Science.gov

Sample records for marker-assisted selection policy

  1. Considerations for marker-assisted selection in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. Thes...

  2. Considerations for Marker-assisted selection in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. These ...

  3. Within-family marker-assisted selection for aquaculture species

    PubMed Central

    Sonesson, Anna K

    2007-01-01

    A within-family marker-assisted selection scheme was designed for typical aquaculture breeding schemes, where most traits are recorded on sibs of the candidates. Here, sibs of candidates were tested for the trait and genotyped to establish genetic marker effects on the trait. BLUP breeding values were calculated, including information of the markers (MAS) or not (NONMAS). These breeding values were identical for all family members in the NONMAS schemes, but differed between family members in the MAS schemes, making within-family selection possible. MAS had up to twice the total genetic gain of the corresponding NONMAS scheme. MAS was somewhat less effective when heritability increased from 0.06 to 0.12 or when the frequency of the positive allele was < 0.5. The relative efficiency of MAS was higher for schemes with more candidates, because of larger fullsib family sizes. MAS was also more efficient when male:female mating ratio changed from 1:1 to 1:5 or when the QTL explained more of the total genetic variation. Four instead of two markers linked to the QTL increased genetic gain somewhat. There was no significant difference in polygenic genetic gain between MAS and NONMAS for most schemes. The rates of inbreeding were lower for MAS than NON-MAS schemes, because fewer full-sibs were selected by MAS. PMID:17433243

  4. Comparative Analysis of Marker-Assisted and Phenotypic Selection for Yield Components in Cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theorectical studies suggest that marker-assisted selection (MAS) has case-specific advantages over phenotypic selection (PHE) for selection of quantitative traits. However, few studies have been conducted that empirically compare these selection methods in the context of a plant breeding program. ...

  5. Charles W. Stuber: Maize geneticist and pioneer of marker-assisted selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charles W. Stuber is considered a pioneer of quantitative genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection in maize. The achievements of his four decade career in research include the development of genetic marker systems used in maize and adapted in many other crops, the first methods and studies to i...

  6. Consensus mapping and identification of markers for marker-assisted selection of Wsm2 in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recently identified Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance gene Wsm2 confers a high level of resistance. Objective of this study was to identify closely linked DNA markers for Wsm2 for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat. Two segregating populations (CO960293-2/’TAM 111’ and CO96...

  7. Marker-Assisted Selection for FHB at the Eastern Regional Small Grains Genotyping Lab

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Head scab of wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a disease that affects wheat production in the Eastern soft wheat growing region of the U.S.A.. Genotyping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) are being applied in the Eastern wheat growing region to develop resistant wheat varieties and to char...

  8. Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

  9. Comparing genomic selection and marker-assisted selection for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic selection (GS) and marker-assisted selection (MAS) rely on marker-trait associations and are both routinely used for breeding purposes. Although similar, these two approaches differ in their applications and how markers are used to estimate breeding values. In this study, GS and MAS were com...

  10. One Cycle of Phenotypic Selection Combined with Marker Assisted Selection for Improving Yield and Quality in Cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estimation of response to marker-assisted selection (MAS) is critical to breeding programs. To investigate MAS for line development, two cucumber recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (7026B76 and 7022C8) differing in plant habit were mated, and F4 and F5 progeny was MAS selected to improve both yield an...

  11. The accuracy of marker-assisted selection for quantitative traits within populations in linkage equilibrium.

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, L

    1998-01-01

    Using the concept of conditional coancestry, given observed markers, an explicit expression of the accuracy of marker-based selection is derived in situations of linkage equilibrium between markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL), for the general case of full-sib families nested within half-sib families. Such a selection scheme is rather inaccurate for moderate values of family sizes and QTL variance, and the accuracies predicted for linkage disequilibrium can never be reached. The result is used to predict the accuracy of marker-assisted combined selection (MACS) and is shown to agree with previous MACS results obtained by simulation of a best linear unbiased prediction animal model. Low gains in accuracy are generally to be expected compared to standard combined selection. The maximum gain, assuming infinite family size and all QTLs marked, is about 50%. PMID:9539449

  12. Comparing the predictive abilities of phenotypic and marker-assisted selection methods in a biparental lettuce population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding and selection for the traits with polygenic inheritance is a challenging task that can be done by phenotypic selection, by marker-assisted selection or by genome wide selection. We tested predictive ability of four selection models in a biparental population genotyped with 95 SNP markers an...

  13. Salt tolerance in Lycopersicon species. IV. Efficiency of marker-assisted selection for salt tolerance improvement.

    PubMed

    Monforte, A J; Asíns, M J; Carbonell, E A

    1996-10-01

    The usefulness of marker-assisted selection (MAS) to develop salt-tolerant breeding lines from a F2 derived from L. esculentum x L. pimpinellifolium has been studied. Interval mapping methodology of quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was used to locate more precisely previously detected salt tolerance QTLs. A new QTL for total fruit weight under salinity (TW) near TG24 was detected. Most of the detected QTLs [3 for TW, 5 for fruit number, (FN) and 4 for fruit weight (FW)] had low R (2) values, except the FW QTL in the TG180-TG48 interval, which explains 36.6% of the total variance. Dominant and overdominant effects were detected at the QTLs for TW, whereas gene effects at the QTLs for FJV and FW ranged from additive to partial dominance. Phenotypic selection of F2 familes and marker-assisted selection of F3 families were carried out. Yield under salinity decreased in the F2 generation. F3 means were similar to those of the F1 as a consequence of phentoypic selection. The most important selection response for every trait was obtained from the F3 to F4 where MAS was applied. While F3 variation was mainly due to the within-family component, in the F4 the FN and FW between-family component was larger than the within-family one, indicating an efficient compartmentalization and fixation of QTLs into the F4 families. Comparison of the yield of these families under control versus saline conditions showed that fruit weight is a key trait to success in tomato salt-tolerance improvement using wild Lycopersicon germplasm. The QTLs we have detected under salinity seem to be also working under control conditions, although the interaction family x treatment was significant for TW, thereby explaining the fact that the selected families responded differently to salinity.

  14. Marker-assisted selection: an approach for precision plant breeding in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Collard, Bertrand C Y; Mackill, David J

    2008-02-12

    DNA markers have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional plant breeding via marker-assisted selection (MAS). The large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping studies for diverse crops species have provided an abundance of DNA marker-trait associations. In this review, we present an overview of the advantages of MAS and its most widely used applications in plant breeding, providing examples from cereal crops. We also consider reasons why MAS has had only a small impact on plant breeding so far and suggest ways in which the potential of MAS can be realized. Finally, we discuss reasons why the greater adoption of MAS in the future is inevitable, although the extent of its use will depend on available resources, especially for orphan crops, and may be delayed in less-developed countries. Achieving a substantial impact on crop improvement by MAS represents the great challenge for agricultural scientists in the next few decades.

  15. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  16. Marker-assisted selection of Fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, P; Liu, S; Zhu, Q L; Luan, F S

    2015-12-08

    In this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes ACS7 (A) and WIP1 (G) and the domain in the Fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene Fom-2 (F) in order to achieve selection of F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. Markers of A and F are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. Twenty F1 and 1863 F2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line WI998 and the Fusarium wilt-resistant line MR-1 were genotyped based on the markers. The results showed that the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion results could be effectively used to identify plants with the AAggFF genotype in F2 populations. In the F2 population, 35 gynoecious wilt-resistant plants were selected by marker-assisted selection and were confirmed by disease infection assays, demonstrating that these markers can be used in breeding to select F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants.

  17. Whole Genome Sequencing of Elite Rice Cultivars as a Comprehensive Information Resource for Marker Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Duitama, Jorge; Silva, Alexander; Sanabria, Yamid; Cruz, Daniel Felipe; Quintero, Constanza; Ballen, Carolina; Lorieux, Mathias; Scheffler, Brian; Farmer, Andrew; Torres, Edgar; Oard, James; Tohme, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Current advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics revealed the genomic background of rice, a staple food for the poor people, and provided the basis to develop large genomic variation databases for thousands of cultivars. Proper analysis of this massive resource is expected to give novel insights into the structure, function, and evolution of the rice genome, and to aid the development of rice varieties through marker assisted selection or genomic selection. In this work we present sequencing and bioinformatics analyses of 104 rice varieties belonging to the major subspecies of Oryza sativa. We identified repetitive elements and recurrent copy number variation covering about 200 Mbp of the rice genome. Genotyping of over 18 million polymorphic locations within O. sativa allowed us to reconstruct the individual haplotype patterns shaping the genomic background of elite varieties used by farmers throughout the Americas. Based on a reconstruction of the alleles for the gene GBSSI, we could identify novel genetic markers for selection of varieties with high amylose content. We expect that both the analysis methods and the genomic information described here would be of great use for the rice research community and for other groups carrying on similar sequencing efforts in other crops. PMID:25923345

  18. User-friendly markers linked to Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance Fw gene for marker-assisted selection in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium wilt is one of the most widespread diseases of pea. Resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1 was reported as a single gene, Fw, located on linkage group III. The previously reported AFLP and RAPD markers linked to Fw have limited usage in marker-assisted selection due to their map distance and l...

  19. Association mapping and marker-assisted selection of the lettuce dieback resistance gene Tvr1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) is susceptible to dieback, a soilborne disease caused by two viruses from the family Tombusviridae. Susceptibility to dieback is widespread in romaine and leaf-type lettuce, while modern iceberg cultivars are resistant to this disease. Resistance in iceberg cultivars is conferred by Tvr1 - a single, dominant gene that provides durable resistance. This study describes fine mapping of the resistance gene, analysis of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium in the Tvr1 region, and development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. Results A combination of classical linkage mapping and association mapping allowed us to pinpoint the location of the Tvr1 resistance gene on chromosomal linkage group 2. Nine molecular markers, based on expressed sequence tags (EST), were closely linked to Tvr1 in the mapping population, developed from crosses between resistant (Salinas and Salinas 88) and susceptible (Valmaine) cultivars. Sequencing of these markers from a set of 68 cultivars revealed a relatively high level of nucleotide polymorphism (θ = 6.7 × 10-3) and extensive linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.124 at 8 cM) in this region. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium was affected by population structure and the values were substantially larger when the analysis was performed only for romaine (r2 = 0.247) and crisphead (r2 = 0.345) accessions. The association mapping approach revealed that one of the nine markers (Cntg10192) in the Tvr1 region matched exactly with resistant and susceptible phenotypes when tested on a set of 200 L. sativa accessions from all horticultural types of lettuce. The marker-trait association was also confirmed on two accessions of Lactuca serriola - a wild relative of cultivated lettuce. The combination of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the Cntg10192 marker identified four haplotypes. Three of the haplotypes were associated with resistance and one of them was always

  20. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  1. Marker assisted selection of low phytic acid trait in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, S; Tamilkumar, P; Senthil, N; Nagarajan, P; Thangavelu, A U; Raveendran, M; Vellaikumar, S; Ganesan, K N; Balagopal, R; Vijayalakshmi, G; Shobana, V

    2014-02-01

    Maize is the third important major food crop. Breeding for low phytate maize genotypes is an effective strategy for decreasing the content of kernel phytic acid (a chelator of cations such as Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) ) and thereby increasing the bioavailability of nutritive minerals in human diet and animal feed. Previous studies have established that a mutant plant with a lpa2-2 allele accumulates less phytic acid in seeds. Therefore, the marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB), which involves introgression of lpa2-2 recessive allele (which confer low phytate trait) from a lpa2-2 mutant line into a well-adapted line using backcrosses and selection of lines possessing lpa2-2 allele in each backcross population using molecular markers, is an effective strategy for developing low phytate maize. So far, no studies have developed any lpa2-2 allele specific molecular markers for this purpose. Here, using backcross and selfed progenies, obtained by crossing low phytate mutant line 'EC 659418' (i.e. donor of lpa2-2 allele) into agronomically superior line 'UMI395', we have validated that a SSR marker 'umc2230', located 0.4 cM downstream of lpa2-2, cosegregate, in a Mendelian fashion, with low phytic acid trait. Therefore umc2230 can be dependably used in MABB for the development of low phytate maize.

  2. Advances towards a Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding Program in Prairie Cordgrass, a Biomass Crop

    PubMed Central

    Gedye, K. R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. L.; Owens, V.; Boe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link) is an indigenous, perennial grass of North America that is being developed into a cellulosic biomass crop suitable for biofuel production. Limited research has been performed into the breeding of prairie cordgrass; this research details an initial investigation into the development of a breeding program for this species. Genomic libraries enriched for four simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were developed, 25 clones from each library were sequenced, identifying 70 SSR regions, and primers were developed for these regions, 35 of which were amplified under standard PCR conditions. These SSR markers were used to validate the crossing methodology of prairie cordgrass and it was found that crosses between two plants occurred without the need for emasculation. The successful cross between two clones of prairie cordgrass indicates that this species is not self-incompatible. The results from this research will be used to instigate the production of a molecular map of prairie cordgrass which can be used to incorporate marker-assisted selection (MAS) protocols into a breeding program to improve this species for cellulosic biomass production. PMID:23227036

  3. Phenotypic versus marker-assisted selection for stalk strength and second-generation European corn borer resistance in maize.

    PubMed

    Flint-Garcia, S A; Darrah, L L; McMullen, M D; Hibbard, B E

    2003-11-01

    Maize ( Zea mays L.) stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. Stalk lodging is often intensified by the stalk tunneling action of the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Rind penetrometer resistance (RPR) has been used to measure stalk strength and improve stalk lodging resistance, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for both RPR and 2-ECB damage. Phenotypic recurrent selection (PS) increases the frequency of favorable alleles over cycles of selection. Several studies have indicated that marker-assisted selection (MAS) is also a potentially valuable selection tool. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of PS versus MAS for RPR and 2-ECB. Marker-assisted selection for high and low RPR was effective in the three populations studied. Phenotypic selection for both high and low RPR was more effective than MAS in two of the populations. However, in a third population, MAS for high RPR using QTL effects from the same population was more effective than PS, and using QTL effects from a separate population was just as effective as PS. Marker-assisted selection for resistance and susceptibility to 2-ECB using QTL effects from the same population was effective in increasing susceptibility, but not in increasing resistance. Marker-assisted selection using QTL effects from a separate population was effective in both directions of selection. Thus, MAS was effective in selecting for both resistance and susceptibility to 2-ECB. These results demonstrated that MAS can be an effective selection tool for both RPR and 2-ECB resistance. These results also validate the locations and effects of QTL for RPR and 2-ECB resistance identified in earlier studies.

  4. The effect of using approximate gametic variance covariance matrices on marker assisted selection by BLUP.

    PubMed

    Totir, Liviu R; Fernando, Rohan L; Dekkers, Jack C M; Fernández, Soledad A; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2004-01-01

    Under additive inheritance, the Henderson mixed model equations (HMME) provide an efficient approach to obtaining genetic evaluations by marker assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MABLUP) given pedigree relationships, trait and marker data. For large pedigrees with many missing markers, however, it is not feasible to calculate the exact gametic variance covariance matrix required to construct HMME. The objective of this study was to investigate the consequences of using approximate gametic variance covariance matrices on response to selection by MABLUP. Two methods were used to generate approximate variance covariance matrices. The first method (Method A) completely discards the marker information for individuals with an unknown linkage phase between two flanking markers. The second method (Method B) makes use of the marker information at only the most polymorphic marker locus for individuals with an unknown linkage phase. Data sets were simulated with and without missing marker data for flanking markers with 2, 4, 6, 8 or 12 alleles. Several missing marker data patterns were considered. The genetic variability explained by marked quantitative trait loci (MQTL) was modeled with one or two MQTL of equal effect. Response to selection by MABLUP using Method A or Method B were compared with that obtained by MABLUP using the exact genetic variance covariance matrix, which was estimated using 15,000 samples from the conditional distribution of genotypic values given the observed marker data. For the simulated conditions, the superiority of MABLUP over BLUP based only on pedigree relationships and trait data varied between 0.1% and 13.5% for Method A, between 1.7% and 23.8% for Method B, and between 7.6% and 28.9% for the exact method. The relative performance of the methods under investigation was not affected by the number of MQTL in the model.

  5. Cereal Crop Proteomics: Systemic Analysis of Crop Drought Stress Responses Towards Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Arindam; Chaturvedi, Palak; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation. Therefore, it is essential to measure protein levels and post-translational protein modifications to reveal information about stress inducible signal perception and transduction, translational activity and induced protein levels. This information cannot be revealed by genomic or transcriptomic analysis. Eventually, these processes will provide more direct insight into stress perception then genetic markers and might build a complementary basis for future marker-assisted selection of drought resistance. In this review, we survey the role of proteomic studies to illustrate their applications in crop stress adaptation analysis with respect to productivity. Cereal crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum and pearl millet are discussed in detail. We provide a comprehensive and comparative overview of all detected protein changes involved in drought stress in these crops and have summarized existing knowledge into a proposed scheme of drought response. Based on a recent proteome study of pearl millet under drought stress we compare our findings with wheat proteomes and another recent study which defined genetic marker in pearl millet. PMID:28626463

  6. Comparative mapping and marker-assisted selection in Rosaceae fruit crops

    PubMed Central

    Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Graziano, Enrique; Joobeur, Tarek; Garriga-Calderé, Francesc; Cosson, Patrick; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere

    2004-01-01

    The development of saturated linkage maps using transferable markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and micro-satellites has provided a foundation for fruit tree genetics and breeding. A Prunus reference map with 562 such markers is available, and a further set of 13 maps constructed with a subset of these markers has allowed genome comparison among seven Prunus diploid (x = 8) species (almond, peach, apricot, cherry, Prunus ferganensis, Prunus davidiana, and Prunus cerasifera); marker colinearity was the rule with all of them. Preliminary results of the comparison between apple and Prunus maps suggest a high level of synteny between these two genera. Conserved genomic regions have also been detected between Prunus and Arabidopsis. By using the data from different linkage maps anchored with the reference Prunus map, it has been possible to establish, in a general map, the position of 28 major genes affecting agronomic characters found in different species. Markers tightly linked to the major genes responsible for the expression of important traits (disease/pest resistances, fruit/nut quality, self-incompatibility, etc.) have been developed in apple and Prunus and are currently in use for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Quantitative character dissection using linkage maps and candidate gene approaches has already started. Genomic tools such as the Prunus physical map, large EST collections in both Prunus and Malus, and the establishment of the map position of high numbers of ESTs are required for a better understanding of the Rosaceae genome and to foster additional research and applications on fruit tree genetics. PMID:15159547

  7. Comparative mapping and marker-assisted selection in Rosaceae fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Graziano, Enrique; Joobeur, Tarek; Garriga-Calderé, Francesc; Cosson, Patrick; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere

    2004-06-29

    The development of saturated linkage maps using transferable markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and micro-satellites has provided a foundation for fruit tree genetics and breeding. A Prunus reference map with 562 such markers is available, and a further set of 13 maps constructed with a subset of these markers has allowed genome comparison among seven Prunus diploid (x = 8) species (almond, peach, apricot, cherry, Prunus ferganensis, Prunus davidiana, and Prunus cerasifera); marker colinearity was the rule with all of them. Preliminary results of the comparison between apple and Prunus maps suggest a high level of synteny between these two genera. Conserved genomic regions have also been detected between Prunus and Arabidopsis. By using the data from different linkage maps anchored with the reference Prunus map, it has been possible to establish, in a general map, the position of 28 major genes affecting agronomic characters found in different species. Markers tightly linked to the major genes responsible for the expression of important traits (disease/pest resistances, fruit/nut quality, self-incompatibility, etc.) have been developed in apple and Prunus and are currently in use for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Quantitative character dissection using linkage maps and candidate gene approaches has already started. Genomic tools such as the Prunus physical map, large EST collections in both Prunus and Malus, and the establishment of the map position of high numbers of ESTs are required for a better understanding of the Rosaceae genome and to foster additional research and applications on fruit tree genetics.

  8. Evidence of Multiple Disease Resistance (MDR) and implication of meta-analysis in marker assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farhan; Pan, Qingchun; Chen, Genshen; Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Yan, Jianbing

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis was performed for three major foliar diseases with the aim to find out the total number of QTL responsible for these diseases and depict some real QTL for molecular breeding and marker assisted selection (MAS) in maize. Furthermore, we confirmed our results with some major known disease resistance genes and most well-known gene family of nucleotide binding site (NBS) encoding genes. Our analysis revealed that disease resistance QTL were randomly distributed in maize genome, but were clustered at different regions of the chromosomes. Totally 389 QTL were observed for these three major diseases in diverse maize germplasm, out of which 63 QTL were controlling more than one disease revealing the presence of multiple disease resistance (MDR). 44 real-QTLs were observed based on 4 QTL as standard in a specific region of genome. We also confirmed the Ht1 and Ht2 genes within the region of real QTL and 14 NBS-encoding genes. On chromosome 8 two NBS genes in one QTL were observed and on chromosome 3, several cluster and maximum MDR QTL were observed indicating that the apparent clustering could be due to genes exhibiting pleiotropic effect. Significant relationship was observed between the number of disease QTL and total genes per chromosome based on the reference genome B73. Therefore, we concluded that disease resistance genes are abundant in maize genome and these results can unleash the phenomenon of MDR. Furthermore, these results could be very handy to focus on hot spot on different chromosome for fine mapping of disease resistance genes and MAS.

  9. Comparison of phenotypic versus marker-assisted background selection for the SUB1 QTL during backcrossing in rice

    PubMed Central

    Iftekharuddaula, Khandakar M.; Salam, Muhammad A.; Newaz, Muhammad A.; Ahmed, Helal U.; Collard, Bertrand C. Y.; Septiningsih, Endang M.; Sanchez, Darlene L.; Pamplona, Alvaro M.; Mackill, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Marker assisted backcrossing has been used effectively to transfer the submergence tolerance gene SUB1 into popular rice varieties, but the approach can be costly. The selection strategy comprising foreground marker and phenotypic selection was investigated as an alternative. The non-significant correlation coefficients between ranking of phenotypic selection and ranking of background marker selection in BC2F1, BC3F1 and BC3F2 generations indicated inefficiency of phenotypic selection compared to marker-assisted background selection with respect to recovery of the recipient genome. In addition, the introgression size of the chromosome fragment containing SUB1 was approximately 17 Mb, showing the effects of linkage drag. The significant correlation coefficient between rankings of phenotypic selection with the percentage of recipient alleles in the BC1F1 generation suggested that background selection could be avoided in this generation to minimize the genotyping cost. The phenotypically selected best plant of the BC3F1 generation was selfed and backcross recombinant lines were selected in the resulting BC3F4 generation. The selection strategy could be appropriate for the introgression of SUB1 QTL in countries that lack access to high-throughput genotyping facilities. PMID:23226081

  10. Modeling of genetic gain for single traits from marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Sushan; Hardner, Craig; Carter, Patrick A; Evans, Kate; Main, Dorrie; Peace, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Seedling selection identifies superior seedlings as candidate cultivars based on predicted genetic potential for traits of interest. Traditionally, genetic potential is determined by phenotypic evaluation. With the availability of DNA tests for some agronomically important traits, breeders have the opportunity to include DNA information in their seedling selection operations—known as marker-assisted seedling selection. A major challenge in deploying marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops is a lack of knowledge in genetic gain achievable from alternative strategies. Existing models based on additive effects considering seed-propagated crops are not directly relevant for seedling selection of clonally propagated crops, as clonal propagation captures all genetic effects, not just additive. This study modeled genetic gain from traditional and various marker-based seedling selection strategies on a single trait basis through analytical derivation and stochastic simulation, based on a generalized seedling selection scheme of clonally propagated crops. Various trait-test scenarios with a range of broad-sense heritability and proportion of genotypic variance explained by DNA markers were simulated for two populations with different segregation patterns. Both derived and simulated results indicated that marker-based strategies tended to achieve higher genetic gain than phenotypic seedling selection for a trait where the proportion of genotypic variance explained by marker information was greater than the broad-sense heritability. Results from this study provides guidance in optimizing genetic gain from seedling selection for single traits where DNA tests providing marker information are available. PMID:27148453

  11. Genome-wide association analysis of bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout reveals the potential of a hybrid approach between genomic selection and marker assisted selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic selection (GS) simultaneously incorporates dense SNP marker genotypes with phenotypic data from related animals to predict animal-specific genomic breeding value (GEBV), which circumvents the need to measure the disease phenotype in potential breeders. Marker assisted selection (MAS) involv...

  12. ISSR marker-assisted genetic diversity analysis of Dioscorea hispida and selection of the best variety for sustainable production.

    PubMed

    Nudin, Nur Fatihah Hasan; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Ngah, Norhayati; Mazlan, Nor Zuhailah; Mat, Nashriyah; Ghani, Mohd Noor Abd; Alias, Nadiawati; Zakaria, Abd Jamil; Jahan, Md Sarwar

    2017-09-06

    Plant breeding is a way of selection of a particular individual for the production of the progeny by separating or combining desired characteristics. The objective of this study was to justify different characteristics of Dioscorea hispida (Ubi gadong) varieties using molecular techniques to select the best variety for sustainable production at the farmer's level. A total of 160 germplasms of Ubi gadong were collected from different locations at the Terengganu and Kelantan states of Malaysia. Forty eight (48) out of 160 germplasms were selected as "primary" selection based on yield and other qualitative characters. Selected collections were then grown and maintained for ISSR marker-assisted genetic diversity analysis. Overall plant growth and yield of tubers were also determined. A total of 12 ISSR markers were tested to justify the characteristics of Ubi gadong varieties among which three markers showed polymorphic bands and on average 57.3% polymorphism were observed representing the highest variation among germplasms. The ISSR marker based on UPGMA cluster analysis grouped all 48 D. hispida into 10 vital groups that proved a vast genetic variation among germplasm collections. Therefore, hybridization should be made between two distant populations. The D. hispida is already proved as the highest starch content tuber crops and very rich in vitamins with both micro and macro minerals. Considering all these criteria and results from marker-assisted diversity analysis, accessions that are far apart based on their genetic coefficient (like DH27 and DH71; DH30 and DH70; DH43 and DH62; DH45 and DH61; DH77 and DH61; DH78 and DH57) could be selected as parents for further breeding programs. This will bring about greater diversity, which will lead to high productive index in terms of increase in yield and overall quality and for the ultimate target of sustainable Ubi gadong production. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  13. A next-generation marker genotyping platform (AmpSeq) in heterozygous crops: a case study for marker assisted selection in grapevine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marker assisted selection (MAS) is often employed in crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development, via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next generation sequencing (NGS) and its derivative technologies have been used for genome-wid...

  14. A next-generation marker genotyping platform (AmpSeq) in heterozygous crops: A case study for marker assisted selection in grapevine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marker assisted selection (MAS) has become widely used in perennial crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been widely used for whole genome molecular...

  15. Performance and grain yield stability of maize populations developed using marker-assisted recurrent selection and pedigree selection procedures.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Yoseph; Semagn, Kassa; Mugo, Stephen; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Tarekegne, Amsal; Gakunga, John; Sehabiague, Pierre; Meisel, Barbara; Oikeh, Sylvester O; Olsen, Michael; Crossa, Jose

    A marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) program was undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa to improve grain yield under drought-stress in 10 biparental tropical maize populations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the performance of C1S2-derived hybrids obtained after three MARS cycles (one cycle of recombination (C1), followed by two generations of selfing (S2), and to study yield stability under both drought-stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. For each of the 10 populations, we evaluated hybrids developed by crossing 47-74 C1S2 lines advanced through MARS, the best five S5 lines developed through pedigree selection, and the founder parents with a single-cross tester from a complementary heterotic group. The hybrids and five commercial checks were evaluated in Kenya under 1-3 DS and 3-5 WW conditions with two replications. Combined across DS locations, the top 10 C1S2-derived hybrids from each of the 10 biparental populations produced 0.5-46.3 and 11.1-55.1 % higher mean grain yields than hybrids developed using pedigree selection and the commercial checks, respectively. Across WW locations, the best 10 hybrids derived from C1S2 of each population produced 3.4-13.3 and 7.9-36.5 % higher grain yields than hybrids derived using conventional pedigree breeding and the commercial checks, respectively. Mean days to anthesis of the best 10 C1S2 hybrids were comparable to those of hybrids developed using the pedigree method, the founder parents and the commercial checks, with a maximum difference of 3.5 days among the different groups. However, plant height was significantly (P < 0.01) different in most pairwise comparisons. Our results showed the superiority of MARS over pedigree selection for improving diverse tropical maize populations as sources of improved lines for stress-prone environments and thus MARS can be effectively integrated into mainstream maize breeding programs.

  16. Marker-assisted selection in breeding silkworm strains with high tolerance to fluoride, scaleless wings, and high silk production.

    PubMed

    Li, M W; Yu, H J; Yi, X L; Li, J; Dai, F Y; Hou, C X

    2015-09-22

    In the silkworm (Bombyx mori), tolerance to fluoride and scaleless wings are controlled by the dominant gene Dtf (dominant tolerance to fluoride) and recessive gene nlw (no Lepidoptera wings), respectively, and these genes have been mapped by using simple sequence repeat and sequence tag site markers. Marker-assisted evaluation and selection of silkworms with fluoride tolerance and scaleless wings were used for predicting fluoride resistance and scaleless wings in backcrossed animals. A silkworm strain was bred using this method, and its economic characteristics were found to be similar to those of commercial silkworms. These methods will therefore be useful for silkworm breeding programs and in screening for two or more characteristics of interest for segregating populations.

  17. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Arvind H.; Zelmer, Carla D.; McVetty, Peter B. E.; Daayf, Fouad; Li, Genyi

    2013-01-01

    Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulfur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant–microbe, plant–insect, plant–animal, and plant–human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2) were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin, and glucobrassicanapin) was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG- gene. The GSL-ELONG- positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG- allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2) positive for the GSL-ELONG- allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG- allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A-genome by non-functional counterpart in the C-genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 μmol/g. PMID:23532458

  18. Marker-assisted selection to improve drought adaptation in maize: the backcross approach, perspectives, limitations, and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Ragot, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A number of different marker-assisted selection (MAS) approaches do exist for the improvement of polygenic traits. Results of a marker-assisted backcross (MABC) selection experiment aimed at improving grain yield under drought conditions in tropical maize are presented and compared with alternative MAS strategies. The introgression of favourable alleles at five target regions involved in the expression of yield components and flowering traits increased grain yield and reduced the asynchrony between male and female flowering under water-limited conditions. Eighty-five per cent of the recurrent parent's genotype at non-target loci was recovered in only four generations of MABC by screening large segregating populations (2200 individuals) for three of the four generations. Selected MABC-derived BC(2)F(3) families were crossed with two testers and evaluated under different water regimes. Mean grain yield of MABC-derived hybrids was consistently higher than that of control hybrids (crosses from the recurrent parent to the same two testers as the MABC-derived families) under severe water stress conditions. Under those conditions, the best five MABC-derived hybrids yielded, on average, at least 50% more than control hybrids. Under mild water stress, defined as resulting in <50% yield reduction, no difference was observed between MABC-derived hybrids and the control plants, thus confirming that the genetic regulation for drought tolerance is dependent on stress intensity. MABC conversions involving several target regions are likely to result in partial rather than complete line conversion. Simulations were conducted to assess the utility of such partial conversions, i.e. containing favourable donor alleles at non-target regions, for subsequent phenotypic selection. The results clearly showed that selecting several genotypes (10-20) at each MABC cycle was most efficient. In the light of these results, alternative approaches to MABC are discussed, including recurrent

  19. Historical overview and current status of genomic technology and marker assisted selection in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic technology has long been viewed as a transformative technology in that it has the potential to greatly alter strategies for livestock selection and management. Effective selection requires accurate predictions of genetic merit. Traditional genetic evaluations are obtained from data and ped...

  20. Development of next-generation mapping populations: Multi-parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) and Marker-Assisted Recurrent Selection (MARS) populations in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) and Marker-Assisted Recurrent Selection (MARS) have been proposed and used in many crops to dissect complex traits or QTL. MAGIC allows for dissecting genomic structure, and for improving breeding populations by integrating multiple alleles from different parents. MAR...

  1. The use of marker-assisted selection in animal breeding and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Williams, J L

    2005-04-01

    Improvement of livestock has focused on the selective breeding of individuals with superior phenotypes. With the development of increasingly advanced statistical methods that maximise selection for genetic gain, this simple approach has been extremely successful in increasing the quantity of agricultural output. However, information now available on the organisation and functioning of the genome could be used in breeding programmes to improve a range of traits. Many traits are under the control of several genetic loci, each of which contribute to the variation in the trait and hence are called quantitative trait loci (QTL). While genetic markers for QTL that are linked to the trait gene could be used to choose animals for selective breeding programmes, the most effective markers are the functional mutations within the trait genes. Strategies to identify markers for traits and the application of these markers are described by reference to examples of loci that control a range of different traits.

  2. Development of High Tryptophan Maize Near Isogenic Lines Adapted to Temperate Regions through Marker Assisted Selection - Impediments and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinovic, Marija; Ignjatovic-Micic, Dragana; Vancetovic, Jelena; Ristic, Danijela; Bozinovic, Sofija; Stankovic, Goran; Mladenovic Drinic, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    Breeding program aimed at converting standard maize inbred lines to their quality protein maize (QPM) counterparts for growing in temperate climate is being conducted at Maize Research Institute (MRI). The objective of the research presented herein was to develop QPM versions of two commercial ZP inbreds through marker assisted selection (MAS) with opaque2 specific molecular markers, while maintaining their good agronomic performances and combining abilities. Donor line was a tropical QPM line CML 144. After two backcross and three selfing generations, six near isogenic lines (NILs) with 93% recovery of the recurrent parent genome were created from one cross. Average increments of 30% in tryptophan content and 36% in quality index were obtained, as well as kernels with less than 25% opaque endosperm. Grain yield was increased by 11–31% and combining abilities of the improved lines were on a par with the original line. Correlations between biochemical and agronomic parameters revealed that selection for plant height, ear length and kernel row number together with tryptophan content could be recommended for development of QPM with this material. However, several impediments emerged during selection. Major drawbacks in NIL development were small number of opaque2 recessive homozygotes (4.5% and 7.6% in BC2F2 of two crosses) and poor seed set throughout selection, which led to the loss of one cross. Moreover, in the other cross many plants in different generations had to be omitted from further selection due to the insufficient number of kernels. This phenomenon could be explained by incompatibility between pollen and style, possibly due to the exotic donor germplasm. Overall, it could be expected that the use of NILs, which are adapted to temperate climate and have high percentage of domestic germplasm, would outbalance the noted impediments and increase MAS efficiency in different breeding programs. PMID:27936171

  3. Marker-assisted selection for recognizing wheat mutant genotypes carrying HMW glutenin alleles related to baking quality.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism).

