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Sample records for marker-assisted selection policy

  1. Considerations for marker-assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. Thes...

  2. Considerations for Marker-assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. These ...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Marker-Assisted and Phenotypic Selection for Yield Components in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theorectical studies suggest that marker-assisted selection (MAS) has case-specific advantages over phenotypic selection (PHE) for selection of quantitative traits. However, few studies have been conducted that empirically compare these selection methods in the context of a plant breeding program. ...

  4. Charles W. Stuber: Maize geneticist and pioneer of marker-assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charles W. Stuber is considered a pioneer of quantitative genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection in maize. The achievements of his four decade career in research include the development of genetic marker systems used in maize and adapted in many other crops, the first methods and studies to i...

  5. Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

  6. One Cycle of Phenotypic Selection Combined with Marker Assisted Selection for Improving Yield and Quality in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimation of response to marker-assisted selection (MAS) is critical to breeding programs. To investigate MAS for line development, two cucumber recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (7026B76 and 7022C8) differing in plant habit were mated, and F4 and F5 progeny was MAS selected to improve both yield an...

  7. The accuracy of marker-assisted selection for quantitative traits within populations in linkage equilibrium.

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, L

    1998-01-01

    Using the concept of conditional coancestry, given observed markers, an explicit expression of the accuracy of marker-based selection is derived in situations of linkage equilibrium between markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL), for the general case of full-sib families nested within half-sib families. Such a selection scheme is rather inaccurate for moderate values of family sizes and QTL variance, and the accuracies predicted for linkage disequilibrium can never be reached. The result is used to predict the accuracy of marker-assisted combined selection (MACS) and is shown to agree with previous MACS results obtained by simulation of a best linear unbiased prediction animal model. Low gains in accuracy are generally to be expected compared to standard combined selection. The maximum gain, assuming infinite family size and all QTLs marked, is about 50%. PMID:9539449

  8. Comparing the predictive abilities of phenotypic and marker-assisted selection methods in a biparental lettuce population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding and selection for the traits with polygenic inheritance is a challenging task that can be done by phenotypic selection, by marker-assisted selection or by genome wide selection. We tested predictive ability of four selection models in a biparental population genotyped with 95 SNP markers an...

  9. Marker-assisted selection: an approach for precision plant breeding in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Collard, Bertrand C Y; Mackill, David J

    2008-02-12

    DNA markers have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional plant breeding via marker-assisted selection (MAS). The large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping studies for diverse crops species have provided an abundance of DNA marker-trait associations. In this review, we present an overview of the advantages of MAS and its most widely used applications in plant breeding, providing examples from cereal crops. We also consider reasons why MAS has had only a small impact on plant breeding so far and suggest ways in which the potential of MAS can be realized. Finally, we discuss reasons why the greater adoption of MAS in the future is inevitable, although the extent of its use will depend on available resources, especially for orphan crops, and may be delayed in less-developed countries. Achieving a substantial impact on crop improvement by MAS represents the great challenge for agricultural scientists in the next few decades.

  10. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  11. Marker-assisted selection of Fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, P; Liu, S; Zhu, Q L; Luan, F S

    2015-12-08

    In this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes ACS7 (A) and WIP1 (G) and the domain in the Fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene Fom-2 (F) in order to achieve selection of F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. Markers of A and F are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. Twenty F1 and 1863 F2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line WI998 and the Fusarium wilt-resistant line MR-1 were genotyped based on the markers. The results showed that the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion results could be effectively used to identify plants with the AAggFF genotype in F2 populations. In the F2 population, 35 gynoecious wilt-resistant plants were selected by marker-assisted selection and were confirmed by disease infection assays, demonstrating that these markers can be used in breeding to select F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants.

  12. Whole Genome Sequencing of Elite Rice Cultivars as a Comprehensive Information Resource for Marker Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Duitama, Jorge; Silva, Alexander; Sanabria, Yamid; Cruz, Daniel Felipe; Quintero, Constanza; Ballen, Carolina; Lorieux, Mathias; Scheffler, Brian; Farmer, Andrew; Torres, Edgar; Oard, James; Tohme, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Current advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics revealed the genomic background of rice, a staple food for the poor people, and provided the basis to develop large genomic variation databases for thousands of cultivars. Proper analysis of this massive resource is expected to give novel insights into the structure, function, and evolution of the rice genome, and to aid the development of rice varieties through marker assisted selection or genomic selection. In this work we present sequencing and bioinformatics analyses of 104 rice varieties belonging to the major subspecies of Oryza sativa. We identified repetitive elements and recurrent copy number variation covering about 200 Mbp of the rice genome. Genotyping of over 18 million polymorphic locations within O. sativa allowed us to reconstruct the individual haplotype patterns shaping the genomic background of elite varieties used by farmers throughout the Americas. Based on a reconstruction of the alleles for the gene GBSSI, we could identify novel genetic markers for selection of varieties with high amylose content. We expect that both the analysis methods and the genomic information described here would be of great use for the rice research community and for other groups carrying on similar sequencing efforts in other crops. PMID:25923345

  13. User-friendly markers linked to Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance Fw gene for marker-assisted selection in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is one of the most widespread diseases of pea. Resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1 was reported as a single gene, Fw, located on linkage group III. The previously reported AFLP and RAPD markers linked to Fw have limited usage in marker-assisted selection due to their map distance and l...

  14. Association mapping and marker-assisted selection of the lettuce dieback resistance gene Tvr1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) is susceptible to dieback, a soilborne disease caused by two viruses from the family Tombusviridae. Susceptibility to dieback is widespread in romaine and leaf-type lettuce, while modern iceberg cultivars are resistant to this disease. Resistance in iceberg cultivars is conferred by Tvr1 - a single, dominant gene that provides durable resistance. This study describes fine mapping of the resistance gene, analysis of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium in the Tvr1 region, and development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. Results A combination of classical linkage mapping and association mapping allowed us to pinpoint the location of the Tvr1 resistance gene on chromosomal linkage group 2. Nine molecular markers, based on expressed sequence tags (EST), were closely linked to Tvr1 in the mapping population, developed from crosses between resistant (Salinas and Salinas 88) and susceptible (Valmaine) cultivars. Sequencing of these markers from a set of 68 cultivars revealed a relatively high level of nucleotide polymorphism (θ = 6.7 × 10-3) and extensive linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.124 at 8 cM) in this region. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium was affected by population structure and the values were substantially larger when the analysis was performed only for romaine (r2 = 0.247) and crisphead (r2 = 0.345) accessions. The association mapping approach revealed that one of the nine markers (Cntg10192) in the Tvr1 region matched exactly with resistant and susceptible phenotypes when tested on a set of 200 L. sativa accessions from all horticultural types of lettuce. The marker-trait association was also confirmed on two accessions of Lactuca serriola - a wild relative of cultivated lettuce. The combination of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the Cntg10192 marker identified four haplotypes. Three of the haplotypes were associated with resistance and one of them was always

  15. Advances towards a Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding Program in Prairie Cordgrass, a Biomass Crop

    PubMed Central

    Gedye, K. R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. L.; Owens, V.; Boe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link) is an indigenous, perennial grass of North America that is being developed into a cellulosic biomass crop suitable for biofuel production. Limited research has been performed into the breeding of prairie cordgrass; this research details an initial investigation into the development of a breeding program for this species. Genomic libraries enriched for four simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were developed, 25 clones from each library were sequenced, identifying 70 SSR regions, and primers were developed for these regions, 35 of which were amplified under standard PCR conditions. These SSR markers were used to validate the crossing methodology of prairie cordgrass and it was found that crosses between two plants occurred without the need for emasculation. The successful cross between two clones of prairie cordgrass indicates that this species is not self-incompatible. The results from this research will be used to instigate the production of a molecular map of prairie cordgrass which can be used to incorporate marker-assisted selection (MAS) protocols into a breeding program to improve this species for cellulosic biomass production. PMID:23227036

  16. Marker assisted selection of low phytic acid trait in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, S; Tamilkumar, P; Senthil, N; Nagarajan, P; Thangavelu, A U; Raveendran, M; Vellaikumar, S; Ganesan, K N; Balagopal, R; Vijayalakshmi, G; Shobana, V

    2014-02-01

    Maize is the third important major food crop. Breeding for low phytate maize genotypes is an effective strategy for decreasing the content of kernel phytic acid (a chelator of cations such as Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) ) and thereby increasing the bioavailability of nutritive minerals in human diet and animal feed. Previous studies have established that a mutant plant with a lpa2-2 allele accumulates less phytic acid in seeds. Therefore, the marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB), which involves introgression of lpa2-2 recessive allele (which confer low phytate trait) from a lpa2-2 mutant line into a well-adapted line using backcrosses and selection of lines possessing lpa2-2 allele in each backcross population using molecular markers, is an effective strategy for developing low phytate maize. So far, no studies have developed any lpa2-2 allele specific molecular markers for this purpose. Here, using backcross and selfed progenies, obtained by crossing low phytate mutant line 'EC 659418' (i.e. donor of lpa2-2 allele) into agronomically superior line 'UMI395', we have validated that a SSR marker 'umc2230', located 0.4 cM downstream of lpa2-2, cosegregate, in a Mendelian fashion, with low phytic acid trait. Therefore umc2230 can be dependably used in MABB for the development of low phytate maize.

  17. Phenotypic versus marker-assisted selection for stalk strength and second-generation European corn borer resistance in maize.

    PubMed

    Flint-Garcia, S A; Darrah, L L; McMullen, M D; Hibbard, B E

    2003-11-01

    Maize ( Zea mays L.) stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. Stalk lodging is often intensified by the stalk tunneling action of the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Rind penetrometer resistance (RPR) has been used to measure stalk strength and improve stalk lodging resistance, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for both RPR and 2-ECB damage. Phenotypic recurrent selection (PS) increases the frequency of favorable alleles over cycles of selection. Several studies have indicated that marker-assisted selection (MAS) is also a potentially valuable selection tool. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of PS versus MAS for RPR and 2-ECB. Marker-assisted selection for high and low RPR was effective in the three populations studied. Phenotypic selection for both high and low RPR was more effective than MAS in two of the populations. However, in a third population, MAS for high RPR using QTL effects from the same population was more effective than PS, and using QTL effects from a separate population was just as effective as PS. Marker-assisted selection for resistance and susceptibility to 2-ECB using QTL effects from the same population was effective in increasing susceptibility, but not in increasing resistance. Marker-assisted selection using QTL effects from a separate population was effective in both directions of selection. Thus, MAS was effective in selecting for both resistance and susceptibility to 2-ECB. These results demonstrated that MAS can be an effective selection tool for both RPR and 2-ECB resistance. These results also validate the locations and effects of QTL for RPR and 2-ECB resistance identified in earlier studies.

  18. Comparative mapping and marker-assisted selection in Rosaceae fruit crops

    PubMed Central

    Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Graziano, Enrique; Joobeur, Tarek; Garriga-Calderé, Francesc; Cosson, Patrick; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere

    2004-01-01

    The development of saturated linkage maps using transferable markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and micro-satellites has provided a foundation for fruit tree genetics and breeding. A Prunus reference map with 562 such markers is available, and a further set of 13 maps constructed with a subset of these markers has allowed genome comparison among seven Prunus diploid (x = 8) species (almond, peach, apricot, cherry, Prunus ferganensis, Prunus davidiana, and Prunus cerasifera); marker colinearity was the rule with all of them. Preliminary results of the comparison between apple and Prunus maps suggest a high level of synteny between these two genera. Conserved genomic regions have also been detected between Prunus and Arabidopsis. By using the data from different linkage maps anchored with the reference Prunus map, it has been possible to establish, in a general map, the position of 28 major genes affecting agronomic characters found in different species. Markers tightly linked to the major genes responsible for the expression of important traits (disease/pest resistances, fruit/nut quality, self-incompatibility, etc.) have been developed in apple and Prunus and are currently in use for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Quantitative character dissection using linkage maps and candidate gene approaches has already started. Genomic tools such as the Prunus physical map, large EST collections in both Prunus and Malus, and the establishment of the map position of high numbers of ESTs are required for a better understanding of the Rosaceae genome and to foster additional research and applications on fruit tree genetics. PMID:15159547

  19. Evidence of Multiple Disease Resistance (MDR) and implication of meta-analysis in marker assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farhan; Pan, Qingchun; Chen, Genshen; Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Yan, Jianbing

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis was performed for three major foliar diseases with the aim to find out the total number of QTL responsible for these diseases and depict some real QTL for molecular breeding and marker assisted selection (MAS) in maize. Furthermore, we confirmed our results with some major known disease resistance genes and most well-known gene family of nucleotide binding site (NBS) encoding genes. Our analysis revealed that disease resistance QTL were randomly distributed in maize genome, but were clustered at different regions of the chromosomes. Totally 389 QTL were observed for these three major diseases in diverse maize germplasm, out of which 63 QTL were controlling more than one disease revealing the presence of multiple disease resistance (MDR). 44 real-QTLs were observed based on 4 QTL as standard in a specific region of genome. We also confirmed the Ht1 and Ht2 genes within the region of real QTL and 14 NBS-encoding genes. On chromosome 8 two NBS genes in one QTL were observed and on chromosome 3, several cluster and maximum MDR QTL were observed indicating that the apparent clustering could be due to genes exhibiting pleiotropic effect. Significant relationship was observed between the number of disease QTL and total genes per chromosome based on the reference genome B73. Therefore, we concluded that disease resistance genes are abundant in maize genome and these results can unleash the phenomenon of MDR. Furthermore, these results could be very handy to focus on hot spot on different chromosome for fine mapping of disease resistance genes and MAS.

  20. Comparison of phenotypic versus marker-assisted background selection for the SUB1 QTL during backcrossing in rice

    PubMed Central

    Iftekharuddaula, Khandakar M.; Salam, Muhammad A.; Newaz, Muhammad A.; Ahmed, Helal U.; Collard, Bertrand C. Y.; Septiningsih, Endang M.; Sanchez, Darlene L.; Pamplona, Alvaro M.; Mackill, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Marker assisted backcrossing has been used effectively to transfer the submergence tolerance gene SUB1 into popular rice varieties, but the approach can be costly. The selection strategy comprising foreground marker and phenotypic selection was investigated as an alternative. The non-significant correlation coefficients between ranking of phenotypic selection and ranking of background marker selection in BC2F1, BC3F1 and BC3F2 generations indicated inefficiency of phenotypic selection compared to marker-assisted background selection with respect to recovery of the recipient genome. In addition, the introgression size of the chromosome fragment containing SUB1 was approximately 17 Mb, showing the effects of linkage drag. The significant correlation coefficient between rankings of phenotypic selection with the percentage of recipient alleles in the BC1F1 generation suggested that background selection could be avoided in this generation to minimize the genotyping cost. The phenotypically selected best plant of the BC3F1 generation was selfed and backcross recombinant lines were selected in the resulting BC3F4 generation. The selection strategy could be appropriate for the introgression of SUB1 QTL in countries that lack access to high-throughput genotyping facilities. PMID:23226081

  1. Modeling of genetic gain for single traits from marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Sushan; Hardner, Craig; Carter, Patrick A; Evans, Kate; Main, Dorrie; Peace, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Seedling selection identifies superior seedlings as candidate cultivars based on predicted genetic potential for traits of interest. Traditionally, genetic potential is determined by phenotypic evaluation. With the availability of DNA tests for some agronomically important traits, breeders have the opportunity to include DNA information in their seedling selection operations—known as marker-assisted seedling selection. A major challenge in deploying marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops is a lack of knowledge in genetic gain achievable from alternative strategies. Existing models based on additive effects considering seed-propagated crops are not directly relevant for seedling selection of clonally propagated crops, as clonal propagation captures all genetic effects, not just additive. This study modeled genetic gain from traditional and various marker-based seedling selection strategies on a single trait basis through analytical derivation and stochastic simulation, based on a generalized seedling selection scheme of clonally propagated crops. Various trait-test scenarios with a range of broad-sense heritability and proportion of genotypic variance explained by DNA markers were simulated for two populations with different segregation patterns. Both derived and simulated results indicated that marker-based strategies tended to achieve higher genetic gain than phenotypic seedling selection for a trait where the proportion of genotypic variance explained by marker information was greater than the broad-sense heritability. Results from this study provides guidance in optimizing genetic gain from seedling selection for single traits where DNA tests providing marker information are available. PMID:27148453

  2. Genome-wide association analysis of bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout reveals the potential of a hybrid approach between genomic selection and marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) simultaneously incorporates dense SNP marker genotypes with phenotypic data from related animals to predict animal-specific genomic breeding value (GEBV), which circumvents the need to measure the disease phenotype in potential breeders. Marker assisted selection (MAS) involv...

  3. A next-generation marker genotyping platform (AmpSeq) in heterozygous crops: A case study for marker assisted selection in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker assisted selection (MAS) has become widely used in perennial crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been widely used for whole genome molecular...

  4. A next-generation marker genotyping platform (AmpSeq) in heterozygous crops: a case study for marker assisted selection in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker assisted selection (MAS) is often employed in crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development, via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next generation sequencing (NGS) and its derivative technologies have been used for genome-wid...

  5. Marker-assisted selection in breeding silkworm strains with high tolerance to fluoride, scaleless wings, and high silk production.

    PubMed

    Li, M W; Yu, H J; Yi, X L; Li, J; Dai, F Y; Hou, C X

    2015-09-22

    In the silkworm (Bombyx mori), tolerance to fluoride and scaleless wings are controlled by the dominant gene Dtf (dominant tolerance to fluoride) and recessive gene nlw (no Lepidoptera wings), respectively, and these genes have been mapped by using simple sequence repeat and sequence tag site markers. Marker-assisted evaluation and selection of silkworms with fluoride tolerance and scaleless wings were used for predicting fluoride resistance and scaleless wings in backcrossed animals. A silkworm strain was bred using this method, and its economic characteristics were found to be similar to those of commercial silkworms. These methods will therefore be useful for silkworm breeding programs and in screening for two or more characteristics of interest for segregating populations.

  6. Performance and grain yield stability of maize populations developed using marker-assisted recurrent selection and pedigree selection procedures.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Yoseph; Semagn, Kassa; Mugo, Stephen; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Tarekegne, Amsal; Gakunga, John; Sehabiague, Pierre; Meisel, Barbara; Oikeh, Sylvester O; Olsen, Michael; Crossa, Jose

    A marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) program was undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa to improve grain yield under drought-stress in 10 biparental tropical maize populations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the performance of C1S2-derived hybrids obtained after three MARS cycles (one cycle of recombination (C1), followed by two generations of selfing (S2), and to study yield stability under both drought-stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. For each of the 10 populations, we evaluated hybrids developed by crossing 47-74 C1S2 lines advanced through MARS, the best five S5 lines developed through pedigree selection, and the founder parents with a single-cross tester from a complementary heterotic group. The hybrids and five commercial checks were evaluated in Kenya under 1-3 DS and 3-5 WW conditions with two replications. Combined across DS locations, the top 10 C1S2-derived hybrids from each of the 10 biparental populations produced 0.5-46.3 and 11.1-55.1 % higher mean grain yields than hybrids developed using pedigree selection and the commercial checks, respectively. Across WW locations, the best 10 hybrids derived from C1S2 of each population produced 3.4-13.3 and 7.9-36.5 % higher grain yields than hybrids derived using conventional pedigree breeding and the commercial checks, respectively. Mean days to anthesis of the best 10 C1S2 hybrids were comparable to those of hybrids developed using the pedigree method, the founder parents and the commercial checks, with a maximum difference of 3.5 days among the different groups. However, plant height was significantly (P < 0.01) different in most pairwise comparisons. Our results showed the superiority of MARS over pedigree selection for improving diverse tropical maize populations as sources of improved lines for stress-prone environments and thus MARS can be effectively integrated into mainstream maize breeding programs.

  7. Marker-assisted selection to improve drought adaptation in maize: the backcross approach, perspectives, limitations, and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Ragot, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A number of different marker-assisted selection (MAS) approaches do exist for the improvement of polygenic traits. Results of a marker-assisted backcross (MABC) selection experiment aimed at improving grain yield under drought conditions in tropical maize are presented and compared with alternative MAS strategies. The introgression of favourable alleles at five target regions involved in the expression of yield components and flowering traits increased grain yield and reduced the asynchrony between male and female flowering under water-limited conditions. Eighty-five per cent of the recurrent parent's genotype at non-target loci was recovered in only four generations of MABC by screening large segregating populations (2200 individuals) for three of the four generations. Selected MABC-derived BC(2)F(3) families were crossed with two testers and evaluated under different water regimes. Mean grain yield of MABC-derived hybrids was consistently higher than that of control hybrids (crosses from the recurrent parent to the same two testers as the MABC-derived families) under severe water stress conditions. Under those conditions, the best five MABC-derived hybrids yielded, on average, at least 50% more than control hybrids. Under mild water stress, defined as resulting in <50% yield reduction, no difference was observed between MABC-derived hybrids and the control plants, thus confirming that the genetic regulation for drought tolerance is dependent on stress intensity. MABC conversions involving several target regions are likely to result in partial rather than complete line conversion. Simulations were conducted to assess the utility of such partial conversions, i.e. containing favourable donor alleles at non-target regions, for subsequent phenotypic selection. The results clearly showed that selecting several genotypes (10-20) at each MABC cycle was most efficient. In the light of these results, alternative approaches to MABC are discussed, including recurrent

  8. Historical overview and current status of genomic technology and marker assisted selection in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic technology has long been viewed as a transformative technology in that it has the potential to greatly alter strategies for livestock selection and management. Effective selection requires accurate predictions of genetic merit. Traditional genetic evaluations are obtained from data and ped...

  9. The use of marker-assisted selection in animal breeding and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Williams, J L

    2005-04-01

    Improvement of livestock has focused on the selective breeding of individuals with superior phenotypes. With the development of increasingly advanced statistical methods that maximise selection for genetic gain, this simple approach has been extremely successful in increasing the quantity of agricultural output. However, information now available on the organisation and functioning of the genome could be used in breeding programmes to improve a range of traits. Many traits are under the control of several genetic loci, each of which contribute to the variation in the trait and hence are called quantitative trait loci (QTL). While genetic markers for QTL that are linked to the trait gene could be used to choose animals for selective breeding programmes, the most effective markers are the functional mutations within the trait genes. Strategies to identify markers for traits and the application of these markers are described by reference to examples of loci that control a range of different traits.

  10. Development of High Tryptophan Maize Near Isogenic Lines Adapted to Temperate Regions through Marker Assisted Selection - Impediments and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinovic, Marija; Ignjatovic-Micic, Dragana; Vancetovic, Jelena; Ristic, Danijela; Bozinovic, Sofija; Stankovic, Goran; Mladenovic Drinic, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    Breeding program aimed at converting standard maize inbred lines to their quality protein maize (QPM) counterparts for growing in temperate climate is being conducted at Maize Research Institute (MRI). The objective of the research presented herein was to develop QPM versions of two commercial ZP inbreds through marker assisted selection (MAS) with opaque2 specific molecular markers, while maintaining their good agronomic performances and combining abilities. Donor line was a tropical QPM line CML 144. After two backcross and three selfing generations, six near isogenic lines (NILs) with 93% recovery of the recurrent parent genome were created from one cross. Average increments of 30% in tryptophan content and 36% in quality index were obtained, as well as kernels with less than 25% opaque endosperm. Grain yield was increased by 11–31% and combining abilities of the improved lines were on a par with the original line. Correlations between biochemical and agronomic parameters revealed that selection for plant height, ear length and kernel row number together with tryptophan content could be recommended for development of QPM with this material. However, several impediments emerged during selection. Major drawbacks in NIL development were small number of opaque2 recessive homozygotes (4.5% and 7.6% in BC2F2 of two crosses) and poor seed set throughout selection, which led to the loss of one cross. Moreover, in the other cross many plants in different generations had to be omitted from further selection due to the insufficient number of kernels. This phenomenon could be explained by incompatibility between pollen and style, possibly due to the exotic donor germplasm. Overall, it could be expected that the use of NILs, which are adapted to temperate climate and have high percentage of domestic germplasm, would outbalance the noted impediments and increase MAS efficiency in different breeding programs. PMID:27936171

  11. Marker-assisted selection for recognizing wheat mutant genotypes carrying HMW glutenin alleles related to baking quality.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism).

  12. A non-destructive genotyping system from a single seed for marker-assisted selection in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Meru, G; McDowell, D; Waters, V; Seibel, A; Davis, J; McGregor, C

    2013-03-11

    Genomic tools for watermelon breeding are becoming increasingly available. A high throughput genotyping system would facilitate the use of DNA markers in marker-assisted selection. DNA extraction from leaf material requires prior seed germination and is often time-consuming and cost prohibitive. In an effort to develop a more efficient system, watermelon seeds of several genotypes and various seed sizes were sampled by removing ⅓ or ½ sections from the distal ends for DNA extraction, while germinating the remaining proximal parts of the seed. Removing ⅓ of the seed from the distal end had no effect on seed germination percentage or seedling vigor. Different DNA extraction protocols were tested to identify a method that could yield DNA of sufficient quality for amplification by polymerase chain reaction. A sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction protocol with 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone yielded DNA that could be amplified with microsatellite primers and was free of pericarp contamination. In this study, an efficient, non-destructive genotyping protocol for watermelon seed was developed.

  13. Phenotypic screening and molecular analysis of blast resistance in fragrant rice for marker assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Sen, Partha Pratim; Bhuiyan, Rejwan; Kabir, Enamul; Chowdhury, Abul Kashem; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Ali, Ansar; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to identify blast-resistant fragrant genotypes for the development of a durable blast-resistant rice variety during years 2012-2013. The results indicate that out of 140 test materials including 114 fragrant germplasms, 25 differential varieties (DVs) harbouring 23 blast-resistant genes, only 16 fragrant rice germplasms showed comparatively better performance against a virulent isolate of blast disease. The reaction pattern of single-spore isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae to differential varieties showed that Pish, Pi9, Pita-2 and Pita are the effective blast-resistant genes against the tested blast isolates in Bangladesh. The DNA markers profiles of selected 16 rice germplasms indicated that genotype Chinigura contained Pish, Pi9 and Pita genes; on the other hand, both BRRI dhan50 and Bawaibhog contained Pish and Pita genes in their genetic background. Genotypes Jirakatari, BR5, and Gopalbhog possessed Pish gene, while Uknimodhu, Deshikatari, Radhunipagol, Kalijira (3), Chinikanai each contained the Pita gene only. There are some materials that did not contain any target gene(s) in their genetic background, but proved resistant in pathogenicity tests. This information provided valuable genetic information for breeders to develop durable blast-resistant fragrant or aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh.

  14. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-10-31

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.

  15. Genetic enhancement of host plant-resistance of the Lalat cultivar of rice against bacterial blight employing marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Dokku, Prasad; Das, K M; Rao, G J N

    2013-08-01

    To incorporate durable resistance against bacterial blight, a major disease rice, three resistance genes, xa 5, xa13 and Xa21, from IRBB 60 were transferred through marker-assisted backcrossing using RG 556, RG 136 and pTA248 markers linked to the three genes to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Lalat, a popular rice cultivar. Effective selection enabled the transfer in three back-crosses and a generation of selfing and background selection employing morphological and grain quality traits and molecular markers, led to >90 % recovery of the recurrent parental genome. The gene pyramids exhibited high levels of resistance against the pathogen in multi-location evaluation trials conducted over several locations of bacterial blight in India. IL-2 (CRMAS2621-7-1), a gene pyramid, was identified as being promising for several endemic regions of bacterial blight and was released as Improved Lalat in one of the identified regions. The success of the study demonstrates the vast potential of marker-assisted selection for gene stacking and recovery of the parental genome with high precision.

  16. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  17. Development of a gene-centered ssr atlas as a resource for papaya (Carica papaya) marker-assisted selection and population genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community.

  18. A pyramid breeding of eight grain-yield related quantitative trait loci based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zong, Guo; Wang, Ahong; Wang, Lu; Liang, Guohua; Gu, Minghong; Sang, Tao; Han, Bin

    2012-07-20

    1000-Grain weight and spikelet number per panicle are two important components for rice grain yield. In our previous study, eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring spikelet number per panicle and 1000-grain weight were mapped through sequencing-based genotyping of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs). In this study, we validated the effects of four QTLs from Nipponbare using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), and pyramided eight grain yield related QTLs. The new lines containing the eight QTLs with positive effects showed increased panicle and spikelet size as compared with the parent variety 93-11. We further proposed a novel pyramid breeding scheme based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection (MAPS). This scheme allowed pyramiding of as many as 24 QTLs at a single hybridization without massive cross work. This study provided insights into the molecular basis of rice grain yield for direct wealth for high-yielding rice breeding.

