo, M; Cadavid, Á P; du Plessis, S S; Cardona Maya, W D

    2016-08-10

    Male infertility can be responsible for up to 20% of the cases attending fertility consultation facilities; nonetheless, the underlying molecular mechanisms that could explain it are still elusive. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate conventional and functional parameters of semen samples from patients who presented with male infertility of unknown origin. Conventional semen parameters and functional parameters (i.e. intracellular reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm chromatin structure assay, sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma) were evaluated on semen samples from 54 healthy donors, 23 patients with idiopathic infertility and 34 fertile controls. No significant differences were observed in the conventional seminal parameters between the fertile and infertile men. However, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA fragmentation were observed in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Alterations in intracellular ROS production and DNA fragmentation could be associated with male idiopathic infertility. These parameters could eventually distinguish both groups more accurately than the conventional parameters. Our current results are encouraging, and the efficacy of these parameters in the clinical settings needs to be further assessed to establish their predictive potential as a marker of unexplained male infertility.

  6. SSR Markers Associated with Proline in Drought Tolerant Wheat Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Maqsood, Yasir; Abdin, Zain Ul; Manzoor, Atif; Hassan, Muhammad; Jamil, Amer

    2016-03-01

    Water stress causes major agricultural loss throughout the world as survival of the crops remained under stress and loss in yield. Plants respond to drought stress by means of different adaptive mechanisms such as accumulation of osmoprotectants to counteract the water stress. Amino acid proline is known to occur widely in higher plants and normally accumulates in large quantities as an osmolyte in response to environmental stresses. Biochemical estimation of proline was done in the drought-affected wheat genotypes by spectrophotometric method. Proline promoted a positive effect as root/shoot ratio was enhanced in wheat germplasm under drought stress. SSR primer pairs (45) were tested for polymorphism among selected wheat genotypes. The dendrogram results have shown the wheat genotype association with the levels of proline during induced drought stress. The relationship between pattern of drought responsive biochemical attributes and DNA markers in the selected wheat genotypes was recognized to select drought tolerant genotypes for sowing in drought affected areas of the country.

  7. Marker-trait association analysis of functional gene markers for provitamin A levels across diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofortification of staple crops is a cost effective and sustainable approach that can help combat vitamin A and other micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. PCR -based DNA markers distinguishing alleles of three key genes of maize endosperm carotenoid biosynthesis (PSY1, lcyE and crtRB1) have been developed to facilitate maize provitamin A biofortification via marker assisted selection. Previous studies of these functional DNA markers revealed inconsistent effects. The germplasm previously employed for discovering and validating these functional markers was mainly of temperate origin containing low frequencies of the favourable allele of the most significant polymorphism, crtRB1-5′TE. Here, we investigate the vitamin A biofortification potential of these DNA markers in a germplasm panel of diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines, with mixed genetic backgrounds of temperate and tropical germplasm to identify the most effective diagnostic markers for vitamin A biofortification. Results The functional DNA markers crtRB1-5′TE and crtRB1-3′TE were consistently and strongly associated with provitamin A content across the tropical maize inbred lines tested. The alleles detected by these two functional markers were in high linkage disequilibrium (R2 = 0.75) and occurred in relatively high frequency (18%). Genotypes combining the favourable alleles at the two loci (N = 20) displayed a 3.22 fold average increase in β-carotene content compared to those genotypes lacking the favourable alleles (N = 106). The PSY1 markers were monomorphic across all of the inbred lines. The functional DNA markers for lcyE were associated with lutein, and with the ratio of carotenoids in the alpha and beta branches, but not with provitamin A levels. However, the combined effects of the two genes were stronger than their individual effects on all carotenoids. Conclusions Tropical maize inbred lines harbouring the favourable alleles of the crtRB1-5

  8. Identification of Putative Molecular Markers Associated with Root Traits in Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

    PubMed Central

    Achar, Devaraja; Awati, Mallikarjuana G.; Udayakumar, M.; Prasad, T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Coffea canephora exhibit poor root system and are very sensitive to drought stress that affects growth and production. Deeper root system has been largely empirical as better avoidance to soil water limitation in drought condition. The present study aimed to identify molecular markers linked to high root types in Coffea canephora using molecular markers. Contrasting parents, L1 valley with low root and S.3334 with high root type, were crossed, and 134 F1 individuals were phenotyped for root and associated physiological traits (29 traits) and genotyped with 41 of the 320 RAPD and 9 of the 55 SSR polymorphic primers. Single marker analysis was deployed for detecting the association of markers linked to root associated traits by SAS software. There were 13 putative RAPD markers associated with root traits such as root length, secondary roots, root dry weight, and root to shoot ratio, in which root length associated marker OPS1850 showed high phenotypic variance of 6.86%. Two microsatellite markers linked to root length (CPCM13400) and root to shoot ratio (CM211300). Besides, 25 markers were associated with more than one trait and few of the markers were associated with positively related physiological traits and can be used in marker assisted trait selection. PMID:25821599

  9. ST6Gal-I protein expression is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and correlates with stem cell markers in normal tissues and colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Swindall, Amanda F; Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I; Schultz, Matthew J; Fineberg, Naomi; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Bellis, Susan L

    2013-04-01

    The ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase adds an α2-6-linked sialic acid to the N-glycans of certain receptors. ST6Gal-I mRNA has been reported to be upregulated in human cancer, but a prior lack of antibodies has limited immunochemical analysis of the ST6Gal-I protein. Here, we show upregulated ST6Gal-I protein in several epithelial cancers, including many colon carcinomas. In normal colon, ST6Gal-I localized selectively to the base of crypts, where stem/progenitor cells are found, and the tissue staining patterns were similar to the established stem cell marker ALDH1. Similarly, ST6Gal-I expression was restricted to basal epidermal layers in skin, another stem/progenitor cell compartment. ST6Gal-I was highly expressed in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, with no detectable expression in the fibroblasts from which iPS cells were derived. On the basis of these observations, we investigated further an association of ST6Gal-I with cancer stem cells (CSC). Selection of irinotecan resistance in colon carcinoma cells led to a greater proportion of CSCs compared with parental cells, as measured by the CSC markers CD133 and ALDH1 activity (Aldefluor). These chemoresistant cells exhibited a corresponding upregulation of ST6Gal-I expression. Conversely, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated attenuation of ST6Gal-I in colon carcinoma cells with elevated endogenous expression decreased the number of CD133/ALDH1-positive cells present in the cell population. Collectively, our results suggest that ST6Gal-I promotes tumorigenesis and may serve as a regulator of the stem cell phenotype in both normal and cancer cell populations.

  10. ST6Gal-I protein expression is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and correlates with stem cell markers in normal tissues and colon cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Swindall, Amanda F.; Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I.; Schultz, Matthew J.; Fineberg, Naomi; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase adds an α2–6-linked sialic acid to the N-glycans of certain receptors. ST6Gal-I mRNA has been reported to be upregulated in human cancer, but a prior lack of antibodies has limited immunochemical analysis of the ST6Gal-I protein. Here we show upregulated ST6Gal-I protein in several epithelial cancers, including many colon carcinomas. In normal colon, ST6Gal-I localized selectively to the base of crypts, where stem/progenitor cells are found, and the tissue staining patterns were similar to the established stem cell marker ALDH1. Similarly, ST6Gal-I expression was restricted to basal epidermal layers in skin, another stem/progenitor cell compartment. ST6Gal-I was highly expressed in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, with no detectable expression in the fibroblasts from which iPS cells were derived. On the basis of these observations we investigated further an association of ST6Gal-I with cancer stem cells (CSCs). Selection of irinotecan resistance in colon carcinoma cells led to a greater proportion of CSCs compared with parental cells, as measured by the CSC markers CD133 and ALDH1 activity (Aldefluor). These chemoresistant cells exhibited a corresponding upregulation of ST6Gal-I expression. Conversely, shRNA-mediated attenuation of ST6Gal-I in colon carcinoma cells with elevated endogenous expression decreased the number of CD133/ALDH1-positive cells present in the cell population. Collectively, our results suggest that ST6Gal-I promotes tumorigenesis and may serve as a regulator of the stem cell phenotype in both normal and cancer cell populations. PMID:23358684

  11. Single-Marker and Two-Marker Association Tests for Unphased Case-Control Genotype Data, with a Power Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sulgi; Morris, Nathan J.; Won, Sungho; Elston, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    In case-control Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data, the Allele frequency, Hardy Weinberg Disequilibrium (HWD) and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) contrast tests are three distinct sources of information about genetic association. While all three tests are typically developed in a retrospective context, we show that prospective logistic regression models may be developed that correspond conceptually to the retrospective tests. This approach provides a flexible framework for conducting a systematic series of association analyses using unphased genotype data and any number of covariates. For a single stage study, two single-marker tests and four two-marker tests are discussed. The true association models are derived and they allow us to understand why a model with only a linear term will generally fit well for a SNP in weak LD with a causal SNP, whatever the disease model, but not for a SNP in high LD with a non-additive disease SNP. We investigate the power of the association tests using real LD parameters from chromosome 11 in the HapMap CEU population data. Among the single-marker tests, the allelic test has on average the most power in the case of an additive disease; but, for dominant, recessive and heterozygote disadvantage diseases, the genotypic test has the most power. Among the six two-marker tests, the Allelic-LD contrast test, which incorporates linear terms for two markers and their interaction term, provides the most reliable power overall for the cases studied. Therefore, our result supports incorporating an interaction term as well as linear terms in multi-marker tests. PMID:19557751

  12. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.)).

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A I; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection.

  13. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.))

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A. I.; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26110423

  14. Root trait diversity, molecular marker diversity, and trait-marker associations in a core collection of Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yinglong; Shan, Fucheng; Nelson, Matthew N; Siddique, Kadambot HM; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the predominant grain legume crop in southern Australia, contributing half of the total grain legume production of Australia. Its yield in Australia is hampered by a range of subsoil constraints. The adaptation of lupin genotypes to subsoil constraints may be improved by selecting for optimal root traits from new and exotic germplasm sources. We assessed root trait diversity and genetic diversity of a core collection of narrow-leafed lupin (111 accessions) using 191 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. The genetic relationship among accessions was determined using the admixture model in STRUCTURE. Thirty-eight root-associated traits were characterized, with 21 having coefficient of variation values >0.5. Principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis of the DArT markers revealed broad diversity among the accessions. An ad hoc statistics calculation resulted in 10 distinct populations with significant differences among and within them (P < 0.001). The mixed linear model test in TASSEL showed a significant association between all root traits and some DArT markers, with the numbers of markers associated with an individual trait ranging from 2 to 13. The percentage of phenotypic variation explained by any one marker ranged from 6.4 to 21.8%, with 15 associations explaining >10% of phenotypic variation. The genetic variation values ranged from 0 to 7994, with 23 associations having values >240. Root traits such as deeper roots and lateral root proliferation at depth would be useful for this species for improved adaptation to drier soil conditions. This study offers opportunities for discovering useful root traits that can be used to increase the yield of Australian cultivars across variable environmental conditions. PMID:27049020

  15. Root trait diversity, molecular marker diversity, and trait-marker associations in a core collection of Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinglong; Shan, Fucheng; Nelson, Matthew N; Siddique, Kadambot Hm; Rengel, Zed

    2016-06-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the predominant grain legume crop in southern Australia, contributing half of the total grain legume production of Australia. Its yield in Australia is hampered by a range of subsoil constraints. The adaptation of lupin genotypes to subsoil constraints may be improved by selecting for optimal root traits from new and exotic germplasm sources. We assessed root trait diversity and genetic diversity of a core collection of narrow-leafed lupin (111 accessions) using 191 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. The genetic relationship among accessions was determined using the admixture model in STRUCTURE. Thirty-eight root-associated traits were characterized, with 21 having coefficient of variation values >0.5. Principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis of the DArT markers revealed broad diversity among the accessions. An ad hoc statistics calculation resulted in 10 distinct populations with significant differences among and within them (P < 0.001). The mixed linear model test in TASSEL showed a significant association between all root traits and some DArT markers, with the numbers of markers associated with an individual trait ranging from 2 to 13. The percentage of phenotypic variation explained by any one marker ranged from 6.4 to 21.8%, with 15 associations explaining >10% of phenotypic variation. The genetic variation values ranged from 0 to 7994, with 23 associations having values >240. Root traits such as deeper roots and lateral root proliferation at depth would be useful for this species for improved adaptation to drier soil conditions. This study offers opportunities for discovering useful root traits that can be used to increase the yield of Australian cultivars across variable environmental conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Opportunities of marker-assisted selection for rice fragrance through marker-trait association analysis of microsatellites and gene-based markers.

