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Sample records for marker study rationale

  1. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol.

    PubMed

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-07

    Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs--the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London--through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007-2012 and 2012-2017) will be carried out. The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  2. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  3. Early markers of airways inflammation and occupational asthma: Rationale, study design and follow-up rates among bakery, pastry and hairdressing apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Tossa, Paul; Bohadana, Abraham; Demange, Valérie; Wild, Pascal; Michaely, Jean-Pierre; Hannhart, Bernard; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Background Occupational asthma is a common type of asthma caused by a specific agent in the workplace. The basic alteration of occupational asthma is airways inflammation. Although most patients with occupational asthma are mature adults, there is evidence that airways inflammation starts soon after inception of exposure, including during apprenticeship. Airways hyper responsiveness to methacholine is a valid surrogate marker of airways inflammation, which has proved useful in occupational epidemiology. But it is time-consuming, requires active subject's cooperation and is not readily feasible. Other non-invasive and potentially more useful tests include the forced oscillation technique, measurement of fraction exhaled nitric oxide, and eosinophils count in nasal lavage fluid. Methods and design This study aims to investigate early development of airways inflammation and asthma-like symptoms in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers, three populations at risk of occupational asthma whose work-related exposures involve agents of different nature. The objectives are to (i) examine the performance of the non-invasive tests cited above in detecting early airways inflammation that might eventually develop into occupational asthma; and (ii) evaluate whether, and how, constitutional (e.g. atopy) and behavioural (e.g. smoking) risk factors for occupational asthma modulate the effects of allergenic and/or irritative substances involved in these occupations. This paper presents the study rationale and detailed protocol. Discussion Among 441 volunteers included at the first visit, 354 attended the fourth one. Drop outs were investigated and showed unrelated to the study outcome. Sample size and follow-up participation rates suggest that the data collected in this study will allow it to meet its objectives. PMID:19389222

  4. Early markers of airways inflammation and occupational asthma: rationale, study design and follow-up rates among bakery, pastry and hairdressing apprentices.

    PubMed

    Tossa, Paul; Bohadana, Abraham; Demange, Valérie; Wild, Pascal; Michaely, Jean-Pierre; Hannhart, Bernard; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2009-04-23

    Occupational asthma is a common type of asthma caused by a specific agent in the workplace. The basic alteration of occupational asthma is airways inflammation. Although most patients with occupational asthma are mature adults, there is evidence that airways inflammation starts soon after inception of exposure, including during apprenticeship. Airways hyper responsiveness to methacholine is a valid surrogate marker of airways inflammation, which has proved useful in occupational epidemiology. But it is time-consuming, requires active subject's cooperation and is not readily feasible. Other non-invasive and potentially more useful tests include the forced oscillation technique, measurement of fraction exhaled nitric oxide, and eosinophils count in nasal lavage fluid. This study aims to investigate early development of airways inflammation and asthma-like symptoms in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers, three populations at risk of occupational asthma whose work-related exposures involve agents of different nature. The objectives are to (i) examine the performance of the non-invasive tests cited above in detecting early airways inflammation that might eventually develop into occupational asthma; and (ii) evaluate whether, and how, constitutional (e.g. atopy) and behavioural (e.g. smoking) risk factors for occupational asthma modulate the effects of allergenic and/or irritative substances involved in these occupations. This paper presents the study rationale and detailed protocol. Among 441 volunteers included at the first visit, 354 attended the fourth one. Drop outs were investigated and showed unrelated to the study outcome. Sample size and follow-up participation rates suggest that the data collected in this study will allow it to meet its objectives.

  5. Rationale, objectives, and design of the EUTrigTreat clinical study: a prospective observational study for arrhythmia risk stratification and assessment of interrelationships among repolarization markers and genotype

    PubMed Central

    Seegers, Joachim; Vos, Marc A.; Flevari, Panagiota; Willems, Rik; Sohns, Christian; Vollmann, Dirk; Lüthje, Lars; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T.; Floré, Vincent; Meine, Mathias; Tuinenburg, Anton; Myles, Rachel C.; Simon, Dirk; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Friede, Tim; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Lehnart, Stephan E.; Zabel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Aims The EUTrigTreat clinical study has been designed as a prospective multicentre observational study and aims to (i) risk stratify patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for mortality and shock risk using multiple novel and established risk markers, (ii) explore a link between repolarization biomarkers and genetics of ion (Ca2+, Na+, K+) metabolism, (iii) compare the results of invasive and non-invasive electrophysiological (EP) testing, (iv) assess changes of non-invasive risk stratification tests over time, and (v) associate arrythmogenomic risk through 19 candidate genes. Methods and results Patients with clinical ICD indication are eligible for the trial. Upon inclusion, patients will undergo non-invasive risk stratification, including beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR), T-wave alternans, T-wave morphology variables, ambient arrhythmias from Holter, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence. Non-invasive or invasive programmed electrical stimulation will assess inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, with the latter including recordings of monophasic action potentials and assessment of restitution properties. Established candidate genes are screened for variants. The primary endpoint is all-cause mortality, while one of the secondary endpoints is ICD shock risk. A mean follow-up of 3.3 years is anticipated. Non-invasive testing will be repeated annually during follow-up. It has been calculated that 700 patients are required to identify risk predictors of the primary endpoint, with a possible increase to 1000 patients based on interim risk analysis. Conclusion The EUTrigTreat clinical study aims to overcome current shortcomings in sudden cardiac death risk stratification and to answer several related research questions. The initial patient recruitment is expected to be completed in July 2012, and follow-up is expected to end in September 2014. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01209494. PMID:22117037

  6. A Rationale for Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Marion; Brady, Howard L.

    Only a few general principles are provided as a foundation for an effective program. However, what is new is the emphasis on human groups as a basis for organizing a single social studies discipline. Some questions are suggested concerning what should be investigated about groups, and what the students need to understand. 1) What causes human…

  7. Treating alcoholism through a narrative approach. Case study and rationale.

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, D.; Rabinowitz, S.; Kasan, R.

    1996-01-01

    A case study illustrates the narrative or story-telling approach to treating alcoholism. We discuss the rationale for this method and describe how it could be useful in family practice for treating people with alcohol problems. PMID:8653035

  8. Child Development and Social Studies Curriculum Design: Toward a Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Gary A.

    This paper is a working draft of a study which has examined the accumulated research on child growth and development. The draft is designed as an input paper to enable the Marin Social Studies Project to refine its rationale and criteria for a recommended K-12 social studies program of curriculum options. Identification of the capabilities of…

  9. Overall Rationale and Design of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegsted, D. Mark

    This paper outlines research designed to establish dietary correlates of malnutrition, and questions the common assumption that high protein foods should be used as dietary supplements in humans. Because thorough investigation of dietary needs in children is ethically unfeasible, squirrel monkeys were used in the research to study the biological…

  10. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index ≥85th percentile, fasting glucose ≥5.55 mmol l-1 (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin ≥180 pmol l-1 (30 μU ml-1). A series of pilot studies established the feasibility of performing data collection procedures and tested the development of an intervention consisting of four integrated components: (1) changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food and beverage offerings throughout the total school food environment; (2) physical education class lesson plans and accompanying equipment to increase both participation and number of minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; (3) brief classroom activities and family outreach vehicles to increase knowledge, enhance decision-making skills and support and reinforce youth in accomplishing goals; and (4) communications and social marketing strategies to enhance and promote changes through messages, images, events and activities. Expert study staff provided training, assistance, materials and guidance for school faculty and staff to implement the intervention components. A cohort of students were enrolled in sixth grade and followed to end of eighth grade. They attended a health screening data collection at baseline and end of study that involved measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference and a fasting blood draw. Height and weight were also collected at the end of the seventh grade. The study was conducted in 42 middle schools, six at each of seven locations across the country, with 21 schools randomized to receive the intervention and 21 to act as controls (data collection activities only). Middle school was the unit of sample size and

  11. Data book: Space station/base food system study. Book 3: Study selection rationale sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The supporting rationale sheets are presented which were utilized in the selection and support of the concepts considered in the final phase of the study. Each concept, conceived to fulfill a specific function of the food system, was assessed in terms of the eight critical factors depicted on the rationale sheet. When weighted and totaled, the resulting selection factor was used as a guide in making the final decision.

  12. Structure, Citizenship, and Professionalism: Exploring Rationale Development as Part of Graduate Education in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Todd S.; Pifel, A. Robert; Jordan, Adam W.

    2012-01-01

    This article details an interpretive, qualitative interview study that explored rationales developed by seven social studies graduate students, all experienced teachers, at a large Midwestern university. Interviews revealed three common themes regarding the influence of the rationale development process. The three themes were: providing structure,…

  13. The Living Donor Lost Wages Trial: Study Rationale and Protocol.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Carroll, Michaela; Evenson, Amy R; Pavlakis, Martha; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Baliga, Prabhakar; Howard, David H; Schold, Jesse D

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the background, rationale, and design of an NIH-funded, single-center study to test the impact of offering reimbursement for donor lost wages incurred during the post-nephrectomy recovery period on the live donor kidney transplant (LDKT) rate in newly evaluated kidney transplant candidates, to examine whether offering reimbursement for donor lost wages reduces racial disparity in LDKT rates, and to determine whether higher reimbursement amounts lead to higher LDKT rates. LDKT is the optimal treatment for renal failure. However, living kidney donation has declined in the past decade, particularly among men, younger adults, blacks, and low-income adults. There is evidence that donation-related costs may deter both transplant candidates and potential donors from considering LDKT. Lost wages is a major source of financial loss for some living donors and, unlike travel and lodging expenses, is not reimbursed by financial assistance programs. The study addresses the transplant community's call to reduce the financial burden of living donation and examine its impact on LDKT rates. Findings have the potential to influence policy, clinical practice, LDKT access, and income-related and racial disparities in LDKT and living donation.

  14. Rationale, Design, and Methods of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott; Greenhill, Laurence; Swanson, James; Wigal, Sharon; Abikoff, Howard; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Davies, Mark; Cunningham, Charles; Bauzo, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the rationale and design of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: PATS was a National Institutes of Mental Health-funded, multicenter, randomized, efficacy trial designed to evaluate the short-term (5 weeks) efficacy and long-term (40 weeks) safety of methylphenidate (MPH) in preschoolers with…

  15. Rationales Shaping International Linkages in Higher Education: A Qualitative Case Study of the ASU-ITESM Strategic Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho Lizarraga, Monica Irene

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the rationales of the relationship between Arizona State University (ASU)--an American public research university--and Tecnologico de Monterrey (ITESM), a Mexican private not for profit research university. The focus of the study is to document the different meanings participants attached to the rationales of…

  16. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study: Rationale, Study Design, and Study Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Veenu; Crabtree, Kay L.; Chao, Ann; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Sifuniso, Adrian M.; Nkonde, Catherine; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mitchell, Charles D.; Wood, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus in Zambia has led to a dramatic rise in the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)–associated Kaposi's sarcoma in both adults and children. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the routes of HHV-8 transmission to young children. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study, a large, prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, was launched in 2004 to investigate the role of household members as a source of HHV-8 infection in young children and social behaviors that may modify the risk of HHV-8 acquisition. This cohort is distinct from other epidemiologic studies designed to investigate HHV-8 incidence and transmission because it recruited and followed complete households in the urban central African context. Between July 2004 and March 2007, 1,600 households were screened; 368 households comprising 464 children and 1,335 caregivers and household members were enrolled. Follow-up of this population continued for 48 months postrecruitment, affording a unique opportunity to study horizontal transmission of HHV-8 and understand the routes and sources of transmission to young children in Zambia. The authors describe the study rationale, design, execution, and characteristics of this cohort, which provides critical data on the epidemiology and transmission of HHV-8 to young children in Zambia. PMID:21447476

  17. Professional fighters brain health study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive head trauma is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is the primary cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, little is known about the natural history of, and risk factors for, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or about means of early detection and intervention. The Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters (boxers and mixed martial artists), retired professional fighters, and controls matched for age and level of education. The main objective of the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is to determine the relationships between measures of head trauma exposure and other potential modifiers and changes in brain imaging and neurological and behavioral function over time. The study is designed to extend over 5 years, and we anticipate enrollment of more than 400 boxers and mixed martial artists. Participants will undergo annual evaluations that include 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning, computerized cognitive assessments, speech analysis, surveys of mood and impulsivity, and blood sampling for genotyping and exploratory biomarker studies. Statistical models will be developed and validated to predict early and progressive changes in brain structure and function. A composite fight exposure index, developed as a summary measure of cumulative traumatic exposure, shows promise as a predictor of brain volumes and cognitive function.

  18. Facilitating Children's Self-Concept: A Rationale and Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the design and effectiveness of the Exploring Self-Concept program for primary school children using self-concept as the outcome measure. The program aims to provide a procedure that incorporates organisation, elaboration, thinking, and problem-solving strategies and links these to children's multidimensional self-concept.…

  19. A Clinician's Rationale for the Study of History of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parth M; Desai, Sukumar P

    2014-01-01

    History of medicine does not receive the coverage it deserves in medical school curricula, or during graduate medical training, in part, because of its lack of impact on direct clinical care. This is particularly disturbing for the specialty of anesthesiology not only due to its colorful history, but also because ours is the only major medical discipline to have developed entirely in the United States. We examine four commonly cited reasons for the study of history in general, and comment on whether these lessons are applicable to medicine and anesthesiology. We provide compelling reasons why studying history is important to clinicians. Humans are the only species to be aware of their past. Our future is largely unknown, and the present is fleeting. Thus, almost everything that is known with certainty falls within the realm of history. Thus one would expect society at large, and physicians and anesthesiologists in particular, to be history enthusiasts. As the facts suggest otherwise, one wonders whether history is regarded much like art, music, and fine cuisine - more adornment than an essential and integral part of education in any discipline, especially medicine. Among other elements that comprise the discipline, history writing can be considered a narrative of words, deeds, ideas, conflicts and sufferings from the past that have been subjected to verification.(1-4) Students of history interpret these events to learn causality as well as their importance. As our world becomes increasingly dependent on science and technology, as the body of literature in every field explodes in quantity, and as specialized skills are required in almost every occupation, an existential question emerges - is there a need for someone working in the sciences to be familiar with history? The question is particularly important in the field of medicine in view of the commonly held belief that historical study rarely brings about a change in current practice. We examine some reasons

  20. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS): rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Fisberg, M; Kovalskys, I; Gómez, G; Rigotti, A; Cortés, L Y; Herrera-Cuenca, M; Yépez, M C; Pareja, R G; Guajardo, V; Zimberg, I Z; Chiavegatto Filho, A D P; Pratt, M; Koletzko, B; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-30

    Obesity is growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. Lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity and dietary intake have been largely associated with obesity in many countries; however studies that combine nutrition and physical activity assessment in representative samples of Latin American countries are lacking. The aim of this study is to present the design rationale of the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health/Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS) with a particular focus on its quality control procedures and recruitment processes. The ELANS is a multicenter cross-sectional nutrition and health surveillance study of a nationally representative sample of urban populations from eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela). A standard study protocol was designed to evaluate the nutritional intakes, physical activity levels, and anthropometric measurements of 9000 enrolled participants. The study was based on a complex, multistage sample design and the sample was stratified by gender, age (15 to 65 years old) and socioeconomic level. A small-scale pilot study was performed in each country to test the procedures and tools. This study will provide valuable information and a unique dataset regarding Latin America that will enable cross-country comparisons of nutritional statuses that focus on energy and macro- and micronutrient intakes, food patterns, and energy expenditure. Clinical Trials NCT02226627.

  1. A Pilot Study of Hungarian Discourse Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Der, Csilla Ilona; Marko, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first attempt at detecting formal and positional characteristics of single-word simple discourse markers in a spontaneous speech sample of Hungarian. In the first part of the research, theoretical claims made in the relevant literature were tested. The data did not confirm or only partially confirmed the claims that Hungarian…

  2. The Mediterranean healthy eating, ageing, and lifestyle (MEAL) study: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; D'Urso, Maurizio; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that Mediterranean lifestyles, including nutrition and sleeping patterns as well as social integration, may play a role in reducing age-related diseases. However, the literature is mostly deficient of evidence provided by Italian Mediterranean islands that more closely adhered to the originally described lifestyles. In this paper, we described the rationale and the study design of the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Ageing, and Lifestyle (MEAL) study, a prospective population-based cohort established in Sicily, southern Italy. The main exposures investigated are classical determinants of health, including demographic, nutritional habits, smoking and physical activity status, as well as eating-related behaviors, sleeping habits, sun exposure, social resources, and perceived stress. Anthropometric measurements will be collected. The main outcomes included depression, quality of life, and, after the follow-up period, also cardiovascular disease and cancer. The MEAL study may provide important data to increase our knowledge regarding the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of age-related disorders in the Mediterranean region.

  3. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Evaluating web-based cognitive-affective remediation in recent trauma survivors: study rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Fine, Naomi B; Achituv, Michal; Etkin, Amit; Merin, Ofer; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2018-01-01

    Background : The immediate aftermath of traumatic events is a period of enhanced neural plasticity, following which some survivors remain with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) whereas others recover. Evidence points to impairments in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and broader executive functions as critically contributing to PTSD. Emerging evidence further suggests that the neural mechanisms underlying these functions remain plastic in adulthood and that targeted retraining of these systems may enhance their efficiency and could reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD. Administering targeted neurocognitive training shortly after trauma exposure is a daunting challenge. This work describes a study design addressing that challenge. The study evaluated the direct effects of cognitive remediation training on neurocognitive mechanisms that hypothetically underlay PTSD, and the indirect effect of this intervention on emerging PTSD symptoms. Method : We describe a study rationale, design, and methodological choices involving: (a) participants' enrolment; (b) implementation and management of a daily self-administered, web-based intervention; (c) reliable, timely screening and assessment of treatment of eligible survivors; and (d) defining control conditions and outcome measures. We outline the rationale of choices made regarding study sample, timing of intervention, measurements, monitoring participants' adherence, and ways to harmonize and retain interviewers' fidelity and mitigate eventual burnout by repeated contacts with recently traumatized survivors. Conclusion : Early web-based interventions targeting causative mechanisms of PTSD can be informed by the model presented in this paper.

  5. STARPROBE: Scientific rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H. (Editor); Randolph, J. E. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The scientific rationale and instrumentation problems in the areas of solar internal dynamics and relativity, solar plasma and particle dynamics, and solar atmosphere structure were studied. Current STARPROBE mission and system design concepts are summarized.

  6. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  7. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Katz, Elizabeth C.; Rhodes, Anne G.; Taxman, Faye S.; O'Connell, Daniel J.; Frisman, Linda K.; Burdon, William M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.; Litt, Mark D.; Clarke, Jennifer; Martin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment…

  8. Rationale and Design of the Echocardiographic Study of Hispanics/Latinos (ECHO-SOL).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos J; Dharod, Ajay; Allison, Matthew A; Shah, Sanjiv J; Hurwitz, Barry; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Kitzman, Dalane; Gillam, Linda; Spevack, Daniel; Dadhania, Rupal; Langdon, Sarah; Kaplan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the prevalence and determinants of cardiac structure and function (systolic and diastolic) among the various Hispanic background groups in the United States is limited. The Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL) ancillary study recruited 1,824 participants through a stratified-sampling process representative of the population-based Hispanic Communities Health Study - Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) across four sites (Bronx, NY; Chicago, Ill; San Diego, Calif; Miami, Fla). The HCHS-SOL baseline cohort did not include an echo exam. ECHO-SOL added the echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function to an array of existing HCHS-SOL baseline clinical, psychosocial, and socioeconomic data and provides sufficient statistical power for comparisons among the Hispanic subgroups. Standard two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography protocol, including M-mode, spectral, color and tissue Doppler study was performed. The main objectives were to: 1) characterize cardiac structure and function and its determinants among Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups; and 2) determine the contributions of specific psychosocial factors (acculturation and familismo) to cardiac structure and function among Hispanics. We describe the design, methods and rationale of currently the largest and most comprehensive study of cardiac structure and function exclusively among US Hispanics. ECHO-SOL aims to enhance our understanding of Hispanic cardiovascular health as well as help untangle the relative importance of Hispanic subgroup heterogeneity and sociocultural factors on cardiac structure and function.

  9. The "BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and PHysical frailty in EldeRly pErsons" (BIOSPHERE) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Riccardo; Picca, Anna; Marini, Federico; Biancolillo, Alessandra; Cesari, Matteo; Pesce, Vito; Lezza, Angela Maria Serena; Bossola, Maurizio; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Bernabei, Roberto; Landi, Francesco; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-05-10

    Sarcopenia, the progressive and generalised loss of muscle mass and strength/function, is a major health issue in older adults given its high prevalence and burdensome clinical implications. Over the years, this condition has been endorsed as a marker for discriminating biological from chronological age. However, the absence of a unified operational definition has hampered its full appreciation by healthcare providers, researchers and policy-makers. In addition to this unsolved debate, the complexity of musculoskeletal ageing represents a major challenge to the identification of clinically meaningful biomarkers. Here, we illustrate the advantages of biomarker discovery procedures in muscle ageing based on multivariate methodologies as an alternative approach to traditional single-marker strategies. The rationale, design and methods of the "BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and PHysical frailty in EldeRly pErsons" (BIOSPHERE) study are described as an application of a multi-marker strategy for the development of biomarkers for the newly operationalised Physical Frailty & Sarcopenia condition. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rationale and Design of the Lung Cancer Screening Implementation. Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care Study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Leah S; Datta, Santanu; Melzer, Anne C; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Davis, James M; Tong, Betty C; Golden, Sara E; Slatore, Christopher G

    2017-10-01

    Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography has been demonstrated to reduce lung cancer-related mortality and is being widely implemented. Further research in this area is needed to assess the impact of screening on patient-centered outcomes. Here, we describe the design and rationale for a new study entitled Lung Cancer Screening Implementation: Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care. The protocol is composed of an interconnected series of studies evaluating patients and clinicians who are engaged in lung cancer screening in real-world settings. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate communication processes that are being used in routine care and to identify best practices that can be readily scaled up for implementation in multiple settings. We hypothesize that higher overall quality of patient-clinician communication processes will be associated with lower levels of distress and decisional conflict as patients decide whether or not to participate in lung cancer screening. This work is a critical step toward identifying modifiable mechanisms that are associated with high quality of care for the millions of patients who will consider lung cancer screening. Given the enormous potential benefits and burdens of lung cancer screening on patients, clinicians, and the healthcare system, it is important to identify and then scale up quality communication practices that positively influence patient-centered care.

  11. JAK2 inhibitor therapy in myeloproliferative disorders: rationale, preclinical studies and ongoing clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, A

    2008-01-01

    The recent identification of somatic mutations such as JAK2V617F that deregulate Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling has spurred development of orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitors that selectively target JAK2 kinase as an approach to pathogenesis-directed therapy of myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). In pre-clinical studies, these compounds inhibit JAK2V617F-mediated cell growth at nanomolar concentrations, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated in mouse models of JAK2V617F-induced disease. In addition, ex vivo growth of progenitor cells from MPD patients harboring JAK2V617F or MPLW515L/K mutations is also potently inhibited. JAK2 inhibitors currently in clinical trials can be grouped into those designed to primarily target JAK2 kinase (JAK2-selective) and those originally developed for non-MPD indications, but that nevertheless have significant JAK2-inhibitory activity (non-JAK2 selective). This article discusses the rationale for using JAK2 inhibitors for the treatment of MPD, as well as relevant aspects of clinical trial development for these patients. For instance, which group of MPD patients is appropriate for initial Phase I studies? Should JAK2V617F-negative MPD patients be included in the initial studies? What are the likely consequences of 'off-target' JAK3 and wild-type JAK2 inhibition? How should treatment responses be monitored?

  12. Rationale and Design of the Women and Inclusion in Academic Medicine Study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Emorcia V; Wake, Michael; Carapinha, René; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Wolf, Robert E; Norris, Keith; Reede, Joan Y

    2016-04-21

    Women of color (WOC) (African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaskan Native, and Asian American) faculty remain disproportionately underrepresented among medical school faculty and especially at senior ranks compared with White female faculty. The barriers or facilitators to the career advancement of WOC are poorly understood. The Women and Inclusion in Academic Medicine (WIAM) study was developed to characterize individual, institutional and sociocultural factors that influence the entry, progression and persistence, and advancement of women faculty in academic medical careers with a focus on WOC. Using a purposive sample of 13 academic medical institutions, we collected qualitative interview data from 21 WOC junior faculty and quantitative data from 3,127 (38.9% of 8,053 eligible women) respondents via an online survey. To gather institutional data, we used an online survey and conducted 23 key administrative informant interviews from the 13 institutions. Grounded theory methodology will be used to analyze qualitative data. Multivariable analysis including hierarchical linear modeling will be used to investigate outcomes, such as the inclusiveness of organizational gender climate and women faculty's intent to stay. We describe the design, methods, rationale and limitations of one of the largest and most comprehensive studies of women faculty in academic medicine with a focus on WOC. This study will enhance our understanding of challenges that face women, and, especially WOC, faculty in academic medicine and will provide solutions at both the individual and institutional levels.

  13. Weight and Veterans' Environments Study (WAVES) I and II: Rationale, Methods, and Cohort Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Powell, Lisa M; Wing, Coady; Matthews, Stephen A; Slater, Sandy; Gordon, Howard S; Berbaum, Michael; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2018-03-01

    To present the rationale, methods, and cohort characteristics for 2 complementary "big data" studies of residential environment contributions to body weight, metabolic risk, and weight management program participation and effectiveness. Retrospective cohort. Continental United States. A total of 3 261 115 veterans who received Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care in 2009 to 2014, including 169 910 weight management program participants and a propensity score-derived comparison group. The VA MOVE! weight management program, an evidence-based lifestyle intervention. Body mass index, metabolic risk measures, and MOVE! participation; residential environmental attributes (eg, food outlet availability and walkability); and MOVE! program characteristics. Descriptive statistics presented on cohort characteristics and environments where they live. Forty-four percent of men and 42.8% of women were obese, whereas 4.9% of men and 9.9% of women engaged in MOVE!. About half of the cohort had at least 1 supermarket within 1 mile of their home, whereas they averaged close to 4 convenience stores (3.6 for men, 3.9 for women) and 8 fast-food restaurants (7.9 for men, 8.2 for women). Forty-one percent of men and 38.6% of women did not have a park, and 35.5% of men and 31.3% of women did not have a commercial fitness facility within 1 mile. Drawing on a large nationwide cohort residing in diverse environments, these studies are poised to significantly inform policy and weight management program design.

  14. Better exercise adherence after treatment for cancer (BEAT Cancer) study: Rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Laura Q.; McAuley, Edward; Anton, Philip M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Vicari, Sandra; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Verhulst, Steven; Mocharnuk, Robert; Hoelzer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Most breast cancer survivors do not engage in regular physical activity. Our physical activity behavior change intervention for breast cancer survivors significantly improved physical activity and health outcomes post-intervention during a pilot, feasibility study. Testing in additional sites with a larger sample and longer follow-up is warranted to confirm program effectiveness short and longer term. Importantly, the pilot intervention resulted in changes in physical activity and social cognitive theory constructs, enhancing our potential for testing mechanisms mediating physical activity behavior change. Here, we report the rationale, design, and methods for a two-site, randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of the BEAT Cancer physical activity behavior change intervention to usual care on short and longer term physical activity adherence among breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims include examining social cognitive theory mechanisms of physical activity behavior change and health benefits of the intervention. Study recruitment goal is 256 breast cancer survivors with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I, II, or IIIA disease who have completed primary cancer treatment. Outcome measures are obtained at baseline, 3 months (i.e., immediately post-intervention), 6 months, and 12 months and include physical activity, psychosocial factors, fatigue, sleep quality, lower extremity joint dysfunction, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and waist-to-hip ratio. Confirming behavior change effectiveness, health effects, and underlying mechanisms of physical activity behavior change interventions will facilitate translation to community settings for improving the health and well-being of breast cancer survivors. PMID:21983625

  15. Posthumous Reproduction (PHR) in Israel: Policy Rationales Versus Lay People's Concerns, a Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Hashiloni-Dolev, Yael

    2015-12-01

    Israeli policy concerning PHR has been decided upon in an expertocratic manner, leaving the voice of the public unheard. Based on 26 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 Jewish-Israeli young couples, this preliminary study provides the first empirical data regarding lay attitudes toward PHR in Israel. Findings suggest major dissimilarities between the policy and lay people's wishes and rationales. While policy is built on the "presumed wish" assumption, supposing all men living in a loving relationship wish to have their partner carry their child post-mortem, this was empirically unsupported. However, the findings suggest that many interviewees were willing to defer to their surviving spouse's wishes to have their post-mortem child, sometimes even against their own wish, indicating a support for presumed consent. Respecting the wishes of the dead, a dominant argument in the bioethical discussion in Israel and beyond, was mainly irrelevant to informants, whereas interviewees considered the future child's welfare, a concern overlooked by Israeli policy. Likewise, while posthumous grandparenthood is on the rise in Israel, it clearly contradicts the wishes of the majority of this study's informants. Nonetheless, existing policy is not expected to raise any opposition, due to the extreme liberalism of the participants and their support of reproductive autonomy.

  16. Rationale, timeline, study design, and protocol overview of the therapeutic hypothermia after pediatric cardiac arrest trials.

    PubMed

    Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Meert, Kathleen L; Clark, Amy E; Holubkov, Richard; Browning, Brittan; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Dean, J Michael

    2013-09-01

    To describe the rationale, timeline, study design, and protocol overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Multicenter randomized controlled trials. Pediatric intensive care and cardiac ICUs in the United States and Canada. Children from 48 hours to 18 years old, who have return of circulation after cardiac arrest, who meet trial eligibility criteria, and whose guardians provide written consent. Therapeutic hypothermia or therapeutic normothermia. From concept inception in 2002 until trial initiation in 2009, 7 years were required to plan and operationalize the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Two National Institute of Child Health and Human Development clinical trial planning grants (R21 and R34) supported feasibility assessment and protocol development. Two clinical research networks, Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network, provided infrastructure resources. Two National Heart Lung Blood Institute U01 awards provided funding to conduct separate trials of in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A pilot vanguard phase that included half the clinical sites began on March 9, 2009, and this was followed by full trial funding through 2015. Over a decade will have been required to plan, design, operationalize, and conduct the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Details described in this report, such as participation of clinical research networks and clinical trial planning grants utilization, may be of utility for individuals who are planning investigator-initiated, federally supported clinical trials.

  17. Design, rationale and feasibility of a multidimensional experimental protocol to study early life stress.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, M Dillwyn; Bolton, Philip S; Callister, Robin; Skinner, Virginia; Hodgson, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    There is a rapidly accumulating body of evidence regarding the influential role of early life stress (ELS) upon medical and psychiatric conditions. While self-report instruments, with their intrinsic limitations of recall, remain the primary means of detecting ELS in humans, biological measures are generally limited to a single biological system. This paper describes the design, rationale and feasibility of a study to simultaneously measure neuroendocrine, immune and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to psychological and physiological stressors in relation to ELS. Five healthy university students were recruited by advertisement. Exclusion criteria included chronic medical conditions, psychotic disorders, needle phobia, inability to tolerate pain, and those using anti-inflammatory medications. They were clinically interviewed and physiological recordings made over a two-hour period pre, during and post two acute stressors: the cold pressor test and recalling a distressing memory. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Parental Bonding Index were utilised to measure ELS. Other psychological measures of mood and personality were also administered. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, skin conductance, skin blood flow and temporal plasma samples were successfully obtained before, during and after acute stress. Participants reported the extensive psychological and multisystem physiological data collection and stress provocations were tolerable. Most (4/5) participants indicated a willingness to return to repeat the protocol, indicating acceptability. Our protocol is viable and safe in young physically healthy adults and allows us to assess simultaneously neuroendocrine, immune and autonomic nervous system responses to stressors in persons assessed for ELS.

  18. Rationale, Timeline, Study Design, and Protocol Overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Trials

    PubMed Central

    Moler, Frank W.; Silverstein, Faye S.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Clark, Amy E.; Holubkov, Richard; Browning, Brittan; Slomine, Beth S.; Christensen, James R.; Dean, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the rationale, timeline, study design, and protocol overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Design Multicenter randomized controlled trials. Setting Pediatric intensive care and cardiac ICUs in the United States and Canada. Patients Children from 48 hours to 18 years old, who have return of circulation after cardiac arrest, who meet trial eligibility criteria, and whose guardians provide written consent. Interventions Therapeutic hypothermia or therapeutic normothermia. Measurements and Main Results From concept inception in 2002 until trial initiation in 2009, 7 years were required to plan and operationalize the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Two National Institute of Child Health and Human Development clinical trial planning grants (R21 and R34) supported feasibility assessment and protocol development. Two clinical research networks, Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network, provided infrastructure resources. Two National Heart Lung Blood Institute U01 awards provided funding to conduct separate trials of in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A pilot vanguard phase that included half the clinical sites began on March 9, 2009, and this was followed by full trial funding through 2015. Conclusions Over a decade will have been required to plan, design, operationalize, and conduct the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Details described in this report, such as participation of clinical research networks and clinical trial planning grants utilization, may be of utility for individuals who are planning investigator-initiated, federally supported clinical trials. PMID:23842585

  19. [Rationale, design and methodology of physical attributes identification of the fear of falling syndrome (FISTAC study)].

    PubMed

    Esbrí Víctor, Mariano; Huedo Rodenas, Isabel; López Utiel, Melisa; Martínez Reig, Marta; López Jiménez, Esther; Herizo Muñoz, María Ángeles; Sánchez Nievas, Ginés; Abizanda Soler, Pedro

    The aim of this study was to identify the physical determining factors of the Fear of Falling Syndrome (FoF) in older adults with a history of falls. An observational study was conducted on 183 subjects older than 64 years with a fall in the previous year, with data collected from the geriatrics outpatient clinic of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario from Albacete, Spain. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data, as well as comorbidity, drugs usually taken, functional status, physical function, frailty, cognitive and affective status were collected. Muscle mass was measured using bioimpedancy meter (BIA), and densitometry (DXA), strength with digital hand-held JAMAR dynamometer and with a Leg-press machine, muscle potency with a T-Force instrument, gait variability with the Gait-Rite instrument, and postural stability with the Neurocom Balance Master posturograph were also determined. An analysis was performed to determine if the FoF is associated with physical impairments adjusted for the study covariates. The study included 140 subjects with FoF, and 43 without it. The mean age was 78.4 years, and 147 were women. Posturography could be measured in 182 participants, DXA in 117, BIA in 165, and muscle potency in 146. FoF was associated with female sex, frailty, depressed mood, social risk, muscle strength and power, physical function, number of drugs used, and orthostatic hypotension in the overall sample. After adjusting for sex, only frailty, depressed mood, and number of drugs remained associated. Rationale, design, and methods of the FISTAC study are presented. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The Rhetoric of Issue Advertising: A Rationale, a Case Study, a Critical Perspective--And More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Supports the use of issue advertising. Argues that speech communication scholars can facilitate the responsible and effective use of issue ads. Reviews critics and proponents of issue advertising. Develops a rationale to guide the practice of issue advertising. Examines issue advertising in the current pro-nuclear campaign. (MS)

  1. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study behavior intervention component.

    PubMed

    Venditti, E M; Elliot, D L; Faith, M S; Firrell, L S; Giles, C M; Goldberg, L; Marcus, M D; Schneider, M; Solomon, S; Thompson, D; Yin, Z

    2009-08-01

    HEALTHY was a multi-center primary prevention trial designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Seven centers each recruited six middle schools that were randomized to either intervention or control. The HEALTHY intervention integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change and communications and promotion. The conceptual rationale as well as the design and development of the behavior intervention component are described. Pilot study data informed the development of the behavior intervention component. Principles of social learning and health-related behavior change were incorporated. One element of the behavior intervention component was a sequence of peer-led, teacher-facilitated learning activities known as FLASH (Fun Learning Activities for Student Health). Five FLASH modules were implemented over five semesters of the HEALTHY study, with the first module delivered in the second semester of the sixth grade and the last module in the second semester of the eighth grade. Each module contained sessions that were designed to be delivered on a weekly basis to foster self-awareness, knowledge, decision-making skills and peer involvement for health behavior change. FLASH behavioral practice incorporated individual and group self-monitoring challenges for eating and activity. Another element of the behavior intervention component was the family outreach strategy for extending changes in physical activity and healthy eating beyond the school day and for supporting the student's lifestyle change choices. Family outreach strategies included the delivery of newsletters and supplemental packages with materials to promote healthy behavior in the home environment during school summer and winter holiday breaks. In conclusion, the HEALTHY behavior intervention component, when integrated with total school food and physical education environmental changes enhanced by communications and promotional campaigns, is a feasible and

  2. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study behavior intervention component

    PubMed Central

    Venditti, EM; Elliot, DL; Faith, MS; Firrell, LS; Giles, CM; Goldberg, L; Marcus, MD; Schneider, M; Solomon, S; Thompson, D; Yin, Z

    2009-01-01

    HEALTHY was a multi-center primary prevention trial designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Seven centers each recruited six middle schools that were randomized to either intervention or control. The HEALTHY intervention integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change and communications and promotion. The conceptual rationale as well as the design and development of the behavior intervention component are described. Pilot study data informed the development of the behavior intervention component. Principles of social learning and health-related behavior change were incorporated. One element of the behavior intervention component was a sequence of peer-led, teacher-facilitated learning activities known as FLASH (Fun Learning Activities for Student Health). Five FLASH modules were implemented over five semesters of the HEALTHY study, with the first module delivered in the second semester of the sixth grade and the last module in the second semester of the eighth grade. Each module contained sessions that were designed to be delivered on a weekly basis to foster self-awareness, knowledge, decision-making skills and peer involvement for health behavior change. FLASH behavioral practice incorporated individual and group self-monitoring challenges for eating and activity. Another element of the behavior intervention component was the family outreach strategy for extending changes in physical activity and healthy eating beyond the school day and for supporting the student's lifestyle change choices. Family outreach strategies included the delivery of newsletters and supplemental packages with materials to promote healthy behavior in the home environment during school summer and winter holiday breaks. In conclusion, the HEALTHY behavior intervention component, when integrated with total school food and physical education environmental changes enhanced by communications and promotional campaigns, is a feasible and

  3. Study of Tomography Of Nephrolithiasis Evaluation (STONE): methodology, approach and rationale.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Victoria; Moghadassi, Michelle; Kriesel, Dana R; Cummings, Steve; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Urolithiasis (kidney stones) is a common reason for Emergency Department (ED) visits, accounting for nearly 1% of all visits in the United States. Computed tomography (CT) has become the most common imaging test for these patients but there are few comparative effectiveness data to support its use in comparison to ultrasound. This paper describes the rationale and methods of STONE (Study of Tomography Of Nephrolithiasis Evaluation), a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial comparing different imaging strategies for patients with suspected urolithiasis. STONE is a multi-center, non-blinded pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial of patients between ages 18 and 75 with suspected nephrolithiasis seen in an ED setting. Patients were randomized to one of three initial imaging examinations: point-of-care ultrasound, ultrasound performed by a radiologist or CT. Participants then received diagnosis and treatment per usual care. The primary aim is to compare the rate of severe SAEs (Serious Adverse Events) between the three arms. In addition, a broad range of secondary outcomes was assessed at baseline and regularly for six months post-baseline using phone, email and mail questionnaires. Excluding 17 patients who withdrew after randomization, a total of 2759 patients were randomized and completed a baseline questionnaire (n=908, 893 and 958 in the point-of-care ultrasound, radiology ultrasound and radiology CT arms, respectively). Follow-up is complete, and full or partial outcomes were assessed on over 90% of participants. The detailed methodology of STONE will provide a roadmap for comparative effectiveness studies of diagnostic imaging conducted in an ED setting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) is a component of the PLCO Trial. By collecting biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before the diagnosis of disease, PLCO EEMS adds substantial value to the trial, providing a resource for cancer research, focused, in particular, on cancer etiology and early markers. Etiologic studies investigate

  5. Improving metabolic parameters of antipsychotic child treatment (IMPACT) study: rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth with serious mental illness may experience improved psychiatric stability with second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication treatment, but unfortunately may also experience unhealthy weight gain adverse events. Research on weight loss strategies for youth who require ongoing antipsychotic treatment is quite limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and rationale of the Improving Metabolic Parameters in Antipsychotic Child Treatment (IMPACT) study, a federally funded, randomized trial comparing two pharmacologic strategies against a control condition to manage SGA-related weight gain. Methods The design and methodology considerations of the IMPACT trial are described and embedded in a description of health risks associated with antipsychotic-related weight gain and the limitations of currently available research. Results The IMPACT study is a 4-site, six month, randomized, open-label, clinical trial of overweight/obese youth ages 8–19 years with pediatric schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar-spectrum disorders, psychotic or non-psychotic major depressive disorder, or irritability associated with autistic disorder. Youth who have experienced clinically significant weight gain during antipsychotic treatment in the past 3 years are randomized to either (1) switch antipsychotic plus healthy lifestyle education (HLE); (2) add metformin plus HLE; or (3) HLE with no medication change. The primary aim is to compare weight change (body mass index z-scores) for each pharmacologic intervention with the control condition. Key secondary assessments include percentage body fat, insulin resistance, lipid profile, psychiatric symptom stability (monitored independently by the pharmacotherapist and a blinded evaluator), and all-cause and specific cause discontinuation. This study is ongoing, and the targeted sample size is 132 youth. Conclusion Antipsychotic-related weight gain is an important public health issue for youth requiring

  6. Prospective study of one million deaths in India: rationale, design, and validation results.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prabhat; Gajalakshmi, Vendhan; Gupta, Prakash C; Kumar, Rajesh; Mony, Prem; Dhingra, Neeraj; Peto, Richard

    2006-02-01

    Over 75% of the annual estimated 9.5 million deaths in India occur in the home, and the large majority of these do not have a certified cause. India and other developing countries urgently need reliable quantification of the causes of death. They also need better epidemiological evidence about the relevance of physical (such as blood pressure and obesity), behavioral (such as smoking, alcohol, HIV-1 risk taking, and immunization history), and biological (such as blood lipids and gene polymorphisms) measurements to the development of disease in individuals or disease rates in populations. We report here on the rationale, design, and implementation of the world's largest prospective study of the causes and correlates of mortality. We will monitor nearly 14 million people in 2.4 million nationally representative Indian households (6.3 million people in 1.1 million households in the 1998-2003 sample frame and 7.6 million people in 1.3 million households in the 2004-2014 sample frame) for vital status and, if dead, the causes of death through a well-validated verbal autopsy (VA) instrument. About 300,000 deaths from 1998-2003 and some 700,000 deaths from 2004-2014 are expected; of these about 850,000 will be coded by two physicians to provide causes of death by gender, age, socioeconomic status, and geographical region. Pilot studies will evaluate the addition of physical and biological measurements, specifically dried blood spots. Preliminary results from over 35,000 deaths suggest that VA can ascertain the leading causes of death, reduce the misclassification of causes, and derive the probable underlying cause of death when it has not been reported. VA yields broad classification of the underlying causes in about 90% of deaths before age 70. In old age, however, the proportion of classifiable deaths is lower. By tracking underlying demographic denominators, the study permits quantification of absolute mortality rates. Household case-control, proportional mortality

  7. The Strathclyde Evaluation of Children's Active Travel (SE-CAT): study rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    McMinn, David; Rowe, David A; Murtagh, Shemane; Nelson, Norah M

    2011-12-30

    The school commute is a prime opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, active commuting has decreased over the past 40 years. Strategies that increase walking to school are therefore needed. Travelling Green (TG) is a school-based active travel resource aimed at increasing children's walking to school. The resource consists of a curriculum-based program of lessons and goal setting activities. A previous study found that children who received the TG intervention increased self-reported distance travelled to school by active modes and reduced the distance travelled by inactive modes. This study was limited by self-reported outcome measures, a small sample, and no follow-up measures. A more robust evaluation of TG is required to address these limitations. This paper describes the rationale and methods for such an evaluation of Travelling Green, and describes the piloting of various active commuting measures in primary school children. Measures of active commuting were piloted in a sample of 26 children (aged 8-9 years) over one school week. These measures were subsequently used in an 18-month quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of TG on commuting behaviour. Participants were 166 children (60% male) aged 8-9 years from 5 primary schools. Two schools (n = 79 children) received TG in September/October 2009. Three schools (n = 87 children) acted as a comparison group, and subsequently received TG at a later date. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Personal and environmental determinants of active commuting were measured via parent and child questionnaires, as were factors related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the construct of habit. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention and at 5 and 12 months follow-up. The piloted protocol was practical and feasible and piloted measures were reliable and valid. All study data, including 5 and 12 month follow-up, have been collected and processed

  8. The Strathclyde Evaluation of Children's Active Travel (SE-CAT): study rationale and methods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The school commute is a prime opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, active commuting has decreased over the past 40 years. Strategies that increase walking to school are therefore needed. Travelling Green (TG) is a school-based active travel resource aimed at increasing children's walking to school. The resource consists of a curriculum-based program of lessons and goal setting activities. A previous study found that children who received the TG intervention increased self-reported distance travelled to school by active modes and reduced the distance travelled by inactive modes. This study was limited by self-reported outcome measures, a small sample, and no follow-up measures. A more robust evaluation of TG is required to address these limitations. This paper describes the rationale and methods for such an evaluation of Travelling Green, and describes the piloting of various active commuting measures in primary school children. Methods/Design Measures of active commuting were piloted in a sample of 26 children (aged 8-9 years) over one school week. These measures were subsequently used in an 18-month quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of TG on commuting behaviour. Participants were 166 children (60% male) aged 8-9 years from 5 primary schools. Two schools (n = 79 children) received TG in September/October 2009. Three schools (n = 87 children) acted as a comparison group, and subsequently received TG at a later date. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Personal and environmental determinants of active commuting were measured via parent and child questionnaires, as were factors related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the construct of habit. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention and at 5 and 12 months follow-up. Discussion The piloted protocol was practical and feasible and piloted measures were reliable and valid. All study data, including 5 and 12 month follow

  9. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold

  10. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  11. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study: Rationale, Findings, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hamman, Richard F.; Dabelea, Dana; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Lawrence, Jean M.; Linder, Barbara; Marcovina, Santica M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Pihoker, Catherine; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Saydah, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study was initiated in 2000, with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and support from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, to address major knowledge gaps in the understanding of childhood diabetes. SEARCH is being conducted at five sites across the U.S. and represents the largest, most diverse study of diabetes among U.S. youth. An active registry of youth diagnosed with diabetes at age <20 years allows the assessment of prevalence (in 2001 and 2009), annual incidence (since 2002), and trends by age, race/ethnicity, sex, and diabetes type. Prevalence increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in most age, sex, and race/ethnic groups. SEARCH has also established a longitudinal cohort to assess the natural history and risk factors for acute and chronic diabetes-related complications as well as the quality of care and quality of life of persons with diabetes from diagnosis into young adulthood. Many youth with diabetes, particularly those from low-resourced racial/ethnic minority populations, are not meeting recommended guidelines for diabetes care. Markers of micro- and macrovascular complications are evident in youth with either diabetes type, highlighting the seriousness of diabetes in this contemporary cohort. This review summarizes the study methods, describes key registry and cohort findings and their clinical and public health implications, and discusses future directions. PMID:25414389

  12. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese. PMID:22343323

  13. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) study: rationale, design, and description of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese.

  14. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Quantitative Coronary Plaque Progression Study: rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Rine; Post, Wendy S; Osawa, Kazuhiro; Jayawardena, Eranthi; Kim, Michael; Sheidaee, Nasim; Nezarat, Negin; Rahmani, Sina; Kim, Nicholas; Hathiramani, Nicolai; Susarla, Shriraj; Palella, Frank; Witt, Mallory; Blaha, Michael J; Brown, Todd T; Kingsley, Lawrence; Haberlen, Sabina A; Dailing, Christopher; Budoff, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    The association of HIV with coronary atherosclerosis has been established; however, the progression of coronary atherosclerosis over time among participants with HIV is not well known. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Quantitative Coronary Plaque Progression Study is a large prospective multicenter study quantifying progression of coronary plaque assessed by serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). HIV-infected and uninfected men who were enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Cardiovascular Substudy were eligible to complete a follow-up contrast coronary CTA 3-6 years after baseline. We measured coronary plaque volume and characteristics (calcified and noncalcified plaque including fibrous, fibrous-fatty, and low attenuation) and vulnerable plaque among HIV-infected and uninfected men using semiautomated plaque software to investigate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis over time. We describe a novel, large prospective multicenter study investigating incidence, transition of characteristics, and progression in coronary atherosclerosis quantitatively assessed by serial coronary CTAs among HIV-infected and uninfected men.

  15. ENabling Reduction of Low-grade Inflammation in SEniors Pilot Study: Concept, Rationale, and Design.

    PubMed

    Manini, Todd M; Anton, Stephen D; Beavers, Daniel P; Cauley, Jane A; Espeland, Mark A; Fielding, Roger A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Lewis, Kristina H; Liu, Christine; McDermott, Mary M; Miller, Michael E; Tracy, Russell P; Walston, Jeremy D; Radziszewska, Barbara; Lu, Jane; Stowe, Cindy; Wu, Samuel; Newman, Anne B; Ambrosius, Walter T; Pahor, Marco

    2017-09-01

    To test two interventions to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels, an indicator of low-grade chronic inflammation and an independent risk factor for impaired mobility and slow walking speed in older adults. The ENabling Reduction of low-Grade Inflammation in SEniors (ENRGISE) Pilot Study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial of two interventions to reduce IL-6 levels. Five university-based research centers. Target enrollment was 300 men and women aged 70 and older with an average plasma IL-6 level between 2.5 and 30 pg/mL measured twice at least 1 week apart. Participants had low to moderate physical function, defined as self-reported difficulty walking one-quarter of a mile or climbing a flight of stairs and usual walk speed of less than 1 m/s on a 4-m usual-pace walk. Participants were randomized to losartan, omega-3 fish oil (ω-3), combined losartan and ω-3, or placebo. Randomization was stratified depending on eligibility for each group. A titration schedule was implemented to reach a dose that was safe and effective for IL-6 reduction. Maximal doses were 100 mg/d for losartan and 2.8 g/d for ω-3. IL-6, walking speed over 400 m, physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery), other inflammatory markers, safety, tolerability, frailty domains, and maximal leg strength were measured. Results from the ENRGISE Pilot Study will provide recruitment yields, feasibility, medication tolerance and adherence, and preliminary data to help justify a sample size for a more definitive randomized trial. The ENRGISE Pilot Study will inform a larger subsequent trial that is expected to have important clinical and public health implications for the growing population of older adults with low-grade chronic inflammation and mobility limitations. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study: rationale, findings, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hamman, Richard F; Bell, Ronny A; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Dolan, Lawrence; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Lawrence, Jean M; Linder, Barbara; Marcovina, Santica M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Pihoker, Catherine; Rodriguez, Beatriz L; Saydah, Sharon

    2014-12-01

    The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study was initiated in 2000, with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and support from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, to address major knowledge gaps in the understanding of childhood diabetes. SEARCH is being conducted at five sites across the U.S. and represents the largest, most diverse study of diabetes among U.S. youth. An active registry of youth diagnosed with diabetes at age <20 years allows the assessment of prevalence (in 2001 and 2009), annual incidence (since 2002), and trends by age, race/ethnicity, sex, and diabetes type. Prevalence increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in most age, sex, and race/ethnic groups. SEARCH has also established a longitudinal cohort to assess the natural history and risk factors for acute and chronic diabetes-related complications as well as the quality of care and quality of life of persons with diabetes from diagnosis into young adulthood. Many youth with diabetes, particularly those from low-resourced racial/ethnic minority populations, are not meeting recommended guidelines for diabetes care. Markers of micro- and macrovascular complications are evident in youth with either diabetes type, highlighting the seriousness of diabetes in this contemporary cohort. This review summarizes the study methods, describes key registry and cohort findings and their clinical and public health implications, and discusses future directions. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. The Lipid-Rich Plaque Study of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: Study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Waksman, Ron; Torguson, Rebecca; Spad, Mia-Ashley; Garcia-Garcia, Hector; Ware, James; Wang, Rui; Madden, Sean; Shah, Priti; Muller, James

    2017-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that the outcome post-PCI could be improved by the detection and subsequent treatment of vulnerable patients and lipid-rich vulnerable coronary plaques (LRP). A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) catheter capable of detecting LRP is being evaluated in The Lipid-Rich Plaque Study. The LRP Study is an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study conducted in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent cardiac catheterization with possible ad hoc PCI for an index event. Patient level and plaque level events were detected by follow-up in the subsequent 2 years. Enrollment began in February 2014 and was completed in March 2016; a total of 1,562 patients were enrolled. Adjudication of new coronary event occurrence and de novo culprit lesion location during the 2-year follow-up is performed by an independent clinical end-points committee (CEC) blinded to NIRS-IVUS findings. The first analysis of the results will be performed when at least 20 de novo events have occurred for which follow-up angiographic data and baseline NIRS-IVUS measurements are available. It is expected that results of the study will be announced in 2018. The LRP Study will test the hypotheses that NIRS-IVUS imaging to detect LRP in patients can identify vulnerable patients and vulnerable plaques. Identification of vulnerable patients will assist future studies of novel systemic therapies; identification of localized vulnerable plaques would enhance future studies of possible preventive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Claudication: Exercise Vs. Endoluminal Revascularization (CLEVER) study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy P; Hirsch, Alan T; Ricotta, John J; Cutlip, Donald E; Mohler, Emile; Regensteiner, Judith G; Comerota, Anthony J; Cohen, David J

    2008-06-01

    Intermittent claudication is the primary symptom of peripheral arterial disease, affecting between 1 and 3 million Americans. Symptomatic improvement can be achieved by endovascular revascularization, but such procedures are invasive, expensive, and may be associated with procedural adverse events. Medical treatment options, including claudication medications and supervised exercise training, are also known to be effective, albeit also with associated limitations. The CLEVER (Claudication: Exercise Vs. Endoluminal Revascularization) study, funded by the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the relative efficacy, safety, and health economic impact of four treatment strategies for people with aortoiliac peripheral arterial disease and claudication. The treatment arms are: (1) optimal medical care (claudication pharmacotherapy); (2) primary stent placement; (3) supervised exercise rehabilitation; and (4) combined stenting with supervised exercise rehabilitation. The CLEVER study is a 5-year randomized, controlled clinical trial to be conducted at approximately 25 centers in the United States that will monitor 252 patients and their responses to treatment during an 18-month follow-up period. The primary end point is change in maximum walking duration on a graded treadmill test. Secondary end points include the change at 18 months in maximum walking duration from baseline, comparisons of free-living daily activity levels assessed by pedometer, health-related quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Other analyses include the effect of these treatment strategies on anthropomorphic and physiologic variables, including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse pressure, and resting pulse as well as biochemical markers of cardiovascular health, including fasting lipids, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin A 1c values.

  19. Rationale and study design of the Japan environment and children’s study (JECS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is global concern over significant threats from a wide variety of environmental hazards to which children face. Large-scale and long-term birth cohort studies are needed for better environmental management based on sound science. The primary objective of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), a nation-wide birth cohort study that started its recruitment in January 2011, is to elucidate environmental factors that affect children’s health and development. Methods/Design Approximately 100,000 expecting mothers who live in designated study areas will be recruited over a 3-year period from January 2011. Participating children will be followed until they reach 13 years of age. Exposure to environmental factors will be assessed by chemical analyses of bio-specimens (blood, cord blood, urine, breast milk, and hair), household environment measurements, and computational simulations using monitoring data (e.g. ambient air quality monitoring) as well as questionnaires. JECS’ priority outcomes include reproduction/pregnancy complications, congenital anomalies, neuropsychiatric disorders, immune system disorders, and metabolic/endocrine system disorders. Genetic factors, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors will also be examined as covariates and potential confounders. To maximize representativeness, we adopted provider-mediated community-based recruitment. Discussion Through JECS, chemical substances to which children are exposed during the fetal stage or early childhood will be identified. The JECS results will be translated to better risk assessment and management to provide healthy environment for next generations. PMID:24410977

  20. The Medical and Endovascular Treatment of Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis (METRAS) study: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G P; Seccia, T M; Miotto, D; Zucchetta, P; Cecchin, D; Calò, L; Puato, M; Motta, R; Caielli, P; Vincenzi, M; Ramondo, G; Taddei, S; Ferri, C; Letizia, C; Borghi, C; Morganti, A; Pessina, A C

    2012-08-01

    It is unclear whether revascularization of renal artery stenosis (RAS) by means of percutaneous renal angioplasty and stenting (PTRAS) is advantageous over optimal medical therapy. Hence, we designed a randomized clinical trial based on an optimized patient selection strategy and hard experimental endpoints. Primary objective of this study is to determine whether PTRAS is superior or equivalent to optimal medical treatment for preserving glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the ischemic kidney as assessed by 99mTcDTPA sequential renal scintiscan. Secondary objectives of this study are to establish whether the two treatments are equivalent in lowering blood pressure, preserving overall renal function and regressing target organ damage, preventing cardiovascular events and improving quality of life. The study is designed as a prospective multicentre randomized, un-blinded two-arm study. Eligible patients will have clinical and angio-CT evidence of RAS. Inclusion criteria is RAS affecting the main renal artery or its major branches either >70% or, if <70, with post-stenotic dilatation. Renal function will be assessed with 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy. Patients will be randomized to either arms considering both resistance index value in the ischemic kidney and the presence of unilateral/bilateral stenosis. Primary experimental endpoint will be the GFR of the ischemic kidney, assessed as quantitative variable by 99TcDTPA, and the loss of ischemic kidney defined as a categorical variable.

  1. Rationale and study design of the Japan environment and children's study (JECS).

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Toda, Eisaku; Tsukamoto, Naoya; Hasegawa, Manabu; Yamagata, Zentaro; Kayama, Fujio; Kishi, Reiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa; Sago, Haruhiko; Okuyama, Makiko; Ogata, Tsutomu; Yokoya, Susumu; Koresawa, Yuji; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Nakayama, Shoji; Michikawa, Takehiro; Takeuchi, Ayano; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-10

    There is global concern over significant threats from a wide variety of environmental hazards to which children face. Large-scale and long-term birth cohort studies are needed for better environmental management based on sound science. The primary objective of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), a nation-wide birth cohort study that started its recruitment in January 2011, is to elucidate environmental factors that affect children's health and development. Approximately 100,000 expecting mothers who live in designated study areas will be recruited over a 3-year period from January 2011. Participating children will be followed until they reach 13 years of age. Exposure to environmental factors will be assessed by chemical analyses of bio-specimens (blood, cord blood, urine, breast milk, and hair), household environment measurements, and computational simulations using monitoring data (e.g. ambient air quality monitoring) as well as questionnaires. JECS' priority outcomes include reproduction/pregnancy complications, congenital anomalies, neuropsychiatric disorders, immune system disorders, and metabolic/endocrine system disorders. Genetic factors, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors will also be examined as covariates and potential confounders. To maximize representativeness, we adopted provider-mediated community-based recruitment. Through JECS, chemical substances to which children are exposed during the fetal stage or early childhood will be identified. The JECS results will be translated to better risk assessment and management to provide healthy environment for next generations.