  19. A next-generation marker genotyping platform (AmpSeq) in heterozygous crops: a case study for marker-assisted selection in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Wang, Minghui; Cote, Linda; Schweitzer, Peter; Barba, Paola; Takacs, Elizabeth M; Clark, Matthew; Luby, James; Manns, David C; Sacks, Gavin; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Londo, Jason; Fennell, Anne; Gadoury, David; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is often employed in crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development, via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next-generation sequencing and its derivative technologies have been used for genome-wide molecular marker discovery. To bridge the gap between marker development and MAS implementation, this study developed a novel practical strategy with a semi-automated pipeline that incorporates trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphism marker discovery, low-cost genotyping through amplicon sequencing (AmpSeq) and decision making. The results document the development of a MAS package derived from genotyping-by-sequencing using three traits (flower sex, disease resistance and acylated anthocyanins) in grapevine breeding. The vast majority of sequence reads (⩾99%) were from the targeted regions. Across 380 individuals and up to 31 amplicons sequenced in each lane of MiSeq data, most amplicons (83 to 87%) had <10% missing data, and read depth had a median of 220-244×. Several strengths of the AmpSeq platform that make this approach of broad interest in diverse crop species include accuracy, flexibility, speed, high-throughput, low-cost and easily automated analysis.

  20. A next-generation marker genotyping platform (AmpSeq) in heterozygous crops: a case study for marker-assisted selection in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanshan; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Wang, Minghui; Cote, Linda; Schweitzer, Peter; Barba, Paola; Takacs, Elizabeth M; Clark, Matthew; Luby, James; Manns, David C; Sacks, Gavin; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Londo, Jason; Fennell, Anne; Gadoury, David; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is often employed in crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development, via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next-generation sequencing and its derivative technologies have been used for genome-wide molecular marker discovery. To bridge the gap between marker development and MAS implementation, this study developed a novel practical strategy with a semi-automated pipeline that incorporates trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphism marker discovery, low-cost genotyping through amplicon sequencing (AmpSeq) and decision making. The results document the development of a MAS package derived from genotyping-by-sequencing using three traits (flower sex, disease resistance and acylated anthocyanins) in grapevine breeding. The vast majority of sequence reads (⩾99%) were from the targeted regions. Across 380 individuals and up to 31 amplicons sequenced in each lane of MiSeq data, most amplicons (83 to 87%) had <10% missing data, and read depth had a median of 220–244×. Several strengths of the AmpSeq platform that make this approach of broad interest in diverse crop species include accuracy, flexibility, speed, high-throughput, low-cost and easily automated analysis. PMID:27257505

  1. Introgression of Blast Resistance Genes (Putative Pi-b and Pi-kh) into Elite Rice Cultivar MR219 through Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Tanweer, Fatah A.; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Harun A.; Ahmed, Fahim; Ashkani, Sadegh; Latif, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Blast is the most common biotic stress leading to the reduction of rice yield in many rice-growing areas of the world, including Malaysia. Improvement of blast resistance of rice varieties cultivated in blast endemic areas is one of the most important objectives of rice breeding programs. In this study, the marker-assisted backcrossing strategy was applied to improve the blast resistance of the most popular Malaysian rice variety MR219 by introgressing blast resistance genes from the Pongsu Seribu 2 variety. Two blast resistance genes, Pi-b and Pi-kh, were pyramided into MR219. Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified 15 plants homozygous for the Pi-b and Pi-kh genes, and background selection revealed more than 95% genome recovery of MR219 in advanced blast resistant lines. Phenotypic screening against blast disease indicated that advanced homozygous blast resistant lines were strongly resistant against pathotype P7.2 in the blast disease endemic areas. The morphological, yield, grain quality, and yield-contributing characteristics were significantly similar to those of MR219. The newly developed blast resistant improved lines will retain the high adoptability of MR219 by farmers. The present results will also play an important role in sustaining the rice production of Malaysia. PMID:26734013

  2. Application of a high-speed breeding technology to apple (Malus × domestica) based on transgenic early flowering plants and marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Le Roux, Pierre-Marie; Peil, Andreas; Patocchi, Andrea; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2011-10-01

    Breeding of apple (Malus × domestica) remains a slow process because of protracted generation cycles. Shortening the juvenile phase to achieve the introgression of traits from wild species into prebreeding material within a reasonable time frame is a great challenge. In this study, we evaluated early flowering transgenic apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of silver birch with regard to tree morphology in glasshouse conditions. Based on the results obtained, line T1190 was selected for further analysis and application to fast breeding. The DNA sequences flanking the T-DNA were isolated and the T-DNA integration site was mapped on linkage group 4. The inheritance and correctness of the T-DNA integration were confirmed after meiosis. A crossbred breeding programme was initiated by crossing T1190 with the fire blight-resistant wild species Malus fusca. Transgenic early flowering F(1) seedlings were selected and backcrossed with 'Regia' and 98/6-10 in order to introgress the apple scab Rvi2, Rvi4 and powdery mildew Pl-1, Pl-2 resistance genes and the fire blight resistance quantitative trait locus FB-F7 present in 'Regia'. Three transgenic BC'1 seedlings pyramiding Rvi2, Rvi4 and FB-F7, as well as three other BC'1 seedlings combining Pl-1 and Pl-2, were identified. Thus, the first transgenic early flowering-based apple breeding programme combined with marker-assisted selection was established.

  3. Introgression of Blast Resistance Genes (Putative Pi-b and Pi-kh) into Elite Rice Cultivar MR219 through Marker-Assisted Selection.

    PubMed

    Tanweer, Fatah A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Harun A; Ahmed, Fahim; Ashkani, Sadegh; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Blast is the most common biotic stress leading to the reduction of rice yield in many rice-growing areas of the world, including Malaysia. Improvement of blast resistance of rice varieties cultivated in blast endemic areas is one of the most important objectives of rice breeding programs. In this study, the marker-assisted backcrossing strategy was applied to improve the blast resistance of the most popular Malaysian rice variety MR219 by introgressing blast resistance genes from the Pongsu Seribu 2 variety. Two blast resistance genes, Pi-b and Pi-kh, were pyramided into MR219. Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified 15 plants homozygous for the Pi-b and Pi-kh genes, and background selection revealed more than 95% genome recovery of MR219 in advanced blast resistant lines. Phenotypic screening against blast disease indicated that advanced homozygous blast resistant lines were strongly resistant against pathotype P7.2 in the blast disease endemic areas. The morphological, yield, grain quality, and yield-contributing characteristics were significantly similar to those of MR219. The newly developed blast resistant improved lines will retain the high adoptability of MR219 by farmers. The present results will also play an important role in sustaining the rice production of Malaysia.

  4. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits.

    PubMed

    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E; Currie, Rob W; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J; Guarna, M Marta

    2017-03-16

    Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper's profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance.

  5. Fine Mapping for Identification of Citrus Alternaria Brown Spot Candidate Resistance Genes and Development of New SNP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, Jose; Aleza, Pablo; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a serious disease affecting susceptible citrus genotypes, which is a strong concern regarding citrus breeding programs. Resistance is conferred by a recessive locus (ABSr) previously located by our group within a 3.3 Mb genome region near the centromere in chromosome III. This work addresses fine-linkage mapping of this region for identifying candidate resistance genes and develops new molecular markers for ABS-resistance effective marker-assisted selection (MAS). Markers closely linked to ABSr locus were used for fine mapping using a 268-segregating diploid progeny derived from a heterozygous susceptible × resistant cross. Fine mapping limited the genomic region containing the ABSr resistance gene to 366 kb, flanked by markers at 0.4 and 0.7 cM. This region contains nine genes related to pathogen resistance. Among them, eight are resistance (R) gene homologs, with two of them harboring a serine/threonine protein kinase domain. These two genes along with a gene encoding a S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent-methyltransferase protein, should be considered as strong candidates for ABS-resistance. Moreover, the closest SNP was genotyped in 40 citrus varieties, revealing very high association with the resistant/susceptible phenotype. This new marker is currently used in our citrus breeding program for ABS-resistant parent and cultivar selection, at diploid, triploid and tetraploid level. PMID:28066498

  6. Marker-assisted backcross selection in an interspecific Cucumis population broadens the genetic base of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a major cucurbit vegetable species whose genetic base has been drastically reduced during its domestication. The crop's narrow genetic base (3-12% DNA polymorphism) has resulted from the use of limited genetic material and intense selection during plant improvement....

  7. Whole-Genome Characteristics and Polymorphic Analysis of Vietnamese Rice Landraces as a Comprehensive Information Resource for Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Hien; Nguyen, Khoa Truong; Nguyen, Lam Van; Pham, Huy Quang; Huong, Can Thu; Xuan, Tran Dang; Anh, La Hoang; Caccamo, Mario; Ayling, Sarah; Diep, Nguyen Thuy; Trung, Khuat Huu

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided numerous opportunities for application in the study of whole plant genomes. In this study, we present the sequencing and bioinformatic analyses of five typical rice landraces including three indica and two japonica with potential blast resistance. A total of 688.4 million 100 bp paired-end reads have yielded approximately 30-fold coverage to compare with the Nipponbare reference genome. Among them, a small number of reads were mapped to both chromosomes and organellar genomes. Over two million and eight hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) in indica and japonica lines have been determined, which potentially have significant impacts on multiple transcripts of genes. SNP deserts, contiguous SNP-low regions, were found on chromosomes 1, 4, and 5 of all genomes of rice examined. Based on the distribution of SNPs per 100 kilobase pairs, the phylogenetic relationships among the landraces have been constructed. This is the first step towards revealing several salient features of rice genomes in Vietnam and providing significant information resources to further marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice breeding programs. PMID:28265566

  8. Development and validation of functional CAPS markers for the FAE genes in Brassica juncea and their use in marker-assisted selection

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Navinder; Singh, Naveen; Kumar, Anil; Vihan, Nitika; Yadav, Sangita; Vasudev, Sujata; Yadava, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    Low erucic acid is a major breeding target to improve the edible oil quality in Brassica juncea. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1.1 and FAE1.2) gene was exploited to expedite the breeding program. The paralogs of FAE1 gene were sequenced from low erucic acid genotype Pusa Mustard 30 and SNPs were identified through homologous alignment with sequence downloaded from NCBI GenBank. Two SNPs in FAE1.1 at position 591 and 1265 and one in FAE1.2 at 237 were found polymorphic among low and high erucic acid genotypes. These SNPs either create or change the recognition site of restriction enzymes. Transition of a single nucleotide at position 591 and 1265 in FAE1.1, and at position 237 in FAE1.2, leads to a change in the recognition site of Hpy99I, BglII and MnlI restriction enzymes, respectively. Two CAPS markers for FAE1.1 and one for FAE1.2 were developed to differentiate low and high erucic acid genotypes. The efficiency of these CAPS markers was found 100 per cent when validated in Brassica juncea, and B. nigra genotypes and used in back-cross breeding. These CAPS markers will facilitate in marker-assisted selection for improvement of oil quality in Brassica juncea. PMID:28163599

  9. A family of LRR sequences in the vicinity of the Co-2 locus for anthracnose resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris and its potential use in marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Geffroy, V; Creusot, F; Falquet, J; Sévignac, M; Adam-Blondon, A F; Bannerot, H; Gepts, P; Dron, M

    1998-03-01

    Molecular markers offer new opportunities for breeding for disease resistance. Resistance gene pyramiding in a single cultivar, as a strategy for durable resistance, can be facilitated by marker-assisted selection (MAS). A RAPD marker, ROH20(450), linked to the Mesoamerican Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene, was previously transformed into a SCAR marker, SCH20. In the present paper we have further characterized the relevance of the SCH20 SCAR marker in different genetic backgrounds. Since this SCAR marker was found to be useful mainly in the Andean gene pool, we identified a new PCR-based marker (SCAreoli) for indirect scoring of the presence of the Co-2 gene. The SCAreoli SCAR marker is polymorphic in the Mesoamerican as well as in the Andean gene pool and should be useful in MAS. We also report that PvH20, the cloned sequence corresponding to the 450-bp RAPD marker ROH20(450), contains six imperfect leucine-rich repeats, and reveals a family of related sequences in the vicinity of the Co-2 locus. These results are discussed in the context of the recent cloning of some plant resistance genes.

  10. Identification of QTLs for Rust Resistance in the Peanut Wild Species Arachis magna and the Development of KASP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection.

    PubMed

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Cavalcante, Uiara; Gouvea, Ediene G; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Shirasawa, Kenta; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Jackson, Scott A; Bertioli, David J; Moretzsohn, Márcio C

    2015-05-05

    Rust is a major pathogen of the peanut crop. Development and adoption of rust-resistant cultivars is the most cost efficient and effective way to control the spread of the disease and reduce yield losses. Some cultivated peanut germplasm accessions have a degree of resistance, but the secondary gene pool is a source of much stronger resistance alleles. Wild species, however, have undesirable agronomic traits that are a disincentive to their use in breeding. The identification of genomic regions that harbor disease resistance in wild species is the first step in the implementation of marker-assisted selection that can speed the introgression of wild disease resistances and the elimination of linkage drag. In this work, we identify genome regions that control different components of rust resistance in a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Arachis species, the susceptible most probable B genome ancestor of cultivated peanut, Arachis ipaënsis, and an accession of its closest relative, Arachis magna, which is resistant to rust. Quantitative trait loci for several components of resistance were placed in the same position on linkage group B08. Single-nucleotide polymorphism Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers for rust resistance region were designed and validated for marker function in both diploid and tetraploid contexts.

  11. Identification of QTLs for Rust Resistance in the Peanut Wild Species Arachis magna and the Development of KASP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Cavalcante, Uiara; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Shirasawa, Kenta; Guimarães, Patrícia M.; Jackson, Scott A.; Bertioli, David J.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.

    2015-01-01

    Rust is a major pathogen of the peanut crop. Development and adoption of rust-resistant cultivars is the most cost efficient and effective way to control the spread of the disease and reduce yield losses. Some cultivated peanut germplasm accessions have a degree of resistance, but the secondary gene pool is a source of much stronger resistance alleles. Wild species, however, have undesirable agronomic traits that are a disincentive to their use in breeding. The identification of genomic regions that harbor disease resistance in wild species is the first step in the implementation of marker-assisted selection that can speed the introgression of wild disease resistances and the elimination of linkage drag. In this work, we identify genome regions that control different components of rust resistance in a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Arachis species, the susceptible most probable B genome ancestor of cultivated peanut, Arachis ipaënsis, and an accession of its closest relative, Arachis magna, which is resistant to rust. Quantitative trait loci for several components of resistance were placed in the same position on linkage group B08. Single-nucleotide polymorphism Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers for rust resistance region were designed and validated for marker function in both diploid and tetraploid contexts. PMID:25943521

  12. Development of molecular markers linked to the 'Fiesta' linkage group 7 major QTL for fire blight resistance and their application for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad A; Durel, Charles-Eric; Duffy, Brion; Drouet, Damien; Kellerhals, Markus; Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    A fire blight resistance QTL explaining 34.3%-46.6% of the phenotypic variation was recently identified on linkage group 7 of apple cultivar 'Fiesta' (F7). However, markers flanking this QTL were AFLP and RAPD markers unsuitable for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two RAPD markers bracketing the QTL have been transformed into SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers, and an SSR marker specific for the region was developed. Pedigree analysis of 'Fiesta' with these markers enabled tracking of the F7 QTL allele back to 'Cox's Orange Pippin'. Stability of the effect of this QTL allele in different backgrounds was analyzed by inoculating progeny plants of a cross between 'Milwa', a susceptible cultivar, and '1217', a moderately resistant cultivar, and a set of cultivars that carry or lack the allele conferring increased fire blight resistance. Progenies and cultivars that carried both markers were significantly more resistant than those that did not carry both markers, indicating high stability of the F7 QTL allele in different backgrounds. This stability and the availability of reproducible markers bracketing the QTL make this locus promising for use in MAS.

  13. Development and Validation of High-Resolution Melting Markers Derived from Rysto STS Markers for High-Throughput Marker-Assisted Selection of Potato Carrying Rysto.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xianzhou; Sutherland, Darcy; Dickison, Virginia; Singh, Mathuresh; Murphy, Agnes M; De Koeyer, David

    2016-11-01

    Sequence analysis of the chromosome region harboring the sequence-tagged site (STS) markers YES3-3A and YES3-3B for Rysto, a gene responsible for extreme resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato, was performed in tetraploid potato 'Barbara' (Rrrr) and 'AC Chaleur' (rrrr) as well as their progeny selections. Three and two sequence variants were identified in Barbara resistant (R) selections and AC Chaleur susceptible (S) selections, respectively. Further analysis indicates that the variant with a 21-nucleotide (nt) deletion is likely the chromosome copy harboring the STS markers. Two primer pairs, one targeting the region containing a 20-nt deletion and the other targeting the region anchoring the YES3-3A reverse primer, were designed. As anticipated, pair one produced two visible fragments in Barbara-R bulk and one visible fragment in AC Chaleur-S bulk; pair two produced one visible fragment in all samples. When subjected to high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, two distinct melting profiles for R and S samples were observed. Analysis of 147 progeny of Barbara × AC Chaleur revealed 72 and 75 progeny with R and S melting profiles, respectively, which was consistent with YES3-3A and YES3-3B assays and phenotyping analysis, thus demonstrating the potential of HRM profiles as novel molecular markers for Rysto. The efficacy of the newly developed HRM markers for high-throughput marker-assisted selection for Rysto-conferred resistance to PVY was validated further with three populations involving Barbara as the R parent.

  14. Combining abilities for agronomic traits and marker-assisted selection for Potato virus X and Potato virus Y resistance.

    PubMed

    Guedes, M L; Pinto, C A B P; Ribeiro, G H M R; Lyra, D H; Carneiro, O L G

    2016-09-16

    Disease-resistant potato cultivars with good tuber appearance and desirable agronomic traits are essential for meeting the demands of producers and the market. Attaining these cultivars is the focus of potato breeding programs whose aim is to benefit the productive chain. The purpose of this study was to estimate combining abilities and evaluate potato clones based on tuber appearance, yield, and resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses. Crosses between four commercial cultivars of potato with good tuber appearance were performed, using eight clones with proven resistance to PVY and PVX from the breeding program of UFLA. The clones obtained were evaluated for agronomic traits, tuber appearance, and the presence of both Ryadg and Rx1 alleles, which confer extreme resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses, respectively. The independent culling level method was used to select genotypes of commercial interest, as well as to estimate the combining abilities of the parents. We identified clones carrying the Ryadg and Rx1 alleles with agronomic traits suitable for the fresh market and for processing. The BRS Ana cultivar and CMA-399 and CMA-385 clones showed positive effects on general combining ability (GCA) for tuber yield, while the Monalisa cultivar showed positive effects on GCA for general tuber appearance.

  15. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers and Development of Sequence-Tagged Site Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection of the Sporeless Trait in the Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Jun; Obatake, Yasushi; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Fukumasa, Yukitaka; Matsumoto, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22210222

  16. Materials Selection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulsa City-County Library System, OK.

    The emphasis of the revised Tulsa (Oklahoma) City-County Library System selection policy is on meeting needs of the community rather than balancing the collection in any one library. The policy includes the "Library Bill of Rights" and covers objectives, responsibilities, maintenance of the collection, controversial materials, gifts,…

  17. Genome-wide marker-assisted selection combining all pedigree phenotypic information with genotypic data in one step: An example using broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Misztal, I; Aguilar, I; Tsuruta, S; Meuwissen, T H E; Aggrey, S E; Wing, T; Muir, W M

    2011-01-01

    Data of broiler chickens for 2 pure lines across 3 generations were used for genomic evaluation. A complete population (full data set; FDS) consisted of 183,784 and 164,246 broilers for the 2 lines. The genotyped subsets (SUB) consisted of 3,284 and 3,098 broilers with 57,636 SNP. Genotyped animals were preselected based on more than 20 traits with different index applied to each line. Three traits were analyzed: BW at 6 wk (BW6), ultrasound measurement of breast meat (BM), and leg score (LS) coded 1 = no and 2 = yes for leg defect. Some phenotypes were missing for BM. The training population consisted of the first 2 generations including all animals in FDS or only genotyped animals in SUB. The validation data set contained only genotyped animals in the third generation. Genetic evaluations were performed using 3 approaches: 1) phenotypic BLUP, 2) extending BLUP methodologies to utilize pedigree and genomic information in a single step (ssGBLUP), and 3) Bayes A. Whereas BLUP and ssGBLUP utilized all phenotypic data, Bayes A could use only those of the genotyped subset. Heritabilities were 0.17 to 0.20 for BW6, 0.30 to 0.35 for BM, and 0.09 to 0.11 for LS. The average accuracies of the validation population with BLUP for BW6, BM, and LS were 0.46, 0.30, and <0 with SUB and 0.51, 0.34, and 0.28 with FDS. With ssGBLUP, those accuracies were 0.60, 0.34, and 0.06 with SUB and 0.61, 0.40, and 0.37 with FDS, respectively. With Bayes A, the accuracies were 0.60, 0.36, and 0.09 with SUB. With SUB, Bayes A and ssGBLUP had similar accuracies. For traits of high heritability, the accuracy of Bayes A/SUB and ssGBLUP/FDS were similar, and up to 50% better than BLUP/FDS. However, with low heritability, ssGBLUP/FDS was 4 to 6 times more accurate than Bayes A/SUB and 50% better than BLUP/FDS. An optimal genomic evaluation would be multi-trait and involve all traits and records on which selection is based.

  18. Instructional Materials Selection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northampton County Area Community Coll., Bethlehem, PA.

    Through a systematic acquisition policy, the library (1) supports the objectives of the college, the course content of the curricula, and the faculty's teaching methods; (2) provides intellectual and cultural fare for faculty, students, and community; (3) instructs and encourages students in library use. It tries to supply material on all subjects…

  19. Marker-Assisted Introgression in Backcross Breeding Programs

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, P. M.; Haley, C. S.; Thompson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of marker-assisted introgression in backcross populations derived from inbred lines was investigated by simulation. Background genotypes were simulated assuming that a genetic model of many genes of small effects in coupling phase explains the observed breed difference and variance in backcross populations. Markers were efficient in introgression backcross programs for simultaneously introgressing an allele and selecting for the desired genomic background. Using a marker spacing of 10-20 cM gave an advantage of one to two backcross generations selection relative to random or phenotypic selection. When the position of the gene to be introgressed is uncertain, for example because its position was estimated from a trait gene mapping experiment, a chromosome segment should be introgressed that is likely to include the allele of interest. Even for relatively precisely mapped quantitative trait loci, flanking markers or marker haplotypes should cover ~10-20 cM around the estimated position of the gene, to ensure that the allele frequency does not decline in later backcross generations. PMID:8978075

  20. Marker-assisted backcrossing: a useful method for rice improvement.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Mahmudul; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Mahmood, Maziah; Rahim, Harun A; Alam, Md Amirul; Ashkani, Sadegh; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-03-04

    The world's population is increasing very rapidly, reducing the cultivable land of rice, decreasing table water, emerging new diseases and pests, and the climate changes are major issues that must be addressed to researchers to develop sustainable crop varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, recent scientific discoveries and advances particularly in genetics, genomics and crop physiology have opened up new opportunities to reduce the impact of these stresses which would have been difficult if not impossible as recently as the turn of the century. Marker assisted backcrossing (MABC) is one of the most promising approaches is the use of molecular markers to identify and select genes controlling resistance to those factors. Regarding this, MABC can contribute to develop resistant or high-yielding or quality rice varieties by incorporating a gene of interest into an elite variety which is already well adapted by the farmers. MABC is newly developed efficient tool by which using large population sizes (400 or more plants) for the backcross F1 generations, it is possible to recover the recurrent parent genotype using only two or three backcrosses. So far, many high yielding, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance, quality and fragrance rice varieties have been developed in rice growing countries through MABC within the shortest timeframe. Nowadays, MABC is being used widely in plant breeding programmes to develop new variety/lines especially in rice. This paper reviews recent literature on some examples of variety/ line development using MABC strategy.

  1. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding In Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RosBREED will create a national, dynamic, sustained effort in research, infrastructure establishment, training, and extension for applying marker-assisted breeding (MAB) to deliver improved plant materials more efficiently and rapidly. The Rosaceae family (including apple, peach, sweet and tart cher...

  2. An example of marker assisted breeding in peanut and an illustration of the need for more markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) can greatly benefit peanut breeding programs by providing genotyping tools that can be applied early in plant development in order to reliably predict phenotypes. A relatively low amount of genetic polymorphism has limited the development of molecular markers for imp...

  3. Large-scale analysis of differential gene expression in coffee genotypes resistant and susceptible to leaf miner–toward the identification of candidate genes for marker assisted-selection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A successful development of herbivorous insects into plant tissues depends on coordination of metabolic processes. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to recognize such attacks, and to trigger a defense response. To understand the transcriptional basis of this response, we compare gene expression profiles of two coffee genotypes, susceptible and resistant to leaf miner (Leucoptera coffella). A total of 22000 EST sequences from the Coffee Genome Database were selected for a microarray analysis. Fluorescence probes were synthesized using mRNA from the infested and non-infested coffee plants. Array hybridization, scanning and data normalization were performed using Nimble Scan® e ArrayStar® platforms. Genes with foldchange values +/-2 were considered differentially expressed. A validation of 18 differentially expressed genes was performed in infected plants using qRT-PCR approach. Results The microarray analysis indicated that resistant plants differ in gene expression profile. We identified relevant transcriptional changes in defense strategies before insect attack. Expression changes (>2.00-fold) were found in resistant plants for 2137 genes (1266 up-regulated and 873 down-regulated). Up-regulated genes include those responsible for defense mechanisms, hypersensitive response and genes involved with cellular function and maintenance. Also, our analyses indicated that differential expression profiles between resistant and susceptible genotypes are observed in the absence of leaf-miner, indicating that defense is already build up in resistant plants, as a priming mechanism. Validation of selected genes pointed to four selected genes as suitable candidates for markers in assisted-selection of novel cultivars. Conclusions Our results show evidences that coffee defense responses against leaf-miner attack are balanced with other cellular functions. Also analyses suggest a major metabolic reconfiguration that highlights the complexity of this response. PMID

  4. Rapid Introgression of the Fusarium Wilt Resistance Gene into an Elite Cabbage Line through the Combined Application of a Microspore Culture, Genome Background Analysis, and Disease Resistance-Specific Marker Assisted Foreground Selection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Kong, Congcong; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Lv, Honghao

    2017-01-01

    Cabbage is an economically important vegetable worldwide. Cabbage Fusarium Wilt (CFW) is a destructive disease that results in considerable yield and quality losses in cole crops. The use of CFW-resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to mitigate the effects of CFW. 01-20 is an elite cabbage line with desirable traits and a high combining ability, but it is highly susceptible to CFW. To rapidly transfer a CFW resistance gene into 01-20 plants, we used microspore cultures to develop 230 doubled haploid (DH) lines from a cross between 01-20 (highly susceptible) and 96-100 (highly resistant). One of the generated DH lines (i.e., D134) was highly resistant to CFW and exhibited a phenotypic performance that was similar to that of line 01-20. Therefore, D134 was applied as the resistance donor parent. We generated 24 insertion–deletion markers using whole genome resequencing data for lines 01-20 and 96-100 to analyze the genomic backgrounds of backcross (BC) progenies. Based on the CFW resistance gene FOC1, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (i.e., Frg13) was developed for foreground selections. We screened 240 BC1 individuals and 280 BC2 individuals with these markers and assessed their phenotypic performance. The proportion of recurrent parent genome (PRPG) of the best individuals in BC1 and BC2 were 95.8 and 99.1%. Finally, a best individual designated as YR01-20 was identified from 80 BC2F1 individuals, with homozygous FOC1 allele and genomic background and phenotype almost the same as those of 01-20. Our results may provide a rapid and efficient way of improving elite lines through the combined application of microspore culture, whole-genome background analysis, and disease resistance-specific marker selection. Additionally, the cabbage lines developed in this study represent elite materials useful for the breeding of new CFW-resistant cabbage varieties. PMID:28392793

  5. Marker-assisted selection for biotic stress resistance in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut ranks second to soybean in the world market trade of oilseeds both in area grown and tonnage produced, and is well-suited to contribute significantly to poverty reduction in the developing world. Peanut is a tetrapoid of recent origin, and has shown low levels of molecular marker polymorphis...

  6. Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the most popular leafy vegetable that is cultivated mainly in moderate climate. Consumers demand lettuce with good visual appearance and free of disease. Improved disease resistance of new cultivars is achieved by combining desirable genes (or alleles) from existing cu...

  7. Vertical File Selection Policy and Procedure Policy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Doyne M.

    A definition of a pamphlet and a brief discussion of user accessibility to the Bracken Library Reference Service pamphlet collection at Ball state University (Indiana), are followed by the Selection Policy's guidelines, which are designed to ensure a consistent pattern of pamphlet selection. These guidelines cover types of materials to be…

  8. Selected State Policies, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This collection of selected state policies covers the entire range of educational issues. It furnishes descriptions of legislative bills, arranged by category, from all 50 states. Essentially, the information in this report is raw data rapidly processed to be released in printed form at the earliest possible date. Editing has been kept to a…

  9. Marker-assisted combination of major genes for pathogen resistance in potato.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, C; Bellin, D; Henselewski, H; Lehmann, W; Schwarzfischer, J; Valkonen, J P T

    2006-05-01

    Closely linked PCR-based markers facilitate the tracing and combining of resistance factors that have been introgressed previously into cultivated potato from different sources. Crosses were performed to combine the Ry ( adg ) gene for extreme resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) with the Gro1 gene for resistance to the root cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis and the Rx1 gene for extreme resistance to Potato virus X (PVX), or with resistance to potato wart (Synchytrium endobioticum). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) using four PCR-based diagnostic assays was applied to 110 F1 hybrids resulting from four 2x by 4x cross-combinations. Thirty tetraploid plants having the appropriate marker combinations were selected and tested for presence of the corresponding resistance traits. All plants tested showed the expected resistant phenotype. Unexpectedly, the plants segregated for additional resistance to pathotypes 1, 2 and 6 of S. endobioticum, which was subsequently shown to be inherited from the PVY resistant parents of the crosses. The selected plants can be used as sources of multiple resistance traits in pedigree breeding and are available from a potato germplasm bank.