  4. A non-destructive genotyping system from a single seed for marker-assisted selection in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Meru, G; McDowell, D; Waters, V; Seibel, A; Davis, J; McGregor, C

    2013-03-11

    Genomic tools for watermelon breeding are becoming increasingly available. A high throughput genotyping system would facilitate the use of DNA markers in marker-assisted selection. DNA extraction from leaf material requires prior seed germination and is often time-consuming and cost prohibitive. In an effort to develop a more efficient system, watermelon seeds of several genotypes and various seed sizes were sampled by removing ⅓ or ½ sections from the distal ends for DNA extraction, while germinating the remaining proximal parts of the seed. Removing ⅓ of the seed from the distal end had no effect on seed germination percentage or seedling vigor. Different DNA extraction protocols were tested to identify a method that could yield DNA of sufficient quality for amplification by polymerase chain reaction. A sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction protocol with 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone yielded DNA that could be amplified with microsatellite primers and was free of pericarp contamination. In this study, an efficient, non-destructive genotyping protocol for watermelon seed was developed.

  5. Phenotypic screening and molecular analysis of blast resistance in fragrant rice for marker assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Sen, Partha Pratim; Bhuiyan, Rejwan; Kabir, Enamul; Chowdhury, Abul Kashem; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Ali, Ansar; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to identify blast-resistant fragrant genotypes for the development of a durable blast-resistant rice variety during years 2012-2013. The results indicate that out of 140 test materials including 114 fragrant germplasms, 25 differential varieties (DVs) harbouring 23 blast-resistant genes, only 16 fragrant rice germplasms showed comparatively better performance against a virulent isolate of blast disease. The reaction pattern of single-spore isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae to differential varieties showed that Pish, Pi9, Pita-2 and Pita are the effective blast-resistant genes against the tested blast isolates in Bangladesh. The DNA markers profiles of selected 16 rice germplasms indicated that genotype Chinigura contained Pish, Pi9 and Pita genes; on the other hand, both BRRI dhan50 and Bawaibhog contained Pish and Pita genes in their genetic background. Genotypes Jirakatari, BR5, and Gopalbhog possessed Pish gene, while Uknimodhu, Deshikatari, Radhunipagol, Kalijira (3), Chinikanai each contained the Pita gene only. There are some materials that did not contain any target gene(s) in their genetic background, but proved resistant in pathogenicity tests. This information provided valuable genetic information for breeders to develop durable blast-resistant fragrant or aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh.

  6. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-10-31

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.

  7. Validating the prediction accuracies of marker-assisted and genomic selection of Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat using an independent sample.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Schulthess, Albert Wilhelm; Rodemann, Bernd; Ling, Jie; Plieske, Jörg; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S; Reif, Jochen C

    2017-03-01

    Compared with independent validation, cross-validation simultaneously sampling genotypes and environments provided similar estimates of accuracy for genomic selection, but inflated estimates for marker-assisted selection. Estimates of prediction accuracy of marker-assisted (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) require validations. The main goal of our study was to compare the prediction accuracies of MAS and GS validated in an independent sample with results obtained from fivefold cross-validation using genomic and phenotypic data for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat. In addition, the applicability of the reliability criterion, a concept originally developed in the context of classic animal breeding and GS, was explored for MAS. We observed that prediction accuracies of MAS were overestimated by 127% using cross-validation sampling genotype and environments in contrast to independent validation. In contrast, prediction accuracies of GS determined in independent samples are similar to those estimated with cross-validation sampling genotype and environments. This can be explained by small population differentiation between the training and validation sets in our study. For European wheat breeding, which is so far characterized by a slow temporal dynamic in allele frequencies, this assumption seems to be realistic. Thus, GS models used to improve European wheat populations are expected to possess a long-lasting validity. Since quantitative trait loci information can be exploited more precisely if the predicted genotype is more related to the training population, the reliability criterion is also a valuable tool to judge the level of prediction accuracy of individual genotypes in MAS.

  8. Genetic enhancement of host plant-resistance of the Lalat cultivar of rice against bacterial blight employing marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Dokku, Prasad; Das, K M; Rao, G J N

    2013-08-01

    To incorporate durable resistance against bacterial blight, a major disease rice, three resistance genes, xa 5, xa13 and Xa21, from IRBB 60 were transferred through marker-assisted backcrossing using RG 556, RG 136 and pTA248 markers linked to the three genes to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Lalat, a popular rice cultivar. Effective selection enabled the transfer in three back-crosses and a generation of selfing and background selection employing morphological and grain quality traits and molecular markers, led to >90 % recovery of the recurrent parental genome. The gene pyramids exhibited high levels of resistance against the pathogen in multi-location evaluation trials conducted over several locations of bacterial blight in India. IL-2 (CRMAS2621-7-1), a gene pyramid, was identified as being promising for several endemic regions of bacterial blight and was released as Improved Lalat in one of the identified regions. The success of the study demonstrates the vast potential of marker-assisted selection for gene stacking and recovery of the parental genome with high precision.

  9. Development of a gene-centered ssr atlas as a resource for papaya (Carica papaya) marker-assisted selection and population genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community.

  10. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  11. A pyramid breeding of eight grain-yield related quantitative trait loci based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zong, Guo; Wang, Ahong; Wang, Lu; Liang, Guohua; Gu, Minghong; Sang, Tao; Han, Bin

    2012-07-20

    1000-Grain weight and spikelet number per panicle are two important components for rice grain yield. In our previous study, eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring spikelet number per panicle and 1000-grain weight were mapped through sequencing-based genotyping of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs). In this study, we validated the effects of four QTLs from Nipponbare using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), and pyramided eight grain yield related QTLs. The new lines containing the eight QTLs with positive effects showed increased panicle and spikelet size as compared with the parent variety 93-11. We further proposed a novel pyramid breeding scheme based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection (MAPS). This scheme allowed pyramiding of as many as 24 QTLs at a single hybridization without massive cross work. This study provided insights into the molecular basis of rice grain yield for direct wealth for high-yielding rice breeding. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Genetic Gains in Yield and Yield Related Traits under Drought Stress and Favorable Environments in a Maize Population Improved Using Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Folusho; Menkir, Abebe; Olaoye, Gbadebo; Crossa, Jose; Hearne, Sarah; Unachukwu, Nnanna; Gedil, Melaku

    2017-01-01

    The objective of marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS) is to increase the frequency of favorable marker alleles in a population before inbred line extraction. This approach was used to improve drought tolerance and grain yield (GY) in a biparental cross of two elite drought tolerant lines. The testcrosses of randomly selected 50 S1 lines from each of the three selection cycles (C0, C1, C2) of the MARS population, parental testcrosses and the cross between the two parents (F1) were evaluated under drought stress (DS) and well watered (WW) well as under rainfed conditions to determine genetic gains in GY and other agronomic traits. Also, the S1 lines derived from each selection types were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Testcrosses derived from C2 produced significantly higher grain field under DS than those derived from C0 with a relative genetic gain of 7% per cycle. Also, the testcrosses of S1 lines from C2 showed an average genetic gain of 1% per cycle under WW condition and 3% per cycle under rainfed condition. Molecular analysis revealed that the frequency of favorable marker alleles increased from 0.510 at C0 to 0.515 at C2, while the effective number of alleles (Ne) per locus decreased from C0 (1.93) to C2 (1.87). Our results underscore the effectiveness of MARS for improvement of GY under DS condition. PMID:28567048

  13. Introgression of Blast Resistance Genes (Putative Pi-b and Pi-kh) into Elite Rice Cultivar MR219 through Marker-Assisted Selection.

    PubMed

    Tanweer, Fatah A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Harun A; Ahmed, Fahim; Ashkani, Sadegh; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Blast is the most common biotic stress leading to the reduction of rice yield in many rice-growing areas of the world, including Malaysia. Improvement of blast resistance of rice varieties cultivated in blast endemic areas is one of the most important objectives of rice breeding programs. In this study, the marker-assisted backcrossing strategy was applied to improve the blast resistance of the most popular Malaysian rice variety MR219 by introgressing blast resistance genes from the Pongsu Seribu 2 variety. Two blast resistance genes, Pi-b and Pi-kh, were pyramided into MR219. Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified 15 plants homozygous for the Pi-b and Pi-kh genes, and background selection revealed more than 95% genome recovery of MR219 in advanced blast resistant lines. Phenotypic screening against blast disease indicated that advanced homozygous blast resistant lines were strongly resistant against pathotype P7.2 in the blast disease endemic areas. The morphological, yield, grain quality, and yield-contributing characteristics were significantly similar to those of MR219. The newly developed blast resistant improved lines will retain the high adoptability of MR219 by farmers. The present results will also play an important role in sustaining the rice production of Malaysia.

  14. Introgression of Blast Resistance Genes (Putative Pi-b and Pi-kh) into Elite Rice Cultivar MR219 through Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Tanweer, Fatah A.; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Harun A.; Ahmed, Fahim; Ashkani, Sadegh; Latif, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Blast is the most common biotic stress leading to the reduction of rice yield in many rice-growing areas of the world, including Malaysia. Improvement of blast resistance of rice varieties cultivated in blast endemic areas is one of the most important objectives of rice breeding programs. In this study, the marker-assisted backcrossing strategy was applied to improve the blast resistance of the most popular Malaysian rice variety MR219 by introgressing blast resistance genes from the Pongsu Seribu 2 variety. Two blast resistance genes, Pi-b and Pi-kh, were pyramided into MR219. Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified 15 plants homozygous for the Pi-b and Pi-kh genes, and background selection revealed more than 95% genome recovery of MR219 in advanced blast resistant lines. Phenotypic screening against blast disease indicated that advanced homozygous blast resistant lines were strongly resistant against pathotype P7.2 in the blast disease endemic areas. The morphological, yield, grain quality, and yield-contributing characteristics were significantly similar to those of MR219. The newly developed blast resistant improved lines will retain the high adoptability of MR219 by farmers. The present results will also play an important role in sustaining the rice production of Malaysia. PMID:26734013

  15. A next-generation marker genotyping platform (AmpSeq) in heterozygous crops: a case study for marker-assisted selection in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Wang, Minghui; Cote, Linda; Schweitzer, Peter; Barba, Paola; Takacs, Elizabeth M; Clark, Matthew; Luby, James; Manns, David C; Sacks, Gavin; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Londo, Jason; Fennell, Anne; Gadoury, David; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is often employed in crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development, via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next-generation sequencing and its derivative technologies have been used for genome-wide molecular marker discovery. To bridge the gap between marker development and MAS implementation, this study developed a novel practical strategy with a semi-automated pipeline that incorporates trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphism marker discovery, low-cost genotyping through amplicon sequencing (AmpSeq) and decision making. The results document the development of a MAS package derived from genotyping-by-sequencing using three traits (flower sex, disease resistance and acylated anthocyanins) in grapevine breeding. The vast majority of sequence reads (⩾99%) were from the targeted regions. Across 380 individuals and up to 31 amplicons sequenced in each lane of MiSeq data, most amplicons (83 to 87%) had <10% missing data, and read depth had a median of 220-244×. Several strengths of the AmpSeq platform that make this approach of broad interest in diverse crop species include accuracy, flexibility, speed, high-throughput, low-cost and easily automated analysis.

  16. A next-generation marker genotyping platform (AmpSeq) in heterozygous crops: a case study for marker-assisted selection in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanshan; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Wang, Minghui; Cote, Linda; Schweitzer, Peter; Barba, Paola; Takacs, Elizabeth M; Clark, Matthew; Luby, James; Manns, David C; Sacks, Gavin; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Londo, Jason; Fennell, Anne; Gadoury, David; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is often employed in crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development, via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next-generation sequencing and its derivative technologies have been used for genome-wide molecular marker discovery. To bridge the gap between marker development and MAS implementation, this study developed a novel practical strategy with a semi-automated pipeline that incorporates trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphism marker discovery, low-cost genotyping through amplicon sequencing (AmpSeq) and decision making. The results document the development of a MAS package derived from genotyping-by-sequencing using three traits (flower sex, disease resistance and acylated anthocyanins) in grapevine breeding. The vast majority of sequence reads (⩾99%) were from the targeted regions. Across 380 individuals and up to 31 amplicons sequenced in each lane of MiSeq data, most amplicons (83 to 87%) had <10% missing data, and read depth had a median of 220–244×. Several strengths of the AmpSeq platform that make this approach of broad interest in diverse crop species include accuracy, flexibility, speed, high-throughput, low-cost and easily automated analysis. PMID:27257505

  17. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits.

    PubMed

    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E; Currie, Rob W; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J; Guarna, M Marta

    2017-03-16

    Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper's profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance.

  18. Application of a high-speed breeding technology to apple (Malus × domestica) based on transgenic early flowering plants and marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Le Roux, Pierre-Marie; Peil, Andreas; Patocchi, Andrea; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2011-10-01

    Breeding of apple (Malus × domestica) remains a slow process because of protracted generation cycles. Shortening the juvenile phase to achieve the introgression of traits from wild species into prebreeding material within a reasonable time frame is a great challenge. In this study, we evaluated early flowering transgenic apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of silver birch with regard to tree morphology in glasshouse conditions. Based on the results obtained, line T1190 was selected for further analysis and application to fast breeding. The DNA sequences flanking the T-DNA were isolated and the T-DNA integration site was mapped on linkage group 4. The inheritance and correctness of the T-DNA integration were confirmed after meiosis. A crossbred breeding programme was initiated by crossing T1190 with the fire blight-resistant wild species Malus fusca. Transgenic early flowering F(1) seedlings were selected and backcrossed with 'Regia' and 98/6-10 in order to introgress the apple scab Rvi2, Rvi4 and powdery mildew Pl-1, Pl-2 resistance genes and the fire blight resistance quantitative trait locus FB-F7 present in 'Regia'. Three transgenic BC'1 seedlings pyramiding Rvi2, Rvi4 and FB-F7, as well as three other BC'1 seedlings combining Pl-1 and Pl-2, were identified. Thus, the first transgenic early flowering-based apple breeding programme combined with marker-assisted selection was established. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Fine Mapping for Identification of Citrus Alternaria Brown Spot Candidate Resistance Genes and Development of New SNP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Jose; Aleza, Pablo; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a serious disease affecting susceptible citrus genotypes, which is a strong concern regarding citrus breeding programs. Resistance is conferred by a recessive locus (ABSr) previously located by our group within a 3.3 Mb genome region near the centromere in chromosome III. This work addresses fine-linkage mapping of this region for identifying candidate resistance genes and develops new molecular markers for ABS-resistance effective marker-assisted selection (MAS). Markers closely linked to ABSr locus were used for fine mapping using a 268-segregating diploid progeny derived from a heterozygous susceptible × resistant cross. Fine mapping limited the genomic region containing the ABSr resistance gene to 366 kb, flanked by markers at 0.4 and 0.7 cM. This region contains nine genes related to pathogen resistance. Among them, eight are resistance (R) gene homologs, with two of them harboring a serine/threonine protein kinase domain. These two genes along with a gene encoding a S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent-methyltransferase protein, should be considered as strong candidates for ABS-resistance. Moreover, the closest SNP was genotyped in 40 citrus varieties, revealing very high association with the resistant/susceptible phenotype. This new marker is currently used in our citrus breeding program for ABS-resistant parent and cultivar selection, at diploid, triploid and tetraploid level.

  20. Fine Mapping for Identification of Citrus Alternaria Brown Spot Candidate Resistance Genes and Development of New SNP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, Jose; Aleza, Pablo; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a serious disease affecting susceptible citrus genotypes, which is a strong concern regarding citrus breeding programs. Resistance is conferred by a recessive locus (ABSr) previously located by our group within a 3.3 Mb genome region near the centromere in chromosome III. This work addresses fine-linkage mapping of this region for identifying candidate resistance genes and develops new molecular markers for ABS-resistance effective marker-assisted selection (MAS). Markers closely linked to ABSr locus were used for fine mapping using a 268-segregating diploid progeny derived from a heterozygous susceptible × resistant cross. Fine mapping limited the genomic region containing the ABSr resistance gene to 366 kb, flanked by markers at 0.4 and 0.7 cM. This region contains nine genes related to pathogen resistance. Among them, eight are resistance (R) gene homologs, with two of them harboring a serine/threonine protein kinase domain. These two genes along with a gene encoding a S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent-methyltransferase protein, should be considered as strong candidates for ABS-resistance. Moreover, the closest SNP was genotyped in 40 citrus varieties, revealing very high association with the resistant/susceptible phenotype. This new marker is currently used in our citrus breeding program for ABS-resistant parent and cultivar selection, at diploid, triploid and tetraploid level. PMID:28066498

  1. Marker-assisted backcross selection in an interspecific Cucumis population broadens the genetic base of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a major cucurbit vegetable species whose genetic base has been drastically reduced during its domestication. The crop's narrow genetic base (3-12% DNA polymorphism) has resulted from the use of limited genetic material and intense selection during plant improvement....

  2. Identification of QTLs for Rust Resistance in the Peanut Wild Species Arachis magna and the Development of KASP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Cavalcante, Uiara; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Shirasawa, Kenta; Guimarães, Patrícia M.; Jackson, Scott A.; Bertioli, David J.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.

    2015-01-01

    Rust is a major pathogen of the peanut crop. Development and adoption of rust-resistant cultivars is the most cost efficient and effective way to control the spread of the disease and reduce yield losses. Some cultivated peanut germplasm accessions have a degree of resistance, but the secondary gene pool is a source of much stronger resistance alleles. Wild species, however, have undesirable agronomic traits that are a disincentive to their use in breeding. The identification of genomic regions that harbor disease resistance in wild species is the first step in the implementation of marker-assisted selection that can speed the introgression of wild disease resistances and the elimination of linkage drag. In this work, we identify genome regions that control different components of rust resistance in a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Arachis species, the susceptible most probable B genome ancestor of cultivated peanut, Arachis ipaënsis, and an accession of its closest relative, Arachis magna, which is resistant to rust. Quantitative trait loci for several components of resistance were placed in the same position on linkage group B08. Single-nucleotide polymorphism Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers for rust resistance region were designed and validated for marker function in both diploid and tetraploid contexts. PMID:25943521

  3. Identification of QTLs for Rust Resistance in the Peanut Wild Species Arachis magna and the Development of KASP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection.

    PubMed

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Cavalcante, Uiara; Gouvea, Ediene G; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Shirasawa, Kenta; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Jackson, Scott A; Bertioli, David J; Moretzsohn, Márcio C

    2015-05-05

    Rust is a major pathogen of the peanut crop. Development and adoption of rust-resistant cultivars is the most cost efficient and effective way to control the spread of the disease and reduce yield losses. Some cultivated peanut germplasm accessions have a degree of resistance, but the secondary gene pool is a source of much stronger resistance alleles. Wild species, however, have undesirable agronomic traits that are a disincentive to their use in breeding. The identification of genomic regions that harbor disease resistance in wild species is the first step in the implementation of marker-assisted selection that can speed the introgression of wild disease resistances and the elimination of linkage drag. In this work, we identify genome regions that control different components of rust resistance in a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Arachis species, the susceptible most probable B genome ancestor of cultivated peanut, Arachis ipaënsis, and an accession of its closest relative, Arachis magna, which is resistant to rust. Quantitative trait loci for several components of resistance were placed in the same position on linkage group B08. Single-nucleotide polymorphism Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers for rust resistance region were designed and validated for marker function in both diploid and tetraploid contexts. Copyright © 2015 Leal-Bertioli et al.

  4. Development and validation of functional CAPS markers for the FAE genes in Brassica juncea and their use in marker-assisted selection

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Navinder; Singh, Naveen; Kumar, Anil; Vihan, Nitika; Yadav, Sangita; Vasudev, Sujata; Yadava, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    Low erucic acid is a major breeding target to improve the edible oil quality in Brassica juncea. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1.1 and FAE1.2) gene was exploited to expedite the breeding program. The paralogs of FAE1 gene were sequenced from low erucic acid genotype Pusa Mustard 30 and SNPs were identified through homologous alignment with sequence downloaded from NCBI GenBank. Two SNPs in FAE1.1 at position 591 and 1265 and one in FAE1.2 at 237 were found polymorphic among low and high erucic acid genotypes. These SNPs either create or change the recognition site of restriction enzymes. Transition of a single nucleotide at position 591 and 1265 in FAE1.1, and at position 237 in FAE1.2, leads to a change in the recognition site of Hpy99I, BglII and MnlI restriction enzymes, respectively. Two CAPS markers for FAE1.1 and one for FAE1.2 were developed to differentiate low and high erucic acid genotypes. The efficiency of these CAPS markers was found 100 per cent when validated in Brassica juncea, and B. nigra genotypes and used in back-cross breeding. These CAPS markers will facilitate in marker-assisted selection for improvement of oil quality in Brassica juncea. PMID:28163599

  5. A family of LRR sequences in the vicinity of the Co-2 locus for anthracnose resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris and its potential use in marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Geffroy, V; Creusot, F; Falquet, J; Sévignac, M; Adam-Blondon, A F; Bannerot, H; Gepts, P; Dron, M

    1998-03-01

    Molecular markers offer new opportunities for breeding for disease resistance. Resistance gene pyramiding in a single cultivar, as a strategy for durable resistance, can be facilitated by marker-assisted selection (MAS). A RAPD marker, ROH20(450), linked to the Mesoamerican Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene, was previously transformed into a SCAR marker, SCH20. In the present paper we have further characterized the relevance of the SCH20 SCAR marker in different genetic backgrounds. Since this SCAR marker was found to be useful mainly in the Andean gene pool, we identified a new PCR-based marker (SCAreoli) for indirect scoring of the presence of the Co-2 gene. The SCAreoli SCAR marker is polymorphic in the Mesoamerican as well as in the Andean gene pool and should be useful in MAS. We also report that PvH20, the cloned sequence corresponding to the 450-bp RAPD marker ROH20(450), contains six imperfect leucine-rich repeats, and reveals a family of related sequences in the vicinity of the Co-2 locus. These results are discussed in the context of the recent cloning of some plant resistance genes.

  6. Whole-Genome Characteristics and Polymorphic Analysis of Vietnamese Rice Landraces as a Comprehensive Information Resource for Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Hien; Nguyen, Khoa Truong; Nguyen, Lam Van; Pham, Huy Quang; Huong, Can Thu; Xuan, Tran Dang; Anh, La Hoang; Caccamo, Mario; Ayling, Sarah; Diep, Nguyen Thuy; Trung, Khuat Huu

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided numerous opportunities for application in the study of whole plant genomes. In this study, we present the sequencing and bioinformatic analyses of five typical rice landraces including three indica and two japonica with potential blast resistance. A total of 688.4 million 100 bp paired-end reads have yielded approximately 30-fold coverage to compare with the Nipponbare reference genome. Among them, a small number of reads were mapped to both chromosomes and organellar genomes. Over two million and eight hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) in indica and japonica lines have been determined, which potentially have significant impacts on multiple transcripts of genes. SNP deserts, contiguous SNP-low regions, were found on chromosomes 1, 4, and 5 of all genomes of rice examined. Based on the distribution of SNPs per 100 kilobase pairs, the phylogenetic relationships among the landraces have been constructed. This is the first step towards revealing several salient features of rice genomes in Vietnam and providing significant information resources to further marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice breeding programs. PMID:28265566

  7. Development of molecular markers linked to the 'Fiesta' linkage group 7 major QTL for fire blight resistance and their application for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad A; Durel, Charles-Eric; Duffy, Brion; Drouet, Damien; Kellerhals, Markus; Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    A fire blight resistance QTL explaining 34.3%-46.6% of the phenotypic variation was recently identified on linkage group 7 of apple cultivar 'Fiesta' (F7). However, markers flanking this QTL were AFLP and RAPD markers unsuitable for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two RAPD markers bracketing the QTL have been transformed into SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers, and an SSR marker specific for the region was developed. Pedigree analysis of 'Fiesta' with these markers enabled tracking of the F7 QTL allele back to 'Cox's Orange Pippin'. Stability of the effect of this QTL allele in different backgrounds was analyzed by inoculating progeny plants of a cross between 'Milwa', a susceptible cultivar, and '1217', a moderately resistant cultivar, and a set of cultivars that carry or lack the allele conferring increased fire blight resistance. Progenies and cultivars that carried both markers were significantly more resistant than those that did not carry both markers, indicating high stability of the F7 QTL allele in different backgrounds. This stability and the availability of reproducible markers bracketing the QTL make this locus promising for use in MAS.

  8. Combining abilities for agronomic traits and marker-assisted selection for Potato virus X and Potato virus Y resistance.

    PubMed

    Guedes, M L; Pinto, C A B P; Ribeiro, G H M R; Lyra, D H; Carneiro, O L G

    2016-09-16

    Disease-resistant potato cultivars with good tuber appearance and desirable agronomic traits are essential for meeting the demands of producers and the market. Attaining these cultivars is the focus of potato breeding programs whose aim is to benefit the productive chain. The purpose of this study was to estimate combining abilities and evaluate potato clones based on tuber appearance, yield, and resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses. Crosses between four commercial cultivars of potato with good tuber appearance were performed, using eight clones with proven resistance to PVY and PVX from the breeding program of UFLA. The clones obtained were evaluated for agronomic traits, tuber appearance, and the presence of both Ryadg and Rx1 alleles, which confer extreme resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses, respectively. The independent culling level method was used to select genotypes of commercial interest, as well as to estimate the combining abilities of the parents. We identified clones carrying the Ryadg and Rx1 alleles with agronomic traits suitable for the fresh market and for processing. The BRS Ana cultivar and CMA-399 and CMA-385 clones showed positive effects on general combining ability (GCA) for tuber yield, while the Monalisa cultivar showed positive effects on GCA for general tuber appearance.

  9. Development and Validation of High-Resolution Melting Markers Derived from Rysto STS Markers for High-Throughput Marker-Assisted Selection of Potato Carrying Rysto.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xianzhou; Sutherland, Darcy; Dickison, Virginia; Singh, Mathuresh; Murphy, Agnes M; De Koeyer, David

    2016-11-01

    Sequence analysis of the chromosome region harboring the sequence-tagged site (STS) markers YES3-3A and YES3-3B for Rysto, a gene responsible for extreme resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato, was performed in tetraploid potato 'Barbara' (Rrrr) and 'AC Chaleur' (rrrr) as well as their progeny selections. Three and two sequence variants were identified in Barbara resistant (R) selections and AC Chaleur susceptible (S) selections, respectively. Further analysis indicates that the variant with a 21-nucleotide (nt) deletion is likely the chromosome copy harboring the STS markers. Two primer pairs, one targeting the region containing a 20-nt deletion and the other targeting the region anchoring the YES3-3A reverse primer, were designed. As anticipated, pair one produced two visible fragments in Barbara-R bulk and one visible fragment in AC Chaleur-S bulk; pair two produced one visible fragment in all samples. When subjected to high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, two distinct melting profiles for R and S samples were observed. Analysis of 147 progeny of Barbara × AC Chaleur revealed 72 and 75 progeny with R and S melting profiles, respectively, which was consistent with YES3-3A and YES3-3B assays and phenotyping analysis, thus demonstrating the potential of HRM profiles as novel molecular markers for Rysto. The efficacy of the newly developed HRM markers for high-throughput marker-assisted selection for Rysto-conferred resistance to PVY was validated further with three populations involving Barbara as the R parent.

  10. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E.; Currie, Rob W.; Melathopoulos, Andony P.; Pernal, Stephen F.; Foster, Leonard J.; Guarna, M. Marta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper’s profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. PMID:28334400

  11. Opportunities of marker-assisted selection for rice fragrance through marker-trait association analysis of microsatellites and gene-based markers.

    PubMed

    Golestan Hashemi, F S; Rafii, M Y; Razi Ismail, M; Mohamed, M T M; Rahim, H A; Latif, M A; Aslani, F

    2015-09-01

    Developing fragrant rice through marker-assisted/aided selection (MAS) is an economical and profitable approach worldwide for the enrichment of an elite genetic background with a pleasant aroma. The PCR-based DNA markers that distinguish the alleles of major fragrance genes in rice have been synthesised to develop rice scent biofortification through MAS. Thus, the present study examined the aroma biofortification potential of these co-dominant markers in a germplasm panel of 189 F2 progeny developed from crosses between a non-aromatic variety (MR84) and a highly aromatic but low-yielding variety (MRQ74) to determine the most influential diagnostic markers for fragrance biofortification. The SSRs and functional DNA markers RM5633 (on chromosome 4), RM515, RM223, L06, NKSbad2, FMbadh2-E7, BADEX7-5, Aro7 and SCU015RM (on chromosome 8) were highly associated with the 2AP (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) content across the population. The alleles traced via these markers were also in high linkage disequilibrium (R(2) > 0.70) and explained approximately 12.1, 27.05, 27.05, 27.05, 25.42, 25.42, 20.53, 20.43 and 20.18% of the total phenotypic variation observed for these biomarkers, respectively. F2 plants harbouring the favourable alleles of these effective markers produced higher levels of fragrance. Hence, these rice plants can be used as donor parents to increase the development of fragrance-biofortified tropical rice varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, thus contributing to the global rice market. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Quantitative trait locus mapping in chickens by selective DNA pooling with dinucleotide microsatellite markers by using purified DNA and fresh or frozen red blood cells as applied to marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, E; Fulton, J; Cheng, H; Yonash, N; Soller, M

    2002-03-01

    Many large, half-sib sire families are an integral component of chicken genetic improvement programs. These family structures include a sufficient number of individuals for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) at high statistical power. However, realizing this statistical power through individual or selective genotyping is yet too costly to be feasible under current genotyping methodologies. Genotyping costs can be greatly reduced through selective DNA pooling, involving densitometric estimates of marker allele frequencies in pooled DNA samples. When using dinucleotide microsatellite markers, however, such estimates are often confounded by overlapping "shadow" bands and can be confounded further by differential amplification of alleles. In the present study a shadow correction procedure provided accurate densitometric estimates of allele frequency for dinucleotide microsatellite markers in pools made from chicken purified DNA samples, fresh blood samples, and frozen-thawed blood samples. In a retrospective study, selective DNA pooling with thawed blood samples successfully identified two QTL previously shown by selective genotyping to affect resistance in chickens to Marek's disease. It is proposed that use of selective DNA pooling can provide relatively low-cost mapping and use in marker-assisted selection of QTL that affect production traits in chickens.

  13. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers and Development of Sequence-Tagged Site Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection of the Sporeless Trait in the Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Jun; Obatake, Yasushi; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Fukumasa, Yukitaka; Matsumoto, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22210222

  14. Materials Selection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulsa City-County Library System, OK.

    The emphasis of the revised Tulsa (Oklahoma) City-County Library System selection policy is on meeting needs of the community rather than balancing the collection in any one library. The policy includes the "Library Bill of Rights" and covers objectives, responsibilities, maintenance of the collection, controversial materials, gifts,…

  15. Comparison of genomic, marker-assisted, and pedigree-BLUP selection methods to increase beta-glucan concentration in elite oat germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beta-glucan, a soluble fiber found in oat grain, is good for human health, and selection for higher levels of this compound is regarded as an important breeding objective. Recent advances in oat DNA markers present an opportunity to investigate new selection methods for polygenic traits such as beta...

  16. Genome-wide marker-assisted selection combining all pedigree phenotypic information with genotypic data in one step: An example using broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Misztal, I; Aguilar, I; Tsuruta, S; Meuwissen, T H E; Aggrey, S E; Wing, T; Muir, W M

    2011-01-01

    Data of broiler chickens for 2 pure lines across 3 generations were used for genomic evaluation. A complete population (full data set; FDS) consisted of 183,784 and 164,246 broilers for the 2 lines. The genotyped subsets (SUB) consisted of 3,284 and 3,098 broilers with 57,636 SNP. Genotyped animals were preselected based on more than 20 traits with different index applied to each line. Three traits were analyzed: BW at 6 wk (BW6), ultrasound measurement of breast meat (BM), and leg score (LS) coded 1 = no and 2 = yes for leg defect. Some phenotypes were missing for BM. The training population consisted of the first 2 generations including all animals in FDS or only genotyped animals in SUB. The validation data set contained only genotyped animals in the third generation. Genetic evaluations were performed using 3 approaches: 1) phenotypic BLUP, 2) extending BLUP methodologies to utilize pedigree and genomic information in a single step (ssGBLUP), and 3) Bayes A. Whereas BLUP and ssGBLUP utilized all phenotypic data, Bayes A could use only those of the genotyped subset. Heritabilities were 0.17 to 0.20 for BW6, 0.30 to 0.35 for BM, and 0.09 to 0.11 for LS. The average accuracies of the validation population with BLUP for BW6, BM, and LS were 0.46, 0.30, and <0 with SUB and 0.51, 0.34, and 0.28 with FDS. With ssGBLUP, those accuracies were 0.60, 0.34, and 0.06 with SUB and 0.61, 0.40, and 0.37 with FDS, respectively. With Bayes A, the accuracies were 0.60, 0.36, and 0.09 with SUB. With SUB, Bayes A and ssGBLUP had similar accuracies. For traits of high heritability, the accuracy of Bayes A/SUB and ssGBLUP/FDS were similar, and up to 50% better than BLUP/FDS. However, with low heritability, ssGBLUP/FDS was 4 to 6 times more accurate than Bayes A/SUB and 50% better than BLUP/FDS. An optimal genomic evaluation would be multi-trait and involve all traits and records on which selection is based.

  17. Instructional Materials Selection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northampton County Area Community Coll., Bethlehem, PA.

    Through a systematic acquisition policy, the library (1) supports the objectives of the college, the course content of the curricula, and the faculty's teaching methods; (2) provides intellectual and cultural fare for faculty, students, and community; (3) instructs and encourages students in library use. It tries to supply material on all subjects…

  18. Immigration policy: a selective approach.

    PubMed

    Koike, K

    1988-06-01

    Recommendations are offered concerning Japanese policy on the immigration of foreign workers. The author notes that even those countries that used to welcome such immigrants now restrict their entry. The need for a selective policy that would aid internationalization in Japan and strengthen controls on illegal immigrants by requiring employers to secure permits before hiring foreigners is stressed.