    PubMed

    Golestan Hashemi, F S; Rafii, M Y; Razi Ismail, M; Mohamed, M T M; Rahim, H A; Latif, M A; Aslani, F

    2015-09-01

    Developing fragrant rice through marker-assisted/aided selection (MAS) is an economical and profitable approach worldwide for the enrichment of an elite genetic background with a pleasant aroma. The PCR-based DNA markers that distinguish the alleles of major fragrance genes in rice have been synthesised to develop rice scent biofortification through MAS. Thus, the present study examined the aroma biofortification potential of these co-dominant markers in a germplasm panel of 189 F2 progeny developed from crosses between a non-aromatic variety (MR84) and a highly aromatic but low-yielding variety (MRQ74) to determine the most influential diagnostic markers for fragrance biofortification. The SSRs and functional DNA markers RM5633 (on chromosome 4), RM515, RM223, L06, NKSbad2, FMbadh2-E7, BADEX7-5, Aro7 and SCU015RM (on chromosome 8) were highly associated with the 2AP (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) content across the population. The alleles traced via these markers were also in high linkage disequilibrium (R(2) > 0.70) and explained approximately 12.1, 27.05, 27.05, 27.05, 25.42, 25.42, 20.53, 20.43 and 20.18% of the total phenotypic variation observed for these biomarkers, respectively. F2 plants harbouring the favourable alleles of these effective markers produced higher levels of fragrance. Hence, these rice plants can be used as donor parents to increase the development of fragrance-biofortified tropical rice varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, thus contributing to the global rice market. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Dietary Micronutrient Intakes Are Associated with Markers of Inflammation but Not with Markers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis12

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C. C.; Alonso, Alvaro; Lee, Duk-Hee; Delclos, George L.; Jenny, Nancy S.; Jiang, Rui; Lima, Joao A.; Symanski, Elaine; Jacobs, David R.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined associations of dietary micronutrients with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. The present study investigated associations of heme iron, nonheme iron, zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), β-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E with C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, total homocysteine (tHcy), fibrinogen, coronary artery calcium, and common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness. Micronutrient intakes and markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis were studied in 5181 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were aged 45–84 y and free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Models were adjusted for energy intake, demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and BMI. Dietary nonheme iron and Mg intakes were inversely associated with tHcy concentrations (mean tHcy: 9.11, 8.86, 8.74, 8.71, and 8.50 μmol/L, and 9.20, 9.00, 8.65, 8.76, and 8.33 μmol/L across increasing quintiles of nonheme iron and Mg, respectively; P-trend < 0.001 for both). However, dietary Zn and heme iron were positively associated with CRP [mean: 1.73, 1.75, 1.78, 1.88, and 1.96 mg/L across increasing quintiles of Zn and 1.72, 1.76, 1.83, 1.86, and 1.94 mg/L across increasing quintiles of heme iron (P-trend = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively). Other tested micronutrient-marker associations were not significant. In conclusion, of the 49 tested associations, only 7 were significant. Although this study does not provide strong support for associations between the micronutrients and markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis, the results are consistent with dietary guidelines that advocate for a balanced diet that includes a variety of plant foods containing Mg, Zn, and nonheme iron. PMID:21653577

  18. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Stine S; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina G; Kristensen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Targeting of lysosomes is a novel therapeutic anti-cancer strategy for killing the otherwise apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Such strategies are urgently needed for treatment of brain tumors, especially the glioblastoma, which is the most frequent and most malignant type. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of lysosomes in astrocytic brain tumors focussing also on the therapy resistant tumor stem cells. Expression of the lysosomal marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 112 formalin fixed paraffin embedded astrocytomas and compared with tumor grade and overall patient survival. Moreover, double immunofluorescence stainings were performed with LAMP-1 and the astrocytic marker GFAP and the putative stem cell marker CD133 on ten glioblastomas. Most tumors expressed the LAMP-1 protein in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells, while the blood vessels were positive in all tumors. The percentage of LAMP-1 positive tumor cells and staining intensities increased with tumor grade but variations in tumors of the same grade were also found. No association was found between LAMP-1 expression and patient overall survival in the individual tumor grades. LAMP-1/GFAP showed pronounced co-expression and LAMP-1/CD133 was co-expressed as well suggesting that tumor cells including the proposed tumor stem cells contain lysosomes. The results suggest that high amounts of lysosomes are present in glioblastomas and in the proposed tumor stem cells. Targeting of lysosomes may be a promising novel therapeutic strategy against this highly malignant neoplasm.

  19. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-07-02

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  20. Identifying molecular markers associated with stigma characteristics in rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stigma characteristics play essential roles in hybrid seed production of rice and marker-assisted breeding plays essential role because they are quantitatively inherited with single-flowered perfect spikelet. Ninety four accessions originated from 47 countries were selected from the USDA rice core c...

  1. Discovery of Infection Associated Metabolic Markers in Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lamour, Sabrina D; Gomez-Romero, Maria; Vorkas, Panagiotis A; Alibu, Vincent P; Saric, Jasmina; Holmes, Elaine; Sternberg, Jeremy M

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) remains a major neglected tropical disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. As clinical symptoms are usually non-specific, new diagnostic and prognostic markers are urgently needed to enhance the number of identified cases and optimise treatment. This is particularly important for disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, where indirect immunodiagnostic approaches have to date been unsuccessful. We have conducted global metabolic profiling of plasma from T.b.rhodesiense HAT patients and endemic controls, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and identified differences in the lipid, amino acid and metabolite profiles. Altogether 16 significantly disease discriminatory metabolite markers were found using NMR, and a further 37 lipid markers via UPLC-MS. These included significantly higher levels of phenylalanine, formate, creatinine, N-acetylated glycoprotein and triglycerides in patients relative to controls. HAT patients also displayed lower concentrations of histidine, sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholines, and several polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines. While the disease metabolite profile was partially consistent with previous data published in experimental rodent infection, we also found unique lipid and amino acid profile markers highlighting subtle but important differences between the host response to trypanosome infections between animal models and natural human infections. Our results demonstrate the potential of metabolic profiling in the identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers and the elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms in this disease.

  2. Discovery of Infection Associated Metabolic Markers in Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lamour, Sabrina D.; Gomez-Romero, Maria; Vorkas, Panagiotis A.; Alibu, Vincent P.; Saric, Jasmina; Holmes, Elaine; Sternberg, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) remains a major neglected tropical disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. As clinical symptoms are usually non-specific, new diagnostic and prognostic markers are urgently needed to enhance the number of identified cases and optimise treatment. This is particularly important for disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, where indirect immunodiagnostic approaches have to date been unsuccessful. We have conducted global metabolic profiling of plasma from T.b.rhodesiense HAT patients and endemic controls, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and identified differences in the lipid, amino acid and metabolite profiles. Altogether 16 significantly disease discriminatory metabolite markers were found using NMR, and a further 37 lipid markers via UPLC-MS. These included significantly higher levels of phenylalanine, formate, creatinine, N-acetylated glycoprotein and triglycerides in patients relative to controls. HAT patients also displayed lower concentrations of histidine, sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholines, and several polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines. While the disease metabolite profile was partially consistent with previous data published in experimental rodent infection, we also found unique lipid and amino acid profile markers highlighting subtle but important differences between the host response to trypanosome infections between animal models and natural human infections. Our results demonstrate the potential of metabolic profiling in the identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers and the elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms in this disease. PMID:26505639

  3. QTL mapping, association mapping and marker assisted breeding in lettuce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of elite lettuce cultivars is a lengthy process that involves cross-pollination, several rounds of selection, development of homozygous genotypes, and testing of material performance. Use of molecular markers linked to the genes allows for rapid and frequently more accurate selection of ...

  4. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of inflammatory markers in lung cancer-associated pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Kotyza, Jaromir; Havel, David; Vrzalová, Jindra; Kulda, Vlastimil; Pesek, Milos

    2010-01-01

    Besides massive expression in inflammatory pleural effusions, inflammatory markers are also present in cancerinduced pleural effusions. Recent advances in cancer biology point to a role of inflammatory signaling in cancer and encourage reconsidering the diagnostic and prognostic value of inflammatory markers. Here an attempt was made to relate protein levels of inflammatory markers to underlying malignant processes in the pleural space. Pleural effusions from lung cancer patients (n=116) were subjected to a multifactorial analysis covering 13 inflammatory markers. The composition of tumor-associated effusions was compared with that of parainflammatory pleural effusions (n=30), transudates (n=18), and serum values, and evaluated in relation to cancer origin, histology, cytology, pleural involvement, treatment history, and survival time. Inflammatory markers were significantly expressed in pleural effusions of paraneoplastic origin when compared to transudates and most serum levels. Values in pleura-invading and metastatic tumor-associated effusions were typically higher than those of other tumors. Many markers correlated negatively with survival, most prominently IL-8 (r=-0.36, p=0.001) and VEGF (r=-0.35, p=0.001). It appears that most inflammatory markers are highly expressed in tumor-associated pleural effusions, reflecting to some extent tumor origin and localization. Despite the lower efficacy of inflammatory markers in the differentiation between exudative pleural effusions, some inflammatory markers may represent potential prognostic markers of malignant processes in the pleural space.

  5. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common ... published in the Journal of the American Medical Association . Funded in part by NCCAM, the study is ...

  6. Autism and genetics: Clinical approach and association study with two markers of HRAS gene

    SciTech Connect

    Herault, J.; Petit, E.; Cherpi, C.

    1995-08-14

    Twin studies and familial aggregation studies indicate that genetic factors could play a role in infantile autism. In an earlier study, we identified a possible positive association between autism and a c-Harvey-ras (HRAS) oncogene marker at the 3{prime} end of the coding region. In an attempt to confirm this finding, we studied a larger population, well-characterized clinically and genetically. We report a positive association between autism and two HRAS markers, the 3{prime} marker used in the initial study and an additional marker in exon 1. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Evidence for cell fusion is absent in vascular lesions associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Majka, S. M.; Skokan, M.; Wheeler, L.; Harral, J.; Gladson, S.; Burnham, E.; Loyd, J. E.; Stenmark, K. R.; Varella-Garcia, M.; West, J.

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease associated with severe remodeling of the large and small pulmonary arteries. Increased accumulation of inflammatory cells and apoptosis-resistant cells are contributing factors. Proliferative apoptosis-resistant cells expressing CD133 are increased in the circulation of PAH patients. Circulating cells can contribute to tissue repair via cell fusion and heterokaryon formation. We therefore hypothesized that in the presence of increased leukocytes and CD133-positive (CD133pos) cells in PAH lung tissue, cell fusion and resulting genomic instability could account for abnormal cell proliferation and the genesis of vascular lesions. We performed analyses of CD45/CD133 localization, cell fusion, and proliferation during late-stage PAH in human lung tissue from control subjects and subjects with idiopathic (IPAH) and familial (FPAH) PAH. Localization, proliferation, and quantitation of cell populations in individual patients were performed by immunolocalization. The occurrence of cellular fusion in vascular lesions was analyzed in lung tissue by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found the accumulation of CD45pos leukocytic cells in the tissue parenchyma and perivascular regions in PAH patients and less frequently observed myeloid cells (CD45/CD11b). CD133pos cells were detected in occlusive lesions and perivascular areas in those with PAH and were more numerous in those with IPAH lesions than in FPAH lesions. Cells coexpressing CD133 and smooth muscle α-actin were occasionally observed in occlusive lesions and perivascular areas. Proliferating cells were more prominent in IPAH lesions and colocalized with CD45 or CD133. We found no evidence of increased ploidy to suggest cell fusion. Taken together, these data suggest that abnormal lesion formation in PAH occurs in the absence of cell fusion. PMID:18931051

  8. The Association Between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0273 TITLE: The Association between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE August 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Aug 2015 - 31 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Association Between...molecular markers associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated colorectal polyps (SSPs). The project’s

  9. Comparison of single-marker and multi-marker tests in rare variant association studies of quantitative traits

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Yildiz E.; Pischon, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In genetic association studies of rare variants, low statistical power and potential violations of established estimator properties are among the main challenges of association tests. Multi-marker tests (MMTs) have been proposed to target these challenges, but any comparison with single-marker tests (SMTs) has to consider that their aim is to identify causal genomic regions instead of variants. Valid power comparisons have been performed for the analysis of binary traits indicating that MMTs have higher power, but there is a lack of conclusive studies for quantitative traits. The aim of our study was therefore to fairly compare SMTs and MMTs in their empirical power to identify the same causal loci associated with a quantitative trait. The results of extensive simulation studies indicate that previous results for binary traits cannot be generalized. First, we show that for the analysis of quantitative traits, conventional estimation methods and test statistics of single-marker approaches have valid properties yielding association tests with valid type I error, even when investigating singletons or doubletons. Furthermore, SMTs lead to more powerful association tests for identifying causal genes than MMTs when the effect sizes of causal variants are large, and less powerful tests when causal variants have small effect sizes. For moderate effect sizes, whether SMTs or MMTs have higher power depends on the sample size and percentage of causal SNVs. For a more complete picture, we also compare the power in studies of quantitative and binary traits, and the power to identify causal genes with the power to identify causal rare variants. In a genetic association analysis of systolic blood pressure in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 data, SMTs yielded smaller p-values compared to MMTs for most of the investigated blood pressure genes, and were least influenced by the definition of gene regions. PMID:28562689

  10. Comparison of single-marker and multi-marker tests in rare variant association studies of quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Konigorski, Stefan; Yilmaz, Yildiz E; Pischon, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In genetic association studies of rare variants, low statistical power and potential violations of established estimator properties are among the main challenges of association tests. Multi-marker tests (MMTs) have been proposed to target these challenges, but any comparison with single-marker tests (SMTs) has to consider that their aim is to identify causal genomic regions instead of variants. Valid power comparisons have been performed for the analysis of binary traits indicating that MMTs have higher power, but there is a lack of conclusive studies for quantitative traits. The aim of our study was therefore to fairly compare SMTs and MMTs in their empirical power to identify the same causal loci associated with a quantitative trait. The results of extensive simulation studies indicate that previous results for binary traits cannot be generalized. First, we show that for the analysis of quantitative traits, conventional estimation methods and test statistics of single-marker approaches have valid properties yielding association tests with valid type I error, even when investigating singletons or doubletons. Furthermore, SMTs lead to more powerful association tests for identifying causal genes than MMTs when the effect sizes of causal variants are large, and less powerful tests when causal variants have small effect sizes. For moderate effect sizes, whether SMTs or MMTs have higher power depends on the sample size and percentage of causal SNVs. For a more complete picture, we also compare the power in studies of quantitative and binary traits, and the power to identify causal genes with the power to identify causal rare variants. In a genetic association analysis of systolic blood pressure in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 data, SMTs yielded smaller p-values compared to MMTs for most of the investigated blood pressure genes, and were least influenced by the definition of gene regions.

  11. Allelic Associations between 100 DNA Markers and High versus Low IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; And Others

    1995-01-01

    For DNA markers in or near genes of neurological relevance, allelic frequencies were compared for groups of high- and low-IQ children (total sample of 86). This study adds 40 markers to the 60 already studied. Only one showed a significant association with IQ in original and replication samples. (SLD)

  12. Simulation appraisal of the adequacy of numbers of background markers for relationship estimation in association mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The number of background markers and sample size are two common issues that need to be addressed in many association mapping studies. Our objectives were (1) to investigate the robustness of genetic relatedness estimates based on different numbers of background markers via model testing and variance...