  2. Learning from failure - rationale and design for a study about discontinuation of randomized trials (DISCO study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may be discontinued because of apparent harm, benefit, or futility. Other RCTs are discontinued early because of insufficient recruitment. Trial discontinuation has ethical implications, because participants consent on the premise of contributing to new medical knowledge, Research Ethics Committees (RECs) spend considerable effort reviewing study protocols, and limited resources for conducting research are wasted. Currently, little is known regarding the frequency and characteristics of discontinued RCTs. Methods/Design Our aims are, first, to determine the prevalence of RCT discontinuation for specific reasons; second, to determine whether the risk of RCT discontinuation for specific reasons differs between investigator- and industry-initiated RCTs; third, to identify risk factors for RCT discontinuation due to insufficient recruitment; fourth, to determine at what stage RCTs are discontinued; and fifth, to examine the publication history of discontinued RCTs. We are currently assembling a multicenter cohort of RCTs based on protocols approved between 2000 and 2002/3 by 6 RECs in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. We are extracting data on RCT characteristics and planned recruitment for all included protocols. Completion and publication status is determined using information from correspondence between investigators and RECs, publications identified through literature searches, or by contacting the investigators. We will use multivariable regression models to identify risk factors for trial discontinuation due to insufficient recruitment. We aim to include over 1000 RCTs of which an anticipated 150 will have been discontinued due to insufficient recruitment. Discussion Our study will provide insights into the prevalence and characteristics of RCTs that were discontinued. Effective recruitment strategies and the anticipation of problems are key issues in the planning and evaluation of trials by investigators, Clinical

  3. CORONARY DIET INTERVENTION WITH OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION STUDY (THE CORDIOPREV STUDY): RATIONALE, METHODS, AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I.; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years, in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009–12) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high BMI (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity), with a median of LDL-cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL, and 20.3% patients < 70 mg/dL). 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean Diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  4. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    PubMed Central

    FRIEDMANN, PETER D.; KATZ, ELIZABETH C.; RHODES, ANNE G.; TAXMAN, FAYE S.; O'CONNELL, DANIEL J.; FRISMAN, LINDA K.; BURDON, WILLIAM M.; FLETCHER, BENNETT W.; LITT, MARK D.; CLARKE, JENNIFER; MARTIN, STEVEN S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and deliver contingent reinforcement of behaviors consistent with treatment objectives. The Step'n Out study will randomize 450 drug-involved parolees to collaborative behavioral management or usual parole. Follow-up at 3-and 9-months will assess primary outcomes of rearrest, crime and drug use. If collaborative behavioral management is effective, its wider adoption could improve the outcomes of community reentry of drug-involved ex-offenders. PMID:19809591

  5. A study of autoimmune markers in hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Handa, R; Acharya, S K; Wali, J P; Dinda, A K; Aggarwal, P

    2001-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several autoimmune markers. Despite HCV being common in India, no information on this aspect is available. This study was undertaken to ascertain the frequency and clinical significance of autoimmune markers like rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA), anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), anti smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), anti liver kidney microsomal 1 antibodies (anti LKM1), anti gastric parietal cell antibodies (anti GPCA), anti mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), anti cardiolipin antibodies (ACL) and cryoglobulins in HCV infection and to determine the effect of treatment on these markers. Twenty five patients with chronic hepatitis C and 25 healthy controls were studied. Cryoglobulins were detected by cryoprecipitation, RF by latex agglutination, anti dsDNA and ACL by ELISA while indirect immunofluorescence was used to detect all other autoantibodies. Eighteen patients (72%) demonstrated autoimmune markers. RF, cryoglobulins and anti LKM1 antibodies were the most frequently detected markers (in 32% patients each). ASMA, perinuclear ANCA (pANCA), ANA and anti GPCA were seen in 24, 20, 12 and 4 per cent patients respectively. None of the patients exhibited ACL, AMA or antibodies to dsDNA. No antibodies were detected in healthy controls. Sixty per cent of the patients had rheumatological symptoms. Of the seven patients followed up after treatment with alpha interferon, only two exhibited persistence of RF, while symptoms and other markers disappeared. Rheumatological symptoms and autoimmune markers are common in HCV infection and are usually overlooked. Patients with unexplained joint pains and/or palpable purpura should be screened for HCV. Further studies are needed to delineate fully the link between infection and autoimmunity.

  6. Studying the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism: rationale, methodology, and current research with psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2013-03-01

    Recent developments in the study of classic hallucinogens, combined with a re-appraisal of the older literature, have led to a renewal of interest in possible therapeutic applications for these drugs, notably their application in the treatment of addictions. This article will first provide a brief review of the research literature providing direct and indirect support for the possible therapeutic effects of classic hallucinogens such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions. Having provided a rationale for clinical investigation in this area, we discuss design issues in clinical trials using classic hallucinogens, some of which are unique to this class of drug. We then discuss the current status of this field of research and design considerations in future randomized trials.

  7. Collection of real-world data on nivolumab's effectiveness in renal cell carcinoma: rationale for an observational study.

    PubMed

    Bedke, Jens; Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Grünwald, Viktor

    2018-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents the seventh (men) respectively tenth (women) most frequent cancer in western countries. After one or more lines of VEGF-targeted therapy, immunotherapy with nivolumab is strongly recommended in patients with metastatic RCC. Nivolumab is the first, and so far, only approved PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor to demonstrate a gain in overall survival in RCC. We describe herein design and rationale of trial CA209653 ('NIS NORA'), a prospective, noninterventional cohort study investigating the effectiveness of nivolumab. This systematic collection of real-world effectiveness data will recruit 323 patients with advanced RCC to provide a precise estimate for overall survival over a 5-year follow-up period (Trial registration: NCT02940639).

  8. Does the addition of visceral manipulation improve outcomes for patients with low back pain? Rationale and study protocol.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, John; Hancock, Mark; Ferreira, Paulo

    2013-07-01

    There has been no randomised controlled trial conducted to investigate the effectiveness of visceral manipulation (VM) for the treatment of low back pain (LBP). The primary aim of this study would be to investigate whether the addition of VM, to a standard physiotherapy treatment regimen, improves pain 6 weeks post treatment commencement in people with LBP. Secondary aims would be to examine the effect of VM on disability and functional outcomes at 2, 6 and 52 weeks post-treatment commencement and pain at 2 and 52 weeks. This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial investigating the addition of VM to a standard physiotherapy treatment algorithm which includes manual therapy, specific exercise and functional exercise prescription. Analysis of data would be carried out by a statistician blinded to group allocation and by intention-to-treat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EvolMarkers: a database for mining exon and intron markers for evolution, ecology and conservation studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenhong; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2012-09-01

    Recent innovations in next-generation sequencing have lowered the cost of genome projects. Nevertheless, sequencing entire genomes for all representatives in a study remains expensive and unnecessary for most studies in ecology, evolution and conservation. It is still more cost-effective and efficient to target and sequence single-copy nuclear gene markers for such studies. Many tools have been developed for identifying nuclear markers, but most of these have focused on particular taxonomic groups. We have built a searchable database, EvolMarkers, for developing single-copy coding sequence (CDS) and exon-primed-intron-crossing (EPIC) markers that is designed to work across a broad range of phylogenetic divergences. The database is made up of single-copy CDS derived from BLAST searches of a variety of metazoan genomes. Users can search the database for different types of markers (CDS or EPIC) that are common to different sets of input species with different divergence characteristics. EvolMarkers can be applied to any taxonomic group for which genome data are available for two or more species. We included 82 genomes in the first version of EvolMarkers and have found the methods to be effective across Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropod, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata and plants. We demonstrate the effectiveness of searching for CDS markers within annelids and show how to find potentially useful intronic markers within the lizard Anolis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Can Markers Detect Contract Cheating? Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Contract cheating is the purchasing of custom-made university assignments with the intention of submitting them. Websites providing contract cheating services often claim this form of cheating is undetectable, and no published research has examined this claim. This paper documents a pilot study where markers were paid to mark a mixture of real…

  11. Long-term follow-up of HIV seroconverters in microbicide trials - rationale, study design, and challenges in MTN-015.

    PubMed

    Riddler, Sharon A; Husnik, Marla; Gorbach, Pamina M; Levy, Lisa; Parikh, Urvi; Livant, Edward; Pather, Arendevi; Makanani, Bonus; Muhlanga, Felix; Kasaro, Margaret; Martinson, Francis; Elharrar, Vanessa; Balkus, Jennifer E

    2016-09-01

    As the effect of biomedical prevention interventions on the natural history of HIV-1 infection in participants who seroconvert is unknown, the Microbicide Trials Network (MTN) established a longitudinal study (MTN-015) to monitor virologic, immunological, and clinical outcomes, as well as behavioral changes among women who become HIV-infected during MTN trials. We describe the rationale, study design, implementation, and enrollment of the initial group of participants in the MTN seroconverter cohort. Initiated in 2008, MTN-015 is an ongoing observational cohort study enrolling participants who acquire HIV-1 infection during effectiveness studies of candidate microbicides. Eligible participants from recently completed and ongoing MTN trials are enrolled after seroconversion and return for regular follow-up visits with clinical and behavioral data collection. Biologic samples including blood and genital fluids are stored for future testing. MTN-015 was implemented initially at six African sites and enrolled 100/139 (72%) of eligible women who seroconverted in HIV Prevention Trials Network protocol 035 (HPTN 035, conducted by the MTN). The median time from seroconversion in HPTN 035 to enrollment in MTN-015 was 18 months. Retention was good with >70% of visits completed. Implementation challenges included regulatory reviews, translation, and testing of questionnaires, and site readiness. Enrollment of HIV-seroconverters into a longitudinal observational follow-up study is feasible and acceptable to participants. Data and samples collected in this protocol will be used to assess safety of investigational HIV microbicides and answer other important public health questions for HIV infected women.

  12. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous articles in this supplement described rationale for and development of the pause marker (PM), a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and studies supporting its validity and reliability. The present article assesses the theoretical coherence of the PM with speech processing deficits in CAS. Method: PM and other…

  13. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dose Timing of D-cycloserine to Augment Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety: Study Design and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joseph K.; Otto, Michael W.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Pollack, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of d-cycloserine (DCS) as a cognitive enhancer to augment exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) represents a promising new translational research direction with the goal to accelerate and optimize treatment response for anxiety disorders. Some studies suggest that DCS may not only augment extinction learning but could also facilitate fear memory reconsolidation. Therefore, the effect of DCS may depend on fear levels reported at the end of exposure sessions. This paper presents the rationale and design for an ongoing randomized controlled trial examining the relative efficacy of tailoring DCS administration based on exposure success (i.e. end fear levels) during a 5-session group CBT protocol for social anxiety disorder (n = 156). Specifically, tailored post-session DCS administration will be compared against untailored post-session DCS, untailored pre-session DCS, and pill placebo in terms of reduction in social anxiety symptoms and responder status. In addition, a subset of participants (n = 96) will undergo a fear extinction retention experiment prior to the clinical trial in which they will be randomly assigned to receive either DCS or placebo prior to extinguishing a conditioned fear. The results from this experimental paradigm will clarify the mechanism of the effects of DCS on exposure procedures. This study aims to serve as the first step toward developing an algorithm for the personalized use of DCS during CBT for social anxiety disorder, with the ultimate goal of optimizing treatment outcome for anxiety disorders. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02066792 PMID:26111923

  15. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K., E-mail: rkwok@rti.org

    2007-08-01

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, theremore » is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.« less

  16. Dose timing of D-cycloserine to augment cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety: Study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Carpenter, Joseph K; Otto, Michael W; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J; Pollack, Mark H

    2015-07-01

    The use of D-cycloserine (DCS) as a cognitive enhancer to augment exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) represents a promising new translational research direction with the goal to accelerate and optimize treatment response for anxiety disorders. Some studies suggest that DCS may not only augment extinction learning but could also facilitate fear memory reconsolidation. Therefore, the effect of DCS may depend on fear levels reported at the end of exposure sessions. This paper presents the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial examining the relative efficacy of tailoring DCS administration based on exposure success (i.e. end fear levels) during a 5-session group CBT protocol for social anxiety disorder (n = 156). Specifically, tailored post-session DCS administration will be compared against untailored post-session DCS, untailored pre-session DCS, and pill placebo in terms of reduction in social anxiety symptoms and responder status. In addition, a subset of participants (n = 96) will undergo a fear extinction retention experiment prior to the clinical trial in which they will be randomly assigned to receive either DCS or placebo prior to extinguishing a conditioned fear. The results from this experimental paradigm will clarify the mechanism of the effects of DCS on exposure procedures. This study aims to serve as the first step toward developing an algorithm for the personalized use of DCS during CBT for social anxiety disorder, with the ultimate goal of optimizing treatment outcome for anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Education about Aging: A Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reviews studies on children's and adolescents' attitudes about aging. Analyzes media content such as children's literature, textbooks, and public television programs to determine how older persons are portrayed. Provides a rationale for systematic education about aging in the public schools. (Author)

  18. Skirting around Critical Feminist Rationales for Teaching Women in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeichel, Mardi

    2015-01-01

    Feminist practices can provide firm theoretical grounding for the kind of social studies that scholars promote, especially in relation to efforts to include women in the curriculum. However, in P-12 social studies education, neither women nor feminism receive much attention. The study described in this article was a discourse analysis of 16…

  19. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  20. Rationale and design for the Predictors of Arrhythmic and Cardiovascular Risk in End Stage Renal Disease (PACE) study.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Rulan S; Meoni, Lucy A; Jaar, Bernard G; Sozio, Stephen M; Shafi, Tariq; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Lima, Joao A; Tereshchenko, Larisa G; Estrella, Michelle M; Kao, W H Linda

    2015-04-24

    Sudden cardiac death occurs commonly in the end-stage renal disease population receiving dialysis, with 25% dying of sudden cardiac death over 5 years. Despite this high risk, surprisingly few prospective studies have studied clinical- and dialysis-related risk factors for sudden cardiac death and arrhythmic precursors of sudden cardiac death in end-stage renal disease. We present a brief summary of the risk factors for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in persons with end-stage renal disease as the rationale for the Predictors of Arrhythmic and Cardiovascular Risk in End Stage Renal Disease (PACE) study, a prospective cohort study of patients recently initiated on chronic hemodialysis, with the overall goal to understand arrhythmic and sudden cardiac death risk. Participants were screened for eligibility and excluded if they already had a pacemaker or an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. We describe the study aims, design, and data collection of 574 incident hemodialysis participants from the Baltimore region in Maryland, U.S.A.. Participants were recruited from 27 hemodialysis units and underwent detailed clinical, dialysis and cardiovascular evaluation at baseline and follow-up. Cardiovascular phenotyping was conducted on nondialysis days with signal averaged electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, pulse wave velocity, ankle, brachial index, and cardiac computed tomography and angiography conducted at baseline. Participants were followed annually with study visits including electrocardiogram, pulse wave velocity, and ankle brachial index up to 4 years. A biorepository of serum, plasma, DNA, RNA, and nails were collected to study genetic and serologic factors associated with disease. Studies of modifiable risk factors for sudden cardiac death will help set the stage for clinical trials to test therapies to prevent sudden cardiac death in this high-risk population.

  1. Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

  2. Appropriateness of tumor marker request: a case of study

    PubMed Central

    Trevisiol, Chiara; Fabricio, Aline S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Appropriateness is crucial to provide efficient and high-quality health services at affordable costs. Laboratory medicine is a sector of special interest for the investigation of inappropriateness, due to the high rate of technological innovation and its pivotal role in many diseases and clinical settings. Some subjective aspects related to either the patient or physician seem to have a major role on inappropriateness rates. Given the psychological impact of cancer on both patients and physicians, tumor markers represent a case of study for appropriateness. The assessment of inappropriateness of laboratory tests has been focused mainly on ordering patterns. Appropriateness can barely be appraised by matching the requested test with the clinical problem because clinical information on the test requisition form is usually inadequate. Monitoring inappropriateness through individual clinical information may be feasible in inpatient (clinical data are available), while an indirect approach should be used for outpatients. To estimate inappropriateness in outpatients our group developed innovative models based on comparison between the actually ordered and expected requests of tumor marker, calculated according to recommendations of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) applied to figures of cancer prevalence. The implementation of the model at national scale in Italy led to recognize a very high rate of overordering of tumor markers. The model was further focused by a dedicated algorithm to be adapted to different clinical conditions or organizational settings by applying performance indicators to cohort-wide structured information in electronic health records (EHRs). With this novel approach, we showed that inappropriateness is multifaceted even within the specific category of tumour markers. The model was effective in identifying both over- and underordering. Implementation of evidence based information and monitoring their impact on the clinical practice are parts of

  3. Design, rationale, and baseline characteristics of a cluster randomized controlled trial of pay for performance for hypertension treatment: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite compelling evidence of the benefits of treatment and well-accepted guidelines for treatment, hypertension is controlled in less than one-half of United States citizens. Methods/design This randomized controlled trial tests whether explicit financial incentives promote the translation of guideline-recommended care for hypertension into clinical practice and improve blood pressure (BP) control in the primary care setting. Using constrained randomization, we assigned 12 Veterans Affairs hospital outpatient clinics to four study arms: physician-level incentive; group-level incentive; combination of physician and group incentives; and no incentives (control). All participants at the hospital (cluster) were assigned to the same study arm. We enrolled 83 full-time primary care physicians and 42 non-physician personnel. The intervention consisted of an educational session about guideline-recommended care for hypertension, five audit and feedback reports, and five disbursements of incentive payments. Incentive payments rewarded participants for chart-documented use of guideline-recommended antihypertensive medications, BP control, and appropriate responses to uncontrolled BP during a prior four-month performance period over the 20-month intervention. To identify potential unintended consequences of the incentives, the study team interviewed study participants, as well as non-participant primary care personnel and leadership at study sites. Chart reviews included data collection on quality measures not related to hypertension. To evaluate the persistence of the effect of the incentives, the study design includes a washout period. Discussion We briefly describe the rationale for the interventions being studied, as well as the major design choices. Rigorous research designs such as the one described here are necessary to determine whether performance-based payment arrangements such as financial incentives result in meaningful quality improvements. Trial

  4. Design, rationale, and baseline characteristics of a cluster randomized controlled trial of pay for performance for hypertension treatment: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Laura A; Urech, Tracy; Simpson, Kate; Pietz, Kenneth; Hysong, Sylvia J; Profit, Jochen; Conrad, Douglas; Dudley, R Adams; Lutschg, Meghan Z; Petzel, Robert; Woodard, Lechauncy D

    2011-10-03

    Despite compelling evidence of the benefits of treatment and well-accepted guidelines for treatment, hypertension is controlled in less than one-half of United States citizens. This randomized controlled trial tests whether explicit financial incentives promote the translation of guideline-recommended care for hypertension into clinical practice and improve blood pressure (BP) control in the primary care setting. Using constrained randomization, we assigned 12 Veterans Affairs hospital outpatient clinics to four study arms: physician-level incentive; group-level incentive; combination of physician and group incentives; and no incentives (control). All participants at the hospital (cluster) were assigned to the same study arm. We enrolled 83 full-time primary care physicians and 42 non-physician personnel. The intervention consisted of an educational session about guideline-recommended care for hypertension, five audit and feedback reports, and five disbursements of incentive payments. Incentive payments rewarded participants for chart-documented use of guideline-recommended antihypertensive medications, BP control, and appropriate responses to uncontrolled BP during a prior four-month performance period over the 20-month intervention. To identify potential unintended consequences of the incentives, the study team interviewed study participants, as well as non-participant primary care personnel and leadership at study sites. Chart reviews included data collection on quality measures not related to hypertension. To evaluate the persistence of the effect of the incentives, the study design includes a washout period. We briefly describe the rationale for the interventions being studied, as well as the major design choices. Rigorous research designs such as the one described here are necessary to determine whether performance-based payment arrangements such as financial incentives result in meaningful quality improvements. http://www.clinicaltrials.govNCT00302718.

  5. Rationale for Language Study. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Jane N.

    Enrollment trends and factors that influence foreign language study in colleges and universities are discussed. Most college foreign language programs have emphasized the study of literature and have not been committed to the training of teachers or the teaching of civilization or culture. It appears that students' concern about the job market and…

  6. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) Study. Sarcoidosis Protocol.

    PubMed

    Moller, David R; Koth, Laura L; Maier, Lisa A; Morris, Alison; Drake, Wonder; Rossman, Milton; Leader, Joseph K; Collman, Ronald G; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Sweiss, Nadera J; Zhang, Yingze; O'Neal, Scott; Senior, Robert M; Becich, Michael; Hochheiser, Harry S; Kaminski, Naftali; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gibson, Kevin F

    2015-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation with tremendous clinical heterogeneity and uncertain pathobiology and lacking in clinically useful biomarkers. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study is an observational cohort study designed to explore the role of the lung microbiome and genome in these two diseases. This article describes the design and rationale for the GRADS study sarcoidosis protocol. The study addresses the hypothesis that distinct patterns in the lung microbiome are characteristic of sarcoidosis phenotypes and are reflected in changes in systemic inflammatory responses as measured by peripheral blood changes in gene transcription. The goal is to enroll 400 participants, with a minimum of 35 in each of 9 clinical phenotype subgroups prioritized by their clinical relevance to understanding of the pathobiology and clinical heterogeneity of sarcoidosis. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis undergo a baseline visit with self-administered questionnaires, chest computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, and blood and urine testing. A research or clinical bronchoscopy with a research bronchoalveolar lavage will be performed to obtain samples for genomic and microbiome analyses. Comparisons will be made by blood genomic analysis and with clinical phenotypic variables. A 6-month follow-up visit is planned to assess each participant's clinical course. By the use of an integrative approach to the analysis of the microbiome and genome in selected clinical phenotypes, the GRADS study is powerfully positioned to inform and direct studies on the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and provide novel molecular phenotypes that could lead to improved personalized approaches to therapy for sarcoidosis.

  7. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) Study. Sarcoidosis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Koth, Laura L.; Maier, Lisa A.; Morris, Alison; Drake, Wonder; Rossman, Milton; Leader, Joseph K.; Collman, Ronald G.; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Sweiss, Nadera J.; Zhang, Yingze; O’Neal, Scott; Senior, Robert M.; Becich, Michael; Hochheiser, Harry S.; Kaminski, Naftali; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Gibson, Kevin F.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation with tremendous clinical heterogeneity and uncertain pathobiology and lacking in clinically useful biomarkers. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study is an observational cohort study designed to explore the role of the lung microbiome and genome in these two diseases. This article describes the design and rationale for the GRADS study sarcoidosis protocol. The study addresses the hypothesis that distinct patterns in the lung microbiome are characteristic of sarcoidosis phenotypes and are reflected in changes in systemic inflammatory responses as measured by peripheral blood changes in gene transcription. The goal is to enroll 400 participants, with a minimum of 35 in each of 9 clinical phenotype subgroups prioritized by their clinical relevance to understanding of the pathobiology and clinical heterogeneity of sarcoidosis. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis undergo a baseline visit with self-administered questionnaires, chest computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, and blood and urine testing. A research or clinical bronchoscopy with a research bronchoalveolar lavage will be performed to obtain samples for genomic and microbiome analyses. Comparisons will be made by blood genomic analysis and with clinical phenotypic variables. A 6-month follow-up visit is planned to assess each participant’s clinical course. By the use of an integrative approach to the analysis of the microbiome and genome in selected clinical phenotypes, the GRADS study is powerfully positioned to inform and direct studies on the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and provide novel molecular phenotypes that could lead to improved personalized approaches to therapy for sarcoidosis. PMID:26193069

  8. Navy Shipbuilding: Need to Document Rationale for the Use of Fixed-Price Incentive Contracts and Study Effectiveness of Added Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    NAVY SHIPBUILDING Need to Document Rationale for the Use of Fixed-Price Incentive Contracts and Study Effectiveness of Added...Use of Fixed-Price Incentive Contracts and Study Effectiveness of Added Incentives What GAO Found Over 80 percent of the Navy’s shipbuilding...mackinm@gao.gov. Why GAO Did This Study DOD encourages the use of FPI contracts because they allow for equitable sharing of costs savings and risk

  9. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leung, Brenda M Y; Field, Catherine J; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C; Manca, Donna P; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W; Pop, Victor J; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offspring and many of their partners). The primary aims of the APrON study were to determine the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and status, before, during and after gestation, and (1) maternal mood; (2) birth and obstetric outcomes; and (3) infant neurodevelopment. We have collected comprehensive maternal nutrition, anthropometric, biological and mental health data at multiple points in the pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as obstetrical, birth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these pregnancies. The study continues to follow the infants through to 36 months of age. The current report describes the study design and methods, and findings of some pilot work. The APrON study is a significant resource with opportunities for collaboration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rationale, design and methods for process evaluation in the HEALTHY study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M; Hall, W J; Hernandez, A E; Hindes, K; Montez, G; Pham, T; Rosen, L; Sleigh, A; Thompson, D; Volpe, S L; Zeveloff, A; Steckler, A

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a multi-site randomized trial designed to determine whether a 3-year school-based intervention targeting nutrition and physical activity behaviors could effectively reduce risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes in middle school children. Pilot and formative studies were conducted to inform the development of the intervention components and the process evaluation methods for the main trial. During the main trial, both qualitative and quantitative assessments monitored the fidelity of the intervention and motivated modifications to improve intervention delivery. Structured observations of physical education classes, total school food environments, classroom-based educational modules, and communications and promotional campaigns provided verification that the intervention was delivered as intended. Interviews and focus groups yielded a multidimensional assessment of how the intervention was delivered and received, as well as identifying the barriers to and facilitators of the intervention across and within participating schools. Interim summaries of process evaluation data were presented to the study group as a means of ensuring standardization and quality of the intervention across the seven participating centers. Process evaluation methods and procedures documented the fidelity with which the HEALTHY study was implemented across 21 intervention schools and identified ways in which the intervention delivery might be enhanced throughout the study.

  11. Rationale and design of the screening of pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus (SOPHIE) study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Duo; Cheng, Yang-Yang; Chan, Pak-Hei; Hai, Jojo; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Wong, Ka-Lam; Fan, Katherine; Ng, Woon-Leung; Yim, Cheuk-Wan; Wong, Cheuk-hon John; Tam, Lai-Shan; Wong, Priscilla C.H.; Wong, Chi-Yuen; Ho, Chup-Hei; Leung, Alexander M.H.; Mok, Chi-Chiu; Lam, Ho; Lau, Chak-Sing; Cheung, Tommy; Ho, Carmen; Law, Sharon W.Y.; Yin, Li-Xue; Yue, Wen-Sheng; Mok, Toi Meng; Evora, Mario Alberto; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2018-01-01

    Current guideline-recommended screening for pulmonary hypertension in patients with systemic sclerosis has not been evaluated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is disproportionately prevalent in Asians. This multicentre, cross-sectional screening study aims to study the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension among SLE patients using these guidelines, and identify independent predictors and develop a prediction model for pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. SLE patients from participating centres will undergo an echocardiography- and biomarker-based pulmonary hypertension screening procedure as in the DETECT study. Standard right heart catheterisation will be provided to patients with intermediate or high echocardiographic probability of pulmonary hypertension. Those with low echocardiographic probability will rescreen within 1 year. The primary measure will be the diagnosis and types of pulmonary hypertension and prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. The secondary measures will be the predictors and prediction models for pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. The estimated sample size is approximately 895 participants. The results of the SOPHIE study will be an important contribution to the literature of SLE-related pulmonary hypertension and may be immediately translatable to real clinical practice. Ultimately, this study will provide the necessary evidence for establishing universal guidelines for screening of pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. PMID:29531959

  12. Postnatal Growth and Retinopathy of Prematurity Study: Rationale, Design, and Subject Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Binenbaum, Gil; Tomlinson, Lauren A

    2017-02-01

    Postnatal-growth-based predictive models demonstrate strong potential for improving the low specificity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. Prior studies are limited by inadequate sample size. We sought to study a sufficiently large cohort of at-risk infants to enable development of a model with highly precise estimates of sensitivity for severe ROP. The Postnatal Growth and ROP (G-ROP) Study was a multicenter retrospective cohort study of infants at 30 North American hospitals during 2006-2012. A total of 65 G-ROP-certified abstractors submitted data to a secure, web-based database. Data included ROP examination findings, treatments, complications, daily weight measurements, daily oxygen supplementation, maternal/infant demographics, medical comorbidities, surgical events, and weekly nutrition. Data quality was monitored with system validation rules, data audits, and discrepancy algorithms. Of 11,261 screened infants, 8334 were enrolled, and 2927 had insufficient data due to transfer, discharge, or death. Of the enrolled infants, 90% (7483) had a known ROP outcome and were included in the study. Median birth weight was 1070 g (range 310-3000g) and mean gestational age 28 weeks (range 22-35 weeks). Severe ROP (Early Treatment of Retinopathy type 1 or 2) developed in 931 infants (12.5%). Successful incorporation of a predictive model into ROP screening requires confidence that it will capture cases of severe ROP. This dataset provides power to estimate sensitivity with half-confidence interval width of less than 0.5%, determined by the high number of severe ROP cases. The G-ROP Study represents a large, diverse cohort of at-risk infants undergoing ROP screening. It will facilitate evaluation of growth-based algorithms to improve efficiency of ROP screening.

  13. Critical review of norovirus surrogates in food safety research: rationale for considering volunteer studies.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary P

    2012-03-01

    The inability to propagate human norovirus (NoV) or to clearly differentiate infectious from noninfectious virus particles has led to the use of surrogate viruses, like feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV), which are propagatable in cell culture. The use of surrogates is predicated on the assumption that they generally mimic the viruses they represent; however, studies are proving this concept invalid. In direct comparisons between FCV and MNV, their susceptibility to temperatures, environmental and food processing conditions, and disinfectants are dramatically different. Differences have also been noted between the inactivation of NoV and its surrogates, thus questioning the validity of surrogates. Considerable research funding is provided globally each year to conduct surrogate studies on NoVs; however, there is little demonstrated benefit derived from these studies in regard to the development of virus inactivation techniques or food processing strategies. Human challenge studies are needed to determine which processing techniques are effective in reducing NoVs in foods. A major obstacle to clinical trials on NoVs is the perception that such trials are too costly and risky, but in reality, there is far more cost and risk in allowing millions of unsuspecting consumers to contract NoV illness each year, when practical interventions are only a few volunteer studies away. A number of clinical trials have been conducted, providing important insights into NoV inactivation. A shift in research priorities from surrogate research to volunteer studies is essential if we are to identify realistic, practical, and scientifically valid processing approaches to improve food safety.

  14. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Llorca, Javier; Moreno, Victor; Altzibar, Jone M; Ardanaz, Eva; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Tardón, Adonina; Alguacil, Juan; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Navarro, Carmen; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. Participants completed a face-to-face computerized interview on sociodemographic factors, environmental exposures, occupation, medication, lifestyle, and personal and family medical history. In addition, participants completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. Blood samples were collected from 76% of participants while saliva samples were collected in CLL cases and participants refusing blood extractions. Clinical information was recorded for cases and paraffin blocks and/or fresh tumor samples are available in most collaborating hospitals. Genotyping was done through an exome array enriched with genetic markers in specific pathways. Multiple analyses are planned to assess the association of environmental, personal and genetic risk factors for each tumor and to identify pleiotropic effects. This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. The Logic of School Gardens: A Phenomenological Study of Teacher Rationales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of teachers to the school garden movement, we still know very little about what drives particular teachers to incorporate a school garden into their pedagogy. In response, this article reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the internal processes and products involved in rationalising and sustaining…

  16. A randomized controlled trial on errorless learning in goal management training: study rationale and protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many brain-injured patients referred for outpatient rehabilitation have executive deficits, notably difficulties with planning, problem-solving and goal directed behaviour. Goal Management Training (GMT) has proven to be an efficacious cognitive treatment for these problems. GMT entails learning and applying an algorithm, in which daily tasks are subdivided into multiple steps. Main aim of the present study is to examine whether using an errorless learning approach (preventing the occurrence of errors during the acquisition phase of learning) contributes to the efficacy of Goal Management Training in the performance of complex daily tasks. Methods/Design The study is a double blind randomized controlled trial, in which the efficacy of Goal Management Training with an errorless learning approach will be compared with conventional Goal Management Training, based on trial and error learning. In both conditions 32 patients with acquired brain injury of mixed etiology will be examined. Main outcome measure will be the performance on two individually chosen everyday-tasks before and after treatment, using a standardized observation scale and goal attainment scaling. Discussion This is the first study that introduces errorless learning in Goal Management Training. It is expected that the GMT-errorless learning approach will improve the execution of complex daily tasks in brain-injured patients with executive deficits. The study can contribute to a better treatment of executive deficits in cognitive rehabilitation. Trial registration (Dutch Trial Register): http://NTR3567 PMID:23786651

  17. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study physical education intervention component

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle school students. Middle schools at seven centers across the United States participated in the 3-year study. Half of them were randomized to receive a multi-component intervention. The intervention ...

  18. The Forest Ecosystem Study: background, rationale, implementation, baseline conditions, and silvicultural assessment.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey; David R. Thysell; Angus W. Brodie

    1999-01-01

    The Forest Ecosystem Study (FES) came about as an early response to the need for innovative silvicultural methods designed to stimulate development of late-successional attributes in managed forests—a need ensuing from the exceptional and longstanding controversies over old-growth forests and endangered species concerns in the Pacific Northwest. In 1991, scientists...

  19. The Coordination and Activity Tracking in CHildren (CATCH) study: rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Cairney, John; Missiuna, Cheryl; Timmons, Brian W; Rodriguez, Christine; Veldhuizen, Scott; King-Dowling, Sara; Wellman, Sarah; Le, Tuyen

    2015-12-21

    Past studies have found that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) engage in less physical activity than typically developing children. This "activity deficit" may result in children with DCD being less physically fit and more likely to be overweight or obese, potentially increasing later risk for poor cardiovascular health. Unfortunately, the majority of DCD research has been limited to cross-sectional designs, leading to questions about the complex relationship among motor ability, inactivity and health-related fitness. Of the few longitudinal studies on the topic, determining precedence amongst these factors is difficult because study cohorts typically focus on mid to late childhood. By this age, both decreased physical fitness and obesity are often established. The Coordination and Activity Tracking in CHildren (CATCH) study will examine the pathways connecting DCD, physical activity, physical fitness, and body composition from early to middle childhood. The CATCH study is a prospective cohort study. We aim to recruit a cohort of 600 children aged 4 to 5 years (300 probable DCD [pDCD] and 300 controls) and test them once a year for 4 years. At Phase 1 of baseline testing, we assess motor skills, cognitive ability (IQ), basic anthropometry, flexibility and lower body muscle strength, while parents complete an interview and questionnaires regarding family demographics, their child's physical activity, and behavioural characteristics. Children who move on to Phase 2 (longitudinal cohort) have their body fat percentage, foot structure, aerobic and anaerobic fitness assessed. An accelerometer to measure physical activity is then given to the child and interested family members. The family also receives an accelerometer logbook and 3-day food dairy. At years 2 to 4, children in the longitudinal cohort will have all baseline assessments repeated (excluding the IQ test), and complete an additional measure of perceived self-efficacy. Parents will

  20. Lithium Treatment for Agitation in Alzheimer's disease (Lit-AD): Clinical rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Devanand, D P; Strickler, Jesse G; Huey, Edward D; Crocco, Elizabeth; Forester, Brent P; Husain, Mustafa M; Vahia, Ipsit V; Andrews, Howard; Wall, Melanie M; Pelton, Gregory H

    2018-05-31

    Symptoms of agitation, aggression, and psychosis frequently occur in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). These symptoms are distressing to patients and caregivers, often lead to institutionalization, are associated with increased mortality, and are very difficult to treat. Lithium is an established treatment for bipolar and other psychotic disorders in which agitation can occur. The Lit-AD study is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of lithium treatment for symptoms of agitation or aggression, with or without psychosis, in older adults diagnosed with AD. Patients are randomly assigned to low dose (150-600 mg) lithium or placebo, targeting a blood level of 0.2-0.6 mmol/L, stratified by the presence/absence of psychotic symptoms. The study duration for each patient is 12 weeks. The primary study outcome is change in the agitation/aggression domain score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) over the study period. The secondary outcome is improvement in neuropsychiatric symptoms defined as a 30% decrease in a NPI core score that combines agitation/aggression and psychosis domain scores. The Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) is used to assess somatic side effects. Other exploratory analyses examine the associations between improvement on lithium and indices shown to be associated with response to lithium in bipolar disorder: serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, a SNP in intron 1 of the ACCN1 gene, and variation at the 7q11.2 gene locus. If lithium demonstrates efficacy in this Phase II pilot trial, a Phase III study will be developed to establish its clinical utility in these patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02129348. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory disease: Rationale and methodology of CAPACITY study

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Katayoun; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Sadeghi, Erfan; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Shishehforoush, Mansour; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Sadeghian, Babak; Moazam, Elham; Mohebi, Mohammad Bagher; Ezatian, Victoria; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Considering the high level of air pollution and its impact on health, we aimed to study the correlation of air pollution with hospitalization and mortality of cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory diseases (ResD) (CAPACITY) to determine the effects of air pollutants on CVD and ResD hospitalizations and deaths in Isfahan, Iran. METHODS Hourly levels of air pollutants including particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), information of CVD and ResD admissions and death certificate were obtained respectively from Department of Environment (DOE), Iran, hospitals and cemetery. Time series and case-crossover model were used to find the impact of air pollutants. This paper only summarizes the descriptive findings of the CAPACITY study. RESULTS The total number of hospitalized patients were 23781 in 2010 and 22485 in 2011. The most frequent cause of hospitalization and death was ischemic heart diseases in both years. While the mean annual levels of O3, CO, and PM10 were lower in 2011 than in 2010, NO2 and SO2 levels higher in 2011. In both years, PM10 was similarly increased during last month of fall, late spring and early summer. In 2011, the PM2.5 and PM10 monthly trend of change were similar. CONCLUSION The CAPACITY study is one of the few large-scale studies that evaluated the effects of air pollutants on a variety of CVD and ResD in a large city of Iran. This study can provide many findings that could clarify the effects of these pollutants on the incidence and burden of both disease groups. PMID:29643921

  2. Rationale and Design Issues of the Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) Study

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ron; Carpenter, Myra A.; Hoberman, Alejandro; Shaikh, Nader; Matoo, Tej K.; Chesney, Russell W.; Matthews, Ranjiv; Gerson, Arlene C.; Greenfield, Saul P.; Fivush, Barbara; McLurie, Gordon A.; Rushton, H. Gil; Canning, Douglas; Nelson, Caleb P.; Greenbaum, Lawrence; Bukowski, Timothy; Primack, William; Sutherland, Richard; Hosking, James; Stewart, Dawn; Elder, Jack; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Nyberg, Leroy

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal is to determine if antimicrobial prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrent urinary tract infections and renal scarring in children who are found to have vesicoureteral reflux after a first or second urinary tract infection. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND METHODS The Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Six hundred children aged 2 to 72 months will be recruited from both primary and subspecialty care settings at clinical trial centers throughout North America. Children who are found to have grades I to IV vesicoureteral reflux after the index febrile or symptomatic urinary tract infection will be randomly assigned to receive daily doses of either trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or placebo for 2 years. Scheduled follow-up contacts include in-person study visits every 6 months and telephone interviews every 2 months. Biospecimens (urine and blood) and genetic specimens (blood) will be collected for future studies of the genetic and biochemical determinants of vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent urinary tract infection, renal insufficiency, and renal scarring. RESULTS The primary outcome is recurrence of urinary tract infection. Secondary outcomes include time to recurrent urinary tract infection, renal scarring (assessed by dimercaptosuccinic acid scan), treatment failure, renal function, resource utilization, and development of antimicrobial resistance in stool flora. CONCLUSIONS The RIVUR study will provide useful information to clinicians about the risks and benefits of prophylactic antibiotics for children who are diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux after a first or second urinary tract infection. The data and specimens collected over the course of the study will allow researchers to better understand the pathophysiology of recurrent urinary tract infection and its sequelae. PMID:19018048

  3. Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead - Rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Hara, Azusa; Gu, Yu-Mei; Petit, Thibault; Liu, Yan-Ping; Jacobs, Lotte; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wen-Yi; Jin, Yu; Thijs, Lutgarde; Wei, Fang-Fei; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-06-01

    The level at which low-level lead exposure produces subclinical adverse health effects in adults remains to be established. The Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (SPHERL) will enroll 500 newly hired workers, whose blood lead during 2 years of follow-up is expected to increase from levels less than 2 μg/dl, as currently observed in the US population, to 20-30 μg/dl. The main outcome variables to be studied are (i) blood pressure (BP) analyzed as a continuous or categorical variable, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and using conventional and ambulatory BP measurement; (ii) indexes of glomerular and tubular renal function, (iii) heart rate variability analyzed in the frequency domain as measure of autonomous sympathetic modulation, (iv) peripheral nerve conductivity velocity, (v) neurocognitive performance, and (vi) quality of life. Expected outcomes. Assuming a 10-fold increase in blood lead, SPHERL will have sufficient statistical power to detect over 2 years a steepening of the age-related rise in systolic BP from 1 to 5 mmHg and a doubling of the age-related decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate from 3.5 to 7.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2). The longitudinal design of our study complies with the temporality principle of the Bradford-Hill criteria for assessing possible causality between outcomes and exposure. SPHERL will attempt to resolve the apparent contradiction between general population studies showing associations between adverse health effects and low lead exposure with blood lead levels below 5 μg/dl and studies conducted in occupational cohorts indicating that adverse effects of lead exposure occur at much higher blood lead levels.

  4. Air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory disease: Rationale and methodology of CAPACITY study.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Katayoun; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Sadeghi, Erfan; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Shishehforoush, Mansour; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Sadeghian, Babak; Moazam, Elham; Mohebi, Mohammad Bagher; Ezatian, Victoria; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-11-01

    Considering the high level of air pollution and its impact on health, we aimed to study the correlation of air pollution with hospitalization and mortality of cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory diseases (ResD) (CAPACITY) to determine the effects of air pollutants on CVD and ResD hospitalizations and deaths in Isfahan, Iran. Hourly levels of air pollutants including particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), information of CVD and ResD admissions and death certificate were obtained respectively from Department of Environment (DOE), Iran, hospitals and cemetery. Time series and case-crossover model were used to find the impact of air pollutants. This paper only summarizes the descriptive findings of the CAPACITY study. The total number of hospitalized patients were 23781 in 2010 and 22485 in 2011. The most frequent cause of hospitalization and death was ischemic heart diseases in both years. While the mean annual levels of O3, CO, and PM10 were lower in 2011 than in 2010, NO2 and SO2 levels higher in 2011. In both years, PM10 was similarly increased during last month of fall, late spring and early summer. In 2011, the PM2.5 and PM10 monthly trend of change were similar. The CAPACITY study is one of the few large-scale studies that evaluated the effects of air pollutants on a variety of CVD and ResD in a large city of Iran. This study can provide many findings that could clarify the effects of these pollutants on the incidence and burden of both disease groups.

  5. The Female Athlete Body (FAB) study: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tiffany M; Pollard, Tarryn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Beyl, Robbie; Wesley, Nicole; Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2017-09-01

    Eating Disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric illnesses marked by psychiatric comorbidity, medical complications, and functional impairment. Research indicates that female athletes are often at greater risk for developing ED pathology versus non-athlete females. The Female Athlete Body (FAB) study is a three-site, randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to assess the efficacy of a behavioral ED prevention program for female collegiate athletes when implemented by community providers. This paper describes the design, intervention, and participant baseline characteristics. Future papers will discuss outcomes. Female collegiate athletes (N=481) aged 17-21 were randomized by site, team, and sport type to either FAB or a waitlist control group. FAB consisted of three sessions (1.3h each) of a behavioral ED prevention program. Assessments were conducted at baseline (pre-intervention), post-intervention (3weeks), and six-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups. This study achieved 96% (N=481) of target recruitment (N=500). Few group differences emerged at baseline. Total sample analyses revealed moderately low baseline instances of ED symptoms and clinical cases. Health risks associated with EDs necessitate interventions for female athletes. The FAB study is the largest existing RCT for female athletes aimed at both reduction of ED risk factors and ED prevention. The methods presented and population recruited for this study represent an ideal intervention for assessing the effects of FAB on both the aforementioned outcomes. We anticipate that findings of this study (reported in future papers) will make a significant contribution to the ED risk factor reduction and prevention literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The population-based Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (ASIA): rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Traditional approaches have attempted to target the disease when it is already symptomatic. However, early detection of intracranial atherosclerosis may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Caucasians remain unclear. The aims of the Barcelona-ASymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (ASIA) study are (1) to determine the prevalence of ASIA in a moderate-high vascular risk population, (2) to study its prognostic impact on the risk of suffering future major ischemic events, and (3) to identify predictors of the development, progression and clinical expression of this condition. Methods/Design Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A randomly selected representative sample of 1,503 subjects with a mild-moderate-high vascular risk (as defined by a REGICOR score ≥ 5%) and with neither a history of cerebrovascular nor ischemic heart disease will be studied. At baseline, all individuals will undergo extracranial and transcranial Color-Coded Duplex (TCCD) ultrasound examinations to detect presence and severity of extra and intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial stenoses will be assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Clinical and demographic variables will be recorded and blood samples will be drawn to investigate clinical, biological and genetic factors associated with the presence of ASIA. A long-term clinical and sonographic follow-up will be conducted thereafter to identify predictors of disease progression and of incident vascular events. Discussion The Barcelona-ASIA is a population-based study aiming to evaluate the prevalence and clinical importance of asymptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis in Caucasians. The ASIA project may provide a unique scientific resource to better understand the dynamics of

  7. The population-based Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (ASIA): rationale and design.

    PubMed

    López-Cancio, Elena; Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mónica; Reverté, Silvia; Suñol, Anna; Massuet, Anna; Mataró, María; Galán, Amparo; Alzamora, Maite; Pera, Guillem; Torán, Pere; Dávalos, Antoni; Arenillas, Juan F

    2011-02-17

    Large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Traditional approaches have attempted to target the disease when it is already symptomatic. However, early detection of intracranial atherosclerosis may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Caucasians remain unclear. The aims of the Barcelona-ASymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (ASIA) study are (1) to determine the prevalence of ASIA in a moderate-high vascular risk population, (2) to study its prognostic impact on the risk of suffering future major ischemic events, and (3) to identify predictors of the development, progression and clinical expression of this condition. Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A randomly selected representative sample of 1,503 subjects with a mild-moderate-high vascular risk (as defined by a REGICOR score ≥ 5%) and with neither a history of cerebrovascular nor ischemic heart disease will be studied. At baseline, all individuals will undergo extracranial and transcranial Color-Coded Duplex (TCCD) ultrasound examinations to detect presence and severity of extra and intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial stenoses will be assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Clinical and demographic variables will be recorded and blood samples will be drawn to investigate clinical, biological and genetic factors associated with the presence of ASIA. A long-term clinical and sonographic follow-up will be conducted thereafter to identify predictors of disease progression and of incident vascular events. The Barcelona-ASIA is a population-based study aiming to evaluate the prevalence and clinical importance of asymptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis in Caucasians. The ASIA project may provide a unique scientific resource to better understand the dynamics of intracranial atherosclerosis from

  8. Rationale and design of platelet transfusions in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the PATH pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tay, Jason; Allan, David; Beattie, Sara; Bredeson, Christopher; Fergusson, Dean; Maze, Dawn; Sabloff, Mitchell; Thavorn, Kednapa; Tinmouth, Alan

    2016-10-24

    In patients with transient thrombocytopenia being treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), prophylactic transfusions are standard therapy to prevent bleeding. However, a recent multicentre trial suggests that prophylactic platelet transfusions in HSCT may not be necessary. Additionally, the potential overuse of platelet products places a burden on a scarce healthcare resource. Moreover, the benefit of prophylactic platelet transfusions to prevent clinically relevant haemorrhage is debatable. Current randomised data compare different thresholds for administering prophylactic platelets or prophylactic versus therapeutic platelet transfusions. An alternative strategy involves prescribing prophylactic antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid to prevent bleeding. This report describes the design of an open-labelled randomised pilot study comparing the prophylactic use of oral tranexamic acid with platelet transfusions in the setting of autologous HSCT. In 3-5 centres, 100 patients undergoing autologous HSCT will be randomly assigned to either a prophylactic tranexamic acid or prophylactic platelets bleeding prevention strategy-based daily platelet values up to 30 days post-transplant. The study will be stratified by centre and type of transplant. The primary goal is to demonstrate study feasibility while collecting clinical outcomes on (1) WHO and Bleeding Severity Measurement Scale (BSMS), (2) transplant-related mortality, (3) quality of life, (4) length of hospital stay, (5) intensive care unit admission rates, (6) Bearman toxicity scores, (7) incidence of infections, (8) transfusion requirements, (9) adverse reactions and (10) economic analyses. This study is funded by a peer-reviewed grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (201 503) and is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02650791. It has been approved by the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board. Study

  9. Study of young patients with myocardial infarction: Design and rationale of the YOUNG-MI Registry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Avinainder; Collins, Bradley; Qamar, Arman; Gupta, Ankur; Fatima, Amber; Divakaran, Sanjay; Klein, Josh; Hainer, Jon; Jarolim, Petr; Shah, Ravi V; Nasir, Khurram; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Bhatt, Deepak L; Blankstein, Ron

    2017-11-01

    The YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective study examining a cohort of young adults age ≤ 50 years with a first-time myocardial infarction. The study will use the robust electronic health records of 2 large academic medical centers, as well as detailed chart review of all patients, to generate high-quality longitudinal data regarding the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients who experience a myocardial infarction at a young age. Our findings will provide important insights regarding prevention, risk stratification, treatment, and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in this understudied population, as well as identify disparities which, if addressed, can lead to further improvement in patient outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Maternal experiences of racism and violence as predictors of preterm birth: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Rich-Edwards, J; Krieger, N; Majzoub, J; Zierler, S; Lieberman, E; Gillman, M

    2001-07-01

    Chronic psychological stress may raise the risk of preterm delivery by raising levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Women who have been the targets of racism or personal violence may be at particularly high risk of preterm delivery. The aims of this study are to examine the extent to which: (1) maternal experiences of racism or violence in childhood, adulthood, or pregnancy are associated with the risk of preterm birth; (2) CRH levels are prospectively associated with risk of preterm birth; and (3) CRH levels are associated with past and current maternal experiences of racism or violence. We have begun to examine these questions among women enrolled in Project Viva, a Boston-based longitudinal study of 6000 pregnant women and their children.

  11. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component.

    PubMed

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  12. Rationale and protocol for using a smartphone application to study autism spectrum disorders: SMARTAUTISM.

    PubMed

    Bonnot, Olivier; Bonneau, Dominique; Doudard, Aude; Duverger, Philippe

    2016-11-22

    Longitudinal studies on the evolution of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are limited and have primarily used repeated measurements performed several months apart. However, measurements of changes in everyday life should more closely reflect the 'real life' of the patient and his or her family. We propose to study the child's ASD symptoms and their effect on the quality of life, psychological status and anxiety of the child's parents over a 6-month period using SMARTAUTISM, a smartphone application. This is a prospective, longitudinal, exploratory, open study with a 6-month follow-up period. Data will be recorded longitudinally over multiple weeks under natural conditions. The factors affecting the quality of life and anxiety of parents of children with ASD and the children's functional symptoms will be examined, and the feasibility of using a smartphone application designed for parents of ASD patients will be assessed. Explore the evolution of a child's behaviour over 6 months and the (psychological and social) effects of these changes on the family. Assess the feasibility of our application by examining the filling rate and application usage by parents for 6 months. 100 families containing 1 child diagnosed with ASD will be included. At baseline, sociodemographic, psychiatric and medical data will be recorded. The correlations of the general epidemiological variables (primary outcome measure) will be evaluated via multivariate analysis. The application filling rate (relative to the ideal filling rate) will be used to assess the feasibility of the application (secondary outcome measure). The SMARTAUTISM study has the approval of the local ethics committee, and data security will be ensured via the use of encryption and a secure medical server. The use of this application will be proposed at autism resource centres across France. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Rationale and methods for an epidemiologic study of cancer among Seventh-Day Adventists.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R L; Kuzma, J W

    1977-12-01

    Considerable evidence was found that Adventists are a low-risk population to develop cancer of many sites. Adventists have numerous unique life-style and dietary habits with great variability within the population in adherence to these practices as well as considerable variation in duration of exposure to these characteristics. Thus this study population will likely be extremely productive in identifying dietary habits or other life-style characteristics that are etiologically related to various cancer sites.

  14. Environment and Health in Children Day Care Centres (ENVIRH) - Study rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Martins, J; Carreiro Martins, P; Viegas, J; Aelenei, D; Cano, M M; Teixeira, J P; Paixão, P; Papoila, A L; Leiria-Pinto, P; Pedro, C; Rosado-Pinto, J; Annesi-Maesano, I; Neuparth, N

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is considered an important determinant of human health. The association between exposure to volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, house dust mite, molds and bacteria in day care centers (DCC) is not completely clear. The aim of this project was to study these effects. This study comprised two phases. Phase I included an evaluation of 45 DCCs (25 from Lisbon and 20 from Oporto, targeting 5161 children). In this phase, building characteristics, indoor CO2 and air temperature/relative humidity, were assessed. A children's respiratory health questionnaire derived from the ISAAC (International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Children) was also distributed. Phase II encompassed two evaluations and included 20 DCCs selected from phase I after a cluster analysis (11 from Lisbon and 9 from Oporto, targeting 2287 children). In this phase, data on ventilation, IAQ, thermal comfort parameters, respiratory and allergic health, airway inflammation biomarkers, respiratory virus infection patterns and parental and child stress were collected. In Phase I, building characteristics, occupant behavior and ventilation surrogates were collected from all DCCs. The response rate of the questionnaire was 61.7% (3186 children). Phase II included 1221 children. Association results between DCC characteristics, IAQ and health outcomes will be provided in order to support recommendations on IAQ and children's health. A building ventilation model will also be developed. This paper outlines methods that might be implemented by other investigators conducting studies on the association between respiratory health and indoor air quality at DCC. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Rationale, design and objectives of ARegPKD, a European ARPKD registry study.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Kathrin; Feldkoetter, Markus; Ariceta, Gema; Bergmann, Carsten; Buettner, Reinhard; Doyon, Anke; Duzova, Ali; Goebel, Heike; Haffner, Dieter; Hero, Barbara; Hoppe, Bernd; Illig, Thomas; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Klopp, Norman; König, Jens; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Mekahli, Djalila; Ranchin, Bruno; Sander, Anja; Testa, Sara; Weber, Lutz Thorsten; Wicher, Dorota; Yuzbasioglu, Ayse; Zerres, Klaus; Dötsch, Jörg; Schaefer, Franz; Liebau, Max Christoph

    2015-02-18

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare but frequently severe disorder that is typically characterized by cystic kidneys and congenital hepatic fibrosis but displays pronounced phenotypic heterogeneity. ARPKD is among the most important causes for pediatric end stage renal disease and a leading reason for liver-, kidney- or combined liver kidney transplantation in childhood. The underlying pathophysiology, the mechanisms resulting in the observed clinical heterogeneity and the long-term clinical evolution of patients remain poorly understood. Current treatment approaches continue to be largely symptomatic and opinion-based even in most-advanced medical centers. While large clinical trials for the frequent and mostly adult onset autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases have recently been conducted, therapeutic initiatives for ARPKD are facing the challenge of small and clinically variable cohorts for which reliable end points are hard to establish. ARegPKD is an international, mostly European, observational study to deeply phenotype ARPKD patients in a pro- and retrospective fashion. This registry study is conducted with the support of the German Society for Pediatric Nephrology (GPN) and the European Study Consortium for Chronic Kidney Disorders Affecting Pediatric Patients (ESCAPE Network). ARegPKD clinically characterizes long-term ARPKD courses by a web-based approach that uses detailed basic data questionnaires in combination with yearly follow-up visits. Clinical data collection is accompanied by associated biobanking and reference histology, thus setting roots for future translational research. The novel registry study ARegPKD aims to characterize miscellaneous subcohorts and to compare the applied treatment options in a large cohort of deeply characterized patients. ARegPKD will thus provide evidence base for clinical treatment decisions and contribute to the pathophysiological understanding of this severe inherited disorder.

  16. Rationale and design of the Duke Electrophysiology Genetic and Genomic Studies (EPGEN) biorepository.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Jason I; Haithcock, Daniel; Cumbea, Valerie; Waldron, Anthony; Stricker, Kristie; Hughes, Amy; Nilsson, Kent; Sun, Albert; Piccini, Jonathan P; Kraus, William E; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Shah, Svati H; Hranitzky, Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Disturbances in cardiac rhythm can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Many arrhythmias are known to have a heritable component, but the degree to which genetic variation contributes to disease risk and morbidity is poorly understood. The EPGEN is a prospective single-center repository that archives DNA, RNA, and protein samples obtained at the time of an electrophysiologic evaluation or intervention. To identify genes and molecular variants that are associated with risk for arrhythmic phenotypes, EPGEN uses unbiased genomic screening; candidate gene analysis; and both unbiased and targeted transcript, protein, and metabolite profiling. To date, EPGEN has successfully enrolled >1,500 subjects. The median age of the study population is 62.9 years; 35% of the subjects are female and 21% are black. To this point, the study population has been composed of patients who had undergone defibrillator (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator) implantation (45%), electrophysiology studies or ablation procedures (35%), and pacemaker implantation or other procedures (20%). The cohort has a high prevalence of comorbidities, including diabetes (33%), hypertension (73%), chronic kidney disease (26%), and peripheral vascular disease (13%). We have established a biorepository and clinical database composed of patients with electrophysiologic diseases. EPGEN will seek to (1) improve risk stratification, (2) elucidate mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis, and (3) identify novel pharmacologic targets for the treatment of heart rhythm disorders.

  17. ACCISS study rationale and design: activating collaborative cancer information service support for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Randhawa, Veenu; McFadden, H Gene; Fought, Angela; Bullard, Emily; Spring, Bonnie

    2009-12-02

    High-quality cancer information resources are available but underutilized by the public. Despite greater awareness of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service among low-income African Americans and Hispanics compared with Caucasians, actual Cancer Information Service usage is lower than expected, paralleling excess cancer-related morbidity and mortality for these subgroups. The proposed research examines how to connect the Cancer Information Service to low-income African-American and Hispanic women and their health care providers. The study will examine whether targeted physician mailing to women scheduled for colposcopy to follow up an abnormal Pap test can increase calls to the Cancer Information Service, enhance appropriate medical follow-up, and improve satisfaction with provider-patient communication. The study will be conducted in two clinics in ethnically diverse low-income communities in Chicago. During the formative phase, patients and providers will provide input regarding materials planned for use in the experimental phase of the study. The experimental phase will use a two-group prospective randomized controlled trial design. African American and Hispanic women with an abnormal Pap test will be randomized to Usual Care (routine colposcopy reminder letter) or Intervention (reminder plus provider recommendation to call the Cancer Information Service and sample questions to ask). Primary outcomes will be: 1) calls to the Cancer Information Service; 2) timely medical follow-up, operationalized by whether the patient keeps her colposcopy appointment within six months of the abnormal Pap; and 3) patient satisfaction with provider-patient communication at follow-up. The study examines the effectiveness of a feasible, sustainable, and culturally sensitive strategy to increase awareness and use of the Cancer Information Service among an underserved population. The goal of linking a public service (the Cancer Information Service) with real

  18. Asia, Australia and New Zealand Dyspnoea in Emergency Departments (AANZDEM) study: Rationale, design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anne-Maree; Keijzers, Gerben; Klim, Sharon; Graham, Colin A; Craig, Simon; Kuan, Win Sen; Jones, Peter; Holdgate, Anna; Lawoko, Charles; Laribi, Said

    2015-06-01

    Shortness of breath is a common reason for ED attendance. This international study aims to describe the epidemiology of dyspnoea presenting to EDs in the South East Asia-Pacific region, to compare disease patterns across regions, to understand how conditions are investigated and treated, and to assess quality of care. This is a prospective, interrupted time series cohort study conducted in EDs in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong and Malaysia of consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED with dyspnoea as a main symptom. Data were collected over three 72 h periods in May, August and October 2014 (autumn, winter and spring), and included demographics, comorbidities, mode of arrival, usual medications, pre-hospital treatment, initial assessment, ED investigations, treatment in the ED, ED diagnosis, disposition from ED, in-hospital outcome and final hospital diagnosis. The primary outcomes of interest are the epidemiology and outcome of patients presenting to ED with dyspnoea. Secondary outcomes of interest are seasonal and geographic comparisons of diagnoses and outcomes, disease-specific descriptions of epidemiology, investigation, treatment and disposition, and compliance with treatment guidelines. This novel study will explore dyspnoea from the viewpoint of the patient's symptom (shortness of breath) rather than that of a single disease. The results will provide robust data about the epidemiology, investigation, treatment and disposition of this diverse patient group. The obtained data also have the potential to inform service planning and to quantify the proportion of patients with mixed cardiac and respiratory disease. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. Rationales for home safety promotion in the Iranian primary healthcare system: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, R; Ekman, R; Svanström, L; Gooya, M M

    2006-01-01

    To analyse the prerequisites for a nationwide primary healthcare (PHC) home safety promotion programme in Iran. Injury is a major public health problem throughout the world, currently accounting for one-seventh of all premature deaths and disabilities. Within 20 years, it is estimated that the proportion will increase to one-fifth. The present healthcare system in Iran was started in 1979, with a major focus on easy access to services and prevention. The system is based on the 'health house', which is run by community health workers. A survey shows that 36% of injuries occur in the home environment. A pilot phase of the Home Safety Promotion Programme was initiated in 1994, and included safety checking at home for fences, kitchens, drugs and poisons, heaters, electricity, and stairs and ladders. The pilot study covered 478,551 households out of the 12 million (approximately) in Iran. Sixty-nine supervisors were involved individually, assembled into eight focus groups. Household safety increased by 10-20% over the 4 years of the study. The frequency of home visits changed from annual to seasonal, since all participants agreed that there were seasonal differences in safety problems. The supervisors showed a high level of knowledge of injury as a public health problem, and also positive attitudes towards doing something about safety on the basis of a PHC scheme. The role of a surveillance system was highlighted, and it was suggested that such a system should be added to the programme. Based on our preliminary findings, there were reasons to obtain a policy decision concerning a national programme for safety promotion before extending the pilot scheme to the whole country. A national safety programme was decided upon following completion of the pilot study. It includes a home-related-injury surveillance system that is mandatory in rural areas and voluntary in some cities.