  19. Marker-Assisted Introgression in Backcross Breeding Programs

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, P. M.; Haley, C. S.; Thompson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of marker-assisted introgression in backcross populations derived from inbred lines was investigated by simulation. Background genotypes were simulated assuming that a genetic model of many genes of small effects in coupling phase explains the observed breed difference and variance in backcross populations. Markers were efficient in introgression backcross programs for simultaneously introgressing an allele and selecting for the desired genomic background. Using a marker spacing of 10-20 cM gave an advantage of one to two backcross generations selection relative to random or phenotypic selection. When the position of the gene to be introgressed is uncertain, for example because its position was estimated from a trait gene mapping experiment, a chromosome segment should be introgressed that is likely to include the allele of interest. Even for relatively precisely mapped quantitative trait loci, flanking markers or marker haplotypes should cover ~10-20 cM around the estimated position of the gene, to ensure that the allele frequency does not decline in later backcross generations. PMID:8978075

  20. Marker-assisted backcrossing: a useful method for rice improvement.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Mahmudul; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Mahmood, Maziah; Rahim, Harun A; Alam, Md Amirul; Ashkani, Sadegh; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-03-04

    The world's population is increasing very rapidly, reducing the cultivable land of rice, decreasing table water, emerging new diseases and pests, and the climate changes are major issues that must be addressed to researchers to develop sustainable crop varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, recent scientific discoveries and advances particularly in genetics, genomics and crop physiology have opened up new opportunities to reduce the impact of these stresses which would have been difficult if not impossible as recently as the turn of the century. Marker assisted backcrossing (MABC) is one of the most promising approaches is the use of molecular markers to identify and select genes controlling resistance to those factors. Regarding this, MABC can contribute to develop resistant or high-yielding or quality rice varieties by incorporating a gene of interest into an elite variety which is already well adapted by the farmers. MABC is newly developed efficient tool by which using large population sizes (400 or more plants) for the backcross F1 generations, it is possible to recover the recurrent parent genotype using only two or three backcrosses. So far, many high yielding, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance, quality and fragrance rice varieties have been developed in rice growing countries through MABC within the shortest timeframe. Nowadays, MABC is being used widely in plant breeding programmes to develop new variety/lines especially in rice. This paper reviews recent literature on some examples of variety/ line development using MABC strategy.

  1. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding In Rosaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RosBREED will create a national, dynamic, sustained effort in research, infrastructure establishment, training, and extension for applying marker-assisted breeding (MAB) to deliver improved plant materials more efficiently and rapidly. The Rosaceae family (including apple, peach, sweet and tart cher...

  2. An example of marker assisted breeding in peanut and an illustration of the need for more markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) can greatly benefit peanut breeding programs by providing genotyping tools that can be applied early in plant development in order to reliably predict phenotypes. A relatively low amount of genetic polymorphism has limited the development of molecular markers for imp...

  3. Large-scale analysis of differential gene expression in coffee genotypes resistant and susceptible to leaf miner-toward the identification of candidate genes for marker assisted-selection.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Danielle C; Martinati, Juliana C; Giachetto, Poliana F; Vidal, Ramon O; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Padilha, Lilian; Guerreiro-Filho, Oliveiro; Maluf, Mirian P

    2014-01-24

    A successful development of herbivorous insects into plant tissues depends on coordination of metabolic processes. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to recognize such attacks, and to trigger a defense response. To understand the transcriptional basis of this response, we compare gene expression profiles of two coffee genotypes, susceptible and resistant to leaf miner (Leucoptera coffella). A total of 22000 EST sequences from the Coffee Genome Database were selected for a microarray analysis. Fluorescence probes were synthesized using mRNA from the infested and non-infested coffee plants. Array hybridization, scanning and data normalization were performed using Nimble Scan® e ArrayStar® platforms. Genes with foldchange values +/-2 were considered differentially expressed. A validation of 18 differentially expressed genes was performed in infected plants using qRT-PCR approach. The microarray analysis indicated that resistant plants differ in gene expression profile. We identified relevant transcriptional changes in defense strategies before insect attack. Expression changes (>2.00-fold) were found in resistant plants for 2137 genes (1266 up-regulated and 873 down-regulated). Up-regulated genes include those responsible for defense mechanisms, hypersensitive response and genes involved with cellular function and maintenance. Also, our analyses indicated that differential expression profiles between resistant and susceptible genotypes are observed in the absence of leaf-miner, indicating that defense is already build up in resistant plants, as a priming mechanism. Validation of selected genes pointed to four selected genes as suitable candidates for markers in assisted-selection of novel cultivars. Our results show evidences that coffee defense responses against leaf-miner attack are balanced with other cellular functions. Also analyses suggest a major metabolic reconfiguration that highlights the complexity of this response.

  4. Large-scale analysis of differential gene expression in coffee genotypes resistant and susceptible to leaf miner–toward the identification of candidate genes for marker assisted-selection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A successful development of herbivorous insects into plant tissues depends on coordination of metabolic processes. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to recognize such attacks, and to trigger a defense response. To understand the transcriptional basis of this response, we compare gene expression profiles of two coffee genotypes, susceptible and resistant to leaf miner (Leucoptera coffella). A total of 22000 EST sequences from the Coffee Genome Database were selected for a microarray analysis. Fluorescence probes were synthesized using mRNA from the infested and non-infested coffee plants. Array hybridization, scanning and data normalization were performed using Nimble Scan® e ArrayStar® platforms. Genes with foldchange values +/-2 were considered differentially expressed. A validation of 18 differentially expressed genes was performed in infected plants using qRT-PCR approach. Results The microarray analysis indicated that resistant plants differ in gene expression profile. We identified relevant transcriptional changes in defense strategies before insect attack. Expression changes (>2.00-fold) were found in resistant plants for 2137 genes (1266 up-regulated and 873 down-regulated). Up-regulated genes include those responsible for defense mechanisms, hypersensitive response and genes involved with cellular function and maintenance. Also, our analyses indicated that differential expression profiles between resistant and susceptible genotypes are observed in the absence of leaf-miner, indicating that defense is already build up in resistant plants, as a priming mechanism. Validation of selected genes pointed to four selected genes as suitable candidates for markers in assisted-selection of novel cultivars. Conclusions Our results show evidences that coffee defense responses against leaf-miner attack are balanced with other cellular functions. Also analyses suggest a major metabolic reconfiguration that highlights the complexity of this response. PMID

  5. Rapid Introgression of the Fusarium Wilt Resistance Gene into an Elite Cabbage Line through the Combined Application of a Microspore Culture, Genome Background Analysis, and Disease Resistance-Specific Marker Assisted Foreground Selection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Kong, Congcong; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Lv, Honghao

    2017-01-01

    Cabbage is an economically important vegetable worldwide. Cabbage Fusarium Wilt (CFW) is a destructive disease that results in considerable yield and quality losses in cole crops. The use of CFW-resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to mitigate the effects of CFW. 01-20 is an elite cabbage line with desirable traits and a high combining ability, but it is highly susceptible to CFW. To rapidly transfer a CFW resistance gene into 01-20 plants, we used microspore cultures to develop 230 doubled haploid (DH) lines from a cross between 01-20 (highly susceptible) and 96-100 (highly resistant). One of the generated DH lines (i.e., D134) was highly resistant to CFW and exhibited a phenotypic performance that was similar to that of line 01-20. Therefore, D134 was applied as the resistance donor parent. We generated 24 insertion–deletion markers using whole genome resequencing data for lines 01-20 and 96-100 to analyze the genomic backgrounds of backcross (BC) progenies. Based on the CFW resistance gene FOC1, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (i.e., Frg13) was developed for foreground selections. We screened 240 BC1 individuals and 280 BC2 individuals with these markers and assessed their phenotypic performance. The proportion of recurrent parent genome (PRPG) of the best individuals in BC1 and BC2 were 95.8 and 99.1%. Finally, a best individual designated as YR01-20 was identified from 80 BC2F1 individuals, with homozygous FOC1 allele and genomic background and phenotype almost the same as those of 01-20. Our results may provide a rapid and efficient way of improving elite lines through the combined application of microspore culture, whole-genome background analysis, and disease resistance-specific marker selection. Additionally, the cabbage lines developed in this study represent elite materials useful for the breeding of new CFW-resistant cabbage varieties. PMID:28392793

  6. Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in lettuce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the most popular leafy vegetable that is cultivated mainly in moderate climate. Consumers demand lettuce with good visual appearance and free of disease. Improved disease resistance of new cultivars is achieved by combining desirable genes (or alleles) from existing cu...

  7. Marker-assisted selection for biotic stress resistance in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut ranks second to soybean in the world market trade of oilseeds both in area grown and tonnage produced, and is well-suited to contribute significantly to poverty reduction in the developing world. Peanut is a tetrapoid of recent origin, and has shown low levels of molecular marker polymorphis...

  8. Marker-assisted breeding for transgressive seed protein content in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying Hu; Liu, Mei Feng; He, Jian Bo; Wang, Yu Feng; Xing, Guang Nan; Li, Yan; Yang, Shou Ping; Zhao, Tuan Jie; Gai, Jun Yi

    2015-06-01

    After two cycles of marker-assisted breeding on three loci, lines with transgressive segregation of 8.22-9.32 % protein content were developed based on four original soybean parents with 35.35-44.83 % protein content. Marker-assisted breeding has been an innovative approach in conventional breeding, which is to be further demonstrated, especially for quantitative traits. A study on continuous transgressive breeding for seed protein content (SPC) in soybean using marker-assisted procedures is reported here. The SPC of the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population XG varied in 38.04-47.54 % under five environments with P 1 of 35.35 %, P 2 of 44.34 % and total heritability of 89.11 %. A transgressive segregant XG30 with SPC 45.53 % was selected for further improvement. The linkage mapping of XG showed its genetic constitution composed of five additive QTL (32.16 % of phenotypic variation or PV) and two pairs of epistatic QTL (2.96 % PV) using 400 SSR markers with the remnant heritability 53.99 % attributed to the undetected collective of minor QTL. Another transgressive segregant WT133 with SPC 48.39 % was selected from the RIL population WT (44.83 % SPC for both parents). XG30 and WT133 were genotyped on the three major additive QTL (Prot-08-1, Prot-14-1 and Prot-19-2) as A 2 A 2 B 2 B 2 L 1 L 1 and A 1 A 1 B 1 B 1 L 2 L 2 , respectively. From WT133×XG30, surprising transgressive progenies were obtained, among which the recombinants with all three positive alleles A 2 _B 2 _L 2 _ performed the highest SPC, especially that of Prot-08-1. The five F 2-derived superior families showed their means higher than the high parent value in F 2:3 and F 2:4 and more transgressive effect in F 2:5:6, with the highest as high as 54.15 %, or 4.82 and 9.32 % more than WT133 and its original high parent, respectively. This study demonstrated the efficiency of marker-assisted procedure in breeding for transgressive segregation of quantitative trait.

  9. Vertical File Selection Policy and Procedure Policy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Doyne M.

    A definition of a pamphlet and a brief discussion of user accessibility to the Bracken Library Reference Service pamphlet collection at Ball state University (Indiana), are followed by the Selection Policy's guidelines, which are designed to ensure a consistent pattern of pamphlet selection. These guidelines cover types of materials to be…

  10. Selected State Policies, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This collection of selected state policies covers the entire range of educational issues. It furnishes descriptions of legislative bills, arranged by category, from all 50 states. Essentially, the information in this report is raw data rapidly processed to be released in printed form at the earliest possible date. Editing has been kept to a…

  11. Marker-assisted introgression of broad-spectrum blast resistance genes into the cultivated MR219 rice variety.

    PubMed

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2017-07-01

    The rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor. Marker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of 13 improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype, P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219. The research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease-resistant rice varieties, which in turn will match rising demand and food security worldwide. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Marker-assisted combination of major genes for pathogen resistance in potato.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, C; Bellin, D; Henselewski, H; Lehmann, W; Schwarzfischer, J; Valkonen, J P T

    2006-05-01

    Closely linked PCR-based markers facilitate the tracing and combining of resistance factors that have been introgressed previously into cultivated potato from different sources. Crosses were performed to combine the Ry ( adg ) gene for extreme resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) with the Gro1 gene for resistance to the root cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis and the Rx1 gene for extreme resistance to Potato virus X (PVX), or with resistance to potato wart (Synchytrium endobioticum). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) using four PCR-based diagnostic assays was applied to 110 F1 hybrids resulting from four 2x by 4x cross-combinations. Thirty tetraploid plants having the appropriate marker combinations were selected and tested for presence of the corresponding resistance traits. All plants tested showed the expected resistant phenotype. Unexpectedly, the plants segregated for additional resistance to pathotypes 1, 2 and 6 of S. endobioticum, which was subsequently shown to be inherited from the PVY resistant parents of the crosses. The selected plants can be used as sources of multiple resistance traits in pedigree breeding and are available from a potato germplasm bank.

  13. Marker assisted accelerated introgression of null allele of kunitz trypsin inhibitor in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Rawal, Reena; Mourya, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    Development of kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI)-free soybean is crucial for soy-food industry as the heat inactivation employed to inactivate the anti-nutritional factor in regular soybean incurs extra cost and affects protein solubility. In the presented work, a null allele of KTI from PI542044 was introgressed into cultivar ‘JS97-52’ (recurrent parent) through marker assisted backcrossing. Foreground selection in BC1F2, BC2F2 and BC3F2 was carried out using the null allele-specific marker in tandem with SSR marker Satt228, tightly linked with a trypsin inhibitor Ti locus. Background selection in null allele-carrying plants through 106 polymorphic SSR markers across the genome led to the identification of 9 KTI-free lines exhibiting 98.6% average recurrent parent genome content (RPGC) after three backcrosses, which otherwise had required 5–6 backcrosses through conventional method. Introgressed lines (ILs) were free from KTI and yielded at par with recurrent parent. Reduction of 68.8–83.5% in trypsin inhibitor content (TIC) in ILs compared to the recurrent parent (‘JS97-52’) was attributed to the elimination of KTI. PMID:26719748

  14. Functional Marker Assisted Improvement of Stable Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines of Rice for Bacterial Blight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Jegadeesan; Savitha, Palanisamy; Alagarasan, Ganesh; Saraswathi, Ramasamy; Chandrababu, Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae is one among the major diseases in rice, which in severe condition cause losses up to 60% in total yield. Marker assisted pyramiding of three broad spectrum BB resistance genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21) in prominent rice varieties is the most economical and effective strategy for the management of the BB disease. We report here the pyramiding of three genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21) in maintainer lines (CO 2B, CO 23B, and CO 24B) of three promising wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterile lines (CO 2A, CO 23A, and CO 24A) through functional markers assisted back cross breeding. IRBB60 with xa5, xa13, and Xa21 genes is used as a donor parent. BC2F1 and BC2F2 generations from a cross of CO 2B, CO 23B, and CO 24B with IRBB60 were evaluated for bacterial blight and non-fertility restoration. In BC2F1, plants with all three resistance genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21) and high parent genome recovery was identified. In BC2F2, plants with all resistance genes and without fertility restorer (Rf3 and Rf4) were selected. Based on agronomic traits, BB resistance and maintenance of sterility, two plants each in CO 2B × IRBB60, CO 24B × IRBB60 and one plant in CO 23B × IRBB60 combinations were identified. The identified lines were crossed with respective male sterile lines for conversion of improved B line into CMS line through back-crossing, in addition to selfing. The plants with high recurrent genome and phenotypically similar to parental lines and sterile are being used for the hybrid rice development program. Currently, using these lines (improved CMS line), test crosses were made to develop new rice hybrids. Hybrids combinations viz., CO 23A × AD08009R and CO 24A × IET20898R were found to be stable at different locations with high yield. The R line used in this study has been introgressed with xa5, xa13, and Xa21 genes in a separate breeding program. These new hybrids with resistance against bacterial blight will increase

  15. QTL mapping, association mapping and marker assisted breeding in lettuce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of elite lettuce cultivars is a lengthy process that involves cross-pollination, several rounds of selection, development of homozygous genotypes, and testing of material performance. Use of molecular markers linked to the genes allows for rapid and frequently more accurate selection of ...

  16. SSR marker-assisted improvement of fiber qualities in Gossypium hirsutum using G. barbadense introgression lines.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhibin; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates the first practical use of CSILs for the transfer of fiber quality QTLs into Upland cotton cultivars using SSR markers without detrimentally affecting desirable agronomic characteristics. Gossypium hirsutum is characterized by its high lint production and medium fiber quality compared to extra-long staple cotton G. barbadense. Transferring valuable traits or genes from G. barbadense into G. hirsutum is a promising but challenging approach through a traditional interspecific introgression strategy. We developed one set of chromosome segment introgression lines (CSILs), where TM-1, the genetic standard in G. hirsutum, was used as the recipient parent and the long staple cotton G. barbadense cv. Hai7124 was used as the donor parent by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Among them, four CSILs, IL040-A4-1, IL080-D6-1, IL088-A7-3 and IL019-A2-6, found to be associated with superior fiber qualities including fiber length, strength and fineness QTL in Xinjiang were selected and backcrossed, and transferred these QTLs into three commercial Upland cotton cultivars such as Xinluzao (XLZ) 26, 41 and 42 grown in Xinjiang. By backcrossing and self-pollinating twice, five improved lines (3262-4, 3389-2, 3326-3, 3380-4 and 3426-5) were developed by MAS of background and introgressed segments. In diverse field trials, these QTLs consistently and significantly offered additive effects on the target phenotype. Furthermore, we also pyramided two segments from different CSILs (IL080-D6-1 and IL019-A2-6) into cultivar 0768 to accelerate breeding process purposefully with MAS. The improved lines pyramided by these two introgressed segments showed significant additive epistatic effects in four separate field trials. No significant alteration in yield components was observed in these modified lines. In summary, we first report that these CSILs have great potential to improve fiber qualities in Upland cotton MAS breeding programs.

  17. Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Genetic Enhancement of Parental Lines of Rajalaxmi, an Elite Rice Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Dash, Amit K; Rao, Ravi N; Rao, G J N; Verma, Ram L; Katara, Jawahar L; Mukherjee, Arup K; Singh, Onkar N; Bagchi, Torit B

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic male sterile line system comprising CRMS 32A and its maintainer line CRMS 32B is a popular choice for the development of new hybrids in India as CRMS 32A, having Kalinga 1 cytoplasm (other than WA), is a viable alternative to WA cytoplasm. However, both lines are susceptible to bacterial blight (BB), a major disease on rice. As enhancement of host plant resistance is the most effective and economical strategy to control this disease, four resistance genes (Xa4, xa5, xa13, and Xa21) were transferred from a BB pyramid line of IR64, into the A and B lines using a marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB) breeding strategy. During the transfer of genes into CRMS 32B, foreground selection was applied using markers associated with the genes, and plants having resistance alleles of the donor, are selected. Selection for morphological and quality traits was practiced to select plants similar to the recurrent parent. The four gene and three gene pyramid lines exhibited high levels of resistance against the BB pathogen when challenged with eight virulent isolates. Using genome wide based SSR markers for background selection, pyramids having >95% of the recurrent parent genome were identified. With CRMS 32B gene pyramid as donor, the four resistance genes were transferred into the A line through repeated backcrosses and the A line pyramids also exhibited high level of resistance against BB. Through a combination of selection at phenotypic and molecular levels, four BB resistance genes were successfully introduced into two parental lines (CRMS 32 B and A) of Rajalaxmi, an elite popular hybrid. The pyramided B lines did exhibit high levels of resistance against BB. Selection for morphological and quality traits and background selection hastened the recovery of the recurrent parent genome in the recombinants. Through repeated backcrosses, all the four resistance genes were transferred to CRMS 32A and test crosses suggest that the maintenance ability of the improved CRMS

  18. Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Genetic Enhancement of Parental Lines of Rajalaxmi, an Elite Rice Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Amit K.; Rao, Ravi N.; Rao, G. J. N.; Verma, Ram L.; Katara, Jawahar L.; Mukherjee, Arup K.; Singh, Onkar N.; Bagchi, Torit B.

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic male sterile line system comprising CRMS 32A and its maintainer line CRMS 32B is a popular choice for the development of new hybrids in India as CRMS 32A, having Kalinga 1 cytoplasm (other than WA), is a viable alternative to WA cytoplasm. However, both lines are susceptible to bacterial blight (BB), a major disease on rice. As enhancement of host plant resistance is the most effective and economical strategy to control this disease, four resistance genes (Xa4, xa5, xa13, and Xa21) were transferred from a BB pyramid line of IR64, into the A and B lines using a marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB) breeding strategy. During the transfer of genes into CRMS 32B, foreground selection was applied using markers associated with the genes, and plants having resistance alleles of the donor, are selected. Selection for morphological and quality traits was practiced to select plants similar to the recurrent parent. The four gene and three gene pyramid lines exhibited high levels of resistance against the BB pathogen when challenged with eight virulent isolates. Using genome wide based SSR markers for background selection, pyramids having >95% of the recurrent parent genome were identified. With CRMS 32B gene pyramid as donor, the four resistance genes were transferred into the A line through repeated backcrosses and the A line pyramids also exhibited high level of resistance against BB. Through a combination of selection at phenotypic and molecular levels, four BB resistance genes were successfully introduced into two parental lines (CRMS 32 B and A) of Rajalaxmi, an elite popular hybrid. The pyramided B lines did exhibit high levels of resistance against BB. Selection for morphological and quality traits and background selection hastened the recovery of the recurrent parent genome in the recombinants. Through repeated backcrosses, all the four resistance genes were transferred to CRMS 32A and test crosses suggest that the maintenance ability of the improved CRMS

  19. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.79 Selection policy for professional personnel....

  20. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.79 Selection policy for professional personnel....

  1. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.79 Selection policy for professional personnel. In...

  2. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.79 Selection policy for professional personnel. In...

  3. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.79 Selection policy for professional personnel. In...

  4. Patent and Copyright Policies at Selected Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Gathered are statements of copyright and patent policies in effect at 13 universities. In some cases policies concerning publication and sponsored research are included. The statements are reproduced exactly as received from the institutions, without interpretation. The universities participating are: Boston University (Massachusetts); California…

  5. Recurrent parent genome recovery analysis in a marker-assisted backcrossing program of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-02-01

    Backcross breeding is the most commonly used method for incorporating a blast resistance gene into a rice cultivar. Linkage between the resistance gene and undesirable units can persist for many generations of backcrossing. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. The MABC approach was employed to incorporate (a) blast resistance gene(s) from the donor parent Pongsu Seribu 1, the blast-resistant local variety in Malaysia, into the genetic background of MR219, a popular high-yielding rice variety that is blast susceptible, to develop a blast-resistant MR219 improved variety. In this perspective, the recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 375 SSR markers, 70 markers were found polymorphic between the parents, and these markers were used to evaluate the plants in subsequent generations. Background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 75.40% to 91.3% and from 80.40% to 96.70% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations, respectively. In this study, the recurrent parent genome content in the selected BC2F2 lines ranged from 92.7% to 97.7%. The average proportion of the recurrent parent in the selected improved line was 95.98%. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in backcross generations. The application of MAS with the MABC breeding program accelerated the recovery of the RP genome, reducing the number of generations and the time for incorporating resistance against rice blast. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Selected Energy Efficiency Policies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan, asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to undertake a quantitative analysis of a variety of energy efficiency policies using assumptions provided by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE).

  7. Evaluation of quantitative trait loci affecting intramuscular fat and reproductive traits in pigs using marker-assisted introgression.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Ohnishi, C; Kikuchi, T; Kohira, K; Egawa, S; Terai, S; Nakamura, T; Arata, S; Komatsuda, A; Uemoto, Y

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in an experimental backcross (BC) between Chinese Meishan pigs and commercial Duroc pigs. We performed marker-assisted introgression of two QTL for intramuscular fat (IMF) content (IMF population) and three QTL for reproductive traits (reproduction population) from a donor Meishan pig into a recipient Duroc pig. At the fourth BC generation of the IMF population and third BC generation of the reproduction population, carrier animals were selected for the production of animals homozygous for the QTL. Our previous studies have shown that the presence of a Meishan allele on the IMF QTL is associated with low IMF values, and the Meishan allele on the reproductive QTL is associated with large litters. In this study, the presence of a Duroc allele at the IMF QTL on SSC9 resulted in a 0.27% increase in IMF (additive effect = 0.27 ± 0.08), whereas the presence of a Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 resulted in a 0.34% increase in IMF (additive effect = -0.34 ± 0.09). The presence of the Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 thus had the opposite effect to our previous studies, that is, increased IMF. In the reproduction population, we observed no differences between the genotypes of the three QTL in regard to number of corpora lutea or litter size. Marker-assisted introgression at these QTL is thus unlikely to result in an associated increase in litter size. These results show that it is possible to introgress alleles from other breeds into a selection population using molecular markers; any unexpected results might be associated with the genetic background. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Molecular marker assisted gene stacking for biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes in an elite rice cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gitishree; Rao, G. J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Severe yield loss due to various biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), gall midge (insect) and Blast (disease) and abiotic stresses like submergence and salinity are a serious constraint to the rice productivity throughout the world. The most effective and reliable method of management of the stresses is the enhancement of host resistance, through an economical and environmentally friendly approach. Through the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) technique, the present study reports a successful pyramidization of genes/QTLs to confer resistance/tolerance to blast (Pi2, Pi9), gall Midge (Gm1, Gm4), submergence (Sub1), and salinity (Saltol) in a released rice variety CRMAS2621-7-1 as Improved Lalat which had already incorporated with three BB resistance genes xa5, xa13, and Xa21 to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Improved Lalat. The molecular analysis revealed clear polymorphism between the donor and recipient parents for all the markers that are tagged to the target traits. The conventional backcross breeding approach was followed till BC3F1 generation and starting from BC1F1 onwards, marker assisted selection was employed at each step to monitor the transfer of the target alleles with molecular markers. The different BC3F1s having the target genes/QTLs were inter crossed to generate hybrids with all 10 stress resistance/tolerance genes/QTLs into a single plant/line. Homozygous plants for resistance/tolerance genes in different combinations were recovered. The BC3F3 lines were characterized for their agronomic and quality traits and promising progeny lines were selected. The SSR based background selection was done. Most of the gene pyramid lines showed a high degree of similarity to the recurrent parent for both morphological, grain quality traits and in SSR based background selection. Out of all the gene pyramids tested, two lines had all the 10 resistance/tolerance genes and showed adequate levels of resistance/tolerance against the five target

  9. Molecular marker assisted gene stacking for biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes in an elite rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Das, Gitishree; Rao, G J N

    2015-01-01

    Severe yield loss due to various biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), gall midge (insect) and Blast (disease) and abiotic stresses like submergence and salinity are a serious constraint to the rice productivity throughout the world. The most effective and reliable method of management of the stresses is the enhancement of host resistance, through an economical and environmentally friendly approach. Through the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) technique, the present study reports a successful pyramidization of genes/QTLs to confer resistance/tolerance to blast (Pi2, Pi9), gall Midge (Gm1, Gm4), submergence (Sub1), and salinity (Saltol) in a released rice variety CRMAS2621-7-1 as Improved Lalat which had already incorporated with three BB resistance genes xa5, xa13, and Xa21 to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Improved Lalat. The molecular analysis revealed clear polymorphism between the donor and recipient parents for all the markers that are tagged to the target traits. The conventional backcross breeding approach was followed till BC3F1 generation and starting from BC1F1 onwards, marker assisted selection was employed at each step to monitor the transfer of the target alleles with molecular markers. The different BC3F1s having the target genes/QTLs were inter crossed to generate hybrids with all 10 stress resistance/tolerance genes/QTLs into a single plant/line. Homozygous plants for resistance/tolerance genes in different combinations were recovered. The BC3F3 lines were characterized for their agronomic and quality traits and promising progeny lines were selected. The SSR based background selection was done. Most of the gene pyramid lines showed a high degree of similarity to the recurrent parent for both morphological, grain quality traits and in SSR based background selection. Out of all the gene pyramids tested, two lines had all the 10 resistance/tolerance genes and showed adequate levels of resistance/tolerance against the five target

  10. Development of a RAD-Seq Based DNA Polymorphism Identification Software, AgroMarker Finder, and Its Application in Rice Marker-Assisted Breeding.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Zong, Jie; Luo, Zhijing; Chen, Mingjiao; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Qi, Yiping; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate genome-wide marker detection is essential to the marker-assisted breeding and functional genomics studies. In this work, we developed an integrated software, AgroMarker Finder (AMF: http://erp.novelbio.com/AMF), for providing graphical user interface (GUI) to facilitate the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing data analysis in rice. By application of AMF, a total of 90,743 high-quality markers (82,878 SNPs and 7,865 InDels) were detected between rice varieties JP69 and Jiaoyuan5A. The density of the identified markers is 0.2 per Kb for SNP markers, and 0.02 per Kb for InDel markers. Sequencing validation revealed that the accuracy of genome-wide marker detection by AMF is 93%. In addition, a validated subset of 82 SNPs and 31 InDels were found to be closely linked to 117 important agronomic trait genes, providing a basis for subsequent marker-assisted selection (MAS) and variety identification. Furthermore, we selected 12 markers from 31 validated InDel markers to identify seed authenticity of variety Jiaoyuanyou69, and we also identified 10 markers closely linked to the fragrant gene BADH2 to minimize linkage drag for Wuxiang075 (BADH2 donor)/Jiachang1 recombinants selection. Therefore, this software provides an efficient approach for marker identification from RAD-seq data, and it would be a valuable tool for plant MAS and variety protection.

  11. Development of a RAD-Seq Based DNA Polymorphism Identification Software, AgroMarker Finder, and Its Application in Rice Marker-Assisted Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhijing; Chen, Mingjiao; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Qi, Yiping; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate genome-wide marker detection is essential to the marker-assisted breeding and functional genomics studies. In this work, we developed an integrated software, AgroMarker Finder (AMF: http://erp.novelbio.com/AMF), for providing graphical user interface (GUI) to facilitate the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing data analysis in rice. By application of AMF, a total of 90,743 high-quality markers (82,878 SNPs and 7,865 InDels) were detected between rice varieties JP69 and Jiaoyuan5A. The density of the identified markers is 0.2 per Kb for SNP markers, and 0.02 per Kb for InDel markers. Sequencing validation revealed that the accuracy of genome-wide marker detection by AMF is 93%. In addition, a validated subset of 82 SNPs and 31 InDels were found to be closely linked to 117 important agronomic trait genes, providing a basis for subsequent marker-assisted selection (MAS) and variety identification. Furthermore, we selected 12 markers from 31 validated InDel markers to identify seed authenticity of variety Jiaoyuanyou69, and we also identified 10 markers closely linked to the fragrant gene BADH2 to minimize linkage drag for Wuxiang075 (BADH2 donor)/Jiachang1 recombinants selection. Therefore, this software provides an efficient approach for marker identification from RAD-seq data, and it would be a valuable tool for plant MAS and variety protection. PMID:26799713

  12. Development of β-carotene rich maize hybrids through marker-assisted introgression of β-carotene hydroxylase allele.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Vignesh; Hossain, Firoz; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Choudhary, Mukesh; Saha, Supradip; Bhat, Jayant S; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Gupta, Hari S

    2014-01-01

    Development of vitamin A-rich cereals can help in alleviating the widespread problem of vitamin A deficiency. We report here significant enhancement of kernel β-carotene in elite maize genotypes through accelerated marker-assisted backcross breeding. A favourable allele (543 bp) of the β-carotene hydroxylase (crtRB1) gene was introgressed in the seven elite inbred parents, which were low (1.4 µg/g) in kernel β-carotene, by using a crtRB1-specific DNA marker for foreground selection. About 90% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in the selected progenies within two backcross generations. Concentration of β-carotene among the crtRB1-introgressed inbreds varied from 8.6 to 17.5 µg/g - a maximum increase up to 12.6-fold over recurrent parent. The reconstituted hybrids developed from improved parental inbreds also showed enhanced kernel β-carotene as high as 21.7 µg/g, compared to 2.6 µg/g in the original hybrid. The reconstituted hybrids evaluated at two locations possessed similar grain yield to that of original hybrids. These β-carotene enriched high yielding hybrids can be effectively utilized in the maize biofortification programs across the globe.

  13. Optimal remediation policy selection under general conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Zheng, C.

    1997-09-01

    A new simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal design of ground-water remediation systems under a variety of field conditions. The model couples genetic algorithm (GA), a global search technique inspired by biological evolution, with MODFLOW and MT3D, two commonly used ground-water flow and solute transport codes. The model allows for multiple management periods in which optimal pumping/injection rates vary with time to reflect the changes in the flow and transport conditions during the remediation process. The objective function of the model incorporates multiple cost terms including the drilling cost, the installation cost, and the costs to extract and treat the contaminated ground water. The simulation-optimization model is first applied to a typical two-dimensional pump-and-treat example with one and three management periods to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new model. The model is then applied to a large-scale three-dimensional field problem to determine the minimum pumping needed to contain an existing contaminant plume. The optimal solution as determined in this study is compared with a previous solution based on trial-and-error selection.

  14. An International Perspective on Pharmacy Student Selection Policies and Processes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, John; Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession.

  15. Advances to improve the eating and cooking qualities of rice by marker-assisted breeding.

    PubMed

    Phing Lau, Wendy Chui; Latif, Mohammad Abdul; Y Rafii, Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Puteh, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The eating and cooking qualities of rice are heavily emphasized in breeding programs because they determine market values and they are the appealing attributes sought by consumers. Conventional breeding has developed traditional varieties with improved eating and cooking qualities. Recently, intensive genetic studies have pinpointed the genes that control eating and cooking quality traits. Advances in genetic studies have developed molecular techniques, thereby allowing marker-assisted breeding (MAB) for improved eating and cooking qualities in rice. MAB has gained the attention of rice breeders for the advantages it can offer that conventional breeding cannot. There have been successful cases of using MAB to improve the eating and cooking qualities in rice over the years. Nevertheless, MAB should be applied cautiously given the intensive effort needed for genotyping. Perspectives from conventional breeding to marker-assisted breeding will be discussed in this review for the advancement of the eating and cooking qualities of fragrance, amylose content (AC), gel consistency (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) in rice. These four parameters are associated with eating and cooking qualities in rice. The genetic basis of these four parameters is also included in this review. MAB is another approach to rice variety improvement and development in addition to being an alternative to genetic engineering. The MAB approach shortens the varietal development time, and is therefore able to deliver improved rice varieties to farmers within a shorter period of time.