  13. Association of SSR markers with important fiber traits in Upland cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this research are to: 1) report on the diversity in agronomic and fiber traits of the selected cotton germplasm released by the public breeders and private industries, 2) detect the genetic diversity among these lines using SSR markers, and 3) identify the SSR markers association w...

  14. Towards dissecting molecular routes of intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment: phenotypic plasticity of stem cell-associated markers in co-culture (carcinoma cell/fibroblast) systems.

    PubMed

    Fík, Z; Dvořánková, B; Kodet, O; Bouček, J; Betka, J A; Betka, J; André, S; Gabius, H-J; Šnajdr, P; Smetana, K; Chovanec, M

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence attributes tumour fates to a small population of cells (cancer stem cells) capable of surviving therapeutic interventions. Investigation of their characteristics, especially in cross-talk with other cell types of the tumour microenvironment, can pave the way to innovative therapeutic concepts. The central issue of this study was to evaluate the impact of stroma on tumour cells with stem cell-like features in a squamous cell carcinoma model (FaDu). Six different types of experimental conditions were tested using distinct compositions of the culture system, and both morphologic and molecular features of the tumour cells were analysed. In detail, FaDu cells alone were used as a control, compared to tumour cells from co-culture, with squamous cell cancer-derived stromal fibroblasts or normal skin human fibroblasts, both in the direct and indirect (insert) systems, adding analysis of side population cells of FaDu culture. Measurements were taken on days 2, 7 and 9 of culture and immediately after preparation in the case of the side population. A panel of antibodies against keratins 8, 10, 19, stem cell markers CD29, CD44, CD133, as well as biotinylated adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin 1 served as a toolbox for phenotypic characterization. Co-culture with fibroblasts prepared from tumour stroma and with dermal fibroblasts affected marker presentation, maintaining an undifferentiated stage phenotypically related to stem cells. Side-population cells showed close relationship to cancer stem cells in these characteristics. In conclusion, normal and tumour stromal fibroblasts are capable of shifting the marker expression profile of FaDu cells to a stem cell-like phenotypic pattern in co-culture.

  15. Association of AFLP and SCAR markers with common leafspot resistance in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Bi, B; Yuan, Q H; Li, X L; Gao, J M

    2012-03-14

    To identify amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers associated with resistance or susceptibility of alfalfa to common leafspot (CLS) caused by the fungus Pseudopeziza medicaginis (Dermateaceae), bulked segregant analysis was conducted based on an F(1(M × M)) population of 93 plants and a BC(1)S population of 91 plants. Three AFLP markers, ACTCAA(R206), TAGCAC(R185), and GGACTA(S264), were found to be associated with CLS resistance or susceptibility. All three markers were found at significantly different frequencies (71.9, 80.3 and 91.8%) compared to resistant or susceptible plants in the original population. Subsequently, these three AFLP markers were converted into three SCAR markers, ACTCAA(R136), TAGCAC(R128) and GGACTA(S254), which are easier to employ in breeding programs. The three SCAR markers were used in a randomly selected population with 50% resistance; the probability of finding one resistant plant was increased to 67.3, 66.7 and 90.0% with markers ACTCAA(R136), TAGCAC(R128) and GGACTA(S254), independently. If two of the SCAR markers were used simultaneously, the probability would be higher than 89%. The three SCAR markers identified in this study would be applicable for selection for CLS resistance in alfalfa breeding programs. Moreover, the genetic analysis indicated that CLS resistance in alfalfa is conferred by a single dominant gene.

  16. Effective marker alleles associated with type 2 resistance to Fusarium head blight infection in fields

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Luo, Meng; Zhang, Dadong; Wu, Di; Li, Lei; Bai, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Molecular markers associated with known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for type 2 resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in bi-parental mapping population usually have more than two alleles in breeding populations. Therefore, understanding the association of each allele with FHB response is particularly important to marker-assisted enhancement of FHB resistance. In this paper, we evaluated FHB severities of 192 wheat accessions including landraces and commercial varieties in three field growing seasons, and genotyped this panel with 364 genome-wide informative molecular markers. Among them, 11 markers showed reproducible marker-trait association (p < 0.05) in at least two experiments using a mixed model. More than two alleles were identified per significant marker locus. These alleles were classified into favorable, unfavorable and neutral alleles according to the normalized genotypic values. The distributions of effective alleles at these loci in each wheat accession were characterized. Mean FHB severities increased with decreased number of favorable alleles at the reproducible loci. Chinese wheat landraces and Japanese accessions have more favorable alleles at the majority of the reproducible marker loci. FHB resistance levels of varieties can be greatly improved by introduction of these favorable alleles and removal of unfavorable alleles simultaneously at these QTL-linked marker loci. PMID:27436944

  17. Multiple Lineages of Human Breast Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells Identified by Profiling with Stem Cell Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang-Verslues, Wendy W.; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, Po-Hao; Pan, Chi-Chun; Wang, Hsing-Hui; Tsai, Sheng-Ta; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Shew, Jin-Yu; Kung, John T.; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Lee, Eva Y.-H. P.; Chang, King-Jen; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity of cancer stem/progenitor cells that give rise to different forms of cancer has been well demonstrated for leukemia. However, this fundamental concept has yet to be established for solid tumors including breast cancer. In this communication, we analyzed solid tumor cancer stem cell markers in human breast cancer cell lines and primary specimens using flow cytometry. The stem/progenitor cell properties of different marker expressing-cell populations were further assessed by in vitro soft agar colony formation assay and the ability to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice. We found that the expression of stem cell markers varied greatly among breast cancer cell lines. In MDA-MB-231 cells, PROCR and ESA, instead of the widely used breast cancer stem cell markers CD44+/CD24-/low and ALDH, could be used to highly enrich cancer stem/progenitor cell populations which exhibited the ability to self renew and divide asymmetrically. Furthermore, the PROCR+/ESA+ cells expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. PROCR could also be used to enrich cells with colony forming ability from MB-361 cells. Moreover, consistent with the marker profiling using cell lines, the expression of stem cell markers differed greatly among primary tumors. There was an association between metastasis status and a high prevalence of certain markers including CD44+/CD24−/low, ESA+, CD133+, CXCR4+ and PROCR+ in primary tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that similar to leukemia, several stem/progenitor cell-like subpopulations can exist in breast cancer. PMID:20027313

  18. Inflammation associated anemia and ferritin as disease markers in SLE

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a recent screening to detect biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, was increased. Given that proteins that regulate the storage, transfer and release of iron play an important role in inflammation, this study aims to determine the serum and urine levels of ferritin and of the iron transfer protein, transferrin, in lupus patients and to correlate these levels with disease activity, inflammatory cytokine levels and markers of anemia. Methods A protein array was utilized to measure ferritin expression in the urine and serum of SLE patients and healthy controls. To confirm these results as well as the role of the iron transfer pathway in SLE, ELISAs were performed to measure ferritin and transferrin levels in inactive or active SLE patients and healthy controls. The relationship between ferritin/transferrin levels and inflammatory markers and anemia was next analyzed. Results Protein array results showed elevated ferritin levels in the serum and urine of lupus patients as compared to controls, which were further validated by ELISA. Increased ferritin levels correlated with measures of disease activity and anemia as well as inflammatory cytokine titers. Though active SLE patients had elevated urine transferrin, serum transferrin was reduced. Conclusion Urine ferritin and transferrin levels are elevated significantly in SLE patients and correlate with disease activity, bolstering previous reports. Most importantly, these changes correlated with the inflammatory state of the patients and anemia of chronic disease. Taken together, altered iron handling, inflammation and anemia of chronic disease constitute an ominous triad in SLE. PMID:22871034

  19. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with cortisol response to crowding in Rainbow Trout

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding stress responses is essential for improving animal welfare and increasing agriculture production efficiency. Previously, we reported microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting plasma cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout. Our main objectives...

  20. A two-step multiple-marker strategy for genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Aschard, Hugues; Guedj, Mickaël; Demenais, Florence

    2007-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies raise study-design and analytical issues that are still being debated. Among them, stands the issue of reducing the number of markers to be genotyped without loss of efficiency in identifying trait loci, which can reduce the cost of studies and minimize the multiple testing problem. With this aim, we proposed a two-step strategy based on two analytical methods suited to examine sets of markers rather than single markers: the local score, which screens the genome to select candidate regions in Step 1, and FBAT-LC, a multiple-marker family-based association test used to obtain significance levels of regions at step 2. The performance of this strategy was evaluated on all replicates of Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 Problem 3 simulated data, using the answers to that problem. Overall, seven of the nine generated trait loci were detected in at least 87% of the replicates using a framework designed to handle either association with the disease or association with the severity of disease. This multiple-marker strategy was compared to the single-marker approach. By considering regions instead of single markers, this strategy minimizes the multiple testing problem and the number of false-positive results. PMID:18466477

  1. A multi-marker association method for genome-wide association studies without the need for population structure correction

    PubMed Central

    Klasen, Jonas R.; Barbez, Elke; Meier, Lukas; Meinshausen, Nicolai; Bühlmann, Peter; Koornneef, Maarten; Busch, Wolfgang; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    All common genome-wide association (GWA) methods rely on population structure correction, to avoid false genotype-to-phenotype associations. However, population structure correction is a stringent penalization, which also impedes identification of real associations. Using recent statistical advances, we developed a new GWA method, called Quantitative Trait Cluster Association Test (QTCAT), enabling simultaneous multi-marker associations while considering correlations between markers. With this, QTCAT overcomes the need for population structure correction and also reflects the polygenic nature of complex traits better than single-marker methods. Using simulated data, we show that QTCAT clearly outperforms linear mixed model approaches. Moreover, using QTCAT to reanalyse public human, mouse and Arabidopsis GWA data revealed nearly all known and some previously undetected associations. Following up on the most significant novel association in the Arabidopsis data allowed us to identify a so far unknown component of root growth. PMID:27830750

  2. A multi-marker association method for genome-wide association studies without the need for population structure correction.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Jonas R; Barbez, Elke; Meier, Lukas; Meinshausen, Nicolai; Bühlmann, Peter; Koornneef, Maarten; Busch, Wolfgang; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2016-11-10

    All common genome-wide association (GWA) methods rely on population structure correction, to avoid false genotype-to-phenotype associations. However, population structure correction is a stringent penalization, which also impedes identification of real associations. Using recent statistical advances, we developed a new GWA method, called Quantitative Trait Cluster Association Test (QTCAT), enabling simultaneous multi-marker associations while considering correlations between markers. With this, QTCAT overcomes the need for population structure correction and also reflects the polygenic nature of complex traits better than single-marker methods. Using simulated data, we show that QTCAT clearly outperforms linear mixed model approaches. Moreover, using QTCAT to reanalyse public human, mouse and Arabidopsis GWA data revealed nearly all known and some previously undetected associations. Following up on the most significant novel association in the Arabidopsis data allowed us to identify a so far unknown component of root growth.

  3. [Analysis of expression of cancer stem cell-related markers in orbital adenoid cystic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-ting; Zhu, Li-min; He, Yan-jin; Zhang, Hong

    2011-08-01

    (+) was 1, 1 and 4 cases, respectively. The expression of CD44, CD133 and ABCG2 in ACC may influence the progress of ACC. However, they cannot be used as the markers for the evaluation of the prognosis of this tumor.

  4. Human-Associated Bacteroides spp. and Human Polyomaviruses as Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Caffaro-Filho, Roberto A.; Wong, Mayee; Harwood, Valerie J.; Moravcik, Philip; Fujioka, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identification of sources of fecal contaminants is needed to (i) determine the health risk associated with recreational water use and (ii) implement appropriate management practices to mitigate this risk and protect the environment. This study evaluated human-associated Bacteroides spp. (HF183TaqMan) and human polyomavirus (HPyV) markers for host sensitivity and specificity using human and animal fecal samples collected in Hawaii. The decay rates of those markers and indicator bacteria were identified in marine and freshwater microcosms exposed and not exposed to sunlight, followed by field testing of the usability of the molecular markers. Both markers were strongly associated with sewage, although the cross-reactivity of the HF183TaqMan (also present in 82% of canine [n = 11], 30% of mongoose [n = 10], and 10% of feline [n = 10] samples) needs to be considered. Concentrations of HF183TaqMan in human fecal samples exceeded those in cross-reactive animals at least 1,000-fold. In the absence of sunlight, the decay rates of both markers were comparable to the die-off rates of enterococci in experimental freshwater and marine water microcosms. However, in sunlight, the decay rates of both markers were significantly lower than the decay rate of enterococci. While both markers have their individual limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity, these limitations can be mitigated by using both markers simultaneously; ergo, this study supports the concurrent use of HF183TaqMan and HPyV markers for the detection of sewage contamination in coastal and inland waters in Hawaii. IMPORTANCE This study represents an in-depth characterization of microbial source tracking (MST) markers in Hawaii. The distribution and concentrations of HF183TaqMan and HPyV markers in human and animal fecal samples and in wastewater, coupled with decay data obtained from sunlight-exposed and unexposed microcosms, support the concurrent application of HF183TaqMan and HPyV markers for

  5. Association mapping of seed oil and protein content in Sesamum indicum L. using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Miao, Hongmei; Wei, Libin; Zhang, Tide; Han, Xiuhua; Zhang, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop for the high oil content and quality. The seed oil and protein contents are two important traits in sesame. To identify the molecular markers associated with the seed oil and protein contents in sesame, we systematically performed the association mapping among 369 worldwide germplasm accessions under 5 environments using 112 polymorphic SSR markers. The general linear model (GLM) was applied with the criteria of logP ≥ 3.0 and high stability under all 5 environments. Among the 369 sesame accessions, the oil content ranged from 27.89%-58.73% and the protein content ranged from 16.72%-27.79%. A significant negative correlation of the oil content with the protein content was found in the population. A total of 19 markers for oil content were detected with a R2 value range from 4% to 29%; 24 markers for protein content were detected with a R2 value range from 3% to 29%, of which 19 markers were associated with both traits. Moreover, partial markers were confirmed using mixed linear model (MLM) method, which suggested that the oil and protein contents are controlled mostly by major genes. Allele effect analysis showed that the allele associated with high oil content was always associated with low protein content, and vice versa. Of the 19 markers associated with oil content, 17 presented near the locations of the plant lipid pathway genes and 2 were located just next to a fatty acid elongation gene and a gene encoding Stearoyl-ACP Desaturase, respectively. The findings provided a valuable foundation for oil synthesis gene identification and molecular marker assistant selection (MAS) breeding in sesame.