  10. Marker assisted accelerated introgression of null allele of kunitz trypsin inhibitor in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Rawal, Reena; Mourya, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    Development of kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI)-free soybean is crucial for soy-food industry as the heat inactivation employed to inactivate the anti-nutritional factor in regular soybean incurs extra cost and affects protein solubility. In the presented work, a null allele of KTI from PI542044 was introgressed into cultivar ‘JS97-52’ (recurrent parent) through marker assisted backcrossing. Foreground selection in BC1F2, BC2F2 and BC3F2 was carried out using the null allele-specific marker in tandem with SSR marker Satt228, tightly linked with a trypsin inhibitor Ti locus. Background selection in null allele-carrying plants through 106 polymorphic SSR markers across the genome led to the identification of 9 KTI-free lines exhibiting 98.6% average recurrent parent genome content (RPGC) after three backcrosses, which otherwise had required 5–6 backcrosses through conventional method. Introgressed lines (ILs) were free from KTI and yielded at par with recurrent parent. Reduction of 68.8–83.5% in trypsin inhibitor content (TIC) in ILs compared to the recurrent parent (‘JS97-52’) was attributed to the elimination of KTI. PMID:26719748

  11. QTL mapping, association mapping and marker assisted breeding in lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of elite lettuce cultivars is a lengthy process that involves cross-pollination, several rounds of selection, development of homozygous genotypes, and testing of material performance. Use of molecular markers linked to the genes allows for rapid and frequently more accurate selection of ...

  12. SSR marker-assisted improvement of fiber qualities in Gossypium hirsutum using G. barbadense introgression lines.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhibin; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates the first practical use of CSILs for the transfer of fiber quality QTLs into Upland cotton cultivars using SSR markers without detrimentally affecting desirable agronomic characteristics. Gossypium hirsutum is characterized by its high lint production and medium fiber quality compared to extra-long staple cotton G. barbadense. Transferring valuable traits or genes from G. barbadense into G. hirsutum is a promising but challenging approach through a traditional interspecific introgression strategy. We developed one set of chromosome segment introgression lines (CSILs), where TM-1, the genetic standard in G. hirsutum, was used as the recipient parent and the long staple cotton G. barbadense cv. Hai7124 was used as the donor parent by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Among them, four CSILs, IL040-A4-1, IL080-D6-1, IL088-A7-3 and IL019-A2-6, found to be associated with superior fiber qualities including fiber length, strength and fineness QTL in Xinjiang were selected and backcrossed, and transferred these QTLs into three commercial Upland cotton cultivars such as Xinluzao (XLZ) 26, 41 and 42 grown in Xinjiang. By backcrossing and self-pollinating twice, five improved lines (3262-4, 3389-2, 3326-3, 3380-4 and 3426-5) were developed by MAS of background and introgressed segments. In diverse field trials, these QTLs consistently and significantly offered additive effects on the target phenotype. Furthermore, we also pyramided two segments from different CSILs (IL080-D6-1 and IL019-A2-6) into cultivar 0768 to accelerate breeding process purposefully with MAS. The improved lines pyramided by these two introgressed segments showed significant additive epistatic effects in four separate field trials. No significant alteration in yield components was observed in these modified lines. In summary, we first report that these CSILs have great potential to improve fiber qualities in Upland cotton MAS breeding programs.

  13. Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Genetic Enhancement of Parental Lines of Rajalaxmi, an Elite Rice Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Dash, Amit K; Rao, Ravi N; Rao, G J N; Verma, Ram L; Katara, Jawahar L; Mukherjee, Arup K; Singh, Onkar N; Bagchi, Torit B

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic male sterile line system comprising CRMS 32A and its maintainer line CRMS 32B is a popular choice for the development of new hybrids in India as CRMS 32A, having Kalinga 1 cytoplasm (other than WA), is a viable alternative to WA cytoplasm. However, both lines are susceptible to bacterial blight (BB), a major disease on rice. As enhancement of host plant resistance is the most effective and economical strategy to control this disease, four resistance genes (Xa4, xa5, xa13, and Xa21) were transferred from a BB pyramid line of IR64, into the A and B lines using a marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB) breeding strategy. During the transfer of genes into CRMS 32B, foreground selection was applied using markers associated with the genes, and plants having resistance alleles of the donor, are selected. Selection for morphological and quality traits was practiced to select plants similar to the recurrent parent. The four gene and three gene pyramid lines exhibited high levels of resistance against the BB pathogen when challenged with eight virulent isolates. Using genome wide based SSR markers for background selection, pyramids having >95% of the recurrent parent genome were identified. With CRMS 32B gene pyramid as donor, the four resistance genes were transferred into the A line through repeated backcrosses and the A line pyramids also exhibited high level of resistance against BB. Through a combination of selection at phenotypic and molecular levels, four BB resistance genes were successfully introduced into two parental lines (CRMS 32 B and A) of Rajalaxmi, an elite popular hybrid. The pyramided B lines did exhibit high levels of resistance against BB. Selection for morphological and quality traits and background selection hastened the recovery of the recurrent parent genome in the recombinants. Through repeated backcrosses, all the four resistance genes were transferred to CRMS 32A and test crosses suggest that the maintenance ability of the improved CRMS

  14. Recurrent parent genome recovery analysis in a marker-assisted backcrossing program of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-02-01

    Backcross breeding is the most commonly used method for incorporating a blast resistance gene into a rice cultivar. Linkage between the resistance gene and undesirable units can persist for many generations of backcrossing. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. The MABC approach was employed to incorporate (a) blast resistance gene(s) from the donor parent Pongsu Seribu 1, the blast-resistant local variety in Malaysia, into the genetic background of MR219, a popular high-yielding rice variety that is blast susceptible, to develop a blast-resistant MR219 improved variety. In this perspective, the recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 375 SSR markers, 70 markers were found polymorphic between the parents, and these markers were used to evaluate the plants in subsequent generations. Background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 75.40% to 91.3% and from 80.40% to 96.70% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations, respectively. In this study, the recurrent parent genome content in the selected BC2F2 lines ranged from 92.7% to 97.7%. The average proportion of the recurrent parent in the selected improved line was 95.98%. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in backcross generations. The application of MAS with the MABC breeding program accelerated the recovery of the RP genome, reducing the number of generations and the time for incorporating resistance against rice blast.

  15. Evaluation of quantitative trait loci affecting intramuscular fat and reproductive traits in pigs using marker-assisted introgression.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Ohnishi, C; Kikuchi, T; Kohira, K; Egawa, S; Terai, S; Nakamura, T; Arata, S; Komatsuda, A; Uemoto, Y

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in an experimental backcross (BC) between Chinese Meishan pigs and commercial Duroc pigs. We performed marker-assisted introgression of two QTL for intramuscular fat (IMF) content (IMF population) and three QTL for reproductive traits (reproduction population) from a donor Meishan pig into a recipient Duroc pig. At the fourth BC generation of the IMF population and third BC generation of the reproduction population, carrier animals were selected for the production of animals homozygous for the QTL. Our previous studies have shown that the presence of a Meishan allele on the IMF QTL is associated with low IMF values, and the Meishan allele on the reproductive QTL is associated with large litters. In this study, the presence of a Duroc allele at the IMF QTL on SSC9 resulted in a 0.27% increase in IMF (additive effect = 0.27 ± 0.08), whereas the presence of a Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 resulted in a 0.34% increase in IMF (additive effect = -0.34 ± 0.09). The presence of the Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 thus had the opposite effect to our previous studies, that is, increased IMF. In the reproduction population, we observed no differences between the genotypes of the three QTL in regard to number of corpora lutea or litter size. Marker-assisted introgression at these QTL is thus unlikely to result in an associated increase in litter size. These results show that it is possible to introgress alleles from other breeds into a selection population using molecular markers; any unexpected results might be associated with the genetic background.

  16. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.79 Selection policy for professional personnel....

  17. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.79 Selection policy for professional personnel....

  18. Patent and Copyright Policies at Selected Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Gathered are statements of copyright and patent policies in effect at 13 universities. In some cases policies concerning publication and sponsored research are included. The statements are reproduced exactly as received from the institutions, without interpretation. The universities participating are: Boston University (Massachusetts); California…

  19. Assessment of Selected Energy Efficiency Policies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan, asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to undertake a quantitative analysis of a variety of energy efficiency policies using assumptions provided by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE).

  20. Molecular marker assisted gene stacking for biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes in an elite rice cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gitishree; Rao, G. J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Severe yield loss due to various biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), gall midge (insect) and Blast (disease) and abiotic stresses like submergence and salinity are a serious constraint to the rice productivity throughout the world. The most effective and reliable method of management of the stresses is the enhancement of host resistance, through an economical and environmentally friendly approach. Through the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) technique, the present study reports a successful pyramidization of genes/QTLs to confer resistance/tolerance to blast (Pi2, Pi9), gall Midge (Gm1, Gm4), submergence (Sub1), and salinity (Saltol) in a released rice variety CRMAS2621-7-1 as Improved Lalat which had already incorporated with three BB resistance genes xa5, xa13, and Xa21 to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Improved Lalat. The molecular analysis revealed clear polymorphism between the donor and recipient parents for all the markers that are tagged to the target traits. The conventional backcross breeding approach was followed till BC3F1 generation and starting from BC1F1 onwards, marker assisted selection was employed at each step to monitor the transfer of the target alleles with molecular markers. The different BC3F1s having the target genes/QTLs were inter crossed to generate hybrids with all 10 stress resistance/tolerance genes/QTLs into a single plant/line. Homozygous plants for resistance/tolerance genes in different combinations were recovered. The BC3F3 lines were characterized for their agronomic and quality traits and promising progeny lines were selected. The SSR based background selection was done. Most of the gene pyramid lines showed a high degree of similarity to the recurrent parent for both morphological, grain quality traits and in SSR based background selection. Out of all the gene pyramids tested, two lines had all the 10 resistance/tolerance genes and showed adequate levels of resistance/tolerance against the five target

  1. Development of a RAD-Seq Based DNA Polymorphism Identification Software, AgroMarker Finder, and Its Application in Rice Marker-Assisted Breeding.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Zong, Jie; Luo, Zhijing; Chen, Mingjiao; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Qi, Yiping; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate genome-wide marker detection is essential to the marker-assisted breeding and functional genomics studies. In this work, we developed an integrated software, AgroMarker Finder (AMF: http://erp.novelbio.com/AMF), for providing graphical user interface (GUI) to facilitate the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing data analysis in rice. By application of AMF, a total of 90,743 high-quality markers (82,878 SNPs and 7,865 InDels) were detected between rice varieties JP69 and Jiaoyuan5A. The density of the identified markers is 0.2 per Kb for SNP markers, and 0.02 per Kb for InDel markers. Sequencing validation revealed that the accuracy of genome-wide marker detection by AMF is 93%. In addition, a validated subset of 82 SNPs and 31 InDels were found to be closely linked to 117 important agronomic trait genes, providing a basis for subsequent marker-assisted selection (MAS) and variety identification. Furthermore, we selected 12 markers from 31 validated InDel markers to identify seed authenticity of variety Jiaoyuanyou69, and we also identified 10 markers closely linked to the fragrant gene BADH2 to minimize linkage drag for Wuxiang075 (BADH2 donor)/Jiachang1 recombinants selection. Therefore, this software provides an efficient approach for marker identification from RAD-seq data, and it would be a valuable tool for plant MAS and variety protection.

  2. Development of β-carotene rich maize hybrids through marker-assisted introgression of β-carotene hydroxylase allele.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Vignesh; Hossain, Firoz; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Choudhary, Mukesh; Saha, Supradip; Bhat, Jayant S; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Gupta, Hari S

    2014-01-01

    Development of vitamin A-rich cereals can help in alleviating the widespread problem of vitamin A deficiency. We report here significant enhancement of kernel β-carotene in elite maize genotypes through accelerated marker-assisted backcross breeding. A favourable allele (543 bp) of the β-carotene hydroxylase (crtRB1) gene was introgressed in the seven elite inbred parents, which were low (1.4 µg/g) in kernel β-carotene, by using a crtRB1-specific DNA marker for foreground selection. About 90% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in the selected progenies within two backcross generations. Concentration of β-carotene among the crtRB1-introgressed inbreds varied from 8.6 to 17.5 µg/g - a maximum increase up to 12.6-fold over recurrent parent. The reconstituted hybrids developed from improved parental inbreds also showed enhanced kernel β-carotene as high as 21.7 µg/g, compared to 2.6 µg/g in the original hybrid. The reconstituted hybrids evaluated at two locations possessed similar grain yield to that of original hybrids. These β-carotene enriched high yielding hybrids can be effectively utilized in the maize biofortification programs across the globe.

  3. Current patents and future development underlying marker-assisted breeding in major grain crops.

    PubMed

    Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2009-01-01

    Genomics and molecular markers provide new tools to assemble and mobilize important traits from different genetic backgrounds, including breeding lines and cultivars from different parts of the world and their related wild ancestors, to improve the quality and yield of the existing commercial cultivars to meet the increasing challenges of global food demand. The basic techniques of marker-assisted breeding, such as isolating DNA, amplifying DNA of interest using publicly available primers, and visualizing DNA fragments using standard polyacrylamid gel, have been described in the literature and, therefore, are available to scientists and breeders without any restrictions. A more sophisticated high-throughput system that includes proprietary chemicals and reagents, parts and equipments, software, and methods or processes, has been a subject of intensive patents and trade secrets. The high-throughput systems offer a more efficient way to discover associated QTLs for traits of economic importance. Therefore, an increasing number of patents of highly valued genes and QTLs is expected. This paper will discuss and review current patents associated with genes and QTLs utilized in marker-assisted breeding in major grain crops. The availability of molecular markers for important agronomic traits combined with more efficient marker detection systems will help reach the full benefit of MAS in the breeding effort to reassemble potential genes and recapture critical genes among the breeding lines that were lost during domestication to help boost crop production worldwide.

  4. Advances to improve the eating and cooking qualities of rice by marker-assisted breeding.

    PubMed

    Phing Lau, Wendy Chui; Latif, Mohammad Abdul; Y Rafii, Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Puteh, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The eating and cooking qualities of rice are heavily emphasized in breeding programs because they determine market values and they are the appealing attributes sought by consumers. Conventional breeding has developed traditional varieties with improved eating and cooking qualities. Recently, intensive genetic studies have pinpointed the genes that control eating and cooking quality traits. Advances in genetic studies have developed molecular techniques, thereby allowing marker-assisted breeding (MAB) for improved eating and cooking qualities in rice. MAB has gained the attention of rice breeders for the advantages it can offer that conventional breeding cannot. There have been successful cases of using MAB to improve the eating and cooking qualities in rice over the years. Nevertheless, MAB should be applied cautiously given the intensive effort needed for genotyping. Perspectives from conventional breeding to marker-assisted breeding will be discussed in this review for the advancement of the eating and cooking qualities of fragrance, amylose content (AC), gel consistency (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) in rice. These four parameters are associated with eating and cooking qualities in rice. The genetic basis of these four parameters is also included in this review. MAB is another approach to rice variety improvement and development in addition to being an alternative to genetic engineering. The MAB approach shortens the varietal development time, and is therefore able to deliver improved rice varieties to farmers within a shorter period of time.

  5. Optimal remediation policy selection under general conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Zheng, C.

    1997-09-01

    A new simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal design of ground-water remediation systems under a variety of field conditions. The model couples genetic algorithm (GA), a global search technique inspired by biological evolution, with MODFLOW and MT3D, two commonly used ground-water flow and solute transport codes. The model allows for multiple management periods in which optimal pumping/injection rates vary with time to reflect the changes in the flow and transport conditions during the remediation process. The objective function of the model incorporates multiple cost terms including the drilling cost, the installation cost, and the costs to extract and treat the contaminated ground water. The simulation-optimization model is first applied to a typical two-dimensional pump-and-treat example with one and three management periods to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new model. The model is then applied to a large-scale three-dimensional field problem to determine the minimum pumping needed to contain an existing contaminant plume. The optimal solution as determined in this study is compared with a previous solution based on trial-and-error selection.

  6. Improvement of Basmati rice varieties for resistance to blast and bacterial blight diseases using marker assisted backcross breeding.

    PubMed

    Ellur, Ranjith K; Khanna, Apurva; Yadav, Ashutosh; Pathania, Sandeep; Rajashekara, H; Singh, Vikas K; Gopala Krishnan, S; Bhowmick, Prolay K; Nagarajan, M; Vinod, K K; Prakash, G; Mondal, Kalyan K; Singh, Nagendra K; Vinod Prabhu, K; Singh, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Marker assisted backcross breeding was employed to incorporate the blast resistance genes, Pi2 and Pi54 and bacterial blight (BB) resistance genes xa13 and Xa21 into the genetic background of Pusa Basmati 1121 (PB1121) and Pusa Basmati 6. Foreground selection for target gene(s) was followed by arduous phenotypic and background selection which fast-tracked the recovery of recurrent parent genome (RPG) to an extent of 95.8% in one of the near-isogenic lines (NILs) namely, Pusa 1728-23-33-31-56, which also showed high degree of resemblance to recurrent parent, PB6 in phenotype. The phenotypic selection prior to background selection provided an additional opportunity for identifying the novel recombinants viz., Pusa 1884-9-12-14 and Pusa 1884-3-9-175, superior to parental lines in terms of early maturity, higher yield and improved quality parameters. There was no significant difference between the RPG recovery estimated based on SSR or SNP markers, however, the panel of SNPs markers was considered as the better choice for background selection as it provided better genome coverage and included SNPs in the genic regions. Multi-location evaluation of NILs depicted their stable and high mean performance in comparison to the respective recurrent parents. The Pi2+Pi54 carrying NILs were effective in combating a pan-India panel of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates with high level of field resistance in northern, eastern and southern parts of India. Alongside, the PB1121-NILs and PB6-NILs carrying BB resistance genes xa13+Xa21 were resistant against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae races of north-western, southern and eastern parts of the country. Three of NILs developed in this study, have been promoted to final stage of testing during the ​Kharif 2015 in the Indian National Basmati Trial.

  7. Selected Legislative Innovations in State Education Policy: 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprowicz, Constance L.

    1988-01-01

    Facing limited financial resources and a need to encourage large-scale school improvements, state legislators are addressing selected educational problems through such policy approaches as funding experimental programs, designing incentives for school improvement, and encouraging parental involvement. Identified within this document are a number…

  8. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; law; political science; recreation; sanitary engineering; soil conservation; urban and other land... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...

  9. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; law; political science; recreation; sanitary engineering; soil conservation; urban and other land... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...

  10. 18 CFR 701.79 - Selection policy for professional personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; law; political science; recreation; sanitary engineering; soil conservation; urban and other land... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selection policy for professional personnel. 701.79 Section 701.79 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...

  11. Optimal Financial Aid Policies for a Selective University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Sherman, Daniel R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a model of optimal financial aid policies for a selective university. The model implies that the financial aid package to be offered to each category of admitted applicants depends on the elasticity of the fraction who accept offers of admission with respect to the financial aid package offered them. (Author/SSH)

  12. 24 CFR 960.202 - Tenant selection policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenant selection policies. 960.202 Section 960.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  13. Selective Service and Military Policies on Classification, Deferment, and Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargusch, Carlton S.; Alden, John D.

    This handbook was primarily designed to inform employers of selective service and military policies, so that their responsibilities to the military liability of their employees may be exercised effectively. Six steps were recommended for employers in executing their responsibilities. The information for employers which is issued by the Selective…

  14. Whole genome sequencing of elite rice cultivars as a comprehensive information resource for marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics allow to determine a nearly complete genomic background of rice, a staple food for the poor people. Consequently, comprehensive databases of variation among thousands of varieties is currently being assembled and released. Proper analysi...

  15. New Advances in Marker Assisted Selection for Winter Hardiness in Oats.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat (Avena sativa L.) breeding and genetics research has lagged behind other small grains, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in the development of PCR based markers and map construction due to fewer oat researchers and reduced research funding. As a result, marke...

  16. Using Marker-Assisted Selection to Breed Pierce’s Disease-Resistant Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease (PD), caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is an important disease of grapevines in California, across the southern United States, and into South America. In regions where disease pressure is high, cultivation of Vitis vinifera cultivars is difficult or impossible. This study...

  17. Translational genomics and marker assisted selection in sorghum case study using brown midrib (bmr) trait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translational genomics is a critical phase in harnessing the rich genomic data available for sorghum. There is a need to transform nucleotide variation data between sorghum germplasm such as that derived from RNA seq, genotype by sequencing (gbs) or whole genome resequencing thru translation and...

  18. Marker-assisted selection to pyramid nematode resistance and the high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dynamic challenges of peanut farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars that can cope with new problems. Application of molecular markers in peanut breeding programs can greatly compress the cultivar development process from ten to fifteen years to less than three yea...

  19. Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a s...

  20. Rapid pyramiding major resistance genes into parental lines in tomato hybrid breeding employing marker-assisted backcrossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of marker-assisted pyramiding major resistance genes depends upon several factors, including the closeness between the markers and the target gene, the number of target genes to be pyramided, the kind of molecular markers to be used, and available technical facilities. This talk will dis...

  1. A Survey of Lightning Policy in Selected Division I Colleges

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Katie M.; Hanley, Michael J.; Graner, Susanne J.; Beam, Dwayne; Bazluki, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the hazards of lightning for participants in outdoor athletics and to determine the existence of, and assess the nature of, lightning safety policy at the collegiate level. Design and Setting: We used data from the National Severe Storms Laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma, and from a survey of Division I institutions. Subjects: The 48 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (football) universities in Florida, Michigan, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and New York. Measurements: Athletic trainers at all of the selected 48 Division I institutions responded to the telephone survey. Results: Florida, Michigan, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and New York led the country in lightning deaths and injuries from 1959-1994. Only 8% (n = 4) of the institutions surveyed in these states have a written policy regarding lightning safety. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the lack of lightning safety policy in the surveyed universities and the need for a systematic plan of action to make fields safer for all who are involved in outdoor sport activities. PMID:16558450

  2. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Min; Marnay, Chris; Zhou, Nan

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  3. The Development of a Learning Materials Selection Policy for Austin Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamar, Christine

    This paper chronicles the development of a materials selection policy for the library and audio/visual software components of Austin Community College's (ACC) Learning Resource System. The policy would establish authority for selection decisions, the intellectual framework within which decisions are made, and selection criteria and guidelines. It…

  4. Marker-assisted improvement of the elite restorer line of rice, RPHR-1005 for resistance against bacterial blight and blast diseases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Abhilash; Balachiranjeevi, C H; Naik, S Bhaskar; Rambabu, R; Rekha, G; Harika, G; Hajira, S K; Pranathi, K; Vijay, S; Anila, M; Mahadevaswamy, H K; Kousik, M; Yugander, A; Aruna, J; Hari Prasad, A S; Madhav, M S; Laha, G S; Balachandran, S M; Prasad, M S; Babu, V Ravindra; Sundaram, R M

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to improve the RPHR-1005, a stable restorer line of the popular medium slender grain type rice hybrid, DRRH-3 for bacterial blight (BB) and blast resistance through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Two major BB resistance genes, Xa21 and Xa33 and a major blast resistance gene, Pi2 were transferred to RPHR-1005 as two individual crosses. Foreground selection for Xa21, Xa33, Pi2, Rf3 and Rf4 was done by using gene-specific functional markers, while 59 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers polymorphic between the donors and recipient parents were used to select the best plant possessing target resistance genes at each backcross generation. Backcrossing was continued till BC2F2 and a promising homozygous backcross derived line possessing Xa21+ Pi2 and another possessing Xa33 were intercrossed to stack the target resistance genes into the genetic background of RPHR-1005. At ICF4, 10 promising lines possessing three resistance genes in homozygous condition along with fine-grain type, complete fertility restoration, better panicle exertion and taller plant type (compared to RPHR-1005) were identified.

  5. Information Technology Management: Status of Selected DoD Policies on Information Technology Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-19

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General August 19, 2005 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Status of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Technology Management : Status of Selected DoD Policies on Information Technology Governance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... technology management ; however, until additional policy is issued and existing policy is authoritatively and thoroughly implemented, DoD information

  6. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  7. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  8. Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-29

    Mustafa Oguz, “Turkey Rolls its Diplomatic Dice ,” Turkish Daily News, August 14, 2008. 15 “Austria Says Turkey’s Position in Nabucco Limited,” Turkish...and the East. Turkey’s almost relentless engagement with some of its neighbors puts it at odds with U.S. foreign policy. The AKP does not share the

  9. Collection Development Policy, United States Documents Selective Depository Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston Univ., OK.

    The purpose of the government document collection in the Langston University (Oklahoma) libraries is to serve as a complement to the general collection of the libraries. The general collection in turn exists in order to provide the maximum coverage of information to support the curriculum and the community needs. This policy is developed to ensure…

  10. Formulating a Collection Development Policy for a Selective Federal Depository in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Marcia; And Others

    In response to its space limitations, the Robert Manning Strozier Library at Florida State University decided to reduce the size and rate of growth of its federal documents collection. The committee charged with the task decided that the first step was to codify selection/deselection procedures into a written policy. The policy had to be…

  11. Incorporation of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes Into Lowland Rice Cultivar Through Marker-Assisted Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Pandit, Elssa; Behera, Lambodar; Anandan, Annamalai; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Lenka, Srikanta; Barik, Durga Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a major disease of rice in many rice growing countries. Pyramided lines carrying two BB resistance gene combinations (Xa21+xa13 and Xa21+xa5) were developed in a lowland cultivar Jalmagna background through backcross breeding by integrating molecular markers. In each backcross generation, markers closely linked to the disease resistance genes were used to select plants possessing the target genes. Background selection was continued in those plants carrying resistant genes until BC(3) generation. Plants having the maximum contribution from the recurrent parent genome were selected in each generation and hybridized with the recipient parent. The BB-pyramided line having the maximum recipient parent genome recovery of 95% was selected among BC3F1 plants and selfed to isolate homozygous BC(3)F(2) plants with different combinations of BB resistance genes. Twenty pyramided lines with two resistance gene combinations exhibited high levels of tolerance against the BB pathogen. In order to confirm the resistance, the pyramided lines were inoculated with different X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains of Odisha for bioassay. The genotypes with combination of two BB resistance genes conferred high levels of resistance to the predominant X. oryzae pv. oryzae isolates prevalent in the region. The pyramided lines showed similarity with the recipient parent with respect to major agro-morphologic traits.

  12. VitisGen: A coordinated effort in grapevine genotyping, phenotyping, and marker assisted breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To enable early selection of elite seedlings combining disease resistance, stress tolerance, and fruit quality, U.S. grape breeders and geneticists developed a coordinated strategy for marker discovery and application using centralized phenotyping and map development via genotyping-by-sequencing (GB...

  13. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included.

  14. Public availability of a genotyped, segregating population may foster marker assisted breeding (MAB) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery: An example using strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the cost associated with marker discovery for marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be eliminated if a diverse, segregating population is generated, genotyped and made available to the global breeding community. Herein, we present an example of a hybrid, wild-derived family of the octoploid str...

  15. Markers Linked to the ZYMV-FL Resistance Gene and Their Use in Marker-assisted Selection in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is a major pathogen that reduces yield in cucurbits. The best studied strains include ZYMV-FL and ZYMV-CH of which resistance is conferred by a single recessive gene. Bulk segregate analysis was used for watermelon populations derived from PI 595203, a line with...

  16. Segregation of unknown signaling components in potato complicates marker-assisted selection for Ve-mediated Verticillium resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused primarily by soil-borne fungi Verticillium dahliae Kleb and V. albo-atrum Reinke and Berthold is characterized by unilateral wilting of leaves, chlorosis, and premature senescence. VW is mainly controlled by fumigating fields with metam sodium, which has negative econo...