  16. Current patents and future development underlying marker-assisted breeding in major grain crops.

    PubMed

    Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2009-01-01

    Genomics and molecular markers provide new tools to assemble and mobilize important traits from different genetic backgrounds, including breeding lines and cultivars from different parts of the world and their related wild ancestors, to improve the quality and yield of the existing commercial cultivars to meet the increasing challenges of global food demand. The basic techniques of marker-assisted breeding, such as isolating DNA, amplifying DNA of interest using publicly available primers, and visualizing DNA fragments using standard polyacrylamid gel, have been described in the literature and, therefore, are available to scientists and breeders without any restrictions. A more sophisticated high-throughput system that includes proprietary chemicals and reagents, parts and equipments, software, and methods or processes, has been a subject of intensive patents and trade secrets. The high-throughput systems offer a more efficient way to discover associated QTLs for traits of economic importance. Therefore, an increasing number of patents of highly valued genes and QTLs is expected. This paper will discuss and review current patents associated with genes and QTLs utilized in marker-assisted breeding in major grain crops. The availability of molecular markers for important agronomic traits combined with more efficient marker detection systems will help reach the full benefit of MAS in the breeding effort to reassemble potential genes and recapture critical genes among the breeding lines that were lost during domestication to help boost crop production worldwide.

  17. Selective Service and Military Policies on Classification, Deferment, and Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargusch, Carlton S.; Alden, John D.

    This handbook was primarily designed to inform employers of selective service and military policies, so that their responsibilities to the military liability of their employees may be exercised effectively. Six steps were recommended for employers in executing their responsibilities. The information for employers which is issued by the Selective…

  18. 24 CFR 960.202 - Tenant selection policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenant selection policies. 960.202 Section 960.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  19. Selected Legislative Innovations in State Education Policy: 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprowicz, Constance L.

    1988-01-01

    Facing limited financial resources and a need to encourage large-scale school improvements, state legislators are addressing selected educational problems through such policy approaches as funding experimental programs, designing incentives for school improvement, and encouraging parental involvement. Identified within this document are a number…

  20. Optimal Financial Aid Policies for a Selective University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Sherman, Daniel R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a model of optimal financial aid policies for a selective university. The model implies that the financial aid package to be offered to each category of admitted applicants depends on the elasticity of the fraction who accept offers of admission with respect to the financial aid package offered them. (Author/SSH)

  1. Improvement of Basmati rice varieties for resistance to blast and bacterial blight diseases using marker assisted backcross breeding.

    PubMed

    Ellur, Ranjith K; Khanna, Apurva; Yadav, Ashutosh; Pathania, Sandeep; Rajashekara, H; Singh, Vikas K; Gopala Krishnan, S; Bhowmick, Prolay K; Nagarajan, M; Vinod, K K; Prakash, G; Mondal, Kalyan K; Singh, Nagendra K; Vinod Prabhu, K; Singh, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Marker assisted backcross breeding was employed to incorporate the blast resistance genes, Pi2 and Pi54 and bacterial blight (BB) resistance genes xa13 and Xa21 into the genetic background of Pusa Basmati 1121 (PB1121) and Pusa Basmati 6. Foreground selection for target gene(s) was followed by arduous phenotypic and background selection which fast-tracked the recovery of recurrent parent genome (RPG) to an extent of 95.8% in one of the near-isogenic lines (NILs) namely, Pusa 1728-23-33-31-56, which also showed high degree of resemblance to recurrent parent, PB6 in phenotype. The phenotypic selection prior to background selection provided an additional opportunity for identifying the novel recombinants viz., Pusa 1884-9-12-14 and Pusa 1884-3-9-175, superior to parental lines in terms of early maturity, higher yield and improved quality parameters. There was no significant difference between the RPG recovery estimated based on SSR or SNP markers, however, the panel of SNPs markers was considered as the better choice for background selection as it provided better genome coverage and included SNPs in the genic regions. Multi-location evaluation of NILs depicted their stable and high mean performance in comparison to the respective recurrent parents. The Pi2+Pi54 carrying NILs were effective in combating a pan-India panel of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates with high level of field resistance in northern, eastern and southern parts of India. Alongside, the PB1121-NILs and PB6-NILs carrying BB resistance genes xa13+Xa21 were resistant against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae races of north-western, southern and eastern parts of the country. Three of NILs developed in this study, have been promoted to final stage of testing during the ​Kharif 2015 in the Indian National Basmati Trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Marker assisted pyramiding of two brown planthopper resistance genes, Bph3 and Bph27 (t), into elite rice Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Chen, Liangming; Liu, Yuqiang; Dai, Huimin; He, Jun; Kang, Haiyan; Pan, Gen; Huang, Jie; Qiu, Zeyu; Wang, Qi; Hu, Jinlong; Liu, Linglong; Chen, Yezhi; Cheng, Xianian; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-12-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive insect in rice production. Breeding of resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective and environment-friendly strategy for BPH management; however, resistant cultivars are currently hampered by the rapid breakdown of BPH resistance. Thus, there is an urgent need to use more effective BPH resistance genes or pyramiding different resistance genes to develop more durable resistant rice cultivars. Here a dominant BPH resistance gene Bph27(t) were introgressed into a susceptible commercial japonica variety Ningjing3 (NJ3) and indica variety 93-11 using marker-assisted selection (MAS), respectively. Further, Bph27(t) and a durable BPH resistance gene Bph3 was pyramided by intercrossing single-gene introgressed lines through MAS. The introgression of BPH resistance genes significantly improved the BPH resistance and reduced the yield loss caused by BPH. The development of single and two genes pyramided lines in this study provides innovative resources for molecular breeding of durable BPH-resistant rice cultivars and BPH management through resistant cultivars.

  3. Marker-assisted introgression of a QTL region to improve rust resistance in three elite and popular varieties of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Pandey, Manish K; Janila, Pasupuleti; Nigam, Shyam N; Sudini, Harikishan; Gowda, M V C; Sriswathi, Manda; Radhakrishnan, T; Manohar, Surendra S; Nagesh, Patne

    2014-08-01

    Successful introgression of a major QTL for rust resistance, through marker-assisted backcrossing, in three popular Indian peanut cultivars generated several promising introgression lines with enhanced rust resistance and higher yield. Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg, is one of the major devastating diseases in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). One QTL region on linkage group AhXV explaining upto 82.62 % phenotypic variation for rust resistance was validated and introgressed from cultivar 'GPBD 4' into three rust susceptible varieties ('ICGV 91114', 'JL 24' and 'TAG 24') through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC). The MABC approach employed a total of four markers including one dominant (IPAHM103) and three co-dominant (GM2079, GM1536, GM2301) markers present in the QTL region. After 2-3 backcrosses and selfing, 200 introgression lines (ILs) were developed from all the three crosses. Field evaluation identified 81 ILs with improved rust resistance. Those ILs had significantly increased pod yields (56-96 %) in infested environments compared to the susceptible parents. Screening of selected 43 promising ILs with 13 markers present on linkage group AhXV showed introgression of the target QTL region from the resistant parent in 11 ILs. Multi-location field evaluation of these ILs should lead to the release of improved varieties. The linked markers may be used in improving rust resistance in peanut breeding programmes.

  4. Association mapping and marker-assisted selection of the lettuce dieback resistance gene Tvr1.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) is susceptible to dieback, a soilborne disease caused by two viruses from the family Tombusviridae. Susceptibility to dieback is widespread in romaine and leaf-type lettuce, while modern iceberg cultivars are resistant to this disease. Resistance in iceberg cultivars is c...

  5. Development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce dieback disease is widespread in commercially grown romaine and leaf-type lettuces, but not in iceberg-type cultivars. The cause of disease are two closely related tombusviruses -- Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV). A single dominant gene on chromosome 2...

  6. Development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce dieback disease is widespread in commercially grown romaine and leaf-type lettuces, but not in iceberg-type cultivars. The disease is caused by two closely related Tombusviruses: Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV). A single dominant gene (Tvr1) on chromos...

  7. New Advances in Marker Assisted Selection for Winter Hardiness in Oats.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oat (Avena sativa L.) breeding and genetics research has lagged behind other small grains, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in the development of PCR based markers and map construction due to fewer oat researchers and reduced research funding. As a result, marke...

  8. Whole genome sequencing of elite rice cultivars as a comprehensive information resource for marker assisted selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics allow to determine a nearly complete genomic background of rice, a staple food for the poor people. Consequently, comprehensive databases of variation among thousands of varieties is currently being assembled and released. Proper analysi...

  9. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    PubMed

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  10. Examination of marker-assisted selection for powdery and downy mildew resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field grown seedlings potentially carrying both the Run1 and Rpv1 loci for powdery and downy mildew resistance, respectively, from muscadine introgressions were assessed for resistance to both powdery and downy mildew. Powdery mildew was assessed in the field under no-spray conditions, while down mi...

  11. A genotypic and phenotypic information source for marker-assisted selection of cereals: the CEREALAB database

    PubMed Central

    Milc, Justyna; Sala, Antonio; Bergamaschi, Sonia; Pecchioni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The CEREALAB database aims to store genotypic and phenotypic data obtained by the CEREALAB project and to integrate them with already existing data sources in order to create a tool for plant breeders and geneticists. The database can help them in unravelling the genetics of economically important phenotypic traits; in identifying and choosing molecular markers associated to key traits; and in choosing the desired parentals for breeding programs. The database is divided into three sub-schemas corresponding to the species of interest: wheat, barley and rice; each sub-schema is then divided into two sub-ontologies, regarding genotypic and phenotypic data, respectively. Database URL: http://www.cerealab.unimore.it/jws/cerealab.jnlp PMID:21247929

  12. Translational genomics and marker assisted selection in sorghum case study using brown midrib (bmr) trait

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Translational genomics is a critical phase in harnessing the rich genomic data available for sorghum. There is a need to transform nucleotide variation data between sorghum germplasm such as that derived from RNA seq, genotype by sequencing (gbs) or whole genome resequencing thru translation and...

  13. Using Marker-Assisted Selection to Breed Pierce’s Disease-Resistant Grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pierce’s disease (PD), caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is an important disease of grapevines in California, across the southern United States, and into South America. In regions where disease pressure is high, cultivation of Vitis vinifera cultivars is difficult or impossible. This study...

  14. Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a s...

  15. Marker-assisted selection to pyramid nematode resistance and the high oleic trait in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dynamic challenges of peanut farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars that can cope with new problems. Application of molecular markers in peanut breeding programs can greatly compress the cultivar development process from ten to fifteen years to less than three yea...

  16. Rapid pyramiding major resistance genes into parental lines in tomato hybrid breeding employing marker-assisted backcrossing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The success of marker-assisted pyramiding major resistance genes depends upon several factors, including the closeness between the markers and the target gene, the number of target genes to be pyramided, the kind of molecular markers to be used, and available technical facilities. This talk will dis...

  17. Marker-assisted introgression of five QTLs controlling fruit quality traits into three tomato lines revealed interactions between QTLs and genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, L; Duffé, P; Buret, M; Servin, B; Hospital, F; Causse, M

    2004-08-01

    The evaluation of organoleptic quality of tomato fruit requires physical, chemical and sensory analyses, which are expensive and difficult to assess. Therefore, their practical use in phenotypic selection is difficult. In a previous study, the genetic control of several traits related to organoleptic quality of fresh-market tomato fruit was investigated. Five chromosome regions strongly involved in organoleptic quality attributes were then chosen to be introgressed into three different recipient lines through marker-assisted selection. A marker-assisted backcross (MABC) strategy was performed, as all the favorable alleles for quality traits were provided by the same parental tomato line, whose fruit weight (FW) and firmness were much lower than those of the lines commonly used to develop fresh market varieties. Three improved lines were obtained after three backcrossing and two selfing generations. The implementation of the MABC scheme is described. The three improved lines were crossed together and with the recipient lines in a half-diallel mating scheme, and the simultaneous effect of the five quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions was compared in different genetic backgrounds. Significant effects of the introgressed regions and of the genetic backgrounds were shown. Additive effects were detected for soluble solid and reducing sugar content in two genetic backgrounds. A partially dominant effect on titratable acidity was detected in only one genetic background. In contrast, additive to dominant unfavorable effects of the donor alleles were detected for FW and locule number in the three genetic backgrounds. Recessive QTL effects on firmness were only detected in the two firmest genetic backgrounds. Comparison of the hybrids in the half-diallel gave complementary information on the effects of: (1) the alleles at the selected regions, (2) the genetic backgrounds and (3) their interaction. Breeding efficiency strongly varied according to the recipient parent, and

  18. Marker-assisted introgression of quantitative trait loci associated with plant regeneration ability in anther culture of Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Sham; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Do-Hoon; Eun, Moo-Young; Sohn, Jae-Keun

    2002-08-31

    A marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding program was used to improve the plant regenerability of indica rice. A significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) that is associated with the capacity for green plant regeneration in the anther culture of rice was mapped on chromosome 10 using recombinant inbred (RI) population from Milyang 23/Gihobyeo. The marker that was chosen to follow the QTL region was used in MAS. This marker co-segregated with the regeneration ability in F2 individuals that were derived from MGRI 079/IR 36. In order to clarify the relationship between this marker and plant regenerability, the backcross population was screened with a RFLP marker. The capacity of plant regeneration of the backcross population was clearly distinguished by the marker genotype. The development of near isogenic line (NILs) with high regenerability through MAS will save time, labor, and cost in indica rice breeding.

  19. A Survey of Lightning Policy in Selected Division I Colleges

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Katie M.; Hanley, Michael J.; Graner, Susanne J.; Beam, Dwayne; Bazluki, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the hazards of lightning for participants in outdoor athletics and to determine the existence of, and assess the nature of, lightning safety policy at the collegiate level. Design and Setting: We used data from the National Severe Storms Laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma, and from a survey of Division I institutions. Subjects: The 48 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (football) universities in Florida, Michigan, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and New York. Measurements: Athletic trainers at all of the selected 48 Division I institutions responded to the telephone survey. Results: Florida, Michigan, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and New York led the country in lightning deaths and injuries from 1959-1994. Only 8% (n = 4) of the institutions surveyed in these states have a written policy regarding lightning safety. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the lack of lightning safety policy in the surveyed universities and the need for a systematic plan of action to make fields safer for all who are involved in outdoor sport activities. PMID:16558450

  20. Efficiency gain of marker-assisted backcrossing by sequentially increasing marker densities over generations.

    PubMed

    Prigge, Vanessa; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Dhillon, Baldev S; Frisch, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    Expenses for marker assays are the major costs in marker-assisted backcrossing programs for the transfer of target genes from a donor into the genetic background of a recipient genotype. Our objectives were to (1) investigate the effect of employing sequentially increasing marker densities over backcross generations on the recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery and the number of marker data points (MDP) required, and (2) determine optimum designs for attaining RPG thresholds of 93-98% with a minimum number of MDP. We simulated the introgression of one dominant target gene for genome models of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) with varying marker distances of 5-80 cM and population sizes of 30-250 plants across BC(1) to BC(3) generations. Employing less dense maps in early backcross generations resulted in savings of over 50% in the number of required MDP compared with using a constant set of markers and was accompanied only by small reductions in the attained RPG values. The optimum designs were characterized by increasing marker densities and increasing population sizes in advanced generations for both genome models. We conclude that increasing simultaneously the marker density and the population size from early to advanced backcross generations results in gene introgression with a minimum number of required MDP.

  1. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Min; Marnay, Chris; Zhou, Nan

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  2. Toric markers-assisted implantation of the scleral-fixated intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hu-Ping; Tian, Bing-Yu; Peng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy of toric intraocular lens markers-assisted implantation of the scleral-fixated intraocular lens (SFIOL). METHODS From October 2010 to December 2013, all patients who had undergone secondary SFIOL implantation were assigned to group 1 and 2, in group 1 SFIOL was performed with the assist of radial keratotomy (RK)-marker, and in group 2 SFIOL was performed with the assisted of toric intraocular lens markers (T-and axis markers). Patients' demographic data and information on baseline preoperative visual acuity, indication for surgery and latest postoperative visual acuity were collected and analyzed. The haptic and optic positions were determined by ultrasound biomicroscopy. The optic tilt angle and decentration distance were measured. RESULTS The study evaluated 43 eyes of 43 patients ranging in age from 3 to 66y. Group 1 comprised 24 eyes (24 patients) and group 2, 19 eyes (19 patients). Uncorrected reoperative acuity was improved on all the eyes postoperatively. The improved postoperative acuity was significantly more in group 2 than that in group 1 (1.11±0.38 vs 0.82±0.45 logMAR; F=4.85, P=0.03). Ultrasonic biomicrograph examination showed that the rate of haptic asymmetry was significantly higher in group 1 (42%, 10/24) than that in group 2 (11%; 2/19) (Chi square=3.68, P=0.04). The mean tilted degree in group 1 was significantly higher than that in group 2 (P=0.04). Mean decentration distance in group 1 was greater than that in group 2 (P=0.03). CONCLUSION During SFIOL the toric markers help the surgeon identify the placement of fixation more precisely than that with the use of RK marker. PMID:27672593

  3. Improved HIV-1 Viral Load Monitoring Capacity Using Pooled Testing With Marker-Assisted Deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Hogan, Joseph W; Daniels, Michael J; Coetzer, Mia; Xu, Yizhen; Bove, Gerald; DeLong, Allison K; Ledingham, Lauren; Orido, Millicent; Diero, Lameck; Kantor, Rami

    2017-08-15

    Improve pooled viral load (VL) testing to increase HIV treatment monitoring capacity, particularly relevant for resource-limited settings. We developed marker-assisted mini-pooling with algorithm (mMPA), a new VL pooling deconvolution strategy that uses information from low-cost, routinely collected clinical markers to determine an efficient order of sequential individual VL testing and dictates when the sequential testing can be stopped. We simulated the use of pooled testing to ascertain virological failure status on 918 participants from 3 studies conducted at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare in Eldoret, Kenya, and estimated the number of assays needed when using mMPA and other pooling methods. We also evaluated the impact of practical factors, such as specific markers used, prevalence of virological failure, pool size, VL measurement error, and assay detection cutoffs on mMPA, other pooling methods, and single testing. Using CD4 count as a marker to assist deconvolution, mMPA significantly reduces the number of VL assays by 52% [confidence interval (CI): 48% to 57%], 40% (CI: 38% to 42%), and 19% (CI: 15% to 22%) compared with individual testing, simple mini-pooling, and mini-pooling with algorithm, respectively. mMPA has higher sensitivity and negative/positive predictive values than mini-pooling with algorithm, and comparable high specificity. Further improvement is achieved with additional clinical markers, such as age and time on therapy, with or without CD4 values. mMPA performance depends on prevalence of virological failure and pool size but is insensitive to VL measurement error and VL assay detection cutoffs. mMPA can substantially increase the capacity of VL monitoring.

  4. Examination of selected national policies towards mandatory folic acid fortification.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Mark A; Chai, Weizhong; Kara, Raija; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Scott, John; Tedstone, Alison

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an examination of the contrasting policies towards mandatory folic acid fortification in six countries from different regions of the world. Three questions are addressed: 1) What is the policy of the country? 2) Why was the policy adopted? 3) What lessons have been learned? Policy contrasts among countries were assessed as reflecting different interpretations of the potential risks and benefits associated with folic acid fortification. Although commonalities were identified, it was considered unlikely that there could be a standard policy response for all countries. Instead, a country-by-country policy response based on national circumstances is indicated.

  5. The Development of a Learning Materials Selection Policy for Austin Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamar, Christine

    This paper chronicles the development of a materials selection policy for the library and audio/visual software components of Austin Community College's (ACC) Learning Resource System. The policy would establish authority for selection decisions, the intellectual framework within which decisions are made, and selection criteria and guidelines. It…

  6. Information Technology Management: Status of Selected DoD Policies on Information Technology Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-19

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General August 19, 2005 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Status of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Technology Management : Status of Selected DoD Policies on Information Technology Governance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... technology management ; however, until additional policy is issued and existing policy is authoritatively and thoroughly implemented, DoD information

  7. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  8. Marker-assisted improvement of the elite restorer line of rice, RPHR-1005 for resistance against bacterial blight and blast diseases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Abhilash; Balachiranjeevi, C H; Naik, S Bhaskar; Rambabu, R; Rekha, G; Harika, G; Hajira, S K; Pranathi, K; Vijay, S; Anila, M; Mahadevaswamy, H K; Kousik, M; Yugander, A; Aruna, J; Hari Prasad, A S; Madhav, M S; Laha, G S; Balachandran, S M; Prasad, M S; Babu, V Ravindra; Sundaram, R M

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to improve the RPHR-1005, a stable restorer line of the popular medium slender grain type rice hybrid, DRRH-3 for bacterial blight (BB) and blast resistance through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Two major BB resistance genes, Xa21 and Xa33 and a major blast resistance gene, Pi2 were transferred to RPHR-1005 as two individual crosses. Foreground selection for Xa21, Xa33, Pi2, Rf3 and Rf4 was done by using gene-specific functional markers, while 59 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers polymorphic between the donors and recipient parents were used to select the best plant possessing target resistance genes at each backcross generation. Backcrossing was continued till BC2F2 and a promising homozygous backcross derived line possessing Xa21+ Pi2 and another possessing Xa33 were intercrossed to stack the target resistance genes into the genetic background of RPHR-1005. At ICF4, 10 promising lines possessing three resistance genes in homozygous condition along with fine-grain type, complete fertility restoration, better panicle exertion and taller plant type (compared to RPHR-1005) were identified.

  9. Marker assisted separation of resistance genes Rph22 and Rym16 (Hb) from an associated yield penalty in a barley: Hordeum bulbosum introgression line.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Paul A; Meiyalaghan, Vijitha; Forbes, Merle E; Habekuß, Antje; Butler, Ruth C; Pickering, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The resistance genes Rph22 and Rym16 (Hb) transferred into barley from Hordeum bulbosum have been separated from a large yield penalty locus that was present in the original introgression line '182Q20'. The Hordeum bulbosum introgression line '182Q20' possesses resistance to barley leaf rust (Rph22) and Barley mild mosaic virus (Rym16 (Hb) ) located on chromosome 2HL. Unfortunately, this line also carries a considerable yield penalty compared with its barley genetic background 'Golden Promise'. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of the components of yield (total yield, thousand grain weight, hectolitre weight, percentage screenings and screened yield) was performed using 75 recombinant lines derived from the original '182Q20' introgression line. A QTL for the yield penalty was located in the proximal region of the introgressed segment. Marker assisted selection targeting intraspecific recombination events between overlapping H. bulbosum introgression segments was used to develop the lines '372E' and '372H' which feature genetically small introgressions around Rph22. Further yield trials validated the separation of both Rph22 and Rym16 (Hb) from the proximal yield penalty. These results, combined with molecular markers closely linked to Rph22 and Rym16 (Hb) , make these resistance genes more attractive for barley breeding.

  10. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  11. Policy Perspectives on Selected Virtual Universities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Douglas R.; Sorensen, Christine K.

    2003-01-01

    Use of the Internet in distance education has increased at a tremendous pace. This study reports on a policy analysis that examined the development process of public virtual universities. First, public virtual universities in the United States were classified using Wolf and Johnstone's (1999) taxonomy, then, using a content analysis approach,…

  12. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  13. Collection Development Policy, United States Documents Selective Depository Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston Univ., OK.

    The purpose of the government document collection in the Langston University (Oklahoma) libraries is to serve as a complement to the general collection of the libraries. The general collection in turn exists in order to provide the maximum coverage of information to support the curriculum and the community needs. This policy is developed to ensure…

  14. Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-29

    Mustafa Oguz, “Turkey Rolls its Diplomatic Dice ,” Turkish Daily News, August 14, 2008. 15 “Austria Says Turkey’s Position in Nabucco Limited,” Turkish...and the East. Turkey’s almost relentless engagement with some of its neighbors puts it at odds with U.S. foreign policy. The AKP does not share the

  15. Formulating a Collection Development Policy for a Selective Federal Depository in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Marcia; And Others

    In response to its space limitations, the Robert Manning Strozier Library at Florida State University decided to reduce the size and rate of growth of its federal documents collection. The committee charged with the task decided that the first step was to codify selection/deselection procedures into a written policy. The policy had to be…

  16. Performance of the disease risk score in a cohort study with policy-induced selection bias.

    PubMed

    Tadrous, Mina; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Krahn, Murray D; Lévesque, Linda E; Cadarette, Suzanne M

    2015-11-01

    To examine the performance of the disease risk score (DRS) in a cohort study with evidence of policy-induced selection bias. We examined two cohorts of new users of bisphosphonates. Estimates for 1-year hip fracture rates between agents using DRS, exposure propensity scores and traditional multivariable analysis were compared. The results for the cohort with no evidence of policy-induced selection bias showed little variation across analyses (-4.1-2.0%). Analysis of the cohort with evidence of policy-induced selection bias showed greater variation (-13.5-8.1%), with the greatest difference seen with DRS analyses. Our findings suggest that caution may be warranted when using DRS methods in cohort studies with policy-induced selection bias, further research is needed.

  17. VitisGen: A coordinated effort in grapevine genotyping, phenotyping, and marker assisted breeding.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To enable early selection of elite seedlings combining disease resistance, stress tolerance, and fruit quality, U.S. grape breeders and geneticists developed a coordinated strategy for marker discovery and application using centralized phenotyping and map development via genotyping-by-sequencing (GB...

  18. Incorporation of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes Into Lowland Rice Cultivar Through Marker-Assisted Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Pandit, Elssa; Behera, Lambodar; Anandan, Annamalai; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Lenka, Srikanta; Barik, Durga Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a major disease of rice in many rice growing countries. Pyramided lines carrying two BB resistance gene combinations (Xa21+xa13 and Xa21+xa5) were developed in a lowland cultivar Jalmagna background through backcross breeding by integrating molecular markers. In each backcross generation, markers closely linked to the disease resistance genes were used to select plants possessing the target genes. Background selection was continued in those plants carrying resistant genes until BC(3) generation. Plants having the maximum contribution from the recurrent parent genome were selected in each generation and hybridized with the recipient parent. The BB-pyramided line having the maximum recipient parent genome recovery of 95% was selected among BC3F1 plants and selfed to isolate homozygous BC(3)F(2) plants with different combinations of BB resistance genes. Twenty pyramided lines with two resistance gene combinations exhibited high levels of tolerance against the BB pathogen. In order to confirm the resistance, the pyramided lines were inoculated with different X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains of Odisha for bioassay. The genotypes with combination of two BB resistance genes conferred high levels of resistance to the predominant X. oryzae pv. oryzae isolates prevalent in the region. The pyramided lines showed similarity with the recipient parent with respect to major agro-morphologic traits.

  19. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  20. Persimmon breeding in Japan for pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) type with marker-assisted selection

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akihiko; Yamada, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki) originated in Eastern Asia, and many indigenous cultivars have been developed in China, Japan, and Korea. These cultivars are classified into four groups based on their natural astringency loss on the tree and seed formation: pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA), pollination-variant non-astringent (PVNA), pollination-constant astringent (PCA), and pollination-variant astringent (PVA). PCNA is the most desirable type because the fruit can be eaten without any postharvest treatment; therefore, one of the goals of our persimmon breeding programs is to release superior PCNA cultivars. The PCNA genotype is recessive to the other three non-PCNA genotypes, and PCNA-type F1 offspring are obtained exclusively from crosses among PCNA genotypes. Moreover, the number of superior PCNA cross-parents have been limited. In the late 1980s, inbreeding depression became obvious, especially in terms of fruit size, tree vigor, and productivity. To mitigate the inbreeding, a backcross program using PCNA [(non-PCNA × PCNA) × PCNA] was started in 1990. This process, however, was inefficient because only 15% of the offspring were PCNA, and all offspring had to be grown to the fruiting stage. Therefore, molecular markers linked to the PCNA locus were developed for discriminating PCNA offspring. A molecular marker linked to Chinese PCNA has also been developed. PMID:27069391

  1. Markers Linked to the ZYMV-FL Resistance Gene and Their Use in Marker-assisted Selection in Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is a major pathogen that reduces yield in cucurbits. The best studied strains include ZYMV-FL and ZYMV-CH of which resistance is conferred by a single recessive gene. Bulk segregate analysis was used for watermelon populations derived from PI 595203, a line with...

  2. Segregation of unknown signaling components in potato complicates marker-assisted selection for Ve-mediated Verticillium resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused primarily by soil-borne fungi Verticillium dahliae Kleb and V. albo-atrum Reinke and Berthold is characterized by unilateral wilting of leaves, chlorosis, and premature senescence. VW is mainly controlled by fumigating fields with metam sodium, which has negative econo...

  3. Validation and Implementation of Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) for PVY Resistance (Ryadg gene) in a Tetraploid Potato Breeding Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gene Ryadg from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena provides extreme resistance to PVY. This gene has been mapped to chromosome XI and linked PCR-based DNA markers have been identified. Advanced tetraploid russeted potato clones developed by the U.S. Pacific Northwest Potato Breeding Program with Ryadg P...

  4. Auxiliary marker-assisted classification in the absence of class identifiers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanjia; Chen, Huaihou; Zeng, Donglin; Mauro, Christine; Duan, Naihua; Shear, M. Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Constructing classification rules for accurate diagnosis of a disorder is an important goal in medical practice. In many clinical applications, there is no clinically significant anatomical or physiological deviation exists to identify the gold standard disease status to inform development of classification algorithms. Despite absence of perfect disease class identifiers, there are usually one or more disease-informative auxiliary markers along with feature variables comprising known symptoms. Existing statistical learning approaches do not effectively draw information from auxiliary prognostic markers. We propose a large margin classification method, with particular emphasis on the support vector machine (SVM), assisted by available informative markers in order to classify disease without knowing a subject’s true disease status. We view this task as statistical learning in the presence of missing data, and introduce a pseudo-EM algorithm to the classification. A major distinction with a regular EM algorithm is that we do not model the distribution of missing data given the observed feature variables either parametrically or semiparametrically. We also propose a sparse variable selection method embedded in the pseudo-EM algorithm. Theoretical examination shows that the proposed classification rule is Fisher consistent, and that under a linear rule, the proposed selection has an oracle variable selection property and the estimated coefficients are asymptotically normal. We apply the methods to build decision rules for including subjects in clinical trials of a new psychiatric disorder and present four applications to data available at the UCI Machine Learning Repository. PMID:24039320

  5. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-01-01

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing—a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population—a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries’ economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. PMID:25468167

  6. Promoting Antibacterial Drug Development: Select Policies and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sertkaya, Aylin; Jessup, Amber; Wong, Hui-Hsing

    2017-02-01

    The development pipeline for antibacterial drugs has not met the demand of hospitals and healthcare providers struggling to cope with increasing problems of antibacterial resistance. Although the challenges associated with antibacterial drug development have been known for some time, previous efforts to address them have not been sufficient. There remains an urgent need for targeted incentives to foster antibacterial drug development while encouraging prudent use. We examine the effects of two types of incentives, a 5-year delay in competition from generics and a lump-sum US$50 million prize payment upon successful US Food and Drug Administration approval, on antibacterial drug company returns. We use the decision-tree framework developed in a study for the US Department of Health and Human Services, which models the drug company's decision process as a revenue maximizer under uncertainty. Our results show that, to maximize societal benefit, such incentives need to take into consideration the indication(s) the new antibacterial drug is designed to treat as well as the drug development stage. Optimal policies should maximize the difference between societal benefit, primarily measured as the reduction in public health burden from the development of a new antibacterial drug that treats an infectious disease while ensuring prudent use, and social cost. Here, we show that the two types of policies examined under-incentivize early-stage developers (i.e., do not achieve the desired outcome) and over-incentivize late-stage developers (i.e., achieve the desired outcome but at a cost that is higher than needed) ceteris paribus.

  7. Public availability of a genotyped, segregating population may foster marker assisted breeding (MAB) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery: An example using strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much of the cost associated with marker discovery for marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be eliminated if a diverse, segregating population is generated, genotyped and made available to the global breeding community. Herein, we present an example of a hybrid, wild-derived family of the octoploid str...

  8. British Labour Party Policy on Educational Selection 1996-8: A Sociological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David; Parsons, Ken

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes British Labour Party policy on educational selection in secondary schools, drawing on Mills's sociological imagination. Education selection figures prominently in distributional processes that (re)produce social relations within society. Achieving egalitarian ends is difficult while retaining consumerist spheres of influence stratified by…

  9. Medical record information disclosure laws and policies among selected countries; a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Tavakoli, Nahid; Nansa, Leila Ghaderi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals have responsibility for responding to legitimate demands for release of health information while protecting the confidentiality of the patient health records. There have always been challenges concerning medical records confidentiality and their disclosure and release type in medical record departments. This study investigated and compared laws and policies of disclosure of health information in Iran and selected countries and tried to identify the differences and the similarities between them. METHODS: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The scope of study included related laws and policies of disclosure of health information in selected countries such as United States, Australia, England, Malaysia and Iran. Data were gathered from systematic internet search, library resources and communication with health information professionals. Data analysis was done using comparative tables and qualitative method. RESULTS: Study results showed that legislative institutions of each country have ordained laws and policies concerning disclosure and release of health information and in turn hospitals developed policies and procedures based on these laws. In Iran, however, there are few laws and policies concerning disclosure of health information in the form of formal letters and bylaws. There are no specific written policies and procedures for disclosure of health information in the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to develop legitimate and appropriate laws and policies in different levels for information utilization by hospitals, medical universities and others. Meanwhile in all of the selected countries there are ordained limitations for release of health information for protecting health information in regard to patient rights. PMID:21526073

  10. On marker-assisted prediction of genetic value: beyond the ridge.

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Toro, Miguel A

    2003-01-01

    Marked-assisted genetic improvement of agricultural species exploits statistical dependencies in the joint distribution of marker genotypes and quantitative traits. An issue is how molecular (e.g., dense marker maps) and phenotypic information (e.g., some measure of yield in plants) is to be used for predicting the genetic value of candidates for selection. Multiple regression, selection index techniques, best linear unbiased prediction, and ridge regression of phenotypes on marker genotypes have been suggested, as well as more elaborate methods. Here, phenotype-marker associations are modeled hierarchically via multilevel models including chromosomal effects, a spatial covariance of marked effects within chromosomes, background genetic variability, and family heterogeneity. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients are suggested for assessing the inequality of the contribution of different marked effects to genetic variability. Classical and Bayesian methods are presented. The Bayesian approach includes a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. The generality and flexibility of the Bayesian method is illustrated when a Lorenz curve is to be inferred. PMID:12586721

  11. Introgression of Shoot Fly (Atherigona soccata L. Moench) Resistance QTLs into Elite Post-rainy Season Sorghum Varieties Using Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MABC).