  6. Association Mapping of Seed Oil and Protein Content in Sesamum indicum L. Using SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Miao, Hongmei; Wei, Libin; Zhang, Tide; Han, Xiuhua; Zhang, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop for the high oil content and quality. The seed oil and protein contents are two important traits in sesame. To identify the molecular markers associated with the seed oil and protein contents in sesame, we systematically performed the association mapping among 369 worldwide germplasm accessions under 5 environments using 112 polymorphic SSR markers. The general linear model (GLM) was applied with the criteria of logP≥3.0 and high stability under all 5 environments. Among the 369 sesame accessions, the oil content ranged from 27.89%–58.73% and the protein content ranged from 16.72%–27.79%. A significant negative correlation of the oil content with the protein content was found in the population. A total of 19 markers for oil content were detected with a R2 value range from 4% to 29%; 24 markers for protein content were detected with a R2 value range from 3% to 29%, of which 19 markers were associated with both traits. Moreover, partial markers were confirmed using mixed linear model (MLM) method, which suggested that the oil and protein contents are controlled mostly by major genes. Allele effect analysis showed that the allele associated with high oil content was always associated with low protein content, and vice versa. Of the 19 markers associated with oil content, 17 presented near the locations of the plant lipid pathway genes and 2 were located just next to a fatty acid elongation gene and a gene encoding Stearoyl-ACP Desaturase, respectively. The findings provided a valuable foundation for oil synthesis gene identification and molecular marker assistant selection (MAS) breeding in sesame. PMID:25153139

  7. Identification of molecular markers associated with mite resistance in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Shalini, K V; Manjunatha, S; Lebrun, P; Berger, A; Baudouin, L; Pirany, N; Ranganath, R M; Prasad, D Theertha

    2007-01-01

    Coconut mite (Aceria guerreronis 'Keifer') has become a major threat to Indian coconut (Coçcos nucifera L.) cultivators and the processing industry. Chemical and biological control measures have proved to be costly, ineffective, and ecologically undesirable. Planting mite-resistant coconut cultivars is the most effective method of preventing yield loss and should form a major component of any integrated pest management stratagem. Coconut genotypes, and mite-resistant and -susceptible accessions were collected from different parts of South India. Thirty-two simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 7 RAPD primers were used for molecular analyses. In single-marker analysis, 9 SSR and 4 RAPD markers associated with mite resistance were identified. In stepwise multiple regression analysis of SSRs, a combination of 6 markers showed 100% association with mite infestation. Stepwise multiple regression analysis for RAPD data revealed that a combination of 3 markers accounted for 83.86% of mite resistance in the selected materials. Combined stepwise multiple regression analysis of RAPD and SSR data showed that a combination of 5 markers explained 100% of the association with mite resistance in coconut. Markers associated with mite resistance are important in coconut breeding programs and will facilitate the selection of mite-resistant plants at an early stage as well as mother plants for breeding programs.

  8. Association of the glycoxidative stress marker pentosidine with equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Valle, E; Storace, D; Sanguineti, R; Carter, R; Odetti, P; Geor, R; Bergero, D

    2013-06-01

    Ponies suffering from recurrent episodes of laminitis when grazed at pasture (pasture-associated laminitis) exhibit phenotypes similar to those associated with human metabolic syndrome. In humans, evidence suggests that the obesity-related morbidities associated with metabolic syndrome, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are caused by an increase in the production of advanced glycoxidation end-products (AGEs). These end-products have been recognised as putative pro-inflammatory mediators and are considered a 'risk factor' for human health. However, the evaluation of AGEs in laminitic ponies has not been explored. The aim of this study was to compare plasma concentrations of the AGE pentosidine (PENT) in ponies presenting with clinical features of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) with a history of recent laminitis and/or showing signs of laminitis at the time of sampling (LP) with those with no prior history of clinical laminitis (NL). Age, body condition score (BCS) and bodyweight were recorded and blood samples collected for the measurement of plasma concentrations of PENT, glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and cortisol. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the reciprocal of the square root of insulin (RISQI) and the insulin:glucose ratio. Plasma PENT concentrations were twofold higher (P<0.005) in LP than in NL ponies. Significant (P<0.05) correlations were also evident between PENT and insulin, RISQI, TG and age. These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that glycoxidation in laminitis is associated with EMS.

  9. Injury markers but not amyloid markers are associated with rapid progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Ineke A; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Knol, Dirk L; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Barkhof, Frederik; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Scheltens, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the time between the diagnosis of MCI and the diagnosis of dementia is highly variable. In this study we investigated which known risk factors and biomarkers of AD pathology were associated with rapid progression from MCI to dementia. Of the 203 subjects with MCI, 91 progressed to AD-type dementia and were considered to have MCI-AD at baseline. Subjects with MCI-AD were older, more frequently female and carrier of the APOE-ε4 allele, had lower scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), more medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and lower levels of Aβ1-42 and increased levels of t-tau and p-tau in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to subjects without AD-type dementia at follow up. Of the 91 subjects with MCI-AD, we had data available of CSF (n = 56), MTA (n = 76), and APOE-genotype (n = 63). Among the subjects with MCI-AD, MTA (hazard ratio (HR) 2.2, p = 0.004) and low MMSE score (HR 2.0 p = 0.007) were associated with rapid progression to dementia. High CSF t-tau (HR 1.7, p = 0.07) and p-tau (1.7, p = 0.08) tended to be associated with rapid progression to dementia. CSF Aβ1-42, APOE status, age, gender, and educational level were not associated with time to dementia. Our findings implicate a different role for biomarkers in diagnosis and prognosis of MCI-AD. While amyloid markers can be used to identify MCI-AD, injury markers may predict rapid progression to dementia.

  10. The utility of hyperthermic intra-abdominal chemotherapy with gemcitabine for the inhibition of tumor progression in an experimental model of pancreatic peritoneal carcinomatosis, in relation to their behavior with pancreatic cancer stem cells CD133+ CXCR4.

    PubMed

    García-Santos, Esther Pilar; Padilla-Valverde, David; Villarejo-Campos, Pedro; Murillo-Lázaro, Cristina; Fernández-Grande, Esther; Palomino-Muñoz, Teodoro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Nuñez-Guerrero, Paloma; Sánchez-García, Susana; Puerto-Puerto, Alejandro; Martín-Fernández, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The origin of pancreatic cancer has been identified as a population of malignant pancreatic stem cells CD133+ CXCR4+ immunophenotype. These cells have high capacity for early locoregional invasion, being responsible for early recurrence and high mortality rates of pancreatic cancer. We propose a study for decreasing tumor progression of pancreatic cancer by reducing the volume and neoplastic subpopulation of pancreatic cancer stem cells CD133+ CXCR4+. Therefore, we develop a new therapeutic model, characterized by the application of HIPEC (Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy) with gemcitabine. Pancreatic tumor cell line: human cell line BxPC-3. The animal model involved 18 immunosuppressed rats 5 weeks weighing 150-200 gr. The implantation of 13 × 10(6) cells/mL was performed with homogeneous distribution in the 13 abdominopelvic quadrants according to the peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) and were randomized into three treatment groups. Group I (4 rats) received intravenous saline. Group II (6 rats) received intravenous gemcitabine. Group III (8 rats) received HIPEC at 41 °C for 30 min with gemcitabine + gemcitabine IV. A histological study confirmed pancreatic cancer and immunohistochemical quantification of pancreatic cancer stem cells CD133+ CXCR4+ tumor cells. There was a population decline of pancreatic cancer stem cells CD133+ CXCR4+ in the HIPEC group with respect to the other two groups (p < 0.001). There was a decrease in PCI between treatment groups (p < 0.05). The initial results are encouraging since there is a declining population of cancer stem cells CD133+ CXCR4+ in the HIPEC group and decreased tumor volume compared to the other two treatment groups. All the conclusions are only valid for BxPC3 cell line, and the effects HIPEC on Kras-driven pancreatic tumors remain to be determined. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening and identification of a microsatellite marker associated with sex in Wami tilapia, Oreochromis urolepis hornorum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huaping; Liu, Zhigang; Lu, Maixin; Gao, Fengying; Ke, Xiaoli; Ma, Dongmei; Huang, Zhanghan; Cao, Jianmeng; Wang, Miao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, primer pairs of 15 microsatellite markers associated with sex determination of tilapia were selected and amplified in Wami tilapia, Oreochromis urolepis hornorum. While one marker, UNH168, on linkage group 3 (LG3) was associated (P <0.001) with the phenotypic sex in the experimental population, nine genotypes were detected in both sexes. Only 99-bp allele was detected in the female samples, while 141, 149 and 157-bp alleles were present in both male and female samples. UNH168 was localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the long arm of the largest tilapia chromosome pair (chromosome 1, equivalent to LG3). This sex-linked microsatellite marker could potentially be used for marker-assisted selection in tilapia breeding programmes to produce monosex male tilapia.

  12. An association between Manic-depressive illness and a pseudoautosomal DNA marker

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Toshiaki; Ishida, Toru; Inayama, Yasuhiro; Nonomura, Yasuhiro; Kono, Yoshihiro; Asaba, Hiroyuki )

    1992-11-01

    This article reports on the association between manic-depressive illness and a polymorphic DNA marker in the pseudoautosomal region (Xp22.32; Yp11.3). The authors studied two markers in 49 biologically unrelated patients and 119 normal controls. Probe 362A (DXYS20) identified four alleles. Frequencies of the A4 allele were significantly higher in patients than in controls. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Use of unlinked genetic markers to detect population stratification in association studies.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, J K; Rosenberg, N A

    1999-01-01

    We examine the issue of population stratification in association-mapping studies. In case-control studies of association, population subdivision or recent admixture of populations can lead to spurious associations between a phenotype and unlinked candidate loci. Using a model of sampling from a structured population, we show that if population stratification exists, it can be detected by use of unlinked marker loci. We show that the case-control-study design, using unrelated control individuals, is a valid approach for association mapping, provided that marker loci unlinked to the candidate locus are included in the study, to test for stratification. We suggest guidelines as to the number of unlinked marker loci to use. PMID:10364535

  14. Pericarp polypeptides and SRAP markers associated with fruit quality traits in an interspecific tomato backcross.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Costa, J H; Rodríguez, G R; Pratta, G R; Picardi, L A; Zorzoli, R

    2014-01-24

    The aim of this study was to detect polypeptides and genomic regions associated with fruit quality traits in a backcross generation using as parent the Argentinean cultivated tomato Caimanta of Solanum lycopersicum and the wild accession LA722 of S. pimpinellifolium. We tested two types of molecular marker: polypeptide profile (at two ripening stages, mature green and red ripe) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism). A polypeptide of 45 kDa present in the wild parents at the mature green stage was associated with larger fruit and long shelf life. Some amplification fragments from SRAP markers were associated with more than one quality trait such as fruit color, firmness, titratable acidity, and fruit soluble solids content. This study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the polypeptide profiles of pericarp and SRAP markers in finding associations with quality fruit traits in a tomato backcross generation.

  15. X- linked markers in DMD associated with oral clefts

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Poorav J.; Beaty, Terri H.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Marazita, Mary L.; Munger, Ronald G.; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B.; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Rose, Margaret; Redett, Richard J.; Jin, Shin C.; Lie, Rolv T.; Wu-Chou, Yah-Huei; Wang, Hong; Ye, Xiaoqian; Yeow, Vincent; Chong, Samuel; Jee, Sun Ha; Shi, Bing; Scott, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an international consortium, case-parent trios were collected for a genome wide association study of isolated, non-syndromic oral clefts, including cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip and palate (CLP). Non-syndromic oral clefts have a complex and heterogeneous etiology. Risk is influenced by genes, environmental factors, and differs markedly by gender. Family based association tests (FBAT) were used on 14,486 SNPs spanning the X chromosome, stratified by type of cleft and racial group. Significant results even after multiple comparisons correction were obtained for the Duchene’s muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, the largest single gene in the human genome, among CL/P trios (both CL and CLP combined). When stratified into groups of European and Asian ancestry, stronger signals were obtained for Asians. Although conventional sliding window haplotype analysis showed no increase in significance, analysis selected combinations of the 25 most significant SNPs in DMD identified four SNPs together that attained genome-wide significance among Asian CL/P trios, raising the possibility of interaction between distant SNPs within DMD. PMID:23489894

  16. Association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Cerebrovascular Disease Burden and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Hilal, Saima; Collinson, Simon L; Chong, Eddie Jun Yi; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2015-10-01

    The present study sought to examine the association between the burden of cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) as assessed by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging and neurocognitive function. Cognitively impaired patients and controls were tested on an extensive neuropsychological battery and underwent multimodal brain magnetic resonance imaging. CeVD markers determined from magnetic resonance imaging included the presence of multiple lacunes, multiple cerebral microbleeds, and moderate or severe white matter hyperintensities as markers for small-vessel disease and cortical stroke and intracranial stenosis as markers for large-vessel disease. A weighted CeVD burden score was constructed, and its association with global and domain-specific cognitive performance was investigated. A total of 305 cases and 94 controls were included in the analysis. A graded association of CeVD burden with neurocognitive function was found. Moreover, a clear threshold of CeVD burden was associated with severe impairment. White matter hyperintensities was associated with global neurocognitive deficits, whereas microbleeds were associated with domain-specific impairments. The weighted CeVD burden score comprising markers of both small- and large-vessel diseases were associated with deficits in both global and domain-specific neurocognitive function. Additional studies are needed to validate the use of this CeVD burden score for the prediction of dementia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Comparative evaluation of cancer stem cell markers in normal pancreas and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vizio, Barbara; Mauri, Francesco A; Prati, Adriana; Trivedi, Pritesh; Giacobino, Alice; Novarino, Anna; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Ciuffreda, Libero; Camandona, Michele; Gasparri, Guido; Bellone, Graziella

    2012-01-01

    Chemoresistance and self-renewal of cancer stem cells (CSC), found in many tumors including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), are believed to underlie tumor mass regrowth. The distribution of cells carrying the putative stem-cell markers CD133, Nestin, Notch1-4, Jagged1 and 2, ABCG2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) was assessed immunohistochemically using PDAC and normal pancreas tissue microarrays. The immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively graded against the normal pancreas and was correlated with the differentiation grade and disease stage. No statistical significant differences were found between normal pancreas and PDAC in the expression of Nestin, Notch1, 3 and 4, ABCG2 or ALDH1. Notch2 and Jagged1 and 2 expression were increased in PDAC. CD133-positive cells were above-normal in PDAC, but the difference was not statistically significant. Nestin, Notch1-4, Jagged1, ABCG2 and ALDH1 immunostaining scores were not correlated with tumor grade or disease stage. CD133 and Notch2 expression was significantly inversely correlated with tumor grade, but not disease stage. Notch3 immunostaining positively correlated with tumor stage, but not with differentiation grade. Jagged2 protein expression correlated inversely with disease stage, but not with tumor grade. From the clinical standpoint, improved delineation of the tumor CSC signature, putatively responsible for tumor initiation and recurrence after initial response to chemotherapy, may offer novel therapeutic targets for this highly lethal cancer.