  20. The Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) Study: Rationale, Design, Methods, and Participant Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Lynch, Charles F; Andreotti, Gabriella; Thomas, Kent W; Sandler, Dale P; Savage, Sharon A; Alavanja, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural exposures including pesticides, endotoxin, and allergens have been associated with risk of various cancers and other chronic diseases, although the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are generally unclear. To facilitate future molecular epidemiologic investigations, in 2010 the study of Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) was initiated within the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort in Iowa and North Carolina. Here the design and methodology of BEEA are described and preliminary frequencies for participant characteristics and current agricultural exposures are reported. At least 1,600 male farmers over 50 years of age will be enrolled in the BEEA study. During a home visit, participants are asked to complete a detailed interview about recent agricultural exposures and provide samples of blood, urine, and (since 2013) house dust. As of mid-September 2014, in total, 1,233 participants have enrolled. Most of these participants (83%) were still farming at the time of interview. Among those still farming, the most commonly reported crops were corn (81%) and soybeans (74%), and the most frequently noted animals were beef cattle (35%) and hogs (13%). There were 861 (70%) participants who reported occupational pesticide use in the 12 months prior to interview; among these participants, the most frequently noted herbicides were glyphosate (83%) and 2,4-D (72%), and most commonly reported insecticides were malathion (21%), cyfluthrin (13%), and permethrin (12%). Molecular epidemiologic investigations within BEEA have the potential to yield important new insights into the biological mechanisms through which these or other agricultural exposures influence disease risk.

  1. Social networks and inflammatory markers in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Eric B; Sullivan, Lisa M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Larson, Martin G; Berkman, Lisa F; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2006-11-01

    Lack of social integration predicts coronary heart disease mortality in prospective studies; however, the biological pathways that may be responsible are poorly understood. The specific aims of this study were to examine whether social networks are associated with serum concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Participants in the Framingham Study attending examinations from 1998 to 2001 (n=3267) were eligible for inclusion in the study. Social networks were assessed using the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index (SNI). Concentrations of IL-6, CRP, sICAM-1 and MCP-1 were measured in fasting serum samples. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of social networks with inflammatory markers adjusting for potential confounders including age, smoking, blood pressure, total:HDL cholesterol ratio, body mass index, lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression and socioeconomic status. Results found that the SNI was significantly inversely associated with IL-6 in men (p=0.03) after adjusting for potential confounders. In age-adjusted analyses, social networks also were significantly inversely associated with IL-6 for women (p=0.03) and were marginally to modestly associated with CRP and sICAM-1 for men (p=0.08 and 0.02, respectively), but these associations were not significant in the multivariate analyses. In conclusion, social networks were found to be inversely associated with interleukin-6 levels in men. The possibility that inflammatory markers may be potential mediators between social integration and coronary heart disease merits further investigation.

  2. Prevalence of Work-Related Asthma in Primary Health Care: Study Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Rabell-Santacana, Ventura; Panadès-Valls, Rafael; Vila-Rigat, Rosa; Hernandez-Huet, Enric; Sivecas-Maristany, Joan; Blanché-Prat, Xavier; Prieto, Gemma; Muñoz, Laura; Torán, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Background : Occupational Asthma (OA) is the most frequent origin of occupational respiratory diseases in industrialized countries and accounts for between 5% and 25% of asthmatic patients. The correct and early diagnosis of OA is of great preventive and socio-economic importance. However, few studies exist on OA’s prevalence in Catalonia and in Spain and those affected are mainly treated by the public health services and not by the occupational health services, which are private. Objective : To determine the prevalence of OA in patients diagnosed with asthma in the Primary Healthcare system and to evaluate the socio-economic impact of OA in the Primary Healthcare system. Methods/Design : We will carry out an observational, transversal and multi-center study in the Primary Healthcare Service in the Barcelona region (Catalonia, Spain), with 385 asthmatic workers aged between 16 and 64 who are currently working or have been working in the past. We will confirm the asthma diagnosis in each patient, and those meeting the inclusion criteria will be asked to answer a questionnaire that aims to link asthma to the patient’s past employment history. The resulting diagnosis will be of either occupational asthma, work-aggravated asthma or common asthma. We will also collect socio-demographic information about the patients, about their smoking status, their exposure outside of the workplace, their work situation at the onset of the symptoms, their employment history, their symptoms of asthma, their present and past medical asthma treatment, and, in order to estimate the economic impact in the Primary Healthcare system, where they have been attended to and treated. Prevalence will link OA or work-aggravated asthma to the total of patients participating in the study with a asthma diagnosis. Discussion : The results will show the prevalence of OA and work-aggravated asthma, and shall provide valuable information to set out and apply the necessary personal and technical

  3. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET) randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Methods/design The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry); body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. Discussion The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical activity promotion in

  4. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET) randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Yam, Philippa S; Morrison, Ryan; Penpraze, Viki; Westgarth, Carri; Ward, Dianne S; Mutrie, Nanette; Hutchison, Pippa; Young, David; Reilly, John J

    2012-03-19

    Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry); body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical activity promotion in families. It should advance our

  5. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study physical education intervention component.

    PubMed

    McMurray, R G; Bassin, S; Jago, R; Bruecker, S; Moe, E L; Murray, T; Mazzuto, S L; Volpe, S L

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle school students. Middle schools at seven centers across the United States participated in the 3-year study. Half of them were randomized to receive a multi-component intervention. The intervention integrated nutrition, physical education (PE) and behavior changes with a communications strategy of promotional and educational materials and activities. The PE intervention component was developed over a series of pilot studies to maximize student participation and the time (in minutes) spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), while meeting state-mandated PE guidelines. The goal of the PE intervention component was to achieve > or =150 min of MVPA in PE classes every 10 school days with the expectation that it would provide a direct effect on adiposity and insulin resistance, subsequently reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes in youth. The PE intervention component curriculum used standard lesson plans to provide a comprehensive approach to middle school PE. Equipment and PE teacher assistants were provided for each school. An expert in PE at each center trained the PE teachers and assistants, monitored delivery of the intervention and provided ongoing feedback and guidance.

  6. British randomised controlled trial of AV and VV optimization ("BRAVO") study: rationale, design, and endpoints.

    PubMed

    Whinnett, Zachary I; Sohaib, S M Afzal; Jones, Siana; Kyriacou, Andreas; March, Katherine; Coady, Emma; Mayet, Jamil; Hughes, Alun D; Frenneaux, Michael; Francis, Darrel P

    2014-04-03

    Echocardiographic optimization of pacemaker settings is the current standard of care for patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy. However, the process requires considerable time of expert staff. The BRAVO study is a non-inferiority trial comparing echocardiographic optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delay with an alternative method using non-invasive blood pressure monitoring that can be automated to consume less staff resources. BRAVO is a multi-centre, randomized, cross-over, non-inferiority trial of 400 patients with a previously implanted cardiac resynchronization device. Patients are randomly allocated to six months in each arm. In the echocardiographic arm, AV delay is optimized using the iterative method and VV delay by maximizing LVOT VTI. In the haemodynamic arm AV and VV delay are optimized using non-invasive blood pressure measured using finger photoplethysmography. At the end of each six month arm, patients undergo the primary outcome measure of objective exercise capacity, quantified as peak oxygen uptake (VO2) on a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Secondary outcome measures are echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular remodelling, quality of life score and N-terminal pro B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-pro BNP). The study is scheduled to complete recruitment in December 2013 and to complete follow up in December 2014. If exercise capacity is non-inferior with haemodynamic optimization compared with echocardiographic optimization, it would be proof of concept that haemodynamic optimization is an acceptable alternative which has the potential to be more easily implemented. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01258829.

  7. Diet and lifestyle intervention among patients with colorectal adenomas: rationale and design of a Malaysian study.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, Mirnalini; Ramadas, Amutha; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Gul, Yunus Gul Alif

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of the large body of consistent evidence from laboratory, epidemiologic and clinical studies has led to the conclusion that modification of the dietary and lifestyle patterns of populations has considerable potential for reducing cancer risk. This paper describes a randomized-controlled trial involving a diet and lifestyle intervention for patients with history of colorectal adenomas. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention with reference to recurrence of adenomatous polyps over a two year period--the first year being the intervention period and the second year of the study allowing for post-intervention follow-up. Subjects found to fit the inclusion criteria are recruited and randomized to two groups: the intervention group and the control group. The intervention group subjects will attend a monthly lecture-discussion session for 10 months and small group counseling on modification of lifestyle behavior and diet as well as receive educational materials which were adapted from the WCRF Diet and Health Recommendations for Cancer Prevention. Control subjects will be provided with the usual care given to such patients. One hundred and sixteen patients who were diagnosed with colorectal adenomatous polyps in the previous twelve months at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur have already been enrolled in this trial. Baseline data collection is on-going.

  8. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study physical education intervention component

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, RG; Bassin, S; Jago, R; Bruecker, S; Moe, EL; Murray, T; Mazzuto, SL; Volpe, SL

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle school students. Middle schools at seven centers across the United States participated in the 3-year study. Half of them were randomized to receive a multi-component intervention. The intervention integrated nutrition, physical education (PE) and behavior changes with a communications strategy of promotional and educational materials and activities. The PE intervention component was developed over a series of pilot studies to maximize student participation and the time (in minutes) spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), while meeting state-mandated PE guidelines. The goal of the PE intervention component was to achieve ≥150 min of MVPA in PE classes every 10 school days with the expectation that it would provide a direct effect on adiposity and insulin resistance, subsequently reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes in youth. The PE intervention component curriculum used standard lesson plans to provide a comprehensive approach to middle school PE. Equipment and PE teacher assistants were provided for each school. An expert in PE at each center trained the PE teachers and assistants, monitored delivery of the intervention and provided ongoing feedback and guidance. PMID:19623187

  9. The School Inner-City Asthma Intervention Study: Design, rationale, methods, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Phipatanakul, Wanda; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A; Kang, Choong-Min; Wolfson, Jack M; Ferguson, Stephen T; Petty, Carter R; Samnaliev, Mihail; Cunningham, Amparito; Sheehan, William J; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Baxi, Sachin N; Lai, Peggy S; Permaul, Perdita; Liang, Liming; Thorne, Peter S; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Brennan, Kasey J; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Gold, Diane R

    2017-09-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States, causes significant morbidity, particularly in the inner-city, and accounts for billions of dollars in health care utilization. Home environments are established sources of exposure that exacerbate symptoms and home-based interventions are effective. However, elementary school children spend 7 to 12h a day in school, primarily in one classroom. From the observational School Inner-City Asthma Study we learned that student classroom-specific exposures are associated with worsening asthma symptoms and decline in lung function. We now embark on a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled school environmental intervention trial, built on our extensively established school/community partnerships, to determine the efficacy of a school-based intervention to improve asthma control. This factorial school/classroom based environmental intervention will plan to enroll 300 students with asthma from multiple classrooms in 40 northeastern inner-city elementary schools. Schools will be randomized to receive either integrated pest management versus control and classrooms within these schools to receive either air purifiers or sham control. The primary outcome is asthma symptoms during the school year. This study is an unprecedented opportunity to test whether a community of children can benefit from school or classroom environmental interventions. If effective, this will have great impact as an efficient, cost-effective intervention for inner city children with asthma and may have broad public policy implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of emerging health insurance arrangements on diabetes outcomes and disparities: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Wharam, J Frank; Soumerai, Steve; Trinacty, Connie; Eggleston, Emma; Zhang, Fang; LeCates, Robert; Canning, Claire; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Consumer-directed health plans combine lower premiums with high annual deductibles, Internet-based quality-of-care information, and health savings mechanisms. These plans may encourage members to seek better value for health expenditures but may also decrease essential care. The expansion of high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) represents a natural experiment of tremendous proportion. We designed a pre-post, longitudinal, quasi-experimental study to determine the effect of HDHPs on diabetes quality of care, outcomes, and disparities. We will use a 13-year rolling sample (2001-2013) of members of an HDHP and members of a control group. To reduce selection bias, we will limit participants to those whose employers mandate a single health insurance type. The study will measure rates of monthly hemoglobin A1c, lipid, and albuminuria testing; availability of blood glucose test strips; and rates of retinal examinations, high-severity emergency department visits, and preventable hospitalizations. Results could be used to design health plan features that promote high-quality care and better outcomes among people who have diabetes.

  11. Chlamyweb Study I: rationale, design and acceptability of an internet-based chlamydia testing intervention.

    PubMed

    Lydié, Nathalie; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Bluzat, Lucile; Le Roy, Chloé; Kersaudy-Rahib, Delphine

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the internet has widely facilitated Chlamydia trachomatis home-sampling. In France (2012), the Chlamyweb Study evaluated an intervention (Chlamyweb) involving home-based self-sampling via the internet. One element of the study consisted of a randomised controlled trial (RCT), which is reported in detail elsewhere. The focus of this paper, however, is on describing the Chlamyweb Intervention and reporting on the non-RCT element of the evaluation of that intervention by the Chlamyweb Study. This involves (1) describing the design and roll-out of the Chlamyweb Intervention, (2) comparing the socio-behavioural profiles of the participants in the intervention with a nationally representative general population sample and (3) examining the factors that influence the acceptance and return of a self-sampling kit supplied to participants in the course of the intervention. Self-sampling kits were offered to sexually active people aged 18-24 years living on the mainland French. Participants' characteristics were compared with the general population to describe recruited and participant populations. Multivariate analyses by conditional logistic regression were performed to determine factors that were predictors of kit acceptation and use. 7215 people aged 18-24 years were included. Compared with the general population, Chlamyweb reached larger proportions of women, younger people and people with several partners in the previous year. 3372 (46.7%) agreed to receive a self-sampling kit and 2084 (61.8%) returned it, with more women doing so than men. The participation rate was associated with age, place of birth, occupational status, number of partners and condom use, differently for men and women. The offer of easy-to-use, self-sampling kits free of charge appeared to be a logistically feasible strategy for testing in France and reached a large and diverse population including individuals who have limited access to the traditional healthcare system. AFFSAPS

  12. Rationale and design of the Multicenter Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study (MARQUIS).

    PubMed

    Salanitro, Amanda H; Kripalani, Sunil; Resnic, Joanne; Mueller, Stephanie K; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Haynes, Katherine Taylor; Stein, Jason; Kaboli, Peter J; Labonville, Stephanie; Etchells, Edward; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Hanson, David; Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Williams, Mark V; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2013-06-25

    Unresolved medication discrepancies during hospitalization can contribute to adverse drug events, resulting in patient harm. Discrepancies can be reduced by performing medication reconciliation; however, effective implementation of medication reconciliation has proven to be challenging. The goals of the Multi-Center Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study (MARQUIS) are to operationalize best practices for inpatient medication reconciliation, test their effect on potentially harmful unintentional medication discrepancies, and understand barriers and facilitators of successful implementation. Six U.S. hospitals are participating in this quality improvement mentored implementation study. Each hospital has collected baseline data on the primary outcome: the number of potentially harmful unintentional medication discrepancies per patient, as determined by a trained on-site pharmacist taking a "gold standard" medication history. With the guidance of their mentors, each site has also begun to implement one or more of 11 best practices to improve medication reconciliation. To understand the effect of the implemented interventions on hospital staff and culture, we are performing mixed methods program evaluation including surveys, interviews, and focus groups of front line staff and hospital leaders. At baseline the number of unintentional medication discrepancies in admission and discharge orders per patient varies by site from 2.35 to 4.67 (mean=3.35). Most discrepancies are due to history errors (mean 2.12 per patient) as opposed to reconciliation errors (mean 1.23 per patient). Potentially harmful medication discrepancies averages 0.45 per patient and varies by site from 0.13 to 0.82 per patient. We discuss several barriers to implementation encountered thus far. In the end, we anticipate that MARQUIS tools and lessons learned have the potential to decrease medication discrepancies and improve patient outcomes. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01337063.

  13. Determinants of health after hospital discharge: rationale and design of the Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The period following hospital discharge is a vulnerable time for patients when errors and poorly coordinated care are common. Suboptimal care transitions for patients admitted with cardiovascular conditions can contribute to readmission and other adverse health outcomes. Little research has examined the role of health literacy and other social determinants of health in predicting post-discharge outcomes. Methods The Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS), funded by the National Institutes of Health, is a prospective longitudinal study of 3,000 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes or acute decompensated heart failure. Enrollment began in October 2011 and is planned through October 2015. During hospitalization, a set of validated demographic, cognitive, psychological, social, behavioral, and functional measures are administered, and health status and comorbidities are assessed. Patients are interviewed by phone during the first week after discharge to assess the quality of hospital discharge, communication, and initial medication management. At approximately 30 and 90 days post-discharge, interviewers collect additional data on medication adherence, social support, functional status, quality of life, and health care utilization. Mortality will be determined with up to 3.5 years follow-up. Statistical models will examine hypothesized relationships of health literacy and other social determinants on medication management, functional status, quality of life, utilization, and mortality. In this paper, we describe recruitment, eligibility, follow-up, data collection, and analysis plans for VICS, as well as characteristics of the accruing patient cohort. Discussion This research will enhance understanding of how health literacy and other patient factors affect the quality of care transitions and outcomes after hospitalization. Findings will help inform the design of interventions to improve care transitions and post-discharge outcomes. PMID

  14. Improving physical activity in arthritis clinical trial (IMPAACT): study design, rationale, recruitment, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rowland W; Semanik, Pamela A; Lee, Jungwha; Feinglass, Joseph; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2014-11-01

    Over 21 million Americans report an arthritis-attributable activity limitation. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two of the most common/disabling forms of arthritis. Various forms of physical activity (PA) can improve a variety of health outcomes and reduce health care costs, but the proportion of the US population engaging in the recommended amount of PA is low and even lower among those with arthritis. The Improving Motivation for Physical Activity in Arthritis Clinical Trial (IMPAACT) is a randomized clinical trial that studied the effects of a lifestyle PA promotion intervention on pain and physical function outcomes. The IMPAACT intervention was based on a chronic care/disease management model in which allied health professionals promote patient self-management activities outside of traditional physician office encounters. The program was a motivational interviewing-based, individualized counseling and referral intervention, directed by a comprehensive assessment of individual patient barriers and strengths related to PA performance. The specific aims of IMPAACT were to test the efficacy of the IMPAACT intervention for persons with arthritis (N=185 persons with RA and 155 persons with knee OA) in improving arthritis-specific and generic self-reported pain and Physical Function outcomes, observed measures of function, and objectively measured and self-reported PA levels. Details of the stratified-randomized study design, subject recruitment, and data collection are described. The results from IMPAACT will generate empiric evidence pertaining to increasing PA levels in persons with arthritis and result in widely applicable strategies for health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rationale and design of the Multicenter Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study (MARQUIS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unresolved medication discrepancies during hospitalization can contribute to adverse drug events, resulting in patient harm. Discrepancies can be reduced by performing medication reconciliation; however, effective implementation of medication reconciliation has proven to be challenging. The goals of the Multi-Center Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study (MARQUIS) are to operationalize best practices for inpatient medication reconciliation, test their effect on potentially harmful unintentional medication discrepancies, and understand barriers and facilitators of successful implementation. Methods Six U.S. hospitals are participating in this quality improvement mentored implementation study. Each hospital has collected baseline data on the primary outcome: the number of potentially harmful unintentional medication discrepancies per patient, as determined by a trained on-site pharmacist taking a “gold standard” medication history. With the guidance of their mentors, each site has also begun to implement one or more of 11 best practices to improve medication reconciliation. To understand the effect of the implemented interventions on hospital staff and culture, we are performing mixed methods program evaluation including surveys, interviews, and focus groups of front line staff and hospital leaders. Discussion At baseline the number of unintentional medication discrepancies in admission and discharge orders per patient varies by site from 2.35 to 4.67 (mean=3.35). Most discrepancies are due to history errors (mean 2.12 per patient) as opposed to reconciliation errors (mean 1.23 per patient). Potentially harmful medication discrepancies averages 0.45 per patient and varies by site from 0.13 to 0.82 per patient. We discuss several barriers to implementation encountered thus far. In the end, we anticipate that MARQUIS tools and lessons learned have the potential to decrease medication discrepancies and improve patient outcomes. Trial

  16. The Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD): rationale, study design, and cohort description.

    PubMed

    Dardiotis, Efthimios; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating epidemiological evidence from several populations supports the important role of the Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) in reducing the risk for age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relevant literature is clearly deficient for most Mediterranean countries that more closely adhere to the originally described MeDi. Greece resides in the Mediterranean basin, and older generations traditionally adhere to a MeDi. We here present the design and the preliminary baseline characteristics of the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). The HELIAD is a population-based, multidisciplinary, collaborative study designed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of AD, other dementias, mild cognitive impairment, and other neuropsychiatric conditions of aging in the Greek population and to investigate associations between nutrition and cognitive dysfunction/age-related neuropsychiatric diseases in this Mediterranean population. The study also ascertains several demographic, medical, social, environmental, clinical, nutritional, and neuropsychological determinants and lifestyle activities. In total, 1,050 participants of a random sample have already completed the initial evaluation. The subjects were, on average, 73.4 (SD = 6.0) years old, 60% of the sample were female, and most of the participants were poorly educated with an average of 5.41 (SD = 3.5) years of education. The performance on the neuropsychological tests was equivalent to the average scores of previous normative Greek samples. More than one third of the population under investigation was considered to be at high risk for malnutrition. The HELIAD may provide important data for expanding our knowledge regarding the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of AD and several other neuropsychiatric diseases in the Mediterranean region. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A Multi-site, Two-Phase, Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS): Rationale, Design, and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Roger D.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Provost, Scott E.; Huang, Zhen; Jacobs, Petra; Hasson, Albert; Lindblad, Robert; Connery, Hilary Smith; Prather, Kristi; Ling, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network launched the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) in response to rising rates of prescription opioid dependence and gaps in understanding the optimal course of treatment for this population. POATS employed a multi-site, two-phase adaptive, sequential treatment design to approximate clinical practice. The study took place at 10 community treatment programs around the United States. Participants included men and women age ≥18 who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition criteria for dependence upon prescription opioids, with physiologic features; those with a prominent history of heroin use (according to pre-specified criteria) were excluded. All participants received buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nx). Phase 1 consisted of 4 weeks of bup/nx treatment, including a 14-day dose taper, with 8 weeks of follow-up. Phase 1 participants were monitored for treatment response during these 12 weeks. Those who relapsed to opioid use, as defined by pre-specified criteria, were invited to enter Phase 2; Phase 2 consisted of 12 weeks of bup/nx stabilization treatment, followed by a 4-week taper and 8 weeks of post-treatment follow-up. Participants were randomized at the beginning of Phase 1 to receive bup/nx, paired with either Standard Medical Management (SMM) or Enhanced Medical Management (EMM; defined as SMM plus individual drug counseling). Eligible participants entering Phase 2 were re-randomized to either EMM or SMM. POATS was developed to determine what benefit, if any, EMM offers over SMM in short-term and longer-term treatment paradigm. This paper describes the rationale and design of the study. PMID:20116457

  18. A multi-site, two-phase, Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS): rationale, design, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Provost, Scott E; Huang, Zhen; Jacobs, Petra; Hasson, Albert; Lindblad, Robert; Connery, Hilary Smith; Prather, Kristi; Ling, Walter

    2010-03-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network launched the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) in response to rising rates of prescription opioid dependence and gaps in understanding the optimal course of treatment for this population. POATS employed a multi-site, two-phase adaptive, sequential treatment design to approximate clinical practice. The study took place at 10 community treatment programs around the United States. Participants included men and women age > or =18 who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition criteria for dependence upon prescription opioids, with physiologic features; those with a prominent history of heroin use (according to pre-specified criteria) were excluded. All participants received buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nx). Phase 1 consisted of 4 weeks of bup/nx treatment, including a 14-day dose taper, with 8 weeks of follow-up. Phase 1 participants were monitored for treatment response during these 12 weeks. Those who relapsed to opioid use, as defined by pre-specified criteria, were invited to enter Phase 2; Phase 2 consisted of 12 weeks of bup/nx stabilization treatment, followed by a 4-week taper and 8 weeks of post-treatment follow-up. Participants were randomized at the beginning of Phase 1 to receive bup/nx, paired with either Standard Medical Management (SMM) or Enhanced Medical Management (EMM; defined as SMM plus individual drug counseling). Eligible participants entering Phase 2 were re-randomized to either EMM or SMM. POATS was developed to determine what benefit, if any, EMM offers over SMM in short-term and longer-term treatment paradigm. This paper describes the rationale and design of the study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nature of Science Progression in School Year 1-9: a Case Study of Teachers' Suggestions and Rationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena

    2017-07-01

    The inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in science education has for a long time been regarded as crucial. There is, however, a lack of research on appropriate NOS aspects for different educational levels. An even more neglected area of research is that focusing on teachers' perspectives on NOS teaching at different levels. The aim of this article is to examine NOS progression in the light of teachers' suggestions and rationales. In order to obtain teachers' informed perspectives, we chose to involve six teachers (teaching grades 1-9) in a 3-year research project. They took part in focus group discussions about NOS and NOS teaching as well as implemented jointly planned NOS teaching sessions. Data that this article builds on was collected at the end of the project. The teachers' suggestions for NOS progression often relied on adding more NOS issues at every stage, thereby creating the foundations of a broader but not necessarily deeper understanding of NOS. Five rationales, for if/when specific NOS issues are appropriate to introduce, emerged from the analysis of the teacher discussions. Some of these rationales, including practice makes perfect and increasing levels of depth can potentially accommodate room for many NOS issues in the science classroom, while maturity and experience instead has a restricting effect on NOS teaching. Also, choice of context and teaching approaches play an important role in teachers' rationales for whether specific NOS issues should be included or not at different stages. The article discusses the implications for teacher education and professional development.

  20. The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Lee, So-Yeon; Suh, Dong In; Shin, Youn Ho; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Seo, Ju-Hee; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Shin, Yee-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Ho; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2014-07-03

    This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child's neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child's genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim.The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child's exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre- and post-natal psychological stress

  1. The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre

  2. Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds: First Nations Cohort Study Rationale and Design.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sonia S; Abonyi, Sylvia; Arbour, Laura; Brook, Jeff; Bruce, Sharon; Castleden, Heather; Desai, Dipika; de Souza, Russell J; Harris, Stewart; Irvine, James; Lai, Christopher; Lewis, Diana; Oster, Richard T; Poirier, Paul; Toth, Ellen L; Bannon, Karen; Chrisjohn, Vicky; Davis, Albertha D; L'Hommecourt, Jean; Littlechild, Randy; McMullin, Kathleen; McIntosh, Sarah; Morrison, Julie; Picard, Manon; Landing First Nation, Pictou; M Thomas, Melissa; Tusevljak, Natasa; Friedrich, Matthias G; Tu, Jack V

    2018-01-01

    This is the first national indigenous cohort study in which a common, in-depth protocol with a common set of objectives has been adopted by several indigenous communities across Canada. The overarching objective of the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) cohort is to investigate how the community-level environment is associated with individual health behaviors and the presence and progression of chronic disease risk factors and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. CAHHM aims to recruit approximately 2,000 First Nations indigenous individuals from up to nine communities across Canada and have participants complete questionnaires, blood collection, physical measurements, cognitive assessments, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Through individual- and community-level data collection, we will develop an understanding of the specific role of the socioenvironmental, biological, and contextual factors have on the development of chronic disease risk factors and chronic diseases. Information collected in the indigenous cohort will be used to assist communities to develop local management strategies for chronic disease, and can be used collectively to understand the contextual, environmental, socioeconomic, and biological determinants of differences in health status in harmony with First Nations beliefs and reality.

  3. Neuroimaging Studies of Factors Related to Exercise: Rationale and design of a 9 month trial

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Martin, Laura E.; Breslin, Florence J.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Willis, Erik A.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Befort, Christie A.; Lambourne, Kate; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Savage, Cary R.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high resulting from chronic imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. On the expenditure side, regular exercise is associated with health benefits, including enhanced brain function. The benefits of exercise are not immediate and require persistence to be realized. Brain regions associated with health-related decisions, such as whether or not to exercise or controlling the impulse to engage in immediately rewarding activities (e.g., sedentary behavior), include reward processing and cognitive control regions. A 9 month aerobic exercise study will be conducted in 180 sedentary adults (n = 90 healthy weight [BMI= 18.5 to 26.0 kg/m2]; n = 90 obese [BMI=29.0 to 41.0 kg/m2) to examine the brain processes underlying reward processing and impulse control that may affect adherence in a new exercise regimen. The primary aim is to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine reward processing and impulse control among participants that adhere (exercise >80% of sessions) and those that do not adhere to a nine-month exercise intervention with secondary analyses comparing sedentary obese and sedentary healthy weight participants. Our results will provide valuable information characterizing brain activation underlying reward processing and impulse control in sedentary obese and healthy weight individuals. In addition, our results may identify brain activation predictors of adherence and success in the exercise program along with measuring the effects of exercise and improved fitness on brain activation. PMID:24291150

  4. Alpha-hydroxyacid chemical peeling agents: case studies and rationale for safe and effective use.

    PubMed

    Briden, M Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    Chemical peeling is an in-office procedure that involves the application of a chemical agent to the skin to induce controlled destruction or exfoliation of old skin and stimulation of new epidermal growth with more evenly distributed melanin. When peel agents reach the dermal layer, important wound-healing activities occur that cause skin remodeling and skin smoothing, both antiaging benefits. There are a number of key factors in selecting a peeling agent and procedure, and each is discussed. Variables to consider are the peeling agent and its formulation, the concentration of the agent, the patient's skin type, the site to be peeled, the skin preparation procedure prior to and immediately preceding the application of the agent, the application method, the duration of contact, and the patient's medical history and lifestyle. Various types of peels are discussed. Of particular interest are superficial chemical peels, which offer great flexibility over a range of skin types and conditions with minimal to no "downtime." Alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) peels are superficial and can be combined with other cosmetic procedures in the office to maximize benefits. In addition, AHA peels work well when combined with supportive homecare products including AHAs or polyhydroxy acids (PHAs), topical retinoids, and antiacne/antirosacea treatments. Case studies are presented of patients using AHA peels for the treatment of acne and hyperpigmentation in a variety of skin types, including Asian skin.

  5. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

  6. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: rationale, design, and early results.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Bruce; Brueckner, Martina; Chung, Wendy; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Kaltman, Jonathan; Kaski, Juan Pablo; Kim, Richard; Kline, Jennie; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Porter, George; Roberts, Amy; Rosenberg, Ellen; Seiden, Howard; Seidman, Christine; Sleeper, Lynn; Tennstedt, Sharon; Kaltman, Jonathan; Schramm, Charlene; Burns, Kristin; Pearson, Gail; Rosenberg, Ellen

    2013-02-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the leading cause of infant mortality among birth defects, and later morbidities and premature mortality remain problematic. Although genetic factors contribute significantly to cause CHD, specific genetic lesions are unknown for most patients. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium established the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to investigate relationships between genetic factors, clinical features, and outcomes in CHD. The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium comprises 6 main and 4 satellite sites at which subjects are recruited, and medical data and biospecimens (blood, saliva, cardiovascular tissue) are collected. Core infrastructure includes an administrative/data-coordinating center, biorepository, data hub, and core laboratories (genotyping, whole-exome sequencing, candidate gene evaluation, and variant confirmation). Eligibility includes all forms of CHD. Annual follow-up is obtained for probands <1-year-old. Parents are enrolled whenever available. Enrollment from December 2010 to June 2012 comprised 3772 probands. One or both parents were enrolled for 72% of probands. Proband median age is 5.5 years. The one third enrolled at age <1 year are contacted annually for follow-up information. The distribution of CHD favors more complex lesions. Approximately, 11% of probands have a genetic diagnosis. Adequate DNA is available from 97% and 91% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. Genomic analyses of probands with heterotaxy, atrial septal defects, conotruncal, and left ventricular outflow tract obstructive lesions are underway. The scientific community's use of Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium resources is welcome.

  7. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sonia S; Vasudevan, Anil; Gupta, Milan; Morrison, Katherine; Kurpad, Anura; Teo, Koon K; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2013-01-28

    People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  8. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h 2 , fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.

  9. Texas Medication Algorithm Project, phase 3 (TMAP-3): rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Rush, A John; Crismon, M Lynn; Kashner, T Michael; Toprac, Marcia G; Carmody, Thomas J; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Suppes, Trisha; Miller, Alexander L; Biggs, Melanie M; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Witte, Bradley P; Shon, Steven P; Rago, William V; Altshuler, Kenneth Z

    2003-04-01

    Medication treatment algorithms may improve clinical outcomes, uniformity of treatment, quality of care, and efficiency. However, such benefits have never been evaluated for patients with severe, persistent mental illnesses. This study compared clinical and economic outcomes of an algorithm-driven disease management program (ALGO) with treatment-as-usual (TAU) for adults with DSM-IV schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) treated in public mental health outpatient clinics in Texas. The disorder-specific intervention ALGO included a consensually derived and feasibility-tested medication algorithm, a patient/family educational program, ongoing physician training and consultation, a uniform medical documentation system with routine assessment of symptoms and side effects at each clinic visit to guide ALGO implementation, and prompting by on-site clinical coordinators. A total of 19 clinics from 7 local authorities were matched by authority and urban status, such that 4 clinics each offered ALGO for only 1 disorder (SCZ, BD, or MDD). The remaining 7 TAU clinics offered no ALGO and thus served as controls (TAUnonALGO). To determine if ALGO for one disorder impacted care for another disorder within the same clinic ("culture effect"), additional TAU subjects were selected from 4 of the ALGO clinics offering ALGO for another disorder (TAUinALGO). Patient entry occurred over 13 months, beginning March 1998 and concluding with the final active patient visit in April 2000. Research outcomes assessed at baseline and periodically for at least 1 year included (1) symptoms, (2) functioning, (3) cognitive functioning (for SCZ), (4) medication side effects, (5) patient satisfaction, (6) physician satisfaction, (7) quality of life, (8) frequency of contacts with criminal justice and state welfare system, (9) mental health and medical service utilization and cost, and (10) alcohol and substance abuse and supplemental substance use information

  10. PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain: rationale and design of the PROMISE trial.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Hoffmann, Udo; Lee, Kerry L; Mark, Daniel B; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Anstrom, Kevin; Dolor, Rowena J; Kosinski, Andrzej; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Mudrick, Daniel W; Patel, Manesh R; Picard, Michael H; Udelson, James E; Velazquez, Eric J; Cooper, Lawton

    2014-06-01

    Suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common, potentially life-threatening diagnostic problems clinicians encounter. However, no large outcome-based randomized trials have been performed to guide the selection of diagnostic strategies for these patients. The PROMISE study is a prospective, randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of 2 initial diagnostic strategies in patients with symptoms suspicious for CAD. Patients are randomized to either (1) functional testing (exercise electrocardiogram, stress nuclear imaging, or stress echocardiogram) or (2) anatomical testing with ≥64-slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography. Tests are interpreted locally in real time by subspecialty certified physicians, and all subsequent care decisions are made by the clinical care team. Sites are provided results of central core laboratory quality and completeness assessment. All subjects are followed up for ≥1 year. The primary end point is the time to occurrence of the composite of death, myocardial infarction, major procedural complications (stroke, major bleeding, anaphylaxis, and renal failure), or hospitalization for unstable angina. More than 10,000 symptomatic subjects were randomized in 3.2 years at 193 US and Canadian cardiology, radiology, primary care, urgent care, and anesthesiology sites. Multispecialty community practice enrollment into a large pragmatic trial of diagnostic testing strategies is both feasible and efficient. The PROMISE trial will compare the clinical effectiveness of an initial strategy of functional testing against an initial strategy of anatomical testing in symptomatic patients with suspected CAD. Quality of life, resource use, cost-effectiveness, and radiation exposure will be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain: Rationale and Design of the PROMISE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Lee, Kerry L.; Mark, Daniel B.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Anstrom, Kevin; Dolor, Rowena J.; Kosinski, Andrzej; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Mudrick, Daniel W.; Patel, Manesh R.; Picard, Michael H.; Udelson, James E.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Cooper, Lawton

    2014-01-01

    Background Suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common, potentially life threatening diagnostic problems clinicians encounter. However, no large outcome-based randomized trials have been performed to guide the selection of diagnostic strategies for these patients. Methods The PROMISE study is a prospective, randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of two initial diagnostic strategies in patients with symptoms suspicious for CAD. Patients are randomized to either: 1) functional testing (exercise electrocardiogram, stress nuclear imaging, or stress echocardiogram); or 2) anatomic testing with >=64 slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography. Tests are interpreted locally in real time by subspecialty certified physicians and all subsequent care decisions are made by the clinical care team. Sites are provided results of central core lab quality and completeness assessment. All subjects are followed for ≥1 year. The primary end-point is the time to occurrence of the composite of death, myocardial infarction, major procedural complications (stroke, major bleeding, anaphylaxis and renal failure) or hospitalization for unstable angina. Results Over 10,000 symptomatic subjects were randomized in 3.2 years at 193 US and Canadian cardiology, radiology, primary care, urgent care and anesthesiology sites. Conclusion Multi-specialty community practice enrollment into a large pragmatic trial of diagnostic testing strategies is both feasible and efficient. PROMISE will compare the clinical effectiveness of an initial strategy of functional testing against an initial strategy of anatomic testing in symptomatic patients with suspected CAD. Quality of life, resource use, cost effectiveness and radiation exposure will be assessed. Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT01174550 PMID:24890527

  12. International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) trial: Rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Maron, David J; Hochman, Judith S; O'Brien, Sean M; Reynolds, Harmony R; Boden, William E; Stone, Gregg W; Bangalore, Sripal; Spertus, John A; Mark, Daniel B; Alexander, Karen P; Shaw, Leslee; Berger, Jeffrey S; Ferguson, T Bruce; Williams, David O; Harrington, Robert A; Rosenberg, Yves

    2018-07-01

    cardiovascular (CV) death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), hospitalization for unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. Assuming the primary endpoint will occur in 16% of the conservative group within 4 years, estimated power exceeds 80% to detect an 18.5% reduction in the primary endpoint. Major secondary endpoints include the composite of CV death and nonfatal MI, net clinical benefit (primary and secondary endpoints combined with stroke), angina-related symptoms and disease-specific quality of life, as well as a cost-effectiveness assessment in North American participants. Ancillary studies of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and those with documented ischemia and non-obstructive coronary artery disease are being conducted concurrently. ISCHEMIA will provide new scientific evidence regarding whether an invasive management strategy improves clinical outcomes when added to optimal medical therapy in patients with SIHD and moderate or severe ischemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Security controls in an integrated Biobank to protect privacy in data sharing: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nagasaki, Masao; Ogishima, Soichi; Nakamura, Naoki; Nagase, Sachiko; Nagaie, Satoshi; Saito, Tomo; Nagami, Fuji; Minegishi, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoichi; Suzuki, Kichiya; Hashizume, Hiroaki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Hozawa, Atsushi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kure, Shigeo; Tamiya, Gen; Kawaguchi, Yoshio; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2017-07-06

    With the goal of realizing genome-based personalized healthcare, we have developed a biobank that integrates personal health, genome, and omics data along with biospecimens donated by volunteers of 150,000. Such a large-scale of data integration involves obvious risks of privacy violation. The research use of personal genome and health information is a topic of global discussion with regard to the protection of privacy while promoting scientific advancement. The present paper reports on our plans, current attempts, and accomplishments in addressing security problems involved in data sharing to ensure donor privacy while promoting scientific advancement. Biospecimens and data have been collected in prospective cohort studies with the comprehensive agreement. The sample size of 150,000 participants was required for multiple researches including genome-wide screening of gene by environment interactions, haplotype phasing, and parametric linkage analysis. We established the T ohoku M edical M egabank (TMM) data sharing policy: a privacy protection rule that requires physical, personnel, and technological safeguards against privacy violation regarding the use and sharing of data. The proposed policy refers to that of NCBI and that of the Sanger Institute. The proposed policy classifies shared data according to the strength of re-identification risks. Local committees organized by TMM evaluate re-identification risk and assign a security category to a dataset. Every dataset is stored in an assigned segment of a supercomputer in accordance with its security category. A security manager should be designated to handle all security problems at individual data use locations. The proposed policy requires closed networks and IP-VPN remote connections. The mission of the biobank is to distribute biological resources most productively. This mission motivated us to collect biospecimens and health data and simultaneously analyze genome/omics data in-house. The biobank also has the

  14. Small sustainable monetary incentives versus charitable donations to promote exercise: Rationale, design, and baseline data from a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Lee, Harold H; Connell, Lauren; Boyle, Holly; Emerson, Jessica; Strohacker, Kelley; Galárraga, Omar

    2018-03-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) enhances weight-loss and reduces risk of chronic disease. However, as few as 10% of U.S. adults engage in regular PA. Incentive programs to promote PA have shown some promise, but have typically used incentives that are too large to sustain over time and have not demonstrated habit formation or been tested in community settings. This report presents the rationale and design of a randomized pilot study testing the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of small monetary incentives for PA (n=25) versus charitable donations in the same amount (n=25) versus control (n=25) over 12months among 75 low-active but otherwise healthy adults at a local YMCA. Incentives are based on YMCA attendance, which is verified by electronic swipe card data and is the primary study outcome, with self-reported minutes/week of PA assessed as a secondary outcome. Incentives are intentionally small enough-$1/session, maximum of $5/week-such that they could be indefinitely sustained by community organizations, privately-owned health clubs, healthcare organizations, or employers (e.g., employer fitness facilities). Costs of the incentive program for the sponsoring organization may be partially offset by increases in membership resulting from the appeal of the program. Moreover, if efficacious, the charitable donation incentive program may have the added benefit of building social capital for the sponsoring organization and potentially serving as a tax write-off, thus further offsetting the cost of the incentives. Findings will also have implications for the use of financially sustainable community-based incentive programs for other health-related behaviors (e.g., weight loss, smoking). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND): rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jeff D; Miller, Michael E; Bryan, R Nick; Lazar, Ronald M; Coker, Laura H; Johnson, Janice; Cukierman, Tali; Horowitz, Karen R; Murray, Anne; Launer, Lenore J

    2007-06-18

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment are 2 of the most common chronic conditions found in persons aged > or = 60 years. Clinical studies have shown a greater prevalence of global cognitive impairment, incidence of cognitive decline, and incidence of Alzheimer disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. To date, there have been no randomized trials of the effects of long-term glycemic control on cognitive function and structural brain changes in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND) is to test whether there is a difference in the rate of cognitive decline and structural brain change in patients with diabetes treated with standard-care guidelines compared with those treated with intensive-care guidelines. This comparison will be made in a subsample of 2,977 patients with diabetes participating in the ongoing ACCORD trial, a clinical trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) with support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Data from this ACCORD substudy on the possible beneficial or adverse effects of intensive treatment on cognitive function will be obtained from a 30-minute test battery, administered at baseline and 20-month and 40-month visits. In addition, full-brain magnetic resonance imaging will be performed on 630 participants at baseline and at 40 months to assess the relation between the ACCORD treatments and structural brain changes. The general aim of ACCORD-MIND is to determine whether the intensive treatment of diabetes, a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, can reduce the early decline in cognitive function that could later evolve into more cognitively disabling conditions. This report presents the design, rationale, and methods of the ACCORD-MIND substudy.

  16. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  17. Organisational justice and markers of inflammation: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gimeno, David; De Vogli, Roberto; Shipley, Martin; Vahtera, Jussi; Brunner, Eric; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-02-01

    Low organisational justice has been shown to be associated with increased risk of various health problems, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We tested whether organisational injustice contributes to chronic inflammation in a population of middle-aged men and women. This prospective cohort study uses data from 3205 men and 1204 women aged 35-55 years at entry into the Whitehall II study (phase 1, 1985-1988). Organisational justice perceptions were assessed at phase 1 and phase 2 (1989-1990) and circulating inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 at phase 3 (1991-1993) and phase 7 (2003-2004). In men, low organisational justice was associated with increased CRP levels at both follow-ups (phase 3 and 7) and increased IL-6 at the second follow-up (phase 7). The long term (phase 7) associations were largely independent of covariates, such as age, employment grade, body mass index and depressive symptoms. In women, no relationship was found between organisational justice and CRP or IL-6. This study suggests that organisational injustice is associated with increased long-term levels of inflammatory markers among men.

  18. Markers of mechanical asphyxia: immunohistochemical study on autoptic lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, R; Sestili, C; Prosperini, G; Cecchetto, G; Vicini, E; Viel, G; Muciaccia, B

    2014-01-01

    Forensic pathologists are often asked to provide evidence of asphyxia death in the trial and a histological marker of asphyxiation would be of great help. Data from the literature indicate that the reaction of lung tissue cells to asphyxia may be of more interest for forensic purposes than migrating cells. The lungs of 62 medico-legal autopsy cases, 34 acute mechanical asphyxia (AMA), and 28 control cases (CC), were immunostained with anti-P-selectin, anti-E-selectin, anti-SP-A, and anti-HIF1-α antibodies, in order to verify if some of them may be used as markers of asphyxia death. Results show that P- and E-selectins expression in lung vessels, being activated by several types of trigger stimuli not specific to hypoxia, cannot be used as indicator of asphyxia. Intra-alveolar granular deposits of SP-A seem to be related to an intense hypoxic stimulus, and when massively present, they can suggest, together with other elements, a severe hypoxia as the mechanism of death. HIF1-α was expressed in small-, medium-, and large-caliber lung vessels of the vast majority of mechanical asphyxia deaths and CO intoxications, with the number and intensity of positive-stained vessels increasing with the duration of the hypoxia. Although further confirmation studies are required, these preliminary data indicate an interesting potential utility of HIF1-α as a screening test for asphyxia deaths.

  19. Rationale, design and methods for the 22 year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon M; Hall, Graham L; Mountain, Jenny; Howie, Erin K; White, Elisha; McArdle, Nigel; Eastwood, Peter R

    2015-07-14

    Young adulthood is a critical life period for health and health behaviours. Related measurements collected before and after birth, and during childhood and adolescence can provide a life-course analysis of important factors that contribute to health and behaviour in young adulthood. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study has collected a large number of such measurements during the fetal, perinatal, infancy, childhood and adolescence periods and plans to relate them to common health issues and behaviours in young adults, including spinal pain, asthma, sleep disorders, physical activity and sedentary behaviour and, work absenteeism and presenteeism. The aim of this paper is to describe the rationale, design and methods of the 22 year follow-up of the Raine Study cohort. The Raine Study is a prospective cohort study. Participants still active in the cohort (n = 2,086) were contacted around the time of their 22nd birthday and invited to participate in the 22 year follow-up. Each was asked to complete a questionnaire, attend a research facility for physical assessment and an overnight sleep study, wear activity monitors for a week, and to maintain a sleep and activity diary over this week. The questionnaire was broad and included questions related to sociodemographics, medical history, quality of life, psychological factors, lifestyle factors, spinal pain, respiratory, sleep, activity and work factors. Physical assessments included anthropometry, blood pressure, back muscle endurance, tissue sensitivity, lung function, airway reactivity, allergic status, 3D facial photographs, cognitive function, and overnight polysomnography. Describing the prevalence of these health issues and behaviours in young adulthood will enable better recognition of the issues and planning of health care resources. Providing a detailed description of the phenotype of these issues will provide valuable information to help educate health professionals of the needs of young adults

  20. The Family Value of Information, Community Support, and Experience Study: Rationale, Design, and Methods of a "Family-Centered" Research Study.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gloria M; Wehring, Heidi J; Connors, Kathleen M; Bussell, Kristin; Schiffman, Jason; Medoff, Deborah R; Tsuji, Thomas; Walker, Jane; Brown, Alicia; Strobeck, Danielle; Clough, Tammy; Rush, Caitlin B; Riddle, Mark A; Love, Raymond C; Zachik, Albert; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Olin, S Serene; Stephan, Sharon; Okuzawa, Nana; Edwards, Sarah; Baquet, Claudia; dosReis, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act focuses on improving consumer engagement and patient-centered care. This article describes the design and rationale of a study targeting family engagement in pediatric mental health services. The study is a 90-day randomized trial of a telephone-delivered Family Navigator services versus usual care for parents of Medicaid-insured youth younger than 13 years with serious mental illness. Youth are identified through a pediatric antipsychotic medication preauthorization program. Family Navigators offer peer support to empower and engage parents in their child's recovery. Outcomes include parent report of empowerment, social support, satisfaction with child mental health services, and child functioning as well as claims-based measures of psychotherapy service utilization and antipsychotic medication dosage. The focus on "family-centered" care in this study is strongly supported by the active role of consumers in study design and implementation.

  1. Rationale, design, and methodology for the optimizing outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and their infants study.

    PubMed

    Berry, Diane C; Neal, Madeline; Hall, Emily G; Schwartz, Todd A; Verbiest, Sarah; Bonuck, Karen; Goodnight, William; Brody, Seth; Dorman, Karen F; Menard, Mary K; Stuebe, Alison M

    2013-10-10

    Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To date, there have been few interdisciplinary interventions that target predominantly ethnic minority low-income women diagnosed with GDM. This paper describes the rationale, design and methodology of a 2-year, randomized, controlled study being conducted in North Carolina. Using a two-group, repeated measures, experimental design, we will test a 14- week intensive intervention on the benefits of breastfeeding, understanding gestational diabetes and risk of progression to prediabetes and T2DM, nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training, physical activity (Phase I), educational and motivational text messaging and 3 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II). A total of 100 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic women between 22-36 weeks of pregnancy who are diagnosed with GDM and their infants will be randomized to either the experimental group or the wait-listed control group. The first aim of the study is to determine the feasibility of the intervention. The second aim of study is to test the effects of the intervention on maternal outcomes from baseline (22-36 weeks pregnant) to 10 months postpartum. Primary maternal outcomes will include fasting blood glucose and weight (BMI) from baseline to 10 months postpartum. Secondary maternal outcomes will include clinical, adiposity, health behaviors and self-efficacy outcomes from baseline to 10 months postpartum. The third aim of the study is to quantify the effects of the intervention on infant feeding and growth. Infant outcomes will include weight status and breastfeeding from birth through 10 months of age. Data analysis will include general linear mixed-effects models. Safety endpoints include adverse event reporting. Findings from this trial may lead to an effective intervention to assist women diagnosed with GDM to

  2. Rationale, design, and methodology for the optimizing outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and their infants study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To date, there have been few interdisciplinary interventions that target predominantly ethnic minority low-income women diagnosed with GDM. This paper describes the rationale, design and methodology of a 2-year, randomized, controlled study being conducted in North Carolina. Methods/Design Using a two-group, repeated measures, experimental design, we will test a 14- week intensive intervention on the benefits of breastfeeding, understanding gestational diabetes and risk of progression to prediabetes and T2DM, nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training, physical activity (Phase I), educational and motivational text messaging and 3 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II). A total of 100 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic women between 22–36 weeks of pregnancy who are diagnosed with GDM and their infants will be randomized to either the experimental group or the wait-listed control group. The first aim of the study is to determine the feasibility of the intervention. The second aim of study is to test the effects of the intervention on maternal outcomes from baseline (22–36 weeks pregnant) to 10 months postpartum. Primary maternal outcomes will include fasting blood glucose and weight (BMI) from baseline to 10 months postpartum. Secondary maternal outcomes will include clinical, adiposity, health behaviors and self-efficacy outcomes from baseline to 10 months postpartum. The third aim of the study is to quantify the effects of the intervention on infant feeding and growth. Infant outcomes will include weight status and breastfeeding from birth through 10 months of age. Data analysis will include general linear mixed-effects models. Safety endpoints include adverse event reporting. Discussion Findings from this trial may lead to an effective

  3. Criteria for selection and application of molecular markers for clinical studies of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Otterness, I G; Swindell, A C

    2003-03-01

    To develop criteria for the selection and application of molecular markers for the study of osteoarthritis (OA). Statistical criteria for marker selection for OA are developed. After studying more than 20 different molecular markers for monitoring OA, procedures for choosing markers for clinical studies have been developed. For a particular study, the process starts with the markers showing 'face-validity' for monitoring OA. They are next required to successfully distinguish OA patients from controls. This necessitates definition of the distribution of marker values in OA patients and controls. So far, they have been consistently log-normal. The difference (Delta) in marker values between OA and controls defines the opportunity for marker improvement. The between-visit standard deviation (S) in patients puts limits on the detection of marker changes. The two variables can be combined to estimate the practicality of a marker using a modified power analysis. The number of patients (N*) required to observe a 50% improvement with an alpha level of P=0.05 and with 80% certainty is estimated as 50(S/Delta)(2). N*, S and Delta should be used to characterize and compare markers. Marker efficiency can be refined by regressing on secondary variables, such as age, sex, BMI, severity, etc. Finally, the use of two or more markers may be required to improve marker prediction of clinical outcome. Correlated markers can be used to reinforce conclusions by essentially adding replicative data. Independent, complementary markers can be used to develop associations with clinical parameters, and perhaps diagnose and monitor disease status, activities that so far have not been possible with single markers.

  4. Establishing the bidirectional relationship between depression and subclinical arteriosclerosis--rationale, design, and characteristics of the BiDirect Study.

    PubMed

    Teismann, Henning; Wersching, Heike; Nagel, Maren; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Baune, Bernhard T; Wellmann, Jürgen; Hense, Hans-Werner; Berger, Klaus

    2014-06-13

    Depression and cardiovascular diseases due to arteriosclerosis are both frequent and impairing conditions. Depression and (subclinical) arteriosclerosis appear to be related in a bidirectional way, and it is plausible to assume a partly joint causal relationship. However, the biological mechanisms and the behavioral pathways that lead from depression to arteriosclerosis and vice versa remain to be exactly determined. This study protocol describes the rationale and design of the prospective BiDirect Study that aims at investigating the mutual relationship between depression and (subclinical) arteriosclerosis. BiDirect is scheduled to follow-up three distinct cohorts of individuals ((i) patients with acute depression (N = 999), (ii) patients after an acute cardiac event (N = 347), and (iii) reference subjects from the general population (N = 912)). Over the course of 12 years, four personal examinations are planned to be conducted. The core examination program, which will remain identical across follow-ups, comprises a personal interview (e.g. medical diagnoses, health care utilization, lifestyle and risk behavior), a battery of self-administered questionnaires (e.g. depressive symptoms, readiness to change health behavior, perceived health-related quality of life), sensory (e.g. olfaction, pain) and neuropsychological (e.g. memory, executive functions, emotional processing, manual dexterity) assessments, anthropometry, body impedance measurement, a clinical work-up regarding the vascular status (e.g. electrocardiogram, blood pressure, intima media thickness), the taking of blood samples (serum and plasma, DNA), and structural and functional resonance imaging of the brain (e.g. diffusion tensor imaging, resting-state, emotional faces processing). The present report includes BiDirect-Baseline, the first data collection wave. Due to its prospective character, the integration of three distinct cohorts, the long follow-up time window, the diligent diagnosis of depression

  5. Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    van Norden, Anouk Gw; de Laat, Karlijn F; Gons, Rob Ar; van Uden, Inge Wm; van Dijk, Ewoud J; van Oudheusden, Lucas Jb; Esselink, Rianne Aj; Bloem, Bastiaan R; van Engelen, Baziel Gm; Zwarts, Machiel J; Tendolkar, Indira; Olde-Rikkert, Marcel G; van der Vlugt, Maureen J; Zwiers, Marcel P; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2011-02-28

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML) and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM). Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white matter in the transition from "normal" aging to cognitive and

  6. Rationale and Methods of the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study (SUPIC): A Longitudinal Study of Army Service Members Returning from Deployment in FY2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Mary Jo; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Mohr, Beth A.; Harris, Alex H. S.; Merrick, Elizabeth L.; Funk, Wendy; Hofmann, Keith; Wooten, Nikki R.; Jeffery, Diana D.; Williams, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    SUPIC will examine whether early detection and intervention for post-deployment problems among Army Active Duty and National Guard/Reservists returning from Iraq or Afghanistan are associated with improved long-term substance use and psychological outcomes. This paper describes the rationale and significance of SUPIC, and presents demographic and deployment characteristics of the study sample (N=643,205), and self-reported alcohol use and health problems from the subsample with matched post-deployment health assessments (N=487,600). This longitudinal study aims to provide new insight into the long-term post-deployment outcomes of Army members by combining service member data from the Military Health System and Veterans Health Administration. PMID:23869459

  7. Mismatches in genetic markers in a large family study.

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, G C

    1980-01-01

    The Hawaii Family Study of Cognition provided an opportunity to investigate the frequency and implications of non-agreement, or mismatches, between observed and expected genetic marker phenotypes of husbands, wives, and children. Mismatch data from 68 families in which one or both spouses were known not to be a biological parent were used to determine the rate of undeclared nonparentage in 1,748 families in which conventional relationships were claimed. Two independent approaches gave consistent estimates, suggesting that approximately 2.3% of the 2,839 tested children from these families were probably the result of infidelity, concealed adoption, or another event. About two-thirds of the mismatches detected were probably due to properties of the techniques employed. PMID:6930820

  8. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the family partners for health study: a cluster randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young children who are overweight are at increased risk of becoming obese and developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Therefore, early intervention is critical. This paper describes the rationale, design, methodology, and sample characteristics of a 5-year cluster randomized controlled trial being conducted in eight elementary schools in rural North Carolina, United States. Methods/Design The first aim of the trial is to examine the effects of a two-phased intervention on weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy in overweight or obese 2nd, 3 rd, and 4th grade children and their overweight or obese parents. The primary outcome in children is stabilization of BMI percentile trajectory from baseline to 18 months. The primary outcome in parents is a decrease in BMI from baseline to 18 months. Secondary outcomes for both children and parents include adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy from baseline to 18 months. A secondary aim of the trial is to examine in the experimental group, the relationships between parents and children's changes in weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy. An exploratory aim is to determine whether African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children and parents in the experimental group benefit differently from the intervention in weight status, adiposity, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. A total of 358 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic children with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and 358 parents with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 have been inducted over 3 1/2 years and randomized by cohort to either an experimental or a wait-listed control group. The experimental group receives a 12-week intensive intervention of nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training and exercise (Phase I), 9 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II) and then 6 months

  9. Greek PDO saffron authentication studies using species specific molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Bosmali, I; Ordoudi, S A; Tsimidou, M Z; Madesis, P

    2017-10-01

    Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C. sativus L. from the cultivation area of "Krokos Kozanis" as well as the potential differences with the band pattern produced by other Crocus species. Then, species-specific markers were developed taking advantage of an advanced molecular technique such as the HRM analysis coupled with universal DNA barcoding regions (trnL) (Bar-HRM) and applied to saffron admixtures with some of the most common plant adulterants (Calendula officinalis, Carthamus tinctorius, Gardenia jasminoides, Zea mays and Curcuma longa). The sensitivity of the procedure was tested for turmeric as a case study whereas HPLC-fluorescence determination of secondary metabolites was also employed for comparison. The overall results indicated that the Bar-HRM approach is quite effective in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Its effectiveness regarding the detection of turmeric was comparable to that of a conventional HPLC method (0.5% vs 1.0%, w/w). Yet, the proposed DNA-based method is much faster, cost-effective and can be used even by non-geneticists, in any laboratory having access to an HRM-capable real-time PCR instrumentation. It can be, thus, regarded as a strong analytical tool in saffron authentication studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Considerations in the rationale, design and methods of the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study

    PubMed Central

    Babiker, Abdel G; Emery, Sean; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Gordin, Fred M; Grund, Birgit; Lundgren, Jens D; Neaton, James D; Pett, Sarah L; Phillips, Andrew; Touloumi, Giota; Vjecha, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Background Untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) count leading to the development of opportunistic diseases (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)), and more recent data suggest that HIV is also associated with an increased risk of serious non-AIDS (SNA) diseases including cardiovascular, renal, and liver diseases and non-AIDS-defining cancers. Although combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) has resulted in a substantial decrease in morbidity and mortality in persons with HIV infection, viral eradication is not feasible with currently available drugs. The optimal time to start ART for asymptomatic HIV infection is controversial and remains one of the key unanswered questions in the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. Purpose In this article, we outline the rationale and methods of the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, an ongoing multicenter international trial designed to assess the risks and benefits of initiating ART earlier than is currently practiced. We also describe some of the challenges encountered in the design and implementation of the study and how these challenges were addressed. Methods A total of 4000 study participants who are HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infected, ART naïve with CD4 count > 500 cells/μL are to be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to start ART immediately (early ART) or defer treatment until CD4 count is <350 cells/ μL (deferred ART) and followed for a minimum of 3 years. The primary outcome is time to AIDS, SNA, or death. The study had a pilot phase to establish feasibility of accrual, which was set as the enrollment of at least 900 participants in the first year. Results Challenges encountered in the design and implementation of the study included the limited amount of data on the risk of a major component of the primary endpoint (SNA) in the study population, changes in treatment guidelines when the pilot

  11. Human immunotoxicologic markers of chemical exposures: preliminary validation studies.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, D; Laskin, D; Kipen, H

    1993-01-01

    The circulating cells of the immune system are sensitive to environmental contaminants, and effects are often manifested as changes in the cell surface differentiation antigens of affected populations of cells, particularly lymphocytes. In this investigation, we explore the likelihood that variation in the expression of the surface markers of immune cells can be used as an index of exposure to toxic chemicals. We recruited 38 healthy New Jersey men to study pesticides effects: 19 orchard farmers (high exposure); 13 berry farmers (low exposure); and 6 hardware store owners (no exposure). Immunophenotyping was performed assaying the following cell surface antigens: CD2, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD20, CD26, CD29, CD45R, CD56, and PMN. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to routine medical histories, physical examinations, or routine laboratory parameters. No striking differences between groups were seen in univariate tests. Multivariate tests suggested some differences among groups and limited ability to correctly classify individuals based on immunophenotyping results. Immunophenotyping represents a fruitful area of research for improved exposure classification. Work is needed both on mechanistic understanding of the patterns observed and on the statistical interpretation of these patterns.

