Science.gov

Sample records for market monitor development

  1. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  2. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    SciTech Connect

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.

  3. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  4. Momentum: "Developing Masterful Marketing Plans."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meservey, Lynne D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how directors can plan and develop a written marketing plan which can increase enrollment at child care centers. Components of successful marketing plans include parent retention; program merchandising; staff and director training; sales promotions; networking; and enrichment programs/fundraising. (NH)

  5. Marketing Instructional Development Internally, Externally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, James

    This description of the marketing process as a practical way to manage the function of instruction development emphasizes the importance of the identification and evaluation of customer needs before developing objectives. To assist the instructional development agency in focusing on this aspect of planning, a check list of possible marketing…

  6. Test Marketing in New Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klompmaker, Jay E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the role of test marketing in new product development, based on interviews with marketing executives. Attempts to clarify when a test market should be done, what its aims should be, and how it should be used. (JG)

  7. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  8. Space market model development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

  9. Market research on garment-based "wearables" and biophysical monitoring and a new monitoring method.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Claudia; Burr, Stacey

    2004-01-01

    Technology advancements are foremost on the minds of scientists and developers who are working to overcome the many hurdles associated with bringing consumers the enhanced benefits associated with next generation wearable health systems. Often the technology work takes a front seat to the basic requirements of traditional consumer apparel. The choices of what consumers elect to place and carry on their body can be practical, logical, emotional and sometimes seemingly random. By providing insights and data to support the claims, developers of wearable health systems of the future will be able improve their chance of consumer adoption and continued use by gaining a clearer picture of the people that will be wearing the systems. Results from 5 different consumer research studies are presented, examining consumer buying patterns, gender differences, regional differences, their receptivity to health benefits delivered via clothing and what they want from technology enhanced clothing. Market research related to biophysical monitoring utilizing smart fabrics or interactive textiles show a critical level of commercial activity. Medical applications focused on the aged, infant and critical patient care are taking the lead. This paper presents a look at the biophysical monitoring market and discusses new materials useful in garment systems and the challenges remaining for their development and integration with textiles. A new method of non-invasive monitoring of periodic activity is discussed.

  10. Developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dychtwald, K; Zitter, M

    1988-09-01

    The initial stages of developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals are explored in this excerpt from the book, The Role of the Hospital in an Aging Society: A Blueprint for Action. The elderly have unique perceptual, cognitive, social, and psychological needs and preferences, and a marketing strategy for eldercare services must reflect these factors, as well as the financial role of third-party payers and the decision-making influence of families and physicians. Among the elements the hospital must address when developing a marketing strategy are market selection and segmentation, targeting markets with specific services, pricing, and positioning the hospital for a maximum share of the eldercare market.

  11. An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

  12. Smokeless tobacco in Canada: deterring market development

    PubMed Central

    Wyckham, R.

    1999-01-01

    DATA SOURCES—A review of the literature identified demographic, cultural, and marketing variables related to the uptake and continuation of smokeless tobacco use. Government and industry data on production, marketing, and consumption of smokeless tobacco products are presented.
METHODS—The Canadian and American markets are compared in terms of prevalence, consumption per capita, and marketing practices. Lessons to be learned from the well-orchestrated development of the American market in the past 30 years are examined. Canadian tobacco regulations are described. Strategies by which the increased exploitation of the Canadian smokeless tobacco market can be deterred are discussed.
CONCLUSIONS—A long-term, independently financed strategy built around a national smokeless tobacco de-marketing organisation with a constellation of private local institutions is suggested as a means of combating smokeless tobacco marketing efforts.


Keywords: smokeless tobacco; marketing; Canada PMID:10629248

  13. The application of post-market monitoring to novel foods.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, P; Howlett, J; Boeing, H; Cockburn, A; Constable, A; Davi, A; de Jong, N; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Robertson, C; Wal, J M; Samuels, F

    2008-01-01

    The role of post-market monitoring (PMM) in the safety assessment of novel foods is critically discussed in order to derive guidelines as to in which situations the application of PMM might be warranted. Available data sources on food consumption and health status, and the methodologies for generating such data are reviewed. The paper suggests improvements to make them more applicable for PMM purposes. It is concluded that any PMM programme must be a hypothesis-driven scientific exercise. PMM can have a role as a complement to, but not as a replacement for, a comprehensive pre-market safety assessment. Its use may be appropriate to confirm that product use is as predicted in the pre-market assessment; to provide reassurance that effects observed in the pre-market assessment occur with no greater frequency or intensity in the post-market phase than anticipated; and to investigate the significance of any adverse effects reported by consumers after market-launch. However PMM is insufficiently powerful to test the hypothesis that any effects seen in the pre-market assessment are absent in the post-market phase. Current methodologies place limitations on what PMM can achieve. PMM should only be used when triggered by or when the focus is on specific evidence-based questions.

  14. Developing a Social Media and Marketing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulds, David J.; Mangold, W. Glynn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the process used and experiences gained in developing a social media and marketing course. As the first known paper on this topic appearing in the marketing education literature, the paper provides educators with a framework for developing similar courses. The course was developed using a sound instructional design model, the…

  15. Drug development: from concept to marketing!

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Nihad A M; Ellis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Drug development is an expensive, long and high-risk business taking 10-15 years and is associated with a high attrition rate. It is driven by medical need, disease prevalence and the likelihood of success. Drug candidate selection is an iterative process between chemistry and biology, refining the molecular properties until a compound suitable for advancing to man is found. Typically, about one in a thousand synthesised compounds is ever selected for progression to the clinic. Prior to administration to humans, the pharmacology and biochemistry of the drug is established using an extensive range of in vitro and in vivo test procedures. It is also a regulatory requirement that the drug is administered to animals to assess its safety. Later-stage animal testing is also required to assess carcinogenicity and effects on the reproductive system. Clinical phases of drug development include phase I in healthy volunteers to assess primarily pharmacokinetics, safety and toleration, phase II in a cohort of patients with the target disease to establish efficacy and dose-response relationship and large-scale phase III studies to confirm safety and efficacy. Experience tells us that approximately only 1 in 10 drugs that start the clinical phase will make it to the market. Each drug must demonstrate safety and efficacy in the intended patient population and its benefits must outweigh its risks before it will be approved by the regulatory agencies. Strict regulatory standards govern the conduct of pre-clinical and clinical trials as well as the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. The assessment of the new medicinal product's safety continues beyond the initial drug approval through post-marketing monitoring of adverse events.

  16. A review of market monitoring activities at U.S. independent system operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Goldman, Charles; Bartholomew, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers have increasingly recognized the structural impediments to effective competition in electricity markets, which has resulted in a renewed emphasis on the need for careful market design and market monitoring in wholesale and retail electricity markets. In this study, we review the market monitoring activities of four Independent System Operators in the United States, focusing on such topics as the organization of an independent market monitoring unit (MMU), the role and value of external market monitors, performance metrics and indices to aid in market analysis, issues associated with access to confidential market data, and market mitigation and investigation authority. There is consensus across the four ISOs that market monitoring must be organizationally independent from market participants and that ISOs should have authority to apply some degree of corrective actions on the market, though scope and implementation differ across the ISOs. Likewise, current practices regarding access to confidential market data by state energy regulators varies somewhat by ISO. Drawing on our interviews and research, we present five examples that illustrate the impact and potential contribution of ISO market monitoring activities to enhance functioning of wholesale electricity markets. We also discuss several key policy and implementation issues that Western state policymakers and regulators should consider as market monitoring activities evolve in the West.

  17. Developing and Implementing a Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalmon, Byron G.

    1987-01-01

    A program focusing on recruitment of new freshmen at the University of Colorado at Boulder illustrates some major planning considerations in the development, implementation, and evaluation of a marketing plan. (MSE)

  18. Remote Arrhythmia Monitoring System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liszka, Kathy J.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is taking a step forward with the efforts of team members from the NASA Glenn Research Center, the MetroHealth campus of Case Western University, and the University of Akron. The Arrhythmia Monitoring System is a completed, working test bed developed at Glenn that collects real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a mobile or homebound patient, combines these signals with global positioning system (GPS) location data, and transmits them to a remote station for display and monitoring. Approximately 300,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks, which are arrhythmia cases. However, not all patients identified at risk for arrhythmias can be monitored continuously because of technological and economical limitations. Such patients, who are at moderate risk of arrhythmias, would benefit from technology that would permit long-term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment. Embedded Web Technology developed at Glenn to remotely command and collect data from embedded systems using Web technology is the catalyst for this new telemetry system (ref. 1). In the end-to-end system architecture, ECG signals are collected from a patient using an event recorder and are transmitted to a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) using Bluetooth, a short-range wireless technology. The PDA concurrently tracks the patient's location via a connection to a GPS receiver. A long distance link is established via a standard Internet connection over a 2.5-generation Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS)1 cellular, wireless infrastructure. Then, the digital signal is transmitted to a call center for monitoring by medical professionals.

  19. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  20. Marketing concepts for pharmaceutical service development.

    PubMed

    Grauer, D W

    1981-02-01

    Marketing concepts as a mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers are discussed. Pharmacy as a profession must define itself broadly to take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values. New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i.e., patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance. Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time. A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers.

  1. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  2. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  3. Multi-Year SSL Market Development Support Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, Marc R.

    2012-05-01

    This plan sets out a strategic, five year framework for guiding DOE's market development support activities for high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products for the U.S. general illumination market. The market development support activities described in this plan, which span federal fiscal years 2012 to 2016, are intended to affect the types of SSL general illumination products adopted by the market, to accelerate commercial adoption of those products, and to support appropriate application of those products to maximize energy savings. DOE has established aggressive FY16 goals for these activities, including goals for the types of products brought to market, the market adoption of those products, and the energy savings achieved through use of SSL products. These goals are for the combined effect of DOE's SSL market development support and R and D investment, as well as the leveraged activities of its partners. Goals include: (1) inducing the market introduction of SSL products achieving 140 lumens per Watt (lm/W) for warm white products, and 155 lm/W for cool white products, and (2) inducing sales of high-performance SSL products that achieve annual site electricity savings of 21 terawatt hours (0.25 quadrillion Btus primary energy) by FY16. To overcome identified market barriers and to achieve the above five year goals, DOE proposes to carry out the following strategy. DOE will implement a multi-year program to accelerate adoption of good quality, high performance SSL products that achieve significant energy savings and maintain or improve lighting quality. Relying on lessons learned from past emerging technology introductions, such as compact fluorescent lamps, and using newly developed market research, DOE will design its efforts to minimize the likelihood that the SSL market will repeat mistakes that greatly delayed market adoption of earlier emerging technology market introductions. To achieve the maximum effect per dollar invested, DOE will work

  4. Market Development for Entrepreneurs. Panel V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Four small business development experts examine ways of encouraging/helping entrepreneurs: market identification; management education; improved capital access; emphasis on business and producer services; import substitution; local purchasing; local business expansion; adaptation of good ideas; response to problems/trends in lifestyle changes,…

  5. Product Development in Higher Education Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Mark; Howcroft, Barry; Fairless, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: During the last 20 years or so the changing environment in which universities operate has meant that commensurately more emphasis has been placed on marketing principles. In light of this emphasis, it is perhaps a little surprising that relatively little attention has been directed towards the processes by which universities develop their…

  6. Marketing and Development for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, G. Jeremiah, Ed.; Smith, Nanette J., Ed.

    This collection of 23 essays provides an overview of current marketing and resource development practices in community colleges. The first of the five sections in the book, "Organizing for Successful Advancement," contains chapters on "Organization of the Successful Institutional Office," by Nanette J. Smith; "The President and Institutional…

  7. The Development of Competent Marketing Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ian; Tsarenko, Yelena; Wagstaff, Peter; Powell, Irene; Steel, Marion; Brace-Govan, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The process of transition from university undergraduate to business professional is a crucial stage in the development of a business career. This study examines both graduate and employer perspectives on the essential skills and knowledge needed by marketing professionals to successfully perform their roles. From in-depth interviews with 14…

  8. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries. The expense of such projects shall...

  9. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries. The expense of such projects shall...

  10. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries. The expense of such projects shall...

  11. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  12. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or...

  13. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or...

  14. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  15. Mind Map Marketing: A Creative Approach in Developing Marketing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Lars Torsten; Hauer, Amie M.

    2004-01-01

    In this conceptual article, the authors describe an alternative course structure that joins learning key marketing concepts to creative problem solving. The authors describe an approach using a convergent-divergent-convergent (CDC) process: key concepts are first derived from case material to be organized in a marketing matrix, which is then used…

  16. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  17. New Course Development in Multicultural Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    The multicultural market has witnessed tremendous growth in many societies, yet multicultural marketing is marginalized in the marketing curriculum. The focus of this article is to stimulate more discussion of multicultural issues within marketing by proposing suggestions for a multicultural marketing course and identifying appropriate teaching…

  18. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  19. Monitoring of bisphenols in canned tuna from Italian markets.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Margherita; Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Grumetto, Lucia; Albrizio, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring of food contamination from bisphenols is a necessary process for the consumers' risk assessment. A method for the quali-quantitative analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol B (BPB), Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), and Bisphenol F Diglycidyl Ether (BFDGE), by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), was performed and validated for their determination in 33 samples of tuna fish, canned in either oil or aqueous medium. Samples were collected in Italian markets. Tuna and the correspondent preservation medium were analyzed separately. Detected levels of bisphenols ranged from 19.1 to 187.0 ng/g in tuna matrix and from 6.3 to 66.9 ng/mL in oil medium. No bisphenols were found in aqueous medium. At least one of the analytes was found in 83% of the tuna samples in oil medium, whereas tuna samples in aqueous medium showed BPA alone in 67% of samples. 21% of the oil medium samples resulted positive for at least one bisphenol. On the basis of measured concentrations and general daily ingestion rate of canned tuna fish, the probable daily intake of BPA for Italian population was calculated.

  20. Monitoring of bisphenols in canned tuna from Italian markets.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Margherita; Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Grumetto, Lucia; Albrizio, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring of food contamination from bisphenols is a necessary process for the consumers' risk assessment. A method for the quali-quantitative analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol B (BPB), Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), and Bisphenol F Diglycidyl Ether (BFDGE), by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), was performed and validated for their determination in 33 samples of tuna fish, canned in either oil or aqueous medium. Samples were collected in Italian markets. Tuna and the correspondent preservation medium were analyzed separately. Detected levels of bisphenols ranged from 19.1 to 187.0 ng/g in tuna matrix and from 6.3 to 66.9 ng/mL in oil medium. No bisphenols were found in aqueous medium. At least one of the analytes was found in 83% of the tuna samples in oil medium, whereas tuna samples in aqueous medium showed BPA alone in 67% of samples. 21% of the oil medium samples resulted positive for at least one bisphenol. On the basis of measured concentrations and general daily ingestion rate of canned tuna fish, the probable daily intake of BPA for Italian population was calculated. PMID:26070504

  1. Downhole frac monitoring system developed

    SciTech Connect

    Sarda, J.P.; Wittrisch, C.; Perreau, P.; Deflandre, J.P.

    1987-04-06

    A hydraulic fracture monitoring system makes it possible to determine the azimuth, length, and height of hydraulic fractures. Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has designed, patented, and field tested the system, which is designated Simfrac. It consists of a downhole monitoring tool with real-time surface readout and recording of microseismic events generated during the fracture opening or closing that occurs after the injection of fracture fluids. Combining Simfrac Interpretation with mathematical models can provide a better image of downhole stresses improved hydraulic fracture design, and can indicate optimum drill sites.