  18. Genetic diversity among oat varieties of worldwide origin and associations of AFLP markers with quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, Andreas; Tinker, Nicholas A; Zechner, Elisabeth; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2008-11-01

    One hundred and fourteen oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties of worldwide origin were evaluated for genetic diversity based on 77 molecular polymorphisms produced by eight selective AFLP primer combinations. Genetic similarity, calculated using the DICE coefficient, was used for cluster analysis and principal component analysis was applied. In addition population structure was explored to identify discrete subpopulations based on allele frequency. Although clustering and population structure showed relationships with region and country of origin, there was no obvious relationship to hull presence or hull colour. Oat varieties originating from European breeding programs showed less diversity than varieties originating from North and South America. Associations between AFLP markers and agronomic traits (grain yield, groat yield, panicle emergence, plant height, and lodging) as well as kernel quality traits (kernel weight, test weight, screening percent and groat percent) were also investigated. Marker-trait associations were tested using a naïve simple regression model and five additional models that account for population structure. Significant associations were found for 23 AFLP markers, with many of these affecting multiple traits. This study demonstrates that diversity can be significantly enhanced using a global collection, and provides evidence for marker-trait associations that can be validated in segregating populations and exploited through marker-assisted selection.

  19. Systemic Inflammatory Markers Are Closely Associated with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions. Methods. We studied 520 eligible subjects who were not receiving any lipid-lowering therapy. The inflammatory markers including white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer were measured. A multimarker inflammatory index was developed. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) separation processes were performed using Lipoprint System. Results. In age- and sex-adjusted analysis, several inflammatory markers (WBC count, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR) were positively related to circulating non-HDL cholesterol and remnant cholesterol (p < 0.05, all). Among lipoprotein subfractions, we observed a positive association of inflammatory markers with very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, small LDL cholesterol, and LDL score (p < 0.05, all). Meanwhile, a negative association was detected between inflammatory markers and mean LDL particle size (p < 0.05) or large HDL cholesterol (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found that the relationships between multimarker index quartiles and small LDL cholesterol, LDL score, and mean LDL particle size were slightly stronger in patients with CAD. Conclusions. Systemic inflammatory markers are positively correlated with small LDL cholesterol and LDL score while being negatively linked with mean LDL particle size and large HDL cholesterol, highlighting the potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26688615

  20. Candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial Bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Belanger, Faith C; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify PCR-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a colonial (Agrostis capillaris L.) x creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) hybrid backcross population. Plants were subjected to heat stress in controlled-environmental growth chambers for phenotypic evaluation and determination of genetic variation in candidate gene expression. Molecular markers were developed for genes involved in protein degradation (cysteine protease), antioxidant defense (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase), energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), cell expansion (expansin), and stress protection (heat shock proteins HSP26, HSP70, and HSP101). Kruskal-Wallis analysis, a commonly used non-parametric test used to compare population individuals with or without the gene marker, found the physiological traits of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, normalized difference vegetative index, and turf quality were associated with all candidate gene markers with the exception of HSP101. Differential gene expression was frequently found for the tested candidate genes. The development of candidate gene markers for important heat tolerance genes may allow for the development of new cultivars with increased abiotic stress tolerance using marker-assisted selection.

  1. Candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial Bentgrass

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, David; Belanger, Faith C.; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify PCR-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a colonial (Agrostis capillaris L.) x creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) hybrid backcross population. Plants were subjected to heat stress in controlled-environmental growth chambers for phenotypic evaluation and determination of genetic variation in candidate gene expression. Molecular markers were developed for genes involved in protein degradation (cysteine protease), antioxidant defense (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase), energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), cell expansion (expansin), and stress protection (heat shock proteins HSP26, HSP70, and HSP101). Kruskal-Wallis analysis, a commonly used non-parametric test used to compare population individuals with or without the gene marker, found the physiological traits of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, normalized difference vegetative index, and turf quality were associated with all candidate gene markers with the exception of HSP101. Differential gene expression was frequently found for the tested candidate genes. The development of candidate gene markers for important heat tolerance genes may allow for the development of new cultivars with increased abiotic stress tolerance using marker-assisted selection. PMID:28187136

  2. Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers for Tulasnella (Tulasnellaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids1

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, Monica P.; Peakall, Rod; Smith, Leon M.; Linde, Celeste C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers were developed for Tulasnella mycorrhizal fungi to investigate fungal species identity and diversity. These markers will be useful in future studies investigating the phylogenetic relationship of the fungal symbionts, specificity of orchid–mycorrhizal associations, and the role of mycorrhizae in orchid speciation within several orchid genera. • Methods and Results: We generated partial genome sequences of two Tulasnella symbionts originating from Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchid species with 454 genome sequencing. Cross-genus transferability across mycorrhizal symbionts associated with multiple genera of Australian orchids (Arthrochilus, Chiloglottis, Drakaea, and Paracaleana) was found for seven phylogenetic loci. Five loci showed cross-transferability to Tulasnella from other orchid genera, and two to Sebacina. Furthermore, 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for Tulasnella from Chiloglottis. • Conclusions: Highly informative markers were obtained, allowing investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Tulasnellaceae associated with a wide variety of terrestrial orchids in Australia and potentially worldwide. PMID:25202528

  3. SEROLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL GENETIC MARKERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS : A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Balgir, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The studies pertaining to associations of serological and biochemical genetic markers (blood groups in particular and scrum proteins and enzymes in general) with the psychiatric disorders such as psychoses in general, Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis including unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and neuroses have been critically examined. The reasons for inconsistent findings of various investigators have been pointed out to assist the future researchers to overcome the previous drawbacks. Implications of associations of genetic markers with the psychiatric disorders have been discussed and future areas of research suggested. PMID:21847304

  4. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Jadhav, A A; Rayate, S J; Mhase, L B; Thudi, M; Chitikineni, A; Harer, P N; Jadhav, A S; Varshney, R K; Kulwal, P L

    2015-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important cool season food legume cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to study variation for protein content in chickpea germplasm, and to find markers associated with it. A set of 187 genotypes comprising both international and exotic collections, and representing both desi and kabuli types with protein content ranging from 13.25% to 26.77% was used. Twenty-three SSR markers representing all eight linkage groups (LG) amplifying 153 loci were used for the analysis. Population structure analysis identified three subpopulations, and corresponding Q values of principal components were used to take care of population structure in the analysis which was performed using general linear and mixed linear models. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis identified nine significant associations representing four QTLs in the entire population. Subpopulation analyses identified ten significant MTAs representing five QTLs, four of which were common with that of the entire population. Two most significant QTLs linked with markers TR26.205 and CaM1068.195 were present on LG3 and LG5. Gene ontology search identified 29 candidate genes in the region of significant MTAs on LG3. The present study will be helpful in concentrating on LG3 and LG5 for identification of closely linked markers for protein content in chickpea and for their use in molecular breeding programme for nutritional quality improvement.

  5. Markers of Renal Disease and Function Are Associated with Systemic Inflammation in HIV

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Samir K; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; McComsey, Grace A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Both renal disease and systemic inflammation predict non-AIDS events and overall mortality in HIV-infected patients. Here we sought to determine the relationships between renal disease and circulating inflammation markers. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5224s to determine if markers of renal disease [urine protein/creatinine (uPCR); urine albumin/creatinine (uACR); estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR, using CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin C-creatinine] were associated with markers of systemic inflammation [high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble receptors of TNF-α (sTNFRI and II), soluble vascular cellular and intercellular adhesion molecules]. We correlated these renal and inflammatory markers prior to antiretroviral initiation and at 96 weeks of therapy. Results We found that estimated eGFR (using CKD-EPI cystatin C-creatinine), uPCR, and uACR were significantly correlated with most assessed markers of systemic inflammation prior to antiretroviral initiation. uPCR and eGFR (using CKD-EPI cystatin C-creatinine), but not uACR, remained significantly correlated with most of the assessed inflammatory markers after 96 weeks of ART. Most of these correlations, although statistically significant, were under 0.50. eGFR using CKD-EPI creatinine was much less frequently associated with inflammation markers and only significantly correlated with sTNFR1 at Week 0 and with sTNFRI and II at Week 96. Conclusions Renal disease and function are associated with systemic inflammation in HIV both before and after ART. Systemic inflammation may partially explain the relationships between proteinuria, albuminuria, and reduced renal function and future adverse outcomes. PMID:25990642

  6. Association mapping and marker-assisted selection of the lettuce dieback resistance gene Tvr1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) is susceptible to dieback, a soilborne disease caused by two viruses from the family Tombusviridae. Susceptibility to dieback is widespread in romaine and leaf-type lettuce, while modern iceberg cultivars are resistant to this disease. Resistance in iceberg cultivars is conferred by Tvr1 - a single, dominant gene that provides durable resistance. This study describes fine mapping of the resistance gene, analysis of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium in the Tvr1 region, and development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. Results A combination of classical linkage mapping and association mapping allowed us to pinpoint the location of the Tvr1 resistance gene on chromosomal linkage group 2. Nine molecular markers, based on expressed sequence tags (EST), were closely linked to Tvr1 in the mapping population, developed from crosses between resistant (Salinas and Salinas 88) and susceptible (Valmaine) cultivars. Sequencing of these markers from a set of 68 cultivars revealed a relatively high level of nucleotide polymorphism (θ = 6.7 × 10-3) and extensive linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.124 at 8 cM) in this region. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium was affected by population structure and the values were substantially larger when the analysis was performed only for romaine (r2 = 0.247) and crisphead (r2 = 0.345) accessions. The association mapping approach revealed that one of the nine markers (Cntg10192) in the Tvr1 region matched exactly with resistant and susceptible phenotypes when tested on a set of 200 L. sativa accessions from all horticultural types of lettuce. The marker-trait association was also confirmed on two accessions of Lactuca serriola - a wild relative of cultivated lettuce. The combination of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the Cntg10192 marker identified four haplotypes. Three of the haplotypes were associated with resistance and one of them was always

  7. Expression of stem cell markers on mononuclear cells derived from heparinized cadaveric organ donors before and after disconnection from the respirator.

    PubMed

    Machaliński, B; Paczkowska, E; Hałasa, M; Pabisiak, K; Walczak, M; Sieńko, J; Kozik, W; Ostrowski, M; Syrenicz, A; Sulikowski, T; Machalińska, A

    2006-01-01

    We have attempted to evaluate the level of the earliest human hematopoietic cell marker expression (CD34, CD117, CD133, CD184) on cells obtained from heparinized cadaveric organ donors before and after disconnection from the respirator. Moreover, we compared various cell populations: (1) coexpressing CD34/CD117; (2) CD34/CD133; (3) highly enriched hematopoietic stem cells (CD34+CXCR4+CD45+); and (4) highly enriched tissue-committed stem cells (CD34+CXCR4+CD45-). Finally, we analyzed whether the level of hematopoietic stem cell marker expression depended on the age of the donor. The expression of the membrane receptors (CD34, CD45, CD117, CD133, CD184) was studied by flow cytometry. We observed that the proportion of mononuclear cells expressing these markers slightly decreased in bone marrow harvested after disconnection from the respirator compared with the samples obtained before disconnection. Moreover, the proportion of cells expressing CD117 antigen depended on age of the donor.

  8. CD44 and EpCAM: cancer-initiating cell markers.

    PubMed

    Marhaba, Rachid; Klingbeil, Pamela; Nuebel, Tobias; Nazarenko, Irina; Buechler, Markus W; Zoeller, Margot

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells are immortal, can self renew, and differentiate into all cells of the body. The adult organism maintains adult stem cells in regenerative organs that can differentiate into all cells of the respective organ. Virchow's hypothesis that cancer may arise from embryonic-like cells has received strong support, as it was demonstrated that tumors contain few cells, known as cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells (CIC), that account for primary and metastatic tumor growth. CIC are mostly defined by expression of CIC-markers that are associated and correlated with the potential of CIC to grow in xenogeneic mice. CIC marker profiles have been elaborated for many tumors, with several markers as CD24, CD44, CD133, CD166, EpCAM, and some integrins, being expressed by tumors of different histological type. Their function in promoting CIC maintenance and activity is largely unknown. The fate of stem cells, determined by their position, is minutely regulated by few adjacent cells creating a niche. CIC also require a niche, mostly for settlement and growth in distant organs. This so called pre-metastatic niche is initiated by the primary tumor before metastasizing cell arrival. How do CIC prepare the pre-metastatic niche? Cancer cells secrete a matrix that serves a cross-talk with surrounding tissues. Additionally, cancer cells can abundantly deliver exosomes, which function as long-distance intercellular communicators. Studies on a rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma support our hypothesis that tumor-derived matrix and exosomes are the main actors in forming the pre-metastatic niche with CIC markers being engaged in matrix preparation and/or exosome delivery.