  12. Autism and genetics: Clinical approach and association study with two markers of HRAS gene

    SciTech Connect

    Herault, J.; Petit, E.; Cherpi, C.

    Twin studies and familial aggregation studies indicate that genetic factors could play a role in infantile autism. In an earlier study, we identified a possible positive association between autism and a c-Harvey-ras (HRAS) oncogene marker at the 3{prime} end of the coding region. In an attempt to confirm this finding, we studied a larger population, well-characterized clinically and genetically. We report a positive association between autism and two HRAS markers, the 3{prime} marker used in the initial study and an additional marker in exon 1. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Treatment rationale and design of the RAMNITA study: A phase II study of the efficacy of docetaxel + ramucirumab for non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Keiko; Uchino, Junji; Tamiya, Nobuyo; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Yamada, Tadaaki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Takayama, Koichi

    2018-06-01

    We described the treatment rationale and procedure for a phase II study of docetaxel plus ramucirumab for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis (RAMNITA study: University Information Network Clinical Trials Registry identification no. [UMIN]: 000024551). Combination therapy of angiogenetic inhibitor with chemotherapy improved the outcome of patients with brain metastasis in previous reports; however, the efficacy of ramucirumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 monoclonal antibody, for brain metastasis has not been shown. This RAMNITA study is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm phase II study designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of docetaxel and ramucirumab for advanced NSCLC patients with brain metastasis. Eligible patients will receive docetaxel (60 mg/m) and ramucirumab (10 mg/kg) every 21 days until disease progression. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary endpoints are overall survival, intracranial PFS, response rate, and safety. Sixty-five participants will be recruited from September 2017 to December 2019 and followed up for 1 year after final registration. The results from this study may suggest a treatment option for brain metastasis in NSCLC. The protocol was approved by the institutional review board of each study center. Written informed consent will be obtained from all patients before registration, in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

  14. Pharmacogenetic study of second-generation antipsychotic long-term treatment metabolic side effects (the SLiM Study): rationale, objectives, design and sample description.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Saiz, Pilar A; Bobes, Julio; Corripio, Iluminada; Grasa, Eva; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Fernández, Miryam; Sanjuán, Julio; García-López, Aurelio; Tapia-Casellas, Cecilia; Álvarez-Blázquez, María; Fraguas, David; Mitjans, Marina; Arias, Bárbara; Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Weight gain is an important and common side effect of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Furthermore, these drugs can induce other side effects associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, such as insulin resistance, diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Preliminary studies show that inter-individual genetic differences produce varying degrees of vulnerability to the different SGA-induced side effects. The Second-generation antipsychotic Long-term treatment Metabolic side effects (SLiM) study aims to identify clinical, environmental and genetic factors that explain inter-individual differences in weight gain and metabolic changes in drug-naïve patients after six months of treatment with SGAs. The SLIM study is a multicenter, observational, six-month pharmacogenetic study where a cohort of 307 drug-naïve paediatric and adult patients (age range 8.8-90.1 years) and a cohort of 150 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (7.8-73.2 years) were recruited. This paper describes the rationale, objectives and design of the study and provides a description of the sample at baseline. Results from the SLiM study will provide a better understanding of the clinical, environmental, and genetic factors involved in weight gain and metabolic disturbances associated with SGA treatment. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Hanford waste-form release and sediment interaction: A status report with rationale and recommendations for additional studies

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Wood, M.I.

    1990-05-01

    This report documents the currently available geochemical data base for release and retardation for actual Hanford Site materials (wastes and/or sediments). The report also recommends specific laboratory tests and presents the rationale for the recommendations. The purpose of this document is threefold: to summarize currently available information, to provide a strategy for generating additional data, and to provide recommendations on specific data collection methods and tests matrices. This report outlines a data collection approach that relies on feedback from performance analyses to ascertain when adequate data have been collected. The data collection scheme emphasizes laboratory testing based on empiricism. 196more » refs., 4 figs., 36 tabs.« less

  16. Effects of Role and Assignment Rationale on Attitudes Formed During Peer Tutoring

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Furman, Wyndol

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of contextual factors, such as assignment rationale, on the attitudinal effects of peer tutoring. Fourth-grade children engaged in brief tutoring experiences as either a tutor or tutee. Subjects received four rationales for being selected as tutor or tutee: (a) a competence rationale, (b) a physical characteristic rationale, (c) a chance rationale, or (d) no rationale. As predicted, tutors had more positive attitudes than tutees when they had been given a competence or physical characteristic rationale but not when the tutors were provided a chance rationale or no rationale. Additionally, the tutors’ and tutees’ attitudes were enhanced when no rationale was provided. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for a role-theory analysis of tutoring and their implications for applied programs. PMID:23946549

  17. Effects of Role and Assignment Rationale on Attitudes Formed During Peer Tutoring.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Furman, Wyndol

    1981-02-01

    This study examined the role of contextual factors, such as assignment rationale, on the attitudinal effects of peer tutoring. Fourth-grade children engaged in brief tutoring experiences as either a tutor or tutee. Subjects received four rationales for being selected as tutor or tutee: (a) a competence rationale, (b) a physical characteristic rationale, (c) a chance rationale, or (d) no rationale. As predicted, tutors had more positive attitudes than tutees when they had been given a competence or physical characteristic rationale but not when the tutors were provided a chance rationale or no rationale. Additionally, the tutors' and tutees' attitudes were enhanced when no rationale was provided. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for a role-theory analysis of tutoring and their implications for applied programs.

  18. Biological markers of intermediate outcomes in studies of indoor air and other complex mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Wilcosky, T C

    1993-01-01

    Biological markers of intermediate health outcomes sometimes provide a superior alternative to traditional measures of pollutant-related disease. Some opportunities and methodologic issues associated with using markers are discussed in the context of exposures to four complex mixtures: environmental tobacco smoke and nitrogen dioxide, acid aerosols and oxidant outdoor pollution, environmental tobacco smoke and radon, and volatile organic compounds. For markers of intermediate health outcomes, the most important property is the positive predictive value for clinical outcomes of interest. Unless the marker has a known relationship with disease, a marker response conveys no information about disease risk. Most markers are nonspecific in that various exposures cause the same marker response. Although nonspecificity can be an asset in studies of complex mixtures, it leads to problems with confounding and dilution of exposure-response associations in the presence of other exposures. The timing of a marker's measurement in relation to the occurrence of exposure influences the ability to detect a response; measurements made too early or too late may underestimate the response's magnitude. Noninvasive markers, such as those measured in urine, blood, or nasal lavage fluid, are generally more useful for field studies than are invasive markers. However, invasive markers, such as those measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung specimens from autopsies, provide the most direct evidence of pulmonary damage from exposure to air pollutants. Unfortunately, the lack of basic information about marker properties (e.g., sensitivity, variability, statistical link with disease) currently precludes the effective use of most markers in studies of complex mixtures. PMID:8206030

  19. Study design and rationale for biomedical shirt-based electrocardiography monitoring in relevant clinical situations: ECG-shirt study.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Paweł; Lodziński, Piotr; Tymińska, Agata; Ozierański, Krzysztof; Januszkiewicz, Łukasz; Główczyńska, Renata; Wesołowska, Katarzyna; Peller, Michał; Pietrzak, Radosław; Książczyk, Tomasz; Borodzicz, Sonia; Kołtowski, Łukasz; Borkowski, Mariusz; Werner, Bożena; Opolski, Grzegorz; Grabowski, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Today, the main challenge for researchers is to develop new technologies which may help to improve the diagnoses of cardiovascular disease (CVD), thereby reducing healthcare costs and improving the quality of life for patients. This study aims to show the utility of biomedical shirt-based electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring of patients with CVD in different clinical situations using the Nuubo® ECG (nECG) system. An investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective observational study was carried out in a cardiology (adult and pediatric) and cardiac rehabilitation wards. ECG monitoring was used with the biomedical shirt in the following four independent groups of patients: 1) 30 patients after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), 2) 30 cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) recipients, 3) 120 patients during cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, and 4) 40 pediatric patients with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) before electrophysiology study. Approval for all study groups was obtained from the institutional review board. The biomedical shirt captures the electrocardiographic signal via textile electrodes integrated into a garment. The software allows the visualization and analysis of data such as ECG, heart rate, arrhythmia detecting algorithm and relative position of the body is captured by an electronic device. The major advantages of the nECG system are continuous ECG monitoring during daily activities, high quality of ECG recordings, as well as assurance of a proper adherence due to adequate comfort while wearing the shirt. There are only a few studies that have examined wearable systems, especially in pediatric populations. This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT03068169. (Cardiol J 2018; 25, 1: 52-59).

  20. A randomized study of dietary composition during weight-loss maintenance: Rationale, study design, intervention, and assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While many people with overweight or obesity can lose weight temporarily, most have difficulty maintaining weight loss over the long term. Studies of dietary composition typically focus on weight loss, rather than weight-loss maintenance, and rely on nutrition education and dietary counseling, rathe...

  1. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetes patients--a meta-analysis, and a methodological study on the effects of glucose on bone markers.

    PubMed

    Starup-Linde, J; Eriksen, S A; Lykkeboe, S; Handberg, A; Vestergaard, P

    2014-06-01

    This study examined whether markers of bone turnover differ between individuals with and without diabetes. Bone markers showed heterogeneity between studies and were discrepant for markers of bone creation and markers of bone degradation. Bone markers may be of lesser value in diabetes due to heterogeneity. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare existing literature regarding changes in bone markers among diabetics compared to healthy controls. To exclude that blood glucose levels among diabetes patients could influence the assays used for determining bone turnover markers, a methodological study was performed. Medline at Pubmed Embase, Cinahl, Svemed+, Cochrane library, and Bibliotek.dk was searched in August 2012. The studies should examine biochemical bone turnover among diabetes patients in comparison to controls in an observational design. In the methodological study, fasting blood samples were drawn from two individuals. Glucose was added to the blood samples in different concentrations and OC, CTX, and procollagen type 1 amino terminal propeptide were measured after 0, 1, 2, and 3 h. Twenty-two papers fulfilled the criteria for the meta-analysis. From the pooled data in the meta-analysis, the bone markers osteocalcin (OC) (-1.15 ng/ml [-1.78,-0.52]) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX) (-0.14 ng/ml [-0.22, -0.05]) were significantly lower among diabetes patients than non-diabetes patients, however other markers did not differ. All markers displayed very high heterogeneity by I2 statistics. In the methodological study, the addition of glucose did not significantly change the bone markers neither by level of glucose nor with increasing incubation time. The dissociative pattern of biochemical bone markers of bone formation and bone resorption present in diabetes patients is thus not caused by glucose per se but may be modulated by unknown factors associated with diabetes mellitus.

  2. Parkinson's Disease Diagnostic Observations (PADDO): study rationale and design of a prospective cohort study for early differentiation of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    van Rumund, Anouke; Aerts, Marjolein B; Esselink, Rianne A J; Meijer, Frederick J A; Verbeek, Marcel M; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2018-05-16

    Differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) from the various types of atypical parkinsonism (AP) such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and vascular parkinsonism (VP), can be challenging, especially early in the disease course when symptoms overlap. A major unmet need in the diagnostic workup of these disorders is a diagnostic tool that differentiates the various disorders, preferably in the earliest disease stages when the clinical presentation is similar. Many diagnostic tests have been evaluated, but their added value was studied mostly in retrospective case-control studies that included patients with a straightforward clinical diagnosis. Here, we describe the design of a prospective cohort study in patients with parkinsonism in an early disease stage who have an uncertain clinical diagnosis. Our aim is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (1) detailed clinical examination by a movement disorder specialist, (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and (3) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Patients with parkinsonism with an uncertain clinical diagnosis and a disease course less than three years will be recruited. Patients will undergo extensive neurological examination, brain MRI including conventional and advanced sequences, and a lumbar puncture. The diagnosis (including level of certainty) will be defined by a movement disorders expert, neuroradiologist and neurochemist based on clinical data, MRI results and CSF results, respectively. The clinical diagnosis after three years' follow-up will serve as the "gold standard" reference diagnosis, based on consensus criteria and as established by two movement disorder specialists (blinded to the test results). Diagnostic accuracy of individual instruments and added value of brain MRI and CSF analysis after evaluation by a movement disorder expert will be calculated, expressed as the change in percentage of

  3. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM) - a Pan Canadian cohort study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sonia S; Tu, Jack V; Awadalla, Philip; Black, Sandra; Boileau, Catherine; Busseuil, David; Desai, Dipika; Després, Jean-Pierre; de Souza, Russell J; Dummer, Trevor; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Knoppers, Bartha; Larose, Eric; Lear, Scott A; Marcotte, Francois; Moody, Alan R; Parker, Louise; Poirier, Paul; Robson, Paula J; Smith, Eric E; Spinelli, John J; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teo, Koon K; Tusevljak, Natasa; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services) with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity), cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  4. Reducing office workers’ sitting time: rationale and study design for the Stand Up Victoria cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive time spent in sedentary behaviours (sitting or lying with low energy expenditure) is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Desk-based office workers typically accumulate high amounts of daily sitting time, often in prolonged unbroken bouts. The Stand Up Victoria study aims to determine whether a 3-month multi-component intervention in the office setting reduces workplace sitting, particularly prolonged, unbroken sitting time, and results in improvements in cardio-metabolic biomarkers and work-related outcomes, compared to usual practice. Methods/Design A two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT), with worksites as the unit of randomization, will be conducted in 16 worksites located in Victoria, Australia. Work units from one organisation (Department of Human Services, Australian Government) will be allocated to either the multi-component intervention (organisational, environmental [height-adjustable workstations], and individual behavioural strategies) or to a usual practice control group. The recruitment target is 160 participants (office-based workers aged 18–65 years and working at least 0.6 full time equivalent) per arm. At each assessment (0- [baseline], 3- [post intervention], and 12-months [follow-up]), objective measurement via the activPAL3 activity monitor will be used to assess workplace: sitting time (primary outcome); prolonged sitting time (sitting time accrued in bouts of ≥30 minutes); standing time; sit-to-stand transitions; and, moving time. Additional outcomes assessed will include: non-workplace activity; cardio-metabolic biomarkers and health indicators (including fasting glucose, lipids and insulin; anthropometric measures; blood pressure; and, musculoskeletal symptoms); and, work-related outcomes (presenteeism, absenteeism, productivity, work performance). Incremental cost-effectiveness and identification of both workplace and individual

  5. Using rice genome-wide association studies to identify DNA markers for marker-assisted selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice association mapping panels are collections of rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions developed for genome-wide association (GWA) studies. One of these panels, the Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) was phenotyped by various research groups for several traits of interest, and more recently, genotyped with...

  6. Rationale and design of a study using a standardized locally procured macronutrient supplement as adjunctive therapy to HIV treatment in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sztam, Kevin A; Ndirangu, Murugi; Sheriff, Muhsin; Arpadi, Stephen M; Hawken, Mark; Rashid, Juma; Deckelbaum, Richard J; El Sadr, Wafaa M

    2013-01-01

    Poor nutritional status at initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is predictive of mortality. Decreased dietary intake is a major determinant of weight loss in HIV. Despite a biological rationale to treat undernutrition in adults receiving ART, few studies have provided data on feasibility, safety, effectiveness, and sustainability of specific macronutrient supplements with HIV treatment in adults, especially supplements such as a food basket, a supplement approach seldom evaluated in spite of its wide use. We present the rationale and design for a study of a locally procured macronutrient supplement given to HIV-infected patients initiating ART with a body mass index (BMI) ≤20.0 kg/m(2). The objective was to determine feasibility of procurement, distribution, safety and to obtain preliminary effectiveness data for a locally procured supplement. The design was a comparative study for 200 adult participants at two Kenya government-supported clinics. The primary outcome was BMI at 24 weeks. Supplement duration was 24 weeks, total follow-up was 48 weeks, and the study included a comparison site. Novel aspects of this study include use of a standardized macronutrient supplement to protect the participant against household food sharing, and a complementary micronutrient supplement. Comprehensive data collected included dietary intake, HIV-related quality-of-life, food security, neuropsychiatric assessments, laboratory studies, and household geomapping. Assessments were made at baseline, at 24 weeks, and at 48 weeks post-ART initiation. Challenges included establishing a partnership with local millers, distribution from the HIV clinic, food safety, and tracking of participants. These findings will help inform nutrition support programming in Kenya and similar settings, and provide needed data regarding use of macronutrient supplements as an adjunctive intervention with ART.

  7. Optimal selection of markers for validation or replication from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Celia M T; Rangrej, Jagadish; Sun, Lei

    2007-07-01

    With reductions in genotyping costs and the fast pace of improvements in genotyping technology, it is not uncommon for the individuals in a single study to undergo genotyping using several different platforms, where each platform may contain different numbers of markers selected via different criteria. For example, a set of cases and controls may be genotyped at markers in a small set of carefully selected candidate genes, and shortly thereafter, the same cases and controls may be used for a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association study. After such initial investigations, often, a subset of "interesting" markers is selected for validation or replication. Specifically, by validation, we refer to the investigation of associations between the selected subset of markers and the disease in independent data. However, it is not obvious how to choose the best set of markers for this validation. There may be a prior expectation that some sets of genotyping data are more likely to contain real associations. For example, it may be more likely for markers in plausible candidate genes to show disease associations than markers in a genome-wide scan. Hence, it would be desirable to select proportionally more markers from the candidate gene set. When a fixed number of markers are selected for validation, we propose an approach for identifying an optimal marker-selection configuration by basing the approach on minimizing the stratified false discovery rate. We illustrate this approach using a case-control study of colorectal cancer from Ontario, Canada, and we show that this approach leads to substantial reductions in the estimated false discovery rates in the Ontario dataset for the selected markers, as well as reductions in the expected false discovery rates for the proposed validation dataset. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Discourse Markers in College English Listening Instruction: An Empirical Study of Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Discourse markers can clearly indicate the organization of discourse, remind the hearer of the preceding and the following contents, and express clearly the concrete speech acts. The aims of this study are to explore the relationship between the discourse-marker-based model and listening comprehension as well as the different effects of such a…

  9. A Comparative Study of Intensity Markers in Engineering and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnam, Biook; Mirzapour, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Writers use intensity markers as one of strategies in order to negotiate their claims and to make their writings persuasive and credible. This study is an attempt to examine the type, frequency, and functions of intensity markers in research articles of two disciplines of Applied Linguistics and Electrical Engineering by analyzing surface…

  10. Developing Clade-Specific Microsatellite Markers: A Case Study in the Filamentous Fungal Genus Aspergillus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsatellite markers are highly variable and very commonly used in population genetics studies. However, microsatellite loci are typically poorly conserved and cannot be used in distant related species. Thus, development of clade-specific microsatellite markers would increase efficiency and allow ...

  11. The NordICC Study: Rationale and design of a randomized trial on colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    F.Kaminski, Michal; Bretthauer, Michael; Zauber, Ann G.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Adami, Hans-Olov; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Regula, Jaroslaw; van Leerdam, Monique; Stefansson, Tryggvi; Påhlman, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Hernán, Miguel A.; Garborg, Kjetil; Hoff, Geir

    2017-01-01

    Background While colonoscopy screening is widely used in several European countries and the United States, no randomised trials exist to quantify its benefits. The Nordic-European Initiative on Colorectal Cancer (NordICC) is a multinational, randomized controlled trial aiming at investigating the effect of colonoscopy screening on CRC incidence and mortality. This paper describes the rationale and design of the NordICC trial. Material and methods Men and women age 55 to 64 years are drawn from the population registries in the participating countries and randomly assigned to either once-only colonoscopy screening with removal of all detected lesions, or no screening (standard of care in the trial regions). All individuals are followed for 15 years after inclusion using dedicated national registries. Results The primary endpoints of the trial are cumulative CRC-specific death and CRC incidence during 15 years of follow up. We hypothesize a 50% CRC mortality-reducing efficacy of the colonoscopy intervention and predict 50% compliance, yielding a 25% mortality reduction among those invited to screening. For 90% power and a two-sided alpha level of 0.05, using a 2:1 randomisation, 45,600 individuals will be randomised to control, and 22,800 individuals to the colonoscopy group. Interim analyses of the effect of colonoscopy on CRC incidence and mortality will be performed at 10 years follow-up. Conclusions The aim of the NordICC trial is to quantify the effectiveness of population-based colonoscopy screening. This will allow development of evidence-based guidelines for CRC screening in the general population. PMID:22723185

  12. Study protocol and rationale for a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of phentermine-topiramate ER versus placebo to treat binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Dalai, Shebani Sethi; Adler, Sarah; Najarian, Thomas; Safer, Debra Lynn

    2018-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are associated with severe psychological and medical consequences. Current therapies are limited, leaving up to 50% of patients symptomatic despite treatment, underscoring the need for additional treatment options. Qsymia, an FDA-approved medication for obesity, combines phentermine and topiramate ER. Topiramate has demonstrated efficacy for both BED and BN, but limited tolerability. Phentermine is FDA-approved for weight loss. A rationale for combined phentermine/topiramate for BED and BN is improved tolerability and efficacy. While a prior case series exploring Qsymia for BED showed promise, randomized studies are needed to evaluate Qsymia's safety and efficacy when re-purposed in eating disorders. We present a study protocol for a Phase I/IIa single-center, prospective, double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial examining safety and preliminary efficacy of Qsymia for BED and BN. Adults with BED (n=15) or BN (n=15) are randomized 1:1 to receive 12weeks Qsymia (phentermine/topiramate ER, 3.75mg/23mg-15mg/92mg) or placebo, followed by 2-weeks washout and 12-weeks crossover, where those on Qsymia receive placebo and vice versa. Subsequently participants receive 8weeks follow-up off study medications. The primary outcome is the number of binge days/week measured by EDE. Secondary outcomes include average number of binge episodes, percentage abstinence from binge eating, and changes in weight/vitals, eating psychopathology, and mood. To our knowledge this is the first randomized, double-blind protocol investigating the safety and efficacy of phentermine/topiramate in BED and BN. We highlight the background and rationale for this study, including the advantages of a crossover design. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02553824 registered on 9/17/2015. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02553824. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiopaque markers equal gastrografin in the study of small bowel obstructions (SBO): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Basile, Marco; Galica, Vikiela

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of a consolidated method (i.e.gastrografin) and a new one (i.e.radiopaque markers) in detecting complete intestinal obstruction. Twenty-one patients with suspected small bowel obstruction were enrolled and received at admission orally 100 ml of Gastrografin and 10 radiopaque markers at the same time. A series of plain abdominal radiograms was taked and evaluated to decide whether the obstruction was complete or not. The results of radiological evaluations were not disclosed to the surgeons responsible for the patient's treatment, therefore clinical decisions were assumed on clinical grounds only. In 16 out of the 21 enrolled patients both methods demonstrated only a partial obstruction; clinically none of them required surgery. Five patients showed complete bowel obstruction by the radiopaque markers method; out of those the gastrografin study showed a complete obstruction in four of them. All of them were operated on. In the fifth case it was not clear if the gastrografin had passed through the ileum-cecal valve or not. The unclear clinical picture induced to perform a TC that revealed that a small quantity of gastrografin had passed the ileo-cecal valve but there was a complete small bowel occlusion due to an internal hernia requiring a surgical treatment (thus implying a false negative picture). This preliminary study showed that both methods are effective in the early diagnosis of complete SBO. The use of radiopaque markers could avoid some false negatives of the gastrografin method and is significantly less expensive.

  14. Rationale and cross-sectional study design of the Research on Obesity and type 2 Diabetes among African Migrants: the RODAM study.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Dodoo, Francis; Smeeth, Liam; Addo, Juliet; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Amoah, Stephen K; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Spranger, Joachim; Nicolaou, Mary; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Burr, Tom; Henneman, Peter; Mannens, Marcel M; van Straalen, Jan P; Bahendeka, Silver; Zwinderman, A H; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2014-03-21

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent among African migrants compared with European descent populations. The underlying reasons still remain a puzzle. Gene-environmental interaction is now seen as a potential plausible factor contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D, but has not yet been investigated. The overall aim of the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) project is to understand the reasons for the high prevalence of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan Africans in diaspora by (1) studying the complex interplay between environment (eg, lifestyle), healthcare, biochemical and (epi)genetic factors, and their relative contributions to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D; (2) to identify specific risk factors within these broad categories to guide intervention programmes and (3) to provide a basic knowledge for improving diagnosis and treatment. RODAM is a multicentre cross-sectional study among homogenous sub-Saharan African participants (ie, Ghanaians) aged >25 years living in rural and urban Ghana, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK (http://rod-am.eu/). Standardised data on the main outcomes, genetic and non-genetic factors are collected in all locations. The aim is to recruit 6250 individuals comprising five subgroups of 1250 individuals from each site. In Ghana, Kumasi and Obuasi (urban stratum) and villages in the Ashanti region (rural stratum) are served as recruitment sites. In Europe, Ghanaian migrants are selected through the municipality or Ghanaian organisations registers. Ethical approval has been obtained in all sites. This paper gives an overview of the rationale, conceptual framework and methods of the study. The differences across locations will allow us to gain insight into genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to the occurrence of obesity and T2D and will inform targeted intervention and prevention programmes, and provide the basis for improving diagnosis and treatment in these

  15. Building reproductive health research and audit capacity and activity in the pacific islands (BRRACAP) study: methods, rationale and baseline results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research and audit in reproductive health is essential to improve reproductive health outcomes and to address the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Research training, mentoring and a supportive participatory research environment have been shown to increase research activity and capacity in low to middle income countries (LMIC). This paper details the methods, rationale and baseline findings of a research program aimed at increasing clinical research activity and audit in the six Pacific Islands of Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu, Cook Islands and the Solomon Islands. Method Twenty-eight clinician participants were selected by the five Ministries of Health and the Fiji National University to undergo a research capacity building program which includes a research workshop and mentoring support to perform research and audit as teams in their country. Data on the participants’ characteristics, knowledge and experiences were collected from structured interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, and an online survey. The interviews and the two focus groups were audio-recorded and all replies were analysed in a thematic framework. Results The 28 participants included 9 nurses/midwives, 17 medical doctors of whom 8 were specialists in reproductive health and 2 other health workers. Most (24, 86%) were required to perform research as part of their employment and yet 17 (61%) were not confident in writing a research proposal, 13 (46%) could not use an electronic spreadsheet and the same number had not analysed quantitative data. The limited environmental enablers contributed to poor capacity with only 11 (46%) having access to a library, 10 (42%) receiving management support and 6 (25%) having access to an experienced researcher. Barriers to research that affected more than 70% of the participants were time constraints, poor coordination, no funding and a lack of skills. Conclusion Building a research capacity program appropriate for the diversity of

  16. [Studies of marker screening efficiency and corresponding influencing factors in QTL composite interval mapping].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Ming; Wan, Ping

    2002-06-01

    Screening markers efficiently is the foundation of mapping QTLs by composite interval mapping. Main and interaction markers distinguished, besides using background control for genetic variation, could also be used to construct intervals of two-way searching for mapping QTLs with epistasis, which can save a lot of calculation time. Therefore, the efficiency of marker screening would affect power and precision of QTL mapping. A doubled haploid population with 200 individuals and 5 chromosomes was constructed, with 50 markers evenly distributed at 10 cM space. Among a total of 6 QTLs, one was placed on chromosome I, two linked on chromosome II, and the other three linked on chromosome IV. QTL setting included additive effects and epistatic effects of additive x additive, the corresponding QTL interaction effects were set if data were collected under multiple environments. The heritability was assumed to be 0.5 if no special declaration. The power of marker screening by stepwise regression, forward regression, and three methods for random effect prediction, e.g. best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), linear unbiased prediction (LUP) and adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP), was studied and compared through 100 Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicated that the marker screening power by stepwise regression at 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 significant level changed from 2% to 68%, the power changed from 2% to 72% by forward regression. The larger the QTL effects, the higher the marker screening power. While the power of marker screening by three random effect prediction was very low, the maximum was only 13%. That suggested that regression methods were much better than those by using the approaches of random effect prediction to identify efficient markers flanking QTLs, and forward selection method was more simple and efficient. The results of simulation study on heritability showed that heightening of both general heritability and interaction heritability of genotype x

  17. Temperature effects on multiphase reactions of organic molecular markers: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap, Vikram; Chen, Ying; Yao, Guangming; Nakao, Shunsuke

    2018-04-01

    Various molecular markers are used in source apportionment studies. In early studies, molecular markers were assumed to be inert. However, recent studies suggest that molecular markers can decay rapidly through multiphase reactions, which makes interpretation of marker measurements challenging. This study presents a simplified model to account for the effects of temperature and relative humidity on the lifetime of molecular markers through a shift in gas-particle partitioning as well as a change in viscosity of the condensed phase. As a model case, this study examines the stability of levoglucosan, a key marker species of biomass burning, over a wide temperature range relevant to summertime and wintertime. Despite the importance of wood combustion for space heating in winter, the lifetime of levoglucosan in wintertime is not well understood. The model predicts that in low-temperature conditions, levoglucosan predominantly remains in the particle phase, and therefore its loss due to gas-phase oxidation reactions is significantly reduced. Furthermore, the movement of the levoglucosan from the bulk of the particle to the particle surface is reduced due to low diffusivity in the semi-solid state. The simplified model developed in this study reasonably reproduces upper and lower bounds of the lifetime of levoglucosan investigated in previous studies. The model results show that the levoglucosan depletion after seven days reduces significantly from ∼98% at 25 °C to <1% at 0 °C under dry conditions. The depletion of levoglucosan increases at higher relative humidities. However, at temperatures below 0 °C, levoglucosan appears to be a useful marker (lifetime > 1 week) even at 60% relative humidity irrespective of the assumed fragility parameter D that controls estimated diffusivity. The model shows that lifetime of an organic molecular marker strongly depends on assumed D especially when a semi-volatile marker is in semi-solid organic aerosol.

  18. Rationale for Student Dress Codes: A Review of School Handbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Workman, Jane E.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    Through dress codes, schools establish rules governing student appearance. This study examined stated rationales for dress and appearance codes in secondary school handbooks; 182 handbooks were received. Of 150 handbooks containing a rationale, 117 related dress and appearance regulations to students' right to a non-disruptive educational…

  19. Training for Corrections: Rationale and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Center for the Study of Crime, Delinquency and Corrections.

    A manual focuses on how to teach in inservice training programs for professional personnel in correctional agencies. A chapter on rationale discusses training objectives and curriculum. A second chapter covers learning environment, lesson plans, and learning problems. One, on teaching techniques, covers lecture, group discussion, case study,…

  20. Teacher Grading Decisions: Influences, Rationale, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnath, Joshua P.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study applied a decision-making theoretical framework to an investigation of teacher grading in a large urban school district in California. A sample of 251 high school teachers of core subjects were surveyed, and 15 teachers participated in four focus group interviews in order provide data on the influences, rationale, and…

  1. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: II. Validity Studies of the Pause Marker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2nd article in this supplement is to report validity support findings for the Pause Marker (PM), a proposed single-sign diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: PM scores and additional perceptual and acoustic measures were obtained from 296 participants in cohorts with idiopathic and…

  2. Dominant selectable markers for Penicillium spp. transformation and gene function studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium spp. has been genetically manipulated and gene function studies have utilized single gene deletion strains for phenotypic analysis. Fungal transformation experiments have relied on hygromycin and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as the main dominant selectable marker (DSM) system in P...

  3. Rationale and cross-sectional study design of the Research on Obesity and type 2 Diabetes among African Migrants: the RODAM study

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Dodoo, Francis; Smeeth, Liam; Addo, Juliet; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Amoah, Stephen K; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Spranger, Joachim; Nicolaou, Mary; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Burr, Tom; Henneman, Peter; Mannens, Marcel M; van Straalen, Jan P; Bahendeka, Silver; Zwinderman, A H; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent among African migrants compared with European descent populations. The underlying reasons still remain a puzzle. Gene–environmental interaction is now seen as a potential plausible factor contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D, but has not yet been investigated. The overall aim of the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) project is to understand the reasons for the high prevalence of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan Africans in diaspora by (1) studying the complex interplay between environment (eg, lifestyle), healthcare, biochemical and (epi)genetic factors, and their relative contributions to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D; (2) to identify specific risk factors within these broad categories to guide intervention programmes and (3) to provide a basic knowledge for improving diagnosis and treatment. Methods and analysis RODAM is a multicentre cross-sectional study among homogenous sub-Saharan African participants (ie, Ghanaians) aged >25 years living in rural and urban Ghana, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK (http://rod-am.eu/). Standardised data on the main outcomes, genetic and non-genetic factors are collected in all locations. The aim is to recruit 6250 individuals comprising five subgroups of 1250 individuals from each site. In Ghana, Kumasi and Obuasi (urban stratum) and villages in the Ashanti region (rural stratum) are served as recruitment sites. In Europe, Ghanaian migrants are selected through the municipality or Ghanaian organisations registers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained in all sites. This paper gives an overview of the rationale, conceptual framework and methods of the study. The differences across locations will allow us to gain insight into genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to the occurrence of obesity and T2D and will inform targeted intervention and prevention programmes, and

  4. An inert marker study for palladium silicide formation - Si moves in polycrystalline Pd2Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. T.; Lien, C.-D.; Shreter, U.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1985-01-01

    A novel use of Ti marker is introduced to investigate the moving species during Pd2Si formation on 111 and 100 line-type Si substrates. Silicide formed from amorphous Si is also studied using a W marker. Although these markers are observed to alter the silicide formation in the initial stage, the moving species can be identified once a normal growth rate is resumed. It is found that Si is the dominant moving species for all three types of Si crystallinity. However, Pd will participate in mass transport when Si motion becomes obstructed.

  5. Homogeneity tests of clustered diagnostic markers with applications to the BioCycle Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liansheng Larry; Liu, Aiyi; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Catherine Chun-ling

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic trials often require the use of a homogeneity test among several markers. Such a test may be necessary to determine the power both during the design phase and in the initial analysis stage. However, no formal method is available for the power and sample size calculation when the number of markers is greater than two and marker measurements are clustered in subjects. This article presents two procedures for testing the accuracy among clustered diagnostic markers. The first procedure is a test of homogeneity among continuous markers based on a global null hypothesis of the same accuracy. The result under the alternative provides the explicit distribution for the power and sample size calculation. The second procedure is a simultaneous pairwise comparison test based on weighted areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves. This test is particularly useful if a global difference among markers is found by the homogeneity test. We apply our procedures to the BioCycle Study designed to assess and compare the accuracy of hormone and oxidative stress markers in distinguishing women with ovulatory menstrual cycles from those without. PMID:22733707

  6. Rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    2012-08-28

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high in-hospital mortality. Alveolar recruitment followed by ventilation at optimal titrated PEEP may reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS, but the effects on mortality and other clinical outcomes remain unknown. This article reports the rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART). ART is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized (concealed), controlled trial, which aims to determine if maximum stepwise alveolar recruitment associated with PEEP titration is able to increase 28-day survival in patients with ARDS compared to conventional treatment (ARDSNet strategy). We will enroll adult patients with ARDS of less than 72 h duration. The intervention group will receive an alveolar recruitment maneuver, with stepwise increases of PEEP achieving 45 cmH2O and peak pressure of 60 cmH2O, followed by ventilation with optimal PEEP titrated according to the static compliance of the respiratory system. In the control group, mechanical ventilation will follow a conventional protocol (ARDSNet). In both groups, we will use controlled volume mode with low tidal volumes (4 to 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight) and targeting plateau pressure ≤30 cmH2O. The primary outcome is 28-day survival, and the secondary outcomes are: length of ICU stay; length of hospital stay; pneumothorax requiring chest tube during first 7 days; barotrauma during first 7 days; mechanical ventilation-free days from days 1 to 28; ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month survival. ART is an event-guided trial planned to last until 520 events (deaths within 28 days) are observed. These events allow detection of a hazard ratio of 0.75, with 90% power and two-tailed type I error of 5%. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. If the ART strategy with maximum recruitment and PEEP titration improves 28-day survival, this will represent a notable advance to

  7. Rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high in-hospital mortality. Alveolar recruitment followed by ventilation at optimal titrated PEEP may reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS, but the effects on mortality and other clinical outcomes remain unknown. This article reports the rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART). Methods/Design ART is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized (concealed), controlled trial, which aims to determine if maximum stepwise alveolar recruitment associated with PEEP titration is able to increase 28-day survival in patients with ARDS compared to conventional treatment (ARDSNet strategy). We will enroll adult patients with ARDS of less than 72 h duration. The intervention group will receive an alveolar recruitment maneuver, with stepwise increases of PEEP achieving 45 cmH2O and peak pressure of 60 cmH2O, followed by ventilation with optimal PEEP titrated according to the static compliance of the respiratory system. In the control group, mechanical ventilation will follow a conventional protocol (ARDSNet). In both groups, we will use controlled volume mode with low tidal volumes (4 to 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight) and targeting plateau pressure ≤30 cmH2O. The primary outcome is 28-day survival, and the secondary outcomes are: length of ICU stay; length of hospital stay; pneumothorax requiring chest tube during first 7 days; barotrauma during first 7 days; mechanical ventilation-free days from days 1 to 28; ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month survival. ART is an event-guided trial planned to last until 520 events (deaths within 28 days) are observed. These events allow detection of a hazard ratio of 0.75, with 90% power and two-tailed type I error of 5%. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion If the ART strategy with maximum recruitment and PEEP titration improves 28-day survival, this

  8. Discovery of Genome-Wide Microsatellite Markers in Scombridae: A Pilot Study on Albacore Tuna

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Natacha; Duthoy, Stéphanie; Destombes, Antoine; Bodin, Nathalie; West, Wendy; Puech, Alexis; Bourjea, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analysis provide a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at a low cost. Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies, and high quality markers can be discovered in non-model organisms, such as tuna, with these recent developments. Here, we use a high-throughput method to isolate microsatellite markers in albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, based on coupling multiplex enrichment and next-generation sequencing on 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. The crucial minimum number of polymorphic markers to infer evolutionary and ecological processes for this species has been described for the first time. We provide 1670 microsatellite design primer pairs, and technical and molecular genetics selection resulting in 43 polymorphic microsatellite markers. On this panel, we characterized 34 random and selectively neutral markers («neutral») and 9 «non-neutral» markers. The variability of «neutral» markers was screened with 136 individuals of albacore tuna from southwest Indian Ocean (42), northwest Indian Ocean (31), South Africa (31), and southeast Atlantic Ocean (32). Power analysis demonstrated that the panel of genetic markers can be applied in diversity and population genetics studies. Global genetic diversity for albacore was high with a mean number of alleles at 16.94; observed heterozygosity 66% and expected heterozygosity 77%. The number of individuals was insufficient to provide accurate results on differentiation. Of the 9 «non-neutral» markers, 3 were linked to a sequence of known function. The one is located to a sequence having an immunity function (ThuAla-Tcell-01) and the other to a sequence having energy allocation function (ThuAla-Hki-01). These two markers were genotyped on the 136 individuals and presented different diversity levels. ThuAla-Tcell-01 has a high number of alleles (20), heterozygosity (87–90%), and assignment index. ThuAla-Hki-01

  9. Low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent recurrent venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: Rationale and design of the Highlow study, a randomised trial of two doses.

    PubMed

    Bleker, Suzanne M; Buchmüller, Andrea; Chauleur, Céline; Ní Áinle, Fionnuala; Donnelly, Jennifer; Verhamme, Peter; Jacobsen, Anne Flem; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Prins, Martin; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; DeSancho, Maria; Konstantinides, Stavros; Pabinger, Ingrid; Rodger, Marc; Decousus, Hervé; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2016-08-01

    Women with a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have a 2% to 10% absolute risk of VTE recurrence during subsequent pregnancies. Therefore, current guidelines recommend that all pregnant women with a history of VTE receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The optimal dose of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for thromboprophylaxis is unknown. In the Highlow study (NCT 01828697; www.highlowstudy.org), we compare a fixed low dose of LMWH with an intermediate dose of LMWH for the prevention of pregnancy-associated recurrent VTE. We present the rationale and design features of this study. The Highlow study is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, international, open-label, randomised trial. Pregnant women with a history of VTE and an indication for ante- and postpartum pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis are included before 14weeks of gestation. The primary efficacy outcome is symptomatic recurrent VTE during pregnancy and 6weeks postpartum. The primary safety outcomes are clinically relevant bleeding, blood transfusions before 6weeks postpartum and mortality. Patients are closely monitored to detect cutaneous reactions to LMWH and are followed for 3months after delivery. A central independent adjudication committee adjudicates all suspected outcome events. The Highlow study is the first large randomised controlled trial in pregnancy that will provide high-quality evidence on the optimal dose of LWMH thromboprophylaxis for the prevention of recurrent VTE in pregnant women with a history of VTE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale and outline of the AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies (ARREST) registry.

    PubMed

    Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A; Berdowski, J; Souverein, P C; De Bruin, M L; Koster, R W; de Boer, A; Tan, H L

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA. We set up a large-scale prospective community-based registry (AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies, ARREST) in which we prospectively include all resuscitation attempts from OHCA in a large study region in the Netherlands in collaboration with Emergency Medical Services. Of all OHCA victims since June 2005, we prospectively collect medical history (through hospital and general practitioner), and current and previous medication use (through community pharmacy). In addition, we include DNA samples from OHCA victims with documented ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation during the resuscitation attempt since July 2007. Various study designs are employed to analyse the data of the ARREST registry, including case-control, cohort, case only and case-cross over designs. We describe the rationale, outline and potential results of the ARREST registry. The design allows for a stable and reliable collection of multiple determinants of OHCA, while assuring that the patient, lay-caregiver or medical professional is not hindered in any way. Such comprehensive data collection is required to unravel the complex basis of OHCA. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant scientific symposia.

  11. Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale and outline of the AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies (ARREST) registry

    PubMed Central

    Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A; Berdowski, J; Souverein, P C; De Bruin, M L; Koster, R W; de Boer, A; Tan, H L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA. Methods and analysis We set up a large-scale prospective community-based registry (AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies, ARREST) in which we prospectively include all resuscitation attempts from OHCA in a large study region in the Netherlands in collaboration with Emergency Medical Services. Of all OHCA victims since June 2005, we prospectively collect medical history (through hospital and general practitioner), and current and previous medication use (through community pharmacy). In addition, we include DNA samples from OHCA victims with documented ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation during the resuscitation attempt since July 2007. Various study designs are employed to analyse the data of the ARREST registry, including case–control, cohort, case only and case-cross over designs. Ethics and dissemination We describe the rationale, outline and potential results of the ARREST registry. The design allows for a stable and reliable collection of multiple determinants of OHCA, while assuring that the patient, lay-caregiver or medical professional is not hindered in any way. Such comprehensive data collection is required to unravel the complex basis of OHCA. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant scientific symposia. PMID:25332818

  12. Comprehensive approach for hypertension control in low-income populations: rationale and study design for the hypertension control program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine T; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Chen, Jing; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Poggio, Rosana; Dolan, Jacquelyn; Augustovski, Federico; Shi, Lizheng; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Bazzano, Lydia A; He, Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Although the efficacy and effectiveness of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive pharmaceutical treatment for the prevention and control of hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, this scientific knowledge has not been fully applied in the general population, especially in low-income communities. This article summarizes interventions to improve hypertension management and describes the rationale and study design for a cluster randomized trial testing whether a comprehensive intervention program within a national public primary care system will improve hypertension control among uninsured hypertensive men and women and their families. We will recruit 1,890 adults from 18 clinics within a public primary care network in Argentina. Clinic patients with uncontrolled hypertension, their spouses and hypertensive family members will be enrolled. The comprehensive intervention program targets the primary care system through health care provider education, a home-based intervention among patients and their families (home delivery of antihypertensive medication, self-monitoring of blood pressure [BP], health education for medication adherence and lifestyle modification) conducted by community health workers and a mobile health intervention. The primary outcome is net change in systolic BP from baseline to month 18 between intervention and control groups among hypertensive study participants. The secondary outcomes are net change in diastolic BP, BP control and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This study will generate urgently needed data on effective, practical and sustainable intervention programs aimed at controlling hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease in underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Study rationale and design of OPTIMISE, a randomised controlled trial on the effect of benchmarking on quality of care in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nobels, Frank; Debacker, Noëmi; Brotons, Carlos; Elisaf, Moses; Hermans, Michel P; Michel, Georges; Muls, Erik

    2011-09-22

    To investigate the effect of physician- and patient-specific feedback with benchmarking on the quality of care in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Study centres in six European countries were randomised to either a benchmarking or control group. Physicians in both groups received feedback on modifiable outcome indicators (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c], glycaemia, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein [LDL]-cholesterol and triglycerides) for each patient at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months, based on the four times yearly control visits recommended by international guidelines. The benchmarking group also received comparative results on three critical quality indicators of vascular risk (HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure [SBP]), checked against the results of their colleagues from the same country, and versus pre-set targets. After 12 months of follow up, the percentage of patients achieving the pre-determined targets for the three critical quality indicators will be assessed in the two groups. Recruitment was completed in December 2008 with 3994 evaluable patients. This paper discusses the study rationale and design of OPTIMISE, a randomised controlled study, that will help assess whether benchmarking is a useful clinical tool for improving outcomes in T2DM in primary care. NCT00681850.

  14. Study rationale and design of OPTIMISE, a randomised controlled trial on the effect of benchmarking on quality of care in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of physician- and patient-specific feedback with benchmarking on the quality of care in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Study centres in six European countries were randomised to either a benchmarking or control group. Physicians in both groups received feedback on modifiable outcome indicators (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c], glycaemia, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein [LDL]-cholesterol and triglycerides) for each patient at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months, based on the four times yearly control visits recommended by international guidelines. The benchmarking group also received comparative results on three critical quality indicators of vascular risk (HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure [SBP]), checked against the results of their colleagues from the same country, and versus pre-set targets. After 12 months of follow up, the percentage of patients achieving the pre-determined targets for the three critical quality indicators will be assessed in the two groups. Results Recruitment was completed in December 2008 with 3994 evaluable patients. Conclusions This paper discusses the study rationale and design of OPTIMISE, a randomised controlled study, that will help assess whether benchmarking is a useful clinical tool for improving outcomes in T2DM in primary care. Trial registration NCT00681850 PMID:21939502

  15. Reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (REMARK): explanation and elaboration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK) checklist consists of 20 items to report for published tumor marker prognostic studies. It was developed to address widespread deficiencies in the reporting of such studies. In this paper we expand on the REMARK checklist to enhance its use and effectiveness through better understanding of the intent of each item and why the information is important to report. Methods REMARK recommends including a transparent and full description of research goals and hypotheses, subject selection, specimen and assay considerations, marker measurement methods, statistical design and analysis, and study results. Each checklist item is explained and accompanied by published examples of good reporting, and relevant empirical evidence of the quality of reporting. We give prominence to discussion of the 'REMARK profile', a suggested tabular format for summarizing key study details. Summary The paper provides a comprehensive overview to educate on good reporting and provide a valuable reference for the many issues to consider when designing, conducting, and analyzing tumor marker studies and prognostic studies in medicine in general. To encourage dissemination of the Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): Explanation and Elaboration, this article has also been published in PLoS Medicine. PMID:22642691

  16. Rationale for Developing a Specimen Bank to Study the Pathogenesis of High-Grade Serous Carcinoma: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Mark E; Drapkin, Ronny I; Horowitz, Neil S; Crum, Christopher P; Friedman, Sue; Kwon, Janice S; Levine, Douglas A; Shih, Ie-Ming; Shoupe, Donna; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Walker, Joan; Trabert, Britton; Greene, Mark H; Samimi, Goli; Temkin, Sarah M; Minasian, Lori M

    2016-09-01

    Women with clinically detected high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) generally present with advanced-stage disease, which portends a poor prognosis, despite extensive surgery and intensive chemotherapy. Historically, HGSCs were presumed to arise from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), but the inability to identify early-stage HGSCs and their putative precursors in the ovary dimmed prospects for advancing our knowledge of the pathogenesis of these tumors and translating these findings into effective prevention strategies. Over the last decade, increased BRCA1/2 mutation testing coupled with performance of risk-reducing surgeries has enabled studies that have provided strong evidence that many, but probably not all, HGSCs among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers appear to arise from the fallopian tubes, rather than from the ovaries. This shift in our understanding of the pathogenesis of HGSCs provides an important opportunity to achieve practice changing advances; however, the scarcity of clinically annotated tissues containing early lesions, particularly among women at average risk, poses challenges to progress. Accordingly, we review studies that have kindled our evolving understanding of the pathogenesis of HGSC and present the rationale for developing an epidemiologically annotated national specimen resource to support this research. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 713-20. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. A randomised study of perioperative esmolol infusion for haemodynamic stability during major vascular surgery; rationale and design of DECREASE-XIII.

    PubMed

    Bakker, E J; Ravensbergen, N J; Voute, M T; Hoeks, S E; Chonchol, M; Klimek, M; Poldermans, D

    2011-09-01

    This article describes the rationale and design of the DECREASE-XIII trial, which aims to evaluate the potential of esmolol infusion, an ultra-short-acting beta-blocker, during surgery as an add-on to chronic low-dose beta-blocker therapy to maintain perioperative haemodynamic stability during major vascular surgery. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. A total of 260 vascular surgery patients will be randomised to esmolol or placebo as an add-on to standard medical care, including chronic low-dose beta-blockers. Esmolol is titrated to maintain a heart rate within a target window of 60-80 beats per minute for 24 h from the induction of anaesthesia. Heart rate and ischaemia are assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic monitoring for 72 h, starting 1 day prior to surgery. The primary outcome measure is duration of heart rate outside the target window during infusion of the study drug. Secondary outcome measures will be the efficacy parameters of occurrence of cardiac ischaemia, troponin T release, myocardial infarction and cardiac death within 30 days after surgery and safety parameters such as the occurrence of stroke and hypotension. This study will provide data on the efficacy of esmolol titration in chronic beta-blocker users for tight heart-rate control and reduction of ischaemia in patients undergoing vascular surgery as well as data on safety parameters. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Randomized placebo controlled blinded study to assess valsartan efficacy in preventing left ventricle remodeling in patients with dual chamber pacemaker--Rationale and design of the trial.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Andrzej; Jacheć, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Celina; Kawecki, Damian; Białkowska, Beata; Romuk, Ewa; Gabrysiak, Artur; Birkner, Ewa; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    Dual chamber pacing is known to have detrimental effect on cardiac performance and heart failure occurring eventually is associated with increased mortality. Experimental studies of pacing in dogs have shown contractile dyssynchrony leading to diffuse alterations in extracellular matrix. In parallel, studies on experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury have shown efficacy of valsartan to inhibit activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9, to increase the activity of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and preserve global contractility and left ventricle ejection fraction. To present rationale and design of randomized blinded trial aimed to assess whether 12 month long administration of valsartan will prevent left ventricle remodeling in patients with preserved left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF ≥ 40%) and first implantation of dual chamber pacemaker. A total of 100 eligible patients will be randomized into three parallel arms: placebo, valsartan 80 mg/daily and valsartan 160 mg/daily added to previously used drugs. The primary endpoint will be assessment of valsartan efficacy to prevent left ventricle remodeling during 12 month follow-up. We assess patients' functional capacity, blood plasma activity of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors, NT-proBNP, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and Troponin T. Left ventricle function and remodeling is assessed echocardiographically: M-mode, B-mode, tissue Doppler imaging. If valsartan proves effective, it will be an attractive measure to improve long term prognosis in aging population and increasing number of pacemaker recipients. ClinicalTrials.org (NCT01805804). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The design and rationale of an interdisciplinary, non-prescriptive, and Health at Every Size®-based clinical trial: The "Health and Wellness in Obesity" study.

    PubMed

    Ulian, Mariana D; Gualano, Bruno; Benatti, Fabiana B; de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Coelho, Desire; Roble, Odilon J; Sabatini, Fernanda; Perez, Isabel; Aburad, Luiz; Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Vessoni, André; Victor, Jhessica Campos; Lima, Victoria Kupper; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; de Morais Sato, Priscila; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Scagliusi, Fernanda B

    2017-12-01

    This manuscript describes the design and rationale of a clinical trial that aims to investigate the multiple physiological, attitudinal, nutritional, and behavioral effects of a new interdisciplinary intervention based on the Health at Every Size® (HAES®) approach in obese women. This will be a prospective, 7-month, randomized (2:1), mixed-method clinical trial. Obese women will be recruited and randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group (I-HAES®; proposed n = 40) will undertake a novel HAES®-based intervention. Participants will take part in an exercise program, nutrition counseling sessions, and philosophical workshops, all aligned with the principles of the HAES® approach. The control group (CTRL; proposed n = 20) will participate in a program using a traditional HAES®-based group format, characterized by bimonthly lectures about the same topics offered to the experimental group, encouraging the adoption of a healthy lifestyle. The following multiple quantitative outcomes will be assessed pre and post intervention: health-related quality of life, cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric assessments, physical activity level, physical capacity and function, and psychological and behavioral assessments. Qualitative analysis will be used to evaluate the experiences of the participants throughout the intervention, as assessed by focus groups and semi-structured interviews. The interdisciplinary research team leading this study has varied and complementary expertise. The knowledge arising from this study will help to guide new interdisciplinary interventions with the potential to holistically improve the health of obese individuals. This trial is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02102061).

  20. Molecular rationale delineating the role of lycopene as a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor: in vitro and in silico study.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Sahir Sultan; Iqbal, Danish; Ahmad, Saheem; Khan, M Salman

    2016-09-01

    This study initially aimed to depict the molecular rationale evolving the role of lycopene in inhibiting the enzymatic activity of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase via in vitro and in silico analysis. Our results illustrated that lycopene exhibited strong HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 36 ng/ml) quite better than pravastatin (IC50 = 42 ng/ml) and strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 value = 4.57 ± 0.23 μg/ml) as compared to ascorbic acid (IC50 value = 9.82 ± 0.42 μg/ml). Moreover, the Ki value of lycopene (36 ng/ml) depicted via Dixon plot was well concurred with an IC50 value of 36 ± 1.8 ng/ml. Moreover, molecular informatics study showed that lycopene exhibited binding energy of -5.62 kcal/mol indicating high affinity for HMG-CoA reductase than HMG-CoA (ΔG: -5.34 kcal/mol). Thus, in silico data clearly demonstrate and support the in vitro results that lycopene competitively inhibit HMG-CoA reductase activity by binding at the hydrophobic portion of HMG-CoA reductase.

  1. Evaluating markers for the early detection of cancer: overview of study designs and methods.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G; Kramer, Barnett S; McIntosh, Martin; Patterson, Blossom H; Shyr, Yu; Skates, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The field of cancer biomarker development has been evolving rapidly. New developments both in the biologic and statistical realms are providing increasing opportunities for evaluation of markers for both early detection and diagnosis of cancer. To review the major conceptual and methodological issues in cancer biomarker evaluation, with an emphasis on recent developments in statistical methods together with practical recommendations. We organized this review by type of study: preliminary performance, retrospective performance, prospective performance and cancer screening evaluation. For each type of study, we discuss methodologic issues, provide examples and discuss strengths and limitations. Preliminary performance studies are useful for quickly winnowing down the number of candidate markers; however their results may not apply to the ultimate target population, asymptomatic subjects. If stored specimens from cohort studies with clinical cancer endpoints are available, retrospective studies provide a quick and valid way to evaluate performance of the markers or changes in the markers prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Prospective studies have a restricted role because they require large sample sizes, and, if the endpoint is cancer on biopsy, there may be bias due to overdiagnosis. Cancer screening studies require very large sample sizes and long follow-up, but are necessary for evaluating the marker as a trigger of early intervention.