    PubMed

    Gorthy, Sunita; Narasu, Lakshmi; Gaddameedi, Anil; Sharma, Hari C; Kotla, Anuradha; Deshpande, Santosh P; Are, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Shoot fly (Atherigona soccata L. Moench) is a serious pest in sorghum production. Management of shoot fly using insecticides is expensive and environmentally un-safe. Developing host-plant resistance is the best method to manage shoot fly infestation. Number of component traits contribute for imparting shoot fly resistance in sorghum and molecular markers have been reported which were closely linked to QTLs controlling these component traits. In this study, three QTLs associated with shoot fly resistance were introgressed into elite cultivars Parbhani Moti (= SPV1411) and ICSB29004 using marker assisted backcrossing (MABC). Crosses were made between recurrent parents and the QTL donors viz., J2658, J2614, and J2714. The F1s after confirmation for QTL presence were backcrossed to recurrent parents and the resultant lines after two backcrosses were selfed thrice for advancement. The foreground selection was carried out in F1 and BCnF1 generations with 22 polymorphic markers. Forty-three evenly distributed simple sequence repeat markers in the sorghum genome were used in background selection to identify plants with higher recurrent parent genome recovery. By using two backcrosses and four rounds of selfing, six BC2F4 progenies were selected for ICSB29004 × J2658, five BC2F4 progenies were selected for ICSB29004 × J2714 and six BC2F4 progenies were selected for Parbhani Moti × J2614 crosses. Phenotyping of these lines led to the identification of two resistant lines for each QTL region present on chromosome SBI-01, SBI-07 and SBI-10 in ICSB 29004 and Parbhani Moti. All the introgression lines (ILs) showed better shoot fly resistance than the recurrent parents and their agronomic performance was the same or better than the recurrent parents. Further, the ILs had medium plant height, desirable maturity with high yield potential which makes them better candidates for commercialization. In the present study, MABC has successfully improved the shoot fly resistance in

  12. Introgression of Shoot Fly (Atherigona soccata L. Moench) Resistance QTLs into Elite Post-rainy Season Sorghum Varieties Using Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MABC)

    PubMed Central

    Gorthy, Sunita; Narasu, Lakshmi; Gaddameedi, Anil; Sharma, Hari C.; Kotla, Anuradha; Deshpande, Santosh P.; Are, Ashok K.

    2017-01-01

    Shoot fly (Atherigona soccata L. Moench) is a serious pest in sorghum production. Management of shoot fly using insecticides is expensive and environmentally un-safe. Developing host–plant resistance is the best method to manage shoot fly infestation. Number of component traits contribute for imparting shoot fly resistance in sorghum and molecular markers have been reported which were closely linked to QTLs controlling these component traits. In this study, three QTLs associated with shoot fly resistance were introgressed into elite cultivars Parbhani Moti (= SPV1411) and ICSB29004 using marker assisted backcrossing (MABC). Crosses were made between recurrent parents and the QTL donors viz., J2658, J2614, and J2714. The F1s after confirmation for QTL presence were backcrossed to recurrent parents and the resultant lines after two backcrosses were selfed thrice for advancement. The foreground selection was carried out in F1 and BCnF1 generations with 22 polymorphic markers. Forty-three evenly distributed simple sequence repeat markers in the sorghum genome were used in background selection to identify plants with higher recurrent parent genome recovery. By using two backcrosses and four rounds of selfing, six BC2F4 progenies were selected for ICSB29004 × J2658, five BC2F4 progenies were selected for ICSB29004 × J2714 and six BC2F4 progenies were selected for Parbhani Moti × J2614 crosses. Phenotyping of these lines led to the identification of two resistant lines for each QTL region present on chromosome SBI-01, SBI-07 and SBI-10 in ICSB 29004 and Parbhani Moti. All the introgression lines (ILs) showed better shoot fly resistance than the recurrent parents and their agronomic performance was the same or better than the recurrent parents. Further, the ILs had medium plant height, desirable maturity with high yield potential which makes them better candidates for commercialization. In the present study, MABC has successfully improved the shoot fly resistance in

  13. Real Decision Support for Health Insurance Policy Selection.

    PubMed

    Stein, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop data-driven tools to help individuals make better choices about health insurance and to better understand the range of costs to which they are exposed under different health plans. We describe a simulation tool that we developed to evaluate the likely usage and costs for an individual and family under a wide range of health service usage outcomes, but that can be tailored to specific physicians and the needs of the user and to reflect the demographics and other special attributes of the family. The simulator can accommodate, for example, specific known physician visits or planned procedures, while also generating statistically reasonable "unexpected" events like ER visits or catastrophic diagnoses. On the other hand, if a user provides only a small amount of information (e.g., just information about the family members), the simulator makes a number of generic assumptions regarding physician usage, etc., based on the age, gender, and other features of the family. Data to parameterize all of these events is informed by a combination of the information provided by the user and a series of specialized databases that we have compiled based on publicly available government data and commercial data as well as our own analysis of this initially very coarse and rigid data. To demonstrate both the subtlety of choosing a healthcare plan and the degree to which the simulator can aid in such evaluations, we present sample results using real insurance plans and two example policy shoppers with different demographics and healthcare needs.

  14. Marker-assisted genotype analysis of bulb colors in segregating populations of onions (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Bang, Haejeen; Yoo, Kil-Sun; Pike, Leonard

    2007-04-30

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait whose complex inheritance mechanism involves epistatic interactions among major color-related loci. Recent studies revealed that inactivation of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway was responsible for the color differences between yellow and red onions, and two recessive alleles of the anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene were responsible for a pink bulb color. Based on mutations in the recessive alleles of these two genes, PCR-based markers for allelic selection were developed. In this study, genotype analysis of onions from segregating populations was carried out using these PCR-based markers. Segregating populations were derived from the cross between yellow and red onions. Five yellow and thirteen pink bulbs from one segregating breeding line were genotyped for the two genes. Four pink bulbs were heterozygous for the DFR gene, which explains the continuous segregation of yellow and pink colors in this line. Most pink onions were homozygous recessive for the ANS gene, except for two heterozygotes. This finding indicated that the homozygous recessive ANS gene was primarily responsible for the pink color in this line. The two pink onions, heterozygous for the ANS gene, were also heterozygous for the DFR gene, which indicated that the pink color was produced by incomplete dominance of a red color gene over that of yellow. One pink line and six other segregating breeding lines were also analyzed. The genotyping results matched perfectly with phenotypic color segregation.

  15. Progress and limits of PrP gene selection policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael; Moore, Richard C; Bishop, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    Classical scrapie has proved to be a notoriously difficult disease to control due to a poor understanding of its natural history. The recognition of disease risk linkage to PrP genotype has offered the prospect of a disease control strategy, viz. genotyping and selective breeding, novel to veterinary medicine when first considered in the 1990s. The UK Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee recommended the exploitation of this approach in a voluntary, national programme to control classical scrapie and protect the public against food-borne exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy, should the national flock have been exposed via contaminated feed. The National Scrapie Plan for Great Britain was launched in 2001 and uptake has been widespread throughout the purebreeding sector of the sheep industry, with membership peaking at over 12 000 flocks in 2006. A total of 700 000 rams from 90 breeds have been genotyped. A comparison of ram lambs born in 2002 with those in 2006 shows evident changes in PrP genotype frequencies which are predicted to be associated with a reduction in disease risk. Various concerns have been raised regarding possible unintended consequences of widespread selection on PrP genotype, including impacts on other performance traits and possible effects on inbreeding and genetic diversity. To date, these concerns appear to be unfounded, as no consistent associations have been found with performance traits, nor are there likely to be any detectable impacts on inbreeding in mainstream breeds. Currently, semen banks have been implemented in Great Britain to store samples from animals of all common PrP genotypes, should these genotypes be required in the future. Various strategies to minimise future disease risks are discussed in the paper.

  16. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exemplar-Based Policy with Selectable Strategies and its Optimization Using GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kokolo; Kobayashi, Shigenobu; Kita, Hajime

    As an approach for dynamic control problems and decision making problems, usually formulated as Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), we focus direct policy search (DPS), where a policy is represented by a model with parameters, and the parameters are optimized so as to maximize the evaluation function by applying the parameterized policy to the problem. In this paper, a novel framework for DPS, an exemplar-based policy optimization using genetic algorithm (EBP-GA) is presented and analyzed. In this approach, the policy is composed of a set of virtual exemplars and a case-based action selector, and the set of exemplars are selected and evolved by a genetic algorithm. Here, an exemplar is a real or virtual, free-styled and suggestive information such as ``take the action A at the state S'' or ``the state S1 is better to attain than S2''. One advantage of EBP-GA is the generalization and localization ability for policy expression, based on case-based reasoning methods. Another advantage is that both the introduction of prior knowledge and the extraction of knowledge after optimization are relatively straightforward. These advantages are confirmed through the proposal of two new policy expressions, experiments on two different problems and their analysis.

  18. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss.) to Triticum aestivum (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Elkot, Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby; Chhuneja, Parveen; Kaur, Satinder; Saluja, Manny; Keller, Beat; Singh, Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS), the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection) and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4 - 62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants

  19. Marker-Assisted Breeding as Next-Generation Strategy for Genetic Improvement of Productivity and Quality: Can It Be Realized in Cotton?

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, N. Manikanda; Thiyagu, K.; Urbi, B.; Santhoshkumar, M.; Gopikrishnan, A.; Aravind, S.; Swapnashri, Gat; Ravikesavan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The dawdling development in genetic improvement of cotton with conventional breeding program is chiefly due to lack of complete knowledge on and precise manipulation of fiber productivity and quality. Naturally available cotton continues to be a resource for the upcoming breeding program, and contemporary technologies to exploit the available natural variation are outlined in this paper for further improvement of fiber. Particularly emphasis is given to application, obstacles, and perspectives of marker-assisted breeding since it appears to be more promising in manipulating novel genes that are available in the cotton germplasm. Deployment of system quantitative genetics in marker-assisted breeding program would be essential to realize its role in cotton. At the same time, role of genetic engineering and in vitro mutagenesis cannot be ruled out in genetic improvement of cotton. PMID:21577317

  20. Science-Policy Interactions in MPA Site Selection in the Dutch Part of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haastrecht, Eline K.; Toonen, Hilde M.

    2011-04-01

    At the 7th conference of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD-COP7, Kuala Lumpur, 2004) it was agreed to establish a global network of marine and coastal protected areas by 2012. The defined objectives of this MPA-network are based on the ecosystem approach: to protect biodiversity and other ecological values, and to ensure sustainable use. The (inter)national policy guidelines state that the selection of MPAs should be based on scientific information and ecological criteria only. As a signatory to the Convention, the Netherlands is now faced with meeting this obligation, and the process of designating the first Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Dutch part of the North Sea is currently in progress. We focus on the science-policy interactions that are part of this Dutch MPA selection process. By taking a closer look at the contemporary site selection process as well as its historical background, we show that ecological, socio-economic and political considerations cannot always be easily separated. Uncertainty is high and the ultimate selection and delimitation of candidate sites rather seems to be the result of a balancing act between ecological, socio-economic and political interests, in which scientific and policy guiding procedures blend with ad-hoc political decision making, and with expert judgment in cases where data is lacking. As such, this paper presents an example of present-day environmental policy making in action.

  1. The Effect of a Stricter Academic Dismissal Policy on Course Selection, Student Effort, and Grading Leniency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Shao-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses data from a four-year college in Taiwan to examine the effect of adopting a stricter dismissal policy on course selection, student effort, and grading practices. Under the new rule, students are dismissed if they fail 50 percent or more credits in "any" two semesters as opposed to two "consecutive" semesters.…

  2. Federal Income-Maintenance and Manpower Policy Related to a Selected Poverty Group in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Don Charles

    This study, while also surveying nationwide poverty, concentrated on the ability of Federal income maintenance and manpower policies to alleviate poverty in a selected Mississippi group. Over 3,200 Mississippi families were analyzed for family characteristics and household heads' educational, training, and employment status. Findings included the…

  3. The Implications of Selected Employment Concerns for Disability Policy and Rehabilitation Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Schriner, Kay Fletcher

    1991-01-01

    Results from an employment concerns questionnaire completed by selected groups of people with disabilities (mental retardation, epilepsy, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, and head injuries) are discussed in terms of public policy and rehabilitation practice implications. Recommendations are couched in behavior analysis terms (i.e.,…

  4. FY2013 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-16

    Infertility Services ................................................................................... 38 Report on the Availability of TRICARE Prime...Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 38 TRICARE Coverage of Infertility Services Background...members who have been diagnosed with a condition for which the recommended course of treatment could cause infertility . No provision enacted

  5. The Effect of a Stricter Academic Dismissal Policy on Course Selection, Student Effort, and Grading Leniency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Shao-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses data from a four-year college in Taiwan to examine the effect of adopting a stricter dismissal policy on course selection, student effort, and grading practices. Under the new rule, students are dismissed if they fail 50 percent or more credits in "any" two semesters as opposed to two "consecutive" semesters.…

  6. The Implications of Selected Employment Concerns for Disability Policy and Rehabilitation Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Schriner, Kay Fletcher

    1991-01-01

    Results from an employment concerns questionnaire completed by selected groups of people with disabilities (mental retardation, epilepsy, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, and head injuries) are discussed in terms of public policy and rehabilitation practice implications. Recommendations are couched in behavior analysis terms (i.e.,…

  7. The Continuing Education of Employees. A Review of Selected Policies in Ontario. Informal Series/8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A.; Alden, Harold

    A study to examine policies governing educational assistance plans for hourly and salaried employees in selected nongovernmental organizations in Ontario is reviewed. In the first of five chapters, educational assistance is defined as tuition aid and paid/unpaid educational leave plans to assist employees in pursuing education and training through…

  8. Federal Income-Maintenance and Manpower Policy Related to a Selected Poverty Group in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Don Charles

    This study, while also surveying nationwide poverty, concentrated on the ability of Federal income maintenance and manpower policies to alleviate poverty in a selected Mississippi group. Over 3,200 Mississippi families were analyzed for family characteristics and household heads' educational, training, and employment status. Findings included the…

  9. Testcross performance of rye introgression lines developed by marker-assisted backcrossing using an Iranian accession as donor.

    PubMed

    Falke, K C; Susić, Z; Wilde, P; Wortmann, H; Möhring, J; Piepho, H-P; Geiger, H H; Miedaner, T

    2009-05-01

    Introgression libraries facilitate the identification of favorable exotic alleles or genomic regions, which can be exploited for improving elite breeding material. We evaluated the first two introgression libraries in rye (Secale cereale L.) on the phenotypic and molecular level. Our objectives were to detect candidate introgression lines (pre-ILs) with a better testcross performance than the recurrent parent and identify donor chromosome segments (DCS) responsible for the improved performance. We introduced DCS from the self-incompatible heterozygous exotic Iranian primitive rye accession Altevogt 14160 (donor) into the genetic background of the elite inbred line L2053-N (recurrent parent) by marker-assisted backcrossing and developed 40 BC(2)S(3) lines in each introgression library. Testcross performance for three agronomic and six quality traits was evaluated in replicated field trials across two testers at five locations over 2 years. The phenotypic effect of the DCS was analyzed for all traits. The pre-ILs had on average a testcross performance comparable to that of the recurrent parent. Significant (P < 0.05) differences between individual pre-ILs and the recurrent parent were detected for all traits except for heading date. For more than 60% of the significant (P < 0.05) differences, the pre-ILs were superior to the recurrent parent. For some pre-ILs, specific DCS were identified containing presumably quantitative trait loci responsible for the superior hybrid performance. Consequently, our study revealed that the development and employment of introgression libraries offers the opportunity for a targeted increase of genetic diversity of elite rye material for hybrid performance of agronomically important traits.

  10. U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest. Staff Report of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy (And Nine Appendix Volumes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy.

    This report is intended as a supplement to the final report (March, 1981) on the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Part one covers first principles of immigration reform with chapters on international cooperation, law enforcement policies and procedures, the characteristics and evolution of an open society, and the national…

  11. Impact of regional copayment policy on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) consumption and expenditure in Italy.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Gianfranco; Federico, Bruno; Silvestrini, Giulia; Bianchi, Caterina Bianca Neve Aurora; Anselmi, Angela; Iodice, Lanfranco; Ronconi, Alessandra; Navarra, Pierluigi; Da Cas, Roberto; Raschetti, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter

    2013-04-01

    The continuous growth of antidepressant consumption and expenditure, especially for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has led to the adoption of several policy measures directed toward cost control in Western countries. In Italy, copayment policies have been heterogeneously introduced at a regional level as part of a strategy designed to reduce drug consumption. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether regional copayment policies have affected trends in the consumption of and expenditure for SSRIs from 2001 to 2007. The consumption of SSRIs was measured in terms of defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants (DDD/1000) per day from May 2001 to December 2007. Time trends in consumption and expenditure before and after the introduction of copayment policies were examined using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series, adjusting for seasonal components. The study was conducted for 17 regions, nine of which had implemented a copayment policy. The overall consumption of SSRIs in Italy increased during the study period, from a monthly consumption of 12.85 DDD/1000 per day in May 2001 to 23.40 DDD/1000 per day in December 2007. The average monthly increase in SSRI use was 0.82 % in regions with a copayment policy versus 0.77 % in regions without a copayment policy (P = 0.329). According to the multivariable analysis, copayment was associated with a 1 % reduction in the monthly growth rate of SSRI consumption (P  = 0.01). The impact of copayment on expenditure was statistically significant (P  < 0.005) on both the level and the trend, even though the estimate of the effect was negligible. The implementation of copayment policies in Italy affected both the use and expenditure of SSRIs between 2001 and 2007 to only to a minor extent.

  12. Health policies on dialysis modality selection: a nationwide population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In Taiwan, peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis are fully accessible to patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the usage of PD is considered low in Taiwan. Since 2005, 4 major policies have been implemented by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, namely a multidisciplinary predialysis care programme and usage increasing the PD incidence as a key performance indicator (KPI) for hospital accreditation, both of which were implemented in 2006; reimbursement of the glucose-free dialysate, icodextrin that was implemented in 2007; and insurance reimbursement for renting automated PD machines that was implemented in 2008. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between the PD promotional policies and the actual PD selection rates. Setting We analysed data within the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2006 to 2013, focusing on the PD incidence in relation to the timings of the 4 PD promotional policies; then we stratified the results according to age, sex and the presence of diabetes mellitus. Participants From 2006 to 2013, 115 565 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean (SD) age of patients on PD was 54.6 (15.7) years. Results During the time frame in which the 4 PD promotional policies were implemented, the PD incidence increased from 12.8% in 2006 to 15.1% in 2009. The PD incidence started to decline in 2010 (13.8%) when the hospital accreditation policy was repealed. The 3 remaining policies were weakly associated with the PD incidence. The observational analysis determined that the patients' ages, sexes and diabetes mellitus incidence rates were relatively stable from 2006 to 2013. Conclusions Of the 4 health policies intended to promote PD usage, using increasing the PD incidence as a KPI for hospital accreditation had the strongest association with the PD incidence. PMID:28077410

  13. FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-05

    National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The...Library of Congress ,101 Independence Ave, SE,Washington,DC,20540 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND

  14. Results of a selective policy for preoperative radiotherapy in rectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Gandy; O'Leary; Falk; Roe

    2000-01-01

    Preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) for rectal cancer may reduce local recurrence and improve survival. This study was undertaken to assess a selective policy of pRT in rectal cancer. The aim was to determine whether patients likely to have involved circumferential margins (CRM) could be reliably selected for pRT using clinical criteria. We have used CRM and delay in surgery as outcome measures. Seventy-nine patients with rectal cancer were assessed for preoperative radiotherapy using clinical criteria. Twelve of 26 (46%) pRT patients had positive CRM compared with three of 53 (5.6%) who did not receive pRT (P < 0.0001). Using pRT resulted in patients waiting a further 21 days before surgery (pRT 34 days vs no pRT 13 days; P < 0.0001). This policy has been effective in selecting patients most likely to benefit from radiotherapy and has avoided excessive delays prior to surgery. However, almost half of the pRT patients did not have involved CRM. With improved imaging techniques we may be able to refine our selection criteria further.

  15. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

    1980-06-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  16. Decision Support Model to Select the Optimal Municipal Solid Waste Management Policy at United States Air Force Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-03

    The United States Air Force has recently defined three objectives in developing strategies regarding the management of municipal solid waste at the...insight concerning the selection and implementation of a municipal solid waste management policy.

  17. The relationships between the impact of alcoholic beverage control policies, selected contextual determinants, and alcohol drinking in Spain.

    PubMed

    Matrai, Silvia; Casajuana, Cristina; Allamani, Allaman; Baccini, Michela; Pepe, Pasquale; Massini, Giulia; Gual, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol prevention policies alone neither cause nor explain changes in alcohol consumption, nor in related harm. Alcohol consumption in Spain throughout the period 1962-2008 was analyzed considering selected contextual factors and alcohol policies. Increased urbanization was found to be associated with higher consumption, especially of beer. Restrictive policies regulating purchase age, advertising, and licensing premises to sell alcohol were associated with decreased alcohol consumption, while lower blood alcohol concentration limits were followed by an increase. Study limitations are noted. Changes in the evolution of socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and cultural factors should be carefully analyzed to inform alcohol policy planning and evaluation.

  18. Social determinants of health in selected slum areas in Jordan: challenges and policy directions.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Musa T

    2016-01-01

    The unplanned urbanization in Jordan has over time created many informal settlements "slums" around big cities as Amman, Zerka and Aqaba. The purpose of this study was to highlight the most common challenges related to social determinants of health in two selected slum areas in Amman and Aqaba and suggest policy directions and interventions to meet these challenges. In addition to a prestructured interview with all household heads living in the two slum sites, focus group meetings with a purposefully selected sample of 12 slum dwellers in each site were used to assess the structural and intermediary determinants of health as perceived by slum residents in the two study locations. The study found that slum residents in the two locations suffer from many challenges as severe poverty; unemployment; illiteracy and low education attainments; gender discrimination; insufficient and poor diet; social and official exclusion; unhealthy environment; lack of water supply, electricity and basic sanitation facilities; high prevalence of diseases; and insufficient and inappropriate health services. Specific policy directions to meet these challenges were recommended and grouped into three main clusters: social protection, social inclusion and empowerment. New plans and tools should be developed by local authorities in Jordan to understand, protect, include and empower those vulnerable people who are forced to live in these unhealthy and inhuman environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest. The Final Report and Recommendations of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy with Supplemental Views by Commissioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy.

    This final report (March, 1981) of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy reviews the provisions and effects of the Immigration and Nationality Act and makes recommendations related to the following areas of study: international issues, undocumented/illegal aliens, the admission of immigrants, phasing in new programs, refugee and…

  20. Education and the Politics of Selection: Radical Policies for Those Set to Fail in the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaine, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the longstanding question of policy for those referred to nearly half a century ago by the Crowther Report as the "bottom half"; those mainly working class children who, in a sense, are "selected for failure". The issue of selection is a matter of concern in countries around the world and has been…

  1. Marker-assisted breeding for introgression of opaque-2 allele into elite maize inbred line BML-7.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M S R; Sokka Reddy, S; Satyanarayana, Sadam D V

    2017-07-01

    Improvement of quality protein maize (QPM) along with high content of lysine and tryptophan had foremost importance in maize breeding program. The efficient and easiest way of developing QPM hybrids was by backcross breeding in marker aided selection. Hence, the present investigation aimed at conversion of elite maize inbred line BML-7 into QPM line. CML-186 was identified to be a donor variety as it revealed high-quality polymorphism with BML-7 for opaque-2 gene specific marker umc1066. Non-QPM inbred line BML-7 was crossed with QPM donor CML-186 and produced F1 followed by the development of BC1F1 and BC2F1 population. Foreground selection was carried out with umc1066 in F1, and selected plants were used for BC1F1 and BC2F1 populations. Two hundred plants were screened in both BC1F1 and BC2F1 population with umc1066 for foreground selection amino acid modifiers. Foreground selected plants for both opaque-2 and amino acid modifiers were screened for background selection for BML-7 genome. Recurrent parent genome (RPG) was calculated for BC2F1 population plants. Two plants have shown with RPG 90-93% in two generation with back cross population. Two BC2F2 populations resulted from marker recognized BC2F1 individuals subjected toward foreground selection followed by tryptophan estimation. The tryptophan and lysine concentration was improved in all the plants. BC2F2 lines developed from hard endosperm kernels were selfed for BC2F2 lines and finest line was selected to illustrate the QPM version of BML-7, with 0.97% of tryptophan and 4.04% of lysine concentration in protein. Therefore, the QPM version of BML-7 line can be used for the development of single cross hybrid QPM maize version.

  2. Terminology of European Education and Training Policy: A Selection of 130 Key Terms. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This multilingual glossary defines 130 key terms used in European education and training policy. It is an extended and updated version of "Terminology of European education and training policy" (2008) and "Terminology of vocational training policy" (2004). It considers new priorities of European union policy, mainly in skills…

  3. Review and analysis of selected natural resource policy in Missouri state government

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    This study provides new information on basic policy theory that deals with resource management in Missouri. Four goals are used. First, resource policy systems in other states are reviewed to identify similar policy frameworks. Second, the policy framework that exists in Missouri is identified and used as a standard against which changes in resource policy can be measured. Third, Missouri policy is compared to that in other states. Lastly, improvements to the Missouri policy systems are suggested. The study consists of an inventory of the resource policy of the Departments of Natural Resources and Conservation, which are analyzed for discrepancies that weaken sound policy or prevent its development in the first place. The Annual Reports, Annual Budgets, and Management By Objective statements are used as sources of policy information. The conclusions reached are that, first, state resource policy development and implementation is inadequate to function effectively. Second, policy problems are compounded by the synergistic effect created by their presence in a bureaucracy. Third, state government has a questionable commitment to natural resource policy development, and lastly, agencies should be more responsible concerning resource policy.

  4. Effect of Structured Teaching Programme on Levels of Knowledge regarding Narcotic Policy among Staff Nurses in Selected Hospitals of Bangalore.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Mary A; Parvathy, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level of knowledge among staff nurses on Narcotic policy and ascertain their knowledge by structured teaching programme with pre-test, post-test method The study attempted to assess the knowledge on Narcotic policy among staff nurses before and after structured teaching programme; evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on narcotic policy among staff nurses; and to find out the association between post level of knowledge among staff nurses on narcotic policy and selected demographic variables. A quasi-experimental study was carried out with 60 staff nurses from BGS & Jeevani Sarvodaya Hospital, Bangalore. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to evaluate the knowledge level on narcotic policy before & after an STP. Data were analysed with chi-square and t test. The result showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores as assessed by the paired t-test value at 36.766 (HS p = 0.001). There was significant association between knowledge and the selected demographic variables (age, area of experience and years of experience (p ≤ 0.05). Thus for this study one can conclude that STP could be an effective strategy to improve the knowledge of staff nurses on narcotic policy.

  5. Standardized Tests and Public Policy: The Politics of Selection in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, E. W.

    The way test scores are used by both the public and private sectors, and the way in which this use is promoted and regulated indicates how some public policies are formed and who characteristically bears the cost of policies as well as who benefits. What has been happening in the relationship between test use and policy formation is not unique,…

  6. Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

  7. The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues in Patent Policy and the Commercialization of Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-03

    Research Policy , November 1998, p. 742. 22 Charles Brown, James Hamilton, and James Medoff, Employers Large and Small, (Cambridge: Harvard...Patenting and Licensing by U.S. Universities: An Assessment of the Effects of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980,” Research Policy 30, 2001, 99. 52 Ibid...Before and After Bayh- Dole,” Research Policy , July 2006, 773

  8. Senate Select Committee on Higher Education To Study Tuition Policy at Michigan Colleges and Universities: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Legislature, Lansing.

    This report contains the final recommendations of the Michigan Senate Select Committee on Higher Education on tuition policy at Michigan public colleges and universities. The report presents its findings and recommendations in three large parts. The first section contains the final recommendations of the Committee including goals of affordability…

  9. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  10. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  11. A location selection policy of live virtual machine migration for power saving and load balancing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  12. Selecting statistical model and optimum maintenance policy: a case study of hydraulic pump.

    PubMed

    Ruhi, S; Karim, M R

    2016-01-01

    Proper maintenance policy can play a vital role for effective investigation of product reliability. Every engineered object such as product, plant or infrastructure needs preventive and corrective maintenance. In this paper we look at a real case study. It deals with the maintenance of hydraulic pumps used in excavators by a mining company. We obtain the data that the owner had collected and carry out an analysis and building models for pump failures. The data consist of both failure and censored lifetimes of the hydraulic pump. Different competitive mixture models are applied to analyze a set of maintenance data of a hydraulic pump. Various characteristics of the mixture models, such as the cumulative distribution function, reliability function, mean time to failure, etc. are estimated to assess the reliability of the pump. Akaike Information Criterion, adjusted Anderson-Darling test statistic, Kolmogrov-Smirnov test statistic and root mean square error are considered to select the suitable models among a set of competitive models. The maximum likelihood estimation method via the EM algorithm is applied mainly for estimating the parameters of the models and reliability related quantities. In this study, it is found that a threefold mixture model (Weibull-Normal-Exponential) fits well for the hydraulic pump failures data set. This paper also illustrates how a suitable statistical model can be applied to estimate the optimum maintenance period at a minimum cost of a hydraulic pump.

  13. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    PubMed

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work.

  14. A proposal for science education policies in Lebanon based on trends in selected developed countries over the last twenty years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraf, Lina

    The present study examines science education policies in three selected developed countries and compares them with science education policies in Lebanon in order to identify their potential reform policies and practices applicable to Lebanon. The selection of the three countries, the U.S.A., U.K., and Japan, was based on the amount of time and effort devoted in these countries to improving and modernizing their science education policies and curricula. Three aspects of secondary science curriculum policy in the chosen countries were analyzed and compared with those of Lebanon. These were: aims and objectives; pattern of science program including the science curriculum, the amount of time allotted to the study of science and the content of school science subjects; and the organization of school science including science requirement for graduation from high school, teaching strategies and mode of examinations. The data collected for analysis from the three chosen countries showed that, unlike Lebanon, in the three developed countries: education is compulsory up to at least the age of 16; aims and objectives are stated clearly and carefully; science is an integrated subject in the first year of secondary level, then it becomes separated into chemistry, physics and biology. The content of science subjects emphasizes the method and process of science and its application to the society. Examinations are designed to evaluate students' learning in science in contrast to Lebanon where examinations are designed to discriminate among students.

  15. Do transgenesis and marker-assisted backcross breeding produce substantially equivalent plants? - A comparative study of transgenic and backcross rice carrying bacterial blight resistant gene Xa21

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health has attracted much attention worldwide, and the issue remains controversial. This is in sharp contrast to the broad acceptance of plants produced by breeding through Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MAB). Results Focusing on transcriptome variation and perturbation to signaling pathways, we assessed the molecular and biological aspects of substantial equivalence, a general principle for food safety endorsed by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization, between a transgenic crop and a plant from MAB breeding. We compared a transgenic rice line (DXT) and a MAB rice line (DXB), both of which contain the gene Xa21 providing resistance to bacterial leaf blight. By using Next-Generation sequencing data of DXT, DXB and their parental line (D62B), we compared the transcriptome variation of DXT and DXB. Remarkably, DXT had 43% fewer differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than DXB. The genes exclusively expressed in DXT and in DXB have pathogen and stress defense functions. Functional categories of DEGs in DXT were comparable to that in DXB, and seven of the eleven pathways significantly affected by transgenesis were also perturbed by MAB breeding. Conclusions These results indicated that the transgenic rice and rice from MAB breeding are substantial equivalent at the transcriptome level, and paved a way for further study of transgenic rice, e.g., understanding the chemical and nutritional properties of the DEGs identified in the current study. PMID:24165682

  16. The relative contribution of target-site mutations in complex acaricide resistant phenotypes as assessed by marker assisted backcrossing in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maria; Bajda, Sabina; Themistokleous, Christos; Papadaki, Stavrini; Palzewicz, Maria; Dermauw, Wannes; Vontas, John; Leeuwen, Thomas Van

    2017-08-23

    The mechanisms underlying insecticide and acaricide resistance in insects and mites are often complex, including additive effects of target-site insensitivity, increased metabolism and transport. The extent to which target-site resistance mutations contribute to the resistance phenotype is, however, not well studied. Here, we used marker-assisted backcrossing to create 30 congenic lines carrying nine mutations (alone, or in combination in a few cases) associated with resistance to avermectins, pyrethroids, mite growth inhibitors and mitochondrial complex III inhibitors (QoI) in a polyphagous arthropod pest, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Toxicity tests revealed that mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, chitin synthase 1 and cytochrome b confer high levels of resistance and, when fixed in a population, these mutations alone can result in field failure of acaricide treatment. In contrast, although we confirmed the implication of mutations in glutamate-gated chloride channels in abamectin and milbemectin insensitivity, these mutations do not lead to the high resistance levels that are often reported in abamectin resistant strains of T. urticae. Overall, this study functionally validates reported target-site resistance mutations in T. urticae, by uncoupling them from additional mechanisms, allowing to finally investigate the strength of the conferred phenotype in vivo.