  9. HBV serum and renal biopsy markers are associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of HBV-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhao; Fang, Jing; Lu, Jian-Hua; Li, Wen-Ge

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that hepatitis B virus infection is associated with numerous types of nephropathy but it remains to clarify the different role of HBV markers, either in serum or deposit in kidney, in the pathogenesis of HBV-associated nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HBV markers and HBV-associated nephropathy by using multi-linear regression in Chinese patients with HBV-associated membranous nephropathy (MN). A total of 196 cases of HBV-associated MN, which were diagnosed based on renal biopsy, were collected during the period of January 2000 to December 2009 from our hospital. Serum and renal biopsy HBV markers included HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBC. HBV-associated nephropathy was characterized by a panel of clinical manifestations and pathological parameters, which included proteinuria, hematuria, serum creatinine, hypertension, and renal damage in glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between the HBV markers in serum and renal biopsy and the clinicopathological characteristics of HBV-associated nephropathy. After analysis of the clinical and pathological data in 196 cases of HBV-associated membranous nephropathy, this study revealed that glomerular lesion was marginally associated with serum HBsAg (P = 0.0528), Anti-HBs (P = 0.0978), but significantly associated with the presence of IgA (P = 0.0242), IgG (P < 0.0001) and C3 (P = 0.0064) in renal biopsy. There was no significant association between glomerular lesion and HBV markers in kidney. The presence of crescent and renal tube impairment was not related to HBV markers. The renal fibrosis was significantly related to gender (P = 0.023), age (P = 0.0211), HBsAg (P = 0.0001) and HBcAg (P = 0.0083) and C3 (P = 0.0299) in renal biopsy. Notably, the renal blood vessel impairment was significantly related to systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood

  10. Associations of Amylin with Inflammatory Markers and Metabolic Syndrome in Apparently Healthy Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongmeng; Mou, Haiwei; Yu, Zhijie; Li, Huaixing; Jiang, Peizhen; Yu, Danxia; Wu, Hongyu; Ye, Xingwang; Lin, Xu; Le, Yingying

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellular and animal studies implicate multiple roles of amylin in regulating insulin action, glucose and lipid metabolisms. However, the role of amylin in obesity related metabolic disorders has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of circulating amylin and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and explore if this association is influenced by obesity, inflammatory markers or insulin resistance in apparently healthy Chinese. Methods A population-based sample of 1,011 Chinese men and women aged 35–54 years was employed to measure plasma amylin, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]), insulin, glucose and lipid profiles. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. Results Plasma amylin concentrations were higher in overweight/obese participants than normal-weight counterparts (P<0.001) without sex difference. Circulating amylin was positively associated with CRP, IL-6, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, amylin/insulin ratio, HOMA-IR, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (all P<0.001). After multiple adjustments, the risk of MetS was significantly higher (odds ratio 3.71; 95% confidence interval: 2.53 to 5.46) comparing the highest with the lowest amylin quartile. The association remained significant even further controlling for BMI, inflammatory markers, insulin or HOMA-IR. Conclusions Our study suggests that amylin is strongly associated with inflammatory markers and MetS. The amylin-MetS association is independent of established risk factors of MetS, including obesity, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance. The causal role of hyperamylinemia in the development of MetS needs to be confirmed prospectively. PMID:21935471

  11. Association between molecular markers and blast resistance in an advanced backcross population of rice.

    PubMed

    Wu, J-L; Sinha, P K; Variar, M; Zheng, K-L; Leach, J E; Courtois, B; Leung, H

    2004-04-01

    An advanced backcross population consisting of 80 BC(3)F(3) lines derived from rice vars. Vandana/ Moroberekan was analysed for blast resistance and genotyped with 50 candidate genes and 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Six candidate defence response genes [thaumatin, three nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat sequences from maize and two resistance gene analogue (RGA) markers] and one SSR marker (RM21) were significantly associated with partial blast resistance in rice ( P=0.01). These markers accounted for phenotypic variation ranging from 9.6% to 29.4% and contributed to 76% of the total variation of percentage diseased leaf area (DLA) observed under natural infection. Four candidate genes (oxalate oxidase, 14-3-3 protein and two RGA markers) and four SSR markers (RM21, RM168, RM215 and RM250) were significantly associated with resistance to a single pathogen isolate, PO6-6. Among these, two markers were for DLA, five for lesion number and one for lesion size. These markers accounted for 9.1-28.7% of the phenotypic variation. A moderate correlation ( r=0.48, P<0.01) was found between the level of partial resistance measured in the greenhouse and that measured under natural conditions. Analysis of BC(3)F(4) progeny using genotypes of BC(3)F(3) confirmed the phenotypic contribution of these markers. Cluster analysis of DNA profiles showed that the BC(3) population was genetically similar (>85%) to the recurrent parent Vandana. Although no obvious relationship between DNA profiles and resistant phenotypes was observed, three lines (VM19, VM46 and VM76) in a cluster with high similarity to Vandana (89-96%) expressed a high level of partial blast resistance in the field. Analysis of disease progress in the field confirmed the performance of selected lines based on greenhouse and nursery analyses. The advanced backcross progeny with resistance phenotypes tagged by markers will be useful for accumulating blast resistance in upland rice.

  12. Detection of Agar, by Analysis of Sugar Markers, Associated with Bacillus Anthracis Spores, After Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Colburn, Heather A.; Fox, Alvin; Fox, Karen F.; Harley, William M.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-08-01

    Detection of small quantities of agar associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis could provide key information regarding its source or growth characteristics. Agar, widely used in growth of bacteria on solid surfaces, consists primarily of repeating polysaccharide units of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (AGal) and galactose (Gal) with sulfated and O-methylated galactoses present as minor constituents. Two variants of the alditol acetate procedure were evaluated for detection of potential agar markers associated with spores. The first method employed a reductive hydrolysis step, to stabilize labile anhydrogalactose, by converting to anhydrogalactitol. The second eliminated the reductive hydrolysis step simplifying the procedure. Anhydrogalactitol, derived from agar, was detected using both derivatization methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. However, challenges with artefactual background (reductive hydrolysis) or marker destruction (hydrolysis) lead to the search for alternative sugar markers. A minor agar component, 6-O-methyl galactose (6-O-M gal), was readily detected in agar-grown but not broth-grown bacteria. Detection was optimized by the use of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). With appropriate choice of sugar marker and analytical procedure, detection of sugar markers for agar has considerable potential in microbial forensics.

  13. Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L.

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

  14. Identification of genetic markers linked to anthracnose resistance in sorghum using association analysis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Hari D; Wang, Yi-Hong; Sharma, Rajan; Sharma, Shivali

    2013-06-01

    Anthracnose in sorghum caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum is one of the most destructive diseases affecting sorghum production under warm and humid conditions. Markers and genes linked to resistance to the disease are important for plant breeding. Using 14,739 SNP markers, we have mapped eight loci linked to resistance in sorghum through association analysis of a sorghum mini-core collection consisting of 242 diverse accessions evaluated for anthracnose resistance for 2 years in the field. The mini-core was representative of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics' world-wide sorghum landrace collection. Eight marker loci were associated with anthracnose resistance in both years. Except locus 8, disease resistance-related genes were found in all loci based on their physical distance from linked SNP markers. These include two NB-ARC class of R genes on chromosome 10 that were partially homologous to the rice blast resistance gene Pib, two hypersensitive response-related genes: autophagy-related protein 3 on chromosome 1 and 4 harpin-induced 1 (Hin1) homologs on chromosome 8, a RAV transcription factor that is also part of R gene pathway, an oxysterol-binding protein that functions in the non-specific host resistance, and homologs of menthone:neomenthol reductase (MNR) that catalyzes a menthone reduction to produce the antimicrobial neomenthol. These genes and markers may be developed into molecular tools for genetic improvement of anthracnose resistance in sorghum.

  15. Detection of agar, by analysis of sugar markers, associated with Bacillus anthracis spores, after culture.

    PubMed

    Wunschel, David S; Colburn, Heather A; Fox, Alvin; Fox, Karen F; Harley, William M; Wahl, Jon H; Wahl, Karen L

    2008-08-01

    Detection of small quantities of agar associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis could provide key information regarding its source or growth characteristics. Agar, widely used in growth of bacteria on solid surfaces, consists primarily of repeating polysaccharide units of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AGal) and galactose (Gal) with sulfated and O-methylated galactoses present as minor constituents. Two variants of the alditol acetate procedure were evaluated for detection of potential agar markers associated with spores. The first method employed a reductive hydrolysis step, to stabilize labile anhydrogalactose, by converting to anhydrogalactitol. The second eliminated the reductive hydrolysis step simplifying the procedure. Anhydrogalactitol, derived from agar, was detected using both derivatization methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. However, challenges with artifactual background (reductive hydrolysis) or marker destruction (hydrolysis) respectively lead to the use of an alternative agar marker. A minor agar component, 6-O-methyl galactose (6-O-M gal), was readily detected in agar-grown but not broth-grown bacteria. Detection was optimized by the use of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). With appropriate choice of sugar marker and analytical procedure, detection of sugar markers for agar has considerable potential in microbial forensics.

  16. Associations between outdoor temperature and markers of inflammation: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Associations between ambient temperature and cardiovascular mortality are well established. This study investigated whether inflammation could be part of the mechanism leading to temperature-related cardiovascular deaths. Methods The study population consisted of a cohort of 673 men with mean age of 74.6 years, living in the greater Boston area. They were seen for examination roughly every 4 years, and blood samples for inflammation marker analyses were drawn in 2000-2008 (total of 1254 visits). We used a mixed effects model to estimate the associations between ambient temperature and a variety of inflammation markers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukins -1β, -6 and -8). Random intercept for each subject and several possible confounders, including combustion-related air pollution and ozone, were used in the models. Results We found a 0 to 1 day lagged and up to 4 weeks cumulative responses in C-reactive protein in association with temperature. We observed a 24.9% increase [95% Confidence interval (CI): 7.36, 45.2] in C-reactive protein for a 5°C decrease in the 4 weeks' moving average of temperature. We observed similar associations also between temperature and soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (4.52%, 95% CI: 1.05, 8.10, over 4 weeks' moving average), and between temperature and soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (6.60%, 95% CI: 1.31, 12.2 over 4 weeks' moving average). Penalized spline models showed no deviation from linearity. There were no associations between temperature and other inflammation markers. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to decreased temperature is associated with an increase in inflammation marker levels among elderly men. This suggests that inflammation markers are part of intermediate processes, which may lead to cold-, but not heat-, related cardiovascular deaths. PMID:20653951

  17. Identification of a SNP marker associated with WB242 nematode resistance in sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The beet-cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) is one of the major diseases of sugar beet. The identification of molecular markers associated to the nematode resistance would be helpful for developing resistant varieties. The aim of this study was the identification of SNP (Single Nucleotide ...

  18. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  19. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  20. Exogenous Visual Orienting Is Associated with Specific Neurotransmitter Genetic Markers: A Population-Based Genetic Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundwall, Rebecca A.; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Dannemiller, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a sense that the spatial orienting of attention is related to genotypic variations in cholinergic genes but not to variations in dopaminergic genes. However, reexamination of associations with both cholinergic and dopaminergic genes is warranted because previous studies used endogenous rather than exogenous cues and costs and benefits were not analyzed separately. Examining costs (increases in response time following an invalid pre-cue) and benefits (decreases in response time following a valid pre-cue) separately could be important if dopaminergic genes (implicated in disorders such as attention deficit disorder) independently influence the different processes of orienting (e.g., disengage, move, engage). Methodology/Principal Findings We tested normal subjects (N = 161) between 18 and 61 years. Participants completed a computer task in which pre-cues preceded the presence of a target. Subjects responded (with a key press) to the location of the target (right versus left of fixation). The cues could be valid (i.e., appear where the target would appear) or invalid (appear contralateral to where the target would appear). DNA sequencing assays were performed on buccal cells to genotype known genetic markers and these were examined for association with task scores. Here we show significant associations between visual orienting and genetic markers (on COMT, DAT1, and APOE; R2s from 4% to 9%). Conclusions/Significance One measure in particular – the response time cost of a single dim, invalid cue – was associated with dopaminergic markers on COMT and DAT1. Additionally, variations of APOE genotypes based on the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles were also associated with response time differences produced by simultaneous cues with unequal luminances. We conclude that individual differences in visual orienting are related to several dopaminergic markers as well as to a cholinergic marker. These results challenge the view that orienting is not

  1. Gene polymorphisms in association with emerging cardiovascular risk markers in adult women.

    PubMed

    Fan, Amy Z; Yesupriya, Ajay; Chang, Man-huei; House, Meaghan; Fang, Jing; Ned, Renée; Hayes, Donald; Dowling, Nicole F; Mokdad, Ali H

    2010-01-15

    Evidence on the associations of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers with genes may help identify intermediate pathways of disease susceptibility in the general population. This population-based study is aimed to determine the presence of associations between a wide array of genetic variants and emerging cardiovascular risk markers among adult US women. The current analysis was performed among the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III phase 2 samples of adult women aged 17 years and older (sample size n = 3409). Fourteen candidate genes within ADRB2, ADRB3, CAT, CRP, F2, F5, FGB, ITGB3, MTHFR, NOS3, PON1, PPARG, TLR4, and TNF were examined for associations with emerging cardiovascular risk markers such as serum C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid, and plasma fibrinogen. Linear regression models were performed using SAS-callable SUDAAN 9.0. The covariates included age, race/ethnicity, education, menopausal status, female hormone use, aspirin use, and lifestyle factors. In covariate-adjusted models, serum C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly (P value controlling for false-discovery rate < or = 0.05) associated with polymorphisms in CRP (rs3093058, rs1205), MTHFR (rs1801131), and ADRB3 (rs4994). Serum homocysteine levels were significantly associated with MTHFR (rs1801133). The significant associations between certain gene variants with concentration variations in serum C-reactive protein and homocysteine among adult women need to be confirmed in further genetic association studies.