  2. Automatic tracking of arbitrarily shaped implanted markers in kilovoltage projection images: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Rimner, Andreas; Mostafavi, Hassan; Mageras, Gig S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Certain types of commonly used fiducial markers take on irregular shapes upon implantation in soft tissue. This poses a challenge for methods that assume a predefined shape of markers when automatically tracking such markers in kilovoltage (kV) radiographs. The authors have developed a method of automatically tracking regularly and irregularly shaped markers using kV projection images and assessed its potential for detecting intrafractional target motion during rotational treatment. Methods: Template-based matching used a normalized cross-correlation with simplex minimization. Templates were created from computed tomography (CT) images for phantom studies and from end-expiration breath-hold planning CT for patient studies. The kV images were processed using a Sobel filter to enhance marker visibility. To correct for changes in intermarker relative positions between simulation and treatment that can introduce errors in automatic matching, marker offsets in three dimensions were manually determined from an approximately orthogonal pair of kV images. Two studies in anthropomorphic phantom were carried out, one using a gold cylindrical marker representing regular shape, another using a Visicoil marker representing irregular shape. Automatic matching of templates to cone beam CT (CBCT) projection images was performed to known marker positions in phantom. In patient data, automatic matching was compared to manual matching as an approximate ground truth. Positional discrepancy between automatic and manual matching of less than 2 mm was assumed as the criterion for successful tracking. Tracking success rates were examined in kV projection images from 22 CBCT scans of four pancreas, six gastroesophageal junction, and one lung cancer patients. Each patient had at least one irregularly shaped radiopaque marker implanted in or near the tumor. In addition, automatic tracking was tested in intrafraction kV images of three lung cancer patients with irregularly shaped

  3. Automatic tracking of arbitrarily shaped implanted markers in kilovoltage projection images: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie

    Purpose: Certain types of commonly used fiducial markers take on irregular shapes upon implantation in soft tissue. This poses a challenge for methods that assume a predefined shape of markers when automatically tracking such markers in kilovoltage (kV) radiographs. The authors have developed a method of automatically tracking regularly and irregularly shaped markers using kV projection images and assessed its potential for detecting intrafractional target motion during rotational treatment. Methods: Template-based matching used a normalized cross-correlation with simplex minimization. Templates were created from computed tomography (CT) images for phantom studies and from end-expiration breath-hold planning CT for patient studies. Themore » kV images were processed using a Sobel filter to enhance marker visibility. To correct for changes in intermarker relative positions between simulation and treatment that can introduce errors in automatic matching, marker offsets in three dimensions were manually determined from an approximately orthogonal pair of kV images. Two studies in anthropomorphic phantom were carried out, one using a gold cylindrical marker representing regular shape, another using a Visicoil marker representing irregular shape. Automatic matching of templates to cone beam CT (CBCT) projection images was performed to known marker positions in phantom. In patient data, automatic matching was compared to manual matching as an approximate ground truth. Positional discrepancy between automatic and manual matching of less than 2 mm was assumed as the criterion for successful tracking. Tracking success rates were examined in kV projection images from 22 CBCT scans of four pancreas, six gastroesophageal junction, and one lung cancer patients. Each patient had at least one irregularly shaped radiopaque marker implanted in or near the tumor. In addition, automatic tracking was tested in intrafraction kV images of three lung cancer patients with irregularly

  4. Dendritic cell co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory markers in chronic HCV: An Egyptian study

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Hanan; Raziky, Maissa Saeed El; Aziz, Rasha Ahmed Abdel; Sabry, Dina; Aziz, Ghada Mahmoud Abdel; Ewais, Manal; Sayed, Ahmed Reda

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory markers of dendritic cells (DCs) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected subjects with and without uremia. METHODS: Three subject groups were included in the study: group 1 involved 50 control subjects, group 2 involved 50 patients with chronic HCV infection and group 3 involved 50 HCV uremic subjects undergoing hemodialysis. CD83, CD86 and CD40 as co-stimulatory markers and PD-L1 as a co-inhibitory marker were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels were also assessed. All findings were correlated with disease activity, viral load and fibrogenesis. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in co-stimulatory markers; CD83, CD86 and CD40 in groups 2 and 3 vs the control group. Co-stimulatory markers were significantly higher in group 3 vs group 2. There was a significant elevation in PD-L1 in both HCV groups vs the control group. PD-L1 was significantly lower in group 3 vs group 2. There was a significant elevation in IL-10 and HA levels in groups 2 and 3, where IL-10 was higher in group 3 and HA was lower in group 3 vs group 2. HA level was significantly correlated with disease activity and fibrosis grade in group 2. IL-10 was significantly correlated with fibrosis grade in group 2. There were significant negative correlations between co-stimulatory markers and viral load in groups 2 and 3, except CD83 in dialysis patients. There was a significant positive correlation between PD-L1 and viral load in both HCV groups. CONCLUSION: A significant decrease in DC co-stimulatory markers and a significant increase in a DC co-inhibitory marker were observed in HCV subjects and to a lesser extent in dialysis patients. PMID:24282359

  5. Mediterranean studies of cardiovascular disease and hyperglycemia: analytical modeling of population socio-economic transitions (MedCHAMPS)--rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Critchley, Julia; Zaman, Shahaduz; Unwin, Nigel; Capewell, Simon; Bennett, Kathleen; Unal, Belgin; Husseini, Abdullatif; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Phillimore, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In response to the escalating epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Mediterranean Region (MR), an international collaboration aiming at understanding the burden of CVD and evaluating cost-effective strategies to combat it was recently established. This paper describes the rationale and methods of the project MedCHAMPS to disseminate this successful experience. The framework of MedCHAMPS is exceptional in combining multiple disciplines (e.g. epidemiology, anthropology, economics), countries [Turkey, Syria, occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), Tunisia, UK, Ireland], research methods (situational and policy analysis, quantitative and qualitative studies, statistical modeling), and involving local stakeholders at all levels to assess trends of CVD/diabetes in the society and attributes of the local health care systems to provide optimal policy recommendations to reduce the burden of CVD/diabetes. MedCHAMPS provides policy makers in the MR and beyond needed guidance about the burden of CVD, and best cost-effective ways to combat it. Our approach of building developed-developing countries collaboration also provides a roadmap for other researchers seeking to build research base into CVD epidemiology and prevention in developing countries.

  6. A community-based obesity prevention program for minority children: rationale and study design for Hip-Hop to Health Jr.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Dyer, Alan R; VanHorn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine

    2002-02-01

    BACKGROUND; The increasing prevalence of overweight among children in the United States presents a national health priority. Higher rates of overweight/obesity among minority women place their children at increased risk. Although increased rates of overweight are observed in 4- to 5-year-old children, they are not observed in 2- to 3-year-old children. Therefore, early prevention efforts incorporating families are critical. The primary aim of Hip-Hop to Health Jr. is to alter the trajectory toward overweight/obesity among preschool African-American and Latino children. This 5-year randomized intervention is conducted in 24 Head Start programs, where each site is randomized to either a 14-week dietary/physical activity intervention or a general health intervention. This paper presents the rationale and design of the study. Efficacy of the intervention will be determined by weight change for the children and parent/caretaker. Secondary measures include reductions in dietary fat and increases in fiber, fruit/vegetable intake, and physical activity. Baseline data will be presented in future papers. The problem of overweight/obesity is epidemic in the United States. Behaviors related to diet and physical activity are established early in life and modeled by family members. Early intervention efforts addressing the child and family are needed to prevent obesity later in life. This paper describes a comprehensive, family-oriented obesity prevention program for minority preschool children. Copyright 2002 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Science (USA).

  7. Rationale and design of the vitamin D and type 2 diabetes (D2d) study: a diabetes prevention trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE: Observational studies suggest that vitamin D may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, data from long-term trials are lacking. The Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study is a randomized clinical trial designed to examine whether a causal relationship exists between vitamin D supp...

  8. Phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC II): rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Weiland, S K; Björkstén, B; Brunekreef, B; Cookson, W O C; von Mutius, E; Strachan, D P

    2004-09-01

    International comparative studies, investigating whether disease incidence or prevalence rates differ between populations and, if so, which factors explain the observed differences, have made important contributions to the understanding of disease aetiology in many areas. In Phase I of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), the prevalence rates of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in 13-14-yr-olds, assessed by standardised questionnaires, were found to differ >20-fold between the 155 study centres around the world. Phase II of ISAAC aims to identify determinants of these differences by studying informative populations. A detailed study protocol was developed for use in community-based random samples of children aged 9-11 yrs. The study modules include standardised questionnaires with detailed questions on the occurrence and severity of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema, their clinical management, and a broad range of previous and current exposure conditions. In addition, standardised protocols were applied for examination of flexural dermatitis, skin-prick testing, bronchial challenge with hypertonic saline, blood sampling for immunoglobulin E analyses and genotyping, and dust sampling for assessment of indoor exposures to allergens and endotoxin. To date, ISAAC II field work had been completed or started in 30 study centres in 22 countries. The majority of centres are in countries that participated in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase I and reflect almost the full range of the observed variability in Phase I prevalence rates.

  9. The rationale and design of the Beta-blocker to LOwer CArdiovascular Dialysis Events (BLOCADE) Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matthew A; Pilmore, Helen L; Ierino, Francesco L; Badve, Sunil V; Cass, Alan; Garg, Amit X; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Krum, Henry; Pascoe, Elaine M; Tonkin, Andrew M; Vergara, Liza A; Perkovic, Vlado

    2015-03-01

    The Beta-blocker to LOwer CArdiovascular Dialysis Events (BLOCADE) Feasibility Study aims to determine the feasibility of a large-scale randomized controlled trial with clinical endpoints comparing the beta-blocking agent carvedilol with placebo in patients receiving dialysis. The BLOCADE Feasibility Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group feasibility study comparing the beta-blocking agent carvedilol with placebo. Patients receiving dialysis for ≥3 months and who are aged ≥50 years, or who are ≥18 years and have diabetes or cardiovascular disease, were eligible. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who complete a 6-week run-in phase in which all participants received carvedilol titrated from 3.125 mg twice daily to 6.25 mg twice daily. Other measures included how many patients are screened, the proportion recruited, the overall recruitment rate, the proportion of participants who remain on study drug for 12 months and the incidence of intra-dialytic hypotension while on randomized treatment. The BLOCADE Feasibility Study commenced recruiting in May 2011 and involves 11 sites in Australia and New Zealand. The BLOCADE Feasibility Study will inform the design of a larger clinical endpoint study to determine whether beta-blocking agents provide benefit to patients receiving dialysis, and define whether such a study is feasible. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matejčíková, Z; Mareš, J; Přikrylová Vranová, H; Klosová, J; Sládková, V; Doláková, J; Zapletalová, J; Kaňovský, P

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS. This stage is followed by the neurodegenerative process. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. Although MS is according to McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria primarily a clinical diagnosis, paraclinical investigation methods are an important part in the diagnosis of MS. In common practice, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord, examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and examination of visual evoked potentials are used. There are an increasing number of studies dealing with biomarkers in CSF and their role in the diagnosis and treatment of MS. We hypothesized that the levels of some markers could be changed in MS in comparison with controls. We studied five inflammatory markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8, interleukin-10 (IL-10), beta-2-microglobulin, orosomucoid]. CSF and serum levels of inflammatory markers were assessed in 38 patients with newly diagnosed MS meeting McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria and in 28 subjects as a control group (CG). Levels of beta-2-microglobulin and interleukin-8 in CSF were found to be significantly higher in MS patients in comparison to CG (p < 0.001 resp. p = 0.007). No differences in other CSF markers (IL-6, IL-10 and orosomucoid) and serum levels of all markers between both groups were found. The levels of two studied inflammatory markers were found to be increased at the time of first clinical symptoms of MS. Research on the role of inflammatory and neurodegenerative markers in MS should continue.

  11. Design and Rationale for the Veterans Affairs "Cooperative Study Program 594 Comparative Effectiveness in Gout: Allopurinol vs. Febuxostat" Trial.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, S; Brittan, K; O'Dell, J R; Brophy, M; Davis-Karim, A; Henrie, A M; Neogi, T; Newcomb, J; Palevsky, P M; Pillinger, M H; Pittman, D; Taylor, T H; Wu, H; Mikuls, T R

    2018-05-01

    Gout patients do not routinely achieve optimal outcomes related in part to suboptimal administration of urate lowering therapy (ULT) including first-line xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol or febuxostat. Studies leading to the approval of febuxostat compared this agent to allopurinol in inappropriately low, fixed doses. We will compare allopurinol with febuxostat in gout using appropriately titrated doses of both agents and a "treat-to-target" strategy congruent with specialty guidelines. We have planned and initiated the Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Study Program (CSP) 594, Comparative Effectiveness in Gout: Allopurinol vs Febuxostat study. This large double-blind, non-inferiority trial will enroll 950 gout patients randomized to receive allopurinol or febuxostat. Patients will be followed for a total of 72 weeks encompassing 3 distinct 24-week study phases. During Phase I (0-24 weeks), participants will undergo gradual dose titration of ULT until achievement of serum uric acid (sUA) <6.0 mg/dL or <5.0 mg/dL if tophi are present. Dose escalation will not be allowed during final three study visits of Phase 2 (24-48 weeks) and during Phase 3 (48-72 weeks). The primary study outcome is the proportion of participants experiencing at least one gout flare during Phase 3. Subsequent to the 72-week study, participants will be followed passively for up to 10 years after the study to assess long-term health outcomes. With its completion, the VA Comparative Effectiveness in Gout: Allopurinol vs Febuxostat study will demonstrate the central role of gradual ULT dose escalation and a treat-to-target strategy in gout management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Huakang; Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wen, Christopher; Ye, Yuanqing; Zhao, Hua; Tsai, Min Kuang; Huang, Maosheng; Dinney, Colin P; Tsao, Chwen Keng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To assess the independent and joint associations of major chronic diseases and disease markers with cancer risk and to explore the benefit of physical activity in reducing the cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Standard medical screening program in Taiwan. Participants 405 878 participants, for whom cardiovascular disease markers (blood pressure, total cholesterol, and heart rate), diabetes, chronic kidney disease markers (proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate), pulmonary disease, and gouty arthritis marker (uric acid) were measured or diagnosed according to standard methods, were followed for an average of 8.7 years. Main outcome measures Cancer incidence and cancer mortality. Results A statistically significantly increased risk of incident cancer was observed for the eight diseases and markers individually (except blood pressure and pulmonary disease), with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.07 to 1.44. All eight diseases and markers were statistically significantly associated with risk of cancer death, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.70. Chronic disease risk scores summarizing the eight diseases and markers were positively associated with cancer risk in a dose-response manner, with the highest scores associated with a 2.21-fold (95% confidence interval 1.77-fold to 2.75-fold) and 4.00-fold (2.84-fold to 5.63-fold) higher cancer incidence and cancer mortality, respectively. High chronic disease risk scores were associated with substantial years of life lost, and the highest scores were associated with 13.3 years of life lost in men and 15.9 years of life lost in women. The population attributable fractions of cancer incidence or cancer mortality from the eight chronic diseases and markers together were comparable to those from five major lifestyle factors combined (cancer incidence: 20.5% v 24.8%; cancer mortality: 38.9% v 39.7%). Among

  13. Cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tu, Huakang; Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wen, Christopher; Ye, Yuanqing; Zhao, Hua; Tsai, Min Kuang; Huang, Maosheng; Dinney, Colin P; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng

    2018-01-31

    To assess the independent and joint associations of major chronic diseases and disease markers with cancer risk and to explore the benefit of physical activity in reducing the cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers. Prospective cohort study. Standard medical screening program in Taiwan. 405 878 participants, for whom cardiovascular disease markers (blood pressure, total cholesterol, and heart rate), diabetes, chronic kidney disease markers (proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate), pulmonary disease, and gouty arthritis marker (uric acid) were measured or diagnosed according to standard methods, were followed for an average of 8.7 years. Cancer incidence and cancer mortality. A statistically significantly increased risk of incident cancer was observed for the eight diseases and markers individually (except blood pressure and pulmonary disease), with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.07 to 1.44. All eight diseases and markers were statistically significantly associated with risk of cancer death, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.70. Chronic disease risk scores summarizing the eight diseases and markers were positively associated with cancer risk in a dose-response manner, with the highest scores associated with a 2.21-fold (95% confidence interval 1.77-fold to 2.75-fold) and 4.00-fold (2.84-fold to 5.63-fold) higher cancer incidence and cancer mortality, respectively. High chronic disease risk scores were associated with substantial years of life lost, and the highest scores were associated with 13.3 years of life lost in men and 15.9 years of life lost in women. The population attributable fractions of cancer incidence or cancer mortality from the eight chronic diseases and markers together were comparable to those from five major lifestyle factors combined (cancer incidence: 20.5% v 24.8%; cancer mortality: 38.9% v 39.7%). Among physically active (versus inactive) participants, the increased cancer risk

  14. Barriers to successful implementation of care in home haemodialysis (BASIC-HHD):1. Study design, methods and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ten years on from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence’ technology appraisal guideline on haemodialysis in 2002; the clinical community is yet to rise to the challenge of providing home haemodialysis (HHD) to 10-15% of the dialysis cohort. The renal registry report, suggests underutilization of a treatment type that has had a lot of research interest and several publications worldwide on its apparent benefit for both physical and mental health of patients. An understanding of the drivers to introducing and sustaining the modality, from organizational, economic, clinical and patient perspectives is fundamental to realizing the full benefits of the therapy with the potential to provide evidence base for effective care models. Through the BASIC-HHD study, we seek to understand the clinical, patient and carer related psychosocial, economic and organisational determinants of successful uptake and maintenance of home haemodialysis and thereby, engage all major stakeholders in the process. Design and methods We have adopted an integrated mixed methodology (convergent, parallel design) for this study. The study arms include a. patient; b. organization; c. carer and d. economic evaluation. The three patient study cohorts (n = 500) include pre-dialysis patients (200), hospital haemodialysis (200) and home haemodialysis patients (100) from geographically distinct NHS sites, across the country and with variable prevalence of home haemodialysis. The pre-dialysis patients will also be prospectively followed up for a period of 12 months from study entry to understand their journey to renal replacement therapy and subsequently, before and after studies will be carried out for a select few who do commence dialysis in the study period. The process will entail quantitative methods and ethnographic interviews of all groups in the study. Data collection will involve clinical and biomarkers, psychosocial quantitative assessments and neuropsychometric

  15. Rationale and design of the randomized evaluation of an Ambulatory Care Pharmacist-Led Intervention to Optimize Urate Lowering Pathways (RAmP-UP) Study.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Brian W; Cheetham, T Craig; Rashid, Nazia; Chang, John M; Levy, Gerald D; Kerimian, Artak; Low, Kimberly J; Redden, David T; Bridges, S Louis; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Mikuls, Ted R

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of effective therapies, most gout patients achieve suboptimal treatment outcomes. Current best practices suggest gradual dose-escalation of urate lowering therapy and serial serum urate (sUA) measurement to achieve sUA<6.0mg/dl. However, this strategy is not routinely used. Here we present the study design rationale and development for a pharmacist-led intervention to promote sUA goal attainment. To overcome barriers in achieving optimal outcomes, we planned and implemented the Randomized Evaluation of an Ambulatory Care Pharmacist-Led Intervention to Optimize Urate Lowering Pathways (RAmP-UP) study. This is a large pragmatic cluster-randomized trial designed to assess a highly automated, pharmacist-led intervention to optimize allopurinol treatment in gout. Ambulatory clinics (n=101) from a large health system were randomized to deliver either the pharmacist-led intervention or usual care to gout patients over the age of 18years newly initiating allopurinol. All participants received educational materials and could opt-out of the study. For intervention sites, pharmacists conducted outreach primarily via an automated telephone interactive voice recognition system. The outreach, guided by a gout care algorithm developed for this study, systematically promoted adherence assessment, facilitated sUA testing, provided education, and adjusted allopurinol dosing. The primary study outcomes are achievement of sUA<6.0mg/dl and treatment adherence determined after one year. With follow-up ongoing, study results will be reported subsequently. Ambulatory care pharmacists and automated calling technology represent potentially important, underutilized resources for improving health outcomes for gout patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rationale and Design of the Randomized Evaluation of an Ambulatory Care Pharmacist-Led Intervention to Optimize Urate Lowering Pathways (RAmP-UP) Study

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Brian W; Cheetham, T Craig; Rashid, Nazia; Chang, John M; Levy, Gerald D; Kerimian, Artak; Low, Kimberly J; Redden, David T; Bridges, S Louis; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Mikuls, Ted R

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of effective therapies, most gout patients achieve suboptimal treatment outcomes. Current best practices suggest gradual dose-escalation of urate lowering therapy and serial serum urate (sUA) measurement to achieve sUA < 6.0 mg/dl. However, this strategy is not routinely used. Here we present the study design rationale and development for a pharmacist-led intervention to promote sUA goal attainment. Methods To overcome barriers in achieving optimal outcomes, we planned and implemented the Randomized Evaluation of an Ambulatory Care Pharmacist-Led Intervention to Optimize Urate Lowering Pathways (RAmP-UP) study. This is a large pragmatic cluster-randomized trial designed to assess a highly automated, pharmacist-led intervention to optimize allopurinol treatment in gout. Ambulatory clinics (n=101) from a large health system were randomized to deliver either the pharmacist-led intervention or usual care to gout patients over the age of 18 years newly initiating allopurinol. All participants received educational materials and could opt-out of the study. For intervention sites, pharmacists conducted outreach primarily via an automated telephone interactive voice recognition system. The outreach, guided by a gout care algorithm developed for this study, systematically promoted adherence assessment, facilitated sUA testing, provided education, and adjusted allopurinol dosing. The primary study outcomes are achievement of sUA < 6.0 mg/dl and treatment adherence determined after one year. With follow-up ongoing, study results will be reported subsequently. Conclusion Ambulatory care pharmacists and automated calling technology represent potentially important, underutilized resources for improving health outcomes for gout patients. PMID:27449546

  17. The need for obtaining accurate nationwide estimates of diabetes prevalence in India - Rationale for a national study on diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Anjana, R.M.; Ali, M.K.; Pradeepa, R.; Deepa, M.; Datta, M.; Unnikrishnan, R.; Rema, M.; Mohan, V.

    2011-01-01

    According to the World Diabetes Atlas, India is projected to have around 51 million people with diabetes. However, these data are based on small sporadic studies done in some parts of the country. Even a few multi-centre studies that have been done, have several limitations. Also, marked heterogeneity between States limits the generalizability of results. Other studies done at various time periods also lack uniform methodology, do not take into consideration ethnic differences and have inadequate coverage. Thus, till date there has been no national study on the prevalence of diabetes which are truly representative of India as a whole. Moreover, the data on diabetes complications is even more scarce. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a large well-planned national study, which could provide reliable nationwide data, not only on prevalence of diabetes, but also on pre-diabetes, and the complications of diabetes in India. A study of this nature will have enormous public health impact and help policy makers to take action against diabetes in India. PMID:21537089

  18. Barriers to successful implementation of care in home haemodialysis (BASIC-HHD):1. Study design, methods and rationale.

    PubMed

    Jayanti, Anuradha; Wearden, Alison J; Morris, Julie; Brenchley, Paul; Abma, Inger; Bayer, Steffen; Barlow, James; Mitra, Sandip

    2013-09-17

    Ten years on from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence' technology appraisal guideline on haemodialysis in 2002; the clinical community is yet to rise to the challenge of providing home haemodialysis (HHD) to 10-15% of the dialysis cohort. The renal registry report, suggests underutilization of a treatment type that has had a lot of research interest and several publications worldwide on its apparent benefit for both physical and mental health of patients. An understanding of the drivers to introducing and sustaining the modality, from organizational, economic, clinical and patient perspectives is fundamental to realizing the full benefits of the therapy with the potential to provide evidence base for effective care models. Through the BASIC-HHD study, we seek to understand the clinical, patient and carer related psychosocial, economic and organisational determinants of successful uptake and maintenance of home haemodialysis and thereby, engage all major stakeholders in the process. We have adopted an integrated mixed methodology (convergent, parallel design) for this study. The study arms include a. patient; b. organization; c. carer and d. economic evaluation. The three patient study cohorts (n = 500) include pre-dialysis patients (200), hospital haemodialysis (200) and home haemodialysis patients (100) from geographically distinct NHS sites, across the country and with variable prevalence of home haemodialysis. The pre-dialysis patients will also be prospectively followed up for a period of 12 months from study entry to understand their journey to renal replacement therapy and subsequently, before and after studies will be carried out for a select few who do commence dialysis in the study period. The process will entail quantitative methods and ethnographic interviews of all groups in the study. Data collection will involve clinical and biomarkers, psychosocial quantitative assessments and neuropsychometric tests in patients. Organizational

  19. The Positive Emotions after Acute Coronary Events behavioral health intervention: Design, rationale, and preliminary feasibility of a factorial design study.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Jeffery C; Albanese, Ariana M; Campbell, Kirsti A; Celano, Christopher M; Millstein, Rachel A; Mastromauro, Carol A; Healy, Brian C; Chung, Wei-Jean; Januzzi, James L; Collins, Linda M; Park, Elyse R

    2017-04-01

    Positive psychological constructs, such as optimism, are associated with greater participation in cardiac health behaviors and improved cardiac outcomes. Positive psychology interventions, which target psychological well-being, may represent a promising approach to improving health behaviors in high-risk cardiac patients. However, no study has assessed whether a positive psychology intervention can promote physical activity following an acute coronary syndrome. In this article we will describe the methods of a novel factorial design study to aid the development of a positive psychology-based intervention for acute coronary syndrome patients and aim to provide preliminary feasibility data on study implementation. The Positive Emotions after Acute Coronary Events III study is an optimization study (planned N = 128), subsumed within a larger multiphase optimization strategy iterative treatment development project. The goal of Positive Emotions after Acute Coronary Events III is to identify the ideal components of a positive psychology-based intervention to improve post-acute coronary syndrome physical activity. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, Positive Emotions after Acute Coronary Events III aims to: (1) evaluate the relative merits of using positive psychology exercises alone or combined with motivational interviewing, (2) assess whether weekly or daily positive psychology exercise completion is optimal, and (3) determine the utility of booster sessions. The study's primary outcome measure is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at 16 weeks, measured via accelerometer. Secondary outcome measures include psychological, functional, and adherence-related behavioral outcomes, along with metrics of feasibility and acceptability. For the primary study outcome, we will use a mixed-effects model with a random intercept (to account for repeated measures) to assess the main effects of each component (inclusion of motivational interviewing in the exercises

  20. The Fifth German Oral Health Study (Fünfte Deutsche Mundgesundheitsstudie, DMS V) - rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Rainer A; Bodechtel, Constanze; Hertrampf, Katrin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kocher, Thomas; Nitschke, Ina; Schiffner, Ulrich; Stark, Helmut; Zimmer, Stefan; Micheelis, Wolfgang

    2014-12-29

    Oral diseases rank among the most prevalent non-communicable diseases in modern societies. In Germany, oral epidemiological data show that both dental caries and periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, though significant improvements in oral health has been taking in the population within the last decades, particularly in children. It is, therefore, the aim of the Fifth German Oral Health Study (DMS V) to actualize the data on current oral health status and to gather information on oral health behavior and risk factors. In addition to current oral health monitoring, the study will also permit conclusions about trends in the development of oral health in Germany between 1989 and 2014. DMS V is a cross-sectional, multi-center, nationwide representative, socio-epidemiological study to investigate the oral health status und behavior of the German resident population in four age cohorts. Study participants are children (12-year-olds), adults (35- to 44-year-olds), young olds (65- to 74-year-olds), and old olds (75- to 100-year-olds) who are drawn from local residents' registration offices. Social-science investigation parameters concern subjective perceptions and attitudes regarding oral health and nutrition, sense of coherence, and socio-demographic data. Clinical oral parameters are tooth loss, caries and periodontitis, prosthodontic status, further developmental and acquired dental hard tissue and mucosal lesions. To ensure reproducibility, the dental investigators are trained and calibrated by experts and multiple reliability checks are performed throughout the field phase. Statistical analyses are calculated according to a detailed statistical analysis plan. The DMS studies first performed in 1989, 1992 and repeated in 1997 and 2005 are the only cross-sectional oral health studies conducted in Germany on a population-based national representative level. Updated prevalence and trend analyses of key oral diseases are, therefore, of major epidemiological and health

  1. PHARMacy-based interdisciplinary program for patients with Chronic Heart Failure (PHARM-CHF): rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial, and results of the pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laufs, Ulrich; Griese-Mammen, Nina; Krueger, Katrin; Wachter, Angelika; Anker, Stefan D; Koehler, Friedrich; Rettig-Ewen, Volker; Botermann, Lea; Strauch, Dorothea; Trenk, Dietmar; Böhm, Michael; Schulz, Martin

    2018-05-30

    We report the rationale and design of a community PHARMacy-based prospective randomized controlled interdisciplinary study for ambulatory patients with Chronic Heart Failure (PHARM-CHF) and results of its pilot study. The pilot study randomized 50 patients to a pharmacy-based intervention or usual care for 12 months. It demonstrated the feasibility of the design and showed reduced systolic blood pressure in the intervention group as indicator for improved medication adherence. The main study will randomize patients ≥60 years on stable pharmacotherapy including at least one diuretic and a history of heart failure hospitalization within 12 months. The intervention group will receive a medication review at baseline followed by regular dose dispensing of the medication, counselling regarding medication use and symptoms of heart failure. The control patients are unknown to the pharmacy and receive usual care. The primary efficacy endpoint is medication adherence, pre-specified as a significant difference of the proportion of days covered between the intervention and control group within 365 days following randomization using pharmacy claims data for three CHF medications (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). The primary composite safety endpoint is days lost due to blindly adjudicated unplanned cardiovascular hospitalizations or death. Overall, 248 patients shall be randomized. The minimum follow-up is 12 months with an expected mean of 24 months. Based on the feasibility demonstrated in the pilot study, the randomized PHARM-CHF trial will test whether an interdisciplinary pharmacy-based intervention can safely improve medication adherence and will estimate the potential impact on clinical endpoints. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01692119. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2018 European Society of Cardiology.

  2. Rationale and design of a long term follow-up study of women who did and did not receive HPV 16/18 vaccination in Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Porras, Carolina; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Jimenez, Silvia; Darragh, Teresa M; Cortes, Bernal; Befano, Brian; Schiffman, Mark; Carvajal, Loreto; Palefsky, Joel; Schiller, John; Ocampo, Rebeca; Schussler, John; Lowy, Douglas; Guillen, Diego; Stoler, Mark H; Quint, Wim; Morales, Jorge; Avila, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2015-04-27

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) was a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2004 and 2010, which randomized 7466 women aged 18 to 25 to receive the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine or control Hepatitis-A vaccine. Participants were followed for 4 years with cross-over vaccination at the study end. In 2010 the long term follow-up (LTFU) study was initiated to evaluate the 10-year impact of HPV-16/18 vaccination, determinants of the immune response, and HPV natural history in a vaccinated population. Herein, the rationale, design and methods of the LTFU study are described, which actively follows CVT participants in the HPV-arm 6 additional years at biennial intervals (3 additional study visits for 10 years of total follow-up), or more often if clinically indicated. According to the initial commitment, women in the Hepatitis-A arm were offered HPV vaccination at cross-over; they were followed 2 additional years and exited from the study. 92% of eligible CVT women accepted participation in LTFU. To provide underlying rates of HPV acquisition and cervical disease among unvaccinated women to compare with the HPV-arm during LTFU, a new unvaccinated control group (UCG) of women who are beyond the age generally recommended for routine vaccination was enrolled, and will be followed by cervical cancer screening over 6 years. To form the UCG, 5000 women were selected from a local census, of whom 2836 women (61% of eligible women) agreed to participate. Over 90% of participants complied with an interview, blood and cervical specimen collection. Evaluation of comparability between the original (Hepatitis-A arm of CVT) and new (UCG) control groups showed that women's characteristics, as well as their predicted future risk for cervical HPV acquisition, were similar, thus validating use of the UCG. LTFU is poised to comprehensively address many important questions related to long-term effects of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does left ventricular hypertrophy affect cognition and brain structural integrity in type 2 diabetes? Study design and rationale of the Diabetes and Dementia (D2) study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheila K; Restrepo, Carolina; Werden, Emilio; Churilov, Leonid; Ekinci, Elif I; Srivastava, Piyush M; Ramchand, Jay; Wai, Bryan; Chambers, Brian; O'Callaghan, Christopher J; Darby, David; Hachinski, Vladimir; Cumming, Toby; Donnan, Geoff; Burrell, Louise M; Brodtmann, Amy

    2017-04-07

    Cognitive impairment is common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and there is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. However, we do not know which type 2 diabetes patients will dement or which biomarkers predict cognitive decline. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is potentially such a marker. LVH is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes and is a strong, independent predictor of cardiovascular events. To date, no studies have investigated the association between LVH and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes and Dementia (D2) study is designed to establish whether patients with type 2 diabetes and LVH have increased rates of brain atrophy and cognitive decline. The D2 study is a single centre, observational, longitudinal case control study that will follow 168 adult patients aged >50 years with type 2 diabetes: 50% with LVH (case) and 50% without LVH (control). It will assess change in cardiovascular risk, brain imaging and neuropsychological testing between two time-points, baseline (0 months) and 24 months. The primary outcome is brain volume change at 24 months. The co-primary outcome is the presence of cognitive decline at 24 months. The secondary outcome is change in left ventricular mass associated with brain atrophy and cognitive decline at 24 months. The D2 study will test the hypothesis that patients with type 2 diabetes and LVH will exhibit greater brain atrophy than those without LVH. An understanding of whether LVH contributes to cognitive decline, and in which patients, will allow us to identify patients at particular risk. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12616000546459 ), date registered, 28/04/2016.

  4. Interdisciplinary Studies and the Real World: A Practical Rationale for and Guide to Postgraduation Evaluation and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Benjamin; Widders, Evan

    2012-01-01

    This article is an outgrowth of the evaluation and assessment process in a large interdisciplinary studies (IDS) program at West Virginia University. We argue for the importance of collecting and assessing quantitative and qualitative data concerning learning outcomes, student satisfaction, career choice and development, and graduate education…

  5. Study of a Nongraded Supplementary Group Communication Skills Program: Rationale, Pupil Personal-Social Characteristics, and Program Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpe, Doris M.

    The purposes of this study were to design an experimental communications skills improvement program for low-achieving middle-grade pupils, to investigate certain assumed pupil personal-social characteristics on which the program was based, and to assess the effectiveness of the program. Two basic features incorporated into the new program were (1)…

  6. Patient perspective on remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: rationale and design of the REMOTE-CIED study.

    PubMed

    Versteeg, H; Pedersen, S S; Mastenbroek, M H; Redekop, W K; Schwab, J O; Mabo, P; Meine, M

    2014-10-01

    Remote patient monitoring is a safe and effective alternative for the in-clinic follow-up of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, evidence on the patient perspective on remote monitoring is scarce and inconsistent. The primary objective of the REMOTE-CIED study is to evaluate the influence of remote patient monitoring versus in-clinic follow-up on patient-reported outcomes. Secondary objectives are to: 1) identify subgroups of patients who may not be satisfied with remote monitoring; and 2) investigate the cost-effectiveness of remote monitoring. The REMOTE-CIED study is an international randomised controlled study that will include 900 consecutive heart failure patients implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) compatible with the Boston Scientific LATITUDE® Remote Patient Management system at participating centres in five European countries. Patients will be randomised to remote monitoring or in-clinic follow-up. The In-Clinic group will visit the outpatient clinic every 3-6 months, according to standard practice. The Remote Monitoring group only visits the outpatient clinic at 12 and 24 months post-implantation, other check-ups are performed remotely. Patients are asked to complete questionnaires at five time points during the 2-year follow-up. The REMOTE-CIED study will provide insight into the patient perspective on remote monitoring in ICD patients, which could help to support patient-centred care in the future.

  7. The Prevention of Early Asthma in Kids study: design, rationale and methods for the Childhood Asthma Research and Education network.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Morgan, Wayne J; Krawiec, Marzena; Lemanske, Robert F; Sorkness, Chris; Szefler, Stanley J; Larsen, Gary; Spahn, Joseph D; Zeiger, Robert S; Heldt, Gregory; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Boehmer, Susan J; Mauger, Elizabeth A; Mauger, David T; Taussig, Lynn M; Martinez, Fernando D

    2004-06-01

    Pediatric asthma remains an important public health concern as its prevalence and cost to the health care system is rising. In order to promote innovative research in asthma therapies, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute created the Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network in 1999. As its first study, the steering committee of the Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network designed a randomized clinical trial to determine if persistent asthma could be prevented in children at a high risk to develop the disease. This communication presents the design of its first clinical trial, the Prevention of Asthma in Kids (PEAK) trial and the organization of the Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network that developed and implemented this trial. Studies of the natural history of asthma have shown that, in persistent asthma, the initial asthma-like symptoms and loss of lung function occur predominately during the first years of life. Therefore, in the Prevention of Asthma in Kids study, children 2 and 3 years old with a positive asthma predictive index were randomized to twice daily treatment with fluticasone 88 microg or placebo via metered-dose inhaler and Aerochamber for 2 years. The double blind treatment period was followed by a 1-year observational period. Lung function was measured by spirometry and oscillometry technique at 4-month intervals throughout the study. Bronchodilator reversibility and exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) studies were performed at the end of the treatment and observation periods. The primary outcome measure was the number of asthma-free days. Other secondary outcomes included number of exacerbations, use of asthma medications and lung function. These measures were chosen to reflect the progression of the disease from intermittent wheezing to persistent asthma and measurement of the extent of airflow limitation and airway reactivity.

  8. Rationale and methods of the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar, Eliseo; Borghi, Claudio; Dallongeville, Jean; De Backer, Guy; Halcox, Julian P; Hernández-Vecino, Ramón; Jiménez, Francisco Javier; Massó-González, Elvira L; Perk, Joep; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Banegas, José R

    2010-06-30

    The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336).

  9. The rationale and design of the Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study: safety and efficacy of a novel miniaturized pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philippe; Duray, Gabor Z; Zhang, Shu; Narasimhan, Calambur; Soejima, Kyoko; Omar, Razali; Laager, Verla; Stromberg, Kurt; Williams, Eric; Reynolds, Dwight

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in miniaturization technologies and battery chemistries have made it possible to develop a pacemaker small enough to implant within the heart while still aiming to provide similar battery longevity to conventional pacemakers. The Micra Transcatheter Pacing System is a miniaturized single-chamber pacemaker system that is delivered via catheter through the femoral vein. The pacemaker is implanted directly inside the right ventricle of the heart, eliminating the need for a device pocket and insertion of a pacing lead, thereby potentially avoiding some of the complications associated with traditional pacing systems. The Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study is currently undergoing evaluation in a prospective, multi-site, single-arm study. Approximately 720 patients will be implanted at up to 70 centres around the world. The study is designed to have a continuously growing body of evidence and data analyses are planned at various time points. The primary safety and efficacy objectives at 6-month post-implant are to demonstrate that (i) the percentage of Micra patients free from major complications related to the Micra system or implant procedure is significantly higher than 83% and (ii) the percentage of Micra patients with both low and stable thresholds is significantly higher than 80%. The safety performance benchmark is based on a reference dataset of 977 subjects from 6 recent pacemaker studies. The Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study will assess the safety and efficacy of a miniaturized, totally endocardial pacemaker in patients with an indication for implantation of a single-chamber ventricular pacemaker. NCT02004873. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M; Smith, H J; Simon, T R

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. Although most of the liquid component of the meal, labeled with 111In, emptied during the first hour (as assessed simultaneously by radionuclide scintigraphy), few radiopaque markers emptied from the stomach during the first 2 h after the meal. Most markers emptied during the fourth postprandial hour, and all 10 markers had emptied by 6 h in 45 of 46 experiments. In contrast, not all of the solid radiopaque markers emptied from the stomach by 6 h in 16 of 26 experiments in patients with diabetes mellitus (p less than 0.001 vs. healthy controls). In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 = 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 = 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of

  11. Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana (REACCTING): study rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Kanyomse, Ernest; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Coffey, Evan; Rivera, Isaac J; Adoctor, James; Alirigia, Rex; Muvandimwe, Didier; Dove, MacKenzie; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary H; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Abisiba, Adoctor Victor; Anaseba, Dominic; Hagar, Yolanda; Masson, Nicholas; Monaghan, Andrew; Titiati, Atsu; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hsu, Yueh-Ya; Kaspar, Rachael; Brooks, Bre'Anna; Hodgson, Abraham; Hannigan, Michael; Oduro, Abraham Rexford; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2015-02-12

    Cooking over open fires using solid fuels is both common practice throughout much of the world and widely recognized to contribute to human health, environmental, and social problems. The public health burden of household air pollution includes an estimated four million premature deaths each year. To be effective and generate useful insight into potential solutions, cookstove intervention studies must select cooking technologies that are appropriate for local socioeconomic conditions and cooking culture, and include interdisciplinary measurement strategies along a continuum of outcomes. REACCTING (Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana) is an ongoing interdisciplinary randomized cookstove intervention study in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana. The study tests two types of biomass burning stoves that have the potential to meet local cooking needs and represent different "rungs" in the cookstove technology ladder: a locally-made low-tech rocket stove and the imported, highly efficient Philips gasifier stove. Intervention households were randomized into four different groups, three of which received different combinations of two improved stoves, while the fourth group serves as a control for the duration of the study. Diverse measurements assess different points along the causal chain linking the intervention to final outcomes of interest. We assess stove use and cooking behavior, cooking emissions, household air pollution and personal exposure, health burden, and local to regional air quality. Integrated analysis and modeling will tackle a range of interdisciplinary science questions, including examining ambient exposures among the regional population, assessing how those exposures might change with different technologies and behaviors, and estimating the comparative impact of local behavior and technological changes versus regional climate variability and change on local air quality and health outcomes

  12. Neurobiological mechanisms of exercise and psychotherapy in depression: The SPeED study-Rationale, design, and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Heinzel, Stephan; Rapp, Michael A; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas; Terán, Christina; Kallies, Gunnar; Schwefel, Melanie; Heissel, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Even though cognitive behavioral therapy has become a relatively effective treatment for major depressive disorder and cognitive behavioral therapy-related changes of dysfunctional neural activations were shown in recent studies, remission rates still remain at an insufficient level. Therefore, the implementation of effective augmentation strategies is needed. In recent meta-analyses, exercise therapy (especially endurance exercise) was reported to be an effective intervention in major depressive disorder. Despite these findings, underlying mechanisms of the antidepressant effect of exercise especially in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy have rarely been studied to date and an investigation of its neural underpinnings is lacking. A better understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms of exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy would be important for developing optimal treatment strategies in depression. The SPeED study (Sport/Exercise Therapy and Psychotherapy-evaluating treatment Effects in Depressive patients) is a randomized controlled trial to investigate underlying physiological, neurobiological, and psychological mechanisms of the augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with endurance exercise. It is investigated if a preceding endurance exercise program will enhance the effect of a subsequent cognitive behavioral therapy. This study will include 105 patients diagnosed with a mild or moderate depressive episode according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). The participants are randomized into one of three groups: a high-intensive or a low-intensive endurance exercise group or a waiting list control group. After the exercise program/waiting period, all patients receive an outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy treatment according to a standardized therapy manual. At four measurement points, major depressive disorder symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

  13. Psychological markers underlying murder weapon profile: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, M R; Othman, A; Ismail, K H; Mat Saat, G A

    2017-12-01

    The horrific nature of murder using different types of weapons has been an important focal point of many criminological studies. Weapons that are used in murders seem to play dominant roles in murder investigations as they may provide information leading to arrest. The established factors for weapon usage include environmental context, demography and availability of weapons. However, there is insufficient research attention on the psychological functioning of murderers for particular weapon usage. In light of this, the current study seeks to narrow this gap of information by identifying the influences of psychological traits on weapon usage among a sample of male murderers. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 71 male murderers incarcerated in 11 prisons within Peninsular Malaysia. The selection of the sample was based on predetermined selection criteria using a purposive sampling method. A guided self-administered questionnaire comprising sociodemography variables and four Malay validated psychometric instruments: Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-40-Cross-Culture, Self-control Scale, "How I Think" Questionnaire and Aggression Questionnaire; was used. Independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score differences of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple weapons while Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the differences between the specific types of weapons used among the murderers. Following this, one-way ANOVA was carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences among the murderers according to the different sources of weapon. Results indicated specific psychological traits influenced the number(s), source(s) and type(s) of weapon used in committing murder. The findings have implications for the psychological profiling of unknown murderers within the Malaysian context.

  14. A Pilot Study of a Distress Tolerance Treatment for Opiate Dependent Patients Initiating Buprenorphine: Rationale, Methodology, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Hecht, Jacki; Moitra, Ethan; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Buprenorphine, an opioid that is a long-acting partial opiate agonist, is an efficacious treatment for opiate dependence that is growing in popularity. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that many patients will lapse within the first week of treatment, and that lapses are often associated with withdrawal-related or emotional distress. Recent research suggests that individuals’ reactions to this distress may represent an important treatment target. In the current study, we describe the development and outcomes from a preliminary pilot evaluation (N = 5) of a novel distress tolerance treatment for individuals initiating buprenorphine. This treatment incorporates exposure-based and acceptance-based treatment approaches that we have previously applied to the treatment of tobacco dependence. Results from this pilot study establish the feasibility and acceptability of this approach. We are now conducting a randomized controlled trial of this treatment that we hope will yield clinically significant findings and offer clinicians an efficacious behavioral treatment to complement the effects of buprenorphine. PMID:24973401

  15. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis Study. Alpha-1 Protocol.

    PubMed

    Strange, Charlie; Senior, Robert M; Sciurba, Frank; O'Neal, Scott; Morris, Alison; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Bowler, Russell; Hochheiser, Harry S; Becich, Michael J; Zhang, Yingze; Leader, Joseph K; Methé, Barbara A; Kaminski, Naftali; Sandhaus, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Severe deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin has a highly variable clinical presentation. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis α1 Study is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of adults older than age 35 years with PiZZ or PiMZ alpha-1 antitrypsin genotypes. It is designed to better understand if microbial factors influence this heterogeneity. Clinical symptoms, pulmonary function testing, computed chest tomography, exercise capacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) will be used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes that can be studied with an integrated systems biology approach that includes plasma proteomics; mouth, BAL, and stool microbiome and virome analysis; and blood microRNA and blood mononuclear cell RNA and DNA profiling. We will rely on global genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome datasets. Matched cohorts of PiZZ participants on or off alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy, PiMZ participants not on augmentation therapy, and control participants from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study who match on FEV1 and age will be compared. In the primary analysis, we will determine if the PiZZ individuals on augmentation therapy have a difference in lower respiratory tract microbes identified compared with matched PiZZ individuals who are not on augmentation therapy. By characterizing the microbiome in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), we hope to define new phenotypes of COPD that explain some of the diversity of clinical presentations. As a unique genetic cause of COPD, AATD may inform typical COPD pathogenesis, and better understanding of it may illuminate the complex interplay between environment and genetics. Although the biologic approaches are hypothesis generating, the results may lead to development of novel biomarkers, better understanding of COPD phenotypes, and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic trials in AATD and COPD

  16. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi-ethnic middle school students.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Kathryn; Baranowski, Tom; DeBar, Lynn; Foster, Gary D; Kaufman, Francine; Kennel, Phyllis; Linder, Barbara; Schneider, Margaret; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Yin, Zenong

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index > or =85th percentile, fasting glucose > or =5.55 mmol l(-1) (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin > or =180 pmol l(-1) (30 microU ml(-1)). A series of pilot studies established the feasibility of performing data collection procedures and tested the development of an intervention consisting of four integrated components: (1) changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food and beverage offerings throughout the total school food environment; (2) physical education class lesson plans and accompanying equipment to increase both participation and number of minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; (3) brief classroom activities and family outreach vehicles to increase knowledge, enhance decision-making skills and support and reinforce youth in accomplishing goals; and (4) communications and social marketing strategies to enhance and promote changes through messages, images, events and activities. Expert study staff provided training, assistance, materials and guidance for school faculty and staff to implement the intervention components. A cohort of students were enrolled in sixth grade and followed to end of eighth grade. They attended a health screening data collection at baseline and end of study that involved measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference and a fasting blood draw. Height and weight were also collected at the end of the seventh grade. The study was conducted in 42 middle schools, six at each of seven locations across the country, with 21 schools randomized to receive the intervention and 21 to act as controls (data collection activities only). Middle school was the unit of

  17. A cross-sectional study on prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India: rationale and methods

    PubMed Central

    Pattabi, Kamaraj; Vadivoo, Selvaraj; Bhome, Arvind; Brashier, Bill; Bhattacharya, Prashanta; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common preventable and treatable chronic respiratory disease, which affects 210 million people globally. Global and national guidelines exist for the management of COPD. Although evidence-based, they are inadequate to address the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity in India. Co-existence of other chronic respiratory diseases can adversely influence the prognosis of COPD. India has a huge burden of COPD with various risk factors and comorbid conditions. However, valid prevalence estimates employing spirometry as the diagnostic tool and data on important comorbid conditions are not available. This study protocol is designed to address this knowledge gap and eventually to build a database to undertake long-term cohort studies to describe the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among COPD patients in India. Objectives The primary objective is to estimate the prevalence of COPD among adults aged ≥25 years for each gender in India. The secondary objective is to identify the risk factors for COPD and important comorbid conditions such as asthma and post-tuberculosis sequelae. It is also proposed to validate the currently available definitions for COPD diagnosis in India. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study will be undertaken among the populations of sub-urban areas of Chennai and Shillong cities, which represent the Southern and Northeastern regions of India. We will collect data on sociodemographic variables, economic characteristics, risk factors of COPD and comorbidities. The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) definitions will be used for the diagnosis of COPD and asthma. Data will be analysed for estimation of the prevalence of COPD, asthma and associated factors. Ethics and dissemination This study proposal was approved by the respective institutional ethics committees of participating institutions. The results will be

  18. International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Williams, Leanne M; Rush, A John; Koslow, Stephen H; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Cooper, Nicholas J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Schatzberg, Alan F; Gordon, Evian

    2011-01-05

    Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators. The International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) is a multi-centre, international, randomized, prospective, open-label trial. It is enrolling 2016 MDD outpatients (ages 18-65) from primary or specialty care practices (672 per treatment arm; 672 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls). Study-eligible patients are antidepressant medication (ADM) naïve or willing to undergo a one-week wash-out of any non-protocol ADM, and cannot have had an inadequate response to protocol ADM. Baseline assessments include symptoms; distress; daily function; cognitive performance; electroencephalogram and event-related potentials; heart rate and genetic measures. A subset of these baseline assessments are repeated after eight weeks of treatment. Outcomes include the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (primary) and self-reported depressive symptoms, social functioning, quality of life, emotional regulation, and side-effect burden (secondary). Participants may then enter a naturalistic telephone follow-up at weeks 12, 16, 24 and 52. The first half of the sample will be used to identify potential predictors and moderators, and the second half to replicate and confirm. First enrolment was in December 2008, and is ongoing. iSPOT-D evaluates clinical and biological predictors of treatment response in the largest known sample of MDD collected worldwide. International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00693849. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00693849?term=International+Study

  19. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis Study. Alpha-1 Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Robert M.; Sciurba, Frank; O’Neal, Scott; Morris, Alison; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Bowler, Russell; Hochheiser, Harry S.; Becich, Michael J.; Zhang, Yingze; Leader, Joseph K.; Methé, Barbara A.; Kaminski, Naftali; Sandhaus, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Severe deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin has a highly variable clinical presentation. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis α1 Study is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of adults older than age 35 years with PiZZ or PiMZ alpha-1 antitrypsin genotypes. It is designed to better understand if microbial factors influence this heterogeneity. Clinical symptoms, pulmonary function testing, computed chest tomography, exercise capacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) will be used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes that can be studied with an integrated systems biology approach that includes plasma proteomics; mouth, BAL, and stool microbiome and virome analysis; and blood microRNA and blood mononuclear cell RNA and DNA profiling. We will rely on global genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome datasets. Matched cohorts of PiZZ participants on or off alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy, PiMZ participants not on augmentation therapy, and control participants from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study who match on FEV1 and age will be compared. In the primary analysis, we will determine if the PiZZ individuals on augmentation therapy have a difference in lower respiratory tract microbes identified compared with matched PiZZ individuals who are not on augmentation therapy. By characterizing the microbiome in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), we hope to define new phenotypes of COPD that explain some of the diversity of clinical presentations. As a unique genetic cause of COPD, AATD may inform typical COPD pathogenesis, and better understanding of it may illuminate the complex interplay between environment and genetics. Although the biologic approaches are hypothesis generating, the results may lead to development of novel biomarkers, better understanding of COPD phenotypes, and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic trials in AATD and COPD

  20. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT): a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Lowe, Alyssa E; Martorell, Reynaldo; Nguyen, Hieu; Pham, Hoa; Nguyen, Son; Harding, Kimberly B; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Reinhart, Gregory A; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2012-10-24

    Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA) improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes.The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1) 2800 μg folic acid 2) 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3) MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and children and improve maternal and child health outcomes in resource

  1. XANTUS: rationale and design of a noninterventional study of rivaroxaban for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Camm, A John; Amarenco, Pierre; Haas, Sylvia; Hess, Susanne; Kirchhof, Paulus; van Eickels, Martin; Turpie, Alexander GG

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of stroke. The Phase III ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once-Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial showed that rivaroxaban, an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, was noninferior to warfarin for the reduction of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with AF. Compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban significantly reduced rates of intracranial and fatal hemorrhages, although not rates of bleeding overall. XANTUS (Xarelto® for Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation) is a prospective, international, observational, postauthorization, noninterventional study designed to collect safety and efficacy data on the use of rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in AF in routine clinical practice. The key goal is to determine whether the safety profile of rivaroxaban established in ROCKET AF is also observed in routine clinical practice. XANTUS is designed as a single-arm cohort study to minimize selection bias, and will enroll approximately 6,000 patients (mostly from Europe) with nonvalvular AF prescribed rivaroxaban, irrespective of their level of stroke risk. Overall duration of follow-up will be 1 year; the first patient was enrolled in June 2012. Similar studies (XANTUS-EL [Xarelto® for Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation, Eastern Europe, Middle East, Africa and Latin America] and XANAP [Xarelto® for Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia-Pacific]) are ongoing in Latin America and Asia-Pacific. Data from these studies will supplement those from ROCKET AF and provide practical information concerning the use of rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in AF. PMID:25083135

  2. Chemoradiation in elderly esophageal cancer patients: rationale and design of a phase I/II multicenter study (OSAGE).

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Créhange, Gilles; Bonnetain, Franck; Mertens, Cécile; Brain, Etienne; Bosset, Jean François

    2017-07-13

    The management of elderly patients with cancer is a therapeutic challenge and a public health problem. Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an accepted standard treatment for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who cannot undergo surgery. However, there are few reports regarding tolerance to CRT in elderly patients. We previously reported results for CRT in patients aged ≥75 years. Following this first phase II trial, we propose to conduct a phase I/II study to evaluate the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel, with concurrent RT in unresectable esophageal cancer patients aged 75 years or older. This prospective multicenter phase I/II study will include esophageal cancer in patients aged 75 years or older. Study procedures will consist to determinate the tolerated dose of chemotherapy (Carboplatin, paclitaxel) and of radiotherapy (41.4-45 and 50.4 Gy) in the phase I. Efficacy will be assessed using a co-primary endpoint encompassing health related quality of life and the progression-free survival in the phase II with the dose recommended of CRT in the phase I. This geriatric evaluation was defined by the French geriatric oncology group (GERICO). This trial has been designed to assess the tolerated dose of CRT in selected patient aged 75 years or older. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02735057 . Registered on 18 March 2016.

  3. Dissemination of the Look AHEAD Lifestyle Intervention in the United States Air Force: Study Rationale, Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Hare, Marion E.; Talcott, Gerald W.; Johnson, Karen C.; Richey, Phyllis A.; Kocak, Mehmet; Balderas, Jennifer; Colvin, Lauren; Keller, Patrick L.; Waters, Teresa M.; Klesges, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in overweight and obesity similar to the civilian population, there have been few randomized controlled trials examining behavioral weight management interventions in the military settings. This paper describes the design, intervention development and analysis plan of the Fit Blue study, a randomized controlled behavioral weight loss trial taking place in the United States Air Force. This study compares two adapted versions of the efficacious Look AHEAD Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI), a counselor-initiated condition and a self-paced condition. Also described are the unique steps required when conducting military-based health promotion research and adaptations made to the Look AHEAD intervention to accommodate the military environment. To our knowledge, this is the first translation of the Look AHEAD ILI in the military setting and one of the first translations of the ILI in general. If successful, this intervention could be disseminated to the entire U.S. Military as this project is designed to overcome the barriers and utilize the facilitators for weight loss that are unique to a military population. Programs validated in military populations can have a major public health impact given that with 1.4 million active duty personnel, the Department of Defense is the nation’s largest employer. However, while this intervention is designed for a military population and there are unique aspects of the military that may enhance weight loss interventions, the diversity of the study population should help inform obesity efforts in both civilian and military settings. PMID:25545025

  4. The silent and apparent neurological injury in transcatheter aortic valve implantation study (SANITY): concept, design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jonathon P; Wesley, Allan J; Platts, David G; Walters, Darren L; Eeles, Eamonn M; Seco, Michael; Tronstad, Oystein; Strugnell, Wendy; Barnett, Adrian G; Clarke, Andrew J; Bellapart, Judith; Vallely, Michael P; Tesar, Peter J; Fraser, John F

    2014-04-05

    The incidence of clinically apparent stroke in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) exceeds that of any other procedure performed by interventional cardiologists and, in the index admission, occurs more than twice as frequently with TAVI than with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, this represents only a small component of the vast burden of neurological injury that occurs during TAVI, with recent evidence suggesting that many strokes are clinically silent or only subtly apparent. Additionally, insult may manifest as slight neurocognitive dysfunction rather than overt neurological deficits. Characterisation of the incidence and underlying aetiology of these neurological events may lead to identification of currently unrecognised neuroprotective strategies. The Silent and Apparent Neurological Injury in TAVI (SANITY) Study is a prospective, multicentre, observational study comparing the incidence of neurological injury after TAVI versus SAVR. It introduces an intensive, standardised, formal neurologic and neurocognitive disease assessment for all aortic valve recipients, regardless of intervention (SAVR, TAVI), valve-type (bioprosthetic, Edwards SAPIEN-XT) or access route (sternotomy, transfemoral, transapical or transaortic). Comprehensive monitoring of neurological insult will also be recorded to more fully define and compare the neurological burden of the procedures and identify targets for harm minimisation strategies. The SANITY study undertakes the most rigorous assessment of neurological injury reported in the literature to date. It attempts to accurately characterise the insult and sustained injury associated with both TAVI and SAVR in an attempt to advance understanding of this complication and associations thus allowing for improved patient selection and procedural modification.