  2. Space market model development project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.

  3. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research, promotion, and market development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish...

  4. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research, promotion, and market development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish...

  5. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Personal Computer Monitors. Implications for Market Transformation Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar

    2012-06-29

    Displays account for a significant portion of electricity consumed in personal computer (PC) use, and global PC monitor shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of PC monitors that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that display efficiency will likely improve by over 40% by 2015 compared to today’s technology. We evaluate the cost effectiveness of a key technology which further improves efficiency beyond this level by at least 20% and find that its adoption is cost effective. We assess the potential for further improving efficiency taking into account the recent development of universal serial bus (USB) powered liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and find that the current technology available and deployed in USB powered monitors has the potential to deeply reduce energy consumption by as much as 50%. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to capture global energy saving potential from PC monitors which we estimate to be 9.2 terawatt-hours [TWh] per year in 2015.

  6. Bayou Vista: A Market-Driven Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, G. Martin; Teal, Elisabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    The case touches on several areas of marketing: ethics, sales issues, conflicts of interest, marketing forecasts, and issues of pricing. Joe Brice, the visionary and real estate broker for a 36-lot subdivision of moderately priced single-family homes targeting the $190,000 to $260,000 range, seems to have identified an unmet housing market,…

  7. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J.; Xin, D.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  8. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. 7 CFR 916.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 916.45 Section 916.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 922.45 Section 922.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 923.45 Section 923.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. Embedding Marketing in International Campus Development: Lessons from UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations for embedding a market- and marketing-informed approach within the development process for a new international campus. It includes a brief outline of the current global profile of international campuses (as one form of transnational education) before highlighting the role of marketing at key stages of campus…

  14. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 922.45 Section 922.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 923.45 Section 923.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. 7 CFR 916.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 916.45 Section 916.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. Monitoring software development through dynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerflinger, Carl W.; Basili, Victor R.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) on the use of dynamic variables as a tool to monitor software development is described. Project independent measures which may be used in a management tool for monitoring software development are identified. Several FORTRAN projects with similar profiles are examined. The staff was experienced in developing these types of projects. The projects developed serve similar functions. Because these projects are similar some underlying relationships exist that are invariant between projects. These relationships, once well defined, may be used to compare the development of different projects to determine whether they are evolving the same way previous projects in this environment evolved.

  1. Monitoring software development through dynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerflinger, C. W.; Basili, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    Research conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) on the use of dynamic variables as a tool to monitor software development is described. Project independent measures which may be used in a management tool for monitoring software development are identified. Several FORTRAN projects with similar profiles are examined. The staff was experienced in developing these types of projects. The projects developed serve similar functions. Because these projects are similar some underlying relationships exist that are invariant between the projects. These relationships, once well defined, may be used to compare the development of different projects to determine whether they are evolving the same way previous projects in this environment evolved.

  2. Monitoring software development through dynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerflinger, C. W.; Basili, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) on the use of dynamic variables as a tool to monitor software development is described. Project independent measures which may be used in a management tool for monitoring software development are identified. Several FORTRAN projects with similar profiles are examined. The staff was experienced in developing these types of projects. The projects developed serve similar functions. Because these projects are similar some underlying relationships exist that are invariant between the projects. These relationships, once well defined, may be used to compare the development of different projects to determine whether they are evolving the same way previous projects in this environment evolved.

  3. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

  4. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  5. Continuous respirable mine dust monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, B.K.; Williams, K.L.; Stein, S.W.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published the Report of the Coal Mine Respirable Dust Task Group, Review of the Program to Control Respirable Coal Mine Dust in the United States. As one of its recommendations, the report called for the accelerated development of two mine dust monitors: (1) a fixed-site monitor capable of providing continuous information on dust levels to the miner, mine operator, and to MSHA, if necessary, and (2) a personal sampling device capable of providing both a short-term personal exposure measurement as well as a full-shift measurement. In response to this recommendation, the U.S. Bureau of Mines initiated the development of a fixed-site machine-mounted continuous respirable dust monitor. The technology chosen for monitor development is the Rupprecht and Patashnick Co., Inc. tapered element oscillating microbalance. Laboratory and in-mine tests have indicated that, with modification, this sensor can meet the humidity and vibration requirements for underground coal mine use. The U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research Center (DOE-PRC) is continuing that effort by developing prototypes of a continuous dust monitor based on this technology. These prototypes are being evaluated in underground coal mines as they become available. This effort, conducted as a joint venture with MSHA, is nearing completion with every promise of success.

  6. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a {open_quotes}waffle-iron{close_quotes} effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A FACILITY MONITORING TESTBED

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. MIELKE; C. M. BOYLE; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Advanced Surveillance Technology (AST) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), funded by the Nonproliferation Research and Engineering Group (NN-20) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is fielding a facility monitoring application testbed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-Pulsed Field Laboratory (NHMFL-PFL). This application is designed to utilize continuous remote monitoring technology to provide an additional layer of personnel safety assurance and equipment fault prediction capability in the laboratory. Various off-the-shelf surveillance sensor technologies are evaluated. In this testbed environment, several of the deployed monitoring sensors have detected transient precursor equipment-fault events. Additionally the prototype remote monitoring system employs specialized video state recognition software to determine whether the operations occurring within the facility are acceptable, given the observed equipment status. By integrating the Guardian reasoning system developed at LANL, anomalous facility events trigger alarms signaling personnel to the likelihood of an equipment failure or unsafe operation.

  8. The use of existing environmental networks for the post-market monitoring of GM crop cultivation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Smets, G; Alcalde, E; Andres, D; Carron, D; Delzenne, P; Heise, A; Legris, G; Martinez Parrilla, M; Verhaert, J; Wandelt, C; Ilegems, M; Rüdelsheim, P

    2014-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment requires that both Case-Specific Monitoring (CSM) and General Surveillance (GS) are considered as post-market implementing measures. Whereas CSM is directed to monitor potential adverse effects of GMOs or their use identified in the environmental risk assessment, GS aims to detect un-intended adverse effects of GMOs or their use on human and animal health or the environment. Guidance documents on the monitoring of genetically modified (GM) plants from the Commission and EFSA clarify that, as appropriate, GS can make use of established routine surveillance practices. Networks involved in routine surveillance offer recognised expertise in a particular domain and are designed to collect information on important environmental aspects over a large geographical area. However, as the suitability of existing monitoring networks to provide relevant data for monitoring impacts of GMOs is not known, plant biotechnology companies developed an approach to describe the processes and criteria that will be used for selecting and evaluating existing monitoring systems. In this paper, the availability of existing monitoring networks for this purpose is evaluated. By cataloguing the existing environmental monitoring networks in the EU, it can be concluded that they can only be used, in the context of GMO cultivation monitoring, as secondary tools to collect baseline information. PMID:24836113

  9. The use of existing environmental networks for the post-market monitoring of GM crop cultivation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Smets, G; Alcalde, E; Andres, D; Carron, D; Delzenne, P; Heise, A; Legris, G; Martinez Parrilla, M; Verhaert, J; Wandelt, C; Ilegems, M; Rüdelsheim, P

    2014-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment requires that both Case-Specific Monitoring (CSM) and General Surveillance (GS) are considered as post-market implementing measures. Whereas CSM is directed to monitor potential adverse effects of GMOs or their use identified in the environmental risk assessment, GS aims to detect un-intended adverse effects of GMOs or their use on human and animal health or the environment. Guidance documents on the monitoring of genetically modified (GM) plants from the Commission and EFSA clarify that, as appropriate, GS can make use of established routine surveillance practices. Networks involved in routine surveillance offer recognised expertise in a particular domain and are designed to collect information on important environmental aspects over a large geographical area. However, as the suitability of existing monitoring networks to provide relevant data for monitoring impacts of GMOs is not known, plant biotechnology companies developed an approach to describe the processes and criteria that will be used for selecting and evaluating existing monitoring systems. In this paper, the availability of existing monitoring networks for this purpose is evaluated. By cataloguing the existing environmental monitoring networks in the EU, it can be concluded that they can only be used, in the context of GMO cultivation monitoring, as secondary tools to collect baseline information.

  10. Market analysis for satellite remote sensing product and business development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, John C.; Willard, Matthew R.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss one manner in which market analysis for new satellite remote sensing product concepts can be translated into new business opportunities. In particular while there seems to be much discussion on how to move from product ideas to product sales this paper focuses on how to develop product concepts in new markets and how to confirm the market for those products. Historically, satellite remote sensing data has been sold as a solution looking for a problem—our approach turns this on its head, beginning with an understanding of the user needs of a particular market and then fitting satellite data and products to meet those needs. The market analysis approach presented here is not a short-cut—proper market analysis is not easy and takes time and resources. The outcome, however, of proper market analysis is real, sellable products and sufficient detail to support the raising of financing to move forward with implementation.

  11. Understanding MBA Consumer Needs and the Development of Marketing Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Lynn; Anderson, Murphy; Ingenito, Cristina; Duffy, David; Krimm, Paul; Thomson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The need to develop marketing strategies in higher education is evident. In order to develop effective strategies, marketers must understand the basic needs that their product fulfills. Exploratory research was utilized to identify and better understand the needs that motivate consumers to pursue an MBA degree. This paper emphasizes the importance…

  12. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems.

  13. Developing a marketing plan for a residency practice.

    PubMed

    Fried, R A; Stine, C C

    1985-01-01

    Competition for patients is becoming a hallmark of the health care system. Family medicine centers must increasingly think about marketing if they are to attract and retain adequate numbers of patients for resident education. As we have learned from direct experience, marketing is best done in the context of a comprehensive plan. We believe residency faculty can develop and successfully implement marketing plans. Since 1982, we have developed and implemented a marketing plan for the Mercy Family Medicine Center located in Denver, Colorado. We describe the planning process we employed and briefly discuss the successful results due to the plan's implementation.

  14. Corruption and stock market development: A quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    2011-11-01

    Studying the relation between corruption and economic factors and examining its consequences for economic development have attracted many economists and physicists in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of stock market development on corruption. Analyzing a data set of corruption and stock market development measures such as market capitalization and total value of share trading for 46 countries around the world for the period 2007-2009, we examine the dependence of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) on stock market development. Our findings suggest that there exists a power-law dependence between corruption and stock market development. We also observe a negative relation between level of corruption and financial system improvement.

  15. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  16. A conceptual framework for the design of environmental post-market monitoring of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Widmer, Franco; Winzeler, Michael; Bigler, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified plants (GMPs) may soon be cultivated commercially in several member countries of the European Union (EU). According to EU Directive 2001/18/EC, post-market monitoring (PMM) for commercial GMP cultivation must be implemented, in order to detect and prevent adverse effects on human health and the environment. However, no general PMM strategies for GMP cultivation have been established so far. We present a conceptual framework for the design of environmental PMM for GMP cultivation based on current EU legislation and common risk analysis procedures. We have established a comprehensive structure of the GMP approval process, consisting of pre-market risk assessment (PMRA) as well as PMM. Both programs can be distinguished conceptually due to principles inherent to risk analysis procedures. The design of PMM programs should take into account the knowledge gained during approval for commercialization of a specific GMP and the decisions made in the environmental risk assessments (ERAs). PMM is composed of case-specific monitoring (CSM) and general surveillance. CSM focuses on anticipated effects of a specific GMP. Selection of case-specific indicators for detection of ecological exposure and effects, as well as definition of effect sizes, are important for CSM. General surveillance is designed to detect unanticipated effects on general safeguard subjects, such as natural resources, which must not be adversely affected by human activities like GMP cultivation. We have identified clear conceptual differences between CSM and general surveillance, and propose to adopt separate frameworks when developing either of the two programs. Common to both programs is the need to put a value on possible ecological effects of GMP cultivation. The structure of PMM presented here will be of assistance to industry, researchers, and regulators, when assessing GMPs during commercialization.

  17. Developing psychophysiological profiles for monitoring stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldow, Roberta L.; Bergen, Michael T.; Belin, Kari; Bululu, Luba; Couso, Olivita; McLaughlin, Joselyn; Short, Kenneth R.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Training prepares first responders for disasters including terrorist attacks. To train effectively it should be as realistic as possible and elicit the stress response. We are developing a profile that will be a marker for intensity of stress as well as differentiate stress from exertion. We have monitored stress during several training scenarios for different groups including civilian SWAT teams and the military. In addition, we can monitor stress to exposure to nonlethal weapons. We have monitored stress during exposure to blunt impact using a paintball paradigm. We have measured salivary substances (such as cortisol and DHEA [markers for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis]) and amylase [marker for the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system], physiological parameters (such as activity and heart rate), and neuropsychological assessment tools (such as Borg's perceived exertion scale, Spielberger's STAI and Thayer's ADC). With these neuroendocrine, physiological and behavioral indices in hand, we are poised to examine stress induction in preparedness in trainees.

  18. Developing Gyrfalcon surveys and monitoring for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; Booms, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    We developed methods to monitor the status of Gyrfalcons in Alaska. Results of surveys and monitoring will be informative for resource managers and will be useful for studying potential changes in ecological communities of the high latitudes. We estimated that the probability of detecting a Gyrfalcon at an occupied nest site was between 64% and 87% depending on observer experience and aircraft type (fixed-wing or helicopter). The probability of detection is an important factor for estimating occupancy of nesting areas, and occupancy can be used as a metric for monitoring species' status. We conclude that surveys of nesting habitat to monitor occupancy during the breeding season are practical because of the high probability of seeing a Gyrfalcon from aircraft. Aerial surveys are effective for searching sample plots or index areas in the expanse of the Alaskan terrain. Furthermore, several species of cliff-nesting birds can be surveyed concurrently from aircraft. Occupancy estimation also can be applied using data from other field search methods (e.g., from boats) that have proven useful in Alaska. We believe a coordinated broad-scale, inter-agency, collaborative approach is necessary in Alaska. Monitoring can be facilitated by collating and archiving each set of results in a secure universal repository to allow for statewide meta-analysis.

  19. Space market model development project, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the prototype operations of the Space Business Information Center are presented. A clearinghouse for space business information for members of the U.S. space industry composed of public, private, and academic sectors was conducted. Behavioral and evaluation statistics were recorded from the clearinghouse and the conclusions from these statistics are presented. Business guidebooks on major markets in space business are discussed. Proprietary research and briefings for firms and agencies in the space industry are also discussed.

  20. Privatization or Marketization: Educational Development in Post-Mao China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    1999-01-01

    Examines how the flourishing market economy and the policy of decentralization have affected the development of China's higher education, specifically the movement away from relying solely on public schools. Rather, private and minban educational institutions are becoming more popular in the new socialist market system. Concludes with a discussion…

  1. NAWDP Job Developer's Marketing Kit for Employment & Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, Susan

    This guide was developed to meet the marketing, outreach, and recruitment needs of job training organizations. It is designed to help organizations create a positive and professional image of local job training programs in their business community. The guide is organized in three sections that cover the following: (1) marketing and outreach…

  2. Marketing and Its Effects on Student Development Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Don G.; Akins, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the intended outcomes of marketing (e.g., attracting new students who differ from the traditional ones and who require different programs and services) and discusses the resultant problems for student development programs. Presents strategies for preventing these problems, founded on careful, knowledge-based planning of marketing and…

  3. Developing a Marketing Strategy for Adult and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    The project described in this report aimed to develop an effective and affordable educational marketing strategy in one local British continuing education provider, as a case study for adult and continuing education nationally. Methods employed were as follows: a marketing consultant visited education centers; business and community directories…

  4. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  5. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the spring of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I developed a system health and status display for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of the servers, gateways, network switches, and firewalls used in the firing room.