  17. Persimmon breeding in Japan for pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) type with marker-assisted selection

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akihiko; Yamada, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki) originated in Eastern Asia, and many indigenous cultivars have been developed in China, Japan, and Korea. These cultivars are classified into four groups based on their natural astringency loss on the tree and seed formation: pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA), pollination-variant non-astringent (PVNA), pollination-constant astringent (PCA), and pollination-variant astringent (PVA). PCNA is the most desirable type because the fruit can be eaten without any postharvest treatment; therefore, one of the goals of our persimmon breeding programs is to release superior PCNA cultivars. The PCNA genotype is recessive to the other three non-PCNA genotypes, and PCNA-type F1 offspring are obtained exclusively from crosses among PCNA genotypes. Moreover, the number of superior PCNA cross-parents have been limited. In the late 1980s, inbreeding depression became obvious, especially in terms of fruit size, tree vigor, and productivity. To mitigate the inbreeding, a backcross program using PCNA [(non-PCNA × PCNA) × PCNA] was started in 1990. This process, however, was inefficient because only 15% of the offspring were PCNA, and all offspring had to be grown to the fruiting stage. Therefore, molecular markers linked to the PCNA locus were developed for discriminating PCNA offspring. A molecular marker linked to Chinese PCNA has also been developed. PMID:27069391

  18. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  19. On marker-assisted prediction of genetic value: beyond the ridge.

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Toro, Miguel A

    2003-01-01

    Marked-assisted genetic improvement of agricultural species exploits statistical dependencies in the joint distribution of marker genotypes and quantitative traits. An issue is how molecular (e.g., dense marker maps) and phenotypic information (e.g., some measure of yield in plants) is to be used for predicting the genetic value of candidates for selection. Multiple regression, selection index techniques, best linear unbiased prediction, and ridge regression of phenotypes on marker genotypes have been suggested, as well as more elaborate methods. Here, phenotype-marker associations are modeled hierarchically via multilevel models including chromosomal effects, a spatial covariance of marked effects within chromosomes, background genetic variability, and family heterogeneity. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients are suggested for assessing the inequality of the contribution of different marked effects to genetic variability. Classical and Bayesian methods are presented. The Bayesian approach includes a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. The generality and flexibility of the Bayesian method is illustrated when a Lorenz curve is to be inferred. PMID:12586721

  20. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-01-01

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing—a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population—a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries’ economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. PMID:25468167

  1. Medical record information disclosure laws and policies among selected countries; a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Tavakoli, Nahid; Nansa, Leila Ghaderi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals have responsibility for responding to legitimate demands for release of health information while protecting the confidentiality of the patient health records. There have always been challenges concerning medical records confidentiality and their disclosure and release type in medical record departments. This study investigated and compared laws and policies of disclosure of health information in Iran and selected countries and tried to identify the differences and the similarities between them. METHODS: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The scope of study included related laws and policies of disclosure of health information in selected countries such as United States, Australia, England, Malaysia and Iran. Data were gathered from systematic internet search, library resources and communication with health information professionals. Data analysis was done using comparative tables and qualitative method. RESULTS: Study results showed that legislative institutions of each country have ordained laws and policies concerning disclosure and release of health information and in turn hospitals developed policies and procedures based on these laws. In Iran, however, there are few laws and policies concerning disclosure of health information in the form of formal letters and bylaws. There are no specific written policies and procedures for disclosure of health information in the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to develop legitimate and appropriate laws and policies in different levels for information utilization by hospitals, medical universities and others. Meanwhile in all of the selected countries there are ordained limitations for release of health information for protecting health information in regard to patient rights. PMID:21526073

  2. Real Decision Support for Health Insurance Policy Selection.

    PubMed

    Stein, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop data-driven tools to help individuals make better choices about health insurance and to better understand the range of costs to which they are exposed under different health plans. We describe a simulation tool that we developed to evaluate the likely usage and costs for an individual and family under a wide range of health service usage outcomes, but that can be tailored to specific physicians and the needs of the user and to reflect the demographics and other special attributes of the family. The simulator can accommodate, for example, specific known physician visits or planned procedures, while also generating statistically reasonable "unexpected" events like ER visits or catastrophic diagnoses. On the other hand, if a user provides only a small amount of information (e.g., just information about the family members), the simulator makes a number of generic assumptions regarding physician usage, etc., based on the age, gender, and other features of the family. Data to parameterize all of these events is informed by a combination of the information provided by the user and a series of specialized databases that we have compiled based on publicly available government data and commercial data as well as our own analysis of this initially very coarse and rigid data. To demonstrate both the subtlety of choosing a healthcare plan and the degree to which the simulator can aid in such evaluations, we present sample results using real insurance plans and two example policy shoppers with different demographics and healthcare needs.

  3. Progress and limits of PrP gene selection policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael; Moore, Richard C; Bishop, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    Classical scrapie has proved to be a notoriously difficult disease to control due to a poor understanding of its natural history. The recognition of disease risk linkage to PrP genotype has offered the prospect of a disease control strategy, viz. genotyping and selective breeding, novel to veterinary medicine when first considered in the 1990s. The UK Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee recommended the exploitation of this approach in a voluntary, national programme to control classical scrapie and protect the public against food-borne exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy, should the national flock have been exposed via contaminated feed. The National Scrapie Plan for Great Britain was launched in 2001 and uptake has been widespread throughout the purebreeding sector of the sheep industry, with membership peaking at over 12 000 flocks in 2006. A total of 700 000 rams from 90 breeds have been genotyped. A comparison of ram lambs born in 2002 with those in 2006 shows evident changes in PrP genotype frequencies which are predicted to be associated with a reduction in disease risk. Various concerns have been raised regarding possible unintended consequences of widespread selection on PrP genotype, including impacts on other performance traits and possible effects on inbreeding and genetic diversity. To date, these concerns appear to be unfounded, as no consistent associations have been found with performance traits, nor are there likely to be any detectable impacts on inbreeding in mainstream breeds. Currently, semen banks have been implemented in Great Britain to store samples from animals of all common PrP genotypes, should these genotypes be required in the future. Various strategies to minimise future disease risks are discussed in the paper.

  4. Marker-Assisted Breeding as Next-Generation Strategy for Genetic Improvement of Productivity and Quality: Can It Be Realized in Cotton?

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, N. Manikanda; Thiyagu, K.; Urbi, B.; Santhoshkumar, M.; Gopikrishnan, A.; Aravind, S.; Swapnashri, Gat; Ravikesavan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The dawdling development in genetic improvement of cotton with conventional breeding program is chiefly due to lack of complete knowledge on and precise manipulation of fiber productivity and quality. Naturally available cotton continues to be a resource for the upcoming breeding program, and contemporary technologies to exploit the available natural variation are outlined in this paper for further improvement of fiber. Particularly emphasis is given to application, obstacles, and perspectives of marker-assisted breeding since it appears to be more promising in manipulating novel genes that are available in the cotton germplasm. Deployment of system quantitative genetics in marker-assisted breeding program would be essential to realize its role in cotton. At the same time, role of genetic engineering and in vitro mutagenesis cannot be ruled out in genetic improvement of cotton. PMID:21577317

  5. Testcross performance of rye introgression lines developed by marker-assisted backcrossing using an Iranian accession as donor.

    PubMed

    Falke, K C; Susić, Z; Wilde, P; Wortmann, H; Möhring, J; Piepho, H-P; Geiger, H H; Miedaner, T

    2009-05-01

    Introgression libraries facilitate the identification of favorable exotic alleles or genomic regions, which can be exploited for improving elite breeding material. We evaluated the first two introgression libraries in rye (Secale cereale L.) on the phenotypic and molecular level. Our objectives were to detect candidate introgression lines (pre-ILs) with a better testcross performance than the recurrent parent and identify donor chromosome segments (DCS) responsible for the improved performance. We introduced DCS from the self-incompatible heterozygous exotic Iranian primitive rye accession Altevogt 14160 (donor) into the genetic background of the elite inbred line L2053-N (recurrent parent) by marker-assisted backcrossing and developed 40 BC(2)S(3) lines in each introgression library. Testcross performance for three agronomic and six quality traits was evaluated in replicated field trials across two testers at five locations over 2 years. The phenotypic effect of the DCS was analyzed for all traits. The pre-ILs had on average a testcross performance comparable to that of the recurrent parent. Significant (P < 0.05) differences between individual pre-ILs and the recurrent parent were detected for all traits except for heading date. For more than 60% of the significant (P < 0.05) differences, the pre-ILs were superior to the recurrent parent. For some pre-ILs, specific DCS were identified containing presumably quantitative trait loci responsible for the superior hybrid performance. Consequently, our study revealed that the development and employment of introgression libraries offers the opportunity for a targeted increase of genetic diversity of elite rye material for hybrid performance of agronomically important traits.

  6. Exemplar-Based Policy with Selectable Strategies and its Optimization Using GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kokolo; Kobayashi, Shigenobu; Kita, Hajime

    As an approach for dynamic control problems and decision making problems, usually formulated as Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), we focus direct policy search (DPS), where a policy is represented by a model with parameters, and the parameters are optimized so as to maximize the evaluation function by applying the parameterized policy to the problem. In this paper, a novel framework for DPS, an exemplar-based policy optimization using genetic algorithm (EBP-GA) is presented and analyzed. In this approach, the policy is composed of a set of virtual exemplars and a case-based action selector, and the set of exemplars are selected and evolved by a genetic algorithm. Here, an exemplar is a real or virtual, free-styled and suggestive information such as ``take the action A at the state S'' or ``the state S1 is better to attain than S2''. One advantage of EBP-GA is the generalization and localization ability for policy expression, based on case-based reasoning methods. Another advantage is that both the introduction of prior knowledge and the extraction of knowledge after optimization are relatively straightforward. These advantages are confirmed through the proposal of two new policy expressions, experiments on two different problems and their analysis.

  7. The Implications of Selected Employment Concerns for Disability Policy and Rehabilitation Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Schriner, Kay Fletcher

    1991-01-01

    Results from an employment concerns questionnaire completed by selected groups of people with disabilities (mental retardation, epilepsy, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, and head injuries) are discussed in terms of public policy and rehabilitation practice implications. Recommendations are couched in behavior analysis terms (i.e.,…

  8. The Continuing Education of Employees. A Review of Selected Policies in Ontario. Informal Series/8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A.; Alden, Harold

    A study to examine policies governing educational assistance plans for hourly and salaried employees in selected nongovernmental organizations in Ontario is reviewed. In the first of five chapters, educational assistance is defined as tuition aid and paid/unpaid educational leave plans to assist employees in pursuing education and training through…

  9. Science-Policy Interactions in MPA Site Selection in the Dutch Part of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haastrecht, Eline K.; Toonen, Hilde M.

    2011-04-01

    At the 7th conference of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD-COP7, Kuala Lumpur, 2004) it was agreed to establish a global network of marine and coastal protected areas by 2012. The defined objectives of this MPA-network are based on the ecosystem approach: to protect biodiversity and other ecological values, and to ensure sustainable use. The (inter)national policy guidelines state that the selection of MPAs should be based on scientific information and ecological criteria only. As a signatory to the Convention, the Netherlands is now faced with meeting this obligation, and the process of designating the first Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Dutch part of the North Sea is currently in progress. We focus on the science-policy interactions that are part of this Dutch MPA selection process. By taking a closer look at the contemporary site selection process as well as its historical background, we show that ecological, socio-economic and political considerations cannot always be easily separated. Uncertainty is high and the ultimate selection and delimitation of candidate sites rather seems to be the result of a balancing act between ecological, socio-economic and political interests, in which scientific and policy guiding procedures blend with ad-hoc political decision making, and with expert judgment in cases where data is lacking. As such, this paper presents an example of present-day environmental policy making in action.

  10. The Effect of a Stricter Academic Dismissal Policy on Course Selection, Student Effort, and Grading Leniency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Shao-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses data from a four-year college in Taiwan to examine the effect of adopting a stricter dismissal policy on course selection, student effort, and grading practices. Under the new rule, students are dismissed if they fail 50 percent or more credits in "any" two semesters as opposed to two "consecutive" semesters.…

  11. Federal Income-Maintenance and Manpower Policy Related to a Selected Poverty Group in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Don Charles

    This study, while also surveying nationwide poverty, concentrated on the ability of Federal income maintenance and manpower policies to alleviate poverty in a selected Mississippi group. Over 3,200 Mississippi families were analyzed for family characteristics and household heads' educational, training, and employment status. Findings included the…

  12. U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest. Staff Report of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy (And Nine Appendix Volumes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy.

    This report is intended as a supplement to the final report (March, 1981) on the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Part one covers first principles of immigration reform with chapters on international cooperation, law enforcement policies and procedures, the characteristics and evolution of an open society, and the national…

  13. Health policies on dialysis modality selection: a nationwide population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In Taiwan, peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis are fully accessible to patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the usage of PD is considered low in Taiwan. Since 2005, 4 major policies have been implemented by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, namely a multidisciplinary predialysis care programme and usage increasing the PD incidence as a key performance indicator (KPI) for hospital accreditation, both of which were implemented in 2006; reimbursement of the glucose-free dialysate, icodextrin that was implemented in 2007; and insurance reimbursement for renting automated PD machines that was implemented in 2008. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between the PD promotional policies and the actual PD selection rates. Setting We analysed data within the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2006 to 2013, focusing on the PD incidence in relation to the timings of the 4 PD promotional policies; then we stratified the results according to age, sex and the presence of diabetes mellitus. Participants From 2006 to 2013, 115 565 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean (SD) age of patients on PD was 54.6 (15.7) years. Results During the time frame in which the 4 PD promotional policies were implemented, the PD incidence increased from 12.8% in 2006 to 15.1% in 2009. The PD incidence started to decline in 2010 (13.8%) when the hospital accreditation policy was repealed. The 3 remaining policies were weakly associated with the PD incidence. The observational analysis determined that the patients' ages, sexes and diabetes mellitus incidence rates were relatively stable from 2006 to 2013. Conclusions Of the 4 health policies intended to promote PD usage, using increasing the PD incidence as a KPI for hospital accreditation had the strongest association with the PD incidence. PMID:28077410

  14. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

    1980-06-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  15. Decision Support Model to Select the Optimal Municipal Solid Waste Management Policy at United States Air Force Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-03

    The United States Air Force has recently defined three objectives in developing strategies regarding the management of municipal solid waste at the...insight concerning the selection and implementation of a municipal solid waste management policy.

  16. The relationships between the impact of alcoholic beverage control policies, selected contextual determinants, and alcohol drinking in Spain.

    PubMed

    Matrai, Silvia; Casajuana, Cristina; Allamani, Allaman; Baccini, Michela; Pepe, Pasquale; Massini, Giulia; Gual, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol prevention policies alone neither cause nor explain changes in alcohol consumption, nor in related harm. Alcohol consumption in Spain throughout the period 1962-2008 was analyzed considering selected contextual factors and alcohol policies. Increased urbanization was found to be associated with higher consumption, especially of beer. Restrictive policies regulating purchase age, advertising, and licensing premises to sell alcohol were associated with decreased alcohol consumption, while lower blood alcohol concentration limits were followed by an increase. Study limitations are noted. Changes in the evolution of socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and cultural factors should be carefully analyzed to inform alcohol policy planning and evaluation.

  17. Terminology of European Education and Training Policy: A Selection of 130 Key Terms. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This multilingual glossary defines 130 key terms used in European education and training policy. It is an extended and updated version of "Terminology of European education and training policy" (2008) and "Terminology of vocational training policy" (2004). It considers new priorities of European union policy, mainly in skills…

  18. Review and analysis of selected natural resource policy in Missouri state government

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    This study provides new information on basic policy theory that deals with resource management in Missouri. Four goals are used. First, resource policy systems in other states are reviewed to identify similar policy frameworks. Second, the policy framework that exists in Missouri is identified and used as a standard against which changes in resource policy can be measured. Third, Missouri policy is compared to that in other states. Lastly, improvements to the Missouri policy systems are suggested. The study consists of an inventory of the resource policy of the Departments of Natural Resources and Conservation, which are analyzed for discrepancies that weaken sound policy or prevent its development in the first place. The Annual Reports, Annual Budgets, and Management By Objective statements are used as sources of policy information. The conclusions reached are that, first, state resource policy development and implementation is inadequate to function effectively. Second, policy problems are compounded by the synergistic effect created by their presence in a bureaucracy. Third, state government has a questionable commitment to natural resource policy development, and lastly, agencies should be more responsible concerning resource policy.

  19. Effect of Structured Teaching Programme on Levels of Knowledge regarding Narcotic Policy among Staff Nurses in Selected Hospitals of Bangalore.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Mary A; Parvathy, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level of knowledge among staff nurses on Narcotic policy and ascertain their knowledge by structured teaching programme with pre-test, post-test method The study attempted to assess the knowledge on Narcotic policy among staff nurses before and after structured teaching programme; evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on narcotic policy among staff nurses; and to find out the association between post level of knowledge among staff nurses on narcotic policy and selected demographic variables. A quasi-experimental study was carried out with 60 staff nurses from BGS & Jeevani Sarvodaya Hospital, Bangalore. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to evaluate the knowledge level on narcotic policy before & after an STP. Data were analysed with chi-square and t test. The result showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores as assessed by the paired t-test value at 36.766 (HS p = 0.001). There was significant association between knowledge and the selected demographic variables (age, area of experience and years of experience (p ≤ 0.05). Thus for this study one can conclude that STP could be an effective strategy to improve the knowledge of staff nurses on narcotic policy.

  20. Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

  1. Senate Select Committee on Higher Education To Study Tuition Policy at Michigan Colleges and Universities: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Legislature, Lansing.

    This report contains the final recommendations of the Michigan Senate Select Committee on Higher Education on tuition policy at Michigan public colleges and universities. The report presents its findings and recommendations in three large parts. The first section contains the final recommendations of the Committee including goals of affordability…

  2. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  3. Public Availability of a Genotyped Segregating Population May Foster Marker Assisted Breeding (MAB) and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Discovery: An Example Using Strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, James F.; Sooriyapathirana, Suneth S.; Bassil, Nahla V.; Stegmeir, Travis; Cai, Lichun; Finn, Chad E.; Van de Weg, Eric; Weebadde, Cholani K.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the cost associated with marker discovery for marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be eliminated if a diverse, segregating population is generated, genotyped, and made available to the global breeding community. Herein, we present an example of a hybrid, wild-derived family of the octoploid strawberry that can be used by other breeding programs to economically find and tag useful genes for MAB. A pseudo test cross population between two wild species of Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (FVC 11) was generated and evaluated for a set of phenotypic traits. A total of 106 individuals in the FVC 11 were genotyped for 29,251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) utilizing a commercially available, genome-wide scanning platform (Affymetrix Axiom IStraw90TW). The marker trait associations were deduced using TASSEL software. The FVC 11 population segregating for daughters per mother, inflorescence number, inflorescence height, crown production, flower number, fruit size, yield, internal color, soluble solids, fruit firmness, and plant vigor. Coefficients of variations ranged from 10% for fruit firmness to 68% for daughters per mother, indicating an underlying quantitative inheritance for each trait. A total of 2,474 SNPs were found to be polymorphic in FVC 11 and strong marker trait associations were observed for vigor, daughters per mother, yield and fruit weight. These data indicate that FVC 11 can be used as a reference population for quantitative trait loci detection and subsequent MAB across different breeding programs and geographical locations. PMID:27242825

  4. A proposal for science education policies in Lebanon based on trends in selected developed countries over the last twenty years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraf, Lina

    The present study examines science education policies in three selected developed countries and compares them with science education policies in Lebanon in order to identify their potential reform policies and practices applicable to Lebanon. The selection of the three countries, the U.S.A., U.K., and Japan, was based on the amount of time and effort devoted in these countries to improving and modernizing their science education policies and curricula. Three aspects of secondary science curriculum policy in the chosen countries were analyzed and compared with those of Lebanon. These were: aims and objectives; pattern of science program including the science curriculum, the amount of time allotted to the study of science and the content of school science subjects; and the organization of school science including science requirement for graduation from high school, teaching strategies and mode of examinations. The data collected for analysis from the three chosen countries showed that, unlike Lebanon, in the three developed countries: education is compulsory up to at least the age of 16; aims and objectives are stated clearly and carefully; science is an integrated subject in the first year of secondary level, then it becomes separated into chemistry, physics and biology. The content of science subjects emphasizes the method and process of science and its application to the society. Examinations are designed to evaluate students' learning in science in contrast to Lebanon where examinations are designed to discriminate among students.

  5. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    PubMed

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work.

  6. Development of three allele-specific co-Dominant PCR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of amylose class and paste viscosity of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most rice is consumed as whole kernel cooked rice, and the consumer preferences for cooked rice texture and other sensory properties differ among regions of the world. Rice is also used as an ingredient in a multitude of foods by food-processing companies across the globe. These sensory and function...

  7. Marker-assisted selection for elevated concentrations of the a' subunit of B-conglycinin and its influence on agronomic and seed traits of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars with elevated concentrations of the a' subunit of ß-conglycinin (BC) may provide health benefits to soy protein consumers. Two Monsanto single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used to classify F2 plants in four segregating populations as having elevate...

  8. Development of three allele-specific codominant rice Waxy gene PCR markers suitable for marker assisted selection of amylose content and paste viscosity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Waxy haplotypes, which were identified previously as having different combinations of these three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Waxy gene, were highly correlated to the apparent amylose content and pasting properties, the important grain quality traits for predicting cooked rice...

  9. Humanity, U.S. Immigration and Refugee Policy and the Select Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Broadus N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines United States policy and practices in regard to immigrants and refugees. Observes that recent changes in refugee and immigration legislation may have provided the catalyst for less racial and ethnic discrimination in American domestic and foreign policy. Suggests that current trends point to the possibility of unity in cultural pluralism.…

  10. Does the selection of ISO 14001 registrars matter? Registrar reputation and environmental policy statements in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Chung, Shan Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between characteristics of environmental policy statements and the reputations of ISO 14001 registrars who had performed certification audits of firms operating in mainland China. Three characteristics of environmental policy statements were examined: (1) The conformance of the policy to strict interpretations of the international standard; (2) The policy statement's adherence to the good practice guidelines specified in ISO 14004; and, (3) Self-reported evaluations of the policy statement's effectiveness as implemented. Data from 106 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou reveal that registrar quality has a relatively weak, positive relationship with conformance to both ISO 14001 standards and to ISO 14004 guidelines, but no relationship was observed with the self-reported data. Additional findings are that the use of foreign registrars is significantly associated with the adoption of ISO 14004 guidelines and that conformance with ISO 14001 standards is somewhat higher for international joint ventures and foreign-owned firms than for state-owned enterprises.

  11. The Hiring Policies of Selected Iowa Businesses and Industries with Respect to Employment of Blind Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Donald Earl

    An investigation of the hiring policies of Iowa businesses and industries with respect to the employment of blind persons was one purpose of this study. A second purpose was to determine the opinions of blind clients of the Iowa Commission for the Blind concerning the industrial arts program at the Commission. Some findings are: (1) Over 97…

  12. FY2010 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-10

    Members of the Retired Reserve Who Are Not Yet Age 60 ........... 13 Chiropractic Health Care for Members on Active Duty...Personnel Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 14 Chiropractic Health Care for Members on Active Duty Background: Chiropractic is a health care ...Section 702 of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (P.L. 106-398) established the Chiropractic Care Program

  13. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  14. Setting Cut Scores in Selection: A Mathematical Structure for Examining Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronbach, Lee J.; And Others

    Employers and school admissions officials must consider several factors when making choices among applicants, particularly when faced with a need to increase selection of minority group members. Should different standards be applied to different groups? Will acceptance of less qualified applicants from one group affect the overall quality of the…

  15. A Foucauldian Analysis of Literary Text Selection Practices and Educational Policies in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greig, Christopher J.; Holloway, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Like schools, curricula are socially constructed and constituted within broader social, political, and historical relations of power, powerfully shaping students' beliefs and attitudes about themselves and their relationship toward the world. In light of this, the importance of literature selection cannot be overstated. School-sanctioned texts…

  16. Plant breeding with genomic selection: potential gain per unit time and cost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing genome coverage. This is facilitating the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding. Commonly employed MAS strategies, however, are not well suited for complex traits, requiring extra time for field-based ph...

  17. Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues. A Selection of the Proceedings of the Papers Dealing with Language Policy Issues in Canada at the Conference "Language Policy and Social Problems" (Curacao, Venezuela, December, 1983). Publication B-150.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobarrubias, Juan, Ed.

    The papers related to Canadian language policy at an international conference are presented: "Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues" (Juan Cobarrubias); "Multiculturalism and Language Policy in Canada" (Jim Cummins, Harold Troper); "Defining Language Policy in a Nationalistic Milieu and in a Complex Industrialized…

  18. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  19. The effects of selecting for the myostatin F94L polymorphism on reproductive traits in pubertal heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The myostatin F94L polymorphism influences carcass traits in steers; however, the influence of this polymorphism on female reproductive performance should be characterized as part of using it for marker assisted selection. Results from USMARC indicate that heifers that are homozygous for the L allel...

  20. Research Briefings 1986. For the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation, and Selected Federal Departments and Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This is part of a series on selected areas of science and technology prepared by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, at the request of the Science Advisor to the President of the United States. This volume includes four individual reports. The first is the report of the "Research Briefing Panel on Science of Interfaces…

  1. Excellence and Diversity: The Emergence of Selective Admission Policies in Dutch Higher Education--A Case Study on Amsterdam University College. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.15.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reumer, Christoffel; van der Wende, Marijk

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of selective admission policies in Dutch university education. Such policies are being developed to promote excellence in a higher education system that is generally known to be "egalitarian" and increasingly criticized for a lack of differentiation. The changing policy context of admission in Dutch…

  2. A selected, annotated list of materials that support the development of policies designed to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Donatiello, Joann E.; Droese, Peter W.; Kim, Soo H.

    2004-01-01

    Research documents the existence of racial and ethnic health disparities. As a result, policy makers are seeking to address these disparities. This list is a starting point for building or updating a collection that supports this policy development process. It is written for health policy librarians and researchers and includes annotated recommendations for books, periodicals, government publications, and Websites. Entries for print publications are primarily from 1998 to 2003. PMID:15098056

  3. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  4. Dealing with correlated choices: how a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  5. Dealing with correlated choices: How a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  6. Using a limited mapping strategy to identify major QTLs for resistance to grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) and their use in marker-assisted breeding.

    PubMed

    Riaz, S; Tenscher, A C; Ramming, D W; Walker, M A

    2011-04-01

    A limited genetic mapping strategy based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker data was used with five grape populations segregating for powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) resistance in an effort to develop genetic markers from multiple sources and enable the pyramiding of resistance loci. Three populations derived their resistance from Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Magnolia'. The first population (06708) had 97 progeny and was screened with 137 SSR markers from seven chromosomes (4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, and 18) that have been reported to be associated with powdery or downy mildew resistance. A genetic map was constructed using the pseudo-testcross strategy and QTL analysis was carried out. Only markers from chromosome 13 and 18 were mapped in the second (04327) and third (06712) populations, which had 47 and 80 progeny, respectively. Significant QTLs for powdery mildew resistance with overlapping genomic regions were identified for different tissue types (leaf, stem, rachis, and berry) on chromosome 18, which distinguishes the resistance in 'Magnolia' from that present in other accessions of M. rotundifolia and controlled by the Run1 gene on chromosome 12. The 'Magnolia' resistance locus was termed as Run2.1. Powdery mildew resistance was also mapped in a fourth population (08391), which had 255 progeny and resistance from M. rotundifolia 'Trayshed'. A locus accounting for 50% of the phenotypic variation mapped to chromosome 18 and was named Run2.2. This locus overlapped the region found in the 'Magnolia'-based populations, but the allele sizes of the flanking markers were different. 'Trayshed' and 'Magnolia' shared at least one allele for 68% of the tested markers, but alleles of the other 32% of the markers were not shared indicating that the two M. rotundifolia selections were very different. The last population, 08306 with 42 progeny, derived its resistance from a selection Vitis romanetii C166-043. Genetic mapping discovered a major powdery mildew resistance locus

  7. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

  8. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-26

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species.

  9. Scientific Futures. Selected Areas of Opportunity for the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation, and Selected Federal Departments and Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy request to identify promising areas for U.S. research investment in science and technology, this report contains briefings by outstanding researchers in several fields of science. This volume is the fifth in a series of briefings which are used to anticipate important new…

  10. µ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype ... frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  11. An Historical Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools Policy on the Requirements for the Selection of Principals, 1983-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferty, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    This historical analysis provided an opportunity to appreciate Chicago's course in the national school reform landscape. This study helped to understand the effects school reform efforts had on school leadership policy in Chicago. It verified a roster of superintendents in Chicago during 1983-2008, established a chronology of school reform events…

  12. Folic acid: to fortify or not to fortify? An examination of selected national policies towards mandatory folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many national authorities are reviewing their policy towards mandatory folic acid fortification of staple foods in response to epidemiological evidence of the relationship between folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs). However, there are scientific, ethical and technical challenges associated wi...

  13. Relationship of Regional Economic Growth Patterns to Education Funding Alternatives. Selected Monographs in Educational Policy Research Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Ronald

    Demographic and economic growth in the sunbelt states has been interpreted by some as a threat to the northern frostbelt states. Consequently, many have argued for the revision of policies affecting the distribution of federal funds among states. This paper examines the merits of such an argument by looking at concrete economic and demographic…

  14. Proficiency, Policy, and Professionalism in Foreign Language Education. Report of the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Columbus, Ohio, April 9-11, 1987). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckbichler, Diane W., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers from a conference on language proficiency, policy, and language teacher professionalism include: "Proficiency in Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Sally Sieloff Magnan); "Teaching Foreign Languages: Policy and the Federal Role" (Paul Simon); "Proficiency in the 'Real World' of the Professional…

  15. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Science Graduation at Selective Colleges with Implications for Admission Policy and College Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Frederick L.; McArdle, John J.