  5. The silent and apparent neurological injury in transcatheter aortic valve implantation study (SANITY): concept, design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of clinically apparent stroke in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) exceeds that of any other procedure performed by interventional cardiologists and, in the index admission, occurs more than twice as frequently with TAVI than with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, this represents only a small component of the vast burden of neurological injury that occurs during TAVI, with recent evidence suggesting that many strokes are clinically silent or only subtly apparent. Additionally, insult may manifest as slight neurocognitive dysfunction rather than overt neurological deficits. Characterisation of the incidence and underlying aetiology of these neurological events may lead to identification of currently unrecognised neuroprotective strategies. Methods The Silent and Apparent Neurological Injury in TAVI (SANITY) Study is a prospective, multicentre, observational study comparing the incidence of neurological injury after TAVI versus SAVR. It introduces an intensive, standardised, formal neurologic and neurocognitive disease assessment for all aortic valve recipients, regardless of intervention (SAVR, TAVI), valve-type (bioprosthetic, Edwards SAPIEN-XT) or access route (sternotomy, transfemoral, transapical or transaortic). Comprehensive monitoring of neurological insult will also be recorded to more fully define and compare the neurological burden of the procedures and identify targets for harm minimisation strategies. Discussion The SANITY study undertakes the most rigorous assessment of neurological injury reported in the literature to date. It attempts to accurately characterise the insult and sustained injury associated with both TAVI and SAVR in an attempt to advance understanding of this complication and associations thus allowing for improved patient selection and procedural modification. PMID:24708720

  6. A Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance: Rationale and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul D.; Parker, Beth A.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Pescatello, Linda S.; White, C. Michael; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Haller, Ronald G.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors or statins are the most effective medications for reducing elevated concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Statins reduce cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease and previously healthy persons. Current recommendations for LDL-C treatment goals indicate that more patients will be treated with higher doses of these medications. Statins have been extremely well-tolerated in controlled clinical trials but are increasingly recognized to produce skeletal muscle myalgia, cramps, and weakness. The reported frequency of such mild symptoms is not clear, and muscle performance has not been examined with these medications. Accordingly, the present investigation, the Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance (STOMP) study, will recruit approximately 440 healthy persons. Participants will be randomly assigned to treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Handgrip, elbow and knee isometric and isokinetic strength, knee extensor endurance, and maximal aerobic exercise performance will be determined at baseline. Participants will undergo repeat testing after 6 months of treatment or after meeting the study definition of statin myalgia. This study will determine the effect of statins on skeletal muscle strength, endurance, and aerobic exercise performance and may ultimately help clinicians better evaluate statin-related muscle and exercise complaints. PMID:20626664

  7. The COGNITION study rationale and design: influence of closed loop stimulation on cognitive performance in pacemaker patients.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Uwe; Nuernberg, Michael; Maier, Sebastian K G; Weiss, Christian; Sancho-Tello, María-José; Hartmann, Andreas; Schuchert, Andreas; Maier, Petra; Chan, Ngai-Yin

    2008-06-01

    Several studies showed the beneficial effect of pacemaker implantation on cognitive performance in patients with bradycardia. But it has never been investigated if patients with chronotropic incompetence may improve their cognitive performance if treated by a rate-adaptive system reacting to mental stress in comparison to the most frequently used accelerometer-driven pacing. The randomized, single-blind, multicenter COGNITION study evaluates if closed loop stimulation (CLS) offers incremental benefit in the speed of cognitive performance and the overall well-being of elderly patients with bradycardia compared with accelerometer-based pacing. Four hundred chronotropically incompetent patients older than 55 years will be randomized 3-6 weeks after implantation to CLS or accelerometer sensor. Follow-up visits are performed after 12 and 24 months. The speed of cognitive performance, which is the underlying function influencing all other aspects of cognitive performance, will be assessed by the number connection test, a standardized psychometric test for the elderly. Secondary endpoints include patient self-assessment of different aspects of health (by visual analogue scales), quality of life (by SF-8 health survey), the incidence of atrial fibrillation (episodes lasting for longer than 24 hours), and the frequency of serious adverse events. In the ongoing COGNITION study, we aim at long-term comparison of two rate-adaptive systems, focusing on the cognitive performance of the patients, which was neglected in the past evaluation of pacemaker sensors.

  8. Safe and effective prescription of exercise in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: rationale and methods for an integrated knowledge translation study.

    PubMed

    Camp, Pat; Reid, W Darlene; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Brooks, Dina; Goodridge, Donna; Chung, Frank; Marciniuk, Darcy D; Neufeld, Andrea; Hoens, Alsion

    2013-01-01

    Patients hospitalized with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) engage in low levels of activity, putting them at risk for relapse and future readmissions. There is little direction for health care providers regarding the parameters for safe exercise during an AECOPD that is effective for increasing activity tolerance before discharge from hospital, especially for patients with associated comorbid conditions. To report the rationale for and methods of a study to develop evidence-informed care recommendations that guide health care providers in the assessment, prescription, monitoring and progression of exercise for patients hospitalized with AECOPD. The present study was a multicomponent knowledge translation project incorporating evidence from systematic reviews of exercise involving populations with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and⁄or common comorbidities. A Delphi process was then used to obtain expert opinion from clinicians, academics and patients to identify the parameters of safe and effective exercise for patients with AECOPD. Clinical decision-making tool(s) for patients and practitioners supported by a detailed knowledge dissemination, implementation and evaluation framework. The present study addressed an important knowledge gap: the lack of availability of parameters to guide safe and effective exercise prescription for hospitalized patients with AECOPD, with or without comorbid conditions. In the absence of such parameters, health care professionals may adopt an 'activity as tolerated' approach, which may not improve physical activity levels in their patients. The present study synthesizes the best available evidence and expert opinion, and will generate decision-making tools for use by patients and their health care providers.

  9. The FIND-CKD study--a randomized controlled trial of intravenous iron versus oral iron in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients: background and rationale.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Roubert, Bernard; Cushway, Timothy; Roger, Simon D

    2014-04-01

    Rigorous data are sparse concerning the optimal route of administration and dosing strategy for iron therapy with or without concomitant erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy for the management of iron deficiency anaemia in patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD). FIND-CKD was a 56-week, open-label, multicentre, prospective, randomized three-arm study (NCT00994318) of 626 patients with ND-CKD and iron deficiency anaemia randomized to (i) intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) at an initial dose of 1000 mg iron with subsequent dosing as necessary to target a serum ferritin level of 400-600 µg/L (ii) IV FCM at an initial dose of 200 mg with subsequent dosing as necessary to target serum ferritin 100-200 µg/L or (iii) oral ferrous sulphate 200 mg iron/day. The primary end point was time to initiation of other anaemia management (ESA therapy, iron therapy other than study drug or blood transfusion) or a haemoglobin (Hb) trigger (two consecutive Hb values <10 g/dL without an increase of ≥ 0.5 g/dL). The background, rationale and study design of the trial are presented here. The study has been completed and results are expected in late 2013. FIND-CKD was the longest randomized trial of IV iron therapy to date. Its findings will address several unanswered questions regarding iron therapy to treat iron deficiency anaemia in patients with ND-CKD. It was also the first randomized trial to utilize both a high and low serum ferritin target range to adjust IV iron dosing, and the first not to employ Hb response as its primary end point.

  10. Readiness for diabetes prevention and barriers to lifestyle change in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Lipscombe, Lorraine L; Banerjee, Ananya Tina; McTavish, Sarah; Mukerji, Geetha; Lowe, Julia; Ray, Joel; Evans, Marilyn; Feig, Denice S

    2014-10-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of future diabetes, which can be prevented with lifestyle modification. Prior diabetes prevention programmes in this population have been limited by lack of adherence. The aim of this study is to evaluate readiness for behaviour change at different time points after GDM diagnosis and identify barriers and facilitators, to inform a lifestyle modification programme specifically designed for this group. The objective of this paper is to present the rationale and methodological design of this study. The ongoing prospective cohort study has recruited a multi-ethnic cohort of 1353 women with GDM from 7 Ontario, Canada hospitals during their pregnancy. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate stage of readiness for behaviour change, and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical predictors of healthy diet and physical activity. Thus far, 960 women (71%) have completed a baseline survey prior to delivery. Prospective postpartum follow-up is ongoing. We are surveying women at 2 time-points after delivery: 3-12 months postpartum, and 13-24 months postpartum. Survey data will be linked to health care administrative databases for long-term follow-up for diabetes. Qualitative interviews were conducted in a subset of women to gain a deeper understanding of barriers and facilitators to lifestyle change. Our study is a fundamental first step in effectively addressing diabetes prevention in women with GDM. Our findings will aid in the design of a diabetes prevention intervention specifically targeted to women with recent GDM, which can then be evaluated in a clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trial design and rationale for APOLLO, a Phase 3, placebo-controlled study of patisiran in patients with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Adams, David; Suhr, Ole B; Dyck, Peter J; Litchy, William J; Leahy, Raina G; Chen, Jihong; Gollob, Jared; Coelho, Teresa

    2017-09-11

    Patisiran is an investigational RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic in development for the treatment of hereditary ATTR (hATTR) amyloidosis, a progressive disease associated with significant disability, morbidity, and mortality. Here we describe the rationale and design of the Phase 3 APOLLO study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, global study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of patisiran in patients with hATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy. Eligible patients are 18-85 years old with hATTR amyloidosis, investigator-estimated survival of ≥2 years, Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS) of 5-130, and polyneuropathy disability score ≤IIIb. Patients are randomized 2:1 to receive either intravenous patisiran 0.3 mg/kg or placebo once every 3 weeks. The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of patisiran at 18 months based on the difference in the change in modified NIS+7 (a composite measure of motor strength, sensation, reflexes, nerve conduction, and autonomic function) between the patisiran and placebo groups. Secondary objectives are to evaluate the effect of patisiran on Norfolk-Diabetic Neuropathy quality of life questionnaire score, nutritional status (as evaluated by modified body mass index), motor function (as measured by NIS-weakness and timed 10-m walk test), and autonomic symptoms (as measured by the Composite Autonomic Symptom Score-31 questionnaire). Exploratory objectives include assessment of cardiac function and pathologic evaluation to assess nerve fiber innervation and amyloid burden. Safety of patisiran will be assessed throughout the study. APOLLO represents the largest randomized, Phase 3 study to date in patients with hATTR amyloidosis, with endpoints that capture the multisystemic nature of this disease. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01960348 ); October 9, 2013.

  12. Rationale and design of the GUIDE-IT study: Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Felker, G Michael; Ahmad, Tariq; Anstrom, Kevin J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Cooper, Lawton S; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Fiuzat, Mona; Houston-Miller, Nancy; Januzzi, James L; Leifer, Eric S; Mark, Daniel B; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Paynter, Gayle; Piña, Ileana L; Whellan, David J; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2014-10-01

    The GUIDE-IT (Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment in Heart Failure) study is designed to determine the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of a strategy of adjusting therapy with the goal of achieving and maintaining a target N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level of <1,000 pg/ml compared with usual care in high-risk patients with systolic heart failure (HF). Elevations in natriuretic peptide (NP) levels provide key prognostic information in patients with HF. Therapies proven to improve outcomes in patients with HF are generally associated with decreasing levels of NPs, and observational data show that decreases in NP levels over time are associated with favorable outcomes. Results from smaller prospective, randomized studies of this strategy thus far have been mixed, and current guidelines do not recommend serial measurement of NP levels to guide therapy in patients with HF. GUIDE-IT is a prospective, randomized, controlled, unblinded, multicenter clinical trial designed to randomize approximately 1,100 high-risk subjects with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) to either usual care (optimized guideline-recommended therapy) or a strategy of adjusting therapy with the goal of achieving and maintaining a target NT-proBNP level of <1,000 pg/ml. Patients in either arm of the study are followed up at regular intervals and after treatment adjustments for a minimum of 12 months. The primary endpoint of the study is time to cardiovascular death or first hospitalization for HF. Secondary endpoints include time to cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, cumulative mortality, health-related quality of life, resource use, cost-effectiveness, and safety. The GUIDE-IT study is designed to definitively assess the effects of an NP-guided strategy in high-risk patients with systolic HF on clinically relevant endpoints of mortality, hospitalization, quality of life, and medical resource

  13. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort-rationale and design of 1000BRAINS.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Lux, Silke; Pundt, Noreen; Schütz, Holger; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Gras, Vincent; Eickhoff, Simon B; Romanzetti, Sandro; Stöcker, Tony; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Kirlangic, Mehmet E; Minnerop, Martina; Pieperhoff, Peter; Mödder, Ulrich; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Sturma, Dieter; Bauer, Andreas; Jon Shah, N; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions and language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood and daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla) of the brain. The latter includes (i) 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii) three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fiber tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii) resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i) comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii) identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates.

  14. Rationale and Design of the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) Study: A Diabetes Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pittas, Anastassios G.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Rosen, Clifford J.; Ware, James H.; Knowler, William C.; Staten, Myrlene A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Observational studies suggest that vitamin D may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, data from long-term trials are lacking. The Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study is a randomized clinical trial designed to examine whether a causal relationship exists between vitamin D supplementation and the development of diabetes in people at high risk for type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS D2d was designed with support from a U34 planning grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The final protocol was approved by the D2d Research Group, the data and safety monitoring board, and NIDDK. Key eligibility criteria are age ≥30 years, BMI of 24 (22.5 for Asian Americans) to 42 kg/m2, increased risk for diabetes (defined as meeting two of three glycemic criteria for prediabetes established by the American Diabetes Association [fasting glucose 100–125 mg/dL (5.5–6.9 mmol/L), 2-h postload glucose after 75-g glucose load 140–199 mg/dL (7.7–11.0 mmol/L), hemoglobin A1c 5.7–6.4% (39–46 mmol/mol)]), and no hyperparathyroidism, nephrolithiasis, or hypercalcemia. D2d participants are randomized to once-daily vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol 4,000 IU) or placebo and followed for an average of 3 years. The primary end point is time to incident diabetes as assessed by laboratory criteria during the study or by adjudication if diagnosed outside of D2d. Recruitment was initiated at the end of 2013. CONCLUSIONS D2d will test whether vitamin D supplementation is safe and effective at lowering the risk of progression to diabetes in people at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:25205139

  15. The effects of intermittent calorie restriction on metabolic health: Rationale and study design of the HELENA Trial.

    PubMed

    Schübel, Ruth; Graf, Mirja E; Nattenmüller, Johanna; Nabers, Diana; Sookthai, Disorn; Gruner, Laura F; Johnson, Theron; Schlett, Christopher L; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Kirsten, Romy; Habermann, Nina; Kratz, Mario; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2016-11-01

    Mechanistic studies suggest benefits of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) in chronic disease prevention that may exceed those of continuous calorie restriction (CCR), even at equal net calorie intake. Despite promising results from first trials, it remains largely unknown whether ICR-induced metabolic alterations reported from experimental studies can also be observed in humans, and whether ICR diets are practicable and effective in real life situations. Thus, we initiated the HELENA Trial to test the effects of ICR (eu-caloric diet on five days and very low energy intake on two days per week) on metabolic parameters and body composition over one year. We will assess the effectiveness of ICR compared to CCR and a control diet over a 12-week intervention, 12-week maintenance phase and 24-week follow-up in 150 overweight or obese non-smoking adults (50 per group, 50% women). Our primary endpoint is the difference between ICR and CCR with respect to fold-changes in expression levels of 82 candidate genes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies (SATb) during the intervention phase. The candidate genes represent pathways, which may link obesity-related metabolic alterations with the risk for major chronic diseases. In secondary and exploratory analyses, changes in metabolic, hormonal, inflammatory and metagenomic parameters measured in different biospecimens (SATb, blood, urine, stool) are investigated and effects of ICR/CCR/control on imaging-based measures of subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat are evaluated. Our study is the first randomized trial over one year testing the effects of ICR on metabolism, body composition and psychosocial factors in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Fit Study: Design and rationale for a cluster randomized trial of school-based BMI screening and reporting.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Kristine A; Linchey, Jennifer; Ritchie, Lorrene; Thompson, Hannah R

    2017-07-01

    In the U.S., 25 states conduct body mass index (BMI) screening in schools, just under half of which report results to parents. While some experts recommend the practice, evidence demonstrating its efficacy to reduce obesity is lacking, and concerns about weight-related stigma have been raised. The Fit Study is a 3-arm cluster-randomized trial assessing the effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing pediatric obesity and identifying unintended consequences. Seventy-nine elementary and middle schools across California were randomized to 1 of 3 Arms: 1) BMI screening and reporting; 2) BMI screening only; or 3) no BMI screening or reporting. In Arm 1 schools, students were further randomized to receive reports with BMI results alone or both BMI and fitness test results. Over 3 consecutive years, staff in schools in Arms 1 and 2 will measure students' BMI (grades 3-8) and additional aspects of fitness (grades 5-8), and students in grades 4-8 in all Arms will complete surveys to assess weight-based stigmatization. Change in BMI z-score will be compared between Arm 1 and Arm 2 to determine the impact of BMI reporting on weight status, with sub-analyses stratified by report type (BMI results alone versus BMI plus fitness results) and by race/ethnicity. The potential for BMI reports to lead to weight-based stigma will be assessed by comparing student survey results among the 3 study Arms. This study will provide evidence on both the benefit and potential unintended harms of school-based BMI screening and reporting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Dissemination of the Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention in the United States Air Force: study rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; Hare, Marion E; Talcott, Gerald W; Johnson, Karen C; Richey, Phyllis A; Kocak, Mehmet; Balderas, Jennifer; Colvin, Lauren; Keller, Patrick L; Waters, Teresa M; Klesges, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increase in overweight and obesity similar to the civilian population, there have been few randomized controlled trials examining behavioral weight management interventions in the military settings. This paper describes the design, intervention development and analysis plan of the Fit Blue study, a randomized controlled behavioral weight loss trial taking place in the United States Air Force. This study compares two adapted versions of the efficacious Look AHEAD Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI), a counselor-initiated condition and a self-paced condition. Also described are the unique steps required when conducting military-based health promotion research and adaptations made to the Look AHEAD intervention to accommodate the military environment. To our knowledge, this is the first translation of the Look AHEAD ILI in the military setting and one of the first translations of the ILI in general. If successful, this intervention could be disseminated to the entire U.S. Military as this project is designed to overcome the barriers and utilize the facilitators for weight loss that are unique to a military population. Programs validated in military populations can have a major public health impact given that with 1.4 million active duty personnel, the Department of Defense is the nation's largest employer. However, while this intervention is designed for a military population and there are unique aspects of the military that may enhance weight loss interventions, the diversity of the study population should help inform obesity efforts in both civilian and military settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Healthy Moms, a randomized trial to promote and evaluate weight maintenance among obese pregnant women: study design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy; Eckhardt, Cara; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Observational studies suggest that minimal or no gestational weight gain (GWG) may minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for obese women. Objective This report describes the design of Healthy Moms, a randomized trial testing a weekly, group-based, weight management intervention designed to help limit GWG to 3% of weight (measured at the time of randomization) among obese pregnant women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Participants are randomized at 10–20 weeks gestation to either the intervention or a single dietary advice control condition. Primary Outcomes The study is powered for the primary outcome of total GWG, yielding a target sample size of 160 women. Additional secondary outcomes include weight change between randomization and one-year postpartum and proportion of infants with birth weight > 90th percentile for gestational age. Statistical analyses will be based on intention-to-treat. Methods Following randomization, all participants receive a 45-minute dietary consultation. They are encouraged to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet without sodium restriction. Intervention group participants receive an individualized calorie intake goal, a second individual counseling session and attend weekly group meetings until they give birth. Research staff assess all participants at 34-weeks gestation and at 2-weeks and one-year postpartum with their infants. Summary The Healthy Moms study is testing weight management techniques that have been used with non-pregnant adults. We aim to help obese women limit GWG to improve their long-term health and the health of their offspring. PMID:22465256

  19. HIV and risk of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa: Rationale and design of the Ndlovu Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Vos, Alinda; Tempelman, Hugo; Devillé, Walter; Barth, Roos; Wensing, Annemarie; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Hoepelman, Andy; Tesselaar, Kiki; Aitken, Sue; Madzivhandila, Mashudu; Uiterwaal, Cuno; Venter, Francois; Coutinho, Roel; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2017-07-01

    Background The largest proportion of people living with HIV resides in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Evidence from developed countries suggests that HIV infection increases the relative risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by up to 50%. Differences in lifestyle, gender distribution, routes of HIV transmission and HIV subtype preclude generalisation of data from Western countries to the SSA situation. The Ndlovu Cohort Study aims to provide insight into the burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, the mechanisms driving CVD risk and the contribution of HIV infection and its treatment to the development of CVD in a rural area of SSA. Design The Ndlovu Cohort Study is a prospective study in the Moutse area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods A total of 1000 HIV-positive and 1000 HIV-negative participants aged 18 years and older with a male to female ratio of 1:1 will be recruited. Measurements of CVD risk factors and HIV-related characteristics will be performed at baseline, and participants will be followed-up over time at 6-month intervals. The burden of CVD will be assessed with repeated carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity measurements, as well as by recording clinical cardiovascular events that occur during the follow-up period. Conclusion This project will contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of CVD in the context of HIV infection in a rural area of SSA. The ultimate goal is to improve cardiovascular risk prediction and to indicate preventive approaches in the HIV-infected population and, potentially, for non-infected high-risk populations in a low-resource setting.

  20. CARbon DIoxide for the treatment of Febrile seizures: rationale, feasibility, and design of the CARDIF-study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 2-8% of all children aged between 6 months and 5 years have febrile seizures. Often these seizures cease spontaneously, however depending on different national guidelines, 20-40% of the patients would need therapeutic intervention. For seizures longer than 3-5 minutes application of rectal diazepam, buccal midazolam or sublingual lorazepam is recommended. Benzodiazepines may be ineffective in some patients or cause prolonged sedation and fatigue. Preclinical investigations in a rat model provided evidence that febrile seizures may be triggered by respiratory alkalosis, which was subsequently confirmed by a retrospective clinical observation. Further, individual therapeutic interventions demonstrated that a pCO2-elevation via re-breathing or inhalation of 5% CO2 instantly stopped the febrile seizures. Here, we present the protocol for an interventional clinical trial to test the hypothesis that the application of 5% CO2 is effective and safe to suppress febrile seizures in children. Methods The CARDIF (CARbon DIoxide against Febrile seizures) trial is a monocentric, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. A total of 288 patients with a life history of at least one febrile seizure will be randomized to receive either carbogen (5% CO2 plus 95% O2) or placebo (100% O2). As recurrences of febrile seizures mainly occur at home, the study medication will be administered by the parents through a low-pressure can fitted with a respiratory mask. The primary outcome measure is the efficacy of carbogen to interrupt febrile seizures. As secondary outcome parameters we assess safety, practicability to use the can, quality of life, contentedness, anxiousness and mobility of the parents. Prospect The CARDIF trial has the potential to develop a new therapy for the suppression of febrile seizures by redressing the normal physiological state. This would offer an alternative to the currently suggested treatment with benzodiazepines. This study is an

  1. Evaluation of primary care midwifery in The Netherlands: design and rationale of a dynamic cohort study (DELIVER).

    PubMed

    Manniën, Judith; Klomp, Trudy; Wiegers, Therese; Pereboom, Monique; Brug, Johannes; de Jonge, Ank; van der Meijde, Margreeth; Hutton, Eileen; Schellevis, Francois; Spelten, Evelien

    2012-03-20

    In the Netherlands, midwives are autonomous medical practitioners and 78% of pregnant women start their maternity care with a primary care midwife. Scientific research to support evidence-based practice in primary care midwifery in the Netherlands has been sparse. This paper describes the research design and methodology of the multicenter multidisciplinary prospective DELIVER study which is the first large-scale study evaluating the quality and provision of primary midwifery care. Between September 2009 and April 2011, data were collected from clients and their partners, midwives and other healthcare professionals across the Netherlands. Clients from twenty midwifery practices received up to three questionnaires to assess the expectations and experiences of clients (e.g. quality of care, prenatal screening, emotions, health, and lifestyle). These client data were linked to data from the Netherlands Perinatal Register and electronic client records kept by midwives. Midwives and practice assistants from the twenty participating practices recorded work-related activities in a diary for one week, to assess workload. Besides, the midwives were asked to complete a questionnaire, to gain insight into collaboration of midwives with other care providers, their tasks and attitude towards their job, and the quality of the care they provide. Another questionnaire was sent to all Dutch midwifery practices which reveals information regarding the organisation of midwifery practices, provision of preconception care, collaboration with other care providers, and provision of care to ethnic minorities. Data at client, midwife and practice level can be linked. Additionally, partners of pregnant women and other care providers were asked about their expectations and experiences regarding the care delivered by midwives and in six practices client consults were videotaped to objectively assess daily practice. In total, 7685 clients completed at least one questionnaire, 136 midwives and

  2. The VA augmentation and switching treatments for improving depression outcomes (VAST-D) study: Rationale and design considerations.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Somaia; Johnson, Gary R; Vertrees, Julia E; Guarino, Peter D; Weingart, Kimberly; Young, Ilanit Tal; Yoon, Jean; Gleason, Theresa C; Kirkwood, Katherine A; Kilbourne, Amy M; Gerrity, Martha; Marder, Stephen; Biswas, Kousick; Hicks, Paul; Davis, Lori L; Chen, Peijun; Kelada, AlexandraMary; Huang, Grant D; Lawrence, David D; LeGwin, Mary; Zisook, Sidney

    2015-10-30

    Because two-thirds of patients with Major Depressive Disorder do not achieve remission with their first antidepressant, we designed a trial of three "next-step" strategies: switching to another antidepressant (bupropion-SR) or augmenting the current antidepressant with either another antidepressant (bupropion-SR) or with an atypical antipsychotic (aripiprazole). The study will compare 12-week remission rates and, among those who have at least a partial response, relapse rates for up to 6 months of additional treatment. We review seven key efficacy/effectiveness design decisions in this mixed "efficacy-effectiveness" trial. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. A cross-sectional study on prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Prabu; Pattabi, Kamaraj; Vadivoo, Selvaraj; Bhome, Arvind; Brashier, Bill; Bhattacharya, Prashanta; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2017-05-29

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common preventable and treatable chronic respiratory disease, which affects 210 million people globally. Global and national guidelines exist for the management of COPD. Although evidence-based, they are inadequate to address the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity in India. Co-existence of other chronic respiratory diseases can adversely influence the prognosis of COPD.India has a huge burden of COPD with various risk factors and comorbid conditions. However, valid prevalence estimates employing spirometry as the diagnostic tool and data on important comorbid conditions are not available. This study protocol is designed to address this knowledge gap and eventually to build a database to undertake long-term cohort studies to describe the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among COPD patients in India. The primary objective is to estimate the prevalence of COPD among adults aged ≥25 years for each gender in India. The secondary objective is to identify the risk factors for COPD and important comorbid conditions such as asthma and post-tuberculosis sequelae. It is also proposed to validate the currently available definitions for COPD diagnosis in India. A cross-sectional study will be undertaken among the populations of sub-urban areas of Chennai and Shillong cities, which represent the Southern and Northeastern regions of India. We will collect data on sociodemographic variables, economic characteristics, risk factors of COPD and comorbidities. The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) definitions will be used for the diagnosis of COPD and asthma. Data will be analysed for estimation of the prevalence of COPD, asthma and associated factors. This study proposal was approved by the respective institutional ethics committees of participating institutions. The results will be disseminated through publications in the peer-reviewed journals and a report

  4. The effectiveness of telemedicine for paediatric retrieval consultations: rationale and study design for a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Nigel R; Coulthard, Mark G; Slater, Anthony; McEniery, Julie; Elcock, Mark; Ware, Robert S; Scuffham, Paul A; Bensink, Mark E; Smith, Anthony C

    2014-11-11

    In many health systems, specialist services for critically ill children are typically regionalised or centralised. Studies have shown that high-risk paediatric patients have improved survival when managed in specialist centres and that volume of cases is a predictor of care quality. In acute cases where distance and time impede access to specialist care, clinical advice may be provided remotely by telephone. Emergency retrieval services, attended by medical and nursing staff may be used to transport patients to specialist centres. Even with the best quality retrieval services, stabilisation of the patient and transport logistics may delay evacuation to definitive care. Several studies have examined the use of telemedicine for providing specialist consultations for critically ill children. However, no studies have yet formally examined the clinical effectiveness and economic implications of using telemedicine in the context of paediatric patient retrieval. The study is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial running over 24 months which will compare the use of telemedicine with the use of the telephone for paediatric retrieval consultations between four referring hospitals and a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit. We aim to recruit 160 children for whom a specialist retrieval consultation is required. The primary outcome measure is stabilisation time (time spent on site at the referring hospital by the retrieval team) adjusted for initial risk. Secondary outcome measures are change in patient's physiological status (repeated measure, two time points) scored using the Children's Emergency Warning Tool; change in diagnosis (repeated measure taken at three time points); change in destination of retrieved patients at the tertiary hospital (general ward or paediatric intensive care unit); retrieval decision, and length of stay in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit for retrieved patients. The trial has been approved by the Human Research Ethics

  5. Evaluation of primary care midwifery in the Netherlands: design and rationale of a dynamic cohort study (DELIVER)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, midwives are autonomous medical practitioners and 78% of pregnant women start their maternity care with a primary care midwife. Scientific research to support evidence-based practice in primary care midwifery in the Netherlands has been sparse. This paper describes the research design and methodology of the multicenter multidisciplinary prospective DELIVER study which is the first large-scale study evaluating the quality and provision of primary midwifery care. Methods/Design Between September 2009 and April 2011, data were collected from clients and their partners, midwives and other healthcare professionals across the Netherlands. Clients from twenty midwifery practices received up to three questionnaires to assess the expectations and experiences of clients (e.g. quality of care, prenatal screening, emotions, health, and lifestyle). These client data were linked to data from the Netherlands Perinatal Register and electronic client records kept by midwives. Midwives and practice assistants from the twenty participating practices recorded work-related activities in a diary for one week, to assess workload. Besides, the midwives were asked to complete a questionnaire, to gain insight into collaboration of midwives with other care providers, their tasks and attitude towards their job, and the quality of the care they provide. Another questionnaire was sent to all Dutch midwifery practices which reveals information regarding the organisation of midwifery practices, provision of preconception care, collaboration with other care providers, and provision of care to ethnic minorities. Data at client, midwife and practice level can be linked. Additionally, partners of pregnant women and other care providers were asked about their expectations and experiences regarding the care delivered by midwives and in six practices client consults were videotaped to objectively assess daily practice. Discussion In total, 7685 clients completed at least

  6. A study to prolong breastfeeding duration: design and rationale of the Parent Infant Feeding Initiative (PIFI) randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maycock, Bruce R; Scott, Jane A; Hauck, Yvonne L; Burns, Sharyn K; Robinson, Suzanne; Giglia, Roslyn; Jorgensen, Anita; White, Becky; Harries, Annegrete; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Howat, Peter A; Binns, Colin W

    2015-08-01

    Very few Australian infants are exclusively breastfed to 6 months as recommended by the World Health Organization. There is strong empirical evidence that fathers have a major impact on their partner's decision to breastfeed and continuation of breastfeeding. Fathers want to participate in the breastfeeding decision making process and to know how they can support their partner to achieve their breastfeeding goals. The aim of the Parent Infant Feeding Initiative (PIFI) is to evaluate the effect on duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding of three breastfeeding promotion interventions of differing intensity and duration, targeted at couples but channelled through the male partner. The study will also undertake a cost-effectiveness evaluation of the interventions. The PIFI study is a factorial randomised controlled trial. Participants will be mothers and their male partners attending antenatal classes at selected public and private hospitals with maternity departments in Perth, Western Australia. Fathers will be randomly allocated to either the usual care control group (CG), one of two medium intensity (MI1 and MI2) interventions, or a high intensity (HI) intervention. MI1 will include a specialised antenatal breastfeeding education session for fathers with supporting print materials. MI2 will involve the delivery of an antenatal and postnatal social support intervention delivered via a smartphone application and HI will include both the specialised antenatal class and the social support intervention. Outcome data will be collected from couples at baseline and at six and 26 weeks postnatally. A total of 1600 couples will be recruited. This takes into account a 25% attrition rate, and will detect at least a 10% difference in the proportion of mothers breastfeeding between any two of the groups at 26 weeks at 80% power and 5% level of significance, using a Log-rank survival test. Multivariable survival and logistic regression analyses will be used to assess the

  7. Rationale and design of PICNIC study: nutritional intervention program in hospitalized patients with heart failure who are malnourished.

    PubMed

    Gámez-López, Antonio L; Bonilla-Palomas, Juan L; Anguita-Sánchez, Manuel; Moreno-Conde, Mirian; López-Ibáñez, Cristina; Alhambra-Expósito, Rosa; Castillo-Domínguez, Juan C; Villar-Ráez, Antonia; Suárez de Lezo, José

    2014-04-01

    Hospitalized patients with heart failure who are malnourished present a worse prognosis than those with an adequate nutritional status. It is unknown whether a nutritional intervention can modify the prognosis of these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a nutritional intervention on morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients with heart failure who are malnourished. PICNIC is a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial in which hospitalized patients with heart failure and malnutrition, as defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment, are randomly assigned to conventional management of heart failure or conventional management of heart failure and an individualized nutritional intervention consisting of 3 points: optimization of diet, specific recommendations, and prescription, if deemed necessary, of nutritional supplements. A sample size of 182 patients for a maximum follow-up of 12 months has been estimated. The primary endpoint is time to death from any cause or rehospitalization because of heart failure. Analysis is by intention to treat. PICNIC study will determine the prognostic impact of a nutritional intervention in hospitalized patients with heart failure who are malnourished. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. A Scalable Field Study Protocol and Rationale for Passive Ambient Air Sampling: A Spatial Phytosampling for Leaf Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Oyana, Tonny J.; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Guo, Chuqi; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2018-01-01

    Stable, bioreactive, radicals known as environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found to exist on the surface of airborne PM2.5. These EPFRs have been found to form during many combustion processes, are present in vehicular exhaust, and persist in the environment for weeks and biological systems for up to 12 h. To measure EPFRs in PM samples, high volume samplers are required and measurements are less representative of community exposure; therefore, we developed a novel spatial phytosampling methodology to study the spatial patterns of EPFR concentrations using plants. Leaf samples for laboratory PM analysis were collected from 188 randomly drawn sampling sites within a 500-m buffer zone of pollution sources across a sampling grid measuring 32.9 × 28.4 km in Memphis, Tennessee. PM was isolated from the intact leaves and size fractionated, and EPFRs on PM quantified by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The radical concentration was found to positively correlate with the EPFR g-value, thus indicating cumulative content of oxygen centered radicals in PM with higher EPFR load. Our spatial phytosampling approach reveals spatial variations and potential “hotspots” risk due to EPFR exposure across Memphis and provides valuable insights for identifying exposure and demographic differences for health studies. PMID:28805054

  9. High-dose N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of COPD exacerbations: rationale and design of the PANTHEON Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin-Ping; Wen, Fu-Qiang; Bai, Chun-Xue; Wan, Huan-Ying; Kang, Jian; Chen, Ping; Yao, Wan-Zhen; Ma, Li-Jun; Xia, Qi-Kui; Gao, Yi; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2013-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation; from a pathophysiological point of view it involves many components, including mucus hypersecretion, oxidative stress and inflammation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Long-term efficacy of NAC 600mg/d in COPD is controversial; a dose-effect relationship has been demonstrated, but at present it is not known whether a higher dose provides clinical benefits. The PANTHEON Study is a prospective, ICS stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of high-dose (1200 mg/daily) NAC treatment for one year in moderate-to-severe COPD patients. The primary endpoint is the annual exacerbation rate. Secondary endpoints include recurrent exacerbations hazard ratio, time to first exacerbation, as well as quality of life and pulmonary function. The hypothesis, design and methodology are described and baseline characteristics of recruited patients are presented. 1006 COPD patients (444 treated with maintenance ICS, 562 ICS naive, aged 66.27±8.76 yrs, average post-bronchodilator FEV1 48.95±11.80 of predicted) have been randomized at 34 hospitals in China. Final results of this study will provide objective data on the effects of high-dose (1200 mg/daily) long-term NAC treatment in the prevention of COPD exacerbations and other outcome variables.

  10. Rationale and design of the Pan-African Sudden Cardiac Death survey: the Pan-African SCD study.

    PubMed

    Bonny, Aimé; Ngantcha, Marcus; Amougou, Sylvie Ndongo; Kane, Adama; Marrakchi, Sonia; Okello, Emmy; Taty, Georges; Gehani, Abdulrrazzak; Diakite, Mamadou; Talle, Mohammed A; Lambiase, Pier D; Houenassi, Martin; Chin, Ashley; Otieno, Harun; Temu, Gloria; Owusu, Isaac Koffi; Karaye, Kamilu M; Awad, Abdalla A M; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-01-01

    The estimated rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Western countries ranges from 300,000 to 400,000 annually, which represents 0.36 to 1.28 per 1 000 inhabitants in Europe and the United States. The burden of SCD in Africa is unknown. Our aim is to assess the epidemiology of SCD in Africa. The Pan-Africa SCD study is a prospective, multicentre, community-based registry monitoring all cases of cardiac arrest occurring in victims over 15 years old. We will use the definition of SCD as 'witnessed natural death occurring within one hour of the onset of symptoms' or 'unwitnessed natural death within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms'. After approval from institutional boards, we will record demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic and biological variables of SCD victims (including survivors of cardiac arrest) in several African cities. All deaths occurring in residents of districts of interest will be checked for past medical history, circumstances of death, and autopsy report (if possible). We will also analyse the employment of resuscitation attempts during the time frame of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in various patient populations throughout African countries. This study will provide comprehensive, contemporary data on the epidemiology of SCD in Africa and will help in the development of strategies to prevent and manage cardiac arrest in this region of the world.

  11. A Scalable Field Study Protocol and Rationale for Passive Ambient Air Sampling: A Spatial Phytosampling for Leaf Data Collection.

    PubMed

    Oyana, Tonny J; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Guo, Chuqi; Cormier, Stephania A

    2017-09-19

    Stable, bioreactive, radicals known as environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found to exist on the surface of airborne PM 2.5 . These EPFRs have been found to form during many combustion processes, are present in vehicular exhaust, and persist in the environment for weeks and biological systems for up to 12 h. To measure EPFRs in PM samples, high volume samplers are required and measurements are less representative of community exposure; therefore, we developed a novel spatial phytosampling methodology to study the spatial patterns of EPFR concentrations using plants. Leaf samples for laboratory PM analysis were collected from 188 randomly drawn sampling sites within a 500-m buffer zone of pollution sources across a sampling grid measuring 32.9 × 28.4 km in Memphis, Tennessee. PM was isolated from the intact leaves and size fractionated, and EPFRs on PM quantified by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The radical concentration was found to positively correlate with the EPFR g-value, thus indicating cumulative content of oxygen centered radicals in PM with higher EPFR load. Our spatial phytosampling approach reveals spatial variations and potential "hotspots" risk due to EPFR exposure across Memphis and provides valuable insights for identifying exposure and demographic differences for health studies.

  12. Barriers, facilitators and preferences for the physical activity of school children. Rationale and methods of a mixed study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity interventions in schools environment seem to have shown some effectiveness in the control of the current obesity epidemic in children. However the complexity of behaviors and the diversity of influences related to this problem suggest that we urgently need new lines of insight about how to support comprehensive population strategies of intervention. The aim of this study was to know the perceptions of the children from Cuenca, about their environmental barriers, facilitators and preferences for physical activity. Methods/Design We used a mixed-method design by combining two qualitative methods (analysis of individual drawings and focus groups) together with the quantitative measurement of physical activity through accelerometers, in a theoretical sample of 121 children aged 9 and 11 years of schools in the province of Cuenca, Spain. Conclusions Mixed-method study is an appropriate strategy to know the perceptions of children about barriers and facilitators for physical activity, using both qualitative methods for a deeply understanding of their points of view, and quantitative methods for triangulate the discourse of participants with empirical data. We consider that this is an innovative approach that could provide knowledges for the development of more effective interventions to prevent childhood overweight. PMID:22978490

  13. Pathogenetic Significance of Biological Markers of Ventilator-Associated Lung Injury in Experimental and Clinical Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Frank, James A.; Parsons, Polly E.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    For patients with acute lung injury, positive pressure mechanical ventilation is life saving. However, considerable experimental and clinical data have demonstrated that how clinicians set the tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, and plateau airway pressure influences lung injury severity and patient outcomes including mortality. In order to better identify ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI), clinical investigators have sought to measure blood-borne and airspace biological markers of VALI. At the same time, several laboratory-based studies have focused on biological markers of inflammation and organ injury in experimental models in order to clarify the mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and VALI. This review summarizes data on biological markers of VALI and VILI from both clinical and experimental studies with an emphasis on markers identified in patients and in the experimental setting. This analysis suggests that measurement of some of these biological markers may be of value in diagnosing VALI and in understanding its pathogenesis. PMID:17167015

  14. The Preschool Activity, Technology, Health, Adiposity, Behaviour and Cognition (PATH-ABC) cohort study: rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; McNeill, Jade; Vella, Stewart; Howard, Steven J; Kelly, Megan A; Angus, Douglas J; Wright, Ian M; Santos, Rute; Batterham, Marijka; Melhuish, Edward; Okely, Anthony D; de Rosnay, Marc

    2017-04-04

    Prevalence estimates internationally suggest that many preschool-aged children (3-5 years) are insufficiently physically active and engage in high levels of screen-based entertainment. Early childhood is the developmental period for which we know the least about the effects of physical activity on development and health. Likewise, rapid technological advancements in mobile electronic media have made screen-based forms of entertainment for young children ubiquitous, and research demonstrating the impacts on cognition, psychosocial well-being, and health has lagged behind the rate of adoption of these technologies. The purpose of the Preschool Activity, Technology, Health, Adiposity, Behaviour and Cognition (PATH-ABC) study is to investigate if physical activity and screen-based entertainment are independently associated with cognitive and psychosocial development, and health outcomes in young children, and if so, how much and which types of these behaviours might be most influential. The PATH-ABC study is a prospective cohort, aiming to recruit 430 3-5 year-old children. Children are recruited through and complete initial assessments at their Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centre, and then 12-months later at their centre or school. Direct assessments are made of children's habitual physical activity using accelerometry, cognitive (executive function) and language development (expressive vocabulary), psychosocial development (emotional understanding, Theory of Mind, empathy, and heart rate variability), adiposity (body mass index and waist circumference), and cardiovascular health (blood pressure and retinal micro- vasculature). Educators report on children's psychological strengths and difficulties and self-regulation. Parents report on children's habitual use of electronic media and other child, parent and household characteristics. The PATH-ABC study aims to provide evidence to enhance understanding of how much and which types of physical activity and

  15. Rationale and design of the violence, injury and trauma observatory (VITO): the Cape Town VITO pilot studies protocol.

    PubMed

    Jabar, Ardil; Oni, Tolu; Engel, Mark E; Cvetkovic, Nemanja; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2017-12-22

    The establishment of violence and injury observatories elsewhere has been found to reduce the burden within a relatively short period. Currently no integrated system exists in South Africa to provide collated data on violence, to allow for targeted interventions and routine monitoring and evaluation.This research seeks to identify if bringing multiple data sources, including but not limited to data from the South African Police Service (SAPS), Forensic Pathology Services (FPS), Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and local hospital clinical databases, together are (1) feasible; (2) able to generate data for action, that is valid, reliable and robust and (3) able to lead to interventions.The violence, injury and trauma observatory (VITO) is a planned collaborative, multicentre study of clinical, police and forensic data for violence and injury in the City of Cape Town, where a local context exists of access to multiple source of health and non-health data. The VITO will initially be piloted in Khayelitsha, a periurban community characterised by increased rates of violence, where fatal and non-fatal injury data will be sourced from within the community for the period 2012-2015 and subjected to descriptive statistics and time-trend analyses. Analysed data will be visualised using story maps, data clocks, web maps and other geographical information systems-related products.This study has been approved by the University of Cape Town's Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC 861/2016). We intend to disseminate our findings among stakeholders within the local government safety cluster, non-governmental organisations working within the violence prevention sector and the afflicted communities through the SAPS and violence prevention through urban upgrading community forums. Findings from this work will serve to identify important issues and trends, influence public policy and develop evidence-based interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  16. Psychological distress and quality of life: rationale and protocol of a prospective cohort study in a rural district in Bangaladesh

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Mohammed Nazim; Bhar, Sunil; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Islam, Fakir M Amirul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A significant proportion of the global burden of disease has been attributed to mental and behavioural disorders. People with mental disorders (MDs) have lower levels of health-related quality of life than those without MDs. Several studies have shown that in low-resource countries, a range of social determinants including poor health literacy is critical in the epidemiological transition of disease outcome. There is a lack of evidence of MDs literacy, the prevalence and risk factors of common mental health conditions, or any validated instruments to measure psychological distress or evaluate the quality of life in rural areas of Bangladesh. Aims The aims of this study are: (1) report the awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) of MDs; (2) estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for psychological distress; (3) measure association of psychological distress and other socio-demographic factors with quality of life and (4) test the feasibility to use Kessler 10-item (K10) and WHO Quality Of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires in rural Bangladesh for measuring psychological distress and quality of life. Methods and analysis A sample of 1500 adults aged 18–59 years and 1200 older adults aged 60–90 years will be interviewed from a multistage cluster random sample. Each participant will go through a face-to-face interview to assess their awareness and KAP of MDs. Information about the participant’s sociodemographic and socioeconomic status will be collected along with the psychological distress (K10) and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires. Internal consistency, validity, reliability and item discrimination of K10 and WHOQOL-BREF instruments will be determined by using Rasch analysis and regression techniques. Ethics and dissemination Human Ethics Approval was received from the Swinburne University of Technology Human Ethics Committee. Results of this research will be disseminated via scientific forums including peer

  17. The Canagliflozin and Renal Endpoints in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) Study Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Meg J; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Neal, Bruce; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bakris, George L; Brenner, Barry M; Bull, Scott; Cannon, Christopher P; Charytan, David M; de Zeeuw, Dick; Edwards, Robert; Greene, Tom; Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Levin, Adeera; Pollock, Carol; Wheeler, David C; Xie, John; Zhang, Hong; Zinman, Bernard; Desai, Mehul; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-12-13

    People with diabetes and kidney disease have a high risk of cardiovascular events and progression of kidney disease. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors lower plasma glucose by reducing the uptake of filtered glucose in the kidney tubule, leading to increased urinary glucose excretion. They have been repeatedly shown to induce modest natriuresis and reduce HbA1c, blood pressure, weight, and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the effects of these agents on kidney and cardiovascular events have not been extensively studied in patients with type 2 diabetes and established kidney disease. The Canagliflozin and Renal Endpoints in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial aims to compare the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin -versus placebo at preventing clinically important kidney and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes and established kidney disease. CREDENCE is a randomized, double-blind, event-driven, placebo-controlled trial set in in 34 countries with a projected duration of ∼5.5 years and enrolling 4,401 adults with type 2 diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 to <90 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria (urinary albumin:creatinine ratio >300 to ≤5,000 mg/g). The study has 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in the risk of the primary outcome (α = 0.05), the composite of end-stage kidney disease, doubling of serum creatinine, and renal or cardiovascular death. CREDENCE will provide definitive evidence about the effects of canagliflozin on renal (and cardiovascular) outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and established kidney disease. EudraCT number: 2013-004494-28; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02065791. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease - International Study (APPROACH-IS): rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Apers, Silke; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Luyckx, Koen; Alday, Luis; Berghammer, Malin; Budts, Werner; Callus, Edward; Caruana, Maryanne; Chidambarathanu, Shanthi; Cook, Stephen C; Dellborg, Mikael; Enomoto, Junko; Eriksen, Katrine; Fernandes, Susan M; Jackson, Jamie L; Johansson, Bengt; Khairy, Paul; Kutty, Shelby; Menahem, Samuel; Rempel, Gwen; Sluman, Maayke A; Soufi, Alexandra; Thomet, Corina; Veldtman, Gruschen; Wang, Jou-Kou; White, Kamila; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-20

    Data on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are inconsistent and vary across the world. Better understanding of PROs and their differences across cultural and geographic barriers can best be accomplished via international studies using uniform research methods. The APPROACH-IS consortium (Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease - International Study) was created for this purpose and investigates PROs in adults with CHD worldwide. This paper outlines the project rationale, design, and methods. APPROACH-IS is a cross-sectional study. The goal is to recruit 3500-4000 adults with CHD from 15 countries in five major regions of the world (Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America). Self-report questionnaires are administered to capture information on PRO domains: (i) perceived health status (12-item Short-form Health Survey & EuroQOL-5D); (ii) psychological functioning (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale); (iii) health behaviors (Health-Behavior Scale-Congenital Heart Disease); and (iv) quality of life (Linear Analog Scale & Satisfaction With Life Scale). Additionally, potential explanatory variables are assessed: (i) socio-demographic variables; (ii) medical history (chart review); (iii) sense of coherence (Orientation to Life Questionnaire); and (iv) illness perceptions (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models will examine differences in PROs and investigate potential explanatory variables. APPROACH-IS represents a global effort to increase research understanding and capacity in the field of CHD, and will have major implications for patient care. Results will generate valuable information for developing interventions to optimize patients' health and well-being. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02150603. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of home telemonitoring in chronic kidney disease patients at different stages by a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (eNephro): rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Thilly, Nathalie; Chanliau, Jacques; Frimat, Luc; Combe, Christian; Merville, Pierre; Chauveau, Philippe; Bataille, Pierre; Azar, Raymond; Laplaud, David; Noël, Christian; Kessler, Michèle

    2017-04-05

    Home telemonitoring has developed considerably over recent years in chronic diseases in order to improve communication between healthcare professionals and patients and to promote early detection of deteriorating health status. In the nephrology setting, home telemonitoring has been evaluated in home dialysis patients but data are scarce concerning chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before and after renal replacement therapy. The eNephro study is designed to assess the cost effectiveness, clinical/biological impact, and patient perception of a home telemonitoring for CKD patients. Our purpose is to present the rationale, design and organisational aspects of this study. eNephro is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial, comparing home telemonitoring versus usual care in three populations of CKD patients: stage 3B/4 (n = 320); stage 5D CKD on dialysis (n = 260); stage 5 T CKD treated with transplantation (n= 260). Five hospitals and three not-for-profit providers managing self-care dialysis situated in three administrative regions in France are participating. The trial began in December 2015, with a scheduled 12-month inclusion period and 12 months follow-up. Outcomes include clinical and biological data (e.g. blood pressure, haemoglobin) collected from patient records, perceived health status (e.g. health related quality of life) collected from self-administered questionnaires, and health expenditure data retrieved from the French health insurance database (SNIIRAM) using a probabilistic matching procedure. The hypothesis is that home telemonitoring enables better control of clinical and biological parameters as well as improved perceived health status. This better control should limit emergency consultations and hospitalisations leading to decreased healthcare expenditure, compensating for the financial investment due to the telemedicine system. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT02082093 (date of registration: February 14

  20. West End Walkers 65+: a randomised controlled trial of a primary care-based walking intervention for older adults: study rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Freya; Fitzsimons, Claire; Black, Karen; Granat, Malcolm H; Grant, Margaret P; Grealy, Madeleine; Macdonald, Hazel; McConnachie, Alex; Rowe, David A; Shaw, Rebecca; Skelton, Dawn A; Mutrie, Nanette

    2011-02-19

    In Scotland, older adults are a key target group for physical activity intervention due to the large proportion who are inactive. The health benefits of an active lifestyle are well established but more research is required on the most effective interventions to increase activity in older adults. The 'West End Walkers 65+' randomised controlled trial aims to examine the feasibility of delivering a pedometer-based walking intervention to adults aged 65 years through a primary care setting and to determine the efficacy of this pilot. The study rationale, protocol and recruitment process are discussed in this paper. The intervention consisted of a 12-week pedometer-based graduated walking programme and physical activity consultations. Participants were randomised into an immediate intervention group (immediate group) or a 12-week waiting list control group (delayed group) who then received the intervention. For the pilot element of this study, the primary outcome measure was pedometer step counts. Secondary outcome measures of sedentary time and physical activity (time spent lying/sitting, standing or walking; activPAL™ monitor), mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), functional ability (Perceived Motor-Efficacy Scale for Older Adults), quality of life (Short-Form (36) Health Survey version 2) and loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale) were assessed. Focus groups with participants and semi-structured interviews with the research team captured their experiences of the intervention. The feasibility component of this trial examined recruitment via primary care and retention of participants, appropriateness of the intervention for older adults and the delivery of the intervention by a practice nurse. West End Walkers 65+ will determine the feasibility and pilot the efficacy of delivering a pedometer-based walking intervention through primary care to Scottish adults aged 65 years. The study will also examine the effect of the intervention on the well-being of

  1. Comprehensive Approach for Hypertension Control in Low-income Populations: Rationale and Study Design for the Hypertension Control Program in Argentina (HCPIA)

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Chen, Jing; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Poggio, Rosana; Dolan, Jacquelyn; Augustovski, Federico; Shi, Lizheng; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Bazzano, Lydia A.; He, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Although the efficacy and effectiveness of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive pharmaceutical treatment for the prevention and control of hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, this scientific knowledge has not been fully applied in the general population, especially in low-income communities. This paper summarizes interventions to improve hypertension management and describes the rationale and study design for a cluster randomized trial testing whether a comprehensive intervention program within a national public primary care system will improve hypertension control among uninsured hypertensive men and women and their families. We will recruit 1,890 adults from 18 clinics within a public primary care network in Argentina. Clinic patients with uncontrolled hypertension, their spouses and hypertensive family members will be enrolled. The comprehensive intervention program targets the primary care system through health care provider education, a home-based intervention among patients and their families (home delivery of antihypertensive medication, self-monitoring of blood pressure, health education for medication adherence and lifestyle modification) conducted by community health workers, and a mobile health intervention. The primary outcome is net change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to month 18 between intervention and control groups among hypertensive study participants. The secondary outcomes are net change in diastolic blood pressure, blood pressure control, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This study will generate urgently needed data on effective, practical, and sustainable intervention programs aimed at controlling hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease in underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24978148

  2. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka J; Finn, Tara; Callister, Robin

    2010-10-28

    Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the field. Australian New Zealand Clinical

  3. Changing Rationales for Governing the Child: A Historical Perspective on the Emergence of the Psychological Child in the Context of Preschool--Notes on a Study in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultqvist, Kenneth

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the issue of change in preschool discourse and argues that changes are related to the emergence of new rationales for governing the child. Specifically describes a period of transition (1920-1940) in the history of the Swedish preschool when Friedrich Froebel's discourse on the child became replaced by developmental psychology. (SD)

  4. Childhood obesity prevention in rural settings: background, rationale, and study design of '4-Health,' a parent-only intervention.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wesley C; Martz, Jill; Eldridge, Galen; Bailey, Sandra J; Benke, Carrie; Paul, Lynn

    2012-04-02

    Childhood obesity in rural communities is a serious but understudied problem. The current experiment aims to assess a wide range of obesity risk factors among rural youth and to offer an 8-month intervention program for parents to reduce obesity risk in their preteen child. A two-group, repeated measures design is used to assess the effectiveness of the 4-Health intervention program. Assessments include anthropometric measures, child self-evaluations, parent self-evaluations, and parent evaluations of child. County Extension agents from 21 rural Montana counties recruit approximately 150 parent-child dyads and counties are semi-randomly assigned to the active intervention group (4-Health Educational Program) or a "best-practices" (Healthy Living Information) control group. This study will shed light on the effectiveness of this parent-only intervention strategy in reducing obesity risk factors among rural preteens. The 4-Health program is designed to provide information and skills development for busy rural parents that will increase healthy lifestyles of their preteen children and improve the parents' ability to intervene effectively in the lives of their families during this critical developmental period. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01510587.

  5. QUest for the Arrhythmogenic Substrate of Atrial fibRillation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery (QUASAR Study): Rationale and Design.

    PubMed

    van der Does, Lisette J M E; Yaksh, Ameeta; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; Oei, Frans B S; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; Allessie, Maurits A; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-06-01

    The heterogeneous presentation and progression of atrial fibrillation (AF) implicate the existence of different pathophysiological processes. Individualized diagnosis and therapy of the arrhythmogenic substrate underlying AF may be required to improve treatment outcomes. Therefore, this single-center study aims to identify the arrhythmogenic areas underlying AF by intra-operative, high-resolution, multi-site epicardial mapping in 600 patients with different heart diseases. Participants are divided into 12 groups according to the underlying heart diseases and presence of prior AF episodes. Mapping is performed with a 192-electrode array for 5-10 s during sinus rhythm and (induced) AF of the entire atrial surface. Local activation times are converted into activation and wave maps from which various electrophysiological parameters are derived. Postoperative cardiac rhythm registrations and a 5-year follow-up will show the incidence of postoperative and persistent AF. This project provides the first step in the development of a tool for individual AF diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Regulatory dendritic cells for promotion of liver transplant operational tolerance: Rationale for a clinical trial and accompanying mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Angus W; Humar, Abhinav; Lakkis, Fadi G; Metes, Diana M

    2018-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, bone marrow (BM)-derived innate immune cells that critically maintain self-tolerance in the healthy steady-state. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with capacity to suppress allograft rejection and promote transplant tolerance in pre-clinical models can readily be generated from BM precursors or circulating blood monocytes. These DCreg enhance allograft survival via various mechanisms, including promotion of regulatory T cells. In non-human primates receiving minimal immunosuppressive drug therapy (IS), infusion of DCreg of donor origin, one week before transplant, safely prolongs renal allograft survival and selectively attenuates anti-donor CD8 + memory T cell responses in the early post-transplant period. Based on these observations, and in view of the critical need to reduce patient dependence on non-specific IS agents that predispose to cardiometabolic side effects and renal insufficiency, we will conduct a first-in-human safety and preliminary efficacy study of donor-derived DCreg infusion to achieve early (18 months post-transplant) complete IS withdrawal in low-risk, living donor liver transplant recipients receiving standard-of-care IS (mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and steroids). We will test the hypothesis that, although donor-derived DCreg are short-lived, they will induce robust donor-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness. We will examine immunological mechanisms by sequential analysis of blood and tissue samples, incorporating cutting-edge technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ticagrelor with aspirin or alone in high-risk patients after coronary intervention: Rationale and design of the TWILIGHT study.

    PubMed

    Baber, Usman; Dangas, George; Cohen, David J; Gibson, C Michael; Mehta, Shamir R; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Pocock, Stuart J; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Kastrati, Adnan; Ohman, E Magnus; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Badimon, Juan; Zafar, M Urooj; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Sartori, Samantha; Aquino, Melissa; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-12-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is necessary to prevent thrombosis yet increases bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). Antiplatelet monotherapy with a potent P2Y 12 receptor antagonist may reduce bleeding while maintaining anti thrombotic efficacy compared with conventional DAPT. TWILIGHT is a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluating the comparative efficacy and safety of antiplatelet monotherapy versus DAPT in up to 9000 high-risk patients undergoing PCI with DES. Upon enrollment after successful PCI, all patients will be treated with open label low-dose aspirin (81-100 mg daily) plus ticagrelor (90 mg twice daily) for 3 months. Event-free patients will then be randomized in a double-blind fashion to low-dose aspirin versus matching placebo with continuation of open-label ticagrelor for an additional 12 months. The primary hypothesis is that a strategy of ticagrelor monotherapy will be superior with respect to the primary endpoint of bleeding academic research consortium type 2, 3 or 5, while maintaining non-inferiority for ischemic events compared with ticagrelor plus ASA. TWILIGHT is the largest study to date that is specifically designed and powered to demonstrate reductions in bleeding with ticagrelor monotherapy versus ticagrelor plus ASA beyond 3 months post-procedure in a high-risk PCI population treated with DES. The trial will provide novel insights with respect to the potential role of ticagrelor monotherapy as an alternative for long-term platelet inhibition in a broad population of patients undergoing PCI with DES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRA*CER) trial: study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    2009-09-01

    The protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), the main platelet receptor for thrombin, represents a novel target for treatment of arterial thrombosis, and SCH 530348 is an orally active, selective, competitive PAR-1 antagonist. We designed TRA*CER to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SCH 530348 compared with placebo in addition to standard of care in patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and high-risk features. TRA*CER is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III trial with an original estimated sample size of 10,000 subjects. Our primary objective is to demonstrate that SCH 530348 in addition to standard of care will reduce the incidence of the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, and urgent coronary revascularization compared with standard of care alone. Our key secondary objective is to determine whether SCH 530348 will reduce the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke compared with standard of care alone. Secondary objectives related to safety are the composite of moderate and severe GUSTO bleeding and clinically significant TIMI bleeding. The trial will continue until a predetermined minimum number of centrally adjudicated primary and key secondary end point events have occurred and all subjects have participated in the study for at least 1 year. The TRA*CER trial is part of the large phase III SCH 530348 development program that includes a concomitant evaluation in secondary prevention. TRA*CER will define efficacy and safety of the novel platelet PAR-1 inhibitor SCH 530348 in the treatment of high-risk patients with NSTE ACS in the setting of current treatment strategies.