  6. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors.

  7. Developments in seismic monitoring for risk reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents recent state-of-the-art developments to obtain displacements and drift ratios for seismic monitoring and damage assessment of buildings. In most cases, decisions on safety of buildings following seismic events are based on visual inspections of the structures. Real-time instrumental measurements using GPS or double integration of accelerations, however, offer a viable alternative. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and structural characteristics (including storey geometry), can be estimated to compute drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can then be compared to these thresholds in order to estimate damage conditions drift ratios. This approach is demonstrated in three steel frame buildings in San Francisco, California. Recently recorded data of strong shaking from these buildings indicate that the monitoring system can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can also be used for risk monitoring, as a method to assess performance-based design and analysis procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics of a building, and as a possible long-term damage detection tool.

  8. Sector strength and efficiency on developed and emerging financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we analyse the importance of sectors and market efficiency on developed and emerging financial markets. To perform this we analyse New York Stock Exchange between 2004 and 2013 and Warsaw Stock Exchange between 2000 and 2013. To find out the importance of sectors we construct minimal spanning trees for annual time series consisting of daily log returns and calculate centrality measures for all stocks, which we then aggregate by sectors. Such analysis is of interest to analysts for whom the knowledge of the influence of particular groups of stocks to the market behaviour is crucial. We also analyse the predictability of price changes on those two markets formally, using the information-theoretic concept of entropy rate, to find out the differences in market efficiency between a developed and an emerging market, and between sectors themselves. We postulate that such analysis is important to the study of financial markets as it can contribute to the profitability of investments, particularly in the case of algorithmic trading.

  9. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  10. Monitoring drug markets in the Internet age and the evolution of drug monitoring systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lucy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Bruno, Raimondo; Van Buskirk, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, drug monitoring systems have been in place for more than a decade allowing for the measurement of ongoing trends in drug use and the detection of new drugs. The Drug Trends Unit at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre monitors drugs through four separate systems. The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) measures the price, purity, and availability of drugs that are primarily injected. The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) monitors psychostimulants that are used recreationally. The National Illicit Drugs Indicator Project (NIDIP) analyzes indicator data including drug-related hospitalizations and deaths. Finally, the Drugs and Emerging Technologies Project (DNeT) analyzes the role of the Internet in the procurement and use of novel psychoactive substances. This paper provides an overview of each component of the system, demonstrating how the system has evolved over time.

  11. Monitoring drug markets in the Internet age and the evolution of drug monitoring systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lucy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Bruno, Raimondo; Van Buskirk, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, drug monitoring systems have been in place for more than a decade allowing for the measurement of ongoing trends in drug use and the detection of new drugs. The Drug Trends Unit at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre monitors drugs through four separate systems. The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) measures the price, purity, and availability of drugs that are primarily injected. The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) monitors psychostimulants that are used recreationally. The National Illicit Drugs Indicator Project (NIDIP) analyzes indicator data including drug-related hospitalizations and deaths. Finally, the Drugs and Emerging Technologies Project (DNeT) analyzes the role of the Internet in the procurement and use of novel psychoactive substances. This paper provides an overview of each component of the system, demonstrating how the system has evolved over time. PMID:24574080

  12. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    The reform trend of the 1990's in electricity markets recreates, to some extent, the institutional framework from which they developed one century ago. Although these reforms do not endeavor to completely remove regulation, the basic objectives of deregulation dwell on limiting central and governmental control over the industry in order to promote free competition at all possible levels. To assess whether the electricity industry is or is not moving back to a 19th century structure is not the goal of this thesis. We will rather try to understand on what grounds deregulation reforms stand and review how different countries and large utilities have reacted to this trend. The special nature of electricity (non-storable basic good, centrally produced) creates different obstacles in the restructuring of electricity markets, compared to other industries like the airline or telecommunication ones. For example, the dominant positions of some utilities, the production structure and the importance of electricity in modern life could transform these reforms in a threatening move for consumers. Another specific issue arising from deregulation, now that national energy policy goals no longer rule the behavior of utilities, is how investment will be coordinated in the new market. A key element to keep in sight is the competition level targeted by these reforms. To which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets remains an unanswered question. Indeed, the oligopolistic structure of the market could prevent such an outcome. An investigation of the investment dynamics in such a context seems therefore appropriate, and this will be an important theme of the thesis. This work offers an analysis of deregulated electricity markets and studies the oligopolistic market dynamics that could prevail in the new structure. Two complementary approaches are used for these purposes. The first is institutional and presents a thorough illustration of the economic arguments

  13. Developing Market Opportunities for Flexible Rooftop Applications of PV Using Flexible CIGS Technology: Market Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sabnani, L.; Skumanich, A.; Ryabova, E.; Noufi, R.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge in developments for building-integrated phototovoltaics (BiPV) roof top materials based on CIGS. Several new companies have increased their presence and are looking to bring products to market for this application in 2011. For roof-top application, there are significant key requirements beyond just having good conversion efficiency. Other attributes include lightweight, as well as moisture-proof, and fully functionally reliable. The companies bringing these new BIPV/BAPV products need to ensure functionality with a rigorous series of tests, and have an extensive set of 'torture' tests to validate the capability. There is a convergence of form, aesthetics, and physics to ensure that the CIGS BiPV deliver on their promises. This article will cover the developments in this segment of the BiPV market and delve into the specific tests and measurements needed to characterize the products. The potential market sizes are evaluated and the technical considerations developed.

  14. Development of a small radiation flux monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Leysen, W.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a miniaturized radiation flux monitor by means of Cherenkov light. The idea is to use the intensity of Cherenkov light as a measurement for the radiation flux. An initial test is performed with an extrinsic dielectric object which is coupled with an optical fibre. These test show that the Cherenkov radiation in the fibre itself was too high compared with the captured extrinsic light. Further test to use intrinsic Cherenkov fibre optic sensors are planned in the near future and the envisaged measurement set up is explained. (authors)

  15. Epidemiological monitoring plan for geothermal developments.

    PubMed

    Deane, M

    1984-01-27

    In order to assure that geothermal developments in the Imperial Valley of California proceeded on an environmentally sound basis, The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contracted with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive study of six aspects of the region and its potential problems: Air Quality Water Quality, Ecosystem Quality (Soil, Plants, Animals, etc.) Subsidence and Induced Seismicity, Health Effects, and Socio-Economic Effects which may result from the proposed development. This report of the possible health effects is designed to be repeated as geothermal developments progress. It includes both general health attributes and attributes which may be likely to be adversely affected by such developments and is focussed on two different populations, one likely to be affected and a second which is less likely to be affected. Such a design permits the easier identification of possible effects against a background of time-dependent processes in later phases of the study. This baseline study documents that before such developments, there were differences in health status of the two areas, which were chosen to maximize demographic comparability. It further identifies that odor, a possible problem associated with geothermal development, is currently present, and at times intense. Without such baseline monitoring, the likelihood is great that such effects in the future might be falsely ascribed to the geothermal development.

  16. Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S.…

  17. Modeling of market segmentation for new IT product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Mavrogianni, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    Businesses from all Information Technology sectors use market segmentation[1] in their product development[2] and strategic planning[3]. Many studies have concluded that market segmentation is considered as the norm of modern marketing. With the rapid development of technology, customer needs are becoming increasingly diverse. These needs can no longer be satisfied by a mass marketing approach and follow one rule. IT Businesses can face with this diversity by pooling customers[4] with similar requirements and buying behavior and strength into segments. The result of the best choices about which segments are the most appropriate to serve can then be made, thus making the best of finite resources. Despite the attention which segmentation gathers and the resources that are invested in it, growing evidence suggests that businesses have problems operationalizing segmentation[5]. These problems take various forms. There may have been a rule that the segmentation process necessarily results in homogeneous groups of customers for whom appropriate marketing programs and procedures for dealing with them can be developed. Then the segmentation process, that a company follows, can fail. This increases concerns about what causes segmentation failure and how it might be overcome. To prevent the failure, we created a dynamic simulation model of market segmentation[6] based on the basic factors leading to this segmentation.

  18. Designing, Developing, and Marketing Multimedia Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Anna; Randall, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    States that more and more technical writers across the discipline are likely to become involved in designing and developing multimedia products in the future. Finds that this will require retooling current skills used in production of text-based information products. Presents an overview of the process of bringing a multimedia product to the point…

  19. Developing Marketable Skills in the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eble, Kenneth

    Skills and knowledge developed by undergraduate study of the humanities and the application of these skills to business careers are discussed. The humanities are chiefly verbal disciplines and offer vital career preparation wherever communication and human relations are important. The scrutiny of students' writing, which occurs in humanities…

  20. Community Work Development: A Marketing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Como, Perry; Hagner, David

    This manual is concerned with developing community-based work for persons with disabilities, particularly disabled workers in segregated settings and individuals who are considered not yet ready for or capable of work. The first part of the publication deals with the following topics: the concepts of community, work, and severe disabilities; the…

  1. Marketing Education (ME)--Curriculum Development and Business Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Madison.

    This publication contains 47 competitive events developed by 40 businesspeople who worked with 20 marketing education teachers. The events are intended for use at the Distributive Education Clubs of America State Career Development Conference. These events are divided into the following categories: advertising services; apparel and accessories;…

  2. Photovoltaic market analysis program: Background, model development, applications and extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilien, G. L.; Fuller, F. H.

    1981-04-01

    Tools and procedures to help guide government spending decisions associated with stimulating photovoltaic market penetration were developed. The program has three main components: (1) theoretical analysis aimed at understanding qualitatively what general types of policies are likely to be most cost effective in stimulating PV market penetration; (2) operational model developent (PV1), providing a user oriented tool to study quantitatively the relative effectiveness of specific government spending options and (3) field measurements, aimed at providing objective estimates of the parameters used in the diffusion model used in PV1. Existing models of solar technology diffusion are reviewed and the structure of the PV1 model is described. Theoretical results on optimal strategies for spending federal market development and subsidy funds are reviewed. The validity of these results is checked by comparing them with PV1 projections of penetration and cost forecasts for 15 government policy strategies which are simulated on the PV1 model.

  3. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the summer of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays and support applications at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I created control scripts using the Application Control Language (ACL) to analyze the health and status of Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This application provides a system health and status display I created with summarized data for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of KGCS subsystems.

  4. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  5. The use of consumption data to assess exposure to biotechnology-derived foods and the feasibility of identifying effects on human health through post-market monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hlywka, J J; Reid, J E; Munro, I C

    2003-10-01

    The pre-market safety assessment of foods derived through biotechnology provides a scientific basis for concluding reasonable certainty of no harm and ensuring safety. At a minimum, the outcome of such an assessment provides sufficient information to estimate the likelihood of adverse effects on consumers, generally precluding the need for post-market monitoring. Post-market monitoring (PMM) may be appropriate under certain conditions where a better estimate of dietary exposure and/or nutritional consequence of a biotechnology-derived food is required, when a potential safety issue, such as allergenicity, cannot be adequately addressed through pre-market studies, or to corroborate dietary intakes of a nutritionally improved food with beneficial effects on human health. Monitoring programs must be hypothesis-driven, and are dependent upon the availability of accurate consumption data. Exposure assessment methods include both deterministic and probabilistic estimates of intakes using food supply data, individual dietary surveys, household surveys, or total diet studies. In the development of a monitoring approach, resource allocation should be dependent upon both the desired level of conservatism and the endpoint of interest. However, the cost of monitoring varies substantially, and the potential to determine causation may be limited.

  6. Building a data set over 12 globally distributed sites to support the development of agriculture monitoring applications with Sentinel-2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing better agricultural monitoring capabilities based on Earth Observation data is critical for strengthening food production information and market transparency. The coming Sentinel-2 mission has the optimal capacity for regional to global agriculture monitoring in terms of resolution (10-20...

  7. Development of living body information monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Torigoe, Ippei; Miyagawa, Hidekazu; Murayama, Nobuki; Hayashida, Yuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2009-12-01

    The easy monitoring systems of contact and non-contact living body information for preventing the the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were proposed as an alternative monitoring system of the infant's vital information. As for the contact monitoring system, respiration sensor, ECG electrodes, thermistor and IC signal processor were integrated into babies' nappy holder. This contact-monitoring unit has RF transmission function and the obtained data are analyzed in real time by PC. In non-contact mortaring system, the infrared thermo camera was used. The surrounding of the infant's mouth and nose is monitored and the respiration rate is obtained by thermal image processing of its temperature change image of expired air. This proposed system of in-sleep infant's vital information monitoring system and unit are very effective as not only infant's condition monitoring but also nursing person's one.

  8. Development of living body information monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Torigoe, Ippei; Miyagawa, Hidekazu; Murayama, Nobuki; Hayashida, Yuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2010-03-01

    The easy monitoring systems of contact and non-contact living body information for preventing the the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were proposed as an alternative monitoring system of the infant's vital information. As for the contact monitoring system, respiration sensor, ECG electrodes, thermistor and IC signal processor were integrated into babies' nappy holder. This contact-monitoring unit has RF transmission function and the obtained data are analyzed in real time by PC. In non-contact mortaring system, the infrared thermo camera was used. The surrounding of the infant's mouth and nose is monitored and the respiration rate is obtained by thermal image processing of its temperature change image of expired air. This proposed system of in-sleep infant's vital information monitoring system and unit are very effective as not only infant's condition monitoring but also nursing person's one.

  9. Karl Fisher determination of residual moisture in veterinary vaccines -- practical implementation in market monitoring.

    PubMed

    Krasucka, Dorota M; Kos, Katarzyna; Cybulski, Wojciech A; Mitura, Agata; Łysiak, Ewa; Pietroń, Wojciech J

    2012-01-01

    Residual moisture content plays a significant role in assessing the stability of veterinary vaccines. Analysis of water amount is often a critical parameter, which determines the quality of product, its appearance as well as the expiration date. The aim of the study was to validate a coulometric Karl Fisher method for practical use in the national monitoring of veterinary vaccines market. Immunological veterinary medicinal product (ivmp) for three different animal species - cats, dogs and rabbits - were used. Automated coulometric analysis in chamber without diaphragm was used, as well as a solution for titration, which was a mixture of diethanolamine, imidazole, methanol and sulfur dioxide. The weight of a single sample was 15-100 mg. The most important concern was optimization of the way of transferring a vaccine sample into titration cell, so that atmospheric moisture would not affect baseline drift and repeatability of the results. Humidity level in lyophilized biopharmaceuticals was validated in accordance with the guidelines. The method was linear in the range of one to five percent of water content with R(2) = 0.9998. Repeatability for different sample types was found to be not higher than CV% = 5.9. The method was used for vaccines market monitoring in 2010 and 2011. Thirteen vaccines from the market were tested and all were found to be compliant with official EU guidelines.

  10. Integrating Development, Alumni Relations, and Marketing for Fundraising Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    At many institutions, the vice president of institutional advancement oversees the functions of development, alumni relations, and marketing and communications. University leaders expect these functions to be integrated and to work hand-in-hand to advance the institution's mission, particularly in the area of private donations. The reality is that…

  11. Developments in U.S. Alternative Fuel Markets

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The alternative fueled vehicle (AFV)/alternative fuels industry experienced a number of market-related changes in the second half of the 1990s. This article describes each of the alternative transportation fuels and the AFVs in detail. It provides information on the development to date and looks at trends likely to occur in the future.