  17. Public Availability of a Genotyped Segregating Population May Foster Marker Assisted Breeding (MAB) and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Discovery: An Example Using Strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, James F.; Sooriyapathirana, Suneth S.; Bassil, Nahla V.; Stegmeir, Travis; Cai, Lichun; Finn, Chad E.; Van de Weg, Eric; Weebadde, Cholani K.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the cost associated with marker discovery for marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be eliminated if a diverse, segregating population is generated, genotyped, and made available to the global breeding community. Herein, we present an example of a hybrid, wild-derived family of the octoploid strawberry that can be used by other breeding programs to economically find and tag useful genes for MAB. A pseudo test cross population between two wild species of Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (FVC 11) was generated and evaluated for a set of phenotypic traits. A total of 106 individuals in the FVC 11 were genotyped for 29,251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) utilizing a commercially available, genome-wide scanning platform (Affymetrix Axiom IStraw90TW). The marker trait associations were deduced using TASSEL software. The FVC 11 population segregating for daughters per mother, inflorescence number, inflorescence height, crown production, flower number, fruit size, yield, internal color, soluble solids, fruit firmness, and plant vigor. Coefficients of variations ranged from 10% for fruit firmness to 68% for daughters per mother, indicating an underlying quantitative inheritance for each trait. A total of 2,474 SNPs were found to be polymorphic in FVC 11 and strong marker trait associations were observed for vigor, daughters per mother, yield and fruit weight. These data indicate that FVC 11 can be used as a reference population for quantitative trait loci detection and subsequent MAB across different breeding programs and geographical locations. PMID:27242825

  18. Marker-assisted selection for elevated concentrations of the a' subunit of B-conglycinin and its influence on agronomic and seed traits of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars with elevated concentrations of the a' subunit of ß-conglycinin (BC) may provide health benefits to soy protein consumers. Two Monsanto single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used to classify F2 plants in four segregating populations as having elevate...

  19. Development of three allele-specific co-Dominant PCR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of amylose class and paste viscosity of rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most rice is consumed as whole kernel cooked rice, and the consumer preferences for cooked rice texture and other sensory properties differ among regions of the world. Rice is also used as an ingredient in a multitude of foods by food-processing companies across the globe. These sensory and function...

  20. Development of three allele-specific codominant rice Waxy gene PCR markers suitable for marker assisted selection of amylose content and paste viscosity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four Waxy haplotypes, which were identified previously as having different combinations of these three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Waxy gene, were highly correlated to the apparent amylose content and pasting properties, the important grain quality traits for predicting cooked rice...

  1. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  2. Humanity, U.S. Immigration and Refugee Policy and the Select Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Broadus N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines United States policy and practices in regard to immigrants and refugees. Observes that recent changes in refugee and immigration legislation may have provided the catalyst for less racial and ethnic discrimination in American domestic and foreign policy. Suggests that current trends point to the possibility of unity in cultural pluralism.…

  3. Humanity, U.S. Immigration and Refugee Policy and the Select Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Broadus N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines United States policy and practices in regard to immigrants and refugees. Observes that recent changes in refugee and immigration legislation may have provided the catalyst for less racial and ethnic discrimination in American domestic and foreign policy. Suggests that current trends point to the possibility of unity in cultural pluralism.…

  4. Does the selection of ISO 14001 registrars matter? Registrar reputation and environmental policy statements in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Chung, Shan Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between characteristics of environmental policy statements and the reputations of ISO 14001 registrars who had performed certification audits of firms operating in mainland China. Three characteristics of environmental policy statements were examined: (1) The conformance of the policy to strict interpretations of the international standard; (2) The policy statement's adherence to the good practice guidelines specified in ISO 14004; and, (3) Self-reported evaluations of the policy statement's effectiveness as implemented. Data from 106 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou reveal that registrar quality has a relatively weak, positive relationship with conformance to both ISO 14001 standards and to ISO 14004 guidelines, but no relationship was observed with the self-reported data. Additional findings are that the use of foreign registrars is significantly associated with the adoption of ISO 14004 guidelines and that conformance with ISO 14001 standards is somewhat higher for international joint ventures and foreign-owned firms than for state-owned enterprises.

  5. Management Staffing and Training Development Policies in Selected Multinational Enterprises: The Case of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xirotiri-Kufidu, Stella

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from foreign-owned companies in Greece suggests that cultural patterns and environmental influences cannot be ignored. However, such companies could influence human resource development in a developing country by following their home policies in training and staffing. (SK)

  6. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, No. 1406, Selections from Soviet Foreign Policy Journals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-09

    Underdevelopment (A. A. Oleynikov; LATINSKAYA AMERIKA, Feb 83) 126 U.S. Food Export Policies Criticized (E. Gryaznov; KHOZYAYSTVO I PRAVO, Jan...cattle and dairy products. Similar examples are numerous, cereals and some other food products were exempt from This foreign economic policy brought...which, in addition to granting them privileges, pro- groupS 0f commodities were consumer goods and food , vided for a net balance. Such terms were to be

  7. Helping consumers to select an appropriate long-term care insurance policy.

    PubMed

    Firman, J P

    1992-01-01

    Consumers who purchase long term care insurance policies can get good value for their money but there are several residual risks. Advisers have an important responsibility to make sure that their clients fully understand these risks. We recommend that consumers who are appropriate candidates for long term care insurance take into account the following guidelines: Make sure that a policy is bought from a well-known, financially secure company that has an A.M. Best Company rating of A or A+ or at least an A rating from Standard & Poor's. Avoid companies that have a history of consumer complaints, post-claims underwriting, high agent commissions, high lapse rates, or abuses in the Medigap market. Buy a policy with level premiums but understand that in the absence of explicit rate guarantees, premiums may be increased in the future. Seek policies that are guaranteed renewable, explicitly ensure fair access to policy upgrades, provide protection in case of late premium payments, and guarantee protection from potential changes in government benefits.

  8. Policy Developments in VET: Analysis for Selected Countries. Working Paper No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Peter; Burke, Gerald; White, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the strategies being adopted for vocational education and training (VET) in Australia and the lessons that could be learned for them from policies in other countries. Six issues are considered in the paper, each relates to or more of the objectives and particular strategies in the Australia's National Strategy for…

  9. FY2010 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-17

    Prohibition on Recruiting or Retaining Individuals Associated with Hate Groups ........................6 Chiropractic Health Care for Members on...Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 7 Chiropractic Health Care for Members on Active Duty Background: Chiropractic is a health care approach...supporting the body’s natural ability to heal itself. Research to expand the scientific understanding of chiropractic treatment is ongoing. Section 702

  10. The Hiring Policies of Selected Iowa Businesses and Industries with Respect to Employment of Blind Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Donald Earl

    An investigation of the hiring policies of Iowa businesses and industries with respect to the employment of blind persons was one purpose of this study. A second purpose was to determine the opinions of blind clients of the Iowa Commission for the Blind concerning the industrial arts program at the Commission. Some findings are: (1) Over 97…

  11. Comparative Review of Selected Educational Policies of 1st and 2nd Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Burkina Faso, and That of United Kingdom and United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumi, Asamoah Moses; Seidu, Abarichie Adamu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines some selected Educational Policies of First and Second Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Burkina Faso, in comparison with that of the UK and US. The purpose of the study is to itemise the commonalities and differences in Educational Policies of both developed (UK and US) and developing countries (Ghana and Burkina Faso) in…

  12. FY2010 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-10

    Members of the Retired Reserve Who Are Not Yet Age 60 ........... 13 Chiropractic Health Care for Members on Active Duty...Personnel Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 14 Chiropractic Health Care for Members on Active Duty Background: Chiropractic is a health care...and supporting the body’s natural ability to heal itself. Research to expand the scientific understanding of chiropractic treatment is ongoing

  13. Selecting Inclusive Teacher Candidates: Validity and Reliability Issues in Admission Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    To date, research on admission processes has largely focused on either selection trends or on determining the predictive and concurrent validity of admission indicators. Unfortunately, comparatively little research has examined the subjective processes used in the selection of personal dispositions related to inclusivity and the impact of these…

  14. Who Should Become a Teacher? Current Student Selection-Retention Policies of Teacher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Harold A.

    This study (1) describes student selection and retention procedures currently used by North Central Association colleges and universities which are accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education, and (2) determines student selection and retention procedures which administrators of teacher education programs at the…

  15. Public Policy and Futures Bibliography: A Select List of Canadian, American, and Other Book-Length Materials, 1970 to 1980, Including Highly Selected Works Published Between 1949 and 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Hugh A., Comp.

    This bibliography of public policy and general futures literature is intended primarily for educators and educational policy makers in Canada and particularly those who are responsible for shaping education in Ontario. The bulk of the entries are items published in Canada and America between 1970 and 1980. Also included are some selected items…

  16. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  17. China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei Xing; Lu, Li; Hesketh, Therese

    2009-04-09

    To elucidate current trends and geographical patterns in the sex ratio at birth and in the population aged under 20 in China and to determine the roles played by sex selective abortion and the one child policy. Analysis of household based cross sectional population survey done in November 2005. All of China's 2861 counties. Population 1% of the total population, selected to be broadly representative of the total. Sex ratio defined as males per 100 females. 4 764 512 people under the age of 20 were included. Overall sex ratios were high across all age groups and residency types, but they were highest in the 1-4 years age group, peaking at 126 (95% confidence interval 125 to 126) in rural areas. Six provinces had sex ratios of over 130 in the 1-4 age group. The sex ratio at birth was close to normal for first order births but rose steeply for second order births, especially in rural areas, where it reached 146 (143 to 149). Nine provinces had ratios of over 160 for second order births. The highest sex ratios were seen in provinces that allow rural inhabitants a second child if the first is a girl. Sex selective abortion accounts for almost all the excess males. One particular variant of the one child policy, which allows a second child if the first is a girl, leads to the highest sex ratios. In 2005 males under the age of 20 exceeded females by more than 32 million in China, and more than 1.1 million excess births of boys occurred. China will see very high and steadily worsening sex ratios in the reproductive age group over the next two decades. Enforcing the existing ban on sex selective abortion could lead to normalisation of the ratios.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy.

    PubMed Central

    Asch, A

    1999-01-01

    Professionals should reexamine negative assumptions about the quality of life with prenatally detectable impairments and should reform clinical practice and public policy to improve informed decision making and genuine reproductive choice. Current data on children and families affected by disabilities indicate that disability does not preclude a satisfying life. Many problems attributed to the existence of a disability actually stem from inadequate social arrangements that public health professionals should work to change. This article assumes a pro-choice perspective but suggests that unreflective uses of prenatal testing could diminish, rather than expand, women's choices. This critique challenges the view of disability that lies behind the social endorsement of such testing and the conviction that women will or should end their pregnancies if they discover that the fetus has a disabling trait. PMID:10553384

  19. A Foucauldian Analysis of Literary Text Selection Practices and Educational Policies in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greig, Christopher J.; Holloway, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Like schools, curricula are socially constructed and constituted within broader social, political, and historical relations of power, powerfully shaping students' beliefs and attitudes about themselves and their relationship toward the world. In light of this, the importance of literature selection cannot be overstated. School-sanctioned texts…

  20. Setting Cut Scores in Selection: A Mathematical Structure for Examining Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronbach, Lee J.; And Others

    Employers and school admissions officials must consider several factors when making choices among applicants, particularly when faced with a need to increase selection of minority group members. Should different standards be applied to different groups? Will acceptance of less qualified applicants from one group affect the overall quality of the…

  1. A Foucauldian Analysis of Literary Text Selection Practices and Educational Policies in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greig, Christopher J.; Holloway, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Like schools, curricula are socially constructed and constituted within broader social, political, and historical relations of power, powerfully shaping students' beliefs and attitudes about themselves and their relationship toward the world. In light of this, the importance of literature selection cannot be overstated. School-sanctioned texts…

  2. Creationism/Evolution in the Public School: National Policy as Shaped through Selected Legal Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.

    This review of selected creationism/evolution cases illustrates that neutrality toward religion has not been achieved by the current understanding and application of the First Amendment. Nine cases are cited and discussed: (1) "Wright v. Houston Independent School District" (1970); (2) "Williams v. Board of Education of the County of Kanawha"…

  3. The Lore of Admissions Policies: Contrasting Formal and Informal Understandings of the Residency Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Shiphra; Schreiber, Martin; Regehr, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The selection process for residency positions is sometimes seen as being "opaque'' and unfair by students, and can be a significant source of student stress. Yet efforts to clarify the process may not have helped reduce student stress for a number of reasons. This paper examines the nature of the knowledge that students possess and…

  4. Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues. A Selection of the Proceedings of the Papers Dealing with Language Policy Issues in Canada at the Conference "Language Policy and Social Problems" (Curacao, Venezuela, December, 1983). Publication B-150.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobarrubias, Juan, Ed.

    The papers related to Canadian language policy at an international conference are presented: "Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues" (Juan Cobarrubias); "Multiculturalism and Language Policy in Canada" (Jim Cummins, Harold Troper); "Defining Language Policy in a Nationalistic Milieu and in a Complex Industrialized…

  5. Plant breeding with genomic selection: potential gain per unit time and cost

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing genome coverage. This is facilitating the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding. Commonly employed MAS strategies, however, are not well suited for complex traits, requiring extra time for field-based ph...

  6. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  7. Selecting interventions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption: from policy to action, a planning framework case study in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Christina M; Lewis, Janette M; Binns, Colin W

    2008-01-01

    Background The Department of Health in Western Australia identified access to, and daily consumption of recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables, as priority health determinants. The numerous factors that influence supply and consumption of fruit and vegetables indicated that a comprehensive approach would be required. A government and non-government sector steering group was set up to select priority interventions using the National Public Health Partnership's Framework for Implementing Public Health Strategies. This structured framework was used for developing strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply, and to identify implementation priorities. After one year a desktop audit of progress on framework interventions was undertaken. Results The structured framework led to a plan for defined actions, partners, costs, and performance indicators for strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply. Lead agency custodians for management of the selected interventions were identified. After one year there was significant progress in the implementation of a number of the high-ranking interventions. The exception was interventions that provide the infrastructure support such as research and development capacity, information systems. Conclusion A structured framework and stakeholder participation assisted in developing a fruit and vegetable implementation strategy. Engagement and commitment of influential and diverse stakeholders is needed, not just for program support, but particularly in the areas of food and nutrition policy development and providing the infrastructure support required. Further work is required to develop performance outcomes and cost effectiveness measures for many of the strategies that have been proposed to address portfolio objectives. PMID:19108736

  8. The Changing Faculty and Student Success: Review of Selected Policies and Practices and Connections to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Maxey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    It is important for administrators, faculty, and policy makers to understand and consider how policies commonly associated with non-tenure-track faculty roles and working environments impact student learning. Many policies impede the ability of faculty to provide effective instruction that is aligned with departmental and institutional goals for…

  9. Research Briefings 1986. For the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation, and Selected Federal Departments and Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This is part of a series on selected areas of science and technology prepared by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, at the request of the Science Advisor to the President of the United States. This volume includes four individual reports. The first is the report of the "Research Briefing Panel on Science of Interfaces…

  10. The effects of selecting for the myostatin F94L polymorphism on reproductive traits in pubertal heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The myostatin F94L polymorphism influences carcass traits in steers; however, the influence of this polymorphism on female reproductive performance should be characterized as part of using it for marker assisted selection. Results from USMARC indicate that heifers that are homozygous for the L allel...

  11. Genome-wide scan of gastrointestinal nematode resistance in closed Angus population selected for minimized influence of MHC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduce herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected gastrointestinal (GI) nematode fecal egg count (FEC) data from post weaning animals ...

  12. Excellence and Diversity: The Emergence of Selective Admission Policies in Dutch Higher Education--A Case Study on Amsterdam University College. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.15.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reumer, Christoffel; van der Wende, Marijk

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of selective admission policies in Dutch university education. Such policies are being developed to promote excellence in a higher education system that is generally known to be "egalitarian" and increasingly criticized for a lack of differentiation. The changing policy context of admission in Dutch…

  13. A selected, annotated list of materials that support the development of policies designed to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Donatiello, Joann E.; Droese, Peter W.; Kim, Soo H.

    2004-01-01

    Research documents the existence of racial and ethnic health disparities. As a result, policy makers are seeking to address these disparities. This list is a starting point for building or updating a collection that supports this policy development process. It is written for health policy librarians and researchers and includes annotated recommendations for books, periodicals, government publications, and Websites. Entries for print publications are primarily from 1998 to 2003. PMID:15098056

  14. The impact of the Texas public school nutrition policy on student food selection and sales in Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We assessed the statewide impact of the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on foods and beverages served or sold in schools. We collected lunch food production records from 47 schools in 11 Texas school districts for the school years before (2003–2004) and after (2004–2005) policy implementat...

  15. Current References and Information Services for Policy Decision-Making in State and Local Government Labor Relations: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    Designed to document problems and issues concerning public employee labor relations, this bibliography should identify information useful in the development of equitable labor relations policies. The 550 listings are arranged into sections on: (1) Background References, Current Assessments and Policy Alternatives in Public Sector Labor Relations,…

  16. Dealing with correlated choices: how a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  17. Dealing with correlated choices: How a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  18. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  19. Scientific Futures. Selected Areas of Opportunity for the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation, and Selected Federal Departments and Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy request to identify promising areas for U.S. research investment in science and technology, this report contains briefings by outstanding researchers in several fields of science. This volume is the fifth in a series of briefings which are used to anticipate important new…

  20. Using a limited mapping strategy to identify major QTLs for resistance to grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) and their use in marker-assisted breeding.

    PubMed

    Riaz, S; Tenscher, A C; Ramming, D W; Walker, M A

    2011-04-01

    A limited genetic mapping strategy based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker data was used with five grape populations segregating for powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) resistance in an effort to develop genetic markers from multiple sources and enable the pyramiding of resistance loci. Three populations derived their resistance from Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Magnolia'. The first population (06708) had 97 progeny and was screened with 137 SSR markers from seven chromosomes (4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, and 18) that have been reported to be associated with powdery or downy mildew resistance. A genetic map was constructed using the pseudo-testcross strategy and QTL analysis was carried out. Only markers from chromosome 13 and 18 were mapped in the second (04327) and third (06712) populations, which had 47 and 80 progeny, respectively. Significant QTLs for powdery mildew resistance with overlapping genomic regions were identified for different tissue types (leaf, stem, rachis, and berry) on chromosome 18, which distinguishes the resistance in 'Magnolia' from that present in other accessions of M. rotundifolia and controlled by the Run1 gene on chromosome 12. The 'Magnolia' resistance locus was termed as Run2.1. Powdery mildew resistance was also mapped in a fourth population (08391), which had 255 progeny and resistance from M. rotundifolia 'Trayshed'. A locus accounting for 50% of the phenotypic variation mapped to chromosome 18 and was named Run2.2. This locus overlapped the region found in the 'Magnolia'-based populations, but the allele sizes of the flanking markers were different. 'Trayshed' and 'Magnolia' shared at least one allele for 68% of the tested markers, but alleles of the other 32% of the markers were not shared indicating that the two M. rotundifolia selections were very different. The last population, 08306 with 42 progeny, derived its resistance from a selection Vitis romanetii C166-043. Genetic mapping discovered a major powdery mildew resistance locus

  1. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

  2. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-26

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species.

  3. Linking ecophysiological modelling with quantitative genetics to support marker-assisted crop design for improved yields of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Zhang, Chengwei; Wang, Huaqi; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    approach can provide more markers for selection programmes for specific environments whilst also allowing for prioritization. Crop modelling is thus a powerful tool for marker design for improved rice yields and for ideotyping under contrasting conditions. PMID:24984712

  4. Linking ecophysiological modelling with quantitative genetics to support marker-assisted crop design for improved yields of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Zhang, Chengwei; Wang, Huaqi; Struik, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Genetic markers can be used in combination with ecophysiological crop models to predict the performance of genotypes. Crop models can estimate the contribution of individual markers to crop performance in given environments. The objectives of this study were to explore the use of crop models to design markers and virtual ideotypes for improving yields of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress. Using the model GECROS, crop yield was dissected into seven easily measured parameters. Loci for these parameters were identified for a rice population of 94 introgression lines (ILs) derived from two parents differing in drought tolerance. Marker-based values of ILs for each of these parameters were estimated from additive allele effects of the loci, and were fed to the model in order to simulate yields of the ILs grown under well-watered and drought conditions and in order to design virtual ideotypes for those conditions. To account for genotypic yield differences, it was necessary to parameterize the model for differences in an additional trait 'total crop nitrogen uptake' (Nmax) among the ILs. Genetic variation in Nmax had the most significant effect on yield; five other parameters also significantly influenced yield, but seed weight and leaf photosynthesis did not. Using the marker-based parameter values, GECROS also simulated yield variation among 251 recombinant inbred lines of the same parents. The model-based dissection approach detected more markers than the analysis using only yield per se. Model-based sensitivity analysis ranked all markers for their importance in determining yield differences among the ILs. Virtual ideotypes based on markers identified by modelling had 10-36 % more yield than those based on markers for yield per se. This study outlines a genotype-to-phenotype approach that exploits the potential value of marker-based crop modelling in developing new plant types with high yields. The approach can provide more markers for selection programmes for

  5. Relationship of Regional Economic Growth Patterns to Education Funding Alternatives. Selected Monographs in Educational Policy Research Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Ronald

    Demographic and economic growth in the sunbelt states has been interpreted by some as a threat to the northern frostbelt states. Consequently, many have argued for the revision of policies affecting the distribution of federal funds among states. This paper examines the merits of such an argument by looking at concrete economic and demographic…

  6. An Historical Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools Policy on the Requirements for the Selection of Principals, 1983-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferty, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    This historical analysis provided an opportunity to appreciate Chicago's course in the national school reform landscape. This study helped to understand the effects school reform efforts had on school leadership policy in Chicago. It verified a roster of superintendents in Chicago during 1983-2008, established a chronology of school reform events…

  7. An Historical Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools Policy on the Requirements for the Selection of Principals, 1983-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferty, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    This historical analysis provided an opportunity to appreciate Chicago's course in the national school reform landscape. This study helped to understand the effects school reform efforts had on school leadership policy in Chicago. It verified a roster of superintendents in Chicago during 1983-2008, established a chronology of school reform events…

  8. Folic acid: to fortify or not to fortify? An examination of selected national policies towards mandatory folic acid fortification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many national authorities are reviewing their policy towards mandatory folic acid fortification of staple foods in response to epidemiological evidence of the relationship between folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs). However, there are scientific, ethical and technical challenges associated wi...

  9. Advances and Challenges in Genomic Selection for Disease Resistance.

    PubMed

    Poland, Jesse; Rutkoski, Jessica

    2016-08-04

    Breeding for disease resistance is a central focus of plant breeding programs, as any successful variety must have the complete package of high yield, disease resistance, agronomic performance, and end-use quality. With the need to accelerate the development of improved varieties, genomics-assisted breeding is becoming an important tool in breeding programs. With marker-assisted selection, there has been success in breeding for disease resistance; however, much of this work and research has focused on identifying, mapping, and selecting for major resistance genes that tend to be highly effective but vulnerable to breakdown with rapid changes in pathogen races. In contrast, breeding for minor-gene quantitative resistance tends to produce more durable varieties but is a more challenging breeding objective. As the genetic architecture of resistance shifts from single major R genes to a diffused architecture of many minor genes, the best approach for molecular breeding will shift from marker-assisted selection to genomic selection. Genomics-assisted breeding for quantitative resistance will therefore necessitate whole-genome prediction models and selection methodology as implemented for classical complex traits such as yield. Here, we examine multiple case studies testing whole-genome prediction models and genomic selection for disease resistance. In general, whole-genome models for disease resistance can produce prediction accuracy suitable for application in breeding. These models also largely outperform multiple linear regression as would be applied in marker-assisted selection. With the implementation of genomic selection for yield and other agronomic traits, whole-genome marker profiles will be available for the entire set of breeding lines, enabling genomic selection for disease at no additional direct cost. In this context, the scope of implementing genomics selection for disease resistance, and specifically for quantitative resistance and quarantined pathogens

  10. Proficiency, Policy, and Professionalism in Foreign Language Education. Report of the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Columbus, Ohio, April 9-11, 1987). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckbichler, Diane W., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers from a conference on language proficiency, policy, and language teacher professionalism include: "Proficiency in Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Sally Sieloff Magnan); "Teaching Foreign Languages: Policy and the Federal Role" (Paul Simon); "Proficiency in the 'Real World' of the Professional…

  11. µ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype ... frequencies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  12. CAPN1, CAST, and DGAT1 genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in a beef cattle population selected for haplotype and allele equalization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC III) was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to equalize specific marker frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  13. The impact of the Texas public school nutrition policy on student food selection and sales in Texas.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen W; Watson, Kathleen B

    2009-04-01

    We assessed the statewide impact of the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on foods and beverages served or sold in schools. We collected lunch food production records from 47 schools in 11 Texas school districts for the school years before (2003-2004) and after (2004-2005) policy implementation. Cafeteria servings of fruit, vegetables (regular and fried), and milk served each day were calculated. Twenty-three schools from 5 districts provided records of à la carte sales of candy, chips, desserts, drinks, ice cream, and water. We examined aggregated school-level differences in total items served or sold per day per student between study years. School demographics were similar to state data. Regardless of district and school size, cafeterias served significantly fewer high-fat vegetable items per student postpolicy (P < .001). Postpolicy snack bar sales of large bags of chips were significantly reduced (P = .006), and baked chips sales significantly increased (P = .048). School food policy changes have improved foods served or sold to students. It is not known whether improved lunch choices influence consumption for the whole day.

  14. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Science Graduation at Selective Colleges with Implications for Admission Policy and College Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Frederick L.; McArdle, John J.

    Emphasizing graduation rate, W. Bowen and D. Bok (1998) argue that race-sensitive admission at selective colleges enhances the educational attainment of underrepresented minority students, and that the effect increases with college selectivity. Focusing on graduation in science, however, R. Elliott and colleagues (1995) conclude that: (1)…

  15. Admission Requirements to Canadian Faculties of Medicine and Their Selection Policies = Conditions d'Admission aux Facultes de Medecine Canadiennes et Leurs Politiques de Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…

  16. Private property rights and selective private forest conservation: could a Nordic hybrid policy address a United States problem?

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    Political and legal conflicts between the need for targeted private forest conservation and the continued assurance of private property rights in the U.S. presents a seemingly intractable resource management problem. Scandinavian use of habitat protection areas on private forests offers an additional tool that may be suitable for solving the historical and on-going tension found within U.S. efforts to reconcile desires to maintain lands in a forested condition while also respecting private property rights. This article presents a comparative cross-sectional policy analysis of Sweden, Finland, and the U.S., supported with a supplemental case example from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Similarities in all three countries among forest ownership patterns, use of public subsidies, and changing attitudes towards conservation are generally encouraging. Additionally, Virginia's current consideration and development of state-wide forest policies focused on forestland and open space conservation suggests both a need and an opportunity to systematically assess the applicability of the Nordic forest reserve approach to local private forest conservation. Future research at a high-resolution, and specifically at the state level, should focus on the social and political factors that would ultimately determine the viability of a forest reserve program.

  17. Identification and mapping of conserved ortholog set(COS) II sequences of cacao and their conversion to SNP markers for marker-assisted selection in Theobroma cocoa and comparative genomics studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theobroma cacao is a tree cultivated in the tropics around the world for its seeds that are the source of both chocolate and cocoa butter. The cacao genome sequencing project initiated as a collaboration between USDA, Mars, Inc. and IBM has generated a great deal of transcriptome and genome sequenc...

  18. Using genotyping-by-sequencing to identify SNPs linked to the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance trait in bottle gourd and development of CAPS markers useful for marker assisted selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria L.] is an important root stock for watermelon as well as a nutritious vegetable. Previously, we identified several sources of resistance in bottle gourd to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Breeding populations were generated from two resistant lines (USVL1VR-Ls ...

  19. A multi-objective model for closed-loop supply chain optimization and efficient supplier selection in a competitive environment considering quantity discount policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Yousefi, Samuel; Hayati, Jamileh

    2016-11-01

    Supplier selection and allocation of optimal order quantity are two of the most important processes in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) and reverse logistic (RL). So that providing high quality raw material is considered as a basic requirement for a manufacturer to produce popular products, as well as achieve more market shares. On the other hand, considering the existence of competitive environment, suppliers have to offer customers incentives like discounts and enhance the quality of their products in a competition with other manufacturers. Therefore, in this study, a model is presented for CLSC optimization, efficient supplier selection, as well as orders allocation considering quantity discount policy. It is modeled using multi-objective programming based on the integrated simultaneous data envelopment analysis-Nash bargaining game. In this study, maximizing profit and efficiency and minimizing defective and functions of delivery delay rate are taken into accounts. Beside supplier selection, the suggested model selects refurbishing sites, as well as determining the number of products and parts in each network's sector. The suggested model's solution is carried out using global criteria method. Furthermore, based on related studies, a numerical example is examined to validate it.

  20. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Science Graduation at Selective Colleges with Implications for Admission Policy and College Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Frederick L.; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    Using Bowen and Bok's data from 23 selective colleges, we fit multilevel logit models to test two hypotheses with implications for affirmative action and group differences in attainment of science, math, or engineering (SME) degrees. Hypothesis 1, that differences in precollege academic preparation will explain later SME graduation disparities,…

  1. 41 CFR 301-74.18 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.18 Section 301-74.18 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.18 What...

  2. 41 CFR 301-74.18 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.18 Section 301-74.18 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.18 What...

  3. 41 CFR 301-74.18 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.18 Section 301-74.18 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.18 What...

  4. 41 CFR 301-74.13 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.13 Section 301-74.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.13 What...

  5. 41 CFR 301-74.18 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.18 Section 301-74.18 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.18 What...

  6. Monitoring of National Drug Policy (NDP) and its standardized indicators; conformity to decisions of the national drug selecting committee in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Majdzadeh, Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals have made an important contribution to global reductions in morbidity and mortality. To help save lives and improve health, it is important to be sure about equity to access to drugs, drug efficacy, quality and safety, and rational use of drugs, which are standardized National Drug Policy (NDP) objectives. NDP's indicators are useful to evaluate the pharmaceutical system performance in a country. Iran has adapted a National Drug List (NDL). Since management of drug supply in Iran takes place only for drugs that have been selected in NDL and this list is selected by the member of Iran Drug Selecting Committee (IDSC), thus evaluation of IDSC's decision making during last 5 years is an appropriate way to evaluate the implementation of drug supply system in the country. Methods To identify strengths and weaknesses of pharmaceutical policy formation and implementation in Iran, four standard questionnaires of the World Health Organization (WHO) were used. To assess the agreement between decisions of IDSC and standardized NDP indicators in the last 5 years (1998–2002), a weighted questionnaire by nominal group technique based on the questions that should be answered during discussion about one drug in IDSC was designed and used. Results There is a totally generics based NDP with 95% local production, that provides affordable access to drugs. The system, structures, and mechanisms were in place; however, they did not function properly in some topics. Assessment of 59 dossiers of approved drugs for adding to NDL during last 5 years showed that IDSC's members pay more attention to efficacy, safety, and rationality in use rather than accessibility and affordability. Conclusion Revision of drug system in term of implementation of the processes to achieve NDP's objectives is necessary to save public health. Clarification of NDP's objectives and their impact for IDSC's members will result in improvement of the equity in access to pharmaceuticals

  7. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  8. Teacher Evaluation Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, John M.

    This study investigated the degree of teacher evaluation policy implementation in Alberta, the events that influenced teacher evaluation policy adoption, and the variables that affected the policy implementation process. The first phase of the study was primarily qualitative, using semistructured interviews with selected key decision-makers and…

  9. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  10. The selection and training of primary health care workers in Ecuador: issues and alternatives for public policy.

    PubMed

    Mangelsdorf, K R

    1988-01-01

    This article employs quantitative analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the community health worker (CHW) training program used by the Ministry of Public Health in Ecuador. The study first assesses CHW knowledge in the areas of prevention, maternal-child health, first aid, and treatment of common illnesses. The analysis reveals that CHWs retained less than 50 percent of what they learned one year after graduation. Demographic factors accounted for some variance in performance. Higher levels of community organization were associated with improved CHW knowledge. The presence of a health committee was also an important factor. The second phase of the study was designed to assess the community impact of the program. Surprisingly, neither the demographic characteristics of the health worker nor his or her level of competence affected the impact of the program on the community, as measured by patient satisfaction, utilization indices, and adoption of preventive health behaviors. It was the characteristics of the beneficiaries themselves that accounted for the variance in community impact. These results yield some important implications for public health policy in Ecuador.

  11. Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity in health research, services, education and policy: 3. Discipline, inter-discipline distance, and selection of discipline.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bernard C K; Pak, Anita W P

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary efforts are increasingly encouraged in health research, services, education and policy. This paper is the third in a series. The first discussed the definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness of multiple disciplinary teamwork. The second examined the promoters, barriers, and ways to enhance such teamwork. This paper addresses the questions of discipline, inter-discipline distance, and where to look for multiple disciplinary collaboration. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of the knowledge universe, based on a review of a number of key papers on the Global Brain. These key papers were identified during a literature review on multiple disciplinary teamwork, using Google and MEDLINE (1982-2007) searches. A discipline is held together by a shared epistemology. In general, disciplines that are more disparate from one another epistemologically are more likely to achieve new insight for a complex problem. The proposed conceptual framework of the knowledge universe consists of several knowledge subsystems, each containing a number of disciplines. The inter-discipline distance can guide us to select appropriate disciplines for a multiple disciplinary team. If multiple disciplinarity is called for, the proposed view of the knowledge universe as a series of knowledge subsystems and disciplines, and the place of health sciences in the knowledge universe, will help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to identify disciplines for multiple disciplinary efforts.

  12. Policies and practices pertaining to the selection, qualification requirements, and training programs for nuclear-reactor operating personnel at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Culbert, W.H.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the policies and practices of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) regarding the selection of and training requirements for reactor operating personnel at the Laboratory's nuclear-reactor facilities. The training programs, both for initial certification and for requalification, are described and provide the guidelines for ensuring that ORNL's research reactors are operated in a safe and reliable manner by qualified personnel. This document gives an overview of the reactor facilities and addresses the various qualifications, training, testing, and requalification requirements stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter VI (Safety of DOE-Owned Reactors); it is intended to be in compliance with this DOE Order, as applicable to ORNL facilities. Included also are examples of the documentation maintained amenable for audit.