    Emphasizing graduation rate, W. Bowen and D. Bok (1998) argue that race-sensitive admission at selective colleges enhances the educational attainment of underrepresented minority students, and that the effect increases with college selectivity. Focusing on graduation in science, however, R. Elliott and colleagues (1995) conclude that: (1)…

  16. Admission Requirements to Canadian Faculties of Medicine and Their Selection Policies = Conditions d'Admission aux Facultes de Medecine Canadiennes et Leurs Politiques de Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…

  17. Identification and mapping of conserved ortholog set(COS) II sequences of cacao and their conversion to SNP markers for marker-assisted selection in Theobroma cocoa and comparative genomics studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao is a tree cultivated in the tropics around the world for its seeds that are the source of both chocolate and cocoa butter. The cacao genome sequencing project initiated as a collaboration between USDA, Mars, Inc. and IBM has generated a great deal of transcriptome and genome sequenc...

  18. Using genotyping-by-sequencing to identify SNPs linked to the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance trait in bottle gourd and development of CAPS markers useful for marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria L.] is an important root stock for watermelon as well as a nutritious vegetable. Previously, we identified several sources of resistance in bottle gourd to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Breeding populations were generated from two resistant lines (USVL1VR-Ls ...

  19. Private property rights and selective private forest conservation: could a Nordic hybrid policy address a United States problem?

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    Political and legal conflicts between the need for targeted private forest conservation and the continued assurance of private property rights in the U.S. presents a seemingly intractable resource management problem. Scandinavian use of habitat protection areas on private forests offers an additional tool that may be suitable for solving the historical and on-going tension found within U.S. efforts to reconcile desires to maintain lands in a forested condition while also respecting private property rights. This article presents a comparative cross-sectional policy analysis of Sweden, Finland, and the U.S., supported with a supplemental case example from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Similarities in all three countries among forest ownership patterns, use of public subsidies, and changing attitudes towards conservation are generally encouraging. Additionally, Virginia's current consideration and development of state-wide forest policies focused on forestland and open space conservation suggests both a need and an opportunity to systematically assess the applicability of the Nordic forest reserve approach to local private forest conservation. Future research at a high-resolution, and specifically at the state level, should focus on the social and political factors that would ultimately determine the viability of a forest reserve program.

  20. A multi-objective model for closed-loop supply chain optimization and efficient supplier selection in a competitive environment considering quantity discount policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Yousefi, Samuel; Hayati, Jamileh

    2016-11-01

    Supplier selection and allocation of optimal order quantity are two of the most important processes in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) and reverse logistic (RL). So that providing high quality raw material is considered as a basic requirement for a manufacturer to produce popular products, as well as achieve more market shares. On the other hand, considering the existence of competitive environment, suppliers have to offer customers incentives like discounts and enhance the quality of their products in a competition with other manufacturers. Therefore, in this study, a model is presented for CLSC optimization, efficient supplier selection, as well as orders allocation considering quantity discount policy. It is modeled using multi-objective programming based on the integrated simultaneous data envelopment analysis-Nash bargaining game. In this study, maximizing profit and efficiency and minimizing defective and functions of delivery delay rate are taken into accounts. Beside supplier selection, the suggested model selects refurbishing sites, as well as determining the number of products and parts in each network's sector. The suggested model's solution is carried out using global criteria method. Furthermore, based on related studies, a numerical example is examined to validate it.

  1. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  2. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Science Graduation at Selective Colleges with Implications for Admission Policy and College Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Frederick L.; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    Using Bowen and Bok's data from 23 selective colleges, we fit multilevel logit models to test two hypotheses with implications for affirmative action and group differences in attainment of science, math, or engineering (SME) degrees. Hypothesis 1, that differences in precollege academic preparation will explain later SME graduation disparities,…

  3. 41 CFR 301-74.18 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.18 Section 301-74.18 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.18 What...

  4. 41 CFR 301-74.18 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.18 Section 301-74.18 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.18 What...

  5. 41 CFR 301-74.18 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.18 Section 301-74.18 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.18 What...

  6. 41 CFR 301-74.13 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.13 Section 301-74.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.13 What...

  7. 41 CFR 301-74.18 - What policies and procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures must we establish to govern the selection of conference attendees? 301-74.18 Section 301-74.18 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.18 What...

  8. Policies and practices pertaining to the selection, qualification requirements, and training programs for nuclear-reactor operating personnel at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Culbert, W.H.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the policies and practices of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) regarding the selection of and training requirements for reactor operating personnel at the Laboratory's nuclear-reactor facilities. The training programs, both for initial certification and for requalification, are described and provide the guidelines for ensuring that ORNL's research reactors are operated in a safe and reliable manner by qualified personnel. This document gives an overview of the reactor facilities and addresses the various qualifications, training, testing, and requalification requirements stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter VI (Safety of DOE-Owned Reactors); it is intended to be in compliance with this DOE Order, as applicable to ORNL facilities. Included also are examples of the documentation maintained amenable for audit.

  9. Policy implications of select student characteristics and their influence on the Florida biology end-of-course assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Janine Cecelia

    In an attempt to improve student achievement in science in Florida, the Florida Department of Education implemented end-of-course (EOC) assessments in biology during the 2011-2012 academic school year. Although this first administration would only account for 30% of the student's overall final course grade in biology, subsequent administrations would be accompanied by increasing stakes for students, teachers, and schools. Therefore, this study sought to address gaps in empirical evidence as well as discuss how educational policy will potentially impact on teacher evaluation and professional development, student retention and graduation rates, and school accountability indicators. This study explored four variables- reading proficiency, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender- to determine their influence and relationship on biology achievement on the Biology I EOC assessment at a Title 1 school. To do so, the results of the Biology I EOC assessment administered during the Spring 2012 school year was obtained from a small, rural Title 1 high school in North Florida. Additional data regarding each student's qualification for free and reduced-price lunch, FCAT Reading developmental scale scores, FCAT Reading level, grade level, gender, and ethnicity were also collected for the causal-comparative exploratory study. Of the 178 students represented, 48% qualified for free and reduced-price lunch, 54% were female, and 55% scored at FCAT Reading level 3 or higher. Additionally, 59% were White and 37% Black. A combination of descriptive statistics and other statistical procedures such as independent samples one-tailed t-test, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multipleregression, and a Pearson r correlation was utilized in the analysis, with a significance level set at 0.05. Results indicate that of all four variables, FCAT Reading proficiency was the sole variable, after adjusting for other variables; that had a significant impact on biology achievement. Students with higher

  10. Soil-transmitted helminthiases in secondary school students in selected sites in two provinces in the Philippines: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente; Chua, Paul Lester; Liwanag, Harvy Joy; Naig, June Rose; Erfe, Jeffrey Mark

    2014-08-01

    The latest World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for eliminating soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) as a public health problem in children puts the emphasis on school-age children. On the other hand, the Philippine national helminth control program excludes secondary school students in mass deworming for STH. This study determined the prevalence and intensity of STH in a sample of 633 students (14-15 years old) in selected secondary schools in two Philippine provinces. Stool specimens were processed following the Kato-Katz technique and examined for the presence of helminth ova. Overall cumulative prevalence of STH was 31.3%, while prevalence of moderate-heavy-intensity infections was 7.7%, well beyond the WHO target of ≤1% for reducing morbidity in school-age children. Recommendations were made to update the Philippine helminth control program and to re-examine the WHO strategic plan so that helminth prevention and control strategies may also be emphasized for secondary school students especially in high-prevalence areas.

  11. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs

    PubMed Central

    Fapohunda, Bolaji; Orobaton, Nosakhare

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women’s autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother’s socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1) the use of cash subsidies to augment women’s incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2) a structural improvement that will increase women’s economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation. PMID:24516341

  12. Policy and Practice of Tertiary Literacy. Selected Proceedings of the First National Conference on Tertiary Literacy: Research and Practice, Volume 1 (1st, Melbourne, Australia, March 14-16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golebiowski, Zofia, Ed.

    This selection of papers from the First Conference on Tertiary Literacy, which examined the role of literacy as a foundation for knowledge acquisition and dissemination that influences the academic success of tertiary students, presents a number of case studies of policy and practice in Australian universities. Keynote addresses included:…

  13. Israel Education Abstracts: A Selected Bibliography of Current and Past Literature and Materials on the Philosophy, Policy and Practice of Education in Israel. Vol. 4, No. 3, August-November, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elefant, William L., Ed.

    This 122-entry, selected bibliography contains English abstracts of books and articles in Hebrew on the philosophy, policy, and practice of education in Israel. The materials were submitted between August and November 1969; for earlier bibliographies see ED 027 810 and ED 032 806. A special section on the teaching of English in Israel comprises…

  14. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  15. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  16. Intercultural Policies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  17. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  18. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  19. Model Child Care Health Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan; Smith, Herberta

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, the model health policies presented in this report are intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the report presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following…

  20. Key Issues and Policy Considerations in Promoting Lifelong Learning in Selected African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda and Tanzania. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shirley; Yang, Jim; Roslander, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study focuses on key issues and policy considerations in promoting lifelong learning in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, and Tanzania (the five African countries that took part in a pilot workshop on "Developing Capacity for Establishing Lifelong Learning Systems in UNESCO Member States: at the UNESCO Institute for…

  1. Law and Policy Affecting Addicted Women and Their Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains the text of a one of a series of Congressional hearings called to examine substance abuse among pregnant and parenting women and to explore prevention and treatment strategies. This hearing focuses on federal and state policies designed to address the urgency of perinatal substance abuse. Witnesses provide testimony on state…

  2. Research Experience and Agreement with Selected Ethics Principles from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement--Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Pat; Spencer, Bob

    2004-01-01

    An online survey was conducted of students, instructors, and researchers in distance education regarding principles for the ethical treatment of human research subjects. The study used an online questionnaire based on principles drawn from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement, Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans" (TCPS,…

  3. The Politics of Naming Race and Ethnicity: Language Planning and Policies Regulating the Selection of Racial Ethnonyms Used by the US Census 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laversuch, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1790, the US government has conducted a decennial census of the nation's population and its various ethno-racial subgroups. The official names for these subgroups have direct and significant consequences for the implementation and regulation of public policy at the national, state and local levels of governance. This paper first provides a…

  4. Attitudes to Agricultural Policy and Farming Futures in the Context of the 2003 CAP Reform: A Comparison of Farmers in Selected Established and New Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Matthew; Douarin, Elodie; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' attitudes, to agricultural production, diversification and policy support, and behavioural intentions in five Member States of the EU (France, Lithuania, Slovakia, Sweden, England) are analysed comparatively. Groups of farmers with similarly held attitudes are identified using cluster analysis to investigate whether differences in…

  5. Survey of the Status of Materials Selection Policies in Iowa Public School Districts in 1983 and Comparisons with Status in 1979. Based on a Study Sponsored by State of Iowa Department of Public Instruction and Department of Library Science, University of Northern Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Mary Lou

    Replicating a 1979 study, a survey of school library media specialists in 440 Iowa school districts was conducted in the spring of 1983 to determine the influence of a model policy published by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction (DPI) on the development, adoption, and provisions of school district policies for the selection of instructional…

  6. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  8. Education Policy Analysis 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume is the companion to the 1997 collection of international education indicators from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education at a Glance--OECD Indicators." It aims to deepen the analysis of current policy issues and facilitate interpretation of data using selected indicators of particular…

  9. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  10. Acquisition Policies. SPEC Kit 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This collection of acquisition materials from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) acquisition policies from Brigham Young University, Iowa State University, and the University of Cincinnati; (2) book selection policies from the University of Nebraska Undergraduate Library and Georgetown University; (3) an…

  11. The Interstate 99 (I-99) project and geological information exchanges: A study of the interplay among selected variables from science education, geology/earth science, and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, Daniel Eugene

    The Interstate 99 (I-99) highway project has been the source of extensive attention over the past few years. Its most infamous aspect is the excavation of a geological formation---the Bald Eagle Sandstone---that was found to contain acidic rock material, which, upon exposure to water, leached sulfuric acid to several surface water bodies and private groundwater wells. This matter managed to suspend construction of the project for several years. Numerous parties, representing academia, government (particularly the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) and the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT)), private industry (consultants), environmental organizations and advocacy groups, and the citizenry, have been involved in the development of a resolution to the I-99 acidic rock problem. The interactions among these parties are interdisciplinary by nature, given the sectors of society that they represent. Consideration of how these parties interacted with each other while evaluating the options for addressing the environmental dilemma posed by the I-99 project provides opportunities for academic research. The discipline of Science Education is viable for studying the I-99 case, with accompaniment by 2 other disciplines, which have direct relevance to this case: Geology/Earth Science (per the underlying cause of the I-99 acidic rock problem) and Environmental Policy (per the regulations and policies that had to be followed while developing a solution to the environmental dilemma). Pairing Science Education with the other two aforementioned disciplines can create additional niches for the former discipline, and enhance academic research both within itself, and, across other disciplines, as relevant.

  12. A Selected Review of the Literature on Factors and Conditions Driving the High Risk and Dropout Problem. Policy Studies in Language and Cross Cultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachman, Jill M.

    This report presents the findings of a review of 45 selected references on issues associated with high risk students and dropouts. The literature was analyzed according to: (1) the manner in which high risk students and dropouts are characterized; (2) the suggested causes and conditions driving the problems of high risk and dropping out; (3) the…

  13. HISTORY OF EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES. PARTS I AND II, DEPRESSION EXPERIENCE, PROPOSALS, AND PROGRAMS. SELECTED READINGS IN EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER, VOLUME 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    THE SELECTED READINGS WERE COMPILED TO PROVIDE SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS WITH A BROAD BACKGROUND OF DEVELOPMENTS LEADING TO THE EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1946 AND WITH APPRAISALS OF ITS ADEQUACY AND EFFECTIVENESS. MATERIAL IN THIS VOLUME SPANS THE LATE 1920'S AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION. PARTS III AND IV (VT 004 820) CONTINUE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND REVIEW.…

  14. Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

    2006-01-01

    The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may…

  15. Internet Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-17

    activities. F. Responsibilities 1. The CIO shall: a. Approve, for the OIG, DoD, policies implementing laws and guidelines on Internet use . IGDINST 4630.2 3 b...Provide leadership to manage Internet use within the OIG, DoD. c. Authorize monitoring. d. Oversee the promulgation of policies and guidance to ensure

  16. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  17. Molecular marker-assisted breeding for maize improvement in Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most important food and feed crops in Asia, and is a source of income for several million farmers. Despite impressive progress made in the last few decades through conventional breeding in the “Asia-7” (China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam), average m...

  18. A moment in human development: legal protection, ethical standards and social policy on the selective non-treatment of handicapped neonates.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L

    1985-01-01

    Selective non-treatment decisions involving severely handicapped neonates have recently come under renewed judicial and legislative scrutiny. In this Article, the Author examines the legal, ethical and social considerations attendant to the non-treatment decision. In Part II of this Article the Author discusses the predominant ethical viewpoints relating to this issue and proposes a new moral standard based on personal interests. Part III presents a survey of the jurisprudence relating to selective non-treatment decisions. Parts IV and V of this Article provide a critical examination of the recently enacted Child Abuse Amendments of 1984, a federal legislative initiative designed to regulate treatment decisions relating to handicapped infants. The Author suggests that the ethical standards and treatment criteria proposed in this Article may prove useful to courts seeking to balance the handicapped neonate's constitutional right to privacy with the requirements of the new federal law.

  19. A Molecular Selection Index Method Based on Eigenanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Rojas, J. Jesús; Castillo-González, Fernando; Sahagún-Castellanos, Jaime; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio; Benítez-Riquelme, Ignacio; Crossa, José

    2008-01-01

    The traditional molecular selection index (MSI) employed in marker-assisted selection maximizes the selection response by combining information on molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) and phenotypic values of the traits of the individuals of interest. This study proposes an MSI based on an eigenanalysis method (molecular eigen selection index method, MESIM), where the first eigenvector is used as a selection index criterion, and its elements determine the proportion of the trait's contribution to the selection index. This article develops the theoretical framework of MESIM. Simulation results show that the genotypic means and the expected selection response from MESIM for each trait are equal to or greater than those from the traditional MSI. When several traits are simultaneously selected, MESIM performs well for traits with relatively low heritability. The main advantages of MESIM over the traditional molecular selection index are that its statistical sampling properties are known and that it does not require economic weights and thus can be used in practical applications when all or some of the traits need to be improved simultaneously. PMID:18716338

  20. Model Child Care Health Policies. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, this document compiles model health policies intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the document presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following areas: (1)…

  1. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  2. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  3. 7 CFR 407.9 - Group risk plan common policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... documents for each insured crop, practice, and type. For additional coverage GRP policies, you may select... documents for each insured crop, practice, and type. For additional coverage GRP policies, you may select... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan common policy. 407.9 Section...

  4. Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and the Role of Tax Policy in Preserving the Stock of Low-Income Housing. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    This document comprises testimony delivered before the House Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures on the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit created by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, and on the role of tax policy in preserving the stock of low-income housing. The effectiveness of the low-income credit program is discussed and strategies to improve it…

  5. Board Policies on Policy Development. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This is the 16th in a continuing series of kit-booklets issued to help school boards develop written policies in key subject areas. The material supports the contention that a set of well-defined policies on board policy development and administrative execution of policies reduces the likelihood of trouble and tends to eliminate instant, sloppy,…

  6. Youth Policies and Programs in Selected Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Rosemary

    Youth unemployment is hardly new, but in the 1980s it poses unprecedented problems because economic growth no longer seems to provide the necessary jobs. Youth labor markets are being stripped of entry-level jobs by new technologies, changes in the global division of labor, and the upgrading of occupational structures. This paper describes…

  7. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  8. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  9. Policy implications for familial searching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  10. Policy implications for familial searching

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

  11. Towards an Environmentalist Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alternatives, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This article presents Zero Population Growth - Canada's recommendations on immigration policy. It suggests that immigration be used to stabilize population by establishing a ceiling and specifying a selection procedure. Also Canada should not base its economy on imported skilled and nonskilled labor and employers should not hire illegal…

  12. The Role of Partnerships in U.S. Food Policy Council Policy Activities

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Megan L.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Palmer, Anne; Pollack, Keshia M.

    2015-01-01

    Food Policy Councils (FPC) help to identify and address the priorities of local, state, and regional food systems with the goal of improving food systems through policy. There is limited research describing FPCs’ strategies for accomplishing this goal. As part of a larger study examining FPC policy efforts, this paper investigates the role of partnerships in food systems policy change. We conducted interviews with representatives from 12 purposefully selected FPCs in the United States and 6 policy experts identified by the selected FPC representatives to document and describe their policy work. One theme that emerged from those interviews was the role of partners. Interviewees described a range of partners (e.g., stakeholders from government, business, and education) and credited FPC partnerships with advancing their policy goals by increasing the visibility and credibility of FPCs, focusing their policy agenda, connecting FPCs to key policy inputs (e.g., local food community knowledge and priorities), and obtaining stakeholder buy-in for policy initiatives. Partnerships were also described as barriers to policy progress when partners were less engaged or had either disproportionate or little influence in a given food sector. Despite these challenges, partnerships were found to be valuable for FPCs efforts to effectively engage in the food policy arena. PMID:25856089

  13. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and...

  14. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and...

  15. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and...

  16. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and...

  17. 28 CFR 551.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 551.1 Section 551.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.1 Policy. The Bureau of Prisons permits an inmate to select the hair style of personal choice, and...

  18. 48 CFR 315.303-70 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 315.303-70 Section 315.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.303-70 Policy. (a) If an OPDIV is...

  19. Retrenchment Policies and Their Organizational Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Michael A.

    This paper focuses on the organizational consequences of retrenchment policies emphasizing efficiency (selective cuts to insure long-term survival) and equity (across the board actions). The effectiveness of each of these policies was tested on 59 cases of school district enrollment decline over a 10-year period by means of a…

  20. Assembling and Dissembling: Policy as Productive Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill P.; Varenne, Herve

    2012-01-01

    In this piece, the authors examine educational policy by focusing on the ways in which actors "play" or selectively follow, negotiate, and appropriate cultural instructions and rules. They outline a framework that situates assemblage, a notion utilized in actor-network theory, within the critical cultural study of policy. Treating policy…

  1. Outdoor Play and Learning: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burriss, Kathleen; Burriss, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes national school district policy and practice regarding elementary school children's outdoor learning and play. District representatives from 173 randomly selected school districts completed questionnaires describing policy and practice related to recess, outdoor play, outdoor curricular studies, playground materials, ADA…

  2. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  3. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  4. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  5. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  6. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  7. Comparative study of selected Brazilian and Nigerian policies to promote the transfer and development of technology: the role of regime and non-regime factors, and some results from the automobile industry, 1967-80

    SciTech Connect

    Gusau, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with the policies adopted by Brazil and Nigeria to promote the transfer and development of technology in industry. The objectives are two-fold: (1) to compare and analyze the policies with respect to the automobile industries in the 1967-1980 period; (2) to investigate whether their adoption was solely a function of the different ideological values and issue levels of economic development of the countries, or whether the regimes are solely an expression of the patterns of that development. The study adopted the Comparative Public Policy approach to explore the various hypotheses formulated. The findings showed that Brazil realized more significant results than Nigeria in technology development, while in other areas, such as the curtailment of imports, employment generation, etc., the results are mixed. The study concludes that both regime and industrial development factors influence the variation in the policies, although the regime factor seems to explain more of the variation.

  8. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  9. Selection on multiple QTL with control of gene diversity and inbreeding for long-term benefit.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kadarmideen, H N; Dekkers, J C M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate selection strategies that aim at maximizing long-term genetic response while conserving gene diversity and controlling inbreeding in populations of limited effective size, assuming complete knowledge of all genes affecting a quantitative trait. Three selection strategies were proposed to select on 100 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and compared with truncation selection on breeding value. Alternative selection strategies aimed at maximizing the average breeding value of parents with a penalty on (1) the number of unfavourable QTL genotypes among parents (OS-I), (2) the negative of the logarithm of the frequency of the favourable allele at each QTL among parents (OS-II), and (3) the average pedigree relationship among parents (OS-III). When all QTL and their effects were known, the strategies examined were able to obtain extra long-term responses, conserve QTL diversity and reduce inbreeding, compared with truncation selection. Strategy OS-II was the most effective in conserving QTL diversity and OS-III in reducing inbreeding. By changing the magnitude of the penalties applied, the impact on long-term response, inbreeding and diversity can be controlled. Extra long-term responses over truncation selection of OS-I and OS-II were even greater when effects of QTL were estimated rather than assumed known, indicating the applicability of results to practical strategies for marker-assisted selection. Extra responses are expected to be reduced for larger population sizes.

  10. Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Marburger, III

    2008-11-18

    Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

  11. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation.

  12. Managing Federal Information Technology: Conflicting Policies and Competing Philosophies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachboard, John C.; McClure, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines information technology (IT) policies and the roles played by federal agencies in developing and implementing IT management policies. Illustrates how selected policy prescriptions can prove to be problematic and offers recommendations on how to improve federal IT management. Contains 62 references. (AEF)

  13. Meritocratic Epistemic Communities: An Alternative Policy Paradigm for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seungchan

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to propose an alternative policy frame for higher education policy by demonstrating the inadequacy of the market approach adopted by the 2011 English higher education policy in addressing the economic and social agenda, and by reframing higher education as a mechanism that selects and distributes talents to vocational sectors…

  14. Guidelines for Development of School Policies Regarding Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This guide was developed by the New York State Education department to assist schools in the formation, review, or redesign of school smoking policies. Basic considerations and policy rationale are discussed. A description of policy establishment involves: (1) formation of a task force, drawing members from school and community; (2) selection of…

  15. Policy Burdens, Accountability and Soft Budget Constraint of Chinese HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jianhai

    2008-01-01

    Policy burdens of HEIs (higher education institutions) lead to the soft budget constraint (SBC) and the excessive loans of HEIs. Since information asymmetry and incentive are incompatible, policy burdens will result in the adverse selection of the president, and the excessive loans and low efficiency of HEIs. When HEIs are with policy burdens, the…

  16. Education Policy Borrowing and Cultural Scripts for Teaching in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    China's recent education reforms are a result of selective policy borrowing from "the West". Although comparativists have highlighted the importance of cultural context in policy borrowing in China, what remains relatively under-explored is the epistemological basis for cultural views that mediate policy transfer. This article argues…

  17. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  18. Space Policy and Humanities Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2005-05-01

    In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

  19. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  20. Child and adolescent mental health policy: promise to provision.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gordon; Cetin, Fusun Cuhadaroglu

    2008-06-01

    Mental health policy enables the translation of the knowledge base of 'how' to help children and families into the actual 'provision' of help. Amid competing pressures to leave the allocation of services to the market, policy is required to define needs, select priorities, match resources with need, and to measure what has been accomplished. Crafting policy requires balancing contrasting goals and approaches, here spelled out. Public mental health policy can be compared to other forms of continuous quality improvement (CQI).

  1. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  2. The Urban Policy Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Highlights a comparison of a 30-year legacy of urban policy making with 25 years of policy making on environmental problems to demonstrate how weak policy development has been in dealing with the urban crisis. Several principles designed to guide future urban policies are discussed. (GR)

  3. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report No. CN-10-PRED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragoset, Lisa; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes work using nationally representative 2005 data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment-III (SNDA-III) study to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes in policies or practices related to school meals and school food environments. The model focuses on three domains of outcomes: (1) the…

  4. University Examinations and Standardized Testing: Principles, Experience, and Policy Options. World Bank Technical Paper Number 78. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Uses of Standardized Tests and Selection Examinations (Beijing, China, April 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; Fagerlind, Ingemar, Ed.

    In September 1984, the Chinese government asked the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to assist the officials of the Chinese Ministry of Education in thinking through some policy options for examinations and standardized testing. This document summarizes the descriptions of testing programs and advice provided to these Chinese…

  5. HIV/AIDS and Education: A Study on How a Selection of School Governing Bodies in Mpumalanga Understand, Respond to and Implement Legislation and Policies on HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartell, C. G.; Maile, S.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research has been done in South Africa on HIV/AIDS and education. This article is a small attempt to plug the gap. The purpose of the research is to investigate the legal and policy provisions and implications regarding HIV/AIDS for rural and township schools in the Mpumalanga district of South Africa. It seeks to answer three…

  6. Alternative Policy Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    CpRE CENTER FOR POLICY RESEARCH IN EDUCATION Alternative Policy o Instruments I Lorraine M. McDonnell Richard F. Elmore November 1987 DTICELECTE...03 Alternative Policy Instruments Lorraine M. McDonnell The RAND Corporation Richard F. Elmore Michigan State University November 1987 THRAND...range of policy instruments available or on the political and organizational conditions needed for each to work as intended. Policy decisions would

  7. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. Methods This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. ‘Policy triangle framework’ was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. Results The policies of “pupil liaisons” and “safety belt” were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For ‘pupil liaisons’ policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Conclusions Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is

  8. Federal policy and macroengineering for energy. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.E.

    1985-04-01

    Results are presented of a study undertaken to identify the evolution and characteristics of selected energy macroengineering projects in the United States; evaluate the role of Federal policy in selected energy macroengineering projects in the United States; evaluate the role of Federal policy in selected energy macroengineering projects; and establish a framework for the selection of Federal policies that would permit a broad range of future energy options to be considered. The difference between macroengineering projects and programs is discussed, and attention is focused on the probability of successfully completing a macroengineering project.

  9. The iSelect 9 K SNP analysis revealed polyploidization induced revolutionary changes and intense human selection causing strong haplotype blocks in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chao, Shiaoman; Li, Tian; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2017-01-01

    A Chinese wheat mini core collection was genotyped using the wheat 9 K iSelect SNP array. Total 2420 and 2396 polymorphic SNPs were detected on the A and the B genome chromosomes, which formed 878 haplotype blocks. There were more blocks in the B genome, but the average block size was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than those in the A genome. Intense selection (domestication and breeding) had a stronger effect on the A than on the B genome chromosomes. Based on the genetic pedigrees, many blocks can be traced back to a well-known Strampelli cross, which was made one century ago. Furthermore, polyploidization of wheat (both tetraploidization and hexaploidization) induced revolutionary changes in both the A and the B genomes, with a greater increase of gene diversity compared to their diploid ancestors. Modern breeding has dramatically increased diversity in the gene coding regions, though obvious blocks were formed on most of the chromosomes in both tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Tag-SNP markers identified in this study can be used for marker assisted selection using haplotype blocks as a wheat breeding strategy. This strategy can also be employed to facilitate genome selection in other self-pollinating crop species. PMID:28134278

  10. Sampling Policy that Guarantees Reliability of Optimal Policy in Reinforcement Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Kei; Iwasaki, Yoshimitsu; Fujii, Shinji

    This study defines the certification sampling that guarantees with specified reliability the optimal policy being correct to the real transition probability, where the optimal policy was derived from a estimated probability. It then discusses the sampling policy as follows that efficiently obtains the certification sampling. The the transition probability is estimated by sampling, and it leads the optimal policy. On the other hand, it calculates the desired accuracy of the estimated transition probability that is necessary to guarantee the correct optimal policy. This study proposes the sampling policy that efficiently achieves the certification sampling with the desired accuracy of the estimated transition probability. The proposed method is efficient in number of samples because it automatically selects states and actions to be sampled and stops sampling when the condition is satisfied.