  12. Older People as a Developing Market for Cultural Heritage Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Anna; Zipsane, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable for the heritage sector to see the growing population of senior citizens as a developing market? Jamtli is an open air museum in the north of Sweden. The main target group is families with children, but an increasing number of activities for older adults are being offered. The growing population of older people is a…

  13. Developing hydrological monitoring networks with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Vega, Andres; Villacis, Marcos; Moulds, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The open source hardware platform Arduino is very cost-effective and versatile for the development of sensor networks. Here we report on experiments on the use of Arduino-related technologies to develop and implement hydrological monitoring networks. Arduino Uno boards were coupled to a variety of commercially available hydrological sensors and programmed for automatic data collection. Tested sensors include water level, temperature, humidity, radiation, and precipitation. Our experiments show that most of the tested analogue sensors are quite straightforward to couple to Arduino based data loggers, especially if the electronic characteristics of the sensor are available. However, some sensors have internal digital interfaces, which are more challenging to connect. Lastly, tipping bucket rain gauges prove the most challenging because of the very specific methodology, i.e. registration of bucket tips instead of measurements at regular intervals. The typically low data generation rate of hydrological instruments is very compatible with available technologies for wireless data transmission. Mesh networks such as Xbee prove very convenient and robust for dispersed networks, while wifi is also an option for shorter distances and particular topographies. Lastly, the GSM shield of the Arduino can be used to transfer data to centralized databases. In regions where no mobile internet (i.e. 3G) connection is available, data transmission via text messages may be an option, depending on the bandwidth requirements.

  14. Asset health monitors: development, sustainment, advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the Captive Carry Health Monitor Unit (HMU) and the Humidity Indicator HMU. Each of these devices provides end users information that can be used to ensure the proper maintenance and performance of the missile. These two efforts have led to the ongoing development and evolution of the next generation Captive Carry HMU and the next generation Humidity Indicator HMU. These next generation efforts are in turn, leading to the future of HMUs. This evolutionary development process inherently allows for direct and indirect impact toward new HMU functionality, operability and performance characteristics by influencing their requirements, testing, communications, data archival, and user interaction. Current designs allow systems to operate in environments outside the limits of typical consumer electronics for up to or exceeding 10 years. These designs are battery powered and typically provided in custom mechanical packages that employ sensors for temperature, shock/vibration, and humidity measurements. The data taken from these sensors is then analyzed onboard using unique algorithms. The algorithms are developed from test data and fielded prototypes. Onboard data analysis provides field users with a simple indication of missile exposure. The HMU provides missile readiness information to the user based on storage and use conditions observed. To continually advance current designs PNNL evaluates the potential for enhancing sensor capabilities by improving performance or power saving features, increasing algorithm and processing abilities, and adding new features. Future work at PNNL includes the utilization of power harvesting, using a defined wireless protocol, and defining a data/information structure. These efforts will lead to improved performance allowing the HMUs to benefit users with direct access to HMUs in the field as well as benefiting those with the ability to make strategic and high-level supply and

  15. Market-based licensing for HPV vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines hold great promise for preventing cervical cancer, but 93 percent of mortality worldwide occurs in low- and middle-income countries, where high vaccine costs can restrict dissemination. Current models for promoting international access to health care innovations include differential pricing, advance market commitments, and voluntary and compulsory licensing. Some of these mechanisms have been effective, but much room for improvement remains. We discuss the usefulness of a new type of license that uses market forces to lower prices through generic competition in low- and middle-income countries while ensuring that pharmaceutical companies are appropriately reimbursed for their research and development.

  16. [Post-marketing clinical safety assessment of Shenmai injection based on active monitoring and passive monitoring in large data background].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Ai, Qing-hua; Song, Nian-bin

    2015-12-01

    This paper adopted a series of related analysis methods to comprehensively analyze post-marketing clinical safety data of Shenmai injection from 4,220 cases of SRS and 32,358 cases of multicenter, prospective, registered hospital centralized monitoring in large data background, calculated ADR incidence rate was 0.93 per 1,000, main symptoms of ADR includes chest pain, chills, skin itching, palpitations, fever, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, flushing, numbness, allergic reaction, cyanosis, rash, low back pain, and "breath", "anaphylactoid reaction" and "flush" were the safety warning signals of Shenmai injection. Primary disease for chronic pulmonary heart disease, thyroid disease, and combined with cerebral vascular disease, prior to the injection and continuous use of alprostadil, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, combined with quinolones, penicillins were suspicious influence factors of ADR of Shenmai injection, these promot the clinical safety. PMID:27245017

  17. 77 FR 24171 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... also considers the extent to which a proposed project targets markets with the greatest growth... Commodity Credit Corporation Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market... the 2013 Foreign Market Development Cooperator (Cooperator) program. The intended effect of...

  18. Improvement of bioprocess monitoring: development of novel concepts

    PubMed Central

    Clementschitsch, Franz; Bayer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The advancement of bioprocess monitoring will play a crucial role to meet the future requirements of bioprocess technology. Major issues are the acceleration of process development to reduce the time to the market and to ensure optimal exploitation of the cell factory and further to cope with the requirements of the Process Analytical Technology initiative. Due to the enormous complexity of cellular systems and lack of appropriate sensor systems microbial production processes are still poorly understood. This holds generally true for the most microbial production processes, in particular for the recombinant protein production due to strong interaction between recombinant gene expression and host cell metabolism. Therefore, it is necessary to scrutinise the role of the different cellular compartments in the biosynthesis process in order to develop comprehensive process monitoring concepts by involving the most significant process variables and their interconnections. Although research for the development of novel sensor systems is progressing their applicability in bioprocessing is very limited with respect to on-line and in-situ measurement due to specific requirements of aseptic conditions, high number of analytes, drift, and often rather low physiological relevance. A comprehensive survey of the state of the art of bioprocess monitoring reveals that only a limited number of metabolic variables show a close correlation to the currently explored chemical/physical principles. In order to circumvent this unsatisfying situation mathematical methods are applied to uncover "hidden" information contained in the on-line data and thereby creating correlations to the multitude of highly specific biochemical off-line data. Modelling enables the continuous prediction of otherwise discrete off-line data whereby critical process states can be more easily detected. The challenging issue of this concept is to establish significant on-line and off-line data sets. In this context

  19. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  20. Portal Monitor Future Development Work: Hardware Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, Michael C.

    2012-07-03

    LANL portal monitor was a modification of a previously installed (permanent) unattended monitoring system (UMS). Modifications to the UMS to make the portal were sometimes based on mistaken assumptions about exercise-specific installation and access. Philosophical approach to real-time portal differs in some areas from UMS.

  1. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  2. Markets slow to develop for Niger delta gas reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-11-27

    Nigeria produces a very high quality, light, sweet crude oil but with a large percentage of associated gas derived from a high gas-to-oil ratio. Official proved gas reserves, both associated and nonassociated, are 120 tcf. Proved and probable reserves are estimated as high as 300 tcf. The internal market for gas has only begun to develop since the 1980s, and as a result approximately 77% of associated gas production is flared. Domestic gas consumption is currently approximately 700 MMcfd and is projected to have a medium term potential of 1.450 bcfd. The article discusses resource development, gas markets, gas flaring, gas use programs, the Bonny LNG scheme, the gas reserve base, LNG project status, competition, and energy opportunities.

  3. The Marketing Mix and Development of Medical Tourism in Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Alireza; Rahimi Zarchi, Mohammad Kazem; Kavosi, Zahra; Shafaghat, Tahere; Keshtkaran, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, medical tourism market has been raised as one of the income-earning and competitive industries in the world and is considered as a modern field of advanced tourism. Therefore, a great number of countries are seeking to develop this type of tourism and one of the strategies for developing this industry is using the marketing mix elements. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic and cross sectional one. The research community included all the public and private hospitals of Shiraz among which, 7 public and 9 private hospitals were studied. The study data were collected through a researcher-made check list whose face and content validity was confirmed by the experts. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software. According to the objectives of the study, the descriptive results were presented in frequency tables and Chi-square test was used for data analysis. In addition, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: According to the results, both public and private hospitals of Shiraz were in the best condition regarding staff and physician mix and in the worst condition concerning promoting and facilities mixes. No significant difference was found between public and private hospitals regarding the mixes. Conclusion: From marketing mix elements view, paying more attention to media advertisements and providing more facilities can improve the status of the hospitals which, consequently, results in attracting more medical tourists and developing this industry in Shiraz. PMID:23678337

  4. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets.

    PubMed

    Baker, C S; Lento, G M; Cipriano, F; Palumbi, S R

    2000-06-22

    the International Whaling Commission. For the range of exploitation consistent with the market sample, this protected stock was predicted to decline towards extinction over the next few decades. These results confirmed the power of molecular methods in monitoring retail markets and pointed to the inadequacy of the current moratorium for ensuring the recovery of protected species. More importantly, the integration of genetic evidence with a model of population dynamics identified an urgent need for actions to limit undocumented exploitation of a 'protected' stock of whales.

  5. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C S; Lento, G M; Cipriano, F; Palumbi, S R

    2000-01-01

    the International Whaling Commission. For the range of exploitation consistent with the market sample, this protected stock was predicted to decline towards extinction over the next few decades. These results confirmed the power of molecular methods in monitoring retail markets and pointed to the inadequacy of the current moratorium for ensuring the recovery of protected species. More importantly, the integration of genetic evidence with a model of population dynamics identified an urgent need for actions to limit undocumented exploitation of a 'protected' stock of whales. PMID:10902685

  6. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets.

    PubMed

    Baker, C S; Lento, G M; Cipriano, F; Palumbi, S R

    2000-06-22

    the International Whaling Commission. For the range of exploitation consistent with the market sample, this protected stock was predicted to decline towards extinction over the next few decades. These results confirmed the power of molecular methods in monitoring retail markets and pointed to the inadequacy of the current moratorium for ensuring the recovery of protected species. More importantly, the integration of genetic evidence with a model of population dynamics identified an urgent need for actions to limit undocumented exploitation of a 'protected' stock of whales. PMID:10902685

  7. Developing decontamination strategies and monitoring tools.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Linda

    Decontamination within the healthcare setting plays a significant role in reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections. This article will examine decontamination from hand hygiene to sterilization of instruments and discuss how hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP) can be used to monitor and record practice, ensuring that consistent standards are based on recommended guidelines, the law and policies.

  8. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  9. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS... promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of apricots. The expense of such projects shall...

  10. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS... promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of apricots. The expense of such projects shall...

  11. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS... promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of apricots. The expense of such projects shall...

  12. Development and marketing of a prosthetic urinary control valve system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, J. B., Jr.; Rabinowitz, R.; Rogers, D. W.; Harrison, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    An implantable prosthetic for the control of urinary incontinence was developed and marketed. Three phases are presented: bench development studies, animal trials, and human clinical trials. This work was performed under the direction of a Research Team at Rochester General Hospital (RGH). Bench trials were completed on prototype hardware and provided early verification of the device's ability to withstand repeated cyclic testing. Configurational variants were evaluated and a preferred design concept was established. Silicone rubber (medical grade) was selected as the preferred material for the prosthesis.

  13. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  14. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  15. A Structural and Functional Model of Teachers' Monitoring Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalimova, Alfiya R.; Barinova, Nataliya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused by a strong need to conduct monitoring processes in all types of teaching processes and a poor development of theoretical, content and technological, scientific and methodological material for teachers' monitoring skills development during their teaching practice. The aim of the article is to create and…

  16. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  17. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts... areas and commodities; and (3) The need for marketing research with respect to any marketing development activity and the need for a coordinated effort with USDA's Plentiful Food Program. (c) In...

  18. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS... areas and commodities; and (3) The need for marketing research with respect to any marketing development activity and the need for a coordinated effort with USDA's Plentiful Food Program. (c) In...

  19. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts... areas and commodities; and (3) The need for marketing research with respect to any marketing development activity and the need for a coordinated effort with USDA's Plentiful Food Program. (c) In...

  20. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS... areas and commodities; and (3) The need for marketing research with respect to any marketing development activity and the need for a coordinated effort with USDA's Plentiful Food Program. (c) In...

  1. Embedded Sensor Array Development for Composite Structure Integrity Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Bryan, W. L.; Clonts, L. G.; Franks, S.

    2007-06-26

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Accellent Technologies, Inc. (the "Participant") was for the development of an embedded ultrasonic sensor system for composite structure integrity monitoring.

  2. The Development of a Portable ECG Monitor Based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, CHI Jian; Tao, YAN Yan; Meng Chen, LIU; Li, YANG

    With the advent of global information, researches of Smart Home system are in the ascendant, the ECG real-time detection, and wireless transmission of ECG become more useful. In order to achieve the purpose we developed a portable ECG monitor which achieves the purpose of cardiac disease remote monitoring, and will be used in the physical and psychological disease surveillance in smart home system, we developed this portable ECG Monitor, based on the analysis of existing ECG Monitor, using TMS320F2812 as the core controller, which complete the signal collection, storage, processing, waveform display and transmission.

  3. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-05-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Abuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  4. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-09-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the US Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  5. INTEGRATED MONITORING HARDWARE DEVELOPMENTS AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    R. PARKER; J. HALBIG; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The hardware of the integrated monitoring system supports a family of instruments having a common internal architecture and firmware. Instruments can be easily configured from application-specific personality boards combined with common master-processor and high- and low-voltage power supply boards, and basic operating firmware. The instruments are designed to function autonomously to survive power and communication outages and to adapt to changing conditions. The personality boards allow measurement of gross gammas and neutrons, neutron coincidence and multiplicity, and gamma spectra. In addition, the Intelligent Local Node (ILON) provides a moderate-bandwidth network to tie together instruments, sensors, and computers.

  6. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  7. Marketing occupational therapy services.

    PubMed

    Kautzmann, L N

    1985-01-01

    The ability to understand and appropriately apply business skills is a key component in the development of a successful private practice. Marketing is one of the business skills occupational therapists need to have in order to take full advantage of the opportunities available to entrepeneurs in the health care industry. The purpose of this article is to present a structured approach to marketing occupational therapy services through the use of a marketing plan. The four components of a marketing plan, a situation analysis, the identification of problems, opportunities, and target markets, the development of a marketing strategy for each targeted market, and a method to monitor the plan, are discussed. Applications to occupational therapy practice are suggested. The use of a marketing plan as a method for organizing and focusing marketing efforts is an effective means of supporting and enhancing the development of a private practice.