  9. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Owsley, Cynthia; Rhodes, Lindsay A; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Wiley, Demond M; LaRussa, Frank; Box, Dan; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A

    2015-11-18

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease that is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma progresses more rapidly and appears about 10 years earlier in African Americans as compared to whites. African Americans are also less likely to receive comprehensive eye care when glaucoma could be detected before irreversible blindness. Screening and follow-up protocols for managing glaucoma recommended by eye-care professional organizations are often not followed by primary eye-care providers, both ophthalmologists and optometrists. There is a pressing need to improve both the accessibility and quality of glaucoma care for African Americans. Telemedicine may be an effective solution for improving management and diagnosis of glaucoma because it depends on ocular imaging and tests that can be electronically transmitted to remote reading centers where tertiary care specialists can examine the results. We describe the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community project (EQUALITY), set to evaluate a teleglaucoma program deployed in retail-based primary eye care practices serving communities with a large percentage of African Americans. We conducted an observational, 1-year prospective study based in two Walmart Vision Centers in Alabama staffed by primary care optometrists. EQUALITY focuses on new or existing adult patients who are at-risk for glaucoma or already diagnosed with glaucoma. Patients receive dilated comprehensive examinations and diagnostic testing for glaucoma, followed by the optometrist's diagnosis and a preliminary management plan. Results are transmitted to a glaucoma reading center where ophthalmologists who completed fellowship training in glaucoma review results and provide feedback to the optometrist, who manages the care of the patient. Patients also receive eye health education about glaucoma and comprehensive eye care. Research questions include diagnostic and management agreement

  10. Rationale and design of a comparative effectiveness trial to prevent type 2 diabetes in mothers and children: the ENCOURAGE healthy families study.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Tamara S; Carroll, Aaron E; Palmer, Kelly N; Saha, Chandan; Childers, Wendy K; Marrero, David G

    2015-01-01

    The number of youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is expected to quadruple over 4 decades. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is also increasing and is linked with development of T2D in women, and greater risk for T2D in adolescents exposed to GDM. Despite the increasing prevalence of T2D, approaches to prevent diabetes in high-risk youth and families are rare. To address this, we are conducting the Encourage Health Families Study (ENCOURAGE). This is a randomized trial evaluating the comparative effectiveness and costs of an adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) directed at mothers who had GDM or prediabetes and their children. The intervention is a group-based lifestyle program which we developed and implemented in partnership with the YMCA. We are comparing the ENCOURAGE intervention targeted to 1) mothers who have had GDM or prediabetes, and 2) mothers who have had GDM or prediabetes along with their school-aged children. This manuscript provides 1) the rationale for a targeted approach to preventing T2D and the interventions, 2) description of the translation of the DPP curriculum, and 3) the study design and methodology. The primary aims are to determine if participation leads to 1) weight loss in high-risk mothers, and 2) youth having healthier weights and lifestyle habits. We will also evaluate costs associated with each approach. These data are essential to build a translation model of T2D prevention that is both realistic and feasible to address this growing problem in both youth and adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Prevent postnatal urinary incontinence by prenatal pelvic floor exercise? Rationale and protocol of the multicenter randomized study PreNatal Pelvic floor Prevention (3PN)].

    PubMed

    Fritel, X; Fauconnier, A; de Tayrac, R; Amblard, J; Cotte, L; Fernandez, H

    2008-09-01

    Female urinary incontinence (UI) is a frequent affection that generates handicap and expenses. There is a link between UI and pregnancy; onset of UI during pregnancy is a risk factor for permanent UI. Postnatal pelvic floor exercise has shown efficacy to improve postnatal UI. However, it remains uncertain if benefits last more than few months. Publication of our rationale for prenatal pelvic floor exercise is an opportunity to expose our pre-specified hypotheses and help health professionals' awareness. The purpose of PreNatal Pelvic floor Prevention (3PN) is to compare the effects of prenatal pelvic floor exercise versus sole written instructions on UI one year after delivery. It is a multicenter, randomized, single blind study. Main inclusion criteria are first, single and non-complicated pregnancy over 18 years. Women randomized in pelvic floor exercise group will undergo eight sessions with a physiotherapist between six and eight months of pregnancy. Our principal criterion is UI score (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form [ICIQ-SF]) one year after delivery. We plan to include 280 pregnant women in five centers over a 12-month screening period to show a one-point difference on UI score. ETHIC AND FINANCING: The study was approved by the IRB Comité de protection des personnes Sud-Ouest et Outre-Mer. It was registered by French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) and Clinical Trials.gov. It is supported by the French Ministry of Health through the 2007 Hospital Plan for Clinical Research (PHRC). We plan to assess if prenatal pelvic floor exercise reduces postnatal medical consultations or physiotherapy sessions.

  12. Rationale and design of a pilot study examining Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for persistent pain in an integrated primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Kanzler, Kathryn E; Robinson, Patricia J; McGeary, Donald D; Mintz, Jim; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Muñante, Mariana; Lopez, Eliot J; Dougherty, Donald M; Hale, Willie J; Velligan, Dawn I

    2018-03-01

    Most of the 100 million Americans with persistent pain are treated in primary care clinics, but evidence-based psychosocial approaches targeting pain-related disability are not usually provided in these settings. This manuscript describes the rationale and methods for a protocol to pilot test the feasibility and effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an evidence-based psychological treatment for persistent pain, delivered by a Behavioral Health Consultant in primary care. Eligible patients are identified through electronic health record registries and invited to participate via secure messaging, letters and a follow-up phone call. Participants are also recruited with advertising and clinician referral. Patients agreeing to participate are consented and complete initial assessments, with a target of 60 participants. Randomization is stratified based on pain severity with participants assigned to either ACT or Enhanced Treatment as Usual (E-TAU). ACT participants receive one standardized Behavioral Health Consultation visit followed by three ACT-based group visits and one group booster visit. All patients attend six assessment visits, during which the E-TAU patients are provided with educational pain management handouts based on standard cognitive behavioral treatment of pain. The study aims to determine feasibility and effectiveness of brief ACT for persistent pain delivered by an integrated behavioral health clinician in primary care from pre- to post-treatment, and to examine mechanisms of change in ACT participants. This study, in a "real-world" setting, will lay groundwork for a larger trial. If effective, it could improve treatment methods and quality of life for patients with persistent pain using a scalable approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [A comparison study of hpt and bar as selection marker gene of transgenic rice].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Li, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bin

    2012-12-01

    The decision of using selection marker is one of the key factors for success of plant genetic transformation and offspring screening. As two commonly used selection markers, hpt and bar genes are widely used in tissue culture-based rice transformation. To experimentally compare their performance, we investigated the efficiency of two transformation systems using Hygromycin and Bialaphos as the selection agents, respectively. The result indicated that the system using hpt gene as the selection marker saved 10 days and had double transformation efficiency and lower transgene copy number in comparison to the system using bar gene. Then, we assessed the feasibility of screening transgenic rice in the field by soaking the wild-type and transgenic seeds in a series of solutions containing step diluted hygromycin for two days. We targeted the suitable concentration for distinguishing the transgenic seeds from WT Kitaake seeds was 167 mg L(-1). However, the cost of screening by hygromycin is still much higher than that of Basta in field test. Therefore, this study experimentally demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of the hpt and bar gene as the selection markers and thus provided a reference for choose of an appropriate selection marker according to the practical applications.

  14. A case study characterizing animal fecal sources in surface water using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    PubMed

    Bucci, John P; Shattuck, Michelle D; Aytur, Semra A; Carey, Richard; McDowell, William H

    2017-08-01

    Water quality impairment by fecal waste in coastal watersheds is a public health issue. The present study provided evidence for the use of a mitochondrial (mtDNA) marker to detect animal fecal sources in surface water. The accurate identification of fecal pollution is based on the notion that fecal microorganisms preferentially inhabit a host animal's gut environment. In contrast, mtDNA host-specific markers are inherent to eukaryotic host cells, which offers the advantage by detecting DNA from the host rather than its fecal bacteria. The present study focused on sampling water presumably from non-point sources (NPS), which can increase bacterial and nitrogen concentrations to receiving water bodies. Stream sampling sites located within the Piscataqua River Watershed (PRW), New Hampshire, USA, were sampled from a range of sites that experienced nitrogen inputs such as sewer and septic systems and suburban runoff. Three mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene marker assays (human, bovine, and canine) were tested from surface water. Nineteen sites were sampled during an 18-month period. Analyses of the combined single and multiplex assay results showed that the proportion of occurrence was highest for bovine (15.6%; n = 77) compared to canine (5.6%; n = 70) and human (5.7%; n = 107) mtDNA gene markers. For the human mtDNA marker, there was a statistically significant relationship between presence vs. absence and land use (Fisher's test p = 0.0031). This result was evident particularly for rural suburban septic, which showed the highest proportion of presence (19.2%) compared to the urban sewered (3.3%), suburban sewered (0%), and agricultural (0%) as well as forested septic (0%) sites. Although further testing across varied land use is needed, our study provides evidence for using the mtDNA marker in large watersheds.

  15. The Effect of a Vegan versus AHA DiEt in Coronary Artery Disease (EVADE CAD) trial: study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Ganguzza, Lisa; Slater, James; Newman, Jonathan D; Allen, Nicole; Fisher, Edward; Larigakis, John; Ujueta, Francisco; Gianos, Eugenia; Guo, Yu; Woolf, Kathleen

    2017-12-01

    Multiple studies demonstrate the benefit of a vegan diet on cardiovascular risk factors when compared to no intervention or usual dietary patterns. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a vegan diet versus the American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended diet on inflammatory and glucometabolic profiles in patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD). This study is a randomized, open label, blinded end-point trial of 100 patients with CAD as defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in a coronary artery ≥2 mm in diameter on invasive angiography. Participants are randomized to 8 weeks of either a vegan or AHA-recommended diet (March 2014 and February 2017). Participants are provided weekly groceries that adhere to the guidelines of their diet. The primary endpoint is high sensitivity C-reactive concentrations. Secondary endpoints include anthropometric data, other markers of inflammation, lipid parameters, glycemic markers, endothelial function, quality of life data, and assessment of physical activity. Endpoints are measured at each visit (baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks). Dietary adherence is measured by two weekly 24-hour dietary recalls, a 4-day food record during the week prior to each visit, and both plasma and urine levels of trimethylamine- N -oxide at each visit. This study is the first to comprehensively assess multiple indices of inflammation and glucometabolic profile in a rigorously conducted randomized trial of patients with CAD on a vegan versus AHA-recommended diet.

  16. Rationale and Study Protocol for a Multi-component Health Information Technology (HIT) Screening Tool for Depression and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in the Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Biegler, Kelly; Mollica, Richard; Sim, Susan Elliott; Nicholas, Elisa; Chandler, Maria; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Paigne, Kittya; Paigne, Sompia; Nguyen, Danh V.; Sorkin, Dara H.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence rate of depression in primary care is high. Primary care providers serve as the initial point of contact for the majority of patients with depression, yet, approximately 50% of cases remain unrecognized. The under-diagnosis of depression may be further exacerbated in limited English-language proficient (LEP) populations. Language barriers may result in less discussion of patients’ mental health needs and fewer referrals to mental health services, particularly given competing priorities of other medical conditions and providers’ time pressures. Recent advances in Health Information Technology (HIT) may facilitate novel ways to screen for depression in LEP populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of a clustered-randomized controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of an HIT intervention that provides a multi-component approach to delivering culturally competent, mental health care in the primary care setting. The HIT intervention has four components: 1) web-based provider training, 2) multimedia electronic screening of depression and PTSD in the patients’ primary language, 3) Computer generated risk assessment scores delivered directly to the provider, and 4) clinical decision support. The outcomes of the study include assessing the potential of the HIT intervention to improve screening rates, clinical detection, provider initiation of treatment, and patient outcomes for depression and PTSD among LEP Cambodian refugees who experienced war atrocities and trauma during the Khmer Rouge. This technology has the potential to be adapted to any LEP population in order to facilitate mental health screening and treatment in the primary care setting. PMID:27394385

  17. Rationale and study protocol for a multi-component Health Information Technology (HIT) screening tool for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Biegler, Kelly; Mollica, Richard; Sim, Susan Elliott; Nicholas, Elisa; Chandler, Maria; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Paigne, Kittya; Paigne, Sompia; Nguyen, Danh V; Sorkin, Dara H

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence rate of depression in primary care is high. Primary care providers serve as the initial point of contact for the majority of patients with depression, yet, approximately 50% of cases remain unrecognized. The under-diagnosis of depression may be further exacerbated in limited English-language proficient (LEP) populations. Language barriers may result in less discussion of patients' mental health needs and fewer referrals to mental health services, particularly given competing priorities of other medical conditions and providers' time pressures. Recent advances in Health Information Technology (HIT) may facilitate novel ways to screen for depression and other mental health disorders in LEP populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of a clustered randomized controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of an HIT intervention that provides a multi-component approach to delivering culturally competent, mental health care in the primary care setting. The HIT intervention has four components: 1) web-based provider training, 2) multimedia electronic screening of depression and PTSD in the patients' primary language, 3) Computer generated risk assessment scores delivered directly to the provider, and 4) clinical decision support. The outcomes of the study include assessing the potential of the HIT intervention to improve screening rates, clinical detection, provider initiation of treatment, and patient outcomes for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among LEP Cambodian refugees who experienced war atrocities and trauma during the Khmer Rouge. This technology has the potential to be adapted to any LEP population in order to facilitate mental health screening and treatment in the primary care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rationale and design of the Staying Positive with Arthritis (SPA) Study: A randomized controlled trial testing the impact of a positive psychology intervention on racial disparities in pain.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Leslie R M; Ibrahim, Said A; Kwoh, C Kent; Youk, Ada; Obrosky, D Scott; Weiner, Debra K; Vina, Ernest; Gallagher, Rollin M; Mauro, Genna T; Parks, Acacia

    2018-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a painful, disabling condition that disproportionately affects African Americans. Existing arthritis treatments yield small to moderate improvements in pain and have not been effective at reducing racial disparities in the management of pain. The biopsychosocial model of pain and evidence from the positive psychology literature suggest that increasing positive psychological skills (e.g., gratitude, kindness) could improve pain and functioning and reduce disparities in osteoarthritis pain management. Activities to cultivate positive psychological skills have been developed and validated; however, they have not been tested in patients with osteoarthritis, their effects on racial differences in health outcomes have not been examined, and evidence of their effects on health outcomes in patients with other chronic illnesses is of limited quality. In this article we describe the rationale and design of Staying Positive with Arthritis (SPA) study, a randomized controlled trial in which 180 African American and 180 White primary care patients with chronic pain from knee osteoarthritis will be randomized to a 6-week program of either positive skill-building activities or neutral control activities. The primary outcomes will be self-reported pain and functioning as measured by the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index. We will assess these primary outcomes and potential, exploratory psychosocial mediating variables at an in-person baseline visit and by telephone at 1, 3, and 6months following completion of the assigned program. If effective, the SPA program would be a novel, theoretically-informed psychosocial intervention to improve quality and equity of care in the management of chronic pain from osteoarthritis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: II. Validity Studies of the Pause Marker.

    PubMed

    Shriberg, Lawrence D; Strand, Edythe A; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J; Hall, Sheryl D; Karlsson, Heather B; Mabie, Heather L; McSweeny, Jane L; Tilkens, Christie M; Wilson, David L

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this 2nd article in this supplement is to report validity support findings for the Pause Marker (PM), a proposed single-sign diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). PM scores and additional perceptual and acoustic measures were obtained from 296 participants in cohorts with idiopathic and neurogenetic CAS, adult-onset apraxia of speech and primary progressive apraxia of speech, and idiopathic speech delay. Adjusted for questionable specificity disagreements with a pediatric Mayo Clinic diagnostic standard, the estimated sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of the PM were 86.8% and 100% for the CAS cohort, yielding positive and negative likelihood ratios of 56.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.15, 2763.31]) and 0.13 (95% CI [0.06, 0.30]). Specificity of the PM for 4 cohorts totaling 205 participants with speech delay was 98.5%. These findings are interpreted as providing support for the PM as a near-conclusive diagnostic marker of CAS.

  20. Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized study for evaluating vascular function under uric acid control using the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, febuxostat: the PRIZE study.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Sato, Yasunori; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Sata, Masataka; Ishizu, Tomoko; Taguchi, Isao; Kuroyanagi, Takanori; Teragawa, Hiroki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Kanzaki, Yumiko; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Eguchi, Kazuo; Higashi, Yukihito; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Maemura, Koji; Ako, Junya; Bando, Yasuko K; Ueda, Shinichiro; Inoue, Teruo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Node, Koichi

    2016-06-18

    Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are anti-hyperuricemic drugs that decrease serum uric acid levels by inhibiting its synthesis. Xanthine oxidase is also recognized as a pivotal enzyme in the production of oxidative stress. Excess oxidative stress induces endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory reactions in vascular systems, leading to atherosclerosis. Many experimental studies have suggested that xanthine oxidase inhibitors have anti-atherosclerotic effects by decreasing in vitro and in vivo oxidative stress. However, there is only limited evidence on the clinical implications of xanthine oxidase inhibitors on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with hyperuricemia. We designed the PRIZE study to evaluate the effects of febuxostat on a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease risk, ultrasonography-based intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in patients with hyperuricemia. The study is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label and blinded-endpoint evaluation (PROBE) design. A total of 500 patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (uric acid >7.0 mg/dL) and carotid intima-media thickness ≥1.1 mm will be randomized centrally to receive either febuxostat (10-60 mg/day) or non-pharmacological treatment. Randomization is carried out using the dynamic allocation method stratified according to age (<65, ≥65 year), gender, presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid (<8.0, ≥8.0 mg/dL), and carotid intima-media thickness (<1.3, ≥1.3 mm). In addition to administering the study drug, we will also direct lifestyle modification in all participants, including advice on control of body weight, sleep, exercise and healthy diet. Carotid intima-media thickness will be evaluated using ultrasonography performed by skilled technicians at a central laboratory. Follow-up will be continued for 24 months. The primary endpoint is percentage change in mean intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery 24 months after baseline, measured by

  1. Rationale, description and baseline findings of a community-based prospective cohort study of kidney function amongst the young rural population of Northwest Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    González-Quiroz, Marvin; Camacho, Armando; Faber, Dorien; Aragón, Aurora; Wesseling, Catharina; Glaser, Jason; Le Blond, Jennifer; Smeeth, Liam; Nitsch, Dorothea; Pearce, Neil; Caplin, Ben

    2017-01-13

    An epidemic of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) is killing thousands of agricultural workers along the Pacific coast of Central America, but the natural history and aetiology of the disease remain poorly understood. We have recently commenced a community-based longitudinal study to investigate Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Nicaragua. Although logistically challenging, study designs of this type have the potential to provide important insights that other study designs cannot. In this paper we discuss the rationale for conducting this study and summarize the findings of the baseline visit. The baseline visit of the community-based cohort study was conducted in 9 communities in the North Western Nicaragua in October and November 2014. All of the young men, and a random sample of young women (aged 18-30) without a pre-existing diagnosis of CKD were invited to participate. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated with CKD-EPI equation, along with clinical measurements, questionnaires, biological and environmental samples to evaluate participants' exposures to proposed risk factors for MeN. We identified 520 young adults (286 males and 234 females) in the 9 different communities. Of these, 16 males with self-reported CKD and 5 females with diagnoses of either diabetes or hypertension were excluded from the study population. All remaining 270 men and 90 women, selected at random, were then invited to participate in the study; 350 (97%) agreed to participate. At baseline, 29 (11%) men and 1 (1%) woman had an eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Conducting a community based study of this type requires active the involvement of communities and commitment from local leaders. Furthermore, a research team with strong links to the area and broad understanding of the context of the problem being studied is essential. The key findings will arise from follow-up, but it is striking that 5% of males under aged 30 had to be excluded because of pre-existing kidney disease, and that

  2. Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized controlled study to evaluate the preventive effect of ipragliflozin on carotid atherosclerosis: the PROTECT study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Taguchi, Isao; Eguchi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Makoto; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Sato, Yasunori; Ishizu, Tomoko; Higashi, Yukihito; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Nanasato, Mamoru; Shimabukuro, Michio; Teragawa, Hiroki; Ueda, Shinichiro; Kodera, Satoshi; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Kadokami, Toshiaki; Kario, Kazuomi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Teruo; Maemura, Koji; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Sata, Masataka; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Node, Koichi

    2016-09-13

    as a surrogate marker. The study has potential to clarify the protective effects of ipragliflozin on atherosclerosis. Trial registration Unique Trial Number, JPRN/UMIN000018440 ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000021348 ).

  3. Banding studies on chromosomes in diffuse histiocytic lymphomas: correlation of 14q+ marker chromosome with cytology

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, S.; Rowley, J.D.; Variakojis, D.

    1978-11-01

    Chromosomes were studied in cells from tissues primarily involved by diffuse histiocytic lymphoma in nine patients. Two of the patients had stage II disease; their tumors were fibrotic and had no mitotic cells. One patient was in stage III, and the remaining six patients had stage IV disease. The modal chromosome number of abnormal cells from these last seven patients was hypodiploid in two, hyperdiploid in four, and near-triploid in one. Complete banding studies of six cases and partial analysis of the seventh indicate that (1) every patient had a distinct cell line with common markers, with a few cellsmore » showing minor variants; (2) although certain chromosomes (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 9, 12, and 14) were structurally affected more often than others, no markers with the same banding pattern were noted among them; and (3) the cytologic type of lymphoma could be correlated with the karyotype in all seven patients. When the Lukes and Collins classification was used, three patients whose tumors were composed predominantly of large noncleaved cells showed a 14q translocation leading to the formation of a 14q+ marker chromosome. This marker was not observed in four patients whose tumors had a majority of large cleaved cells. These preliminary results, if confirmed in a larger series of patients, will provide additional evidence that there are consistent chromosome changes associated with specific subtypes of lymphoproliferative disorders analogous to the Ph/sup 1/ chromosome in chronic myelogenous leukemia.« less

  4. Results for five sets of forensic genetic markers studied in a Greek population sample.

    PubMed

    Tomas, C; Skitsa, I; Steinmeier, E; Poulsen, L; Ampati, A; Børsting, C; Morling, N

    2015-05-01

    A population sample of 223 Greek individuals was typed for five sets of forensic genetic markers with the kits NGM SElect™, SNPforID 49plex, DIPplex®, Argus X-12 and PowerPlex® Y23. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed for any of the studied markers after Holm-Šidák correction. Statistically significant (P<0.05) levels of linkage disequilibrium were observed between markers within two of the studied X-chromosome linkage groups. AMOVA analyses of the five sets of markers did not show population structure when the individuals were grouped according to their geographic origin. The Greek population grouped closely to the other European populations measured by F(ST)(*) distances. The match probability ranged from a value of 1 in 2×10(7) males by using haplotype frequencies of four X-chromosome haplogroups in males to 1 in 1.73×10(21) individuals for 16 autosomal STRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel molecular marker for the study of Neotropical cichlid phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Fabrin, T M C; Gasques, L S; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J

    2015-12-22

    The use of molecular markers has contributed to phylogeny and to the reconstruction of species' evolutionary history. Each region of the genome has different evolution rates, which may or may not identify phylogenetic signal at different levels. Therefore, it is important to assess new molecular markers that can be used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Regions that may be associated with species characteristics and are subject to selective pressure, such as opsin genes, which encode proteins related to the visual system and are widely expressed by Cichlidae family members, are interesting. Our aim was to identify a new nuclear molecular marker that could establish the phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids and is potentially correlated with the visual system. We used Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analysis to support the use of the nuclear opsin LWS gene in the phylogeny of eight Neotropical cichlid species. Their use concatenated to the mitochondrial gene COI was also tested. The LWS gene fragment comprised the exon 2-4 region, including the introns. The LWS gene provided good support for both analyses up to the genus level, distinguishing the studied species, and when concatenated to the COI gene, there was a good support up to the species level. Another benefit of utilizing this region, is that some polymorphisms are associated with changes in spectral properties of the LWS opsin protein, which constitutes the visual pigment that absorbs red light. Thus, utilization of this gene as a molecular marker to study the phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids is promising.

  6. Effect of genetic testing for risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus on health behaviors and outcomes: study rationale, development and design.

    PubMed

    Cho, Alex H; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; O'Daniel, Julianne M; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Gallagher, Patrick; Haga, Susanne; Lucas, Joseph E; Trujillo, Gloria M; Joy, Scott V; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2012-01-18

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic condition globally that results in extensive morbidity, decreased quality of life, and increased health services utilization. Lifestyle changes can prevent the development of diabetes, but require patient engagement. Genetic risk testing might represent a new tool to increase patients' motivation for lifestyle changes. Here we describe the rationale, development, and design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the clinical and personal utility of incorporating type 2 diabetes genetic risk testing into comprehensive diabetes risk assessments performed in a primary care setting. Patients are recruited in the laboratory waiting areas of two primary care clinics and enrolled into one of three study arms. Those interested in genetic risk testing are randomized to receive either a standard risk assessment (SRA) for type 2 diabetes incorporating conventional risk factors plus upfront disclosure of the results of genetic risk testing ("SRA+G" arm), or the SRA alone ("SRA" arm). Participants not interested in genetic risk testing will not receive the test, but will receive SRA (forming a third, "no-test" arm). Risk counseling is provided by clinic staff (not study staff external to the clinic). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference are measured at baseline and 12 months, as are patients' self-reported behavioral and emotional responses to diabetes risk information. Primary outcomes are changes in insulin resistance and BMI after 12 months; secondary outcomes include changes in diet patterns, physical activity, waist circumference, and perceived risk of developing diabetes. The utility, feasibility, and efficacy of providing patients with genetic risk information for common chronic diseases in primary care remain unknown. The study described here will help to establish whether providing type 2 diabetes genetic risk information in a primary care setting can help improve

  7. The rationale and design of the national familial hypercholesterolemia registries in Turkey: A-HIT1 and A-HIT2 studies.

    PubMed

    Kayıkçıoğlu, Meral; Tokgözoğlu, Lale

    2017-04-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disease characterized by extremely high levels of cholesterol, leading to premature atherosclerosis. Although many countries have already addressed the burden of FH by means of national registries, Turkey has no national FH registry or national screening program to detect FH. Creation of a series of FH registries is planned as part of Turkish FH Initiative endorsed by the Turkish Society of Cardiology to meet this need. This article provides detailed information on the rationale and design of the first 2 FH registries (A-HIT1 and A-HIT2). A-HIT1 is a nationwide survey of adult homozygous FH (HoFH) patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis (LA) in Turkey. A-HIT1 will provide insight into the clinical status of HoFH patients undergoing LA. Primary objective of this cross-sectional study is to identify how HoFH patients on LA are managed. Inclusion criteria are age >12 years, diagnosis of HoFH, and regular LA treatment. All available apheresis centers were electronically invited to participate in the study. The principal physicians of each center will respond to a questionnaire regarding their attitude toward LA. For each patient, another questionnaire will be used to collect data on clinical status, medication use, and disease data. In addition, patients will be asked to complete self-report questionnaires that provide information on quality of life, disease-related anxiety, and depression. A-HIT2 is a registry of adult FH patients presenting at outpatient clinics. At least 1000 FH patients will be recruited from 30 outpatient clinics representing the 12 statistical regions in Turkey based on the EU NUTS classification. Sites specializing in cardiology, internal medicine, and endocrinology were invited to participate. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine clinical status and management of patients in Turkey diagnosed with FH. Eligibility for screening was defined as having

  8. Alpha-fetoprotein as a prognostic marker in acute liver failure: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Anshul; Gupta, Rohit; Verma, Sanjiv K; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2017-07-01

    Prognostic markers of acute liver failure (ALF) are based on clinical, laboratory or radiological parameters. Most of the biochemical markers are based on hepatic degeneration. We studied the impact of serial serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, a marker of liver regeneration, on the outcome of the patients with ALF. AFP levels were estimated on days 1 and 3 of hospitalisation of 32 patients with ALF and the ratio (AFP day3/day1) was calculated. All subjects were categorised as group A (expired) or group B (survived). The AFP ratio was 0.84  +  0.15 in group A (n = 20) versus 1.55  +  0.70 in group B (n = 10); P < 0.001. However, the absolute initial AFP values were not associated with the outcome, favourable or unfavourable. We conclude that AFP levels change dynamically during ALF and have the potential to be used as a predictor of outcome in isolation or in combination with well-established prognostic markers.

  9. The diagnostic value of preoperative inflammatory markers in craniopharyngioma: a multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zheng, Shi-Hao; Yang, Min; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Li, Shi-Ting

    2018-05-01

    To compare the different levels of preoperative inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples between craniopharyngioma (CP) and other sellar region tumors so as to explore their differential diagnostic value. The level of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, platelet, albumin, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were compared between the CP and other sellar region tumors. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the peripheral blood inflammatory markers and their paired combinations for CP including its pathological types. Patients with CP had higher levels of pre-operative WBC, lymphocyte and PNI. The papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP) group had higher neutrophil count and NLR than the adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and healthy control groups whereas the ACP group had higher platelet count and PNI than the PCP and healthy control groups. There were not any significant differences in preoperative inflammatory markers between the primary and recurrent CP groups. The AUC values of WBC, neutrophil, NLR + PLR and dNLR + PLR in PCP were all higher than 0.7. Inflammation seems to be closely correlated with CP's development. The preoperative inflammatory markers including WBC, neutrophil, NLR + PLR and dNLR + PLR may differentially diagnose PCP, pituitary tumor (PT) and Rathke cleft cyst (RCC). In addition, some statistical results in this study indirectly proved previous experimental conclusions and strictly matched CP's biological features.

  10. Rationale, design and methodology of a trial evaluating three strategies designed to improve sedation quality in intensive care units (DESIST study).

    PubMed

    Walsh, Timothy S; Kydonaki, Kalliopi; Antonelli, Jean; Stephen, Jacqueline; Lee, Robert J; Everingham, Kirsty; Hanley, Janet; Uutelo, Kimmo; Peltola, Petra; Weir, Christopher J

    2016-03-04

    To describe the rationale, design and methodology for a trial of three novel interventions developed to improve sedation-analgesia quality in adult intensive care units (ICUs). 8 clusters, each a Scottish ICU. All mechanically ventilated sedated patients were potentially eligible for inclusion in data analysis. Cluster randomised design in 8 ICUs, with ICUs randomised after 45 weeks baseline data collection to implement one of four intervention combinations: a web-based educational programme (2 ICUs); education plus regular sedation quality feedback using process control charts (2 ICUs); education plus a novel sedation monitoring technology (2 ICUs); or all three interventions. ICUs measured sedation-analgesia quality, relevant drug use and clinical outcomes, during a 45-week preintervention and 45-week postintervention period separated by an 8-week implementation period. The intended sample size was >100 patients per site per study period. The primary outcome was the proportion of 12 h care periods with optimum sedation-analgesia, defined as the absence of agitation, unnecessary deep sedation, poor relaxation and poor ventilator synchronisation. Secondary outcomes were proportions of care periods with each of these four components of optimum sedation and rates of sedation-related adverse events. Sedative and analgesic drug use, and ICU and hospital outcomes were also measured. Multilevel generalised linear regression mixed models will explore the effects of each intervention taking clustering into account, and adjusting for age, gender and APACHE II score. Sedation-analgesia quality outcomes will be explored at ICU level and individual patient level. A process evaluation using mixed methods including quantitative description of intervention implementation, focus groups and direct observation will provide explanatory information regarding any effects observed. The DESIST study uses a novel design to provide system-level evaluation of three contrasting complex

  11. Photosynthetic dioxygen formation studied by time-resolved delayed fluorescence measurements--method, rationale, and results on the activation energy of dioxygen formation.

    PubMed

    Buchta, Joachim; Grabolle, Markus; Dau, Holger

    2007-06-01

    The analysis of the time-resolved delayed fluorescence (DF) measurements represents an important tool to study quantitatively light-induced electron transfer as well as associated processes, e.g. proton movements, at the donor side of photosystem II (PSII). This method can provide, inter alia, insights in the functionally important inner-protein proton movements, which are hardly detectable by conventional spectroscopic approaches. The underlying rationale and experimental details of the method are described. The delayed emission of chlorophyll fluorescence of highly active PSII membrane particles was measured in the time domain from 10 mus to 60 ms after each flash of a train of nanosecond laser pulses. Focusing on the oxygen-formation step induced by the third flash, we find that the recently reported formation of an S4-intermediate prior to the onset of O-O bond formation [M. Haumann, P. Liebisch, C. Müller, M. Barra, M. Grabolle, H. Dau, Science 310, 1019-1021, 2006] is a multiphasic process, as anticipated for proton movements from the manganese complex of PSII to the aqueous bulk phase. The S4-formation involves three or more likely sequential steps; a tri-exponential fit yields time constants of 14, 65, and 200 mus (at 20 degrees C, pH 6.4). We determine that S4-formation is characterized by a sizable difference in Gibbs free energy of more than 90 meV (20 degrees C, pH 6.4). In the second part of the study, the temperature dependence (-2.7 to 27.5 degrees C) of the rate constant of dioxygen formation (600/s at 20 degrees C) was investigated by analysis of DF transients. If the activation energy is assumed to be temperature-independent, a value of 230 meV is determined. There are weak indications for a biphasicity in the Arrhenius plot, but clear-cut evidence for a temperature-dependent switch between two activation energies, which would point to the existence of two distinct rate-limiting steps, is not obtained.

  12. Developing Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in three Aedes disease vectors.

    PubMed

    White, Vanessa Linley; Endersby, Nancy Margaret; Chan, Janice; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Weeks, Andrew Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes notoscriptus, and Aedes albopictus are important vectors of many arboviruses implicated in human disease such as dengue fever. Genetic markers applied across vector species can provide important information on population structure, gene flow, insecticide resistance, and taxonomy, however, robust microsatellite markers have proven difficult to develop in these species and mosquitoes generally. Here we consider the utility and transferability of 15 Ribosome protein (Rp) Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in these 3 Aedes species. Rp EPIC markers designed for Ae. aegypti also successfully amplified populations of the sister species, Ae. albopictus, as well as the distantly related species, Ae. notoscriptus. High SNP and good indel diversity in sequenced alleles plus support for amplification of the same regions across populations and species were additional benefits of these markers. These findings point to the general value of EPIC markers in mosquito population studies. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Ankle brachial index, MRI markers and cognition: The Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Muhammad Amin; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Vrooman, Henri; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Hilal, Saima; Chen, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies showed an independent association of low ankle-brachial index (ABI) with cognitive impairment. However, the association between low ABI and cognition in the presence of both cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) and neurodegeneration is lacking. We aimed at investigating a) the association of low ABI with markers of CeVD and cortical thickness, and b) whether the association of low ABI with cognition is influenced by these markers. Data was drawn from the Epidemiology of Dementia In Singapore (EDIS) study where all participants (n = 832) underwent neuropsychological tests and 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess CeVD markers as well as cortical thicknesses. Cognitive function was expressed as a global composite z-score and domain-specific z-scores of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Multivariate analyses showed low ABI to be independently associated with intracranial stenosis [odds ratios (OR): 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.23-1.87] and lacunar infarcts [OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57]. A low ABI was also independently associated with smaller cortical thickness globally [β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.27-0.16] as well as with the limbic [β: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.03-0.17], temporal [β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02-0.15], parietal [β: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.02-0.15], and occipital [β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.03-0.16] lobes. Low ABI was associated with worse performance in verbal memory [β: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01-0.12], which became attenuated in the presence of MRI markers. A low ABI is associated with MRI markers, and affects cognition in the presence of CeVD and neurodegeneration. Atherosclerosis should be targeted as a potentially modifiable risk factor to prevent cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rationales for Commonly "Challenged" Taught Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugert, Diane P., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Intended for teachers, this focused journal issue contains separate rationales for teaching books that have been challenged as appropriate instructional materials. Following a discussion of the purpose for rationales and suggestions for using them, the journal presents rationales for teaching the following books: "To Kill a Mockingbird,""The Diary…

  15. Design and Rationale for a Parent-Led Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors (Reboot): Protocol for a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jennifer; Wakefield, Claire; Grech, Allison; Garnett, Sarah; Gohil, Paayal; Cohn, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background Poor dietary habits are common among childhood cancer survivors, despite increasing their risk of cardio metabolic complications after cancer treatment. Here, we describe the design and rationale for a pilot telephone-based, parent-led intervention aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable intake in young cancer survivors (Reboot). Objective This pilot study aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of delivering evidence-based telephone support to parents of childhood cancer survivors. A secondary aim includes assessing the effect of Reboot on improving childhood cancer survivors’ dietary quality by increasing child fruit and vegetable intake and variety and its contribution to overall nutrient intake. Methods We aim to recruit parents of 15 young cancer survivors aged 2 to 12 years who have completed cancer treatment less than five years ago. The intervention comprises of 4 weekly 45-minute telephone sessions led by a health professional and one booster session 6 weeks later. Sessions address the effects of cancer treatment on children’s diets, recommended fruit and vegetable intake for children, and evidence-based strategies to promote the consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as to manage fussy eating. Results Reboot is based on an existing, evidence-based parent nutrition intervention and modified for childhood cancer survivors following extensive collaboration with experts in the field. Primary outcomes of feasibility and acceptability will be measured by the number of participants who complete all five sessions, average session length (minutes), length between sessions (days) and parent Likert ratings of the usefulness and impact of the intervention collected after the booster session. Of the 15 participants we aim to recruit, 3 have completed the intervention, 1 declined to participate, 11 are actively completing the intervention and 2 participants are providing written consent. The remaining 3 participants will be recruited via

  16. Design and Rationale for a Parent-Led Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors (Reboot): Protocol for a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Touyz, Lauren; Cohen, Jennifer; Wakefield, Claire; Grech, Allison; Garnett, Sarah; Gohil, Paayal; Cohn, Richard

    2018-05-16

    Poor dietary habits are common among childhood cancer survivors, despite increasing their risk of cardio metabolic complications after cancer treatment. Here, we describe the design and rationale for a pilot telephone-based, parent-led intervention aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable intake in young cancer survivors (Reboot). This pilot study aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of delivering evidence-based telephone support to parents of childhood cancer survivors. A secondary aim includes assessing the effect of Reboot on improving childhood cancer survivors' dietary quality by increasing child fruit and vegetable intake and variety and its contribution to overall nutrient intake. We aim to recruit parents of 15 young cancer survivors aged 2 to 12 years who have completed cancer treatment less than five years ago. The intervention comprises of 4 weekly 45-minute telephone sessions led by a health professional and one booster session 6 weeks later. Sessions address the effects of cancer treatment on children's diets, recommended fruit and vegetable intake for children, and evidence-based strategies to promote the consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as to manage fussy eating. Reboot is based on an existing, evidence-based parent nutrition intervention and modified for childhood cancer survivors following extensive collaboration with experts in the field. Primary outcomes of feasibility and acceptability will be measured by the number of participants who complete all five sessions, average session length (minutes), length between sessions (days) and parent Likert ratings of the usefulness and impact of the intervention collected after the booster session. Of the 15 participants we aim to recruit, 3 have completed the intervention, 1 declined to participate, 11 are actively completing the intervention and 2 participants are providing written consent. The remaining 3 participants will be recruited via telephone follow-up calls. The intervention

  17. Response of bone turnover markers to three oral bisphosphonate therapies in postmenopausal osteoporosis: the TRIO study.

    PubMed

    Naylor, K E; Jacques, R M; Paggiosi, M; Gossiel, F; Peel, N F A; McCloskey, E V; Walsh, J S; Eastell, R

    2016-01-01

    We used bone turnover markers to identify women who responded to bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis. Response was more likely with alendronate and ibandronate than risedronate. There was a greater decrease in bone markers if baseline bone turnover markers were higher and if the patient took more than 80 % of her medication. Biochemical response to bisphosphonate therapy can be assessed using either a decrease in bone turnover marker beyond the least significant change (LSC) or a reduction to within a reference interval (RI). We compared the performance of these target responses and determined whether response was related to the type of bisphosphonate, compliance and baseline bone turnover markers. Biochemical responses to three oral bisphosphonates were assessed in an open, controlled trial comprising 172 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (age 53-84 years), randomised to alendronate, ibandronate or risedronate, plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation for 2 years. The LSC for each marker was derived within the study population, whereas RIs were obtained from a control group of healthy premenopausal women (age 35-40 years). Over 70 % of women achieved a target response for serum CTX and PINP, irrespective of the approach used. The percentage decrease at 12 weeks was greater for women with baseline PINP above the RI -63 % (difference 13 %, 95 % CI 0 to 27.1, P = 0.049) and good compliance -67 % (difference 15.9 %, 95 % CI 6.3 to 25.5, P = 0.001). Responders had a greater increase in spine bone density compared to nonresponders; for example 6.2 vs. 2.3 % (difference 3.9 %, 95 % CI 1.6 to 6.3, P = 0.0011) for PINP LSC. The magnitude of change in bone markers was greater with ibandronate and alendronate than risedronate. Both approaches to response identified similar proportions of women as responders. Nonresponders had smaller increases in BMD, and we suggest that biochemical assessment of response is a useful tool for the management of women with

  18. DOMINO: development of informative molecular markers for phylogenetic and genome-wide population genetic studies in non-model organisms.

    PubMed

    Frías-López, Cristina; Sánchez-Herrero, José F; Guirao-Rico, Sara; Mora, Elisa; Arnedo, Miquel A; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Rozas, Julio

    2016-12-15

    The development of molecular markers is one of the most important challenges in phylogenetic and genome wide population genetics studies, especially in studies with non-model organisms. A highly promising approach for obtaining suitable markers is the utilization of genomic partitioning strategies for the simultaneous discovery and genotyping of a large number of markers. Unfortunately, not all markers obtained from these strategies provide enough information for solving multiple evolutionary questions at a reasonable taxonomic resolution. We have developed Development Of Molecular markers In Non-model Organisms (DOMINO), a bioinformatics tool for informative marker development from both next generation sequencing (NGS) data and pre-computed sequence alignments. The application implements popular NGS tools with new utilities in a highly versatile pipeline specifically designed to discover or select personalized markers at different levels of taxonomic resolution. These markers can be directly used to study the taxa surveyed for their design, utilized for further downstream PCR amplification in a broader set taxonomic scope, or exploited as suitable templates to bait design for target DNA enrichment techniques. We conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the performance of DOMINO via computer simulations and illustrate its utility to find informative markers in an empirical dataset. DOMINO is freely available from www.ub.edu/softevol/domino CONTACT: elsanchez@ub.edu or jrozas@ub.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Early Markers of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Infants and Toddlers Prospectively Identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attention and Communication Study involved the successful implementation of developmental surveillance of the early markers of autism spectrum disorders in a community-based setting. The objective in the current study was to determine the most discriminating and predictive markers of autism spectrum disorders used in the Social…

  20. Trend of different molecular markers in the last decades for studying human migrations.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sharbadeb; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-02-10

    Anatomically modern humans are known to have widely migrated throughout history. Different scientific evidences suggest that the entire human population descended from just several thousand African migrants. About 85,000 years ago, the first wave of human migration was out of Africa, that followed the coasts through the Middle East, into Southern Asia via Sri Lanka, and in due course around Indonesia and into Australia. Another wave of migration between 40,000 and 12,000 years ago brought humans northward into Europe. However, the frozen north limited human expansion in Europe, and created a land bridge, "Bering land bridge", connecting Asia with North America about 25,000 years ago. Although fossil data give the most direct information about our past, it has certain anomalies. So, molecular archeologists are now using different molecular markers to trace the "most recent common ancestor" and also the migration pattern of modern humans. In this study, we have studied the trend of molecular markers and also the methodologies implemented in the last decades (2003-2014). From our observation, we can say that D-loop region of mtDNA and Y chromosome based markers are predominant. Nevertheless, mtDNA, especially the D-loop region, has some unique features, which makes it a more effective marker for tracing prehistoric footprints of modern human populations. Although, natural selection should also be taken into account in studying mtDNA based human migration. As per technology is concerned, Sanger sequencing is the major technique that is being used in almost all studies. But, the emergence of different cost-effective-and-easy-to-handle NGS platforms has increased its popularity over Sanger sequencing in studying human migration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Genetic relationships among seven sections of genus Arachis studied by using SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis, originated in South America, is divided into nine taxonomical sections comprising of 80 species. Most of the Arachis species are diploids (2n = 2x = 20) and the tetraploid species (2n = 2x = 40) are found in sections Arachis, Extranervosae and Rhizomatosae. Diploid species have great potential to be used as resistance sources for agronomic traits like pests and diseases, drought related traits and different life cycle spans. Understanding of genetic relationships among wild species and between wild and cultivated species will be useful for enhanced utilization of wild species in improving cultivated germplasm. The present study was undertaken to evaluate genetic relationships among species (96 accessions) belonging to seven sections of Arachis by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Arachis hypogaea genomic library and gene sequences from related genera of Arachis. Results The average transferability rate of 101 SSR markers tested to section Arachis and six other sections was 81% and 59% respectively. Five markers (IPAHM 164, IPAHM 165, IPAHM 407a, IPAHM 409, and IPAHM 659) showed 100% transferability. Cluster analysis of allelic data from a subset of 32 SSR markers on 85 wild and 11 cultivated accessions grouped accessions according to their genome composition, sections and species to which they belong. A total of 109 species specific alleles were detected in different wild species, Arachis pusilla exhibited largest number of species specific alleles (15). Based on genetic distance analysis, the A-genome accession ICG 8200 (A. duranensis) and the B-genome accession ICG 8206 (A. ipaënsis) were found most closely related to A. hypogaea. Conclusion A set of cross species and cross section transferable SSR markers has been identified that will be useful for genetic studies of wild species of Arachis, including comparative genome mapping, germplasm analysis, population genetic structure and phylogenetic inferences

  2. The social and behavioral influences (SBI) study: study design and rationale for studying the effects of race and activation on cancer pain management.

    PubMed

    Elias, Cezanne M; Shields, Cleveland G; Griggs, Jennifer J; Fiscella, Kevin; Christ, Sharon L; Colbert, Joseph; Henry, Stephen G; Hoh, Beth G; Hunte, Haslyn E R; Marshall, Mary; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Plumb, Sandy; Tejani, Mohamedtaki A; Venuti, Alison; Epstein, Ronald M

    2017-08-25

    Racial disparities exist in the care provided to advanced cancer patients. This article describes an investigation designed to advance the science of healthcare disparities by isolating the effects of patient race and patient activation on physician behavior using novel standardized patient (SP) methodology. The Social and Behavioral Influences (SBI) Study is a National Cancer Institute sponsored trial conducted in Western New York State, Northern/Central Indiana, and lower Michigan. The trial uses an incomplete randomized block design, randomizing physicians to see patients who are either black or white and who are "typical" or "activated" (e.g., ask questions, express opinions, ask for clarification, etc.). The study will enroll 91 physicians. The SBI study addresses important gaps in our knowledge about racial disparities and methods to reduce them in patients with advanced cancer by using standardized patient methodology. This study is innovative in aims, design, and methodology and will point the way to interventions that can reduce racial disparities and discrimination and draw links between implicit attitudes and physician behaviors. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ , #NCT01501006, November 30, 2011.

  3. NP001 regulation of macrophage activation markers in ALS: A phase I clinical and biomarker study

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, ROBERT G.; ZHANG, RONGZHEN; BLOCK, GILBERT; KATZ, JONATHAN; BAROHN, RICHARD; KASARSKIS, EDWARD; FORSHEW, DALLAS; GOPALAKRISHNAN, VIDHYA; MCGRATH, MICHAEL S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a phase I, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose safety and tolerability study of NP001 in patients with ALS. NP001 is a novel regulator of inflammatory macrophages and monocytes. As ALS progression is thought to be related to neuroinflammation, an additional objective of the study was to assess the effects of NP001 administration on monocyte activation markers. Thirty-two ALS patients were enrolled and received either placebo (eight) or one of four (six at each dose) ascending single i.v. doses (0.2, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mg/kg NP001). Patients were monitored for safety, and blood monocyte immune activation markers CD16 and HLA-DR were assessed pre- and 24 h post-dosing. Changes from baseline were calculated. Results showed that NP001 was generally safe and well tolerated. Importantly, a single dose of NP001 caused a dose-dependent reduction in expression of monocyte CD16, a marker of monocyte activation/inflammation. Additionally, monocyte HLA-DR expression was also decreased in those patients with elevated values at baseline. In conclusion, these data indicate that NP001 has an acute effect on inflammatory monocytes in ALS patient blood. The potential for modulation of inflammation in the context of ALS disease progression will require further study with long-term follow-up. PMID:25192333

  4. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. Methods/Design The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Discussion Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks. PMID:24475944

  5. The SMILE study: a study of medical information and lifestyles in Eindhoven, the rationale and contents of a large prospective dynamic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van den Akker, Marjan; Spigt, Mark G; De Raeve, Lore; van Steenkiste, Ben; Metsemakers, Job FM; van Voorst, Ernst J; de Vries, Hein

    2008-01-01

    Background Health problems, health behavior, and the consequences of bad health are often intertwined. There is a growing need among physicians, researchers and policy makers to obtain a comprehensive insight into the mutual influences of different health related, institutional and environmental concepts and their collective developmental processes over time. Methods/Design SMILE is a large prospective cohort study, focusing on a broad range of aspects of disease, health and lifestyles of people living in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. This study is unique in its kind, because two data collection strategies are combined: first data on morbidity, mortality, medication prescriptions, and use of care facilities are continuously registered using electronic medical records in nine primary health care centers. Data are extracted regularly on an anonymous basis. Secondly, information about lifestyles and the determinants of (ill) health, sociodemographic, psychological and sociological characteristics and consequences of chronic disease are gathered on a regular basis by means of extensive patient questionnaires. The target population consisted of over 30,000 patients aged 12 years and older enrolled in the participating primary health care centers. Discussion Despite our relatively low response rates, we trust that, because of the longitudinal character of the study and the high absolute number of participants, our database contains a valuable set of information. SMILE is a longitudinal cohort with a long follow-up period (15 years). The long follow-up and the unique combination of the two data collection strategies will enable us to disentangle causal relationships. Furthermore, patient-reported characteristics can be related to self-reported health, as well as to more validated physician registered morbidity. Finally, this population can be used as a sampling frame for intervention studies. Sampling can either be based on the presence of certain diseases, or on specific

  6. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses.

    PubMed

    Pijpe, Anouk; Slottje, Pauline; van Pelt, Cres; Stehmann, Floor; Kromhout, Hans; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Rookus, Matti A

    2014-01-29

    Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks.

  7. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology(1.).

    PubMed

    Robarts, Daniel W H; Wolfe, Andrea D

    2014-07-01

    In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use, highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  8. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology1

    PubMed Central

    Robarts, Daniel W. H.; Wolfe, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use, highly variable marker with inherent biological significance. PMID:25202637

  9. [Paternity study in Chilean families using DNA fingerprints and erythrocyte blood markers].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, R; Blanco, R; Cifuentes, L; Chiffelle, I; Armanet, L; Vargas, J; Jara, L

    1992-10-01

    In the last decade, the electromorphic phenotype corresponding to extremely polymorphic zones of DNA, that include variable number of tandem repeat loci (VNTR) of oligonucleotide sequences, have been added to classical markers to elucidate the problems of parenthood identification and ascription in human beings. Using VNTR of several loci, a band profile practically unique for each individual is obtained (DNA-fingerprints). Since the pattern of VNTR electrophoretic bands is inherited from parents in a proportion of 50% from each one, this system is extremely useful for paternity ascription or exclusion. Nine nuclear families were studied, randomly selected from a group of 170 families that were analyzed using 5 erythrocyte genetic markers and with VNTRs detected using the multi locus probe (CAC)5, aiming to explore the concordance of both methods. Results were similar for both methods; however for VNTR, there is no information available on population frequency of polymorphisms.

  10. Vascular Cognitive Impairment in a Memory Clinic Population: Rationale and Design of the "Utrecht-Amsterdam Clinical Features and Prognosis in Vascular Cognitive Impairment" (TRACE-VCI) Study.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Jooske Marije Funke; Exalto, Lieza Geertje; Barkhof, Frederik; van den Berg, Esther; de Bresser, Jeroen; Heinen, Rutger; Koek, Huiberdina Lena; Prins, Niels Daniël; Scheltens, Philip; Weinstein, Henry Chanoch; van der Flier, Wiesje Maria; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2017-04-19

    Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) refers to cognitive dysfunction due to vascular brain injury, as a single cause or in combination with other, often neurodegenerative, etiologies. VCI is a broad construct that captures a heterogeneous patient population both in terms of cognitive and noncognitive symptoms and in terms of etiology and prognosis. This provides a challenge when applying this construct in clinical practice. This paper presents the rationale and design of the TRACE-VCI study, which investigates the clinical features and prognosis of VCI in a memory clinic setting. The TRACE-VCI project is an observational, prospective cohort study of 861 consecutive memory clinic patients with possible VCI. Between 2009 and 2013, patients were recruited through the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort of the VU University Medical Centre (VUMC) (N=665) and the outpatient memory clinic and VCI cohort of the University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU) (N=196). We included all patients attending the clinics with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of vascular brain injury. Patients with a primary etiology other than vascular brain injury or neurodegeneration were excluded. Patients underwent an extensive 1-day memory clinic evaluation including an interview, physical and neurological examination, assessment of biomarkers (including those for Alzheimer-type pathologies), extensive neuropsychological testing, and an MRI scan of the brain. For prognostic analyses, the composite primary outcome measure was defined as accelerated cognitive decline (change of clinical dementia rating ≥1 or institutionalization) or (recurrent) major vascular events or death over the course of 2 years. The mean age at baseline was 67.7 (SD 8.5) years and 46.3% of patients (399/861) were female. At baseline, the median Clinical Dementia Rating was 0.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.5-1.0) and the median Mini-Mental State Examination score was 25 (IQR 22-28). The clinical diagnosis at baseline was

  11. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the U.S. Space Program has renewed interest in space resource issues. The Lunar Prospector mission conducted in NASA's Discovery Program has yielded interesting new insights into lunar resource issues, particularly the possibility that water is concentrated in cold traps at the lunar poles. This finding has not yet triggered a new program of lunar exploration or development, however it opens the possibility that new Discovery Missions might be viable. Several asteroid missions are underway or under development and a mission to return samples from the Mars satellite, Phobos, is being developed. These exploration missions are oriented toward scientific analysis, not resource development and utilization, but can provide additional insight into the possibilities for mining asteroids. The Mars Surveyor program now includes experiments on the 2001 lander that are directly applicable to developing propellants from the atmosphere of Mars, and the program has solicited proposals for the 2003/2005 missions in the area of resource utilization. These are aimed at the eventual human exploration of Mars. The beginning of construction of the International Space Station has awakened interest in follow-on programs of human exploration, and NASA is once more studying the human exploration of Moon, Mars and asteroids. Resource utilization will be included as objectives by some of these human exploration programs. At the same time, research and technology development programs in NASA such as the Microgravity Materials Science Program and the Cross-Enterprise Technology Development Program are including resource utilization as a valid area for study. Several major development areas that could utilize space resources, such as space tourism and solar power satellite programs, are actively under study. NASA's interests in space resource development largely are associated with NASA missions rather than the economic development of resources for industrial processes. That

  12. Interpersonal discrimination and markers of adiposity in longitudinal studies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, C de O; Bastos, J L; González-Chica, D A; Peres, M A; Paradies, Y C

    2017-09-01

    While the impact of interpersonal discrimination on mental health is well established, its effects on physical health outcomes have not been fully elucidated. This study systematically reviewed the literature on the prospective association between interpersonal discrimination and markers of adiposity. Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar, Capes/Brazil and ProQuest databases were used to retrieve relevant information in November 2016. The results from the 10 studies that met the inclusion criteria support an association between interpersonal self-reported discrimination and the outcomes. In general, the most consistent findings were for weight and body mass index (BMI) among women, i.e. high levels of self-reported discrimination were related to increased weight and BMI. Waist circumference (WC) showed a similar pattern of association with discrimination, in a positive direction, but an inverted U-shaped association was also found. Despite a few inverse associations between discrimination and markers of adiposity, none of the associations were statistically significant. Overall, markers of adiposity were consistently associated with discrimination, mainly through direct and nonlinear associations. This review provides evidence that self-reported discrimination can play an important role in weight, BMI and WC changes. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Molecular markers for establishing distinctness in vegetatively propagated crops: a case study in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Javier; Vélez, M Dolores; de Andrés, M Teresa; Borrego, Joaquín

    2009-11-01

    Distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) testing of varieties is usually required to apply for Plant Breeders' Rights. This exam is currently carried out using morphological traits, where the establishment of distinctness through a minimum distance is the key issue. In this study, the possibility of using microsatellite markers for establishing the minimum distance in a vegetatively propagated crop (grapevine) has been evaluated. A collection of 991 accessions have been studied with nine microsatellite markers and pair-wise compared, and the highest intra-variety distance and the lowest inter-variety distance determined. The collection included 489 different genotypes, and synonyms and sports. Average values for number of alleles per locus (19), Polymorphic Information Content (0.764) and heterozygosities observed (0.773) and expected (0.785) indicated the high level of polymorphism existing in grapevine. The maximum intra-variety variability found was one allele between two accessions of the same variety, of a total of 3,171 pair-wise comparisons. The minimum inter-variety variability found was two alleles between two pairs of varieties, of a total of 119,316 pair-wise comparisons. In base to these results, the minimum distance required to set distinctness in grapevine with the nine microsatellite markers used could be established in two alleles. General rules for the use of the system as a support for establishing distinctness in vegetatively propagated crops are discussed.

  14. Transferability of STS markers in studying genetic relationships of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum).

    PubMed

    Saxena, Raghvendra; Chandra, Amaresh

    2011-11-01

    Transferability of sequence-tagged-sites (STS) markers was assessed for genetic relationships study among accessions of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum Forsk.). In total, 17 STS primers of Stylosanthes origin were tested for their reactivity with thirty accessions of Dichanthium annulatum. Of these, 14 (82.4%) reacted and a total 106 (84 polymorphic) bands were scored. The number of bands generated by individual primer pairs ranged from 4 to 11 with an average of 7.57 bands, whereas polymorphic bands ranged from 4 to 9 with an average of 6.0 bands accounts to an average polymorphism of 80.1%. Polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.222 to 0.499 and marker index (MI) from 1.33 to 4.49. Utilizing Dice coefficient of genetic similarity dendrogram was generated through un-weighted pairgroup method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) algorithm. Further, clustering through sequential agglomerative hierarchical and nested (SAHN) method resulted three main clusters constituted all accessions except IGBANG-D-2. Though there was intermixing of few accessions of one agro-climatic region to another, largely groupings of accessions were with their regions of collections. Bootstrap analysis at 1000 scale also showed large number of nodes (11 to 17) having strong clustering (> 50). Thus, results demonstrate the utility of STS markers of Stylosanthes in studying the genetic relationships among accessions of Dichanthium.

  15. Validation of polyethylene glycol 3350 as a poorly absorbable marker for intestinal perfusion studies.

    PubMed

    Schiller, L R; Santa Ana, C A; Porter, J; Fordtran, J S

    1997-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used as a poorly absorbable marker in intestinal perfusion studies, but there is controversy about the absorbability of PEG, particularly when glucose-sodium cotransport is occurring. Total intestinal perfusion studies were done in five normal humans using three solutions containing 1 g/liter PEG 3350 and designed to produce low rates of water absorption, high rates of water absorption, or high rates of glucose-sodium cotransport. Water absorption rates were calculated by traditional nonabsorbable marker equations and by a novel balance technique in which absorption was taken as the difference between the volumes of solution infused and recovered during steady-state conditions. Effluent PEG recovery was 99 +/- 4%, 109 +/- 2%, and 104 +/- 6% of the amount infused with each solution. Water absorption rates measured by use of PEG concentrations were similar to those calculated by the balance technique (r = 0.99). The complete recovery of PEG confirms the poor absorbability of PEG 3350, and the excellent agreement between techniques validates PEG as a poorly absorbed marker, even when glucose-sodium cotransport is occurring.