  11. Researcher Creations? The Positioning of Policy Texts in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…

  12. MUC1 gene polymorphism in three Nelore lines selected for growth and its association with growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabio Ricardo Pablos; Maione, Sandra; Sartore, Stefano; Soglia, Dominga; Spalenza, Veronica; Cauvin, Elsa; Martelli, Lucia Regina; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Sacchi, Paola; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Rasero, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the VNTR polymorphism of the mucin 1 gene (MUC1) in three Nelore lines selected for yearling weight to determine whether allele and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were affected by selection for growth. In addition, the effects of the polymorphism on growth and carcass traits were evaluated. Birth, weaning and yearling weights, rump height, Longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness, were analyzed. A total of 295 Nelore heifers from the Beef Cattle Research Center, Instituto de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho, were used, including 41 of the control line, 102 of the selection line and 152 of the traditional. The selection and traditional lines comprise animals selected for higher yearling weight, whereas control line animals are selected for yearling weight close to the average. Five alleles were identified, with allele 1 being the most frequent in the three lines, especially in the lines selected for higher means for yearling weight. Heterozygosity was significantly higher in the control line. Association analyses showed significant effects of allele 1 on birth weight and weaning weight while the allele 3 exert significant effects on yearling weight and back fat thickness. Despite these findings, application of this marker to marker-assisted selection requires more consistent results based on the genotyping of a larger number of animals in order to increase the accuracy of the statistical analyses.

  13. Decentralization and Policy Design. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, New Brunswick, NJ.

    This policy brief focuses on design issues surrounding decentralization policies, drawing from the following three reports: "Working Models of Choice in Public Education," by Richard F. Elmore; "Diversity Amidst Standardization: State Differential Treatment of Districts," by Susan H. Fuhrman; and "School District Restructuring in Santa Fe, New…

  14. Genome-wide association and genomic selection in animal breeding.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Ben; Goddard, Mike

    2010-11-01

    Results from genome-wide association studies in livestock, and humans, has lead to the conclusion that the effect of individual quantitative trait loci (QTL) on complex traits, such as yield, are likely to be small; therefore, a large number of QTL are necessary to explain genetic variation in these traits. Given this genetic architecture, gains from marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs using only a small number of DNA markers to trace a limited number of QTL is likely to be small. This has lead to the development of alternative technology for using the available dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information, called genomic selection. Genomic selection uses a genome-wide panel of dense markers so that all QTL are likely to be in linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. The genomic breeding values are predicted to be the sum of the effect of these SNPs across the entire genome. In dairy cattle breeding, the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) that can be achieved and the fact that these are available early in life have lead to rapid adoption of the technology. Here, we discuss the design of experiments necessary to achieve accurate prediction of GEBV in future generations in terms of the number of markers necessary and the size of the reference population where marker effects are estimated. We also present a simple method for implementing genomic selection using a genomic relationship matrix. Future challenges discussed include using whole genome sequence data to improve the accuracy of genomic selection and management of inbreeding through genomic relationships.

  15. Active Labour Market Policy and Gender Mainstreaming in Germany: Gender-Specific Aspects of Participation and Destination in Selected Instruments of the Federal Employment Service. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Petra; Kurtz, Beate

    The equality of the opportunities available to males and females in Germany's labor market was examined. The study compared employment patterns among women and men and the extent to which selected discretionary benefits of Germany's Federal Employment Service benefit women and men. Selected results were as follows: (1) women are under-represented…

  16. A Comparative Study on Graduates from an Educational Leadership Management and Policy Program at a Local Catholic University and How Selected Leadership Responsibilities Influence Their Perceptions in Daily Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey, Pierre Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this three-part qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions principals had with their professional training based on selected leadership responsibilities that strongly correlated to student achievement. From the Marzano et al. (2005) quantitative study, the researcher selected the five strongest correlated responsibilities…

  17. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    PubMed

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  18. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  19. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  20. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  1. Health policy and implementations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dominicus, D A; Akamatsu, T

    1989-06-01

    This paper describes the current health policy in Tanzania and its implementations. The present health policy in Tanzania originated from Arusha declaration of 1967, the country's most popular national policy after independence. Arusha declaration proclaims socialism and self-reliance, which has had important impact on the form and content of the present country's health policy in mainland Tanzania. Much of the wide-spread health care services infrastructure that is evident now in rural areas of Tanzania mainland is a result of the re-emphasis of the Arusha declaration in 1971. In Tanzania, the Ministry of Health has the responsibility for elaborating the health policy, ensuring that strategies and appropriate program are developed to give effect to the policy. In the present health policy discussed, the goal is seen to have shifted from having one dispensary in each village to one primary health unit in each village. One dispensary is intended to serve several villages together. In Tanzania, according to the present health policy, the village primary health care are mainly preventive oriented and only being managed by short term trained health staff. The candidate for training in each village is selected, among the village residents, by the villagers themselves. The primary health care system adopted by Tanzania is viewed as the only way through which it can achieve the social goal of health for everyone by the year 2000, provided the present political will which is evident continue, and enough availability of, human, financial and material resources.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Public policy involvement by health commissioners.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amy; Boardley, Debra; Kerr, Dianne; Greene, Tiffany; Jenkins, Melissa

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this national study was to determine advocacy activities and level of involvement of health commissioners regarding public policy. Benefits, barriers, and perceived outcomes of advocacy efforts were also explored. A previously validated (Holtrop et al., Am J Health Behav 24(2):132-142, 2000) four-page survey was mailed to 700 health commissioners, who were randomly selected from the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) database. A three-wave mailing was performed which yielded a 50% response rate. Of these respondents, the majority (70%) were female and (88%) Caucasian. Overall, 31% of health commissioners reported being involved in influencing public policy in the last 4 years. The most common reported activities engaged in by health commissioners included voting (84%), and providing policy information to consumers or other professionals (77%). Perceived barriers to influencing policy were time, (64%), and other priorities (46%). Perceived benefits to influencing policy included improving the health of the public (94%) and making a difference in others' lives (87%). Only 15% perceived their knowledge regarding the process of changing public policy was excellent. Although health commissioners are often spokespersons for health agencies and communities, their public policy involvement is marginal. Professional preparation programs and continuing education opportunities should focus on advocacy, public policy development, and removing barriers to action.

  3. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-02

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States.

  4. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Heather M.; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States. PMID:26669416

  5. Health care policy development: a critical analysis model.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jean E; Pauling, Carolyn D; Franzen, Debra B

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a phased approach for teaching baccalaureate nursing students critical analysis of health care policy, including refinement of existing policy or the foundation to create new policy. Central to this approach is the application of an innovative framework, the Grand View Critical Analysis Model, which was designed to provide a conceptual base for the authentic learning experience. Students come to know the interconnectedness and the importance of the model, which includes issue selection and four phases: policy focus, colleagueship analysis, evidence-based practice analysis, and policy analysis and development.

  6. Essays in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jed Thomas

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

  7. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  8. Innovation in social policy: collaborative policy advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sherraden, Margaret S; Slosar, Betsy; Sherraden, Michael

    2002-07-01

    In a time of policy devolution, social workers have a unique opportunity to develop a significant voice in constructing state social welfare policy. This article examines a method of collaborative policy advocacy led by social work researchers, practitioners, advocates, and students. It is illustrated with a five-year project to reduce wealth inequality through community economic development. Researchers brought expertise in ideas and analysis to real-world applications. Social work practitioners brought essential "on the ground" expertise. Students brought much-needed assistance and a fresh perspective to the social policy process. Advocates, working in social welfare advocacy organizations, bridged these perspectives and provided experience in policy advocacy. Working with coalition partners, social workers successfully placed asset-based community economic development strategies on the state agenda and were instrumental in passage of innovative legislation. The article demonstrates that the policy-making process is open to influence by social workers, especially if they come prepared with innovative and promising ideas about long-standing social issues. Social workers can and should take the lead and become significant actors in state policy development.

  9. Are migrants health policies aimed at improving access to quality healthcare? An analysis of Spanish policies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; S-Hernández, Silvia; Vargas, Ingrid; Bosch, Lola; González, Andrea; Pequeño, Sandra; Cantos, Raquel; Martínez, Juan Ignacio; López, Luís Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Although until April 2012, all Spanish citizens regardless of their origin, residence status and work situation were entitled to health care, available evidence suggested inadequate access for immigrants. Following the Aday and Andersen model, we conducted an analysis of policy elements that affect immigrants' access to health care in Spain, based on documentary analysis of national policies and selected regional policies related to migrant health care. Selected documents were (a) laws and plans in force at the time containing migrant health policies and (b) evaluations. The analysis included policy principles, objectives, strategies and evaluations. Results show that the national and regional policies analyzed are based on the principle that health care is a right granted to immigrants by law. These policies include strategies to facilitate access to health care, reducing barriers for entry to the system, for example simplifying requirements and raising awareness, but mostly they address the necessary qualities for services to be able to attend to a more diverse population, such as the adaptation of resources and programs, or improved communication and training. However, limited planning was identified in terms of their implementation, necessary resources and evaluation. In conclusion, the policies address relevant barriers of access for migrants and signal improvements in the health system's responsiveness, but reinforcement is required in order for them to be effectively implemented.

  10. Fisheries-induced disruptive selection.

    PubMed

    Landi, Pietro; Hui, Cang; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-21

    Commercial harvesting is recognized to induce adaptive responses of life-history traits in fish populations, in particular by shifting the age and size at maturation through directional selection. In addition to such evolution of a target stock, the corresponding fishery itself may adapt, in terms of fishing policy, technological progress, fleet dynamics, and adaptive harvest. The aim of this study is to assess how the interplay between natural and artificial selection, in the simplest setting in which a fishery and a target stock coevolve, can lead to disruptive selection, which in turn may cause trait diversification. To this end, we build an eco-evolutionary model for a size-structured population, in which both the stock׳s maturation schedule and the fishery׳s harvest rate are adaptive, while fishing may be subject to a selective policy based on fish size and/or maturity stage. Using numerical bifurcation analysis, we study how the potential for disruptive selection changes with fishing policy, fishing mortality, harvest specialization, life-history tradeoffs associated with early maturation, and other demographic and environmental parameters. We report the following findings. First, fisheries-induced disruptive selection is readily caused by commonly used fishing policies, and occurs even for policies that are not specific for fish size or maturity, provided that the harvest is sufficiently adaptive and large individuals are targeted intensively. Second, disruptive selection is more likely in stocks in which the selective pressure for early maturation is naturally strong, provided life-history tradeoffs are sufficiently consequential. Third, when a fish stock is overexploited, fisheries targeting only large individuals might slightly increase sustainable yield by causing trait diversification (even though the resultant yield always remains lower than the maximum sustainable yield that could be obtained under low fishing mortality, without causing disruptive

  11. 42 CFR 422.204 - Provider selection and credentialing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Provider selection and credentialing. 422.204... Provider selection and credentialing. (a) General rule. An MA organization must have written policies and procedures for the selection and evaluation of providers. These policies must conform with the credential...

  12. 42 CFR 422.204 - Provider selection and credentialing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Provider selection and credentialing. 422.204... § 422.204 Provider selection and credentialing. (a) General rule. An MA organization must have written policies and procedures for the selection and evaluation of providers. These policies must conform with...

  13. 42 CFR 422.204 - Provider selection and credentialing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Provider selection and credentialing. 422.204... § 422.204 Provider selection and credentialing. (a) General rule. An MA organization must have written policies and procedures for the selection and evaluation of providers. These policies must conform with...

  14. Benefits, environmental risks, social concerns, and policy implications of biotechnology in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, A.R.; Hallerman, E.M.

    1994-10-01

    Among the many methodologies encompassing biotechnology in aquaculture, this report addresses: the production of genetically modified aquatic organisms (aquatic GMOs) by gene transfer, chromosome set manipulation, or hybridization or protoplast fusion between species; new health management tools, including DNA-Based diagnostics and recombinant DNA vaccines; Marker-assisted selection; cryopreservation; and stock marking. These methodologies pose a wide range of potential economic benefits for aquaculture by providing improved or new means to affect the mix of necessary material inputs, enhance production efficiency, or improve product quality. Advances in aquaculture through biotechnology could simulate growth of the aquaculture industry to provide a larger proportion of consummer demand, and thereby reduce pressure and natural stocks from over-harvest. Judicious application of gamete cryopreservation and chromosome set manipulations to achieve sterilization could reduce environmental risks of some aquaculture operations. Given the significant losses to disease in many aquaculture enterprises, potential benefits of DNA-based health management tools are very high and appear to pose no major environmental risks or social concerns.

  15. Procurement Source Selection Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-09

    responsible to and will function under the supervison of the Chief, Policy and Systems Review Office, Procurement Office {AP04). 3. RESPONSIBILITY The...continuity and consistency. Their corporate knowledge means more efficient and effective source selections which lead to fewer protests and sustained...available to conduct the evaluation can have an influence on manning. Fifty people may be able to do an evaluation in six months. One hundred people may be

  16. Rural definitions for health policy and research.

    PubMed

    Hart, L Gary; Larson, Eric H; Lishner, Denise M

    2005-07-01

    The term "rural" suggests many things to many people, such as agricultural landscapes, isolation, small towns, and low population density.However, defining "rural" for health policy and research purposes requires researchers and policy analysts to specify which aspects of rurality are most relevant to the topic at hand and then select an appropriate definition. Rural and urban taxonomies often do not discuss important demographic, cultural, and economic differences across rural places-differences that have major implications for policy and research. Factors such as geographic scale and region also must be considered. Several useful rural taxonomies are discussed and compared in this article. Careful attention to the definition of "rural" is required for effectively targeting policy and research aimed at improving the health of rural Americans.

  17. Evaluating Diabetes Health Policies Using Natural Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Ronald T.; Duru, O. Kenrik; Albu, Jeanine B.; Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Soumerai, Stephen B.; Wharam, James F.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mangione, Carol M.; Gregg, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and costs of type 2 diabetes makes it a rapidly evolving focus of policy action. Health systems, employers, community organizations, and public agencies have increasingly looked to translate the benefits of promising research interventions into innovative polices intended to prevent or control diabetes. Though guided by research, these health policies provide no guarantee of effectiveness and may have opportunity costs or unintended consequences. Natural experiments use pragmatic and available data sources to compare specific policies to other policy alternatives or predictions of what would likely have happened in the absence of any intervention. The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Study is a network of academic, community, industry, and policy partners, collaborating to advance the methods and practice of natural experimental research, with a shared aim of identifying and prioritizing the best policies to prevent and control diabetes. This manuscript describes the NEXT-D Study group's multi-sector natural experiments in areas of diabetes prevention or control as case examples to illustrate the selection, design, analysis, and challenges inherent to natural experimental study approaches to inform development or evaluation of health policies. PMID:25998925

  18. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Methods: Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results: The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion: Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  19. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  20. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974. Hearings Before Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session. Part 4--Nutrition and Food Availability. Hearings Held Washington, D. C., June 20, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs began with an opening statement by Senator Humphrey. Dr. R. Goldberg, panel cochairman, then presented the "Report and recommendation of the Panel on Nutrition and Food Availability." Testimony was heard from a number of experts and representatives of such organizations…

  1. Successful Track Record with Diverse Policies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center helps governments, advisors, and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through its no-cost offerings, the Solutions Center enables countries to learn from and share policy best practices, data, and analysis tools, creating an international dialogue on clean energy policies that raises global awareness of emerging policy issues and innovations. As part of these efforts, the Solutions Center provides an indispensable service by connecting those seeking policy information and advice with a policy expert who can help them achieve their goals. The Solutions Center's Ask an Expert service matches policymakers with one of the more than 30 global experts selected as authoritative leaders on specific clean energy policy topics.

  2. Potential assessment of genome-wide association study and genomic selection in Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Sawamura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2013-03-01

    Although the potential of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in fruit tree breeding has been reported, bi-parental QTL mapping before MAS has hindered the introduction of MAS to fruit tree breeding programs. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. Selection based on genomic predictions of breeding values (genomic selection: GS) is another alternative for MAS. This study examined the potential of GWAS and GS in pear breeding with 76 Japanese pear cultivars to detect significant associations of 162 markers with nine agronomic traits. We applied multilocus Bayesian models accounting for ordinal categorical phenotypes for GWAS and GS model training. Significant associations were detected at harvest time, black spot resistance and the number of spurs and two of the associations were closely linked to known loci. Genome-wide predictions for GS were accurate at the highest level (0.75) in harvest time, at medium levels (0.38-0.61) in resistance to black spot, firmness of flesh, fruit shape in longitudinal section, fruit size, acid content and number of spurs and at low levels (<0.2) in all soluble solid content and vigor of tree. Results suggest the potential of GWAS and GS for use in future breeding programs in Japanese pear.

  3. The Internet: A California Policy Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbach, Kenneth W.

    This paper reviews the background and key terminology of the Internet, its current scope and use, and a selection of public policy issues. "Chapter 1: What Is the Internet?" includes an overview; capsule history; explanation of how the Internet works; basic terminology; and the kinds of information available on the Internet.…

  4. 28 CFR 19.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 19.3 Policy. (a) The Department of Justice will supplement and expand the national effort to assist in the... use by DOJ organizational units. When printing missing children information, DOJ will select...

  5. Developing Lifelong Readers: Policies, Procedures, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Selected papers from the 1991 annual conference of the American Reading Forum are presented in this yearbook. The papers, which deal with issues regarding ways to develop and strengthen a society of active readers, address policies, procedures, and programs for the beginning child reader, the beginning adult reader, and a range of readers in…

  6. 32 CFR 242.4 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES... the principle of equal educational opportunity for all. Sex, race, religion, national origin, marital status, and State of residence shall not be factors influencing the selection process. Aspirants...

  7. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  8. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  9. 36 CFR 1258.14 - What is NARA's payment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is NARA's payment policy... ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.14 What is NARA's payment policy? (a) Form of payment... by selected credit cards. Payments from outside the United States must be made by international...

  10. Federal Information Policy and Management for Electronic Services Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.; And Others

    To assist the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress in identifying and resolving policy issues related to the electronic delivery of government services, this study examined selected innovative information technology applications, management practices, and policies that promote experimentation and integration with new electronic…

  11. Community Integration Policy and Practice Abstracts. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Julia; Harris, Perri

    This compilation of about 200 abstracts features journal articles relevant to the community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Articles were selected based on their relevance to policy and practice. Research articles were included if they had a strong applied emphasis with clear implications for contemporary policy and…

  12. The Board's Role in Textbook Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patricia

    In the area of textbook selection, a school board should (1) establish a policy based on the feelings of the community, the law, and the board's views; (2) determine whether administrative guidelines reflect board policy; (3) check whether textbook choices are based on those guidelines; and (4) consider appeals in book complaint cases. Everyone…

  13. Future American energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    American energy policy is examined using a format of five primary presentations, each followed by a panel commentary and debate with audience questioning. The five parts are on: challenges (an overview of the global and domestic energy situation, and a discussion of the political process and energy); social implications of energy policies; economic consequences of energy policies; international attitudes toward US oil policies; and social/economic and environmental impacts of alternative energy sources. In the summary, changes in US economy and the impact of the market pricing system are considered.

  14. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  15. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research.

  16. Genetic association of marbling score with intragenic nucleotide variants at selection signals of the bovine genome.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J; Lee, C

    2016-04-01

    Selection signals of Korean cattle might be attributed largely to artificial selection for meat quality. Rapidly increased intragenic markers of newly annotated genes in the bovine genome would help overcome limited findings of genetic markers associated with meat quality at the selection signals in a previous study. The present study examined genetic associations of marbling score (MS) with intragenic nucleotide variants at selection signals of Korean cattle. A total of 39 092 nucleotide variants of 407 Korean cattle were utilized in the association analysis. A total of 129 variants were selected within newly annotated genes in the bovine genome. Their genetic associations were analyzed using the mixed model with random polygenic effects based on identical-by-state genetic relationships among animals in order to control for spurious associations produced by population structure. Genetic associations of MS were found (P<3.88×10-4) with six intragenic nucleotide variants on bovine autosomes 3 (cache domain containing 1, CACHD1), 5 (like-glycosyltransferase, LARGE), 16 (cell division cycle 42 binding protein kinase alpha, CDC42BPA) and 21 (snurportin 1, SNUPN; protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 9, PTPN9; chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, CSPG4). In particular, the genetic associations with CDC42BPA and LARGE were confirmed using an independent data set of Korean cattle. The results implied that allele frequencies of functional variants and their proximity variants have been augmented by directional selection for greater MS and remain selection signals in the bovine genome. Further studies of fine mapping would be useful to incorporate favorable alleles in marker-assisted selection for MS of Korean cattle.

  17. School Library Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Instructional Resources Branch.

    The School Library Policy Statement for Manitoba schools begins with the mission statement of Manitoba Education and Training and the Goals of Learning for Manitoba. Statements of Manitoba's School Library Policy and the Philosophy of the School Library Program are also provided, together with an outline of the responsibilities of both Manitoba's…

  18. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  19. Rethinking Mental Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.

    Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…

  20. Cultural Policy in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majstorovic, Stevan

    This text, one of a series focusing on various UNESCO Member States, examines how cultural policies are planned and implemented within those nations. The study is limited in scope to institutions and activity directly concerned with the arts. The focus of attention is directed to examination of the principles and methods of cultural policy,…

  1. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  2. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  3. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  4. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  5. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  6. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  7. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  8. Mentoring, Policy and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this policy brief, former P/PV President Gary Walker asks, "Is mentoring now a durable part of American social policy? If so, is this unalloyed good news?" Adapted from an article that first appeared in "The Handbook of Youth Mentoring" (DuBois and Karcher, ed. 2005), the brief reflects on the impact and appeal of mentoring, addresses various…

  9. Social Policy Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 2001 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. The topics featured in each of the issues are: (1) "Youth Civic Development: Implications of Research for Social Policy and Programs"…

  10. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  11. Basic Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William D., Ed.; O'Leary, Michael K., Ed.

    This publication will help high school and college students develop policy analysis skills and techniques and apply these to important public issues. A public policy issue is defined as a disagreement between two or more elements of a society over the way that the society's government deals with a given situation. There are six chapters. Chapter…

  12. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  13. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  14. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  15. Policy as Assemblage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…

  16. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  17. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy Alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study methods. Findings The comparison indicated that the four drafts are almost identical in wording and structure and that they are likely to originate from the same source. Conclusions The processes and the draft policy documents reviewed provide insights into the methods, as well as the strategic and political objectives of the multi-national drinks industry. This initiative reflects the industry's preferred version of a national alcohol policy. The industry policy vision ignores, or chooses selectively from, the international evidence base on alcohol prevention developed by independent alcohol researchers and disregards or minimizes a public health approach to alcohol problems. The policies reviewed maintain a narrow focus on the economic benefits from the trade in alcohol. In terms of alcohol problems (and their remediation) the documents focus upon individual drinkers, ignoring effective environmental interventions. The proposed policies serve the industry's interests at the expense of public health by attempting to enshrine ‘active participation of all levels of the beverage alcohol industry as a key partner in the policy formulation and implementation process’. PMID:20078460

  18. Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Diana W.

    2001-01-01

    Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

  19. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  20. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  1. The epidemiology of college alcohol and gambling policies

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Howard J; Donato, Anthony N; LaBrie, Richard A; Kidman, Rachel C; LaPlante, Debi A

    2005-01-01

    Background This article reports the first national assessment of patterns of drinking and gambling-related rulemaking on college campuses (e.g., punitive versus recovery oriented). Analyses relating school policies to known school rates of drinking or gambling identified potentially influential policies. These results can inform and encourage the development of guidelines, or "best practices," upon which schools can base future policy. Methods The college policy information was collected from handbooks, Web sites and supplemental materials of 119 scientifically selected colleges included in the fourth (2001) Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). A coding instrument of 40 items measured the scope and focus of school alcohol and gambling policies. This instrument included items to measure the presence of specific policies and establish whether the policies were punitive or rehabilitative. A total of 11 coders followed a process of information extraction, coding and arbitration used successfully in other published studies to codify policy information. Results Although all schools had a student alcohol use policy, only 26 schools (22%) had a gambling policy. Punitive and restrictive alcohol policies were most prevalent; recovery-oriented policies were present at fewer than 30% of schools. Certain alcohol and gambling policies had significant relationships with student binge drinking rates. Conclusions The relative lack of college recovery-oriented policies suggests that schools might be overlooking the value of rehabilitative measures in reducing addictive behaviors among students. Since there are few college gambling-related policies, schools might be missing an opportunity to inform students about the dangers of excessive gambling. PMID:15703082

  2. Geoscience and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Many current public policy issues have a geoscience component: climate change, natural hazards, energy, and mineral resources to name just a few. In addition, Congress makes decisions that directly affect scientists, such as funding allocations and visa and travel policy. Yet few geoscientists are engaged in the policy-making process. Members of Congress have called on scientists to become more active, including Ph.D. physicist and former-Representative Vernon Ehlers (R-MI). In an address at the 2010 AAAS Forum on Science and Technology Policy, he told scientists, "The gulf between the scientifically minded and those who are not scientifically minded is still tremendous. I think we are keeping far too quiet about what we know and how we would go about solving problems. We have so much to offer this country à solutions to various difficulties." This talk will provide information on avenues for geoscientists to more effectively engage in the public policy arena.

  3. RCRA NPL listing policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-10

    The directive discusses that on 6/10/86, EPA announced the first phase of a new policy for listing RCRA Subtitle C facilities on the NPL (51 FR 21057-21062 and 21109-21112). The document presents interim guidance for implementation of the new policy and solicits information from the Regions to assist in the final policy development. Specifically this includes the final and proposed RCRA/NPL listing policy; provides a questionnaire for an initial screening of potential NPL sites with respect to their RCRA status; solicits suggestions about effective policy development and implementation from the Regional Offices; and identifies an interim course of action until more definitive guidance is available.

  4. Qualitative science policy.

    PubMed

    Mitcham, Carl

    2007-12-01

    Qualitative research struggles against a tide of quantitative methods. To assist in this struggle, it is useful to consider the historical and philosophical origins of quantitative methods as well as criticisms that have been raised against them. Although these criticisms have often been restricted to discussions in the philosophy of science, they have become increasingly prominent in debates regarding science policy. This article thus reviews current science policy debates concerning scientific autonomy and the linear model of science-society relationships. Then, having considered the multiple meanings of quality, it argues for a science policy reassessment of quantitative research, for deeper engagements between science policy and the social sciences, and finally, for a more explicit alliance between science policy and qualitative methods.

  5. International institutions and China's health policy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces.

  6. Report Literature: Selecting versus Collecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Wilda B.; Amir, Michlean J.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the Applied Physics Laboratory Library was conducted with the view of changing the current collection policy and establishing guidelines for selection. The evaluation included defining the purpose, using a microfiche ordering system, screening items received, guidelines for weeding, microfiche vs paper copy, costs, and…

  7. Genome-wide scan of gastrointestinal nematode resistance in closed Angus population selected for minimized influence of MHC.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Sonstegard, Tad S; da Silva, Marcos V G B; Gasbarre, Louis C; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduce herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected gastrointestinal (GI) nematode fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population challenged to a 26 week natural exposure on pasture. In all, data from 487 animals was collected over a 16 year period between 1992 and 2007, most of which were selected for a specific DRB1 allele to reduce the influence of potential allelic variant effects of the MHC locus. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on BovineSNP50 genotypes revealed six genomic regions located on bovine Chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 15 and 27; which were significantly associated (-log10 p=4.3) with Box-Cox transformed mean FEC (BC-MFEC). DAVID analysis of the genes within the significant genomic regions suggested a correlation between our results and annotation for genes involved in inflammatory response to infection. Furthermore, ROH and selection signature analyses provided strong evidence that the genomic regions associated BC-MFEC have not been affected by local autozygosity or recent experimental selection. These findings provide useful information for parasite resistance prediction for young grazing cattle and suggest new candidate gene targets for development of disease-modifying therapies or future studies of host response to GI parasite infection.