  8. Developing an Evidence-Based Epilepsy Risk Assessment eHealth Solution: From Concept to Market

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rohit; Hanna, Jane; McLean, Brendan; Osland, Alex; Milligan, Cathryn; Ball, Abbie; Jory, Caryn; Walker, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is possibly the most common cause of death as a result of complications from epilepsy. The need to educate and regularly review risk for all patients with epilepsy is paramount, but rarely delivered in actual clinical practice. Evidence suggests that education around SUDEP and modifiable risk variables translate into better self-management of epilepsy. Objective We aimed to develop and implement an eHealth solution to support education and self-management of risks, in epilepsy. Methods We undertook an innovation pathways approach, including problem identification, feasibility assessment, design, implementation, and marketing. People with epilepsy were provided a smartphone-based app (Epilepsy Self-Monitor, EpSMon), which translates the clinical risk assessment tool into an educational and self-monitoring platform, for the self-management of epilepsy. Results Results include the success of the marketing campaign, and in what areas, with an estimated reach of approximately 38 million people. EpSMon has proved a success in academic and clinical circles, attracting awards and nominations for awards. The number of users of EpSMon, after 3 months, turned out to be lower than expected (N=221). A 4-month trial of the app in use in the United Kingdom, and the success of the marketing strategy, point to necessary changes to the model of delivery and marketing, summarized in this paper. These include the marketing message, user cost model, and need for the availability of an Android version. Conclusions EpSMon has proven a success in respect to its reception by academics, clinicians, stakeholder groups, and the patients who use it. There is work needed to promote the model and increase its acceptability/attractiveness, including broadening the marketing message, increasing its availability, and reducing its cost. Future development and promotion of the tool will hopefully inform iterative design of its core features for

  9. Development of a remote insulator contamination monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, C.N.; Renowden, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The aperiodic occurrence of widespread contamination related outages in Florida resulted in a project to develop a contamination monitoring system. Along with original research work this project brings together knowledge from diverse technical fields to produce a practical, field deployable, contamination monitoring system. Testing of the system, both in a controlled testing environment and on operating transmission lines, has verified the ability of the system to monitor the buildup of contamination as well as the natural washing of insulation.

  10. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  11. Residual water bactericide monitor development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A silver-ion bactericidal monitor is considered for the Space Shuttle Potable Water System. Potentiometric measurement using an ion-selective electrode is concluded to be the most feasible of available techniques. Four commercially available electrodes and a specially designed, solid-state, silver-sulfide electrode were evaluated for their response characteristics and suitability for space use. The configuration of the solid-state electrode with its Nernstian response of 10 to 10,000 ppb silver shows promise for use in space. A pressurized double-junction reference electrode with a quartz-fiber junction and a replaceable bellows electrolyte reservoir was designed verification-tested, and paired with a solid-state silver-sulfide electrode in a test fixture.

  12. Sediment transport monitoring for sustainable hydropower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüther, Nils; Guerrero, Massimo; Stokseth, Siri

    2015-04-01

    Due to the increasing demand of CO2 neutral energy not only in Europe but also in World, a relatively large amount of new hydro power plants (HPP) are built. In addition, will existing ones refurbished and renewed in order to run them more cost effective. A huge thread to HPPs is incoming sediments in suspension from the rivers upstream. The sediments settle in the reservoir and reduce the effective head and volume and reduce consequently the life time of the reservoir. In addition are the fine sediments causing severe damages to turbines and infrastructure of a HPP. For estimating the amount of incoming sediments in suspension and therefore planning efficient counter measures, it is essential to monitor the rivers within the catchment of the HPP for suspended sediments. This work is considerably time consuming and requires highly educated personnel and is therefore expensive. Consequently will this study present a method to measure suspended sediment concentrations and their grain size distribution with a dual frequency acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). This method is more cost effective and reliable in comparison to traditional measurement methods. Having more detailed information about the sediments being transported in a river, the hydro power plant can be planned, built, and operated much more efficiently and sustainable. The two horizontal ADCPs are installed at a measurement cross section in the Devoll river in Albania. To verify the new method, the suspended load concentrations will be monitored also in the traditional ways at the same cross sections. It is planned to install turbidity measurement devices included with an automatic sampling devices. It is also planned to use an optical in situ measurement device (LISST SL by Sequoia Inc.) to have detailed information of sediment concentration and grain sizes over the depth.

  13. Global and Local Approaches Describing Critical Phenomena on the Developing and Developed Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, Dariusz

    We define and confront global and local methods to analyze the financial crash-like events on the financial markets from the critical phenomena point of view. These methods are based respectively on the analysis of log-periodicity and on the local fractal properties of financial time series in the vicinity of phase transitions (crashes). The log-periodicity analysis is made in a daily time horizon, for the whole history (1991-2008) of Warsaw Stock Exchange Index (WIG) connected with the largest developing financial market in Europe. We find that crash-like events on the Polish financial market are described better by the log-divergent price model decorated with log-periodic behavior than by the power-law-divergent price model usually discussed in log-periodic scenarios for developed markets. Predictions coming from log-periodicity scenario are verified for all main crashes that took place in WIG history. It is argued that crash predictions within log-periodicity model strongly depend on the amount of data taken to make a fit and therefore are likely to contain huge inaccuracies. Next, this global analysis is confronted with the local fractal description. To do so, we provide calculation of the so-called local (time dependent) Hurst exponent H loc for the WIG time series and for main US stock market indices like DJIA and S&P 500. We point out dependence between the behavior of the local fractal properties of financial time series and the crashes appearance on the financial markets. We conclude that local fractal method seems to work better than the global approach - both for developing and developed markets. The very recent situation on the market, particularly related to the Fed intervention in September 2007 and the situation immediately afterwards is also analyzed within fractal approach. It is shown in this context how the financial market evolves through different phases of fractional Brownian motion. Finally, the current situation on American market is

  14. Development of a Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Forde, Sarah; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved…

  15. 5 CFR 9901.409 - Monitoring and developing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monitoring and developing performance... LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.409 Monitoring and...

  16. The Developing Child: Tools for Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Micheline

    1991-01-01

    This document examines the use of measurement tools to evaluate children's psychological development. The first part of the document discusses the identification and quantification of developmental landmarks and the reasons for evaluation. The second part reviews several evaluation instruments. The Ruth Griffiths mental development scales are used…

  17. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  18. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  19. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  20. How to Develop a Marketing Strategy for Your Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, George F.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of marketing (referred to as the six p's: product, pricing, point of sale, people, promotion, and positioning) and shows how they can be applied to the marketing of day care centers. (SKC)

  1. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and market research and... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925.45 Production research and market research and development. The committee, with the approval of...

  2. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production research and market research and... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925.45 Production research and market research and development. The committee, with the approval of...

  3. Developing a Marketing Mind-Set: Training and Mentoring for County Extension Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Christopher T.; Elizer, Amy Hastings; Hastings, Shirley; Barry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing the county Extension program is a critical responsibility of the entire county staff. This article describes a unique peer-to-peer training and mentoring program developed to assist county Extension staff in improving marketing skills and successfully developing and implementing a county Extension marketing plan. Data demonstrating…

  4. Strategic Marketing Planning: Creative Strategies for Developing Unique Income Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, John A.

    After discussing current community college financial problems, this paper examines the acquisition of alternative funding through the application of marketing strategies and strategic planning. The paper first differentiates marketing from sales or promotion and then describes the ability of a marketing program to attract new consumers and to…

  5. Developing Pedagogical Competence: Issues and Implications for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhavaram, Sreedhar; Laverie, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence in pedagogy and research is the sine qua non of marketing educators' careers. However, there is evidence in the literature that marketing academics focus "more on" and "are more competent" in research than teaching. This imbalance, in a majority of instances, can be traced back to doctoral education. Doctoral programs in marketing are…

  6. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  7. Development of a telemetric heat stress monitor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-21

    Hazardous-materials workers and firefighters wear clothing that protects them from external hazards, but the sealed environment of a protective suit makes its wearer susceptible to heat stress. A prototype of the Telemetric Heat Stress Monitor (THSM) was developed at LANL to warn workers, and personnel monitoring the workers, of incipient heat stress by detecting the workers` elevated temperatures and heart rates. The purpose of this CRADA was to transfer the information and technology from LANL to the industrial partner, and to assist in the further development of a commercial THSM product. The THSM is the first extensive telemetric physiological monitor to be developed; previous monitors used wires between the sensors and the recording and display equipment. Developing a reliable, small, battery-powered, inexpensive telemetry system to share the RF spectrum with today`s proliferating wireless devices was a significant technical accomplishment.

  8. Random matrix approach to group correlations in development country financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qohar, Ulin Nuha Abdul; Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep

    2015-12-01

    Financial market is a borderless economic activity, everyone in this world has the right to participate in stock transactions. The movement of stocks is interesting to be discussed in various sciences, ranging from economists to mathe-maticians try to explain and predict the stock movement. Econophysics, as a discipline that studies the economic behavior using one of the methods in particle physics to explain stock movement. Stocks tend to be unpredictable probabilistic regarded as a probabilistic particle. Random Matrix Theory is one method used to analyze probabilistic particle is used to analyze the characteristics of the movement in the stock collection of developing country stock market shares of the correlation matrix. To obtain the characteristics of the developing country stock market and use characteristics of stock markets of developed countries as a parameter for comparison. The result shows market wide effect is not happened in Philipine market and weak in Indonesia market. Contrary, developed country (US) has strong market wide effect.

  9. Industrial packaging developments for the global meat market.

    PubMed

    Belcher, J N

    2006-09-01

    Packaging companies must carefully monitor retail and consumer trends to best utilize, direct, or prioritize their research dollars in developing packaging and packaging systems to meet these demands. This paper reviews packaging developments that are resulting from numerous trends taking place in the meat industry and in the retail sector. Current case ready packaging solutions that meet the needs of retailers to reduce labor in the back of the retail stores, and the consumer needs for a fresh product with excellent quality and palatability are also discussed. It will also review the current packaging options that are being developed to help consumers battle their "time crunch" with ready meal solutions. Finally, the necessity to increase food safety or eliminate pathogens while producing a high quality product continues to drive packaging development. Current systems and packaging available for post packaging pasteurization will be discussed. PMID:22062723

  10. Canada's efforts in developing capabilities in radiological population monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Wilkins, Ruth; Dai, Xiongxin; Sadi, Baki; Ko, Raymond; Kramer, Gary H

    2011-08-01

    Population monitoring is an important component of radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Since 2002, Canada has been investing in developing national capabilities in radiological population monitoring. This paper summarizes Canada's efforts in developing methods and techniques in biological dosimetry and in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. There are still many gaps to fill that require further efforts. Integration of different monitoring methods and techniques in order to have the best assessment of radiation dose to support medical management and integration of Canada's efforts with international efforts are recommended.

  11. Market governance for safe food in developing countries: the case of low-pesticide vegetables in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Hoi, Pham; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter J M

    2009-01-01

    In many developed countries private arrangements have emerged in food governance. Following limited successes of state regulation, market actors and mechanisms are increasingly included in the environmental and safety governance of domestic and global food chains and networks. But do such private governance arrangements also work in domestic markets in developing countries? Pesticide use in vegetable supply is taken as a case to explore the role of market actors and dynamics in food safety governance in Vietnam. The so-called safe vegetable production system in the Red River Delta, introduced 10 years ago as a domestic alternative to conventional vegetable production, is analyzed through detailed monitoring of farmers, surveys of retailers and consumers, and in-depth interviews with state officials and vegetable traders. The paper finds limited success of this low-pesticide vegetable production, distribution and consumption system. This private arrangement in food governance lacked trust from market actors (especially consumers), and was short of an active state that organized transparency and got market actors involved. As such, market governance in food safety needs to be strong.

  12. Market governance for safe food in developing countries: the case of low-pesticide vegetables in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Hoi, Pham; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter J M

    2009-01-01

    In many developed countries private arrangements have emerged in food governance. Following limited successes of state regulation, market actors and mechanisms are increasingly included in the environmental and safety governance of domestic and global food chains and networks. But do such private governance arrangements also work in domestic markets in developing countries? Pesticide use in vegetable supply is taken as a case to explore the role of market actors and dynamics in food safety governance in Vietnam. The so-called safe vegetable production system in the Red River Delta, introduced 10 years ago as a domestic alternative to conventional vegetable production, is analyzed through detailed monitoring of farmers, surveys of retailers and consumers, and in-depth interviews with state officials and vegetable traders. The paper finds limited success of this low-pesticide vegetable production, distribution and consumption system. This private arrangement in food governance lacked trust from market actors (especially consumers), and was short of an active state that organized transparency and got market actors involved. As such, market governance in food safety needs to be strong. PMID:19782462

  13. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    SciTech Connect

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  14. Historical achievements of self-monitoring of blood glucose technology development in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigeki

    2011-09-01

    Japanese companies were the first in the world to achieve a colorimetric glucose measurement meter back in 1973. Over the following 40 or so years, they succeeded in achieving a much greater level of user-friendliness and performance and in so doing, have contributed to the spread of self-monitoring of blood glucose. This article aims to unravel the history of blood glucose measurement's technological developments; to look at the direction and features of the development path Japan is taking; as well as to introduce some Japanese products that are on the market.

  15. Joint Venture Marketing Training: Development Marketing Plans Utilizing Foreign and American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, David; Jones, Kevin

    This paper describes a workshop prepared and presented by the Business Administration Department of the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, that is designed to provide training in evaluating a European market for an American product and preparing a plan for marketing the product in Europe. It is noted that the program can work with both students…

  16. School Principals as Marketing Managers: The Expanding Role of Marketing for School Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anast-May, Linda; Mitchell, Mark; Buckner, Barbara Chesler; Elsberry, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance that school principals attach to aspects of their role as marketing managers for their schools and their relative satisfaction with their efforts to date. The study included 60 principals from two school districts. Findings suggest that principals are aware of the importance of marketing in today's…

  17. Marketing Remote Sensing Data for North Pacific Fisheries Development and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Fish poaching, drug trafficking, ocean dumping, and other illegal activities are important problems on the high seas and in national economic zones. The primary thrust of the EOCAP II project, "Marketing Remote Sensing Data for North Pacific Fisheries Development and Management", was to use space-based sensors to improve the effectiveness of marine monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). Our initial objectives were to concentrate on the development of MCS tools using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometry (AVHRR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Although we have successfully completed development of an initial version of our SAR-based monitoring tool (OmniVision), project activity has resulted in a much broader application of space-based assets to marine applications. Based in part on work commenced within EOCAP II, a new company, Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing, Inc. (OCENS), has been launched and the development of several new software products outside of the MCS arena initiated. One of those products, SeaStation, is near completion with a Fall, 1995 release date. Equity investment in OCENS now totals $70,000-with an additional amount being sought in the first round of financing. One of the pre-eminent objectives of EOCAP II is to make contributions to the US economy and job growth through the expansion of commercial uses of remotely sensed data. OCENS and the software products it is introducing into marine and coastal zone markets responds to this primary object*e. EOCAP II funding leveraged the market and technical know-how of OCENS founders into smart products that benefit marine and coastal zone users. Although technical difficulties and geopolitical shifts damaged the commercial feasibility of initial project objectives, the flexibility of the EOCAP II program now permits long-term business success. This in no small part stems from the fact that the EOCAP program recognizes the realities of small and start-up businesses and does not

  18. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  19. Development of a current monitor using a negative impedance circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Tetsuro

    2014-11-01

    I developed a beam current transformer (CT) for monitoring the beam of a slow-cycling accelerator. The beam monitor is a new type of CT that measures the average current of a circulating beam using a negative impedance circuit (NIC). Adding an NIC can extend the low-frequency cutoff of a CT down to 0 Hz (Ninomiya et al., 2006 [1]). This report presents the detail of our proposed beam-monitoring system. The measurable band width of the CT is 30 kHz. The stability of the droop time constant of the square pulse response is ~2%/s. This beam monitor was developed for the synchrotron at the Wakasa-Wan Energy Research Center (WERC) and is currently installed there.