  2. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in the Human Fetal Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Metsuyanim, Sally; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Buzhor, Ella; Omer, Dorit; Pode-Shakked, Naomi; Ben-Hur, Herzl; Halperin, Reuvit; Schneider, David; Dekel, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    In the human fetal kidney (HFK) self-renewing stem cells residing in the metanephric mesenchyme (MM)/blastema are induced to form all cell types of the nephron till 34th week of gestation. Definition of useful markers is crucial for the identification of HFK stem cells. Because wilms' tumor, a pediatric renal cancer, initiates from retention of renal stem cells, we hypothesized that surface antigens previously up-regulated in microarrays of both HFK and blastema-enriched stem-like wilms' tumor xenografts (NCAM, ACVRIIB, DLK1/PREF, GPR39, FZD7, FZD2, NTRK2) are likely to be relevant markers. Comprehensive profiling of these putative and of additional stem cell markers (CD34, CD133, c-Kit, CD90, CD105, CD24) in mid-gestation HFK was performed using immunostaining and FACS in conjunction with EpCAM, an epithelial surface marker that is absent from the MM and increases along nephron differentiation and hence can be separated into negative, dim or bright fractions. No marker was specifically localized to the MM. Nevertheless, FZD7 and NTRK2 were preferentially localized to the MM and emerging tubules (<10% of HFK cells) and were mostly present within the EpCAMneg and EpCAMdim fractions, indicating putative stem/progenitor markers. In contrast, single markers such as CD24 and CD133 as well as double-positive CD24+CD133+ cells comprise >50% of HFK cells and predominantly co-express EpCAMbright, indicating they are mostly markers of differentiation. Furthermore, localization of NCAM exclusively in the MM and in its nephron progenitor derivatives but also in stroma and the expression pattern of significantly elevated renal stem/progenitor genes Six2, Wt1, Cited1, and Sall1 in NCAM+EpCAM- and to a lesser extent in NCAM+EpCAM+ fractions confirmed regional identity of cells and assisted us in pinpointing the presence of subpopulations that are putative MM-derived progenitor cells (NCAM+EpCAM+FZD7+), MM stem cells (NCAM+EpCAM-FZD7+) or both (NCAM+FZD7+). These results and

  3. Source apportionment of particulate matter in the US and associations with lung inflammatory markers

    SciTech Connect

    Duvall, R.M.; Norris, G.A.; Dailey, L.A.; Burke, J.M.; McGee, J.K.; Gilmour, M.I.; Gordon, T.; Devlin, R.B.

    2008-07-01

    Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from six U.S. cities and chemically analyzed as part of the Multiple Air Pollutant Study. Particles were administered to cultured lung cells and the production of three different proinflammatory markers was measured to explore the association between the health effect markers and PM. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse PM samples were collected between December 2003 and May 2004 over a 4-wk period in each city. Filters were pooled for each city and the PM samples were extracted then analyzed for trace metals, ions, and elemental carbon. Particle extracts were applied to cultured human primary airway epithelial cells, and the secreted levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), heme oxygenase-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 were measured 1 and 24 h following exposure. Fine PM sources were quantified by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The relationship between toxicological measures, PM sources, and individual species were evaluated using linear regression. Ultrafine and fine PM mass were associated with increases in IL-8 (r{sup 2} = .80 for ultrafine and r{sup 2} = .52 for fine). Sources of fine PM and their relative contributions varied across the sampling sites and a strong linear association was observed between IL-8 and secondary sulfate from coal combustion (r{sup 2} = .79). Ultrafine vanadium, lead, copper, and sulfate were also associated with increases in IL-8. Increases in inflammatory markers were not observed for coarse PM mass and source markers. These findings suggest that certain PM size fractions and sources are associated with markers of lung injury or inflammation.

  4. [Association between biochemical markers and left ventricular dysfunction in the ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Maximiliano; Mariani, Javier; Guridi, Cristian; González-Villa-Monte, Gabriel; Gastaldello, Natalio; Potito, Mauricio; Reyes, Graciela; Antonietti, Laura; Tajer, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The association between biochemical markers and left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with myocardial infarction was not completely studied. Our goal is to study the association between biochemical markers and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. With an observational and prospective design we included patients with less than 24h ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Leukocytes, glucose, B-type natriuretic peptide and T troponin were measured at admission, and creatine-phosphokinase and creatine-phosphokinase-MB were measured at admission and serially, and correlated with the ejection fraction estimated by echocardiography. A total of 108 patients were included. The median left ventricular ejection fraction was 48% (interquartile range 41-57). Simple linear regression analysis showed that B-type natriuretic peptide (P=.005), peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB (P=.01), leukocyte count (P=.001) and glucose (P=.033) were inversely and significantly associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction. The other parameters showed no association. B-type natriuretic peptide (P=.01) and peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB (P=.02) were the only two variables significantly associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction in the multiple linear regression analysis. Both markers were significantly associated with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%, independently of other clinical variables. B-type natriuretic peptide and peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB showed significant association with left ventricular ejection fraction in the acute phase of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. This association was independent of the presence of other biochemical markers and clinical variables related to ventricular dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of fecal contamination sources in water using host-associated markers.

    PubMed

    Krentz, Corinne A; Prystajecky, Natalie; Isaac-Renton, Judith

    2013-03-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, drinking water is tested for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, but there is currently no routine follow-up testing to investigate fecal contamination sources in samples that test positive for indicator bacteria. Reliable microbial source tracking (MST) tools to rapidly test water samples for multiple fecal contamination markers simultaneously are currently lacking. The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a qualitative MST tool to identify fecal contamination from different host groups, and (ii) to evaluate the MST tool using water samples with evidence of fecal contamination. Singleplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test (i) water from polluted sites and (ii) raw and drinking water samples for presence of bacterial genetic markers associated with feces from humans, cattle, seagulls, pigs, chickens, and geese. The multiplex MST assay correctly identified suspected contamination sources in contaminated waterways, demonstrating that this test may have utility for heavily contaminated sites. Most raw and drinking water samples analyzed using singleplex PCR contained at least one host-associated marker. Singleplex PCR was capable of detecting host-associated markers in small sample volumes and is therefore a promising tool to further analyze water samples submitted for routine testing and provide information useful for water quality management.

  6. Novel inflammatory markers associated with cognitive performance: Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qi; Camous, Xavier; Lu, Yan-Xia; Lim, May-Li; Larbi, Anis; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2016-03-01

    We identified and validated several novel inflammatory markers of cognitive performance in community-living older persons. An exploratory study (n = 83) correlated 177 inflammatory markers assayed by Luminex with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and identified 8 inflammatory markers for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and correlations with MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and cognitive impairment in the validation study (n = 139). The validation study replicated the significant associations of soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (sIL-2Rα; p = 0.050), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2; p = 0.002) and soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130; p = 0.026) with MMSE, and sIL-2Rα (p = 0.019) and sgp130 (p < 0.001) with MoCA. Significant trends of associations of tertiles of sgp130, sIL-2Rα, and sTNFR2 were found with cognitive impairment. Highly elevated estimates of association of high versus low tertiles were obtained for sgp130 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-18.8), sIL-2Rα (OR = 3.94, 95% CI 0.83-18.7), and sTNFR2 (OR = 7.58, 95% CI 1.19-48.1). sgp130, sTNFR2, and sIL-2Rα are promising inflammatory markers of low cognitive performance for further investigation.

  7. Single- and Bayesian Multi-Marker Genome-Wide Association for Haematological Parameters in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Reyer, Henry; Trakooljul, Nares; Murani, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Haematological traits are important traits that show associations with immune and metabolic status, as well as diseases in humans and animals. Mapping genome regions that affect the blood cell traits can contribute to the identification of genomic features useable as biomarkers for immune, disease and metabolic status. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using PorcineSNP60 BeadChips. Single-marker and Bayesian multi-marker approaches were integrated to identify genomic regions and corresponding genes overlapping for both methods. GWAS was performed for haematological traits of 591 German Landrace pig. Heritability estimates for haematological traits were medium to high. In total 252 single SNPs associated with 12 haematological traits were identified (NegLog10 of p-value > 5). The Bayesian multi-marker approach revealed 102 QTL regions across the genome, indicated by 1-Mb windows with contribution to additive genetic variance above 0.5%. The integration of both methods resulted in 24 overlapping QTL regions. This study identified overlapping QTL regions from single- and multi-marker approaches for haematological traits. Identifying candidate genes that affect blood cell traits provides the first step towards the understanding of the molecular basis of haematological phenotypes. PMID:27434032

  8. Development of phylogenetic markers for Sebacina (Sebacinaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids1

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, Monica P.; Peakall, Rod; Foret, Sylvain; Linde, Celeste C.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: To investigate fungal species identity and diversity in mycorrhizal fungi of order Sebacinales, we developed phylogenetic markers. These new markers will enable future studies investigating species delineation and phylogenetic relationships of the fungal symbionts and facilitate investigations into evolutionary interactions among Sebacina species and their orchid hosts. • Methods and Results: We generated partial genome sequences for a Sebacina symbiont originating from Caladenia huegelii with 454 genome sequencing and from three symbionts from Eriochilus dilatatus and one from E. pulchellus using Illumina sequencing. Six nuclear and two mitochondrial loci showed high variability (10–31% parsimony informative sites) for Sebacinales mycorrhizal fungi across four genera of Australian orchids (Caladenia, Eriochilus, Elythranthera, and Glossodia). • Conclusions: We obtained highly informative DNA markers that will allow investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Sebacinaceae fungi associated with terrestrial orchids in Australia and worldwide. PMID:25202630

  9. Objective analysis of cancer stem cell marker expression using immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J; McCoy, M J; Hemmings, C; Bulsara, M K; Iacopetta, B; Platell, C F

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of immunohistochemical expression is often a subjective and semiquantitative process that can lead to the inconsistent reporting of results. To assess the effect that region selection and quantification method have on results, five different cancer stem cell markers were used in this study to compare tissue scoring with digital analysis methods that used three different tissue annotation methods. Samples of tumour and normal mucosa were used from 10 consecutive stage II colon cancer patients and stained for the putative cancer stem cell markers ALDH1, CD44v6, CD133, Lgr5 and SOX2. Tissue scoring was found to have considerably different results to digital analysis with the three different digital methods harbouring concordant results overall. However, SOX2 on normal tissue and CD133 on tumour and normal tissue produced discordant results which could be attributed to the different regions of tissue that were analysed. It is important that quantification method and selection of analysis areas are considered as part of study design to ensure that reproducible and consistent results are reported in the literature.

  10. Early systemic sclerosis: marker autoantibodies and videocapillaroscopy patterns are each associated with distinct clinical, functional and cellular activation markers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Early systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon together with scleroderma marker autoantibodies and/or a scleroderma pattern at capillaroscopy and no other distinctive feature of SSc. Patients presenting with marker autoantibodies plus a capillaroscopic scleroderma pattern seem to evolve into definite SSc more frequently than patients with either feature. Whether early SSc patients with only marker autoantibodies or capillaroscopic positivity differ in any aspect at presentation is unclear. Methods Seventy-one consecutive early SSc patients were investigated for preclinical cardiopulmonary alterations. Out of these, 44 patients and 25 controls affected by osteoarthritis or primary fibromyalgia syndrome were also investigated for serum markers of fibroblast (carboxyterminal propeptide of collagen I), endothelial (soluble E-selectin) and T-cell (soluble IL-2 receptor alpha) activation. Results Thirty-two of the 71 patients (45.1%) had both a marker autoantibody and a capillaroscopic scleroderma pattern (subset 1), 16 patients (22.5%) had only a marker autoantibody (subset 2), and 23 patients (32.4%) had only a capillaroscopic scleroderma pattern (subset 3). Patients with marker autoantibodies (n = 48, 67.6%) had a higher prevalence of impaired diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (P = 0.0217) and increased serum levels of carboxyterminal propeptide of collagen I (P = 0.0037), regardless of capillaroscopic alterations. Patients with a capillaroscopic scleroderma pattern (n = 55, 77.5%) had a higher prevalence of puffy fingers (P = 0.0001) and increased serum levels of soluble E-selectin (P = 0.0003) regardless of marker autoantibodies. Conclusion These results suggest that the autoantibody and microvascular patterns in early SSc may each be related to different clinical-preclinical features and circulating activation markers at presentation. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate whether these subsets undergo a

  11. Association Between Markers of Inflammation and Total Stroke by Hypertensive Status Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Kotler, Gregory; Everett, Brendan M.; Glynn, Robert J.; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie E.; Ridker, Paul M.; Sesso, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Markers of systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [sICAM-1], and fibrinogen) have been associated with a greater risk of total and ischemic stroke, in addition to elevated blood pressure. However, the role of these inflammatory markers on stroke pathophysiology by hypertension status is uncertain. METHODS Blood samples were collected and assayed for hsCRP, sICAM-1, and fibrinogen among 27,330 initially healthy women from the Women’s Health Study, and women were followed up from 1992 to 2013. Prior to randomization, the baseline questionnaire collected self-reported hypertension status, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle factors. New cases of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke were updated annually through questionnaires and confirmed by medical records according to the National Survey of Stroke criteria. Multivariable Cox models estimated overall associations between each inflammatory marker and stroke and separately stratified by hypertension status. RESULTS We observed 629 incident total strokes over 477,278 person-years. In adjusted analyses, extreme quartiles of hsCRP and sICAM-1 were each associated with a significantly greater risk of total stroke (hsCRP: hazard ratios [HR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39–2.26; sICAM-1: HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.63). Fibrinogen was not associated with a significantly greater stroke risk. In analyses stratified by hypertension status, elevated hsCRP was associated with a nonstatistically significant greater risk of total stroke among prehypertensive and hypertensive women. CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that hsCRP and sICAM-1 are associated with hypertension status and stroke risk among women. Further work should examine the role of inflammatory markers on ischemic stroke subtypes and clarify mechanisms. PMID:27235695