  8. Genome-Wide Scan of Gastrointestinal Nematode Resistance in Closed Angus Population Selected for Minimized Influence of MHC

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduce herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected gastrointestinal (GI) nematode fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population challenged to a 26 week natural exposure on pasture. In all, data from 487 animals was collected over a 16 year period between 1992 and 2007, most of which were selected for a specific DRB1 allele to reduce the influence of potential allelic variant effects of the MHC locus. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on BovineSNP50 genotypes revealed six genomic regions located on bovine Chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 15 and 27; which were significantly associated (-log10 p=4.3) with Box-Cox transformed mean FEC (BC-MFEC). DAVID analysis of the genes within the significant genomic regions suggested a correlation between our results and annotation for genes involved in inflammatory response to infection. Furthermore, ROH and selection signature analyses provided strong evidence that the genomic regions associated BC-MFEC have not been affected by local autozygosity or recent experimental selection. These findings provide useful information for parasite resistance prediction for young grazing cattle and suggest new candidate gene targets for development of disease-modifying therapies or future studies of host response to GI parasite infection. PMID:25803687

  9. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  10. Assessment of health risks of policies

    SciTech Connect

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana; and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  11. Research in geosciences policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    The general task was to look beyond the adverse physical impacts and to defining the policy problem. In order for policy actions to be effective, they must address the right policy problems, which will be different from and broader than the physical problems. We will work on defining the policy problems with a view to indicating how practical solutions might be implemented. In particular, public officials need advice on what should be said, and done, and for what purposes. That advice needs to be based on systematic analysis of: (1) the scholarly literature in the social sciences, and related disciplines; (2) the charging content of the policy debate at the center of attention; and (3) how citizens perceive and understand issues related to global change. We will conduct this analysis. Chapter 1 and 2 each reports work on defining the policy problem and analyzing the scholarly literature. Chapters 3 and 4, respectively, address the policy debate and citizen viewpoints in issues related to global change.

  12. Selective mutism

    MedlinePlus

    ... in selective mutism. Treatment Treating selective mutism involves behavior changes. The child's family and school should be involved. Certain medicines that treat anxiety and social phobia have been used safely and successfully. Support ...

  13. Science and Technology: Tools for Progress. The Report of The President's Task Force on Science Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, Ruben F.

    Reported are seven primary recommendations on national science policy made by the Task Force on Science Policy to the President. From a review of the Federal Government's existing science policy (in 1969), problems and opportunities considered as inputs to the legislative and executive science program for 1970 were selected. A criterion for…

  14. Collection Development Policies. College Library Information Packets. CLIP Note #2-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents college library collection development policies and policy excerpts, selected on the basis of their compatibility with a 1979 set of guidelines for the formulation of collection development policies prepared by the American Library Association (ALA). The guidelines themselves are also presented. It is noted that none of…

  15. Effect of School Policy on Tobacco Use by School Personnel in Bihar, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Warren, Charles W.; Asma, Samira

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between school tobacco policies and tobacco use prevalence among school personnel. Two subsets of schools were identified in Bihar, India: Federal schools (with a tobacco policy), and State schools (without a tobacco policy). Stratified probability samples of 50 schools each were selected. The survey was…

  16. Neo-Liberal Policy Agendas and the Problem of Inequality in Higher Education: The Ethiopian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    Under the influence of the external policy pressure of donors such as the World Bank, higher education in Ethiopia has witnessed a series of institutional and system-wide reforms. This article reviews selected policy documents to show key neo-liberal policy agendas endorsed in the reforms and explicate how they have affected social equity in the…

  17. More than Kissing Babies? Current Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Francine H., Ed.; Davies, Margery W., Ed.

    Meant to orient a broad audience to basic issues of child and family policy in the United States today, this book includes an overview of the recent history of child and family policy in the United States, an exploration of several political economic conditions underlying changes in these policies, case studies of selected local, state and federal…

  18. Managing oil disruptions: issues and policy options. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Webre, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) prepared the analysis of policy options to help Congress decide whether to extend or expand the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973, or whether to let it lapse on September 30, 1981. The central theme is that large disruptions of imported oil can deal the economy a severe blow that reduces output and increases unemployment and inflation. Alternative policies might allow this blow to be offset in different ways, but they cannot eliminate an impact. Some policies better contain the inflationary effects of a disruption, but are less effective in mitigating losses in aggregate production and higher unemployment. For others, the converse is true. Further, the appropriateness of each policy varies with the size and anticipated duration of the import disruption. Congress may wish to consider a portfolio of standby policies as well as the selection of just one. Two appendices offer further policy analyses. 10 references, 3 tables.

  19. 28 CFR 50.14 - Guidelines on employee selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guidelines on employee selection procedures. 50.14 Section 50.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.14 Guidelines on employee selection procedures. The guidelines set forth below are intended as a statement of policy of the Department...

  20. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... First Policy & Data Platform "Who I Am” Public Service Announcement Advisory Committee on Increasing Competitive Integrated Employment for Individuals with Disabilities Policy Development & Technical ...

  1. How are policy makers using evidence? Models of research utilisation and local NHS policy making

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, H.; Popay, J.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This paper is based on a qualitative study that aimed to identify factors that facilitate or impede evidence-based policy making at a local level in the UK National Health Service (NHS). It considers how models of research utilisation drawn from the social sciences map onto empirical evidence from this study.
DESIGN—A literature review and case studies of social research projects that were initiated by NHS health authority managers or GP fundholders in one region of the NHS. In depth interviews and document analysis were used.
SETTING—One NHS region in England.
PARTICIPANTS—Policy makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the social research projects selected as case studies.
MAIN RESULTS—The direct influence of research evidence on decision making was tempered by factors such as financial constraints, shifting timescales and decision makers' own experiential knowledge. Research was more likely to impact on policy in indirect ways, including shaping policy debate and mediating dialogue between service providers and users.
CONCLUSIONS—The study highlights the role of sustained dialogue between researchers and the users of research in improving the utilisation of research-based evidence in the policy process.


Keywords: evidence-based policy making; research/policy interface; research utilisation PMID:10818123

  2. Bilingualism: research and policy.

    PubMed

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of this evidence, I assert that we should embrace more informed policies and practice. Researchers should also work toward new and more complex research approaches to delve more deeply into how the brain organizes and reorganizes with language learning. Despite the continuing need for more research, we know enough to put in place (and study) informed policies and practices that can benefit all children. Now is the time for evidence-based practice, evidence-based policies, and integrative research on bilingualism and education.

  3. 2016 EEO Policy Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Policy on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's commitment to equal employmentopportunity in the workplace. Fostering a diverse and inclusive work environment through equalemployment is essential to our work and our service to the American people.

  4. Configuration Management Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Policy establishes an Agency-wide Configuration Management Program and to provide responsibilities, compliance requirements, and overall principles for Configuration and Change Management processes to support information technology management.

  5. EPA Policy and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The policy establishes the principles for accessible Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) and complying with Section 508 requirements. The guidance defines EIT and the technical and functional performance criteria necessary for compliance.

  6. Environmental Auditing Policy Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's policy on the use of environmental auditing by regulated entities to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations, as well as to help identify and correct unregulated environmental hazards.

  7. Bullying Policies and Laws

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  8. Exploration and Policy Reuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Keywords: Reinforcement Learning , Policy Reuse, Exploration Strategies. Abstract...introduce reusing of past policies in Reinforcement Learning as an exploration bias during a learning process. However, it is still a challenge, given that... reinforcement learning with the MAXQ value function decomposition. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 13:227–303, 2000. [6] Fernando Fernández and

  9. International environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the global international movement for protection of the human environment. It describes the expanding dimensions of international environmental policy, clarifies that policy's present status, and provides a record of events of continuing historical significance. The author calls attention to the need for international agreements and proposals for such vital global environmental issues as climate change, disintegration of the stratospheric ozone layer, and long-range trans-boundary air pollution.

  10. Towards deploying genomic selection for improving complex traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an effective approach for improving qualitative traits and has been successfully used to develop improved lines for rust resistance and high oleate trait in peanut. Further efforts are underway to pyramid genomic regions for multiple qualitative traits (rust re...

  11. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  12. Science, Policy, and Peer Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, D.

    2006-12-01

    These are intense times at the convergence between science and public policy. Because issues like climate change, stem cell research and environmental protection are being contested in choppy political water, political interests are being deployed to challenge science and researchers, and also to generate pseudo- scientific claims made in the interest of particular policy ends. In a number of cases reported in Science, administration officials have silenced their own employees, or withheld data selectively from draft reports. Added to that challenge to integrity, there is a new statutory environment that adds some complexity of its own. Beginning with the Data Quality Act, more familiarly the "Shelby Amendment," research results with significant economic impacts through regulation are now available through the Freedom of Information Act. Its successor, the Data Quality Act -- which opens a route of challenge to information released by government or gathered by others and used in advice or regulation has exposed scientists not only to having their primary data reanalyzed for the purposes of others, but to charges of research misconduct. These influences have made journal peer review more challenging in several ways, and I will outline some case examples.

  13. Formulating an Integrated Library Government Documents Collection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stanley P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions for developing a collection policy that promotes the integration of government documents into an academic library's overall collection management objectives. Steps described include selecting appropriate agencies, selecting appropriate levels of collection intensity, assigning intensity levels to agency materials, and adjusting…

  14. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  15. Energy resources development: Politics and policies

    SciTech Connect

    Ender, R.L.; Kim, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is designed to address the diverse set of energy issues from both policy and political perspectives. The articles raise more questions than they answer, but agree on one point in the energy debate: short-term changes in supply and price are largely irrelevant to long-term issues. The contributions to this book were written after the crisis of the 1970s and before the free fall of prices in the mid-1980s. However, public interest had already waned and energy was no longer a ''national agenda'' issue. While this book would seem to be addressing an issue of less public importance, the authors realize that the cycle of world events will again bring energy forward for greater scrutiny and debate. Although the attention given to energy policy waxes and wanes, the need persists to formulate consistent public approaches and solutions to the problems posed in providing energy to an industrial nation. The wide divergence of energy policy problems under the four administrations demonstrates the lack of consensus on what the real problems are, or what should be done. The articles for this book were selected to address what the current energy issues are, what policy attempts have been made to solve energy problems, and what the policy implications in the future are. Fifteen articles cannot encompass all the aspects of the subject; however, they make significant contributions in analyzing many of its important facts.

  16. Population distribution policies.

    PubMed

    Richardson, H W

    1983-01-01

    Population distribution policies have received increasing attention in recent years, especially in developing countries. One reason is that, especially in heavily primate developing countries, the spacial distribution of population (and economic activity) has generated conditions that conflict with important societal goals, such as interpersonal and interregional equity, national security, political stability, improvement in the quality of life, optimal resource exploitation, and long-term economic efficiency. Moreover, in many cases, the overall development strategy as reflected in macro and sectoral policies, has strong implicit spatial impacts that have, more often than not, reinforced an "unfavorable" population distribution, that is, one that conflicts with national goals and priorities. The only way to correct that is to modify the overall development strategy or to implement offsetting explicit population distribution policies. Many countries have adopted population distribution policies in recent years, but they have varied greatly in degree of implementation. Clear failures have been very common, and there have been almost no undiluted successes. This indifferent success should not be used as an argument against planned population distribution. The present article provides an overview of population distribution policies with special but not total reference to developing countries. Population goals are analyzed and the argument that rural-metropolitan migration is excessive is critically discussed. Policy instruments to influence the location of both households and firms are evaluated. It is argued that strategies to control primate city growth, to promote small towns and secondary cities and to implement rural-development programs are complementary rather than alternatives. Partial strategies, such as relocation of the national capital, countermagnets, new towns, border region policies and land colonization schemes, should be adopted only in rare cases

  17. [Public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future.

  18. Ocean Commissions: Ocean Policy Review and Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-05

    favorably of its recommendations.12 Articles and editorials in regional media generally focused on selected issues of local relevance,13 and interest...of Texas posted at [http://www.governor.state.tx.us/divisions/ bpp /files/ ocean_policy.pdf], visited on July 7, 2004. 16 For example, see [http...Broaden ocean education and awareness through a commitment to teach and learn about our oceans, at all levels of society. Comments on the Pew Commission’s

  19. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  20. Marker-assisted Characterization of Durum Wheat Langdon-Golden Ball Disomic Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The durum wheat cultivar ‘Golden Ball’ (GB) has superior solid stem, which is a source of resistance to wheat sawfly and also a potential source of biofeed for producing biofuel. Dr. Leonard Joppa previously used GB as the chromosome donor and Langdon (LDN) durum as the recipient to develop a compl...

  1. Marker-assisted characterization of durum wheat Langdon-Golden Ball disomic substitution lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Steven S; Chu, C G; Chao, S; Klindworth, D L; Faris, J D; Elias, E M

    2010-05-01

    The durum wheat cultivar 'Golden Ball' (GB) is a source of resistance to wheat sawfly due to its superior solid stem. In the late 1980s, Dr. Leonard Joppa developed a complete set of 14 'Langdon' (LDN)-GB disomic substitution (DS) lines by using GB as the chromosome donor and LDN as the recipient. However, these substitution lines have not been previously characterized and reported in the literature. The objectives of this study were to confirm the authenticity of the substituted chromosomes and to analyze the genetic background of the 14 LDN-GB DS lines with the aid of molecular markers, and to further use the substitution lines for chromosomal localization of DNA markers and genes conferring the superior stem solidness in GB. Results from simple sequence repeat marker analysis validated the authenticity of the substituted chromosomes in 14 LDN-GB DS lines. Genome-wide scans using the target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) marker system produced a total of 359 polymorphic fragments that were used to compare the genetic background of substitution lines with that of LDN. Among the polymorphic TRAP markers, 134 (37.3%) and 185 (51.5%) were present in LDN and GB, respectively, with only 10 (2.8%) derived from Chinese Spring. Therefore, marker analysis demonstrated that each LDN-GB DS line had a pair of chromosomes from GB with a genetic background similar to that of LDN. Of the TRAP markers generated in this study, 200 were successfully assigned to specific chromosomes based on their presence or absence in the corresponding LDN-GB DS lines. Also, evaluation of stem solidness in the substitution lines verified the presence of a major gene for stem solidness in chromosome 3B. Results from this research provides useful information for the utilization of GB and LDN-GB DS lines for genetic and genomic studies in tetraploid wheat and for the improvement of stem solidness in both durum and bread wheat.

  2. SSR marker-assisted screening of commercial tomato genotypes under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Gharsallah, Charfeddine; Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Fakhfakh, Hatem; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Gorsane, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress was applied to tomato commercial genotypes to study adverse effects on their phenotypic traits. Three were saline tolerant (San Miguel, Romelia and Llanero), two were mildly tolerant (Perfect peel HF1 and Heinz 1350) whereas the remaining were sensitive. Genotyping cultivars using 19 polymorphic SSRs out of 25 tested produced a total of 70 alleles with an average of 3.68 alleles per locus and PIC values ranging from 0.22 (SSR 26, 92, 66 and TG35) to 0.82 (SSR 356). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed two contrasting panels discriminating tolerant and sensitive groups and one panel with scattered genotypes. STRUCTURE analysis clustered genotypes within three groups in accordance with their salt stress behavior. The success of tomato salt-tolerance breeding programs can be enhanced through molecular characterization of diversity within commercial cultivars that adapt differently to stress conditions. To this end, we combined phenotypes and SSR marker-genotypes to seek sources of salt tolerance that might be tomato species-specific. We integrated and represented genotype-phenotype associations from multiple loci into a multi-layer network representation. It is a systemic view linking discriminating genotypes to salt stress phenotypes, which may guide strategies for the introgression of valuable traits in target tomato varieties to overcome salinity. PMID:28163598

  3. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

  4. Marker-assisted backcross approach for important agronomic traits of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing technologies are useful for identification of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cost effective manner. QTL mapping, association mapping and Mutmap approaches provide opportunities for use of such SNPs to associate and identify genes that control important agronomic ...

  5. Selective Mutism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Selective mutism is a rare and multidimensional childhood disorder that typically affects children entering school age. It is characterized by the persistent failure to speak in select social settings despite possessing the ability to speak and speak comfortably in more familiar settings. Many theories attempt to explain the etiology of selective mutism. Comorbidities and treatment. Selective mutism can present a variety of comorbidities including enuresis, encopresis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, premorbid speech and language abnormalities, developmental delay, and Asperger's disorders. The specific manifestations and severity of these comorbidities vary based on the individual. Given the multidimensional manifestations of selective mutism, treatment options are similarly diverse. They include individual behavioral therapy, family therapy, and psychotherapy with antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications. Future directions. While studies have helped to elucidate the phenomenology of selective mutism, limitations and gaps in knowledge still persist. In particular, the literature on selective mutism consists primarily of small sample populations and case reports. Future research aims to develop an increasingly integrated, multidimensional framework for evaluating and treating children with selective mutism. PMID:20436772

  6. [Some issues in the study of population policy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kono, S

    1980-07-01

    This essay reviews selected aspects of the current status of the study of population policies both for the developed and developing countries. It also endeavors to derive a meaningful research agenda for the study of population policies useful for Japan and other Asian countries. The study begins with the clarification of the study of population policy in relation to the importance of population sciences, population projections, and population problems. It uses 2 studies, 1 by Mauldin and Berelson and the other by the United Nations Population Division as possible prototypes for developing policy studies to evaluate and assess the effects of the population policy upon population processes. 1 conclusion derived from the present study is that the strength of population policy can be enhanced if it is properly combined with the corresponding balanced development of social and economic elements in a society. If population policy is developed without harmonious development in social and economic spheres, then it will not maximize the effects of the government's population policy regardless of how much effort the government expends. Likewise, if there are various subsets of population policy, it is necessary that each subset, whether fiscal, legal, or broadly social, should be coordinated with the others, in order to avoid conflicts or imbalances between them. (Author's modified)

  7. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  8. Water policy bill debated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    “Federal water-related policy is extremely fragmented and haphazard and prevents us from dealing with our water problems in an expeditious and coordinated fashion,” said Mark O. Hatfield (R-Oreg.), member of the Senate committee on Energy and Natural Resources and sponsor of the Western Water Policy Review Act.At a September 19 hearing on the proposed legislation, Hatfield pointed out that there are currently at least 13 congressional committees, 8 Cabinet-level departments, 6 independent agencies, and 2 White House offices with some form of responsibility relating to national water management policy. As a result of this fragmentation, coordinating solutions to water problems remains difficult. Jurisdiction disputes between federal and state governments and between states must be resolved, Hatfield believes.

  9. Alternative defence policy

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book considers key questions connected with the present crisis, questions such as Would conventional deterrence really be effective. Just what is the Labour Party's policy. How precisely might Britain be transformed into a non-aligned, non-military state. The future of British defence policy is an issue of major concern not just in Britain but throughout the world, especially in the United States where there are major anxieties in the Pentagon about what will happen if the Labour Party wins an election outright. British defence policy is currently in a state of crisis. The former position where a reasonably united establishment on one hand confronted nuclear disarmers on the other has been replaced by a position where a wide spectrum of different opinions is held not just by the peace movement and the opposition parties but by many people in the Conservative party and the military also.

  10. Pants, policies and paranoia...

    PubMed

    Dancer, S J

    2010-01-01

    In response to the rising tide of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in UK hospitals, governmental health departments have introduced dress codes for healthcare staff. These include measures such as the use of short sleeves, no wristwatches or jewellery, and avoidance of ties and white coats. Although hospital pathogens have been found on such items, there is no evidence that they play a major role in transmitting HAIs and these policies have received much criticism. This Leader examines the evidence underpinning the new dress codes and concludes that there is insufficient evidence to justify recent policies. Dress codes appear to have been imposed more for political purposes than in deference to effective infection control. In addition, the UK 'zero tolerance' mandate towards HAI does not balance personal accountability against a failing healthcare system. These policies may try to impose good practice but over-reliance on cheap, short-term solutions will not adequately address longer-term problems with HAI.

  11. Policy for US Cybersecurity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 38 Views Policy for US Cybersecurity Lt Col August G. Roesener, PhD, USAF Maj Carl Bottolfson...US Cybersecurity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 39 Roesener, Bottolfson, & Fernandez Policy for US Cybersecurity Views

  12. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  13. Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-06-01

    Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible

  14. Local smoke-free policy experiences in Appalachian communities.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Liber, Alex C; Kauffman, Ross M; Berman, Micah; Ferketich, Amy K

    2014-02-01

    In Appalachian areas, strong tobacco control policies are not in place, so residents are not adequately protected from secondhand smoke exposure. This area is predominantly rural, and residents experience a high burden of tobacco-related illnesses. There has been limited examination of elements that hinder smoke-free policy adoption in these vulnerable communities. Key informant interviews were conducted with individuals identified as being knowledgeable about local tobacco control policy activities within a random selection of Appalachian communities within 6 states with (n = 15) and without (n = 12) local smoke-free policies. Five key themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (1) opposition to tobacco control, (2) need for local involvement, (3) role of community coalitions, (4) leveraging outside advocates, and (5) working with decision makers. In Appalachian communities, the local context and locally-based coalitions were critical to promote the adoption of smoke-free policies.

  15. Selecting Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a systematic approach to selecting instructional designs, discussing performance analysis, gaps, elements (inputs, conditions, process, outputs, consequences, feedback), matrices, changes in performance state (establishing, improving, maintaining, and extinguishing performance), intervention interference, and involving others in…

  16. Selected References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter C.

    1987-01-01

    This extensive bibliography on library building includes 15 categories: bibliography; background; general; planning teams; building programs; alternatives to new buildings; academic libraries; public libraries; school libraries; special libraries; site selection; interior planning and equipment; maintenance; security; and moving. (MES)

  17. Learning modular policies for robotics

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

  18. Assessment of DGAT1 and LEP gene polymorphisms in three Nelore (Bos indicus) lines selected for growth and their relationship with growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Souza, F R P; Mercadante, M E Z; Fonseca, L F S; Ferreira, L M S; Regatieri, I C; Ayres, D R; Tonhati, H; Silva, S L; Razook, A G; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze LEP and DGAT1 gene polymorphisms in 3 Nelore lines selected for growth and to evaluate their effects on growth and carcass traits. Traits analyzed were birth, weaning, and yearling weight, rump height, LM area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness obtained by ultrasound. Two SNP in the LEP gene [LEP 1620(A/G) and LEP 305(T/C)] and the K232A mutation in the DGAT1 gene were analyzed. The sample consisted of 357 Nelore heifers from 2 lines selected for yearling weight and a control line, established in 1980, at the Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (Sertãozinho, Brazil). Three genotypes were obtained for each marker. Differences in allele frequencies among the 3 lines were only observed for the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, with the frequency of the A allele being greater in the control line than in the selected lines. The DGAT1 K232A mutation was associated only with rump height, whereas LEP 1620(A/G) was associated with weaning weight and LEP 305(T/C) with birth weight and backfat thickness. However, more studies, with larger data sets, are necessary before these makers can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  19. Bilingualism: Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of…

  20. Assessment and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia B.

    1975-01-01

    Because of increased access of postsecondary education in the 1950's and 1960's, higher education cost analysis gained importance. Attempts have been made to develop a standard unit cost, but it is hard to see unit cost accounting by itself as a valuable tool for public accountability or policy making. For these purposes a cost-effectiveness ratio…

  1. New pipeline policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefgen, J.R. Jr.; Colucci, D.M.

    1996-04-01

    This article outlines regulations addressing the sale, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas in Mexico. The regulations were issued in November 1995 by the Comision Reguladora de Energia. The major policy decisions of the regulations are summarized. The current role of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state owned oil and gas entity, which formerly monopolized the Mexican industry, is discussed.

  2. Good Homework Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Homework is often a hot-button issue for schools. Even with a school homework policy, the homework practices of teachers vary in quality, with some teachers applying best practice standards, while others assign homework too difficult for some students, or collect homework without providing feedback to students. In addition, families in which…

  3. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  4. Policy and Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Describes Wisconsin case involving the suicide of seventh-grade girl after principal suspended her for having a cigarette in her locker--disciplinary action required by school board policy. Parents sued claiming violation of their daughter's 14th Amendment rights and state negligence laws. Federal appellate court dismissed all claims; parents…

  5. Security Policy Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-21

    protection of assets. Sterne points out that only tangible assets can be protected. Intangible assets may also be protected through the protection of...tangible assets, but it is impossible to state and implement a policy to address intangible assets . For example, how can a bank protect its reputation? Not by putting guards around that reputation.

  6. Communication Policies in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, John

    Communication policies emanate from political ideologies, the social and economic conditions of a country, and the values on which they are based, and strive to relate these to the real needs for and the prospective opportunities in communication. In this study, one of a series undertaken as part of a UNESCO program, an attempt was made to follow…

  7. User Centric Policy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  8. Critical Endowment Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    Governing boards and administrations wrestle with complex endowment policy decisions that will determine current institutional quality and future institutional viability. This chapter presents data from the 2006 NACUBO Endowment Study (published in 2007), divided into the following issues of endowment management: historical returns; endowment…

  9. Language (Policy) Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, E. B.; Mulligan, E.; Hernandez-Saca, D.

    2011-01-01

    Public education has a vital role in ensuring that this and subsequent generations are successful in a global, multilingual economy. In this What Matters brief, we examine how teachers, students, parents, and communities in our nation's schools can create rich opportunities for students to learn. Language (Policy) Matters! includes information and…

  10. A policy for science.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Michael S

    2012-06-12

    Policy and science often interact. Typically, we think of policymakers looking to scientists for advice on issues informed by science. We may appreciate less the opposite look: where people outside science inform policies that affect the conduct of science. In clinical medicine, we are forced to make decisions about practices for which there is insufficient, inadequate evidence to know whether they improve clinical outcomes, yet the health care system may not be structured to rapidly generate needed evidence. For example, when the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services noted insufficient evidence to support routine use of computed tomography angiography and they called for a national commitment to completion of randomized trials, their call ran into substantial opposition. I use the computed tomography angiography story to illustrate how we might consider a "policy for science" in which stakeholders would band together to identify evidence gaps and to use their influence to promote the efficient design, implementation, and completion of high-quality randomized trials. Such a policy for science could create a culture that incentivizes and invigorates the rapid generation of evidence, ultimately engaging all clinicians, all patients, and indeed all stakeholders into the scientific enterprise.

  11. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  12. China's Youth Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, K. P.

    As a central feature of China's current domestic policy, rural resettlement is considered a vital strategy for combating revisionism, consolidating the proletariat dictatorship, restricting bourgeois rights, narrowing differences, strengthening the countryside, and promoting agricultural development. Since rural China has suffered from excessive…

  13. Social Policy Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 2003 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. Each issue focuses on a single topic as follows: (1)"Do You Believe in Magic?: What We Can Expect from Early Childhood Intervention Programs"…

  14. Embodying Policy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces some of the key concepts that we have used in our research to help illuminate the multiple and different ways in which apparently ubiquitous health policies relating to obesity, exercise, diet and health are mediated and shaped both globally and nationally, as well as within regional, school and other contexts. The analyses…

  15. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Wanda V.; And Others

    This document is an overall policy statement for library collection development for the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Part 1 comprises the library mission statement and a list of ongoing objectives. The second part provides some background information about the university environment and campus libraries. It also gives instructions…

  16. Model Wellness Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, PL 105-268, the U.S. Congress established a new requirement for all local agencies with a federally funded National School Lunch program. The local agencies are required to develop and implement wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity by the start of the 2006-07…

  17. Policy for Instructional Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Joseph I.

    An examination of the general uses of video in instruction helps to formulate appropriate policy for maximizing video production and use. Wide use of instructional television makes advanced knowledge more usable and increases public awareness of new discoveries, reduces the time lag between conception and application of ideas which change society,…

  18. Florida: State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  19. Policies for Apprenticeship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reubens, Beatrice G.

    This report, prepared by the Education Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), analyzes current trends and issues in apprenticeship and in policies for apprenticeship in member countries. Apprenticeship is analyzed in countries where it is the most important activity of young people after leaving compulsory…

  20. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state…

  1. Academic Bankruptcy. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy Berk; Lewis, Anne C.

    In an effort to improve student achievement in low-performing districts, 22 states have developed academic bankruptcy laws, allowing them to intervene in districts that consistently fail to satisfy state education performance standards. This policy brief presents an overview of these statutes. The text offers a comparative summary of state…

  2. Relatives' Responsibility; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and a policy statement on responsibility laws pertaining to relatives of applicants for public assistance. The laws are said to date to the Elizabethan Poor Laws, to vary state to state, and to mandate eligibility for public assistance on requirements of residence,…

  3. Lau Compliance Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Rosa Castro

    This memorandum clarifies the latest policy changes at the Federal level relative to the provision of educational services (including language programs and desegregation) to national origin minority students. The information in the memo is based on a review of the legal obligations which school districts are currently subject to, according to the…

  4. Power sector policy reforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moscote, R.A. . LAC Technical Dept.)

    1994-06-01

    This article discusses the changes in energy policy of most countries in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. The topics of the article include the new legal and regulatory frameworks being developed, investment, privatized power producers, government regulation, power distribution, power transmission, access to transmission lines, pricing regulations, and increasing capacity of the power systems.

  5. Education Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational policy in the Texas legislature in relation to student retention, Internet access, and sexual harassment. "1999 Texas Legislative Session--End of an Era?" (Albert Cortez, Maria Robledo Montecel) examines educational equity issues facing legislators: school funding,…

  6. Public Policy Agenda, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) public policy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…

  7. Faculty Compensation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silander, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Faculty compensation policy is seen as one means by which an institution influences the faculty to work toward institutional goals. Among the broad criteria for compensation are worth, equity, need, and market measures. Benefits and issues in compensation including differentials in compensation, merit, part-time instruction, etc. are discussed.…

  8. Astronomy and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy is an unusual science in that almost all of what we study can only be passively observed. We enjoy tremendous public support for our research and education, both domestically and abroad. Our discoveries in cosmology and exoplanets have captured world-wide attention, as have stunning images from the Great Observatories of NASA, and ground based telescopes. Despite the passive nature of our science, it touches humanity profoundly. There are groups of amateur astronomers in every conceivable country who meet to look at the sky. Almost one billion people from 150 countries participated in The International Year of Astronomy 2009. No other science reaches humanity as ours does. In a recent poll, it was found that the among all the things the US does abroad, US science is seen by the world as our most positive face. We as astronomers can use this good will to affect positive changes in the world through public policy. I would like to explore how astronomy has impacted public policy, especially foreign policy, and what more we can do in the future. I also hope to encourage astronomers that a career path into public policy is an excellent use of a Ph.D. in astronomy.