  20. Sod Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Vocational Agriculture Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Developed for use by vocational agriculture teachers in Iowa, this instructional unit provides information about the growing and marketing of sod for lawns. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The manual includes an…

  1. The Spatial Geography of Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…

  2. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  3. The development and applications of thermal biosensors for bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, K; Rank, M; Svitel, J; Dzgoev, A; Danielsson, B

    1999-12-01

    Enzyme thermistors are biosensors that use thermal resistors to measure the heat change caused by an enzymatic reaction. They combine the selectivity of enzymes with the sensitivity of biosensors and allow continuous analysis in a flow-injection mode. They can be used to monitor fermentation systems, biocatalysis, enzyme-catalysed synthesis and clinical and food technology. This article gives an overview of the general principles of enzyme thermistors, the sampling process and the ongoing developments in the field of bioprocess monitoring.

  4. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  5. Developing Graduate Marketing Programs for Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadraba, Petr G.; O'Keefe, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the authors' experiences in introducing marketing concepts to students involved in the transition from planned to market economies. It addresses critical issues involved in the translation of these concepts within languages that often have no words that are synonymous with these terms. The authors discuss methods…

  6. A Framework for Curriculum Development in Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This book is designed to show marketing education teachers how Missouri's Show-Me Knowledge and Performance Standards can be reflected in the Marketing Education Framework. It is organized to present each of the nine competency strands (instructional units) by learner outcome and competencies. The instructional units are as follows: communications…

  7. Health care: development of data for a marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Stitt, V J

    1985-06-01

    Marketing in health care is a relatively new process. It is a business tool that can serve a very useful purpose. Health care management has become aware of the usefulness of marketing in long-range planning. Through a well-thought-out marketing plan, the provider will not be leaving the future to chance. A well-conceived, patient-oriented, competitor-aware marketing plan should place the medical practice at a strategic advantage as the health care industry joins other industries in the competitive marketplace for the consumer's dollar.The ever-increasing political and regulatory environment that the health care field is undergoing emphasizes the need for the inclusion of marketing skills, such as cost containment, in the medical curriculum. It should be the obligation of the training facilities as well as medical societies to respond to this need by providing the education that will enable black providers to survive in this competitive environment.

  8. Development of a PZT-based wireless digital monitor for composite impact monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peipei; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei

    2012-03-01

    One of the major concerns in the whole lifetime of composite materials in aircraft is their susceptibility to impact damage. And there has existed a need in recent years to develop an online structural health monitoring (SHM) system for impact monitoring. This paper proposes a new PZT-based wireless digital impact monitoring system development method aimed at giving a localized area for further inspection. Based on this method, a PZT-based wireless digital impact monitor (WDIM) with advantages of compactness, light weight, low power consumption and high efficiency is developed. Differently from conventional SHM systems, the complex analog circuits are removed and the whole process is achieved in a digital way by turning the output of the PZT sensor directly into a digital queue through a comparator. A simple but efficient sub-region location method is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) as the processing core of the WDIM to detect and record the impact events. In addition, wireless communication technology is used in the WDIM to transmit data and form a monitoring network. To illustrate the capability of the WDIM, a complete process dealing with an impact event is investigated and the stability of the WDIM is also evaluated in this paper. The WDIM shows its potential for real online applications in aircraft.

  9. Unraveling Hidden Order in the Dynamics of Developed and Emerging Markets

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of asset price returns is an important subject in modern finance. Traditionally, the dynamics of stock returns are assumed to lack any temporal order. Here we present an analysis of the autocovariance of stock market indices and unravel temporal order in several major stock markets. We also demonstrate a fundamental difference between developed and emerging markets in the past decade - emerging markets are marked by positive order in contrast to developed markets whose dynamics are marked by weakly negative order. In addition, the reaction to financial crises was found to be reversed among developed and emerging markets, presenting large positive/negative autocovariance spikes following the onset of these crises. Notably, the Chinese market shows neutral or no order while being regarded as an emerging market. These findings show that despite the coupling between international markets and global trading, major differences exist between different markets, and demonstrate that the autocovariance of markets is correlated with their stability, as well as with their state of development. PMID:25383630

  10. Unraveling hidden order in the dynamics of developed and emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of asset price returns is an important subject in modern finance. Traditionally, the dynamics of stock returns are assumed to lack any temporal order. Here we present an analysis of the autocovariance of stock market indices and unravel temporal order in several major stock markets. We also demonstrate a fundamental difference between developed and emerging markets in the past decade - emerging markets are marked by positive order in contrast to developed markets whose dynamics are marked by weakly negative order. In addition, the reaction to financial crises was found to be reversed among developed and emerging markets, presenting large positive/negative autocovariance spikes following the onset of these crises. Notably, the Chinese market shows neutral or no order while being regarded as an emerging market. These findings show that despite the coupling between international markets and global trading, major differences exist between different markets, and demonstrate that the autocovariance of markets is correlated with their stability, as well as with their state of development.

  11. Development and Applications of the U.S. Drought Monitor and North America Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, R. R.

    2007-05-01

    Drought is an important climatological phenomenon which has significant socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Several drought indices have been developed during the last hundred years to quantify drought, but all of them either were developed for specific applications and/or regions, or have limitations which restrict their use. In the U.S., a drought monitoring tool was developed in the late 1990s through a federal-state collaborative effort to consolidate and centralize drought monitoring activities. This tool, the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), consists of a weekly map and narrative product which describes current drought conditions according to a scale ranging from moderate drought (D1) to exceptional drought (D4). Conditions which are dry but not yet of drought severity are categorized as abnormally dry (D0). The USDM draws its strength from the collaborative input at the federal (USDA, NOAA), regional (NOAA Regional Climate Centers), state, and local levels and from the objective synthesis of several drought-related indices. In late 2002, the methodology of the USDM was extended internationally to develop the North America Drought Monitor (NADM), which is a monthly map and narrative product that describes drought across the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. This paper will describe the development of the USDM and NADM, and discuss examples of their applications.

  12. Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, D.

    1995-05-01

    Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks.

  13. Developing a promotion plan for health care marketing.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-07-01

    Promotion of a health care provider's services is essential for communication with its customers and consumers. It is relevant to an organization's marketing strategy and is an element of what is described as the marketing mix. This paper considers the relationship of promotion to the marketing of services and proposes a plan for the promotion of the organization as a whole which can also be applied to an individual service or specialty. Whilst specific reference is made to an National Health Service (NHS) Trust it is also relevant to a Directly Managed Unit. PMID:7952707

  14. Developing a promotion plan for health care marketing.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-07-01

    Promotion of a health care provider's services is essential for communication with its customers and consumers. It is relevant to an organization's marketing strategy and is an element of what is described as the marketing mix. This paper considers the relationship of promotion to the marketing of services and proposes a plan for the promotion of the organization as a whole which can also be applied to an individual service or specialty. Whilst specific reference is made to an National Health Service (NHS) Trust it is also relevant to a Directly Managed Unit.

  15. The nature, development and contribution of social marketing to public health practice since 2004 in England.

    PubMed

    French, Jeff

    2009-11-01

    Social marketing is a highly systematic approach to health improvement that sets out unambiguous success criteria focused on behaviour change. This paper reviews the key concepts and principles of social marketing and its recent rapid development across government in England in the public health field. This paper outlines the role of the National Social Marketing Centre and concludes with a discussion of the probable future impact of social marketing on public health practice. The paper argues that there is a close ideological match between social marketing and liberal democratic imperatives. Social marketing's focus on outcome, return on investment and its emphasis on developing interventions that can respond to diverse needs, means it is probable that social marketing will increasingly be required by governments as a standard part of public health programmes.

  16. Development of an automated potable water bactericide monitoring unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. M.; Brawner, C. C.; Sauer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A monitor unit has been developed that permits the direct determination of the level of elemental iodine, used for microbiological control, in a spacecraft potable water supply system. Salient features of unit include low weight, volume and maintenance requirements, complete automatic operation, no inflight calibration, no expendables (except electrical current) and high accuracy and precision. This unit is capable of providing a signal to a controller that, in turn, automatically adjusts the addition rate of iodine to the potable water system so that a predetermined level of iodine can be maintained. In addition, the monitor provides a reading whereby the crewman can verify that the proper amount of iodine (within a range) is present in the water. A development history of the monitor is presented along with its design and theory of operation. Also presented are the results generated through testing of the unit in a simulated Shuttle potable water system.

  17. Current developments in molecular monitoring in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Marum, Justine Ellen; Branford, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular monitoring plays an essential role in the clinical management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, and now guides clinical decision making. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (qRT-PCR) assessment of BCR-ABL1 transcript levels has become the standard of care protocol in CML. However, further developments are required to assess leukemic burden more efficiently, monitor minimal residual disease (MRD), detect mutations that drive resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy and identify predictors of response to TKI therapy. Cartridge-based BCR-ABL1 quantitation, digital PCR and next generation sequencing are examples of technologies which are currently being explored, evaluated and translated into the clinic. Here we review the emerging molecular methods/technologies currently being developed to advance molecular monitoring in CML. PMID:27695615

  18. American superconductor: Combining development expertise with market savvy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    In 1986, scientists at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory made one of the most important discoveries in science: high temperature superconductors (HS). This new class of ceramic conducts electricity with little or no resistance, at temperatures that are maintainable with existing, convenient cooling technologies. Transforming these brittle ceramic HTS material into commercially viable wires and wire products is the mission of American Superconductor Corporation (ASC), founded in 1987 and now the leading US company in the HTS market. ASC is focusing on the development of superconductor wires and wire products for such applications as power transmission cables, electric motors, and magnetic energy storage devices. Recently American superconductor corporation announced the signing of an agreement with Hoechst AG of Germany that will enable further advances in its techniques for manufacturing of superconductor wires. The company has also joined forces with several national laboratories in a Wire Development Group. This group includes representatives from Argonne, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, as well as the University of Wisconsin Applied Superconductivity Center. With this type of support, ASC is realizing dramatic progress. In 1992, the company began daily production of 300-foot long wires; by the end of 1993, ASC expects to produce wires ten times that length. With Pirelli, ASC has produced three-foot long prototype multistrand conductors which already transmit up to 500 Amps of current at 77K, a significant fraction of the operating current anticipated for commercial power transmission cables. By the middle of 1994, the company expects to deliver 100-foot long multistrand conductors operating at 77K, and transmitting 1,000 Amps.

  19. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  20. Identifying, Measuring and Monitoring Value during Project Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliniotou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of the research done by Loughborough University in conjunction with ten construction industry collaborators in an attempt to identify what construction professionals mean by value. The aim of the research is to establish a common approach to identify value in projects and to monitor its development throughout the…

  1. 5 CFR 9901.409 - Monitoring and developing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monitoring and developing performance. 9901.409 Section 9901.409 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND... performance reviews during each appraisal period; and (3) Document at least one interim performance...

  2. Development of AN Open-Source Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Geodetical and Geotechnical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, P.; Schweimler, B.

    2016-04-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  3. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  4. Canadian Landsat studies for monitoring resource development: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, F. J.; Howarth, P. J.

    This report summarizes a major paper reviewing Canadian work using Landsat imagery for monitoring the environmental effects of the development of both renewable and non-renewable resources. Landsat has definite advantages for studying resources. In particular, the data are able to show changes in surface cover indicating in many cases development or the exploitation of resources. Monitoring of areas and rates of change over time is possible. Outlined in the paper are examples related to three aspects of resource development. First is the use of Landsat for updating topographic maps for areas where recent developments have taken place. The second aspect is forestry, and examples related to the detection and measurement of clear cuts and recording of areas affected by spruce budworm are reported. Finally, studies of landscape changes produced by mining activities are presented.

  5. Development of environmental charging effect monitors for operational satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Sturman, J. C.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1976-01-01

    An instrumentation package to monitor the effects of the environmental charging of spacecraft surfaces on the systems of operational spacecraft was developed. This package performs two functions: first, the local charged particle flux and the particle characteristic energy is monitored; and second, transients in the spacecraft electrical harness is counted as a function of amplitude, with time. It is used to determine the duration and effect of any environmental charging of the spacecraft surfaces. Thus, it will be possible to determine the relationship between the occurrence of any anomalies and the charging phenomenon. Design details and design goals of this package are presented.

  6. [Development of portable uterine contraction pressure monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Zhidong; Sun, Shuqiang; Du, Jiayou

    2014-11-01

    For the high cost and mobility issues, a home uterine contraction pressure monitoring system based on Windows CE platform was developed. In this paper, the design of hardware circuit, micro-controller system and LabVIEW program based on Windows CE are discussed. The clinical validation experiment in hospital for this system was made and the experimental results show that this system complies with the trend that current medical equipment is becoming portable, homely and networked. Through real-time monitoring uterine contraction pressure, occurrence of premature birth and abortion can be prevented effectively. PMID:25980127

  7. Development of the atmospheric volcanic monitoring system in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G. N.; Bjornsson, H.; Arason, P.; von Löwis, S.; Sigurøsson, G. S.; Karlsdóttir, S.

    2012-04-01

    The development of the atmospheric volcanic plume monitoring system has escalated since the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. Radars provide a near-real time capability to observe volcanic eruptions both day and night. At high latitudes this is important, over the darkest periods of winter when radar and satellite images are the only means of measurements. Also weather conditions can be such at any time of the year that they obscure observations from survey flights and even from satellites. Prior to and during the 39 days eruption in 2010 only one operational radar was installed in Iceland, the fixed C-band radar at Keflavík International Airport. The main purpose of this radar is weather monitoring but it can simultaneously be used for volcanic plume monitoring within a radius of 480 km. The radar has been used for plume monitoring since 1991 when an eruption started in Hekla, only a few days after the installation of the radar. Since November 2010 a X-band dual polarization radar has been on loan from the Italian Civil Protection Agency to the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) and during the eruption in Grímsvötn in 2011 the combined system, together with visual observations, gave a good picture of the eruption. Also, in cooperation with the UK National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) a Lidar has been operating in South-Iceland since May 2011. The Lidar was moved to Keflavík airport during the Grímsvötn eruption to monitor the atmosphere above the airport and assist in decision making regarding openings and closures of the airport. In 2012 a second fixed position C-band weather radar will be installed in East-Iceland. This means that the geophysically active region in both south and northeast of Iceland will be covered. In addition, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has financed two X-band mobile radars to be installed and used in Iceland, solely for volcanic plume monitoring, with the first one becoming operational in

  8. 7 CFR 917.39 - Production research, market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, market research and development... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research § 917.39 Production research, market research and development. The committees, with the approval of the Secretary,...

  9. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.45 Production research, marketing research and development. The committee may, with the approval of...

  10. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.45 Production research, marketing research and development. The committee may, with the approval of...

  11. 7 CFR 917.39 - Production research, market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production research, market research and development... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research § 917.39 Production research, market research and development. The committees, with the approval of the Secretary,...

  12. Development of an Updated Strategic Marketing Plan for Fox Valley Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Susan A.

    This project was conducted to develop a comprehensive strategic marketing plan for Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC). Components included a review of the literature, establishing criteria for the plan, validation of the criteria, the actual development of the plan involving a formative committee, and the review of institutional marketing plans…

  13. A Simple Model to Teach Business Cycle Macroeconomics for Emerging Market and Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The canonical neoclassical model is insufficient to understand business cycle fluctuations in emerging market and developing economies. The author reformulates the model proposed by Aguiar and Gopinath (2007) in a simple setting that can be used to teach business cycle macroeconomics for emerging market and developing economies at the…

  14. The Development of Advertising and Marketing Education: The First 75 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Edd

    2008-01-01

    Advertising and marketing education in colleges began in 1893, when Joseph Johnson of the University of Pennsylvania developed a curriculum in journalism that included information about advertising. Other universities developed curricula in journalism that included advertising in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Courses in marketing were offered in…

  15. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... development projects designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or... activity and the need for a coordinated effort with USDA's Plentiful Food Program. (c) In...