  12. Association Between Markers of Inflammation and Total Stroke by Hypertensive Status Among Women.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Monik C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Kotler, Gregory; Everett, Brendan M; Glynn, Robert J; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie E; Ridker, Paul M; Sesso, Howard D

    2016-09-01

    Markers of systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [sICAM-1], and fibrinogen) have been associated with a greater risk of total and ischemic stroke, in addition to elevated blood pressure. However, the role of these inflammatory markers on stroke pathophysiology by hypertension status is uncertain. Blood samples were collected and assayed for hsCRP, sICAM-1, and fibrinogen among 27,330 initially healthy women from the Women's Health Study, and women were followed up from 1992 to 2013. Prior to randomization, the baseline questionnaire collected self-reported hypertension status, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle factors. New cases of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke were updated annually through questionnaires and confirmed by medical records according to the National Survey of Stroke criteria. Multivariable Cox models estimated overall associations between each inflammatory marker and stroke and separately stratified by hypertension status. We observed 629 incident total strokes over 477,278 person-years. In adjusted analyses, extreme quartiles of hsCRP and sICAM-1 were each associated with a significantly greater risk of total stroke (hsCRP: hazard ratios [HR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-2.26; sICAM-1: HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00-1.63). Fibrinogen was not associated with a significantly greater stroke risk. In analyses stratified by hypertension status, elevated hsCRP was associated with a nonstatistically significant greater risk of total stroke among prehypertensive and hypertensive women. These data indicate that hsCRP and sICAM-1 are associated with hypertension status and stroke risk among women. Further work should examine the role of inflammatory markers on ischemic stroke subtypes and clarify mechanisms. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Relationship of human-associated microbial source tracking markers with Enterococci in Gulf of Mexico waters.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Katrina V; Brownell, Miriam; Wang, Shiao Y; Lepo, Joe Eugene; Mott, Joanna; Nathaniel, Rajkumar; Kilgen, Marilyn; Hellein, Kristen N; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Harwood, Valerie J

    2013-03-01

    Human and ecosystem health can be damaged by fecal contamination of recreational waters. Microbial source tracking (MST) can be used to specifically detect domestic sewage containing human waste, thereby informing both risk assessment and remediation strategies. Previously, an inter-laboratory collaboration developed standardized PCR methods for a bacterial, an archaeal, and a viral indicator of human sewage. Here we present results for two subsequent years of field testing in fresh and salt water by five laboratories across the U.S. Gulf Coast (two in Florida and one each in Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas) using common standard operating procedures (SOPs) developed previously. Culturable enterococci were enumerated by membrane filtration, and PCR was used to detect three MST markers targeting domestic sewage: human-associated Bacteroides (HF183), Methanobrevibacter smithii and human polyomaviruses BK and JC (HPyVs). Detection of sewage markers in surface waters was significantly associated with higher enterococci levels and with exceedance of the recreational water quality standard in four or three regions, respectively. Sewage markers were frequently co-detected in single samples, e.g., M. smithii and HF183 were co-detected in 81% of Louisiana samples, and HPyVs and M. smithii were co-detected in over 40% of southwest Florida and Mississippi samples. This study demonstrates the robustness and inter-laboratory transferability of these three markers for the detection of pollution from domestic sewage in the waters impacting the Gulf of Mexico over a coastal range of over 1000 miles.

  14. Characterization and identification of ISSR markers associated with oil content in sea buckthorn berries.

    PubMed

    Ding, J; Ruan, C J; Guan, Y; Shan, J Y; Li, H; Bao, Y H

    2016-08-19

    Bioactive oils extracted from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries contain highly nutritional and medicinal compounds; however, the oil contents of sea buckthorn berries are very low. Thirteen inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers were used to identify markers associated with oil content of dry pulp in 51 cultivars and lines, which clustered into three major groups based on 137 polymorphic markers. Dry pulp oil contents in 45 cultivars and lines in Group I ranged from 6.6 to 33.1%; these accessions belonged to H. rhamnoides ssp mongolica and its hybrids with H. rhamnoides ssp sinensis. Three lines (H. rhamnoides ssp mongolica) in Group II had high dry pulp oil contents (33.7 to 37.5%), whereas three lines of hybrids in Group III had low dry pulp oil contents (10.9 to 17.5%). The dry pulp oil content of H. rhamnoides ssp mongolica (27.2 ± 0.9%) was higher than that of hybrids (12.0 ± 1.2%) (P < 0.01). Four ISSR markers (881340, 8251000, 817380, and 8071100) had positive association with high dry pulp oil content (P < 0.01) using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The use of these ISSR markers is a potential strategy to select genotypes with high dry pulp oil content and suitable parental combinations for improvement of sea buckthorn berries.

  15. Immune activation markers in peripartum women in Botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Russell, Elizabeth S; Mohammed, Terence; Smeaton, Laura; Jorowe, Baitshepi; MacLeod, Iain J; Hoffman, Risa M; Currier, Judith S; Moyo, Sikhulile; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Hormone levels shift the immune state in HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women away from Th1 responses and toward regulation to permit fetal tolerance. Limited data exist on inflammation during pregnancy or postpartum in HIV-infected women, though certain inflammatory markers are associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We measured hsCRP, D-dimer, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α at 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum in HIV-infected women from the Botswana Mashi PMTCT trial who were randomized to breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Differences in inflammatory markers between gestation and postpartum periods, and by randomized feeding method, were estimated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for baseline plasma HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count, calendar time, and antiretroviral treatment status. Additionally, we studied the association between marker concentrations at six months postpartum and major adverse clinical events over the following 4.5 years, using case-cohort sampling and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In 86 breastfeeding and 75 formula-feeding women, hsCRP and D-dimer decreased significantly between 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum, while IFN-γ increased. There was no significant association between inflammatory marker change and randomized feeding method after adjusting for multiple comparisons and removing outliers. In univariate analysis, TNF-α, D-dimer, and IFN-γ concentrations at six months postpartum were significant predictors of subsequent clinical events, and TNF-α remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.16, p = 0.001). In young HIV-infected women in Botswana inflammatory marker concentrations did not differ significantly between women who breast- vs. formula-fed. However, postpartum TNF-α level was predictive of subsequent adverse clinical event.

  16. Poorer self-rated health is associated with elevated inflammatory markers among older adults.

    PubMed

    Christian, Lisa M; Glaser, Ronald; Porter, Kyle; Malarkey, William B; Beversdorf, David; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2011-11-01

    Self-rated health is a strong independent predictor of mortality after accounting for objective health status, behavioral risk factors, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, mechanisms underlying this association are largely unexplained. Inflammation has been associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The current study aimed to: (1) examine associations between self-rated health and serum inflammatory markers in older adults; (2) examine the relative strength of these associations for self-rated health versus self-rated change in recent health; (3) examine components of self-rated health that may underlie the association between inflammation and global self-rated health. Self-rated health, as measured by the RAND health survey, and serum interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed among 250 generally healthy older adults (185 women, 65 men; average age=63.8±13.7 years). A series of linear regression analyses demonstrated that poorer self-rated health was significantly associated with higher IL-6 and CRP. These relationships remained after controlling for age, body mass index, gender, and objective health conditions. These associations also remained after controlling for depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived change in health over the past year, and health behaviors (smoking, sleep quality, and physical activity). Analyses of RAND component measures demonstrated that poorer physical functioning was significantly associated with IL-6; the relationship between global self-rated health and both IL-6 and CRP remained after accounting for perceived physical functioning. Poorer self-rated health is associated with elevated serum inflammatory markers among generally healthy older adults. The relationship of self-rated health with inflammatory markers is not secondary to depressive symptoms, neuroticism, or recent changes in perceived health. Subjective ratings of health provide important clinical information

  17. Maternal dietary patterns are associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic markers during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chantel L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Robinson, Whitney R.; Daniels, Julie L.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Stuebe, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of cardiometabolic markers are characteristic of normal pregnancy; however, insulin resistance and increased glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels can adversely influence maternal and child health. Diet is a modifiable behavior that could have significant impact on maternal cardiometabolic levels during pregnancy. We investigated the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic markers (glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, and cholesterol) during pregnancy. Methods Data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition prospective cohort study (2000-2005) was used (n=513). Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived using latent class analysis (LCA) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Linear regression was used to examine the dietary patterns-cardiometabolic markers association during pregnancy. Results Three dietary patterns evolved from the LCA characterized by high intakes of: 1) hamburgers, hot dogs, bacon, French fries, fried chicken, white bread, and soft drinks; 2) some vegetables, fruit juice, refined grains, mixed dishes, processed meat, and empty calorie foods; and 3) fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat dairy, breakfast bars, and water. After adjustment for potential confounders including pre-pregnancy body mass index, a diet consistent with Latent Class 3 was negatively associated with maternal insulin (μU/mL: β=−0.12; 95% CI: −0.23, −0.01) and HOMA-IR (β=−0.13; 95% CI: −0.25, −0.00). Additionally, DASH scores within Tertile 3 (higher dietary quality) were also negatively associated with maternal triglycerides (mg/dL). Conclusions The study findings suggest an association between maternal dietary patterns and several cardiometabolic markers during pregnancy. PMID:26848932

  18. Maternal Dietary Patterns are Associated with Lower Levels of Cardiometabolic Markers during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Chantel L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Robinson, Whitney R; Daniels, Julie L; Perrin, Eliana M; Stuebe, Alison M

    2016-05-01

    Elevated levels of cardiometabolic markers are characteristic of normal pregnancy, however, insulin resistance and increased glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels can adversely influence maternal and child health. Diet is a modifiable behaviour that could have significant impact on maternal cardiometabolic levels during pregnancy. We investigated the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic markers (glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, and cholesterol) during pregnancy. Data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition prospective cohort study (2000-05) was used (n = 513). Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived using latent class analysis (LCA) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Linear regression was used to examine the dietary patterns-cardiometabolic markers association during pregnancy. Three dietary patterns evolved from the LCA characterised by high intakes of: (1) hamburgers, hot dogs, bacon, French fries, fried chicken, white bread, and soft drinks; (2) some vegetables, fruit juice, refined grains, mixed dishes, processed meat, and empty calorie foods; and (3) fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, breakfast bars, and water. After adjustment for potential confounders including prepregnancy body mass index, a diet consistent with Latent Class 3 was negatively associated with maternal insulin (μU/mL: β = -0.12; 95% CI -0.23, -0.01) and HOMA-IR (β = -0.13; 95% CI -0.25, -0.00). Additionally, DASH scores within Tertile 3 (higher dietary quality) were also negatively associated with maternal triglycerides (mg/dL). The study findings suggest an association between maternal dietary patterns and several cardiometabolic markers during pregnancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  1. Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with Selected Functional Markers: Integrating Concurrent, Longitudinal, and Stability Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). Results First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave1 to Wave2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Conclusion Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. PMID:22251311

  2. Mild cognitive impairment is associated with selected functional markers: integrating concurrent, longitudinal, and stability effects.

    PubMed

    Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A

    2012-03-01

    We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave 1 to Wave 2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.

  3. Associations of markers of matrix metabolism, inflammation markers, and adipokines with superior cam deformity of the hip and their relation with future hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    van Spil, W E; Agricola, R; Drossaers-Bakker, K W; Weinans, H; Lafeber, F P J G

    2015-11-01

    First, to study how markers of matrix metabolism, inflammation markers, and adipokines relate to (superior) cam deformity and (possible) cam impingement of the hip. Second, to investigate whether they can identify subjects with cam deformity that are at risk of future hip osteoarthritis (OA). In a cohort of 1002 subjects (CHECK), (superior) cam deformity was defined by an alpha angle >60° on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs and (possible) cam impingement by a cam deformity together with internal hip rotation ≤20°. Hip OA at 5-year follow-up was defined by Kellgren and Lawrence grade ≥2 or total hip replacement. Subjects with (superior) cam deformity and (possible) cam impingement showed lower levels of bone turnover markers (uCTX-I, uNTX-I, sPINP, sOC) than those without. Cam deformity was positively associated with future hip OA, but associations were weaker at high levels of bone turnover. sCOMP and sHA levels were higher in subjects with cam deformity, while other cartilage and synovium markers were not. Some markers of inflammation (pLeptin, pAdiponectin, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were lower in presence of cam deformity and cam impingement, but high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was not. Most associations depended largely on gender differences. Bone metabolism may be relevant in the pathogenesis of (superior) cam deformity and in the development of (superior) cam deformity into hip OA. Subjects with cam deformity and cam impingement surprisingly showed lower levels of inflammation markers and adipokines. Associations of cartilage turnover markers with cam deformity and cam impingement were less obvious. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long driving time is associated with haematological markers of increased cardiovascular risk in taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chen, Y; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association between driving time and changes in haematological markers of increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The authors conducted a cross sectional analysis of baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort in Taipei, Taiwan. They retrieved information on comorbidity, laboratory tests, age, and anthropometric measures from medical records of 1157 subjects (mean age 44.6 (SD 8.6) years). Whole blood cell (WBC) count was used as the primary haematological marker for increased CVD risk, and platelet count and haematocrit as the secondary markers. Standardised questionnaires were implemented to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple regression was used to estimate the adjusted effects of driving time on three haematological markers. Results: The mean measured hematological marker was 6656 (SD 1656) cells x106/l for WBC, 47.2 (SD 3.5) % for hematocrit, and 243 (SD 52) cells x109/l for platelets. The driving time was 264 (SD 76) hours/month. Compared with drivers who drove ⩽208 hours/month (1st quartile cut off), drivers who drove >208 hours/month had a higher WBC count (by 317 x106/l; 95% CI 99 to 535), haematocrit (by 0.8%; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.2), and platelets (7.9 x109/l; 95% CI 1.0 to 14.8). After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors (age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolaemia), obesity, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, and sociodemographics (education, marital status, income, and so on), long driving time was still associated with significant increases in WBC and platelets, whereas the effect on haematocrit was diminished and became statistically non-significant. Additional controls for physical workload, self-perceived job stress, and job dissatisfaction did not alter the associations with increased WBC and platelets. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the

  5. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yong; Liu, Hongmei; Xu, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia), were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The panel displayed significant