  13. Illicit drug use and harms, and related interventions and policy in Canada: A narrative review of select key indicators and developments since 2000.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Murphy, Yoko; Rudzinski, Katherine; MacPherson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    By the year 2000, Canada faced high levels of illicit drug use and related harms. Simultaneously, a fundamental tension had raisen between continuing a mainly repression-based versus shifting to a more health-oriented drug policy approach. Despite a wealth of new data and numerous individual studies that have emerged since then, no comprehensive review of key indicators and developments of illicit drug use/harm epidemiology, interventions and law/policy exist; this paper seeks to fill this gap. We searched and reviewed journal publications, as well as key reports, government publications, surveys, etc. reporting on data and information since 2000. Relevant data were selected and extracted for review inclusion, and subsequently grouped and narratively summarized in major topical sub-theme categories. Cannabis use has remained the principal form of illicit drug use; prescription opioid misuse has arisen as a new and extensive phenomenon. While new drug-related blood-borne-virus transmissions declined, overdose deaths increased in recent years. Acceptance and proliferation of - mainly local/community-based - health measures (e.g., needle exchange, crack paraphernalia or naloxone distribution) aiming at high-risk drug users has evolved, though reach and access limitations have persisted; Vancouver's 'supervised injection site' has attracted continued attention yet remains un-replicated elsewhere in Canada. While opioid maintenance treatment utilization increased, access to treatment for key (e.g., infectious disease, psychiatric) co-morbidities among drug users remained limited. Law enforcement continued to principally focus on cannabis and specifically cannabis users. 'Drug treatment courts' were introduced but have shown limited effectiveness; several attempts cannabis control law reform have failed, except for the recent establishment of 'medical cannabis' access provisions. While recent federal governments introduced several law and policy measures reinforcing a

  14. Policy implications of select student characteristics and their influence on the Florida biology end-of-course assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Janine Cecelia

    In an attempt to improve student achievement in science in Florida, the Florida Department of Education implemented end-of-course (EOC) assessments in biology during the 2011-2012 academic school year. Although this first administration would only account for 30% of the student's overall final course grade in biology, subsequent administrations would be accompanied by increasing stakes for students, teachers, and schools. Therefore, this study sought to address gaps in empirical evidence as well as discuss how educational policy will potentially impact on teacher evaluation and professional development, student retention and graduation rates, and school accountability indicators. This study explored four variables- reading proficiency, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender- to determine their influence and relationship on biology achievement on the Biology I EOC assessment at a Title 1 school. To do so, the results of the Biology I EOC assessment administered during the Spring 2012 school year was obtained from a small, rural Title 1 high school in North Florida. Additional data regarding each student's qualification for free and reduced-price lunch, FCAT Reading developmental scale scores, FCAT Reading level, grade level, gender, and ethnicity were also collected for the causal-comparative exploratory study. Of the 178 students represented, 48% qualified for free and reduced-price lunch, 54% were female, and 55% scored at FCAT Reading level 3 or higher. Additionally, 59% were White and 37% Black. A combination of descriptive statistics and other statistical procedures such as independent samples one-tailed t-test, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multipleregression, and a Pearson r correlation was utilized in the analysis, with a significance level set at 0.05. Results indicate that of all four variables, FCAT Reading proficiency was the sole variable, after adjusting for other variables; that had a significant impact on biology achievement. Students with higher

  15. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs

    PubMed Central

    Fapohunda, Bolaji; Orobaton, Nosakhare

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women’s autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother’s socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1) the use of cash subsidies to augment women’s incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2) a structural improvement that will increase women’s economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation. PMID:24516341

  16. Soil-transmitted helminthiases in secondary school students in selected sites in two provinces in the Philippines: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente; Chua, Paul Lester; Liwanag, Harvy Joy; Naig, June Rose; Erfe, Jeffrey Mark

    2014-08-01

    The latest World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for eliminating soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) as a public health problem in children puts the emphasis on school-age children. On the other hand, the Philippine national helminth control program excludes secondary school students in mass deworming for STH. This study determined the prevalence and intensity of STH in a sample of 633 students (14-15 years old) in selected secondary schools in two Philippine provinces. Stool specimens were processed following the Kato-Katz technique and examined for the presence of helminth ova. Overall cumulative prevalence of STH was 31.3%, while prevalence of moderate-heavy-intensity infections was 7.7%, well beyond the WHO target of ≤1% for reducing morbidity in school-age children. Recommendations were made to update the Philippine helminth control program and to re-examine the WHO strategic plan so that helminth prevention and control strategies may also be emphasized for secondary school students especially in high-prevalence areas.

  17. The Belgian policy of funding antimicrobial stewardship in hospitals and trends of selected quality indicators for antimicrobial use, 1999-2010: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Marie-Laurence; Bruyndonckx, Robin; Goossens, Herman; Hens, Niel; Aerts, Marc; Catry, Boudewijn; Neely, Fiona; Vogelaers, Dirk; Hammami, Naima

    2015-02-13

    In order to improve antimicrobial (AM) use, a policy of providing technical and financial support to AM management teams (AMTs) was rolled out in all Belgian hospitals between 2002 and 2008. We aimed to analyse the association of this policy with AM use for the two indications accounting for the largest number of patients receiving AM: prophylaxis for major lower limb orthopaedic surgery and pneumonia. We used patient-level data routinely collected in all Belgian acute care hospitals between 1999 and 2010. We modelled trends for selected quality indicators (QIs) using the year of AMT implementation in each hospital as the main 'change point', with fine-tuned case-mix adjustment. Of all admissions for lower limb orthopaedic surgery, and pneumonia between 1999 and 2010, 90% (325 094) and 95% (327 635), respectively, were found eligible for analyses. The surgery QI was defined as: cefazolin, dose in the expected range, and no use of other AM. For pneumonia, QIs were: ratio of oral/parenteral defined daily doses (DDD, O/P QI), and mean number of DDD minus penicillin, per 100 days of hospitalisation (DDD QI). Between 1999 and 2010, the surgery QI improved from 59% to 71%, the O/P QI from 0.72 to 0.97, and the DDD QI from 96 to 64. Heterogeneity between hospitals was high. Overall, no association was found with the year of implementation of the AMT. Improvements have been observed but could not be related at the national level to the policy under study. However, these results cannot be extrapolated to other QIs for AM use in hospitals. Our findings do not question the need for AMT, nor the need for continuation of AMT funding. Several recommendations can be made in order to make the best of Belgium's unique political and financial commitments in that field. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  19. Israel Education Abstracts: A Selected Bibliography of Current and Past Literature and Materials on the Philosophy, Policy and Practice of Education in Israel. Vol. 4, No. 3, August-November, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elefant, William L., Ed.

    This 122-entry, selected bibliography contains English abstracts of books and articles in Hebrew on the philosophy, policy, and practice of education in Israel. The materials were submitted between August and November 1969; for earlier bibliographies see ED 027 810 and ED 032 806. A special section on the teaching of English in Israel comprises…

  20. Policy and Practice of Tertiary Literacy. Selected Proceedings of the First National Conference on Tertiary Literacy: Research and Practice, Volume 1 (1st, Melbourne, Australia, March 14-16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golebiowski, Zofia, Ed.

    This selection of papers from the First Conference on Tertiary Literacy, which examined the role of literacy as a foundation for knowledge acquisition and dissemination that influences the academic success of tertiary students, presents a number of case studies of policy and practice in Australian universities. Keynote addresses included:…

  1. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  2. Policy impacts estimates are sensitive to data selection in empirical analysis: evidence from the United States – Canada softwood lumber trade dispute

    Treesearch

    Daowei Zhang; Rajan Parajuli

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we use the U.S. softwood lumber import demand model as a case study to show that the effects of past trade policies are sensitive to the data sample used in empirical analyses.  We conclude that, to be consistent with the purpose of analysis of policy and to ensure all else being equal, policy impacts can only be judged by using data up to the time when...

  3. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  4. Intercultural Policies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  5. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  6. Intercultural Policies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  7. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  8. A CAPS marker to assist selection of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance in pepper.

    PubMed

    Moury, B; Pflieger, S; Blattes, A; Lefebvre, V; Palloix, A

    2000-02-01

    The hypersensitive resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in pepper is determined by a single dominant gene (resistant allele: Tsw) in several Capsicum chinense genotypes. In order to facilitate the selection for this resistance, four RAPD (among 250 10-mer primers tested) were found linked to the Tsw locus using the bulked segregant analysis and 153 F2 individuals. A close RAPD marker was converted into a codominant cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) using specific PCR primers and restriction enzymes. This CAPS marker is tightly linked to Tsw (0.9 +/- 0.6 cM) and is helpful for marker-assisted selection in a wide range of genetic intercrosses.

  9. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  10. Model Child Care Health Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan; Smith, Herberta

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, the model health policies presented in this report are intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the report presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following…

  11. Key Issues and Policy Considerations in Promoting Lifelong Learning in Selected African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda and Tanzania. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shirley; Yang, Jim; Roslander, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study focuses on key issues and policy considerations in promoting lifelong learning in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, and Tanzania (the five African countries that took part in a pilot workshop on "Developing Capacity for Establishing Lifelong Learning Systems in UNESCO Member States: at the UNESCO Institute for…

  12. The Politics of Naming Race and Ethnicity: Language Planning and Policies Regulating the Selection of Racial Ethnonyms Used by the US Census 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laversuch, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1790, the US government has conducted a decennial census of the nation's population and its various ethno-racial subgroups. The official names for these subgroups have direct and significant consequences for the implementation and regulation of public policy at the national, state and local levels of governance. This paper first provides a…

  13. Attitudes to Agricultural Policy and Farming Futures in the Context of the 2003 CAP Reform: A Comparison of Farmers in Selected Established and New Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Matthew; Douarin, Elodie; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' attitudes, to agricultural production, diversification and policy support, and behavioural intentions in five Member States of the EU (France, Lithuania, Slovakia, Sweden, England) are analysed comparatively. Groups of farmers with similarly held attitudes are identified using cluster analysis to investigate whether differences in…

  14. Law and Policy Affecting Addicted Women and Their Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains the text of a one of a series of Congressional hearings called to examine substance abuse among pregnant and parenting women and to explore prevention and treatment strategies. This hearing focuses on federal and state policies designed to address the urgency of perinatal substance abuse. Witnesses provide testimony on state…

  15. Research Experience and Agreement with Selected Ethics Principles from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement--Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Pat; Spencer, Bob

    2004-01-01

    An online survey was conducted of students, instructors, and researchers in distance education regarding principles for the ethical treatment of human research subjects. The study used an online questionnaire based on principles drawn from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement, Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans" (TCPS,…

  16. Survey of the Status of Materials Selection Policies in Iowa Public School Districts in 1983 and Comparisons with Status in 1979. Based on a Study Sponsored by State of Iowa Department of Public Instruction and Department of Library Science, University of Northern Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Mary Lou

    Replicating a 1979 study, a survey of school library media specialists in 440 Iowa school districts was conducted in the spring of 1983 to determine the influence of a model policy published by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction (DPI) on the development, adoption, and provisions of school district policies for the selection of instructional…

  17. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  18. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  20. Selected state policies and associations with alcohol use behaviors and risky driving behaviors among youth: Findings from the Monitoring the Future study

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Housten, Ashley J.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Grucza, Ricard; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective policies that can reduce alcohol use behaviors and impaired driving among young people at a population-level are needed. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws increase the driving privileges of young novice drivers as they age and gain more driving experience. In this study we seek to determine the effects of GDLs on risky driving behaviors of youth and to assess if GDLs have an unintended effect on underage drinking behaviors. Methods We utilized 2000-2013 data on 12th grade students from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, an ongoing, annual national survey (since 1975) that studies the substance use behaviors of adolescents, as well as data on GDL laws obtained via the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). We conducted a series of regular logistic regression models that included fixed effects for year and state, and adjusted for demographic characteristics, school characteristics, and other state alcohol policies. Results Total weighted sample size was 129,289 12th graders. Past month alcohol use and binge drinking (i.e., ≥5 drinks on one occasion) in the past two weeks were 45% and 26%, respectively. Seventeen percent of respondents reported riding with a driver who drank alcohol. Nearly 12% reported driving in the past two weeks after drinking alcohol, and 7% reported driving after binge drinking. Over half of students lived in a state with a “good” GDL law. The logistic regression models suggest a link between restrictive GDL policies and a reduction of alcohol use behaviors and risky driving behaviors among youth. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the effects of GDLs extend beyond driving-related risks and into other drinking-related behaviors that pose immediate or delayed health risks for young people. We speculate that GDLs may dictate social norms and expectations for youth risk behaviors, and should be maximized throughout the U.S. PMID:27018985

  1. Education Policy Analysis 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume is the companion to the 1997 collection of international education indicators from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education at a Glance--OECD Indicators." It aims to deepen the analysis of current policy issues and facilitate interpretation of data using selected indicators of particular…

  2. Policy & Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Policy documents represent EPA's official interpretation or view of specific issues. Guidance documents are published to further clarify regulations and to assist in implementation of environmental regulations.

  3. Acquisition Policies. SPEC Kit 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This collection of acquisition materials from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) acquisition policies from Brigham Young University, Iowa State University, and the University of Cincinnati; (2) book selection policies from the University of Nebraska Undergraduate Library and Georgetown University; (3) an…

  4. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  5. The Interstate 99 (I-99) project and geological information exchanges: A study of the interplay among selected variables from science education, geology/earth science, and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, Daniel Eugene

    The Interstate 99 (I-99) highway project has been the source of extensive attention over the past few years. Its most infamous aspect is the excavation of a geological formation---the Bald Eagle Sandstone---that was found to contain acidic rock material, which, upon exposure to water, leached sulfuric acid to several surface water bodies and private groundwater wells. This matter managed to suspend construction of the project for several years. Numerous parties, representing academia, government (particularly the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) and the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT)), private industry (consultants), environmental organizations and advocacy groups, and the citizenry, have been involved in the development of a resolution to the I-99 acidic rock problem. The interactions among these parties are interdisciplinary by nature, given the sectors of society that they represent. Consideration of how these parties interacted with each other while evaluating the options for addressing the environmental dilemma posed by the I-99 project provides opportunities for academic research. The discipline of Science Education is viable for studying the I-99 case, with accompaniment by 2 other disciplines, which have direct relevance to this case: Geology/Earth Science (per the underlying cause of the I-99 acidic rock problem) and Environmental Policy (per the regulations and policies that had to be followed while developing a solution to the environmental dilemma). Pairing Science Education with the other two aforementioned disciplines can create additional niches for the former discipline, and enhance academic research both within itself, and, across other disciplines, as relevant.

  6. Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

    2006-01-01

    The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may…

  7. A Selected Review of the Literature on Factors and Conditions Driving the High Risk and Dropout Problem. Policy Studies in Language and Cross Cultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachman, Jill M.

    This report presents the findings of a review of 45 selected references on issues associated with high risk students and dropouts. The literature was analyzed according to: (1) the manner in which high risk students and dropouts are characterized; (2) the suggested causes and conditions driving the problems of high risk and dropping out; (3) the…

  8. Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

    2006-01-01

    The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may…

  9. Internet Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-17

    activities. F. Responsibilities 1. The CIO shall: a. Approve, for the OIG, DoD, policies implementing laws and guidelines on Internet use . IGDINST 4630.2 3 b...Provide leadership to manage Internet use within the OIG, DoD. c. Authorize monitoring. d. Oversee the promulgation of policies and guidance to ensure

  10. A moment in human development: legal protection, ethical standards and social policy on the selective non-treatment of handicapped neonates.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L

    1985-01-01

    Selective non-treatment decisions involving severely handicapped neonates have recently come under renewed judicial and legislative scrutiny. In this Article, the Author examines the legal, ethical and social considerations attendant to the non-treatment decision. In Part II of this Article the Author discusses the predominant ethical viewpoints relating to this issue and proposes a new moral standard based on personal interests. Part III presents a survey of the jurisprudence relating to selective non-treatment decisions. Parts IV and V of this Article provide a critical examination of the recently enacted Child Abuse Amendments of 1984, a federal legislative initiative designed to regulate treatment decisions relating to handicapped infants. The Author suggests that the ethical standards and treatment criteria proposed in this Article may prove useful to courts seeking to balance the handicapped neonate's constitutional right to privacy with the requirements of the new federal law.

  11. The Role of the Broadened Opportunity for Officer Selection and Training (BOOST) Program in Supporting the Navy’s Minority Accession Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    II V Pre-calculus Research papers Physics LII Courses are taught at the high school college-preparatory level. Classroom instruction is offered at two...reliance on SAT or ACT scores. Academic aptitude can be determined using high school class rank and recommendations from English and math teachers ...Broadened Opportu. ity for Officer Selection and Training (BOOST) school to earn an appointment to the U.S. Naval Academy. [Ref. 4] B. AREA OF RESEARCH The

  12. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  13. Molecular marker-assisted breeding for maize improvement in Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize is one of the most important food and feed crops in Asia, and is a source of income for several million farmers. Despite impressive progress made in the last few decades through conventional breeding in the “Asia-7” (China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam), average m...

  14. Advances in marker-assisted breeding of sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the challenges posed by sugarcane, geneticists and breeders have actively sought to use DNA marker technology to enhance breeding efforts. Markers have been used to explore taxonomy, estimate genetic diversity, and to develop unique molecular fingerprints. Numerous studies have been undertak...

  15. Model Child Care Health Policies. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, this document compiles model health policies intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the document presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following areas: (1)…

  16. Model Child Care Health Policies. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, this document compiles model health policies intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the document presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following areas: (1)…

  17. A Molecular Selection Index Method Based on Eigenanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Rojas, J. Jesús; Castillo-González, Fernando; Sahagún-Castellanos, Jaime; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio; Benítez-Riquelme, Ignacio; Crossa, José

    2008-01-01

    The traditional molecular selection index (MSI) employed in marker-assisted selection maximizes the selection response by combining information on molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) and phenotypic values of the traits of the individuals of interest. This study proposes an MSI based on an eigenanalysis method (molecular eigen selection index method, MESIM), where the first eigenvector is used as a selection index criterion, and its elements determine the proportion of the trait's contribution to the selection index. This article develops the theoretical framework of MESIM. Simulation results show that the genotypic means and the expected selection response from MESIM for each trait are equal to or greater than those from the traditional MSI. When several traits are simultaneously selected, MESIM performs well for traits with relatively low heritability. The main advantages of MESIM over the traditional molecular selection index are that its statistical sampling properties are known and that it does not require economic weights and thus can be used in practical applications when all or some of the traits need to be improved simultaneously. PMID:18716338

  18. Reduction of multiple pregnancies in the advanced maternal age population after implementation of an elective single embryo transfer policy coupled with enhanced embryo selection: pre- and post-intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Capalbo, Antonio; Colamaria, Silvia; Ferrero, Susanna; Maggiulli, Roberta; Vajta, Gábor; Sapienza, Fabio; Cimadomo, Danilo; Giuliani, Maddalena; Gravotta, Enrica; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Rienzi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Is an elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) policy an efficient approach for women aged >35 years when embryo selection is enhanced via blastocyst culture and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)? Elective SET coupled with enhanced embryo selection using PGS in women older than 35 years reduced the multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining the cumulative success rate of the IVF programme. Multiple pregnancies mean an increased risk of premature birth and perinatal death and occur mainly in older patients when multiple embryos are transferred to increase the chance of pregnancy. A SET policy is usually recommended in cases of good prognosis patients, but no general consensus has been reached for SET application in the advanced maternal age (AMA) population, defined as women older than 35 years. Our objective was to evaluate the results in terms of efficacy, efficiency and safety of an eSET policy coupled with increased application of blastocyst culture and PGS for this population of patients in our IVF programme. In January 2013, a multidisciplinary intervention involving optimization of embryo selection procedure and introduction of an eSET policy in an AMA population of women was implemented. This is a retrospective 4-year (January 2010-December 2013) pre- and post-intervention analysis, including 1161 and 499 patients in the pre- and post-intervention period, respectively. The primary outcome measures were the cumulative delivery rate (DR) per oocyte retrieval cycle and multiple DR. Surplus oocytes and/or embryos were vitrified during the entire study period. In the post-intervention period, all couples with good quality embryos and less than two previous implantation failures were offered eSET. Embryo selection was enhanced by blastocyst culture and PGS (blastocyst stage biopsy and 24-chromosomal screening). Elective SET was also applied in cryopreservation cycles. Patient and cycle characteristics were similar in the pre- and post-intervention groups [mean

  19. Acquisition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vore, Helen L.

    1970-01-01

    A policy to insure acquisition of primary international libraries' collections for a library system pertaining to the environmental sciences was prepared by a newly formed Technical Processes Section, Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA). (Author/NH)

  20. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  1. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  2. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  3. Evidence-Informed Health Policies in Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Comparing Views of Policy Makers and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Lavis, John N.; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Dimassi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct comparative analysis about the views and practices of policy makers and researchers on the use of health systems evidence in policy making in selected Eastern Mediterranean countries. We analysed data from two self-reported surveys, one targeted at policy makers and the other at researchers. Results show a…

  4. Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and the Role of Tax Policy in Preserving the Stock of Low-Income Housing. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    This document comprises testimony delivered before the House Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures on the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit created by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, and on the role of tax policy in preserving the stock of low-income housing. The effectiveness of the low-income credit program is discussed and strategies to improve it…

  5. Tracking International Students in Higher Education--Policy Options and Implications for Students. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education and the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (October 31, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    At this joint session, the House Subcommittee on Select Education and the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness met to hear testimony on the policy implications of tracking international students in higher education. The purpose of the hearing was not to talk about the value of exchange programs or having foreign students participate in…

  6. Teaching Policy Analysis as Research: Consideration and Extension of Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Teaching policy analysis is compared to teaching research skills. Both involve the selection of an appropriate analytical tool to be used with multiple units of analysis; and in both, the selected instrument must fit the purpose of the analysis or the product is not useful. Policy analysis frameworks characteristically address policy process,…

  7. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. 'Policy triangle framework' was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. The policies of "pupil liaisons" and "safety belt" were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For 'pupil liaisons' policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is responsible for the implementation of the policies, and

  8. Board Policies on Policy Development. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This is the 16th in a continuing series of kit-booklets issued to help school boards develop written policies in key subject areas. The material supports the contention that a set of well-defined policies on board policy development and administrative execution of policies reduces the likelihood of trouble and tends to eliminate instant, sloppy,…

  9. Internet Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  10. Youth Policies and Programs in Selected Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Rosemary

    Youth unemployment is hardly new, but in the 1980s it poses unprecedented problems because economic growth no longer seems to provide the necessary jobs. Youth labor markets are being stripped of entry-level jobs by new technologies, changes in the global division of labor, and the upgrading of occupational structures. This paper describes…

  11. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  12. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  13. Policy implications for familial searching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  14. Policy implications for familial searching

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

  15. Towards an Environmentalist Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alternatives, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This article presents Zero Population Growth - Canada's recommendations on immigration policy. It suggests that immigration be used to stabilize population by establishing a ceiling and specifying a selection procedure. Also Canada should not base its economy on imported skilled and nonskilled labor and employers should not hire illegal…

  16. A School Policy for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane

    1992-01-01

    Offers a school policy for reading, arrived at as a product of a whole school inservice program. Discusses word recognition, sound-symbol correspondence, prediction, classroom environment, reading with an adult, parents and reading, assessment of reading, and reading material selection. (RS)

  17. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and expects...

  18. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and expects...

  19. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and...

  20. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and...

  1. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and...

  2. Outdoor Play and Learning: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burriss, Kathleen; Burriss, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes national school district policy and practice regarding elementary school children's outdoor learning and play. District representatives from 173 randomly selected school districts completed questionnaires describing policy and practice related to recess, outdoor play, outdoor curricular studies, playground materials, ADA…

  3. Assembling and Dissembling: Policy as Productive Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill P.; Varenne, Herve

    2012-01-01

    In this piece, the authors examine educational policy by focusing on the ways in which actors "play" or selectively follow, negotiate, and appropriate cultural instructions and rules. They outline a framework that situates assemblage, a notion utilized in actor-network theory, within the critical cultural study of policy. Treating policy…

  4. Retrenchment Policies and Their Organizational Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Michael A.

    This paper focuses on the organizational consequences of retrenchment policies emphasizing efficiency (selective cuts to insure long-term survival) and equity (across the board actions). The effectiveness of each of these policies was tested on 59 cases of school district enrollment decline over a 10-year period by means of a…

  5. Assembling and Dissembling: Policy as Productive Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill P.; Varenne, Herve

    2012-01-01

    In this piece, the authors examine educational policy by focusing on the ways in which actors "play" or selectively follow, negotiate, and appropriate cultural instructions and rules. They outline a framework that situates assemblage, a notion utilized in actor-network theory, within the critical cultural study of policy. Treating policy…

  6. The Role of Partnerships in U.S. Food Policy Council Policy Activities

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Megan L.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Palmer, Anne; Pollack, Keshia M.

    2015-01-01

    Food Policy Councils (FPC) help to identify and address the priorities of local, state, and regional food systems with the goal of improving food systems through policy. There is limited research describing FPCs’ strategies for accomplishing this goal. As part of a larger study examining FPC policy efforts, this paper investigates the role of partnerships in food systems policy change. We conducted interviews with representatives from 12 purposefully selected FPCs in the United States and 6 policy experts identified by the selected FPC representatives to document and describe their policy work. One theme that emerged from those interviews was the role of partners. Interviewees described a range of partners (e.g., stakeholders from government, business, and education) and credited FPC partnerships with advancing their policy goals by increasing the visibility and credibility of FPCs, focusing their policy agenda, connecting FPCs to key policy inputs (e.g., local food community knowledge and priorities), and obtaining stakeholder buy-in for policy initiatives. Partnerships were also described as barriers to policy progress when partners were less engaged or had either disproportionate or little influence in a given food sector. Despite these challenges, partnerships were found to be valuable for FPCs efforts to effectively engage in the food policy arena. PMID:25856089

  7. Selection of tomato plants resistant to a local Polish isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV).

    PubMed

    Czech, Andrzej S; Szklarczyk, Marek; Gajewski, Zbigniew; Zukowska, Ewa; Michalik, Barbara; Kobyłko, Tadeusz; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We found that the Sw-5 gene confers resistance to one of the Polish isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). A series of tomato breeding accessions was analysed along with standards of resistance and susceptibility to TSWV. The presence of the Sw-5 gene was determined using the available PCR marker. Subsequently plants from these accessions were grown in the presence of the TSWV isolate from Poland. Some of them developed severe symptoms of the TSWV disease. Expression of the virus proteins was also assayed in tissues of the investigated plants. We found general agreement between either lack or presence of the disease symptoms, virus proteins and resistance gene. Some observed discrepancies of these data are also discussed. Our results indicate that marker-assisted selection can be used for breeding of the TSWV-resistant tomato in Poland.

  8. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  9. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  10. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  11. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  12. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  13. Comparative study of selected Brazilian and Nigerian policies to promote the transfer and development of technology: the role of regime and non-regime factors, and some results from the automobile industry, 1967-80

    SciTech Connect

    Gusau, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with the policies adopted by Brazil and Nigeria to promote the transfer and development of technology in industry. The objectives are two-fold: (1) to compare and analyze the policies with respect to the automobile industries in the 1967-1980 period; (2) to investigate whether their adoption was solely a function of the different ideological values and issue levels of economic development of the countries, or whether the regimes are solely an expression of the patterns of that development. The study adopted the Comparative Public Policy approach to explore the various hypotheses formulated. The findings showed that Brazil realized more significant results than Nigeria in technology development, while in other areas, such as the curtailment of imports, employment generation, etc., the results are mixed. The study concludes that both regime and industrial development factors influence the variation in the policies, although the regime factor seems to explain more of the variation.

  14. The Federal Energy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1976-01-01

    There is no federal energy policy. There is a fuel use policy of sorts, but that policy is related as much to foreign policy as to domestic needs, with the United States public paying the large bill. Neither presidential candidate has yet offered a plan for a coherent energy policy. (Editor/BT)

  15. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  16. Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Marburger, III

    2008-11-18

    Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

  17. Selection on multiple QTL with control of gene diversity and inbreeding for long-term benefit.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kadarmideen, H N; Dekkers, J C M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate selection strategies that aim at maximizing long-term genetic response while conserving gene diversity and controlling inbreeding in populations of limited effective size, assuming complete knowledge of all genes affecting a quantitative trait. Three selection strategies were proposed to select on 100 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and compared with truncation selection on breeding value. Alternative selection strategies aimed at maximizing the average breeding value of parents with a penalty on (1) the number of unfavourable QTL genotypes among parents (OS-I), (2) the negative of the logarithm of the frequency of the favourable allele at each QTL among parents (OS-II), and (3) the average pedigree relationship among parents (OS-III). When all QTL and their effects were known, the strategies examined were able to obtain extra long-term responses, conserve QTL diversity and reduce inbreeding, compared with truncation selection. Strategy OS-II was the most effective in conserving QTL diversity and OS-III in reducing inbreeding. By changing the magnitude of the penalties applied, the impact on long-term response, inbreeding and diversity can be controlled. Extra long-term responses over truncation selection of OS-I and OS-II were even greater when effects of QTL were estimated rather than assumed known, indicating the applicability of results to practical strategies for marker-assisted selection. Extra responses are expected to be reduced for larger population sizes.

  18. Policy Burdens, Accountability and Soft Budget Constraint of Chinese HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jianhai

    2008-01-01

    Policy burdens of HEIs (higher education institutions) lead to the soft budget constraint (SBC) and the excessive loans of HEIs. Since information asymmetry and incentive are incompatible, policy burdens will result in the adverse selection of the president, and the excessive loans and low efficiency of HEIs. When HEIs are with policy burdens, the…

  19. Meritocratic Epistemic Communities: An Alternative Policy Paradigm for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seungchan

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to propose an alternative policy frame for higher education policy by demonstrating the inadequacy of the market approach adopted by the 2011 English higher education policy in addressing the economic and social agenda, and by reframing higher education as a mechanism that selects and distributes talents to vocational sectors…

  20. Education Policy Borrowing and Cultural Scripts for Teaching in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    China's recent education reforms are a result of selective policy borrowing from "the West". Although comparativists have highlighted the importance of cultural context in policy borrowing in China, what remains relatively under-explored is the epistemological basis for cultural views that mediate policy transfer. This article argues…

  1. Managing Federal Information Technology: Conflicting Policies and Competing Philosophies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachboard, John C.; McClure, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines information technology (IT) policies and the roles played by federal agencies in developing and implementing IT management policies. Illustrates how selected policy prescriptions can prove to be problematic and offers recommendations on how to improve federal IT management. Contains 62 references. (AEF)

  2. Guidelines for Development of School Policies Regarding Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This guide was developed by the New York State Education department to assist schools in the formation, review, or redesign of school smoking policies. Basic considerations and policy rationale are discussed. A description of policy establishment involves: (1) formation of a task force, drawing members from school and community; (2) selection of…

  3. Policy Burdens, Accountability and Soft Budget Constraint of Chinese HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jianhai

    2008-01-01

    Policy burdens of HEIs (higher education institutions) lead to the soft budget constraint (SBC) and the excessive loans of HEIs. Since information asymmetry and incentive are incompatible, policy burdens will result in the adverse selection of the president, and the excessive loans and low efficiency of HEIs. When HEIs are with policy burdens, the…

  4. Meritocratic Epistemic Communities: An Alternative Policy Paradigm for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seungchan

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to propose an alternative policy frame for higher education policy by demonstrating the inadequacy of the market approach adopted by the 2011 English higher education policy in addressing the economic and social agenda, and by reframing higher education as a mechanism that selects and distributes talents to vocational sectors…

  5. Guidelines for Development of School Policies Regarding Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This guide was developed by the New York State Education department to assist schools in the formation, review, or redesign of school smoking policies. Basic considerations and policy rationale are discussed. A description of policy establishment involves: (1) formation of a task force, drawing members from school and community; (2) selection of…

  6. Education Policy Borrowing and Cultural Scripts for Teaching in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    China's recent education reforms are a result of selective policy borrowing from "the West". Although comparativists have highlighted the importance of cultural context in policy borrowing in China, what remains relatively under-explored is the epistemological basis for cultural views that mediate policy transfer. This article argues…

  7. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation.

  8. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  9. Space Policy and Humanities Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2005-05-01

    In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

  10. Environmental policy indicators: A systems model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Leslie Edwards; Cayer, N. Joseph

    1993-09-01

    This article describes and tests a systems theory-based policy indicators model. The framework is used to examine propositions about linkages between states' ecological-spatial characteristics and subsequent selected solid waste management (SWM) -related environmental policies. It was hypothesized that state characteristics of: (1) population density (used as a garbage-per-land area index), (2) population convergence within urban areas, and (3) percent population change in the interval 1980 1985, could jointly explain state variation in both the number and the vigor of SWM policy outputs. Greater levels of spatial pressure were proposed to be related directly to more numerous, more convincing policies. Proposals are grounded in the literature of organizational search theory, crisis stimulation, and technological pressure. Results revealed that the sociospatial model in fact could explain a reasonable proportion of policy variation across states. However, not all hypotheses are supported. Population change shows an indirect, rather than the anticipated direct, relationship with policy output levels. In addition, when used in the model as a pollution intensity index, population density failed to contribute significantly to an explanation of differences in state SWM policy levels. The analysis raises questions about changes occurring over time in the nature and direction of linkages between sociospatial measures and policy responses. This study suggests that strengthening policy indicator models may require questioning key assumptions and theoretical bases, conducting longitudinal studies, and factoring in political, economic, and other policy environment forces.

  11. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  12. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  13. Child and adolescent mental health policy: promise to provision.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gordon; Cetin, Fusun Cuhadaroglu

    2008-06-01

    Mental health policy enables the translation of the knowledge base of 'how' to help children and families into the actual 'provision' of help. Amid competing pressures to leave the allocation of services to the market, policy is required to define needs, select priorities, match resources with need, and to measure what has been accomplished. Crafting policy requires balancing contrasting goals and approaches, here spelled out. Public mental health policy can be compared to other forms of continuous quality improvement (CQI).

  14. The Urban Policy Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Highlights a comparison of a 30-year legacy of urban policy making with 25 years of policy making on environmental problems to demonstrate how weak policy development has been in dealing with the urban crisis. Several principles designed to guide future urban policies are discussed. (GR)

  15. Developing a Policy Brief.

    PubMed

    Keepnews, David M

    2016-05-01

    A policy brief is a document that provides a succinct explanation and analysis of a policy issue or problem, together with policy options and recommendations for addressing that issue or problem. This article provides an explanation of what a policy brief is, how it is used, and how it is developed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  17. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: Becoming Policy Aware, Policy Wise and Policy Active.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis," this article describes the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Here, I illustrate that traditionally teachers have been, to a certain degree, involved in policy processes. However, the degree to which…

  18. A Review of Faculty Workload Policies and Faculty Workloads at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Report of the Select Committee on Post Audit and Oversight. Senate No. 1785.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Legislature, Boston. Senate Committee on Post Audit and Oversight.