  16. Development of a Remote Monitoring System Using Meteor Burst Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ewanic, M.A.; Dunstan, M.T.; Reichhardt, D.K.

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring the cleanup and closure of contaminated sites requires extensive data acquisition, processing, and storage. At remote sites, the task of monitoring often becomes problematical due to the lack of site infrastructure (i.e., electrical power lines, telephone lines, etc.). MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has designed an economical and efficient remote monitoring system that will handle large amounts of data; process the data, if necessary; and transmit this data over long distances. Design criteria MSE considered during the development of the remote monitoring system included: the ability to handle multiple, remote sampling points with independent sampling frequencies; robust (i.e., less susceptible to moisture, heat, and cold extremes); independent of infrastructure; user friendly; economical; and easy to expand system capabilities. MSE installed and tested a prototype system at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center (MMATC), Butte, Montana, in June 2005. The system MSE designed and installed consisted of a 'master' control station and two remote 'slave' stations. Data acquired at the two slave stations were transmitted to the master control station, which then transmits a complete data package to a ground station using meteor burst technology. The meteor burst technology has no need for hardwired land-lines or man-made satellites. Instead, it uses ionized particles in the Earth's atmosphere to propagate a radio signal. One major advantage of the system is that it can be configured to accept data from virtually any type of device, so long as the signal from the device can be read and recorded by a standard data-logger. In fact, MSE has designed and built an electrical resistivity monitoring system that will be powered and controlled by the meteor burst system components. As sites move through the process of remediation and eventual closure, monitoring provides data vital to the successful long term management of the site. The remote

  17. Development of mercury and chloride monitors for coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Buttermore, W.H.; Norton, G.A.; Chriswell, C.D.; Eckels, D.E.; Peters, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Ames Laboratory will develop an integrated sampling and analysis system suitable for on-line monitoring of mercury (Hg) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) in advanced coal-based gasifiers. The objectives of this project are to (1) summarize current technology for monitoring Hg and HCl in gaseous effluents; (2) identify analytical techniques for such determinations in high-temperature, high-pressure gases from coal-based systems for producing electrical power; (3) evaluate promising analytical approaches, and (4) produce reliable on-line monitors which are adaptable to plant-scale diagnostics and process control. For HG, the techniques selected for further consideration were atomic absorption and atomic fluorescence. For HCl, non-dispersive infrared absorption, a dry colorimetric procedure, and ion mobility spectroscopy were selected for testing in the laboratory. Results to date are described.

  18. Development of a MEMS device to monitor glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Smitha; Chaffey, J. P.

    2005-02-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide. Regular monitoring of intra ocular pressure (IOP) in the eyes is an important component in the treatment of this affliction. Current manual measurements do not give room for continuous indication of the progression of the disease. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) technology lends itself to the development of devices capable of in-situ monitoring of the phenomenon that occur at the micro and nano scales, inside the human body. The paper reports on the complex flow and pressure relationships in the eye and the current methods of monitoring Glaucoma. The comparison highlights the requirements of an implantable miniature device that can indicate the changes leading to an increase of IOP inside the eye. An analysis of the pressures in the anterior chamber of the eye was undertaken to estimate the out put voltages that could be obtained from a micro structure implanted in the eye.

  19. The development of beam current monitors in the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations.

  20. The Development of a Wireless Implantable Blood Flow Monitor.

    PubMed

    Unadkat, Jignesh V; Rothfuss, Michael; Mickle, Marlin H; Sejdic, Ervin; Gimbel, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    Microvascular anastomotic failure remains an uncommon but devastating problem. Although the implantable Doppler probe is helpful in flap monitoring, the devices are cumbersome, easily dislodged, and plagued by false-positive results. The authors have developed an implantable wireless Doppler monitor prototype from off-the-shelf components and tested it in a swine model. The wireless probe successfully distinguished between femoral vein flow, occlusion, and reflow, and wirelessly reported the different signals reliably. This is the first description of a wireless implantable blood flow sensor for flap monitoring. Future iterations will incorporate an integrated microchip-based Doppler system that will decrease the size to 1 mm, small enough to fit onto an anastomotic coupler.

  1. Development of an advanced antineutrino detector for reactor monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Classen, T.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N. S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Ho, A.; Jonkmans, G.; Kogler, L.; Reyna, D.; Sur, B.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a compact antineutrino detector for the purpose of nuclear reactor monitoring, improving upon a previously successful design. This paper will describe the design improvements of the detector which increases the antineutrino detection efficiency threefold over the previous effort. There are two main design improvements over previous generations of detectors for nuclear reactor monitoring: dual-ended optical readout and single volume detection mass. The dual-ended optical readout eliminates the need for fiducialization and increases the uniformity of the detector's optical response. The containment of the detection mass in a single active volume provides more target mass per detector footprint, a key design criteria for operating within a nuclear power plant. This technology could allow for real-time monitoring of the evolution of a nuclear reactor core, independent of reactor operator declarations of fuel inventories, and may be of interest to the safeguards community.

  2. Developments of fast emittance monitors for ion sources at RCNP.

    PubMed

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Shimada, K; Yasuda, Y; Saito, T; Tamura, H; Kamakura, K

    2016-02-01

    Recently, several developments of low energy beam transport line and its beam diagnostic systems have been performed to improve the injection efficiency of ion beam to azimuthally varying field cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. One of those is the fast emittance monitor which can measure within several seconds for the efficient beam development and a Pepper-Pot Emittance Monitor (PPEM) has been developed. The PPEM consists of pepper-pot mask, multichannel plate, fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera. The CCD image is taken via IEEE1394b to a personal computer and analyzed immediately and frequently, and then real time measurement with about 2 Hz has been achieved.

  3. Developments of fast emittance monitors for ion sources at RCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Shimada, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Saito, T.; Tamura, H.; Kamakura, K.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, several developments of low energy beam transport line and its beam diagnostic systems have been performed to improve the injection efficiency of ion beam to azimuthally varying field cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. One of those is the fast emittance monitor which can measure within several seconds for the efficient beam development and a Pepper-Pot Emittance Monitor (PPEM) has been developed. The PPEM consists of pepper-pot mask, multichannel plate, fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera. The CCD image is taken via IEEE1394b to a personal computer and analyzed immediately and frequently, and then real time measurement with about 2 Hz has been achieved.

  4. Development and testing of crop monitoring methods to improve global agricultural monitoring in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Bydekerke, L.

    2014-12-01

    The SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) is funded through the EC FPY7 Research programme with the particular aim to contribute to the GEOGLAM Research Agenda. It is a partnership of globally distributed expert organizations, focusses on developing innovative techniques and datasets in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterize cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, are used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series are be explored to better assess crop yield gaps and shifts in cultivation. The third research topic entails the development of best practices for assessing the impact of crop land and cropping system change on the environment. In support of the GEO JECAM (Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring) initiative, case studies in Ukraine, Russia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and China are carried out in order to explore possible methodological synergies and particularities according to different cropping systems. This presentation will report on the progress made with respect to the three topics above.

  5. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical risk management (CRM) plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals) was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1) Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2) Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3) Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian). It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety. PMID:21144039

  6. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H. III

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  7. Development and Validation of a Farmers' Market Audit Tool in Rural and Urban Communities.

    PubMed

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; Gustafson, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The number of farmers' markets in the United States is growing. Although there are tools to analyze food availability at grocery stores, corner stores, and convenience stores, little research exists about the availability of food types at farmers' markets. This research developed an audit tool to measure the food environment at farmers' markets in rural and urban food environments and examined its psychometric properties, including face validity, interrater reliability, and discriminant validity. The Farmers' Market Audit Tool was reviewed by content experts, revised, and then tested in six farmers' markets by researchers across three states in 2013, including Kentucky, North Carolina, and Montana. Seven food categories were developed, including vegetables, fruits, meats, cheeses, eggs, grains, and samples. Interrater reliability was high within farmers' market across states. As expected, discriminant validity indicated a systematic disagreement within and between states due to seasonality and ability to grow different types of food across different farmers' markets. The total scores assessing the healthfulness of each farmers' market was 38 (range = 28-50). Using the Farmers' Market Audit Tool at farmers' markets is a reliable and valid method to capture the availability of food offerings.

  8. Development and Validation of a Farmers' Market Audit Tool in Rural and Urban Communities.

    PubMed

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; Gustafson, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The number of farmers' markets in the United States is growing. Although there are tools to analyze food availability at grocery stores, corner stores, and convenience stores, little research exists about the availability of food types at farmers' markets. This research developed an audit tool to measure the food environment at farmers' markets in rural and urban food environments and examined its psychometric properties, including face validity, interrater reliability, and discriminant validity. The Farmers' Market Audit Tool was reviewed by content experts, revised, and then tested in six farmers' markets by researchers across three states in 2013, including Kentucky, North Carolina, and Montana. Seven food categories were developed, including vegetables, fruits, meats, cheeses, eggs, grains, and samples. Interrater reliability was high within farmers' market across states. As expected, discriminant validity indicated a systematic disagreement within and between states due to seasonality and ability to grow different types of food across different farmers' markets. The total scores assessing the healthfulness of each farmers' market was 38 (range = 28-50). Using the Farmers' Market Audit Tool at farmers' markets is a reliable and valid method to capture the availability of food offerings. PMID:26232776

  9. Developing New Markets for Growth Industries. Panel II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Panelists discuss a ground-breaking study of new Pennsylvania firms; examine patterns/needs of small businesses during phases of start-up, growth, maturity, and decline; describe untapped markets in the federal government and through export trade; and review how states can support small business growth by legislative and regulatory change. (NEC)

  10. Enterprise Information Space: User's View, Developer's View, and Market Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishik, Claire; Farquhar, Adam; Smith, Reid

    1999-01-01

    Discusses experiences of Schlumberger IT Sourcing (Austin, Texas) in designing and deploying knowledge management (KM) systems and outlines the empathic design approach. The new "market" approach in Schlumberger which leads to the simplification of intranet systems and interfaces, creation of a new classification system, and better awareness of…

  11. 75 FR 10210 - Market Development Cooperator Program 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... market; education of foreign users of U.S. technology concerning intellectual property rights; training... 8. Expand exports of U.S. emerging technologies. Eligibility: Trade associations, state departments...) Business, export or trade council/interest group; (4) Visitors bureau or tourism promotion group;...

  12. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  13. Industrial robots in Europe - market, applications and developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schraft, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Different companies involving a wide range of products and manufacturing processes were studied to define the requirements for industrial robots. A survey of all such automatic units offered on the world market was made to establish a data base. Principal applications include coating, spot welding, and loading and unloading operations.

  14. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  15. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  16. Final Technical Report: Development of Post-Installation Monitoring Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Polagye, Brian

    2014-03-31

    The development of approaches to harness marine and hydrokinetic energy at large-scale is predicated on the compatibility of these generation technologies with the marine environment. At present, aspects of this compatibility are uncertain. Demonstration projects provide an opportunity to address these uncertainties in a way that moves the entire industry forward. However, the monitoring capabilities to realize these advances are often under-developed in comparison to the marine and hydrokinetic energy technologies being studied. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County has proposed to deploy two 6-meter diameter tidal turbines manufactured by OpenHydro in northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The goal of this deployment is to provide information about the environmental, technical, and economic performance of such turbines that can advance the development of larger-scale tidal energy projects, both in the United States and internationally. The objective of this particular project was to develop environmental monitoring plans in collaboration with resource agencies, while simultaneously advancing the capabilities of monitoring technologies to the point that they could be realistically implemented as part of these plans. In this, the District was joined by researchers at the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington, Sea Mammal Research Unit, LLC, H.T. Harvey & Associates, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Over a two year period, the project team successfully developed four environmental monitoring and mitigation plans that were adopted as a condition of the operating license for the demonstration project that issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in March 2014. These plans address nearturbine interactions with marine animals, the sound produced by the turbines, marine mammal behavioral changes associated with the turbines, and changes to benthic habitat associated with colonization

  17. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  18. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  19. Commercialization and Industrial Development for the Fetal Hear Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives for this task were to continue the development and testing of the NASA/ODU passive acoustic fetal heart rate monitor, with the goal of transferring the technology to the commercial sector. Areas of work included: 1. To assist in the development of a new hardware front end electronics box for the fetal heart rate monitor, so as to reduce the size of the electronics box, and also to provide for a "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" mode of operation. To make necessary changes in the operating software to support the two modes of operation. 2. To provide an option for a strip chart recording for the system, so that medical personnel could more easily make comparisons with ultra sound strip chart recordings. and 3. To help with continued testing of the system.

  20. Dutch approach to develop efficient water quality monitoring schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoumans, O. F.; van Tol-Leenders, T. P.; van der Bolt, F. J. E.; Siderius, C.; Kroes, J.; Roelsma, J.; Löschner-Wolleswinkel, R.; Walvoort, D.

    2009-04-01

    In 2003 a study started to determine a monitoring procedure in order to quantify the impact of the Dutch manure legislation on water quality at catchment scale. Four catchments were selected to develop such a methodology. One peat catchment, one clay catchment and two sandy catchments were selected as representative catchments for the major soil types that occur in The Netherlands. The contribution of land to the diffuse pollution of surface water depends on a lot of factors, such as meteorological circumstances, hydrological conditions, soil characteristics, soil properties and soil status, land use, manure and fertilizer application rates, hydraulic conditions etc. As a result different sources and pathways can be distinguished, that will changes over time. As a result of this complexity it is impossible to determine the influence of all these factors separately and independently just by measuring the water quality of the surface water. For this reason a monitoring scheme was developed for catchment scale in which measurements were combined with process oriented modeling approaches for the land-water-system as a whole. A validated process oriented modeling approach is necessary in order to understand the fate of nutrients applied with manure and fertilizers and to assess what will happen over time for each specific catchment system. Furthermore, the model can be used to adjust the location of the gauging stations and the frequency of the measurements and can fill in gaps in the data of the measurements. In fact the whole monitoring procedure is an iterative process between measurements and modeling and will end up in an efficient monitoring approach. Furthermore, the measurements are used to increase the validation of the tools. In the near future this monitoring approach of measuring and modeling will be used to determine to what extend the different management strategies will effect diffuse nutrient losses to surface water. So, Measuring, Modeling and

  1. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  2. Design development of a neural network-based telemetry monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper identifies the requirements and describes an architectural framework for an artificial neural network-based system that is capable of fulfilling monitoring and control requirements of future aerospace missions. Incorporated into this framework are a newly developed training algorithm and the concept of cooperative network architectures. The feasibility of such an approach is demonstrated for its ability to identify faults in low frequency waveforms.

  3. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  4. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  5. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered. PMID:25826210

  6. Development of an Indicator to Monitor Mediterranean Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered. PMID:25826210

  7. Customer service, access and capacity: vital signs for developing a marketing plan.

    PubMed

    Bendycki, N; Zeroske, J

    1994-01-01

    Marketing plans that do not include an analysis of customer service, access and capacity issues are incomplete documents. Unresolved customer service, access and capacity issues can undermine an otherwise well-designed marketing plan. The medical and administrative leadership of the group practice or clinical department must work together to identify customer service, access and capacity issues which are affecting the practice's ability to respond to the needs of the marketplace. Someone with marketing expertise can provide valuable input to this process. The resulting solutions need to be developed which are realistic and in keeping with the general marketing direction of the practice.