  9. Youth Employment. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on youth employment from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). An introduction briefly explains the role of the NCY with regard to youth employment and describes the types of programs and services supported by NCY. A section on background provides statistics on teenagers and employment from the Bureau…

  10. Mississippi: State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  11. Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles about educational and school policies, primarily related to equality of educational opportunity. "Texas Legislature Considers Much for Education, Accomplishes Little" (Albert Cortez, Anna Alicia Romero) summarizes educational legislation considered by the Texas legislature in the session ending in…

  12. Community Energy Policy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Thomas B.

    The general procedures, techniques for implementing, and results of a citizen-based "grass-roots" program in Ohio for the development and analysis of community energy policies are described. The program emphasizes citizen input and employs the nominal group process to build consensus. Small group discussions are used to generate…

  13. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  14. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  15. Comparative studies and healthcare policy: learning and mislearning across borders.

    PubMed

    Okma, Kieke G H; Marmor, Theodore R

    2013-10-01

    This article addresses the vocabulary of cross-national analysis and commentary about health care, health policy and health politics. We conclude there is a large gap between promise and performance in comparative policy commentary and point to major sources of confusion, such as the lack of generally agreed vocabulary, vague language and the use of faddish and misleading terms and aspirational labels (illustrated by a selection of widely used expressions in comparative reports). We next examine the basic purposes of international policy comparison, distinguish three useful and two misleading approaches and frame defensible ground rules for comparative work.

  16. Population policies and development.

    PubMed

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  17. IMPACT OF CRITICAL SHORTAGES ON TEACHER RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION POLICIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, WILLIAM B.

    THE SEVERE ELEMENTARY TEACHER SHORTAGE WHICH LOS ANGELES FACED IN THE FALL OF 1966, INVOLVING A DEFICIT OF SOME 1200 TEACHERS AFTER NORMAL RECRUITING PROCEDURES, IS DISCUSSED. SINCE THE SHORTAGE RESULTED IN LARGE PART FROM REDUCED ENROLLMENT IN THE ELEMENTARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS OF THE 12 LOS ANGELES AREA TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS, WHICH…

  18. Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-18

    ideals, civil liberty protections, and human rights concerns. For example, the extent to which liberal societies should tolerate those who preach...traditionally liberal asylum and immigration laws, as well as its strong free speech and privacy protections, have attracted numerous such clerics and Middle...imams ‘ radicaux ,’” LM, July 17-18, 2005, p. 2. 73 The details of this operation are not in the public domain. Elements of the GIA are now reportedly

  19. 24 CFR 960.202 - Tenant selection policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... extremely low income families as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (ii) Deconcentration of poverty... occupancy during the fiscal year of PHA public housing units located in census tracts with a poverty rate...

  20. 24 CFR 960.202 - Tenant selection policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... extremely low income families as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (ii) Deconcentration of poverty... occupancy during the fiscal year of PHA public housing units located in census tracts with a poverty rate...

  1. Policy Recommendations to Improve Selected American Industrial Base Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    6. Standardize plant design. 7. Revise regulations to allow early site approval, one - stop . licensing, preapproved standardized design, and limits on...Standardize plant design. 5. Revise regulations to allow early site approval, one - stop 37 licensing, preapproved standardized design, and limits on...Standardize plant design. 6. Revise regulations to allow early site approval, one - stop licensing, preapproved standardized design, and limits on

  2. State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Selected Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-19

    Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease ( USAMRIID ), which offers response training to public health...Association NLC National League of Cities ODP Office for Domestic Preparedness OHS Office of Homeland Security USAMRIID U.S. Army Medical Research ... Institute of Infectious Disease WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction 1For the purposes of this report, first responders include local, and sometimes state,

  3. Arbitrator Evaluation and Selection: A Policy Capturing Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    decisions are not reviewable by the courts. Arbitration was protected as a result by three basic provisions. Arbitration clauses in the contract...does reinforce the idea that arbitrators do use certain basic criteria consistently. The question that naturally arises is whether all arbitrators...use the same basic criteria and if they weight the indi- vidual elements differently. To answer such a question a more systematic and quantative

  4. Following Policy: Networks, Network Ethnography and Education Policy Mobilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the "case" of educational reform in India, this paper explores the emergence of both new trans-national spaces of policy and new intra-national spaces of policy and how they are related together, and how policies move across and between these spaces and the relationships that enable and facilitate such movement. The paper is an…

  5. Russian National Security Policy: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    that policy in terms of factors influencing Russian national security policy formulation, Russia’s perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian...security and foreign policies in key regions of the world , and prospects for Russian interests and actions in the world and especially with regard to the United States.

  6. Guiding Policy Principles for Higher Education. Policy Note. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The principal priorities for the Group of Eight (Go8) with regard to higher education policy are coherence and sustainability. Good public policy is based on principle and backed by evidence. This paper offers an interlinked set of principles for the development of higher education policy in Australia.

  7. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda. What is Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    This article is related to the impacts on teachers of the increasing marginalization of their voices in educational policy making and policy debates. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must construct their own…

  8. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    PubMed

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  9. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  10. Enforcement Response Policies and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Enforcement Response Policies relating to violations or noncompliance with the environmental statutes and regulations. The listing is not inclusive of all policy and guidance that may be relied upon in developing enforcement actions.

  11. Public opinion: Stunted policy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druckman, James N.

    2013-07-01

    Energy policy is widely debated, with regards to climate change, alternative energy use and responsibility for policy. Research now highlights the role of citizens in public debates about energy and how it can be swayed.

  12. Report of the Defense Science Board Subcommittee on Department of Defense Research Policy. Part 1. Policy on Support of Basic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-12-31

    f. .. AD-A955 482 Report of the Defen e Science Board Subcomtnittee on Depart•eat of Defense RESEARCH POLICY OTIC SELECTED NOV 2 91J88 0(/H...ACCESSION NO NA 11 TITLE (inc/ud* Stcunty Oassificat/on) Report of the Defense Science Board Subcomittee on Department of Defense Research Policy , Part...Defense Research Policy Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering Washington, D. C. 31 December 1963 OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE

  13. Selection Procedures and Training Programs for New Administrators: A Summary of Practices in Selected School Divisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Beach City Public Schools, VA.

    Principals perform many, varied instructional and managerial tasks. Steps in the selection process in a school division fall into four categories: developing policies; establishing a pool; formal selection procedures; and post-hiring activities. When selectors evaluate individual candidates for a position, they use one or more of five basic…

  14. Kenyan Nurses Involvement in National Policy Development Processes

    PubMed Central

    Juma, Pamela Atieno

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically examine how nurses have been involved in national policy processes in the Kenyan health sector. The paper reports qualitative results from a larger mixed method study. National nonnursing decision-makers and nurse leaders, and provincial managers as well as frontline nurse managers from two Kenyan districts were purposefully selected for interviews. Interviews dealt with nurses' involvement in national policy processes, factors hindering nurses' engagement in policy processes, and ways to enhance nurses' involvement in policy processes. Critical theory and feminist perspectives guided the study process. Content analysis of data was conducted. Findings revealed that nurses' involvement in policy processes in Kenya was limited. Only a few nurse leaders were involved in national policy committees as a result of their positions in the sector. Critical analysis of the findings revealed that hierarchies and structural factors as well as nursing professional issues were the primary barriers constraining nurses' involvement in policy processes. Thus, there is need to address these factors both by nurses themselves and by nonnursing decision makers, in order to enhance nurses engagement in policy making and further the contribution to quality of services to the communities. PMID:25349731

  15. Kenyan nurses involvement in national policy development processes.

    PubMed

    Juma, Pamela Atieno; Edwards, Nancy; Spitzer, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically examine how nurses have been involved in national policy processes in the Kenyan health sector. The paper reports qualitative results from a larger mixed method study. National nonnursing decision-makers and nurse leaders, and provincial managers as well as frontline nurse managers from two Kenyan districts were purposefully selected for interviews. Interviews dealt with nurses' involvement in national policy processes, factors hindering nurses' engagement in policy processes, and ways to enhance nurses' involvement in policy processes. Critical theory and feminist perspectives guided the study process. Content analysis of data was conducted. Findings revealed that nurses' involvement in policy processes in Kenya was limited. Only a few nurse leaders were involved in national policy committees as a result of their positions in the sector. Critical analysis of the findings revealed that hierarchies and structural factors as well as nursing professional issues were the primary barriers constraining nurses' involvement in policy processes. Thus, there is need to address these factors both by nurses themselves and by nonnursing decision makers, in order to enhance nurses engagement in policy making and further the contribution to quality of services to the communities.

  16. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  17. From Pipettes to Science Policy.

    PubMed

    Seger, Yvette R

    2015-11-01

    Science policy provides PhD-trained scientists with unique and rewarding opportunities to support the research community. Careers in science policy require broad scientific knowledge coupled with keen problem-solving, data-analysis, and communication skills. This article describes strategies for scientists to engage in policy discussions, both extramural and full-time.

  18. Handbook of Education Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Gary, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.; Plank, David N., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Educational policy continues to be of major concern. Policy debates about economic growth and national competitiveness, for example, commonly focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce. Defining the theoretical boundaries and methodological approaches of education policy research are the two primary themes of this…

  19. Making Policy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The concept of street-level bureaucracy (Lipsky, 1980, 2010) examines the form and extent discretion takes in teachers' and other public policy enactors' work and how they negotiate their way through sometimes contradictory policy imperatives. It provides a framework for straddling top-down and bottom-up perspectives on policy making. In this…

  20. Policy Schmolicy: It's the Architecture!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Examines how educational technology's architecture preempts policy decisions, discussing filtering, copyright, and password protection. Outlines four aspects of technology that must be understood before crafting policy: (1) identify critical issues; (2) anticipate vicarious results; (3) explore the range of policies; (4) consider stakeholders'…

  1. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  2. SCIENCE POLICY BULLETIN NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAINARD, ROBERT W.

    THIS BULLETIN, PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY, REPORTS THE CURRENT LITERATURE IN THE AREA OF SCIENCE AND PUBLIC POLICY. THE COVERAGE ENCOMPASSES BOTH "POLICY FOR SCIENCE" AND "SCIENCE FOR POLICY" MATTERS. SCIENCE IS USED TO DENOTE ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY, AND SCIENCE. THE BULLETIN IS INTENDED FOR PERSONS ENGAGED IN STUDYING, FORMULATING, OR IMPLEMENTING…

  3. SCIENCE POLICY BULLETIN NUMBER 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAINARD, ROBERT W.

    THIS BULLETIN, PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY, REPORTS THE CURRENT LITERATURE IN THE AREA OF SCIENCE AND PUBLIC POLICY. THE COVERAGE ENCOMPASSES BOTH "POLICY FOR SCIENCE" AND "SCIENCE FOR POLICY" MATTERS. SCIENCE IS USED TO DENOTE ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY, AND SCIENCE. THE BULLETIN IS INTENDED FOR PERSONS ENGAGED IN STUDYING, FORMULATING, OR IMPLEMENTING…

  4. Global Review of Agricultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report describes how governments throughout the world manage their economies and interact with their people, with special emphasis on how the agricultural sector is affected by changing government goals, policies, and programs. Policies and programs are described using information as of July 1987. The large country policy statements include…

  5. Navigating the Seas of Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Stephanie; Kennedy, Steve; McAlonan, Susan; Hotchkiss, Heather

    As the sun, moon, and stars helped sea captains to navigate, policy (defined as a formalized idea to encourage change) indicates general direction and speed but does not establish a specific approach to achieve implementation. Formal and informal policies have advantages and disadvantages. These are steps in navigating policy formation: identify…

  6. Digital Citizenship Policy Development Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education leaders are re-examining acceptable use policies in light of the increasing use of highly mobile information technologies. While acceptable use policies were developed to manage and control behaviour, a digital citizenship policy takes a more comprehensive approach by recognizing the important role of education in preparing digital…

  7. Educational Accountability and Policy Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, accountability policies have become more prominent in public K-12 education and have changed how teaching and learning are organized. It is less clear the extent to which these policies have altered the politics of education. This article begins to address that question through the lens of policy feedback. It identifies…

  8. Unearthing the Discursive Shift in the "fCUBE" Policy Implementation in Ghana: Using Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope Pius

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses selected texts from documents on the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (fCUBE) policy implementation in Ghana to unearth the discursive shift in policy (i.e. from predominantly socialist/social democratic towards neo-liberal ideological policy direction) in recent time. The methodological approach involves the…

  9. Developing a policy manual.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2013-01-01

    Do you really need to have a policy and procedure in the office? Frequently they are seen sitting on the shelf, collecting dust. The answer is yes for a number of very important reasons. A policy and procedure manual is a tool to set guidelines and expectations on the basis of the mission and vision of the office. A well-written manual is a powerful training tool for new staff so they can get a feel for the office culture. Furthermore, it is a provincial or state legislative requirement that can reduce management's concern about potential legal issues or problems. If an office does not have a manual to set guidelines, the employees may be forced to make their own decisions to solve problems, which can often result in confusion, inconsistencies, and mistakes.

  10. Globalisation and social policy.

    PubMed

    Langmore, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses six major themes: that economic and social issues are closely interdependent and that the appropriate stance is to work on both together, simultaneously; that though the threats from globalisation have been exaggerated, there can be substantial costs as well as considerable benefits; that constraints on national policy are significant but are less severe than is commonly considered; that the vitality-the vigour-of national and international political processes must be increased to cope effectively with the changes which are underway; that the private sector, unions and civil society have crucial roles in the provision of services and in advocating socially responsible values, standards and policies; and that one of the most effective means of addressing the erosion of national autonomy from globalisation is for countries to cooperate in setting and implementing shared objectives and international standards and establishing more global public goods.

  11. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  12. Swedish Family Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  13. Engaging with Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  14. Pediatrician workforce policy statement.

    PubMed

    Basco, William T; Rimsza, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    This policy statement reviews important trends and other factors that affect the pediatrician workforce and the provision of pediatric health care, including changes in the pediatric patient population, pediatrician workforce, and nature of pediatric practice. The effect of these changes on pediatricians and the demand for pediatric care are discussed. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concludes that there is currently a shortage of pediatric medical subspecialists in many fields, as well as a shortage of pediatric surgical specialists. In addition, the AAP believes that the current distribution of primary care pediatricians is inadequate to meet the needs of children living in rural and other underserved areas, and more primary care pediatricians will be needed in the future because of the increasing number of children who have significant chronic health problems, changes in physician work hours, and implementation of current health reform efforts that seek to improve access to comprehensive patient- and family-centered care for all children in a medical home. The AAP is committed to being an active participant in physician workforce policy development with both professional organizations and governmental bodies to ensure a pediatric perspective on health care workforce issues. The overall purpose of this statement is to summarize policy recommendations and serve as a resource for the AAP and other stakeholders as they address pediatrician workforce issues that ultimately influence the quality of pediatric health care provided to children in the United States.

  15. Exploring policies for the reduction of child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Barnett, Sarah Beth L; Florence, Curtis; Moore, DeWayne

    2015-02-01

    Policies can be powerful tools for prevention given their potential to affect conditions that can improve population-level health. Given the dearth of empirical research on policies' impacts on child maltreatment, this article (a) identifies 37 state policies that might have impacts on the social determinants of child maltreatment; (b) identifies available data sources documenting the implementation of 31 policies; and (c) utilizes the available data to explore effects of 11 policies (selected because they had little missing data) on child maltreatment rates. These include two policies aimed at reducing poverty, two temporary assistance to needy families policies, two policies aimed at increasing access to child care, three policies aimed at increasing access to high quality pre-K, and three policies aimed at increasing access to health care. Multi-level regression analyses between within-state trends of child maltreatment investigation rates and these 11 policies, controlling for states' childhood poverty, adults without a high school diploma, unemployment, child burden, and race/ethnicity, identified two that were significantly associated with decreased child maltreatment rates: lack of waitlists to access subsidized child care and policies that facilitate continuity of child health care. These findings are correlational and are limited by the quality and availability of the data. Future research might focus on a reduced number of states that have good quality administrative data or population-based survey data on child maltreatment or reasonable proxies for child maltreatment and where data on the actual implementation of specific policies of interest can be documented.

  16. A combined strategy involving Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing increases genomic resources to aid in the management of reproduction, disease control and genetic selection in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic resources for plant and animal species that are under exploitation primarily for human consumption are increasingly important, among other things, for understanding physiological processes and for establishing adequate genetic selection programs. Current available techniques for high-throughput sequencing have been implemented in a number of species, including fish, to obtain a proper description of the transcriptome. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive transcriptomic database in turbot, a highly priced farmed fish species in Europe, with potential expansion to other areas of the world, for which there are unsolved production bottlenecks, to understand better reproductive- and immune-related functions. This information is essential to implement marker assisted selection programs useful for the turbot industry. Results Expressed sequence tags were generated by Sanger sequencing of cDNA libraries from different immune-related tissues after several parasitic challenges. The resulting database (“Turbot 2 database”) was enlarged with sequences generated from a 454 sequencing run of brain-hypophysis-gonadal axis-derived RNA obtained from turbot at different development stages. The assembly of Sanger and 454 sequences generated 52,427 consensus sequences (“Turbot 3 database”), of which 23,661 were successfully annotated. A total of 1,410 sequences were confirmed to be related to reproduction and key genes involved in sex differentiation and maturation were identified for the first time in turbot (AR, AMH, SRY-related genes, CYP19A, ZPGs, STAR FSHR, etc.). Similarly, 2,241 sequences were related to the immune system and several novel key immune genes were identified (BCL, TRAF, NCK, CD28 and TOLLIP, among others). The number of genes of many relevant reproduction- and immune-related pathways present in the database was 50–90% of the total gene count of each pathway. In addition, 1,237 microsatellites and 7,362 single

  17. 17 CFR 229.301 - (Item 301) Selected financial data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 301) Selected financial... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Financial Information § 229.301 (Item 301) Selected financial data. Furnish in comparative columnar form the selected financial data for...

  18. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  19. 42 CFR 422.204 - Provider selection and credentialing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... process for consulting with contracting health care professionals with respect to criteria for... policies and procedures for the selection and evaluation of providers. These policies must conform with the... documented process with respect to providers and suppliers who have signed contracts or...

  20. Selective Enumeration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    claims about properties of a specification by solving formulae derived the specification. Ladybug is a new tool that incorporates selective enumeration...languages. Ladybug includes implementations of three significant new algorithms to help reduce the search space: bounded generation, domain coloring, and...thesis, I have applied Ladybug to a suite of software specifications, including both artificial and "real-world" specifications, to quantify the

  1. Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a small particle selective emitter for converting thermal energy into narrow band radiation with high efficiency. The small particle selective emitter is used in combination with a photovoltaic array to provide a thermal to electrical energy conversion device. An energy conversion apparatus of this type is called a thermo-photovoltaic device. In the first embodiment, small diameter particles of a rare earth oxide are suspended in an inert gas enclosed between concentric cylinders. The rare earth oxides are used because they have the desired property of large emittance in a narrow wavelength band and small emittance outside the band. However, it should be emphasized that it is the smallness of the particles that enhances the radiation property. The small particle selective emitter is surrounded by a photovoltaic array. In an alternate embodiment, the small particle gas mixture is circulated through a thermal energy source. This thermal energy source can be a nuclear reactor, solar receiver, or combustor of a fossil fuel.

  2. Selective emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a small particle selective emitter for converting thermal energy into narrow band radiation with high efficiency. The small particle selective emitter is used in combination with a photovoltaic array to provide a thermal to electrical energy conversion device. An energy conversion apparatus of this type is called a thermo-photovoltaic device. In the first embodiment, small diameter particles of a rare earth oxide are suspended in an inert gas enclosed between concentric cylinders. The rare earth oxides are used because they have the desired property of large emittance in a narrow wavelength band and small emittance outside the band. However, it should be emphasized that it is the smallness of the particles that enhances the radiation property. The small particle selective emitter is surrounded by a photovoltaic array. In an alternate embodiment, the small particle gas mixture is circulated through a thermal energy source. This thermal energy source can be a nuclear reactor, solar receiver, or combustor of a fossil fuel.

  3. Articles Pertinent to the Campus Press: A Selected Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Birthney

    1974-01-01

    Contains a selected annotated bibliography of 51 items covering articles published from January through August, 1974, organized under the following categories: advertising, broadcasting, media criticism, editorial policy, graphics, job opportunities, pedagogy, and photography. (RB)

  4. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  5. Conclusions and Policy Directions,

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Romero-Lankao, Paty; Gnatz, P

    2011-01-01

    This chapter briefly revisits the constraints and opportunities of mitigation and adaptation, and highlights and the multiple linkages, synergies and trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation and urban development. The chapter then presents future policy directions, focusing on local, national and international principles and policies for supporting and enhancing urban responses to climate change. In summary, policy directions for linking climate change responses with urban development offer abundant opportunities; but they call for new philosophies about how to think about the future and how to connect different roles of different levels of government and different parts of the urban community. In many cases, this implies changes in how urban areas operate - fostering closer coordination between local governments and local economic institutions, and building new connections between central power structures and parts of the population who have often been kept outside of the circle of consultation and discourse. The difficulties involved in changing deeply set patterns of interaction and decision-making in urban areas should not be underestimated. Because it is so difficult, successful experiences need to be identified, described and widely publicized as models for others. However, where this challenge is met, it is likely not only to increase opportunities and reduce threats to urban development in profoundly important ways, but to make the urban area a more effective socio-political entity, in general - a better city in how it works day to day and how it solves a myriad of problems as they emerge - far beyond climate change connections alone. It is in this sense that climate change responses can be catalysts for socially inclusive, economically productive and environmentally friendly urban development, helping to pioneer new patterns of stakeholder communication and participation.

  6. Medical policy development for human spaceflight at NASA: an evolution.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R

    2011-11-01

    Codification of medical policy for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) did not occur until 1977. Policy development was based on NASA's human spaceflight efforts from 1958, and the need to support the operational aspects of the upcoming Space Shuttle Program as well as other future activities. In 1958, the Space Task Group (STG), a part of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), became the focal point for astronaut selection, medical support, and instrumentation development in support of Project Mercury. NACA transitioned into NASA in 1958. The STG moved to Houston, TX, in 1961 and became the Manned Spacecraft Center. During these early years, medical support for astronaut selection and healthcare was provided through arrangements with the U.S. military, specifically the United States Air Force, which had the largest group of subject matter experts in aerospace medicine. Through most of the 1960s, the military worked very closely with NASA in developing the foundations of bioastronautics and space medicine. This work was complemented by select individuals from outside the government. From 1958 to 1977, there was no standard approach to medical policy formulation within NASA. During this time, it was individualized and subjected to political pressures. This manuscript documents the evolution of medical policy in the NASA, and provides a historical account of the individuals, processes, and needs to develop policy.

  7. Revised Seasonal Afterburner Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. Privacy Policy | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) respects the privacy of users of its websites. This is why we have taken the time to disclose our privacy policy and information collection practices. NCI does not disclose, give, sell, or transfer any personal information about visitors unless required to do so by law. NCI automatically collects a limited amount of information about the use of websites for statistical purposes — that is, to measure the numbers of visitors. This information may be helpful when considering changes that improve our websites for future visitors.

  9. Government policies promote deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The well-documented loss of forest cover throughout the world has created a multitude of equally well-documented environmental problems, including soil erosion, water pollution, species extinctions, and the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that is contributing to global warming. Recent discussions on the causes of deforestation have focused on inevitable consequences of poverty and population growth, such as clearing for agricultural, shifting cultivation, and fuel-wood gathering. But according to a recent report from the World Resources Institute (WRI) in Washington, DC, another important often unrecognized, cause of deforestation is bad economic policies in the countries that own forest resources.

  10. Children's media policy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  11. Policy watch: Medicare.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P

    1996-01-01

    Public policies are often made without much recourse to economic reasoning. Economists are sometimes unaware of what is happening in the world of public affairs. As a result, both the quality of public decision making and the role that economists play in it are less than optimal. This feature contains short articles on topics that are currently on the agendas of policymakers, thus illustrating the role of economic analysis in illuminating current debates. Suggestions for future columns and comments on past ones should be sent to Daniel Weinberg, c/o Journal of Economic Perspectives, HHES Division, Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 20233.

  12. Interpretation of Offset Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    PubMed

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  14. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2016-01-01

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool – Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) – which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). PMID:26927591

  15. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethics and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, Meredith; King, Carol; de Vrijer, Barbra; Nisker, Jeff

    2014-06-01

    New technologies analyzing fetal DNA in maternal blood have led to the wide commercial availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We present here for clinicians the ethical and policy issues related to an emerging practice option. Although NIPT presents opportunities for pregnant women, particularly women who are at increased risk of having a baby with an abnormality or who are otherwise likely to access invasive prenatal testing, NIPT brings significant ethics and policy challenges. The ethical issues include multiple aspects of informed decision-making, such as access to counselling about the possible results of the test in advance of making a decision about participation in NIPT. Policy considerations include issues related to offering and promoting a privately available medical strategy in publicly funded institutions. Ethics and policy considerations merge in NIPT with regard to sex selection and support for persons living with disabilities.

  16. A collaboratively-derived science-policy research agenda.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, William J; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R; Blackstock, Jason J; Bloomfield, Robert M; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M; Cleevely, David D; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S; Cope, David R; Daemmrich, Arthur A; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R; Evans, Robert J; Feng, Wai Y; Godfray, H Charles J; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E; Hester, Alison J; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C; Kass, Gary S; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P; Nuttall, William J; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S; Robinson, John G; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G; Spiegelhalter, David J; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P; Winickoff, David E; Zimmern, Ron L

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy.

  17. A Collaboratively-Derived Science-Policy Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R.; Blackstock, Jason J.; Bloomfield, Robert M.; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M.; Cleevely, David D.; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S.; Cope, David R.; Daemmrich, Arthur A.; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R.; Evans, Robert J.; Feng, Wai Y.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E.; Hester, Alison J.; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C.; Kass, Gary S.; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M.; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P.; Nuttall, William J.; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M.; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S.; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S.; Robinson, John G.; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P.; Winickoff, David E.; Zimmern, Ron L.

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy. PMID:22427809

  18. Identifying cost-effective dynamic policies to control epidemics.

    PubMed

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Cohen, Ted

    2016-12-10

    We describe a mathematical decision model for identifying dynamic health policies for controlling epidemics. These dynamic policies aim to select the best current intervention based on accumulating epidemic data and the availability of resources at each decision point. We propose an algorithm to approximate dynamic policies that optimize the population's net health benefit, a performance measure which accounts for both health and monetary outcomes. We further illustrate how dynamic policies can be defined and optimized for the control of a novel viral pathogen, where a policy maker must decide (i) when to employ or lift a transmission-reducing intervention (e.g. school closure) and (ii) how to prioritize population members for vaccination when a limited quantity of vaccines first become available. Within the context of this application, we demonstrate that dynamic policies can produce higher net health benefit than more commonly described static policies that specify a pre-determined sequence of interventions to employ throughout epidemics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Trade policy and health: from conflicting interests to policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Policy incoherence at the interface between trade policy and health can take many forms, such as international trade commitments that strengthen protection of pharmaceutical patents, or promotion of health tourism that exacerbates the shortage of physicians in rural areas. Focusing on the national policy-making process, we make recommendations regarding five conditions that are necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure that international trade policies are coherent with national health objectives. These conditions are: space for dialogue and joint fact-finding; leadership by ministries of health; institutional mechanisms for coordination; meaningful engagement with stakeholders; and a strong evidence base.

  20. Using public policy to improve outcomes for asthmatic children in schools.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Jewlya; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Zimmer, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    School-based services to improve asthma management need to be accompanied by public policies that can help sustain services, scale effective interventions, create greater equity across schools, and improve outcomes for children. Several national organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have recommended specific public policies the adoption of which in school settings can improve asthma outcomes for children. Although many states and school districts have adopted some of these policies, adoption is not universal, and implementation is not always successful, leaving inequities in children's access to asthma services and supports. These issues can be addressed by changing public policy. Policy change is a complex process, but it is one that will benefit from greater involvement by asthma experts, including the researchers who generate the knowledge base on what services, supports, and policies have the best outcomes for children. Asthma experts can participate in the policy process by helping to build awareness of the need for school-based asthma policy, estimating the costs associated with policy options and with inaction, advocating for the selection of specific policies, assisting in implementation (including providing feedback), conducting the research that can evaluate the effectiveness of implementation, and ultimately providing information back into the policy process to allow for improvements to the policies.