    This Massachusetts Senate committee study examined the current policies and procedures used by the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMA) to monitor, manage, and report on the activities of its faculty, in particular its faculty workload. The study had originally intended to analyze faculty workload in terms of instruction (teaching),…

  19. HIV/AIDS and Education: A Study on How a Selection of School Governing Bodies in Mpumalanga Understand, Respond to and Implement Legislation and Policies on HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartell, C. G.; Maile, S.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research has been done in South Africa on HIV/AIDS and education. This article is a small attempt to plug the gap. The purpose of the research is to investigate the legal and policy provisions and implications regarding HIV/AIDS for rural and township schools in the Mpumalanga district of South Africa. It seeks to answer three…

  20. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report No. CN-10-PRED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragoset, Lisa; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes work using nationally representative 2005 data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment-III (SNDA-III) study to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes in policies or practices related to school meals and school food environments. The model focuses on three domains of outcomes: (1) the…

  1. University Examinations and Standardized Testing: Principles, Experience, and Policy Options. World Bank Technical Paper Number 78. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Uses of Standardized Tests and Selection Examinations (Beijing, China, April 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; Fagerlind, Ingemar, Ed.

    In September 1984, the Chinese government asked the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to assist the officials of the Chinese Ministry of Education in thinking through some policy options for examinations and standardized testing. This document summarizes the descriptions of testing programs and advice provided to these Chinese…

  2. Alternative Policy Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    CpRE CENTER FOR POLICY RESEARCH IN EDUCATION Alternative Policy o Instruments I Lorraine M. McDonnell Richard F. Elmore November 1987 DTICELECTE...03 Alternative Policy Instruments Lorraine M. McDonnell The RAND Corporation Richard F. Elmore Michigan State University November 1987 THRAND...range of policy instruments available or on the political and organizational conditions needed for each to work as intended. Policy decisions would

  3. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. Methods This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. ‘Policy triangle framework’ was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. Results The policies of “pupil liaisons” and “safety belt” were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For ‘pupil liaisons’ policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Conclusions Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is

  4. Federal policy and macroengineering for energy. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.E.

    1985-04-01

    Results are presented of a study undertaken to identify the evolution and characteristics of selected energy macroengineering projects in the United States; evaluate the role of Federal policy in selected energy macroengineering projects in the United States; evaluate the role of Federal policy in selected energy macroengineering projects; and establish a framework for the selection of Federal policies that would permit a broad range of future energy options to be considered. The difference between macroengineering projects and programs is discussed, and attention is focused on the probability of successfully completing a macroengineering project.

  5. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparative Study on Graduates from an Educational Leadership Management and Policy Program at a Local Catholic University and How Selected Leadership Responsibilities Influence Their Perceptions in Daily Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey, Pierre Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this three-part qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions principals had with their professional training based on selected leadership responsibilities that strongly correlated to student achievement. From the Marzano et al. (2005) quantitative study, the researcher selected the five strongest correlated responsibilities…

  7. Active Labour Market Policy and Gender Mainstreaming in Germany: Gender-Specific Aspects of Participation and Destination in Selected Instruments of the Federal Employment Service. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Petra; Kurtz, Beate

    The equality of the opportunities available to males and females in Germany's labor market was examined. The study compared employment patterns among women and men and the extent to which selected discretionary benefits of Germany's Federal Employment Service benefit women and men. Selected results were as follows: (1) women are under-represented…

  8. The iSelect 9 K SNP analysis revealed polyploidization induced revolutionary changes and intense human selection causing strong haplotype blocks in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chao, Shiaoman; Li, Tian; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2017-01-01

    A Chinese wheat mini core collection was genotyped using the wheat 9 K iSelect SNP array. Total 2420 and 2396 polymorphic SNPs were detected on the A and the B genome chromosomes, which formed 878 haplotype blocks. There were more blocks in the B genome, but the average block size was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than those in the A genome. Intense selection (domestication and breeding) had a stronger effect on the A than on the B genome chromosomes. Based on the genetic pedigrees, many blocks can be traced back to a well-known Strampelli cross, which was made one century ago. Furthermore, polyploidization of wheat (both tetraploidization and hexaploidization) induced revolutionary changes in both the A and the B genomes, with a greater increase of gene diversity compared to their diploid ancestors. Modern breeding has dramatically increased diversity in the gene coding regions, though obvious blocks were formed on most of the chromosomes in both tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Tag-SNP markers identified in this study can be used for marker assisted selection using haplotype blocks as a wheat breeding strategy. This strategy can also be employed to facilitate genome selection in other self-pollinating crop species. PMID:28134278

  9. Researcher Creations? The Positioning of Policy Texts in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…

  10. Researcher Creations? The Positioning of Policy Texts in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…

  11. Policy About Policy: Some Thoughts and Projections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L.

    In order to perform their proper functions without getting sidetracked by administrative details, school boards must establish a policy about policy. More is required than a set of rules codifying existing procedures. A school board must consider the educational focus of its decision-making responsibilities, the political factors affecting its…

  12. Decentralization and Policy Design. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, New Brunswick, NJ.

    This policy brief focuses on design issues surrounding decentralization policies, drawing from the following three reports: "Working Models of Choice in Public Education," by Richard F. Elmore; "Diversity Amidst Standardization: State Differential Treatment of Districts," by Susan H. Fuhrman; and "School District Restructuring in Santa Fe, New…

  13. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    PubMed

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  14. MUC1 gene polymorphism in three Nelore lines selected for growth and its association with growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabio Ricardo Pablos; Maione, Sandra; Sartore, Stefano; Soglia, Dominga; Spalenza, Veronica; Cauvin, Elsa; Martelli, Lucia Regina; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Sacchi, Paola; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Rasero, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the VNTR polymorphism of the mucin 1 gene (MUC1) in three Nelore lines selected for yearling weight to determine whether allele and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were affected by selection for growth. In addition, the effects of the polymorphism on growth and carcass traits were evaluated. Birth, weaning and yearling weights, rump height, Longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness, were analyzed. A total of 295 Nelore heifers from the Beef Cattle Research Center, Instituto de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho, were used, including 41 of the control line, 102 of the selection line and 152 of the traditional. The selection and traditional lines comprise animals selected for higher yearling weight, whereas control line animals are selected for yearling weight close to the average. Five alleles were identified, with allele 1 being the most frequent in the three lines, especially in the lines selected for higher means for yearling weight. Heterozygosity was significantly higher in the control line. Association analyses showed significant effects of allele 1 on birth weight and weaning weight while the allele 3 exert significant effects on yearling weight and back fat thickness. Despite these findings, application of this marker to marker-assisted selection requires more consistent results based on the genotyping of a larger number of animals in order to increase the accuracy of the statistical analyses.

  15. Genome-wide association and genomic selection in animal breeding.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Ben; Goddard, Mike

    2010-11-01

    Results from genome-wide association studies in livestock, and humans, has lead to the conclusion that the effect of individual quantitative trait loci (QTL) on complex traits, such as yield, are likely to be small; therefore, a large number of QTL are necessary to explain genetic variation in these traits. Given this genetic architecture, gains from marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs using only a small number of DNA markers to trace a limited number of QTL is likely to be small. This has lead to the development of alternative technology for using the available dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information, called genomic selection. Genomic selection uses a genome-wide panel of dense markers so that all QTL are likely to be in linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. The genomic breeding values are predicted to be the sum of the effect of these SNPs across the entire genome. In dairy cattle breeding, the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) that can be achieved and the fact that these are available early in life have lead to rapid adoption of the technology. Here, we discuss the design of experiments necessary to achieve accurate prediction of GEBV in future generations in terms of the number of markers necessary and the size of the reference population where marker effects are estimated. We also present a simple method for implementing genomic selection using a genomic relationship matrix. Future challenges discussed include using whole genome sequence data to improve the accuracy of genomic selection and management of inbreeding through genomic relationships.

  16. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  17. State Energy Policy Newsletter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page allows users to sign up for a weekly summary of state energy policy news for state agency staff involved in advancing clean energy opportunities and developing climate change mitigation policies and programs.

  18. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  19. Economics and obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  20. Public policy involvement by health commissioners.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amy; Boardley, Debra; Kerr, Dianne; Greene, Tiffany; Jenkins, Melissa

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this national study was to determine advocacy activities and level of involvement of health commissioners regarding public policy. Benefits, barriers, and perceived outcomes of advocacy efforts were also explored. A previously validated (Holtrop et al., Am J Health Behav 24(2):132-142, 2000) four-page survey was mailed to 700 health commissioners, who were randomly selected from the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) database. A three-wave mailing was performed which yielded a 50% response rate. Of these respondents, the majority (70%) were female and (88%) Caucasian. Overall, 31% of health commissioners reported being involved in influencing public policy in the last 4 years. The most common reported activities engaged in by health commissioners included voting (84%), and providing policy information to consumers or other professionals (77%). Perceived barriers to influencing policy were time, (64%), and other priorities (46%). Perceived benefits to influencing policy included improving the health of the public (94%) and making a difference in others' lives (87%). Only 15% perceived their knowledge regarding the process of changing public policy was excellent. Although health commissioners are often spokespersons for health agencies and communities, their public policy involvement is marginal. Professional preparation programs and continuing education opportunities should focus on advocacy, public policy development, and removing barriers to action.

  1. Health policy and implementations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dominicus, D A; Akamatsu, T

    1989-06-01

    This paper describes the current health policy in Tanzania and its implementations. The present health policy in Tanzania originated from Arusha declaration of 1967, the country's most popular national policy after independence. Arusha declaration proclaims socialism and self-reliance, which has had important impact on the form and content of the present country's health policy in mainland Tanzania. Much of the wide-spread health care services infrastructure that is evident now in rural areas of Tanzania mainland is a result of the re-emphasis of the Arusha declaration in 1971. In Tanzania, the Ministry of Health has the responsibility for elaborating the health policy, ensuring that strategies and appropriate program are developed to give effect to the policy. In the present health policy discussed, the goal is seen to have shifted from having one dispensary in each village to one primary health unit in each village. One dispensary is intended to serve several villages together. In Tanzania, according to the present health policy, the village primary health care are mainly preventive oriented and only being managed by short term trained health staff. The candidate for training in each village is selected, among the village residents, by the villagers themselves. The primary health care system adopted by Tanzania is viewed as the only way through which it can achieve the social goal of health for everyone by the year 2000, provided the present political will which is evident continue, and enough availability of, human, financial and material resources.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Do infrastructures impact on alcohol policy making?

    PubMed

    König, Claudia; Segura, Lidia

    2011-03-01

    The importance of building and strengthening effective infrastructures within the field of public health has increasingly been recognized. A wide variety of actors and structures can be identified for alcohol policy, including systems for policy development, monitoring, research and work-force development, but too little is known about the complex systems of infrastructure available across European countries and their impact on alcohol policy. This study is part of the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) project, and aims to map existing infrastructures, but also to examine the relationship between infrastructures and alcohol policy change. A survey of alcohol policy infrastructure and infrastructure needs at the national level will be conducted using an updated and adapted questionnaire based on the Health Promotion (HP) Source Project tool. Case studies involving in-depth interviews will be conducted for a selection of countries. Data will be analysed descriptively, mapping alcohol policy infrastructure and identifying needs to reveal any relationship between infrastructure and alcohol policy. This study can contribute to building the scientific knowledge base on this topic as well to policy development. First, the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance will produce an extended map of alcohol policy infrastructures in a wide range of European countries. Secondly, the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance will foster a better understanding and expand the knowledge base on the role and influence of infrastructure on alcohol policy and practice. Recommendations deriving from this study will identify the need for better utilization of existing infrastructures and for the development of new infrastructures, necessary to develop and implement effective alcohol policy from a public health perspective. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  4. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  5. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  6. Essays in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jed Thomas

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

  7. Essays in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jed Thomas

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

  8. Innovation in social policy: collaborative policy advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sherraden, Margaret S; Slosar, Betsy; Sherraden, Michael

    2002-07-01

    In a time of policy devolution, social workers have a unique opportunity to develop a significant voice in constructing state social welfare policy. This article examines a method of collaborative policy advocacy led by social work researchers, practitioners, advocates, and students. It is illustrated with a five-year project to reduce wealth inequality through community economic development. Researchers brought expertise in ideas and analysis to real-world applications. Social work practitioners brought essential "on the ground" expertise. Students brought much-needed assistance and a fresh perspective to the social policy process. Advocates, working in social welfare advocacy organizations, bridged these perspectives and provided experience in policy advocacy. Working with coalition partners, social workers successfully placed asset-based community economic development strategies on the state agenda and were instrumental in passage of innovative legislation. The article demonstrates that the policy-making process is open to influence by social workers, especially if they come prepared with innovative and promising ideas about long-standing social issues. Social workers can and should take the lead and become significant actors in state policy development.

  9. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Heather M.; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States. PMID:26669416

  10. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-02

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States.

  11. Health care policy development: a critical analysis model.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jean E; Pauling, Carolyn D; Franzen, Debra B

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a phased approach for teaching baccalaureate nursing students critical analysis of health care policy, including refinement of existing policy or the foundation to create new policy. Central to this approach is the application of an innovative framework, the Grand View Critical Analysis Model, which was designed to provide a conceptual base for the authentic learning experience. Students come to know the interconnectedness and the importance of the model, which includes issue selection and four phases: policy focus, colleagueship analysis, evidence-based practice analysis, and policy analysis and development.

  12. Are migrants health policies aimed at improving access to quality healthcare? An analysis of Spanish policies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; S-Hernández, Silvia; Vargas, Ingrid; Bosch, Lola; González, Andrea; Pequeño, Sandra; Cantos, Raquel; Martínez, Juan Ignacio; López, Luís Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Although until April 2012, all Spanish citizens regardless of their origin, residence status and work situation were entitled to health care, available evidence suggested inadequate access for immigrants. Following the Aday and Andersen model, we conducted an analysis of policy elements that affect immigrants' access to health care in Spain, based on documentary analysis of national policies and selected regional policies related to migrant health care. Selected documents were (a) laws and plans in force at the time containing migrant health policies and (b) evaluations. The analysis included policy principles, objectives, strategies and evaluations. Results show that the national and regional policies analyzed are based on the principle that health care is a right granted to immigrants by law. These policies include strategies to facilitate access to health care, reducing barriers for entry to the system, for example simplifying requirements and raising awareness, but mostly they address the necessary qualities for services to be able to attend to a more diverse population, such as the adaptation of resources and programs, or improved communication and training. However, limited planning was identified in terms of their implementation, necessary resources and evaluation. In conclusion, the policies address relevant barriers of access for migrants and signal improvements in the health system's responsiveness, but reinforcement is required in order for them to be effectively implemented.

  13. 42 CFR 422.204 - Provider selection and credentialing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Provider selection and credentialing. 422.204... Provider selection and credentialing. (a) General rule. An MA organization must have written policies and procedures for the selection and evaluation of providers. These policies must conform with the credential...

  14. 42 CFR 422.204 - Provider selection and credentialing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Provider selection and credentialing. 422.204... § 422.204 Provider selection and credentialing. (a) General rule. An MA organization must have written policies and procedures for the selection and evaluation of providers. These policies must conform with...

  15. 42 CFR 422.204 - Provider selection and credentialing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Provider selection and credentialing. 422.204... § 422.204 Provider selection and credentialing. (a) General rule. An MA organization must have written policies and procedures for the selection and evaluation of providers. These policies must conform with...

  16. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  17. Benefits, environmental risks, social concerns, and policy implications of biotechnology in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, A.R.; Hallerman, E.M.

    1994-10-01

    Among the many methodologies encompassing biotechnology in aquaculture, this report addresses: the production of genetically modified aquatic organisms (aquatic GMOs) by gene transfer, chromosome set manipulation, or hybridization or protoplast fusion between species; new health management tools, including DNA-Based diagnostics and recombinant DNA vaccines; Marker-assisted selection; cryopreservation; and stock marking. These methodologies pose a wide range of potential economic benefits for aquaculture by providing improved or new means to affect the mix of necessary material inputs, enhance production efficiency, or improve product quality. Advances in aquaculture through biotechnology could simulate growth of the aquaculture industry to provide a larger proportion of consummer demand, and thereby reduce pressure and natural stocks from over-harvest. Judicious application of gamete cryopreservation and chromosome set manipulations to achieve sterilization could reduce environmental risks of some aquaculture operations. Given the significant losses to disease in many aquaculture enterprises, potential benefits of DNA-based health management tools are very high and appear to pose no major environmental risks or social concerns.

  18. Selective Mutism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition (DSM-5: pp.195–197). Children with selective mutism ... How common is selective mutism? According to the DSM-5, selective mutism is an apparently rare disorder ...

  19. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974. Hearings Before Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session. Part 4--Nutrition and Food Availability. Hearings Held Washington, D. C., June 20, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs began with an opening statement by Senator Humphrey. Dr. R. Goldberg, panel cochairman, then presented the "Report and recommendation of the Panel on Nutrition and Food Availability." Testimony was heard from a number of experts and representatives of such organizations…

  20. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974. Hearings Before Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session. Part 4--Nutrition and Food Availability. Hearings Held Washington, D. C., June 20, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs began with an opening statement by Senator Humphrey. Dr. R. Goldberg, panel cochairman, then presented the "Report and recommendation of the Panel on Nutrition and Food Availability." Testimony was heard from a number of experts and representatives of such organizations…

  1. Establishing a Policy Framework for the Primary Prevention of Occupational Cancer: A Proposal Based on a Prospective Health Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Veglia, Amanda; Pahwa, Manisha; Demers, Paul A

    2017-03-01

    Despite our knowledge of the causes of cancer, millions of workers are involuntarily exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens in the workplace. To address this issue from a policy perspective, we developed a policy framework based on a prospective health policy analysis. Use of the framework was demonstrated for developing policies to prevent cancers associated with diesel engine exhaust (DEE), asbestos, and shift work, three occupational carcinogens with global reach and large cancer impact. An environmental scan of existing prospective health policy analyses was conducted to select and describe our framework parameters. These parameters were augmented by considerations unique to occupational cancer. Policy-related resources, predominantly from Canada, were used to demonstrate how the framework can be applied to cancers associated with DEE, asbestos, and shift work. The parameters of the framework were: problem statement, context, jurisdictional evidence, primary prevention policy options, and key policy players and their attributes. Applying the framework to the three selected carcinogens illustrated multiple avenues for primary prevention, including establishing an occupational exposure limit for DEE, banning asbestos, and improving shift schedules. The framework emphasized the need for leadership by employers and government. To our knowledge, this is the first proposal for a comprehensive policy framework dedicated to the primary prevention of occupational cancer. The framework can be adapted and applied by key policy players in Canada and other countries as a guide of what parameters to consider when developing policies to protect workers' health.

  2. Cognitive health and older workers: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Karen Devereaux

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive health, memory complaints, and cognitive impairment among older workers have begun to receive attention in the research, practice, education, and policy arenas. With the aging population of the United States continuing to increase, projections are that the number of workers 65 and older is also expected to increase. Concerns regarding cognitive impairment and job performance in older workers are being raised. Being familiar with the policies and regulations that protect older workers and offering support and guidance to older adults as they contemplate major life transitions, such as retirement, are important role components for gerontological nurses. Using the five levels of analysis in the social ecology model, selected public policies to support older adults in the workforce are reviewed, and recommendations are presented for fostering positive workplace policies that can promote cognitive health. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Rural definitions for health policy and research.

    PubMed

    Hart, L Gary; Larson, Eric H; Lishner, Denise M

    2005-07-01

    The term "rural" suggests many things to many people, such as agricultural landscapes, isolation, small towns, and low population density.However, defining "rural" for health policy and research purposes requires researchers and policy analysts to specify which aspects of rurality are most relevant to the topic at hand and then select an appropriate definition. Rural and urban taxonomies often do not discuss important demographic, cultural, and economic differences across rural places-differences that have major implications for policy and research. Factors such as geographic scale and region also must be considered. Several useful rural taxonomies are discussed and compared in this article. Careful attention to the definition of "rural" is required for effectively targeting policy and research aimed at improving the health of rural Americans.

  4. The Use of a Policy Process Model to Analyze Implemented Educational Policy and Predict Future Policy Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John H.; Kozma, Ernest J.

    A process policy model that contains a broad range of categories and matrices that can be used to generate questions is used to analyze the development and application of selected segments of the South Carolina Educator Improvement Act. This act is a comprehensive legislative endeavor to upgrade public education in South Carolina. This paper…

  5. Evaluating Diabetes Health Policies Using Natural Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Ronald T.; Duru, O. Kenrik; Albu, Jeanine B.; Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Soumerai, Stephen B.; Wharam, James F.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mangione, Carol M.; Gregg, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and costs of type 2 diabetes makes it a rapidly evolving focus of policy action. Health systems, employers, community organizations, and public agencies have increasingly looked to translate the benefits of promising research interventions into innovative polices intended to prevent or control diabetes. Though guided by research, these health policies provide no guarantee of effectiveness and may have opportunity costs or unintended consequences. Natural experiments use pragmatic and available data sources to compare specific policies to other policy alternatives or predictions of what would likely have happened in the absence of any intervention. The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Study is a network of academic, community, industry, and policy partners, collaborating to advance the methods and practice of natural experimental research, with a shared aim of identifying and prioritizing the best policies to prevent and control diabetes. This manuscript describes the NEXT-D Study group's multi-sector natural experiments in areas of diabetes prevention or control as case examples to illustrate the selection, design, analysis, and challenges inherent to natural experimental study approaches to inform development or evaluation of health policies. PMID:25998925

  6. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-08-12

    Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group's involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could

  7. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Methods: Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results: The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion: Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  8. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  9. Vaccine supply, demand, and policy: a primer.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Cline, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    To provide an overview of supply and demand issues in the vaccine industry and the policy options that have been implemented to resolve these issues. Medline, Policy File, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched to locate academic journal articles. Other sources reviewed included texts on the topics of vaccine history and policy, government agency reports, and reports from independent think tanks. Keywords included vaccines, immunizations, supply, demand, and policy. Search criteria were limited to English language and human studies. Articles pertaining to vaccine demand, supply, and public policy were selected and reviewed for inclusion. By the authors. Vaccines are biologic medications, therefore making their development and production more difficult and costly compared with "small-molecule" drugs. Research and development costs for vaccines can exceed $800 million, and development may require 10 years or more. Strict manufacturing regulations and facility upgrades add to these costs. Policy options to increase and stabilize the supply of vaccines include those aimed at increasing supply, such as government subsidies for basic vaccine research, liability protection for manufacturers, and fast-track approval for new vaccines. Options to increase vaccine demand include advance purchase commitments, government stockpiles, and government financing for select populations. High development costs and multiple barriers to entry have led to a decline in the number of vaccine manufacturers. Although a number of vaccine policies have met with mixed success in increasing the supply of and demand for vaccines, a variety of concerns remain, including developing vaccines for complex pathogens and increasing immunization rates with available vaccines. New policy innovations such as advance market commitments and Medicare Part D vaccine coverage have been implemented and may aid in resolving some of the problems in the vaccine industry.

  10. Values in Health Policy - A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shams, Lida; Akbari Sari, Ali; Yazdani, Shahram

    2016-08-17

    Despite the significant role "values" play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of "values" and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of "value in health policy-making" were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. We identified eight major attributes of "value in health policy-making": ideological origin, affect one's choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one's interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra theoretical support to decision-makers in their policy-making process, to help

  11. Successful Track Record with Diverse Policies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center helps governments, advisors, and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through its no-cost offerings, the Solutions Center enables countries to learn from and share policy best practices, data, and analysis tools, creating an international dialogue on clean energy policies that raises global awareness of emerging policy issues and innovations. As part of these efforts, the Solutions Center provides an indispensable service by connecting those seeking policy information and advice with a policy expert who can help them achieve their goals. The Solutions Center's Ask an Expert service matches policymakers with one of the more than 30 global experts selected as authoritative leaders on specific clean energy policy topics.

  12. Context, Conditions, and Consequences: Freshman Year Transition in Philadelphia. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Evans, Shani Adia; Haxton, Clarisse; Maluk, Holly Plastaras; Mitchell, Cecily A.; Simon, Elaine; Good, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief focuses on the School District of Philadelphia's high school selection process and the ways in which it reinforces and compounds inequities that already exist among the District's tiered system of selective, non-selective, and charter high schools. Focused in particular on the impact that these policies have on non-selective…

  13. Marine Science Affairs--Selecting Priority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering Development, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes accomplishments in 1969, describing Federal programs and policies, and new programs implemented to meet those policies. The report describes the priorities that have been selected in the Federal Marine Science program during 1969. The first chapter reviews the steps taken by the Federal Government during 1969 to advance and…

  14. The Board's Role in Textbook Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patricia

    In the area of textbook selection, a school board should (1) establish a policy based on the feelings of the community, the law, and the board's views; (2) determine whether administrative guidelines reflect board policy; (3) check whether textbook choices are based on those guidelines; and (4) consider appeals in book complaint cases. Everyone…

  15. 32 CFR 242.4 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES... the principle of equal educational opportunity for all. Sex, race, religion, national origin, marital status, and State of residence shall not be factors influencing the selection process. Aspirants...

  16. Developing Lifelong Readers: Policies, Procedures, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Selected papers from the 1991 annual conference of the American Reading Forum are presented in this yearbook. The papers, which deal with issues regarding ways to develop and strengthen a society of active readers, address policies, procedures, and programs for the beginning child reader, the beginning adult reader, and a range of readers in…

  17. On TESOL '78: EFL Policies, Programs, Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatchford, Charles H., Ed.; Schachter, Jacquelyn, Ed.

    A selection of 29 papers presented at the 1978 TESOL convention is presented. Part one consists of the plenary addresses which concern the following: a survey of the profession, the notional-functional syllabus, the humanization of English as a Second Language, and a review of inconsistencies of national policies and priorities regarding the…

  18. The Internet: A California Policy Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbach, Kenneth W.

    This paper reviews the background and key terminology of the Internet, its current scope and use, and a selection of public policy issues. "Chapter 1: What Is the Internet?" includes an overview; capsule history; explanation of how the Internet works; basic terminology; and the kinds of information available on the Internet.…

  19. Performing Refugee Policy in Politics and Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David

    2008-01-01

    This essay provides a brief account of selected performances of Australian refugee policy in the domains of politics and theatre. In the domain of politics, it considers rhetorical performances by government ministers and military personnel in relation to the so-called "children overboard" scandal of 2001, and the scandal's parliamentary…

  20. Future policy for BCG vaccination in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ian

    1971-01-01

    The reduction in tuberculosis to be expected from mass BCG vaccination in Britain during the next few years has been assessed. It is concluded that mass BCG vaccination in adolescence should very soon be replaced by a selective vaccination policy aimed at groups at particular risk of exposure to tubercle bacilli. PMID:5159678

  1. 28 CFR 19.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 19.3 Policy. (a) The Department of Justice will supplement and expand the national effort to assist in the... use by DOJ organizational units. When printing missing children information, DOJ will select...

  2. Selecting soybean resistant to the cyst nematode Heterodera glycines using simple sequence repeat (microssatellite) markers.

    PubMed

    Espindola, S M C G; Hamawaki, O T; Oliveira, A P; Hamawaki, C D L; Hamawaki, R L; Takahashi, L M

    2016-03-11

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major cause of soybean yield reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection to identify genotypes resistant to SCN race 3 infection, using Sat_168 and Sat-141 resistance quantitative trait loci. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, using soybean populations originated from crosses between susceptible and resistant parent stock: CD-201 (susceptible) and Foster IAC (resistant), Conquista (susceptible) and S83-30 (resistant), La-Suprema (susceptible) and S57-11 (resistant), and Parecis (susceptible) and S65-50 (resistant). Plants were inoculated with SCN and evaluated according to the female index (FI), those with FI < 10% were classified as resistant to nematode infection. Plants were genotyped for SCN resistance using microsatellite markers Sat-141 and Sat_168. Marker selection efficiency was analyzed by a contingency table, taking into account genotypic versus phenotypic evaluations for each line. These markers were shown to be useful tool for selection of SCN race 3.

  3. Potential assessment of genome-wide association study and genomic selection in Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Sawamura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2013-03-01

    Although the potential of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in fruit tree breeding has been reported, bi-parental QTL mapping before MAS has hindered the introduction of MAS to fruit tree breeding programs. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. Selection based on genomic predictions of breeding values (genomic selection: GS) is another alternative for MAS. This study examined the potential of GWAS and GS in pear breeding with 76 Japanese pear cultivars to detect significant associations of 162 markers with nine agronomic traits. We applied multilocus Bayesian models accounting for ordinal categorical phenotypes for GWAS and GS model training. Significant associations were detected at harvest time, black spot resistance and the number of spurs and two of the associations were closely linked to known loci. Genome-wide predictions for GS were accurate at the highest level (0.75) in harvest time, at medium levels (0.38-0.61) in resistance to black spot, firmness of flesh, fruit shape in longitudinal section, fruit size, acid content and number of spurs and at low levels (<0.2) in all soluble solid content and vigor of tree. Results suggest the potential of GWAS and GS for use in future breeding programs in Japanese pear.

  4. Future American energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    American energy policy is examined using a format of five primary presentations, each followed by a panel commentary and debate with audience questioning. The five parts are on: challenges (an overview of the global and domestic energy situation, and a discussion of the political process and energy); social implications of energy policies; economic consequences of energy policies; international attitudes toward US oil policies; and social/economic and environmental impacts of alternative energy sources. In the summary, changes in US economy and the impact of the market pricing system are considered.

  5. Federalism and health policy.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  6. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  7. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  8. I PASS: an interactive policy analysis simulation system.

    Treesearch

    Doug Olson; Con Schallau; Wilbur Maki

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive policy analysis simulation system(IPASS) that can be used to analyze the long-term economic and demographic effects of alternative forest resource management policies. The IPASS model is a dynamic analytical tool that forecasts growth and development of an economy. It allows the user to introduce changes in selected parameters based...

  9. 36 CFR 1258.14 - What is NARA's payment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is NARA's payment policy... ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.14 What is NARA's payment policy? (a) Form of payment... by selected credit cards. Payments from outside the United States must be made by international...

  10. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  11. Federal Information Policy and Management for Electronic Services Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.; And Others

    To assist the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress in identifying and resolving policy issues related to the electronic delivery of government services, this study examined selected innovative information technology applications, management practices, and policies that promote experimentation and integration with new electronic…

  12. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  13. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  14. Community Integration Policy and Practice Abstracts. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Julia; Harris, Perri

    This compilation of about 200 abstracts features journal articles relevant to the community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Articles were selected based on their relevance to policy and practice. Research articles were included if they had a strong applied emphasis with clear implications for contemporary policy and…

  15. Improving Conditions for Principal Effectiveness: Policy Implications of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse, A. Lorri

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research on principals' behavior and research differentiating between more and less effective principals. Traces potential policy implications in the areas of program implementation, principal selection, preservice and inservice training, and district level organization and management. (RH)

  16. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  17. Playing the policy game: a review of the barriers to and enablers of nutrition policy change.

    PubMed

    Cullerton, Katherine; Donnet, Timothy; Lee, Amanda; Gallegos, Danielle

    2016-10-01

    To progress nutrition policy change and develop more effective advocates, it is useful to consider real-world factors and practical experiences of past advocacy efforts to determine the key barriers to and enablers of nutrition policy change. The present review aimed to identify and synthesize the enablers of and barriers to public policy change within the field of nutrition. Electronic databases were searched systematically for studies examining policy making in public health nutrition. An interpretive synthesis was undertaken. International, national, state and local government jurisdictions within high-income, democratic countries. Sixty-three studies were selected for inclusion. Numerous themes were identified explaining the barriers to and enablers of policy change, all of which fell under the overarching category of 'political will', underpinned by a second major category, 'public will'. Sub-themes, including pressure from industry, neoliberal ideology, use of emotions and values, and being visible, were prevalent in describing links between public will, political will and policy change. The frustration around lack of public policy change in nutrition frequently stems from a belief that policy making is a rational process in which evidence is used to assess the relative costs and benefits of options. The findings from the present review confirm that evidence is only one component of influencing policy change. For policy change to occur there needs to be the political will, and often the public will, for the proposed policy problem and solution. The review presents a suite of enablers which can assist health professionals to influence political and public will in future advocacy efforts.

  18. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  19. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  20. Basic Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William D., Ed.; O'Leary, Michael K., Ed.

    This publication will help high school and college students develop policy analysis skills and techniques and apply these to important public issues. A public policy issue is defined as a disagreement between two or more elements of a society over the way that the society's government deals with a given situation. There are six chapters. Chapter…

  1. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  2. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  3. Procedures and Policies Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

  4. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  5. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  6. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  7. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  8. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  9. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  10. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  11. Cultural Policies in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opondo, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the challenges that arise when government policies are implemented with the goal of promoting culture, tradition, heritage, and identity in society. Focuses specifically on music education. Examines the impact and effects of the post-independence cultural policies in Kenya. Provides recommendations for restructuring present cultural…

  12. Social Policy Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 2001 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. The topics featured in each of the issues are: (1) "Youth Civic Development: Implications of Research for Social Policy and Programs"…

  13. Creativity, Content, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Creativity, content, and policy have multiple relationships. Creativity and disciplinary content are inextricably linked. In dealing with creativity, the first education policy choice is whether to recognize and act on that fact. Care is needed in using the term "creativity" in advocacy contexts, lest the relationship between creativity and…

  14. School Library Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Instructional Resources Branch.

    The School Library Policy Statement for Manitoba schools begins with the mission statement of Manitoba Education and Training and the Goals of Learning for Manitoba. Statements of Manitoba's School Library Policy and the Philosophy of the School Library Program are also provided, together with an outline of the responsibilities of both Manitoba's…

  15. Sexuality Rights Protection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1991

    This booklet presents the policy of the Colorado Developmental Disabilities Planning Council to affirm and promote the sexuality rights and responsibilities of persons with disabilities. The purpose of the policy is to guide the community and empower persons with disabilities in Colorado to ensure that their inherent sexual rights and basic human…

  16. Rethinking Mental Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.

    Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…

  17. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  18. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  19. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  20. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…