  16. Effects of Providing a Rationale for Learning a Lesson on Students' Motivation and Learning in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tae Seob

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether providing a rationale for learning a particular lesson influences students' motivation and learning in online learning environments. A mixed-method design was used to investigate the effects of two types of rationales (former student vs. instructor rationales) presented in an online introductory educational psychology…

  17. Changes in markers of liver function in relation to changes in perfluoroalkyl substances - A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Salihovic, Samira; Stubleski, Jordan; Kärrman, Anna; Larsson, Anders; Fall, Tove; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica

    2018-08-01

    While it is known that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) induce liver toxicity in experimental studies, the evidence of an association in humans is inconsistent. The main aim of the present study was to examine the association of PFAS concentrations and markers of liver function using panel data. We investigated 1002 individuals from Sweden (50% women) at ages 70, 75 and 80 in 2001-2014. Eight PFASs were measured in plasma using isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Bilirubin and hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were determined in serum using an immunoassay methodology. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the changes in markers of liver function and changes in PFAS levels. The changes in majority of PFAS concentrations were positively associated with the changes in activity of ALT, ALP, and GGT and inversely associated with the changes in circulating bilirubin after adjustment for gender and the time-updated covariates LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides, BMI, statin use, smoking, fasting glucose levels and correction for multiple testing. For example, changes in perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were associated with the changes liver function markers β BILIRUBIN  = -1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.93 to -1.19, β ALT  = 0.04, 95% CI 0.03-0.06, and β ALP  = 0.11, 95% CI 0.06-0.15. Our longitudinal assessment established associations between changes in markers of liver function and changes in plasma PFAS concentrations. These findings suggest a relationship between low-dose background PFAS exposure and altered liver function in the general population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inflammatory Markers and Plasma Lipids in HIV Patients: A Correlation Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Muswe, Rudo; Oktedalen, Olav; Zhou, Danai T.; Zinyando, Enita; Shawarira-Bote, Sandra; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Siziba, Atipa; Gomo, Zvenyika A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that HIV infection, even with treatment, increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and that both chronic inflammation and traditional risk factors play key roles in HIV-associated CHD. Subjects and Methods: Patients (N=152), attending Harare HIV clinic, 26% of them male and 82% of them on antiretroviral therapy (ART), were studied. Inflammatory markers comprising of cytokines such as pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNF-α), anti-inflammatory interleukin 10, (IL-10) and highly sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) together with lipids were assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immuno-turbidimetric and enzymatic assays, respectively. Correlation analysis of inflammatory markers versus lipid profiles was carried out using bivariate regression analysis. Results: Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and inflammatory hsCRP levels were elevated when measured in all the HIV positive patients, while TNF-α and lipid levels were within normal ranges. Pro-inflammatory TNF-α was significantly higher in ART-naive patients than ART-experienced patients, whereas the reverse was observed for anti-inflammatory IL-10 and anti-atherogenic HDL-C. Correlation analysis indicated a significant positive linear association between IL-10 and total cholesterol (TC) levels but no other correlations were found. Conclusion: High cytokine ratio (TNF-α/IL-10) indicates higher CHD risk in ART-naive patients compared to the ART-exposed. The CHD risk could be further strengthened by interplay between inflammatory markers and high prevalence of low HDL-C. Lack of correlation between pro-inflammatory markers (hsCRP and TNF-α) with lipid fractions and correlation between anti-inflammatory IL-10 with artherogenic TC were unexpected findings, necessitating further studies in future. PMID:29387269

  19. Rationale and design of the Karolinska-Rennes (KaRen) prospective study of dyssynchrony in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Donal, Erwan; Lund, Lars H; Linde, Cecilia; Edner, Magnus; Lafitte, Stéphane; Persson, Hans; Bauer, Fabrice; Ohrvik, John; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Hage, Camilla; Löfman, Ida; Juilliere, Yves; Logeart, Damien; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Gueret, Pascal; Daubert, Jean-Claude

    2009-02-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is common but not well understood. Electrical dyssynchrony in systolic heart failure is harmful. Little is known about the prevalence and the prognostic impact of dyssynchrony in HFPEF. We have designed a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study to characterize HFPEF and to determine whether electrical or mechanical dyssynchrony affects prognosis. Patients presenting with acute heart failure (HF) will be screened so as to identify 400 patients with HFPEF. Inclusion criteria will be: acute presentation with Framingham criteria for HF, left ventricular ejection fraction>or=45%, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)>100 pg/mL or NT-proBNP>300 pg/mL. Once stabilized, 4-8 weeks after the index presentation, patients will return and undergo questionnaires, serology, ECG, and Doppler echocardiography. Thereafter, patients will be followed for mortality and HF hospitalization every 6 months for at least 18 months. Sub-studies will focus on echocardiographic changes from the acute presentation to the stable condition and on exercise echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and serological markers. KaRen aims to characterize electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony and to assess its prognostic impact in HFPEF. The results might improve our understanding of HFPEF and generate answers to the question whether dyssynchrony could be a target for therapy in HFPEF.

  20. Investigation of Prognostic Ability of Novel Imaging Markers for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    testing None of the above Psychological / Sociological ID: VIEW4514342955C00Name: Type of Research View: Lay Summary 1 * Provide a summary of the...best describe the current clinical status of the patient and which markers best predict a patient’s outcome status. ID: VIEW475E142D4E000Name: Lay ... Summary View: Justification, Objective, & Research Design 1 * Provide context, justification, and scientific/scholarly rationale for the study: Currently

  1. Transferability of molecular markers from major legumes to Lathyrus spp. for their application in mapping and diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nuno Felipe; Trindade Leitão, Susana; Caminero, Constantino; Torres, Ana Maria; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2014-01-01

    Lathyrus cicera L. (chickling pea) and L. sativus L. (grass pea) have great potential among grain legumes due to their adaptability to inauspicious environments, high protein content and resistance to serious diseases. Nevertheless, due to its past underused, further activities are required to exploit this potential and to capitalise on the advances in molecular biology that enable improved Lathyrus spp. breeding programmes. In this study we evaluated the transferability of molecular markers developed for closely related legume species to Lathyrus spp. (Medicago truncatula, pea, lentil, faba bean and lupin) and tested the application of those new molecular tools on Lathyrus mapping and diversity studies. Genomic and expressed sequence tag microsatellite, intron-targeted amplified polymorphic, resistance gene analogue and defence-related gene markers were tested. In total 128 (27.7 %) and 132 (28.6 %) molecular markers were successfully cross-amplified, respectively in L. cicera and L. sativus. In total, the efficiency of transferability from genomic microsatellites was 5 %, and from gene-based markers, 55 %. For L. cicera, three cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and one derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker based on the cross-amplified markers were also developed. Nine of those molecular markers were suitable for mapping in a L. cicera recombinant inbred line population. From the 17 molecular markers tested for diversity analysis, six (35 %) in L. cicera and seven (41 %) in L. sativus were polymorphic and discriminate well all the L. sativus accessions. Additionally, L. cicera accessions were clearly distinguished from L. sativus accessions. This work revealed a high number of transferable molecular markers to be used in current genomic studies in Lathyrus spp. Although their usefulness was higher on diversity studies, they represent the first steps for future comparative mapping involving these species.

  2. Genetic diversity studies and identification of SSR markers associated with Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum) resistance in cultivated pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan).

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Rai, V P; Chand, R; Singh, R P; Singh, M N

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity and identification of simple sequence repeat markers correlated with Fusarium wilt resistance was performed in a set of 36 elite cultivated pigeonpea genotypes differing in levels of resistance to Fusarium wilt. Twenty-four polymorphic sequence repeat markers were screened across these genotypes, and amplified a total of 59 alleles with an average high polymorphic information content value of 0.52. Cluster analysis, done by UPGMA and PCA, grouped the 36 pigeonpea genotypes into two main clusters according to their Fusarium wilt reaction. Based on the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and simple regression analysis, six simple sequence repeat markers were found to be significantly associated with Fusarium wilt resistance. The phenotypic variation explained by these markers ranged from 23.7 to 56.4%. The present study helps in finding out feasibility of prescreened SSR markers to be used in genetic diversity analysis and their potential association with disease resistance.

  3. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Ömer; Çubukçuoğlu, Zeynep; Erdin, Soner; Taş, Cumhur; Onur, Ece; Berk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502); household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501); participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414); hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567), superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667), and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450); and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597). There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  4. Cluster-randomised controlled trials of individual and combined water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: the WASH Benefits study design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Null, Clair; Luby, Stephen P; Unicomb, Leanne; Stewart, Christine P; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Sania; Christensen, Garret; Clasen, Thomas; Dentz, Holly N; Fernald, Lia C H; Haque, Rashidul; Hubbard, Alan E; Kariger, Patricia; Leontsini, Elli; Lin, Audrie; Njenga, Sammy M; Pickering, Amy J; Ram, Pavani K; Tofail, Fahmida; Winch, Peter J; Colford, John M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Enteric infections are common during the first years of life in low-income countries and contribute to growth faltering with long-term impairment of health and development. Water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional interventions can independently reduce enteric infections and growth faltering. There is little evidence that directly compares the effects of these individual and combined interventions on diarrhoea and growth when delivered to infants and young children. The objective of the WASH Benefits study is to help fill this knowledge gap. Methods and analysis WASH Benefits includes two cluster-randomised trials to assess improvements in water quality, sanitation, handwashing and child nutrition—alone and in combination—to rural households with pregnant women in Kenya and Bangladesh. Geographically matched clusters (groups of household compounds in Bangladesh and villages in Kenya) will be randomised to one of six intervention arms or control. Intervention arms include water quality, sanitation, handwashing, nutrition, combined water+sanitation+handwashing (WSH) and WSH+nutrition. The studies will enrol newborn children (N=5760 in Bangladesh and N=8000 in Kenya) and measure outcomes at 12 and 24 months after intervention delivery. Primary outcomes include child length-for-age Z-scores and caregiver-reported diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes include stunting prevalence, markers of environmental enteropathy and child development scores (verbal, motor and personal/social). We will estimate unadjusted and adjusted intention-to-treat effects using semiparametric estimators and permutation tests. Ethics and dissemination Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by human subjects review boards at the University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, the Kenya Medical Research Institute, and Innovations for Poverty Action. Independent data safety monitoring

  5. Personalized Risk Estimator for Rheumatoid Arthritis (PRE-RA) Family Study: Rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial evaluating rheumatoid arthritis risk education to first-degree relatives

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Jeffrey A.; Iversen, Maura D.; Kroouze, Rachel Miller; Mahmoud, Taysir G.; Triedman, Nellie A.; Kalia, Sarah S.; Atkinson, Michael L.; Lu, Bing; Deane, Kevin D.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Green, Robert C.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the rationale, design features, and protocol of the Personalized Risk Estimator for Rheumatoid Arthritis (PRE-RA) Family Study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02046005). The PRE-RA Family Study is an NIH-funded prospective, randomized controlled trial designed to compare the willingness to change behaviors in first-degree relatives of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients without RA after exposure to RA risk educational programs. Consented subjects are randomized to receive education concerning their personalized RA risk based on demographics, RA-associated behaviors, genetics and biomarkers or to receive standard RA information. Four behavioral factors associated with RA risk were identified from prior studies for inclusion in the risk estimate: cigarette smoking, excess body weight, poor oral health, and low fish intake. Personalized RA risk information is presented through an online tool that collects data on an individual's specific age, gender, family history, and risk-related behaviors; presents genetic and biomarker results; displays relative and absolute risk of RA; and provides personalized feedback and education. The trial outcomes will be changes in willingness to alter behaviors from baseline to 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months in the three intervention groups. The design and execution of this trial that targets a special population at risk for RA, while incorporating varied risk factors into a single risk tool, offer distinct challenges. We provide the theoretical rationale for the PRE-RA Family Study and highlight particular design features of this trial that utilize personalized risk education as an intervention. PMID:25151341

  6. Rationale and Roadmap for Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; ILEWG Team

    We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration. This starts with areas of scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The rationale includes also the advancement of instrumentation: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. There are technologies in robotic and human exploration that are a drive for the creativity and economical competitivity of our industries: Mecha-electronics-sensors; Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots, Complex systems, Man-Machine interface and performances. Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development: In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. We also report on the IAA Cosmic Study on Next Steps In Exploring Deep Space, and ongoing IAA Cosmic Studies, ILEWG/IMEWG ongoing activities, and we finally discuss possible roadmaps for robotic and human exploration, starting with the Moon-Mars missions for the coming decade, and building effectively on joint technology developments.

  7. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3 alpha: a high-resolution marker for genetic diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Surendra Kumar; Joshi, Hema; Valecha, Neena

    2010-06-01

    Malaria, an ancient human infectious disease caused by five species of Plasmodium, among them Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria species and causes huge morbidity to its host. Identification of genetic marker to resolve higher genetic diversity for an ancient origin organism is a crucial task. We have analyzed genetic diversity of P. vivax field isolates using highly polymorphic antigen gene merozoite surface protein-3 alpha (msp-3 alpha) and assessed its suitability as high-resolution genetic marker for population genetic studies. 27 P. vivax field isolates collected during chloroquine therapeutic efficacy study at Chennai were analyzed for genetic diversity. PCR-RFLP was employed to assess the genetic variations using highly polymorphic antigen gene msp-3 alpha. We observed three distinct PCR alleles at msp-3 alpha, and among them allele A showed significantly high frequency (53%, chi2 = 8.22, p = 0.001). PCR-RFLP analysis revealed 14 and 17 distinct RFLP patterns for Hha1 and Alu1 enzymes respectively. Further, RFLP analysis revealed that allele A at msp-3 alpha is more diverse in the population compared with allele B and C. Combining Hha1 and Alu1 RFLP patterns revealed 21 distinct genotypes among 22 isolates reflects higher diversity resolution power of msp-3 alpha in the field isolates. P. vivax isolates from Chennai region revealed substantial amount of genetic diversity and comparison of allelic diversity with other antigen genes and microsatellites suggesting that msp-3 alpha could be a high-resolution marker for genetic diversity studies among P. vivax field isolates.

  8. Relationships between Causes of Fever of Unknown Origin and Inflammatory Markers: A Multicenter Collaborative Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Naito, Toshio; Torikai, Keito; Mizooka, Masafumi; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Kanazawa, Kenji; Ohno, Shiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Ukimura, Akira; Mishima, Nobuhiko; Otsuka, Fumio; Ohyama, Yoshio; Nara, Noriko; Murakami, Kazunari; Mashiba, Kouichi; Akazawa, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Koji; Tanei, Mika; Yamanouchi, Masashi; Senda, Shoichi; Tazuma, Susumu; Hayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although inflammatory markers, such as the white blood cell (WBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin, are widely used to differentiate causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO), little is known about the usefulness of this approach. We evaluated relationships between the causes of classical FUO and the levels of inflammatory markers. A nationwide retrospective study including 17 hospitals affiliated with the Japanese Society of Hospital General Medicine was conducted. This study included 121 patients ≥18 years old diagnosed with "classical FUO" (axillary temperature ≥38.0°C at least twice over a ≥3-week period without elucidation of the cause on three outpatient visits or during three days of hospitalization) between January and December 2011. The causative disease was infectious diseases in 28 patients (23.1%), non-infectious inflammatory disease (NIID) in 37 patients (30.6%), malignancy in 13 patients (10.7%), other in 15 patients (12.4%) and unknown in 28 patients (23.1%). The rate of malignancy was significantly higher for a WBC count of <4,000/μL than for a WBC count of 4,000-8,000/μL (p=0.015). Among the patients with a higher WBC count, the rate of FUO due to NIID tended to be higher and the number of unknown cases tended to be lower. All FUO patients with malignancy showed an ESR of >40 mm/h. A normal ESR appeared to constitute powerful evidence for excluding a diagnosis of malignancy. In contrast, the concentrations of both serum CRP and procalcitonin appeared to be unrelated to the causative disease. The present study identified inflammatory markers that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of classical FUO, providing useful information for future diagnosis.

  9. Association between carbohydrate quality and inflammatory markers: systematic review of observational and interventional studies.

    PubMed

    Buyken, Anette E; Goletzke, Janina; Joslowski, Gesa; Felbick, Anna; Cheng, Guo; Herder, Christian; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2014-04-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a likely intermediary between quality of carbohydrate and chronic disease risk. We conducted a systematic literature search to evaluate the relevance of carbohydrate quality on inflammatory markers in observational and intervention studies. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies on associations between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), dietary fiber or fiber supplements or whole grain intake, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or interleukin 6 (IL-6). Included studies had to be conducted on adults (healthy, overweight, with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome features, but without inflammatory disease) with ≥20 participants and a 3-wk duration. In total, 22 of the 60 studies that met our inclusion criteria examined GI/GL: 5 of 9 observational studies reported lower concentrations of hsCRP or IL-6 among persons with a lower dietary GI/GL; 3 of 13 intervention studies showed significant antiinflammatory effects of a low-GI/GL diet, and 4 further studies suggested beneficial effects (trends or effects in a subgroup). For fiber intake, 13 of 16 observational studies reported an inverse relation with hsCRP or IL-6, but only 1 of 11 intervention studies showed a significant antiinflammatory effect of fiber intake, and a further trial reported a beneficial trend. For whole-grain intake, 6 of 7 observational studies observed an inverse association with inflammatory markers, but only 1 of 7 intervention studies reported significant antiinflammatory effects, 1 further study was suggestive (in a subgroup) of such, and another study found an adverse effect (trend only). Evidence from intervention studies for antiinflammatory benefits is less consistent for higher-fiber or whole-grain diets than for low-GI/GL diets. Benefits of higher fiber and whole-grain intakes suggested by observational studies may reflect confounding.

  10. Tensiomyographic Markers Are Not Sensitive for Monitoring Muscle Fatigue in Elite Youth Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; de Paula Simola, Rauno Alvaro; Schneider, Christoph; Döweling, Alexander; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Tensiomyography (TMG) is an indirect measure of a muscle's contractile properties and has the potential as a technique for detecting exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of tensiomyographic markers to identify reduced muscular performance in elite youth athletes. Methods: Fourteen male junior tennis players (age: 14.9 ± 1.2 years) with an international (International Tennis Federation) ranking position participated in this pre-post single group trial. They completed a 4-day high-intensity interval training (HIT) microcycle, which was composed of seven training sessions. TMG markers; countermovement jump (CMJ) performance (criterion measure of fatigue); delayed onset muscle soreness; and perceived recovery and stress were measured 24 h before and after the training program. The TMG measures included maximal radial deformation of the rectus femoris muscle belly (Dm), contraction time between 10 and 90% Dm (Tc) and the rate of deformation until 10% (V10) and 90% Dm (V90), respectively. Diagnostic characteristics were assessed with a receiver-operating curve (ROC) analysis and a contingency table, in which the area under the curve (AUC), Youden's index, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic effectiveness (DE) of TMG measures were reported. A minimum AUC of 0.70 and a lower confidence interval (CI) >0.50 classified "good" diagnostic markers to assess performance changes. Results: Twenty-four hours after the microcycle, CMJ performance was observed to be significantly ( p < 0.001) reduced (Effect Size [ES] = -0.68), and DOMS (ES = 3.62) as well as perceived stress were significantly ( p < 0.001) increased. In contrast, Dm (ES = -0.35), Tc (ES = 0.04), V10 (ES = -0.32), and V90 (ES = -0.33) remained unchanged ( p > 0.05) throughout the study. ROC analysis and the data derived from the contingency table revealed that none of the tensiomyographic markers were effective diagnostic tools

  11. Tensiomyographic Markers Are Not Sensitive for Monitoring Muscle Fatigue in Elite Youth Athletes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; de Paula Simola, Rauno Alvaro; Schneider, Christoph; Döweling, Alexander; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Tensiomyography (TMG) is an indirect measure of a muscle's contractile properties and has the potential as a technique for detecting exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of tensiomyographic markers to identify reduced muscular performance in elite youth athletes. Methods: Fourteen male junior tennis players (age: 14.9 ± 1.2 years) with an international (International Tennis Federation) ranking position participated in this pre-post single group trial. They completed a 4-day high-intensity interval training (HIT) microcycle, which was composed of seven training sessions. TMG markers; countermovement jump (CMJ) performance (criterion measure of fatigue); delayed onset muscle soreness; and perceived recovery and stress were measured 24 h before and after the training program. The TMG measures included maximal radial deformation of the rectus femoris muscle belly (Dm), contraction time between 10 and 90% Dm (Tc) and the rate of deformation until 10% (V10) and 90% Dm (V90), respectively. Diagnostic characteristics were assessed with a receiver-operating curve (ROC) analysis and a contingency table, in which the area under the curve (AUC), Youden's index, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic effectiveness (DE) of TMG measures were reported. A minimum AUC of 0.70 and a lower confidence interval (CI) >0.50 classified “good” diagnostic markers to assess performance changes. Results: Twenty-four hours after the microcycle, CMJ performance was observed to be significantly (p < 0.001) reduced (Effect Size [ES] = −0.68), and DOMS (ES = 3.62) as well as perceived stress were significantly (p < 0.001) increased. In contrast, Dm (ES = −0.35), Tc (ES = 0.04), V10 (ES = −0.32), and V90 (ES = −0.33) remained unchanged (p > 0.05) throughout the study. ROC analysis and the data derived from the contingency table revealed that none of the tensiomyographic markers were effective diagnostic

  12. Social mobility and inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Na-Ek, Nat; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-03-01

    Since our knowledge of the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course and inflammatory and metabolic markers, which are excellent predictors of cardiovascular disease, remains limited, we examined the association between social mobility over the life course and these markers at older ages. Our study used cross-sectionally collected data from 6142 participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We estimated linear and logistic models of the associations between social mobility, using information on childhood and adult SEP, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Our models were gradually adjusted for age, sex, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status and depressive symptoms. Participants who experienced upward social mobility had higher CRP, fibrinogen and HbA1c levels compared with those who had stable high SEP over the life course, but lower compared with those who experienced downward social mobility or had stable low SEP. They also had lower HDL levels compared with those who had stable high SEP or downwardly mobile. Adjustment for covariates partially explained the associations between social mobility and CRP and HDL, and fully explained those between social mobility and fibrinogen and HbA1c. Social mobility is associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages with some of the observed associations persisting after accounting for covariates. Upward social mobility appears to partially reverse the damaging effect of childhood social disadvantage on inflammatory profiles in older ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed.

  14. Endothelial markers are associated with pancreatic necrosis and overall prognosis in acute pancreatitis: A preliminary cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yizhe; Ke, Lu; Meng, Lei; Yang, Qi; Tong, Zhihui; Pan, Yiyuan; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    Endothelial injury is believed to play an important role in the evolution of pancreatic microcirculatory dysfunction and pancreatic necrosis (PN) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of three endothelial markers (von Willebrand factor, vWF; E-selectin; endothelial protein C receptor, EPCR) in the early phase of AP, especially the relationship between endothelial markers and PN. From March 2015 to March 2016, 57 AP patients admitted within 72 h of symptom onset in our hospital were included for this study. Blood samples were taken on admission and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of these patients were recorded. The levels of vWF, E-selectin and EPCR were measured using ELISA for analysis and compared with other severity markers of AP. All the three markers were significantly different in healthy control, mild, moderate and severe AP patients. Moreover, the endothelial markers, especially vWF, also showed significant difference in patients with different extent of PN, as well as those with or without MODS. Additionally, the levels of endothelial markers correlated well with other commonly used markers of AP severity. Elevated endothelium-related mediators (vWF, E-selectin and EPCR) appear to participate in the development of PN and may be a potential indicator of overall prognosis. Our results may help clinicians better understand the pathophysiological process of the development of PN. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  16. Effect of A Reduction in glomerular filtration rate after NEphrectomy on arterial STiffness and central hemodynamics: rationale and design of the EARNEST study.

    PubMed

    Moody, William E; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Ferro, Charles J; Steeds, Richard P; Mark, Patrick B; Zehnder, Daniel; Tomson, Charles R; Cockcroft, John R; Wilkinson, Ian B; Townend, Jonathan N

    2014-02-01

    reduced GFR alongside more traditional cardiovascular risk factors is warranted. In addition, this study will contribute important safety data on living kidney donors by providing a longitudinal assessment of well-validated surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease, namely, blood pressure and arterial stiffness. If any adverse effects are detected, these may be potentially reversed with the early introduction of targeted therapy. This should ensure that kidney donors do not come to long-term harm and thereby preserve the ongoing expansion of the living donor transplant program (NCT01769924). © 2014.

  17. Public financing of IVF: a review of policy rationales.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Sorenson, Corinna

    2010-06-01

    There is great diversity in in vitro fertilization (IVF) funding and reimbursement policies and practice throughout Europe and the rest of the world. While many existing reimbursement and regulatory frameworks address safety and legal concerns, economic factors also assume a central role. However, there are several problems with the evidence that is available on the economics of IVF. This suggests there is a need for more robust cost-effectiveness studies. It also indicates the need for alternative rationales to justify the reimbursement of IVF, which might more fully account for the social, political, ethical, and philosophical considerations embedded in notions of infertility and technology-driven reproductive treatments. The merits and limitations of five alternative rationales are discussed. The review suggests that while no existing single rationale provides a complete framework with which to support funding decisions, taken together they provide guideposts which signal important issues for consideration and highlight where further research, action, and debate are needed.

  18. Association between involuntary smoking and salivary markers related to periodontitis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Tanaka, Muneo; Kataoka, Kosuke; Kuboniwa, Masae; Nakayama, Kunio; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Shizukuishi, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    Insufficient data exist regarding the longitudinal influence of involuntary smoking on periodontitis progression. This study examined the relationship between involuntary smoking and periodontitis progression and the effects of involuntary smoking on salivary inflammatory and microbiologic markers related to periodontitis. Participants were recruited during annual health checkups in 2003 and 2005. In 2005, 200 of 273 (73%) Japanese employees examined at baseline underwent periodontal measurements, including clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing depth (PD). Periodontitis progression was identified when a subject displayed one or more teeth with an increase > or = 2.0 mm in CAL and PD during the 2 years. Salivary marker levels, including cotinine, were determined by enzyme assay, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proportions of six periodontal pathogens in saliva were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction methodology. Based on receiver-operating characteristic analysis, non-, involuntary, and active smokers were defined as subjects exhibiting salivary cotinine levels of 0, 1 to 7, and > or = 8 ng/ml, respectively. By simple logistic regression analysis, age, alcohol consumption, smoking, breakfast habits, and working hours were related to the risk for significant periodontitis progression. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher periodontitis odds ratios (OR) in involuntary (OR = 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 4.83) and active (OR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.02 to 5.04) smokers relative to non-smokers following adjustment for covariates. Levels of salivary markers, including albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactoferrin, were significantly elevated in involuntary smokers relative to non-smokers. In contrast, the percentages of periodontal pathogens did not differ between the smoking groups, with the exception of Prevotella nigrescens, which displayed significantly lower levels in involuntary

  19. Erectile dysfunction--an observable marker of diabetes mellitus? A large national epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peter; Cameron, Ann; Seftel, Allen; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Niederberger, Craig; Guay, Andre

    2006-09-01

    We examined whether men with erectile dysfunction are more likely to have diabetes mellitus than men without erectile dysfunction, and whether erectile dysfunction can be used as an observable early marker of diabetes mellitus. Using a nationally representative managed care claims database from 51 health plans and 28 million members in the United States, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare the prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus between men with erectile dysfunction (285,436) and men without erectile dysfunction (1,584,230) during 1995 to 2001. Logistic regression models were used to isolate the effect of erectile dysfunction on the likelihood of having diabetes mellitus with adjustment for age, region and 7 concurrent diseases. The diabetes mellitus prevalence rates were 20.0% in men with erectile dysfunction and 7.5% in men without erectile dysfunction. With adjustment for age, region and concurrent diseases, the odds ratio of having diabetes mellitus between men with erectile dysfunction and without erectile dysfunction was 1.60 (p <0.0001). With adjustment for regions and concurrent diseases, the age specific odds ratios ranged from 2.94 (p <0.0001, age 26 to 35) to 1.05 (p = 0.1717, age 76 to 85). Men with erectile dysfunction were more than twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus as men without erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is an observable marker of diabetes mellitus, strongly so for men 45 years old or younger and likely for men 46 to 65 years old, but it is not a marker for men older than 66 years.

  20. Rationale, Design and Methods of the Ecological Study of Sexual Behaviors and HIV/STI among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southeastern United States (The MARI Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, DeMarc A.; Truong, Nhan L.; Smith-Bankhead, Neena; Sturdevant, Nikendrick; Duncan, Dustin T.; Schnorr, Jordan; Gipson, June A.; Mena, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper describes the rationale, design, and methodology of the Ecological Study of Sexual Behaviors and HIV/STI among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in the Southeastern United States (U.S.; known locally simply as the MARI Study). Methods Participants are African American MSM aged 18 years and older residing in the deep South. Results Between 2013 and 2015, 800 African American MSM recruited from two study sites (Jackson, MS and Atlanta, GA) will undergo a 1.5-hour examination to obtain anthropometric and blood pressure measures as well as to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors are assessed by audio computer-assisted self-interview survey. Primary outcomes include sexual risk behaviors (e.g., condomless anal sex) and prevalent STIs (HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia). Conclusion The MARI Study will typify the HIV environmental 'riskscape' and provide empirical evidence into novel ecological correlates of HIV risk among African American MSM in the deep South, a population most heavily impacted by HIV. The study's anticipated findings will be of interest to a broad audience and lead to more informed prevention efforts, including effective policies and interventions, that achieve the goals of the updated 2020 U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy. PMID:26700018

  1. Molecular markers of carcinogenesis for risk stratification of individuals with colorectal polyps: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samir; Sun, Han; Yi, Sang; Storm, Joy; Xiao, Guanghua; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Zhang, Song; Ashfaq, Raheela; Rockey, Don C

    2014-10-01

    Risk stratification using number, size, and histology of colorectal adenomas is currently suboptimal for identifying patients at increased risk for future colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that molecular markers of carcinogenesis in adenomas, measured via immunohistochemistry, may help identify high-risk patients. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a retrospective, 1:1 matched case-control study (n = 216; 46% female) in which cases were patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous adenoma and controls were patients with adenoma but no colorectal cancer at baseline or within 5 years of follow-up. In phase I of analyses, we compared expression of molecular markers of carcinogenesis in case and control adenomas, blind to case status. In phase II of analyses, patients were randomly divided into independent training and validation groups to develop a model for predicting case status. We found that seven markers [p53, p21, Cox-2, β-catenin (BCAT), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNApkcs), survivin, and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)] were significantly associated with case status on unadjusted analyses, as well as analyses adjusted for age and advanced adenoma status (P < 0.01 for at least one marker component). When applied to the validation set, a predictive model using these seven markers showed substantial accuracy for identifying cases [area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC), 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.92]. A parsimonious model using three markers performed similarly to the seven-marker model (AUC, 0.84). In summary, we found that molecular markers of carcinogenesis distinguished adenomas from patients with and without colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we speculate that prospective studies using molecular markers to identify individuals with polyps at risk for future neoplasia are warranted. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Relationships among functional markers, management, and husbandry in sheep: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Petazzi, F; Rubino, G; Alloggio, I; Caroli, A; Pieragostini, E

    2009-12-01

    Most sheep farmers are aware of the importance of monitoring animal health and well-being for profitable sheep production. Unfortunately, there are only a few benchmarked functional measures of sheep well-being but much can be gained from our understanding of other species. Moreover, comprehensive monitoring programs may be complex and relatively expensive to implement. Hence, this work reports the results of a research study on the usefulness of functional markers in measuring dairy sheep well-being, taking into account farm management and environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 11 farms breeding Italian islander sheep breeds. The husbandry and management parameters of each farm were assessed and, based on the findings, the farms were scored in ascending quality order. Flock information concerned housing, milking system, pen size, grazing hours, health management, and stockmanship. Medical history, clinical data, the most relevant haematological, chemical and biochemical parameters, as well as the haemoglobin genotype were recorded for 415 individuals. The whole data-set was analyzed by Spearman correlation and multivariate statistical procedures, showing that albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase, haematocrit, and haemoglobin were the most significant functional markers of a flock's general conditions. Haematocrit and haemoglobin reflect animal health status, while albumin and serum alkaline phosphatase are a measure of nutritional status and physical activity, respectively. These are objective parameters, which can be easily measured from blood samples and have proved to be effective for grouping to interpret animal well-being.

  3. Oxidative Stress Markers Patients with Parotid Gland Tumors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Misiolek, Maciej; Pasinski, Bartlomiej; Soszynski, Miroslaw; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors account for 3–6% of tumors of the head and neck. About 80% of salivary gland tumors occur in parotid glands. Oxidative stress (OS) is implicated in the origin, development, and whole-body effects of various tumors. There are no data on the occurrence of OS in the parotid gland tumors. The aim of this study was to ascertain if whole-body OS accompanies parotid gland tumors, based first of all on oxidative modifications of blood serum proteins and other markers of OS in the serum of the patients. The group studied included 17 patients with pleomorphic adenoma, 9 patients with Warthin's tumor, 8 patients with acinic cell carcinoma, and 24 age-matched controls. We found increased concentration of interleukin 4 in patients with acinic cell carcinoma, decreased plasma thiols, increased AOPP concentration, and decreased FRAP of blood serum in all groups of the patients while protein oxidative modifications assessed fluorimetrically, protein carbonyls, protein nitration, malondialdehyde concentration, and serum ABTS⁎-scavenging capacity were unchanged. These data indicate the occurrence of OS in patients with parotid gland tumors and point to various sensitivities of OS markers. PMID:29651432

  4. Inflammatory markers and obstructive sleep apnea in obese children: the NANOS study.

    PubMed

    Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Peris, Eduard; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Martinez, Mónica Gonzalez; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are common coexisting conditions associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state underlying some of the cognitive, metabolic, and cardiovascular morbidities. To examine the levels of inflammatory markers in obese community-dwelling children with OSA, as compared to no-OSA, and their association with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Methods. In this cross-sectional, prospective multicenter study, healthy obese Spanish children (ages 4-15 years) were randomly selected and underwent nocturnal PSG followed by a morning fasting blood draw. Plasma samples were assayed for multiple inflammatory markers. 204 children were enrolled in the study; 75 had OSA, defined by an obstructive respiratory disturbance index (RDI) of 3 events/hour total sleep time (TST). BMI, gender, and age were similar in OSA and no-OSA children. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in OSA children, with interleukin-6 concentrations being higher in moderate-severe OSA (i.e., AHI > 5/hrTST; P < 0.01), while MCP-1 levels were associated with more prolonged nocturnal hypercapnia (P < 0.001). IL-6, MCP-1, and PAI-1 are altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children further reinforcing the proinflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01322763.

  5. Enriching Genomic Resources and Marker Development from Transcript Sequences of Jatropha curcas for Microgravity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wenlan; Paudel, Dev

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is an economically important species with a great potential for biodiesel production. To enrich the jatropha genomic databases and resources for microgravity studies, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome of jatropha and developed SSR and SNP markers from the transcriptome sequences. In total 1,714,433 raw reads with an average length of 441.2 nucleotides were generated. De novo assembling and clustering resulted in 115,611 uniquely assembled sequences (UASs) including 21,418 full-length cDNAs and 23,264 new jatropha transcript sequences. The whole set of UASs were fully annotated, out of which 59,903 (51.81%) were assigned with gene ontology (GO) term, 12,584 (10.88%) had orthologs in Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and 8,822 (7.63%) were mapped to 317 pathways in six different categories in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) database, and it contained 3,588 putative transcription factors. From the UASs, 9,798 SSRs were discovered with AG/CT as the most frequent (45.8%) SSR motif type. Further 38,693 SNPs were detected and 7,584 remained after filtering. This UAS set has enriched the current jatropha genomic databases and provided a large number of genetic markers, which can facilitate jatropha genetic improvement and many other genetic and biological studies. PMID:28154822

  6. Experimental Gingivitis Induces Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Young Healthy Individuals: A Single-Subject Interventional Study

    PubMed Central

    Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Background Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. Methods 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. Results The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, P<0.0001). This local inflammation was associated with a systemic increase in hsCRP (0.24 mg/L, P = 0.038), IL-6 (12.52 ng/L, P = 0.0002) and MCP-1 (9.10 ng/l, P = 0.124) in peripheral blood samples between baseline and day 21, which decreased at day 42. Monocytes showed an enhanced adherence to endothelial cells and increased foam cell formation after oxLDL uptake (P<0.050) at day 21 of gingivitis. Conclusions Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http

  7. Meeting a Moral Imperative: A Rationale for Teaching the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David H.

    2011-01-01

    A primary rationale for studying the Holocaust (Shoah) involves the opportunity to consider the moral implications that can be drawn from examining the event. Studying the Shoah forces students to consider what it means to be human and humane by examining the full continuum of individual behavior, from "ultimate evil" to "ultimate good". This…

  8. Comparisons between two biochemical markers in evaluating periodontal disease severity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare two biochemical markers, which have been previously used to determine the degrees of alveolar bone destruction, in evaluating periodontal disease severity. Methods The WF6 epitope of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples collected from patients with various degrees of disease severity, including ten patients with gingivitis (50 gingivitis sites) and 33 patients with chronic periodontitis (including gingivitis, slight, moderate, and severe periodontitis sites; n = 50 each), as well as from ten healthy volunteers (50 healthy sites) by Periopaper strips. The levels of CS and ALP were measured by an ELISA and a fluorometric assay, respectively. Results The results demonstrated low levels of CS and ALP in non-destructive and slightly destructive periodontitis sites, whereas significantly high levels of these two biomolecules were shown in moderately and severely destructive sites (p < 0.05). Although a significant difference in CS levels was found between moderate and severe periodontitis sites, no difference in ALP levels was found. Stronger correlations were found between CS levels and periodontal parameters, including probing depth, loss of clinical attachment levels, gingival index and plaque index, than between ALP levels and these parameters. Conclusions It is suggested that the CS level is a better diagnostic marker than the ALP level for evaluating distinct severity of chronic periodontitis. PMID:25174345

  9. M13-Tailed Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers in Studies of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Common Oat Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Onyśk, Agnieszka; Boczkowska, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers are one of the most frequently used molecular markers in studies of crop diversity and population structure. This is due to their uniform distribution in the genome, the high polymorphism, reproducibility, and codominant character. Additional advantages are the possibility of automatic analysis and simple interpretation of the results. The M13 tagged PCR reaction significantly reduces the costs of analysis by the automatic genetic analyzers. Here, we also disclose a short protocol of SSR data analysis.

  10. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 279.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.9 Objective rationale. (a) Statement of objectives... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment...

  11. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 279.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.9 Objective rationale. (a) Statement of objectives... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment...

  12. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 279.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.9 Objective rationale. (a) Statement of objectives... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment...

  13. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 279.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.9 Objective rationale. (a) Statement of objectives... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment...

  14. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 279.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.9 Objective rationale. (a) Statement of objectives... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment...

  15. Rationales for Challenged Books. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

    This CD-ROM presents a collection of over 200 rationales for over 170 works (mainly novels but a few films) for use by teachers combating censorship. Some rationales on the disc are from published sources; others are student papers. Although the materials in the collection range from kindergarten through grade 12, the emphasis is on the middle…

  16. Clinical Evaluation of Effects of Chronic Resveratrol Supplementation on Cerebrovascular Function, Cognition, Mood, Physical Function and General Well-Being in Postmenopausal Women-Rationale and Study Design.

    PubMed

    Evans, Hamish Michael; Howe, Peter Ranald Charles; Wong, Rachel Heloise Xiwen

    2016-03-09

    This methodological paper presents both a scientific rationale and a methodological approach for investigating the effects of resveratrol supplementation on mood and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, which may be at least partly due to loss of beneficial effects of estrogen on the cerebrovasculature. We hypothesise that resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, may counteract this risk by enhancing cerebrovascular function and improving regional blood flow in response to cognitive demands. A clinical trial was designed to test this hypothesis. Healthy postmenopausal women were recruited to participate in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled (parallel comparison) dietary intervention trial to evaluate the effects of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg twice daily) on cognition, cerebrovascular responsiveness to cognitive tasks and overall well-being. They performed the following tests at baseline and after 14 weeks of supplementation: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Cambridge Semantic Memory Battery, the Double Span and the Trail Making Task. Cerebrovascular function was assessed simultaneously by monitoring blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. This trial provides a model approach to demonstrate that, by optimising circulatory function in the brain, resveratrol and other vasoactive nutrients may enhance mood and cognition and ameliorate the risk of developing dementia in postmenopausal women and other at-risk populations.

  17. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E.) study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jennifer G; Martin, Rosemarie A; Stein, Lar; Lopes, Cheryl E; Mello, Jennifer; Friedmann, Peter; Bock, Beth

    2011-10-05

    Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. NCT01122589.

  18. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    PubMed

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P < 0.001, NSW) and 9.3 N (P = 0.002, WA) in AT 7 d aged M. longissimus lumborum compared with those with no favorable alleles. There was no evidence (all P > 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the

  19. Omega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula Simplício da; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da; Brito, Patricia Dias de; Cardoso, Claudia Santos de Aguiar; Almeida, Cristiane Fonseca de; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Sousa, Andrea Silvestre de

    2017-06-09

    Several studies have been focusing on the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on modulation of inflammatory markers in several cardiopathies. Although immunoregulatory dysfunction has been associated to the chronic cardiac involvement in Chagas disease, there is no study examining the effects of omega-3 supplementation in these patients. We investigated the effects of omega-3 PUFAs on markers of inflammation and lipid profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients. The present study was a single-center double-blind clinical trial including patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 PUFAs capsules (1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA) or placebo (corn oil) during an 8-week period. Cytokines, fasting glucose, lipid, and anthropometric profiles were evaluated. Forty-two patients (23 women and 19 men) were included in the study and there were only two losses to follow-up during the 8-week period. Most of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the groups at baseline, except for the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17α, and IFNγ. The omega-3 PUFAs group demonstrated greater improvements in serum triglycerides (-21.1 vs. -4.1; p = 0.05) and IL-10 levels (-10.6 vs. -35.7; p = 0.01) in comparison to controls after 8 weeks of intervention. No further differences were observed between groups. Omega-3 PUFAs supplementation may favorably affect lipid and inflammatory profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, demonstrated by a decrease in triglycerides and improvements on IL-10 concentration. Further studies examining the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy are necessary. NCT01863576.

  20. Enhancing field GP engagement in hospital-based studies. Rationale, design, main results and participation in the Diagest 3-GP motivation study.

    PubMed

    Berkhout, Christophe; Vandaele-Bétancourt, Marie; Robert, Stéphane; Lespinasse, Solène; Mitha, Gamil; Bradier, Quentin; Vambergue, Anne; Fontaine, Pierre

    2012-06-21

    Diagest 3 was a study aimed at lowering the risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years after childbirth. Women with gestational diabetes were enrolled in the study. After childbirth, the subjects showed little interest in the structured education programme and did not attend workshops. Their general practitioners (GPs) were approached to help motivate the subjects to participate in Diagest 3, but the GPs were reluctant. The present study aimed to understand field GPs' attitudes towards hospital-based studies, and to develop strategies to enhance their involvement and reduce subject drop-out rates. We used a three-step process: step one used a phenomenological approach exploring the beliefs, attitudes, motivations and environmental factors contributing to the GPs' level of interest in the study. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews and coded by hand and with hermeneutic software to develop distinct GP profiles. Step two was a cross-sectional survey by questionnaire to determine the distribution of the profiles in the GP study population and whether completion of an attached case report form (CRF) was associated with a particular GP profile. In step three, we assessed the impact of the motivation study on participation rates in the main study. Fifteen interviews were conducted to achieve data saturation. Theorisation led to the definition of 4 distinct GP profiles. The response rate to the questionnaire was 73%, but dropped to 52% when a CRF was attached. The link between GP profiles and the rate of CRF completion remains to be verified. The GPs provided data on the CRF that was of comparable quality to those collected in the main trial. Our analysis showed that the motivation study increased overall participation in the main study by 23%, accounting for 16% (24/152) of all final visits for 536 patients who were initially enrolled in the Diagest 3 study. When a hospital-led study explores issues in primary care, its design must anticipate GP

  1. Early markers of autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers prospectively identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attention and Communication Study involved the successful implementation of developmental surveillance of the early markers of autism spectrum disorders in a community-based setting. The objective in the current study was to determine the most discriminating and predictive markers of autism spectrum disorders used in the Social Attention and Communication Study at 12, 18 and 24 months of age, so that these could be used to identify children with autism spectrum disorders with greater accuracy. The percentage of 'yes/no' responses for each behavioural marker was compared between children with autistic disorder (n = 39), autism spectrum disorder (n = 50) and developmental and/or language delay (n = 20) from 12 to 24 months, with a logistic regression also conducted at 24 months. Across all ages, the recurring key markers of both autistic disorder and autism spectrum disorder were deficits in eye contact and pointing, and from 18 months, deficits in showing became an important marker. In combination, these behaviours, along with pretend play, were found to be the best group of predictors for a best estimate diagnostic classification of autistic disorder/autism spectrum disorder at 24 months. It is argued that the identified markers should be monitored repeatedly during the second year of life by community health-care professionals.

  2. The comparative pharmacokinetic study of Yuanhu Zhitong prescription based on five quality-markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbing; Wu, Xin; Xu, Jun; Gong, Suxiao; Han, Yanqi; Zhang, Tiejun; Liu, Changxiao

    2018-02-21

    According to the compatibility theory, therapeutic effects of Chinese medicine prescription are generally attributed to the synergism of multi-herbs. Quality-markers, as the crucial effective components, play a key role in the interaction of compatibility. Pharmacokinetic studies could illustrate the interaction between multiple components in dynamics perspective. This study aims to establish a rapid, reliable and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of corydaline, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, imperatorin and isoimperatorin (quality-markers of Yuanhu Zhitong prescription) in rat plasma, and then applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study for clearing the interaction of compatibility in Yuanhu Zhitong prescription. Five quality-markers were separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C 18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 µm) by gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid-water and 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile. Detection was performed in the positive ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mode. The analytical method was validated and successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Yuanhu Zhitong prescription and single-herb extracts. Calibration curves showed good linearity over the concentration ranges of 0.25-500 ng/ml for corydaline, tetrahydropalmatine and isoimperatorin, 0.1-200 ng/ml for protopine, and 0.5-500 ng/ml for imperatorin, respectively. Compared with Rhizoma corydalis group, AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞ significantly increased (p < 0.01 for corydaline and tetrahydropalmatine, and p < 0.05 for protopine) after oral administration of Yuanhu Zhitong prescription extract. Meanwhile, C max of corydaline and tetrahydropalmatine increased remarkably, from 93.00 µg/l to 196.35 µg/l for corydaline (p < 0.05) and 181.62 µg/l to 311.22 µg/l for tetrahydropalmatine (p < 0.01). In addition, MRT 0

  3. Attitudes towards Affirmative Action: Effects of Procedural Rationale and Candidates' Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Jeffrey A.; Fasolo, Peter M.

    This study examined whether individuals in higher education who are exposed to a hiring rationale based on a diversity value (minority group differences are valuable and should be relevant criteria for employment decisions in higher education) will rate affirmative action as fairer than those exposed to a compensation rationale (minority status is…

  4. Q-marker based strategy for CMC research of Chinese medicine: A case study of Panax Notoginseng saponins.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jieqiang; Yang, Zhenzhong; Shao, Qing; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2018-01-31

    To ensure pharmaceutical quality, chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) research is essential. However, due to the inherent complexity of Chinese medicine (CM), CMC study of CM remains a great challenge for academia, industry, and regulatory agencies. Recently, quality-marker (Q-marker) was proposed to establish quality standards or quality analysis approaches of Chinese medicine, which sheds a light on Chinese medicine's CMC study. Here manufacture processes of Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) is taken as a case study and the present work is to establish a Q-marker based research strategy for CMC of Chinese medicine. The Q-markers of Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) is selected and established by integrating chemical profile with pharmacological activities. Then, the key processes of PNS manufacturing are identified by material flow analysis. Furthermore, modeling algorithms are employed to explore the relationship between Q-markers and critical process parameters (CPPs) of the key processes. At last, CPPs of the key processes are optimized in order to improving the process efficiency. Among the 97 identified compounds, Notoginsenoside R 1 , ginsenoside Rg 1 , Re, Rb 1 and Rd are selected as the Q-markers of PNS. Our analysis on PNS manufacturing show the extraction process and column chromatography process are the key processes. With the CPPs of each process as the inputs and Q-markers' contents as the outputs, two process prediction models are built separately for the extraction process and column chromatography process of Panax notoginseng, which both possess good prediction ability. Based on the efficiency models of extraction process and column chromatography process we constructed, the optimal CPPs of both processes are calculated. Our results show that the Q-markers derived from CMC research strategy can be applied to analyze the manufacturing processes of Chinese medicine to assure product's quality and promote key processes' efficiency simultaneously

  5. Assessment of oxidative stress markers in recurrent pregnancy loss: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yiyenoğlu, Özgür Bilgin; Uğur, Mete Gürol; Özcan, Hüseyin Çağlayan; Can, Günay; Öztürk, Ebru; Balat, Özcan; Erel, Özcan

    2014-06-01

    To determine the levels of oxidative stress markers in recurrent pregnancy loss using a novel automated method. 30 pregnant women in their first trimester with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and 30 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this prospective controlled study. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant level (TOL) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in maternal serum were measured using the more recently designated Erel method. We observed statistically significant increased TOL and OSI levels in patient group (p = 0.032, p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated statistically significant decreased TAC in pregnant women who had a history of RPL (p = 0.013). Our results support the concept that oxidative stress plays a central role in the etiopathogenesis of RPL. Further studies to evaluate the predictive role of TAC, TOL, OSI levels using Erel method are needed.

  6. Clinical, Functional, and Biological Correlates of Cognitive Dimensions in Major Depressive Disorder - Rationale, Design, and Characteristics of the Cognitive Function and Mood Study (CoFaM-Study).

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Air, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies exploring clinical, functional, and biological correlates of major depressive disorder are frequent. In this type of research, depression is most commonly defined as a categorical diagnosis based on studies using diagnostic instruments. Given the phenotypic and biological heterogeneity of depression, we chose to focus the phenotypic assessments on three cognitive dimensions of depression including (a) cognitive performance, (b) emotion processing, and (c) social cognitive functioning. Hence, the overall aim of the study is to investigate the long-term clinical course of these cognitive dimensions in depression and its functional (psychosocial) correlates. We also aim to identify biological "genomic" correlates of these three cognitive dimensions of depression. To address the above overall aim, we created the Cognition and Mood Study (CoFaMS) with the key objective to investigate the clinical, functional, and biological correlates of cognitive dimensions of depression by employing a prospective study design and including a healthy control group. The study commenced in April 2015, including patients with a primary diagnosis of a major depressive episode of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The assessments cover the three cognitive dimensions of depression (cognitive performance, emotion processing, and social cognition), cognitive function screening instrument, plus functional scales to assess general, work place, and psychosocial function, depression symptom scales, and clinical course of illness. Blood is collected for comprehensive genomic discovery analyses of biological correlates of cognitive dimensions of depression. The CoFaM-Study represents an innovative approach focusing on cognitive dimensions of depression and its functional and biological "genomic" correlates. The CoFaMS team welcomes collaborations with both national and international researchers.

  7. Role of interleukin-6 as an early marker of fat embolism syndrome: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Shiva; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Sen, Indu Mohini; Sharma, R R; Sharma, Sadhna

    2013-07-01

    A few animal studies have shown that IL-6 can serve as an early marker of fat embolism syndrome. The degree to which this is true in human trauma victims is unknown. In this clinical study, we sought to determine (1) whether elevated serum IL-6 levels at 6, 12, and 24 hours in patients with skeletal trauma were associated with the development of fat embolism syndrome (FES) within 72 hours after injury, and (2) at what time after trauma peak IL-6 levels are observed. Forty-eight patients between 16 and 40 years old who presented to our tertiary trauma center within 6 hours of injury with long bone and/or pelvic fractures were included in this study. Serum IL-6 levels were measured at 6, 12, and 24 hours after injury. The patients were observed clinically and monitored for 72 hours for development of FES symptoms. Gurd's criteria were used to diagnose FES. Elevated serum IL-6 levels 12 hours after trauma correlated with an increased likelihood of having FES develop; no significant relationship was observed between IL-6 levels at 6 or 24 hours and the development of FES. Patients with FES had a mean IL-6 level of 131 pg/mL, whereas those without FES had a mean IL-6 level of 72 pg/mL. Peak IL-6 levels were observed at 12 hours. An elevated serum IL-6 level may be useful as an early marker of FES in patients with isolated skeletal trauma. Level II, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. The Afro-Cardiac Study: Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Acculturation in West African Immigrants in the United States: Rationale and Study Design.

    PubMed

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Sampah, Maame; Berko, Charles; Cudjoe, Joycelyn; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Agyemang, Charles; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States (US). African-descent populations bear a disproportionate burden of CVD risk factors. With the increase in the number of West African immigrants (WAIs) to the US over the past decades, it is imperative to specifically study this new and substantial subset of the African-descent population and how acculturation impacts their CVD risk. The Afro-Cardiac study, a community-based cross-sectional study of adult WAIs in the Baltimore-Washington metropolis. Guided by the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, we used a modification of the World Health Organization Steps survey to collect data on demographics, socioeconomic status, migration-related factors and behaviors. We obtained physical, biochemical, acculturation measurements as well as a socio-demographic and health history. Our study provides critical data on the CVD risk of WAIs. The framework used is valuable for future epidemiological studies addressing CVD risk and acculturation among immigrants.

  9. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205 Mb and 530 Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64 L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome

  10. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Parra-González, Lorena B; Aravena-Abarzúa, Gabriela A; Navarro-Navarro, Cristell S; Udall, Joshua; Maughan, Jeff; Peterson, Louis M; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo E; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

    2012-08-24

    Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205 Mb and 530 Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64 L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession's origin. L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further

  11. Rationale, study design, and implementation of the ACS1 study: effect of azilsartan on circadian and sleep blood pressure as compared with amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    The ACS1 (Azilsartan Circadian and Sleep Pressure - the first study) is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, two parallel-group study carried out to investigate the efficacy of an 8-week oral treatment with azilsartan 20 mg in comparison with amlodipine 5 mg. The patients with stage I or II primary hypertension will be randomly assigned to either an azilsartan group (n=350) or an amlodipine group (n=350). The primary endpoint is a change in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (BP) as measured by ambulatory BP monitoring at the end of follow-up relative to the baseline level during the run-in period. In addition, we will carry out the same analysis after dividing four different nocturnal BP dipping statuses (extreme-dippers, dippers, nondipper, and risers). The findings of this study will help in establishing an appropriate antihypertensive treatment for hypertensive patients with a disrupted circadian BP rhythm.

  12. Rationale, study design, and implementation of the ACS1 study: effect of azilsartan on circadian and sleep blood pressure as compared with amlodipine

    PubMed Central

    Hoshide, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The ACS1 (Azilsartan Circadian and Sleep Pressure – the first study) is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, two parallel-group study carried out to investigate the efficacy of an 8-week oral treatment with azilsartan 20 mg in comparison with amlodipine 5 mg. Materials and methods The patients with stage I or II primary hypertension will be randomly assigned to either an azilsartan group (n=350) or an amlodipine group (n=350). The primary endpoint is a change in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (BP) as measured by ambulatory BP monitoring at the end of follow-up relative to the baseline level during the run-in period. In addition, we will carry out the same analysis after dividing four different nocturnal BP dipping statuses (extreme-dippers, dippers, nondipper, and risers). Conclusion The findings of this study will help in establishing an appropriate antihypertensive treatment for hypertensive patients with a disrupted circadian BP rhythm. PMID:24637789

  13. Frailty Markers and Treatment Decisions in Patients Seen in Oncogeriatric Clinics: Results from the ASRO Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Farcet, Anaïs; de Decker, Laure; Pauly, Vanessa; Rousseau, Frédérique; Bergman, Howard; Molines, Catherine; Retornaz, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is the gold standard to help oncologists select the best cancer treatment for their older patients. Some authors have suggested that the concept of frailty could be a more useful approach in this population. We investigated whether frailty markers are associated with treatment recommendations in an oncogeriatric clinic. This prospective study included 70 years and older patients with solid tumors and referred for an oncogeriatric assessment. The CGA included nine domains: autonomy, comorbidities, medication, cognition, nutrition, mood, neurosensory deficits, falls, and social status. Five frailty markers were assessed (nutrition, physical activity, energy, mobility, and strength). Patients were categorized as Frail (three or more frailty markers), pre-frail (one or two frailty markers), or not-frail (no frailty marker). Treatment recommendations were classified into two categories: standard treatment with and without any changes and supportive/palliative care. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with treatment recommendations. 217 patients, mean age 83 years (± Standard deviation (SD) 5.3), were included. In the univariate analysis, number of frailty markers, grip strength, physical activity, mobility, nutrition, energy, autonomy, depression, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Scale of Performance Status (ECOG-PS), and falls were significantly associated with final treatment recommendations. In the multivariate analysis, the number of frailty markers and basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were significantly associated with final treatment recommendations (p<0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively). Frailty markers are associated with final treatment recommendations in older cancer patients. Longitudinal studies are warranted to better determine their use in a geriatric oncology setting.

  14. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  15. Study protocol and rationale for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on nonrestorative sleep.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Abhijit; Irani, Nushafreen; Balakrishnan, Rathna

    2018-06-01

    Nonrestorative sleep (NRS) is one of the cardinal symptoms of insomnia and can occur independent of other components of insomnia. Among the sleep disturbances, NRS has been little studied in the general population, even though this symptom plays an important role in several medical conditions associated with chronic inflammation such as heart disease, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome, as well as various sleep disorders. There is paucity in the literature about effective treatments for NRS. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been demonstrated to reduce anxiety and stress, allowing the body to settle down and prepare for sleep. This study will be a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled interventional study in NRS population.The NRS participants are identified using Restorative Sleep Questionnaire-weekly version (RSQ-W) questionnaire. Actigraphy and polysomnography are used for the objective assessment of sleep. The other assessments used are Hamilton Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scales, and C-reactive protein. Routine blood and urine analyses will be conducted to assess the safety of treatment. Duration of study for each participant will be 50 days with "day one" for screening followed by randomization for the treatment. The duration for medicine/placebo intake shall be 42 days.Primary outcome will be to evaluate effect of daily supplement of ashwagandha extract compared with placebo in subjects with NRS at 6 weeks from baseline, as assessed by the total score of RSQ-W. CTRI/2017/02/007801.

  16. The Colorado LEAP study: rationale and design of a study to assess the short term longitudinal effectiveness of a preschool nutrition and physical activity program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The preschool years are a critical window for obesity prevention efforts; representing a time when children establish healthy eating habits and physical activity patterns. Understanding the context in which these behaviors develop is critical to formulating a model to address childhood obesity. The Colorado LEAP Study, an intervention study designed to prevent early childhood obesity, utilizes a social ecological approach to explore individual, family and environmental factors and their relationship to child weight status over a 3 year timeframe. Methods The study is located in 5 rural Colorado preschool centers and elementary schools (2 treatment and 3 control). Treatment sites receive The Food Friends® nutrition (12 weeks) and physical activity (18 weeks) interventions during preschool. Observational measures assess 3 layers of the social ecological model including individual, family and organizational inputs. Children’s food preferences, food intake, gross motor skills, physical activity (pedometers/accelerometers), cognitive, physical and social self-competence and height/weight are collected. Parents provide information on feeding and activity practices, child’s diet, oral sensory characteristics, food neophobia, home food and activity environment, height/weight and physical activity (pedometers). School personnel complete a school environment and policy assessment. Measurements are conducted with 3 cohorts at 4 time points – baseline, post-intervention, 1- and 2-year follow-up. Discussion The design of this study allows for longitudinal exploration of relationships among eating habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status within and across spheres of the social ecological model. These methods advance traditional study designs by allowing not only for interaction among spheres but predictively across time. Further, the recruitment strategy includes both boys and girls from ethnic minority populations in rural areas and will

  17. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  18. Throwing Caution to the Wind: Rationales for Risky Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center<