  8. How to institute and develop a strategic marketing plan for your pediatric dental office.

    PubMed

    Nacht, E S

    1994-01-01

    As what may be the most important element in a successful pediatric dental practice, marketing is often misunderstood. It requires careful planning and a long-term commitment. Before implementing your marketing plan, understand the definition of marketing and what it will mean to your practice. To develop your plan, ask yourself several important questions that will help you analyze where you are now, as well as where you want to be. Then, promote your practice by incorporating 12 important qualities into your plan. The plan is the blueprint for your efforts to repeatedly, consistently, and positively communicate with your market for the long term.

  9. Multinational Alcohol Market Development and Public Health: Diageo in India.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and alcohol consumption is rising steadily in India. The growth of multinational alcohol corporations, such as Diageo, contributes to India's changing alcohol environment. We provide a brief history of India's alcohol regulation for context and examine Diageo's strategies for expansion in India in 2013 and 2014. Diageo is attracted to India's younger generation, women, and emerging middle class for growth opportunities. Components of Diageo's responsibility strategy conflict with evidence-based public health recommendations for reducing harmful alcohol consumption. Diageo's strategies for achieving market dominance in India are at odds with public health evidence. We conclude with recommendations for protecting public health in emerging markets.

  10. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  11. Development of a more market-oriented economy in china.

    PubMed

    Chow, G C

    1987-01-16

    Before 1978 in China, the economic institutions for agriculture and industry operated essentially under a centrally planned system. The reasons for a change toward a more market-oriented economy and the key elements of economic reform are discussed. Today the major issues being deliberated by the leading economic officials include reform of the price system, the administrative structure of state-owned enterprises, the banking system and macroeconomic control mechanisms, and foreign trade and investment. PMID:17750384

  12. Strategies for Developing the Affective Work Competencies of Marketing Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Earl C.

    Effective strategies for developing the affective work competencies of marketing education students include teaching procedures, acquisition of skills and materials for teaching in the affective domain, and implementation considerations. Affective concerns in marketing can be grouped into three broad types of performance categories--self-concept,…

  13. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  14. Extension's Role in Developing a Farmers' Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civittolo, David

    2012-01-01

    Interest in access to local food is increasing. Communities of all types and sizes have volunteers interested in creating farmers' markets. Extension can play an important role in the development of farmers' markets because it is ideally suited to organize and coordinate these volunteer energies. By helping community volunteers focus…

  15. Broadening Student Perspectives on Marketing Research Ethics: Development and Applications of a Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handlin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an ethics module developed by the author to engage marketing research students during the fall semester, when they are bombarded by political polls. The module matches ethically questionable polling practices to similarly troubling practices in marketing research. The goals are to show that ethical principles are not topic- or…

  16. An Investigation of Strategic Decision Making in Service Marketing through Case Study Development and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosetti, Joseph L.; Maceiko, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Through the collaborative efforts of an undergraduate student and a professor of marketing, this paper focuses on a case study and corresponding teaching notes developed as a final component of an independent study in service marketing. The case utilizes the hospitality industry as the template for analysis of the appropriateness of marketing…

  17. Connecting the Dots: The Labor Market Information View of Workforce Development. Essays for the Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Richard, Ed.

    This monograph is comprised of 12 essays related to the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), each of which serves as a generic primer on a topic relevant to work force development staff and researchers nationwide. The essays are "Learning the Language of LMI (Labor Market Information): Basic Labor Market Information Terms and Concepts"…

  18. Marketing Informal Education Institutions in Israel: The Centrality of Customers' Active Involvement in Service Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2004-01-01

    The current paper outlines a unique marketing perspective that prevails in some informal education institutions in Israel parallel with "traditional modes of marketing", such as promotion, public relations and the like. Based on a case study research in five community centres, a service development based on active participation of the potential…

  19. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2009/10-2011/12 Service Plan Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…

  20. Teaching Students To Develop a Website as a Tool for Marketing Pharmaceutical Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.; Kavookjian, Jan; Munden, C. Dianne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which pharmacy student teams developed a World Wide Web page to market a hypothetical pharmacy and promote pharmaceutical care services. The exercise successfully involved students in using both creative and analytic skills to gain hands-on experience in constructing a mission statement and marketing plan for a new…

  1. A Planned Approach to Program Development. The Model Marketing Cluster Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    The document offers recommendations for a planned approach to the development and appraisal of a career-oriented marketing cluster program. The suggested appraisal instrument may be used for self-evaluation or group evaluation. Information on career education in Oregon, the career cluster concept, and the model marketing program concept precedes…

  2. Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers. PMID:23619235

  3. Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers.

  4. Initial Development of a Continuous Emission Monitor for Dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Coggiola; Harald Oser; Gregory W. Faris; David R. Crosley

    2002-03-30

    Under contract DE-AC26-98FT-40370, SRI International has completed the third phase of a planned three-phase effort to develop a laboratory prototype continuous emission monitor (CEM) for dioxins and furans generated during the incineration of waste materials at DOE remediation sites. The project was initiated on July 29, 1998 with the technical effort completed in October 2001. During this research effort, SRI has made numerous improvements in our jet-REMPI instrument. These improvements have involved characterization and optimization of the molecular cooling in the gas jet, implementation of a custom-fabricated, four pulsed valve assembly, new data acquisition and display software, and preliminary development of a wavelength and mass calibration approach. We have also measured the REMPI excitation spectra of numerous organic compounds that are likely to be present in the exhaust stream of a waste incinerator. These spectra must be well characterized in the laboratory to understand any potential interferences that might arise when monitoring for dioxin and furan congeners. Our results to date continue to validate the original concept of using jet-REMPI as the detection method in a dioxin CEM. Using only commercial components with minor modifications, we have already demonstrated a detection sensitivity in the low ppt range with sufficient chemical specificity to separately detect two closely related congeners of dichlorodibenzodioxin present in a mixture. To demonstrate the utility of this methodology outside of the controlled conditions of the laboratory, we performed a series of pseudo-field experiments at the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The instrument used for those studies was built by SRI under contract with US EPA, and was an exact duplicate of the SRI system. This duplication allowed the experiments to be conducted without transporting the SRI system to the EPA site. Using the

  5. Geothermal pipeline - progress and development update, geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document is a progress and development update and geothermal progress monitor prepared by the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Several upcoming meetings in the field of geothermal energy and resource development are announced. Proposed and past geothermal activities within the Glass Mountain Known Geothermal Resource Area are also discussed. As of this date, there has been limited geothermal exploration in this area, however, two projects located in the near vicinity have been proposed within the last two years.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Development at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Wu, M. C.; Allison, S. G.; DeHaven, S. L.; Ghoshal, A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is applying considerable effort on the development of sensor technology for structural health monitoring (SHM). This research is targeted toward increasing the safety and reliability of aerospace vehicles, while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Research programs are focused on applications to both aircraft and space vehicles. Sensor technologies under development span a wide range including fiber-optic sensing, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and are the major focus of this presentation. In addition, recent advances in active and passive acoustic sensing will also be discussed.

  7. Integrity Constraint Monitoring in Software Development: Proposed Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco G.

    1997-01-01

    In the development of complex software systems, designers are required to obtain from many sources and manage vast amounts of knowledge of the system being built and communicate this information to personnel with a variety of backgrounds. Knowledge concerning the properties of the system, including the structure of, relationships between and limitations of the data objects in the system, becomes increasingly more vital as the complexity of the system and the number of knowledge sources increases. Ensuring that violations of these properties do not occur becomes steadily more challenging. One approach toward managing the enforcement or system properties, called context monitoring, uses a centralized repository of integrity constraints and a constraint satisfiability mechanism for dynamic verification of property enforcement during program execution. The focus of this paper is to describe possible software architectures that define a mechanism for dynamically checking the satisfiability of a set of constraints on a program. The next section describes the context monitoring approach in general. Section 3 gives an overview of the work currently being done toward the addition of an integrity constraint satisfiability mechanism to a high-level program language, SequenceL, and demonstrates how this model is being examined to develop a general software architecture. Section 4 describes possible architectures for a general constraint satisfiability mechanism, as well as an alternative approach that, uses embedded database queries in lieu of an external monitor. The paper concludes with a brief summary outlining the, current state of the research and future work.

  8. The development of an obstetric tele-monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen-Giovagnoli, B; Peters, C; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M B; Mischi, M; van Pul, C; Cottaar, E J E; Oei, S G

    2015-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction and preterm uterine contractions can turn a normal pregnancy into a problematic one. In previous work, we have developed a system for electrophysiological measurement of fetal heart rate (fHR), fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) and (premature) uterine contractions to enable early detection of foetal problems. In this work we have expanded this system into a tele-monitoring system for measurement at home. In order to permit home monitoring, the communication chain of the data has to be designed such that home-measured signals (fHR, fECG, uterine activities) are available in the hospital in real-time. Furthermore, the data must be transferred wirelessly to any location (worldwide) for interpretation by gynaecologists. A web application helps the gynaecologist or midwife to access the signals everywhere, provided that internet access is available. We developed a webserver as the heart of the entire system; it manages the patient database, transforms the signals in a graphical representation similar to that of the cardiotocography and manages the data communication with the proper data security policy. This tele-monitoring system can be used also during home deliveries enabling prompt transfer and proper intervention in the hospital when complications occur. PMID:26736229

  9. Using Labor Market Information in Program Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebesch, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The community college environment is complex and dynamic, requiring constant monitoring. To ensure that workforce education, a core component of community colleges' missions, remains aligned with colleges' environments, responsive to employers' needs, suited to students' interests and abilities, and current in content and technology, it is…

  10. Development of High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducer for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, A.; Searfass, C. T.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2011-06-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques are needed to maintain the reliability of aging power plants for long term operation. The high temperature transducers are necessary to realize SHM (monitor wall thickness of the pipings, crack growth in the materials and material evaluation) under the working condition of power plants. We have developed high temperature transducer using lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal which is well known as a high Curie temperature piezoelectric material. The LiNbO3 was bonded onto a stainless steel substrate. The transducer was heated in an electric furnace while measuring the bottom echoes from the substrate. We confirmed that the high temperature transducer could work up to 1000 °C.

  11. Progress on the development of APS beam position monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.; Chung, Youngjoo.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development status of the beam position monitoring system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation light source now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The accelerator complex will consist of an electron linac, a positron linac, a positron accumulator ring (PAR), an injector synchrotron and a storage ring. For beam position measurement, striplines will be used on the linacs, while button-type pickups will be used on the injector synchrotron and the storage ring. A test stand with a prototype injector synchrotron beam position monitor (BPM) unit has been built, and we present the results of position calibration measurements using a wire. Comparison of the results with theoretical calculations will be presented. The current effort on similar storage ring BPM system measurements will also be discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Developing Earth Observations Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing the dynamic nature of agricultural cultivation both within and between years and across the globe, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing an agricultural monitoring (GEO-GLAM) system with the goal of enhancing the availability and use of satellite and in situ Earth observations (EO) for the generation of timely and accurate information on national, regional, and global food supply. One of the key components of the GEO-GLAM system is the coordination of satellite observations so as to ensure sufficient and appropriate data volume and quality for agricultural monitoring. Therefore, it is essential that we develop EO requirements which articulate in a spatially explicit way where, when, how frequently, and at what spatial resolution satellite imagery must be acquired to meet the needs of a variety of agricultural monitoring applications. Accordingly, best-available cropland location information ('where?') in conjunction with ten years of MODIS surface reflectance data have been used to characterize the timing and duration of the agricultural growing season ('when?') in the form of agricultural growing season calendars (GSCs) for all major agricultural areas of the Earth. With respect to temporal resolution, we must first identify the frequency with which we require imagery inputs for monitoring applications such as crop condition, crop type, crop yield estimation, and planted and harvested area estimation. Members of the GEO Agriculture Monitoring Community of Practice - a group of international scientists - have combined their knowledge and expertise to articulate these general requirements. Second, we must determine how cloud cover impacts the ability of optical sensing systems to meet these established temporal resolution requirements. To this end, MODIS Terra (morning; 2000-2011) and Aqua (afternoon; 2002-2011) observations have been analyzed to derive probabilities of a cloud free clear view at different times of day throughout the

  13. Development of a millimeter-wave sensor for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1995-06-01

    A millimeter-wave (mm-wave) sensor in the frequency range of 225-315 GHz is being developed for continuous emission monitoring of airborne effluents from industrial sites for environmental compliance monitoring and process control. Detection of chemical species is based on measuring the molecular rotational energy transitions at mm-wave frequencies. The mm-wave technique offers better transmission properties compared to optics in harsh industrial environments with smoke, dust, aerosols, and steam, as well as in adverse atmospheric conditions. The laboratory measurements indicate that polar molecules can be measured with a sensitivity of tens of parts-per-million-meter using this technology. Proof of principle of the open-path system was tested by releasing and detecting innocuous chemicals in the open air. It uses a monostatic radar configuration with transmitter and receiver on one side and a comer cube on tire other side of the plume to be measured. A wide-band swept frequency mm-wave signal is transmitted through the plume and return signal from the comer cube is detected by a hot-electron-bolometer. Absorption spectra of plume gases are measured by comparing the return signals with and without the plume in the beam path. Using signal processing based on deconvolution, high specificity of detection has been shown for resolving individual chemicals from a mixture. This technology is applicable for real-time measurement of a suite of airborne gases/vapors emitted from vents and stacks of process industries. A prototype sensor is being developed for wide-area monitoring of industrial sites and in-place monitoring of stack gases.

  14. The Challenge of Assessing Creative Problem Solving in Client-Based Marketing Development Projects: A SOLO Taxonomy Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskari, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Creativity and marketing imagination are essential core competencies for marketers. Therefore, higher marketing education emphasizes creativity in several ways. However, assessing creativity and creative problem solving is challenging and tools for this purpose have not been developed in the context of marketing education. To address this gap, we…

  15. Recent development of 3D display technology for new market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Sik

    2003-11-01

    A multi-view 3D video processor was designed and implemented with several FPGAs for real-time applications and a projection-type 3D display was introduced for low-cost commercialization. One high resolution projection panel and only one projection lens is capable of displaying multiview autostereoscopic images. It can cope with various arrangements of 3D camera systems (or pixel arrays) and resolutions of 3D displays. This system shows high 3-D image quality in terms of resolution, brightness, and contrast so it is well suited for the commercialization in the field of game and advertisement market.

  16. Development of Monitoring & Verification Technology (MVT) for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Instrumentation and Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian

    2008-09-29

    The objective of this CRADA is to further develop the Multiple Elemental Soil Analysis (MESA) system, based on inelastic neutron scattering technology that was originally developed by Dr. Lucian Wielopolski at BNL. The scope of this CRADA will center on the quantification and monitoring of non-destructive in situ carbon loading in soils to evaluate land application emission reduction activities. To accomplish this objective, the CRADA will center on three main joint activities as described below: A. To further develop and characterize a prototype, field deployable MESA system for static and scanning purposes. B. To develop applicable protocols for agricultural land applications; system validation and field sampling schemes. C. To implement field experiments for independent systems validation, verification, and acceptance by third parties for use in the market segment and commercialization. The technical approach involves a system for monitoring characteristic gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei stimulated by inelastic neutron scattering from a carbon nucleus. The system consists of a neutron generator emitting fast, 14 MeV, neutrons, shielding materials, and a detection system with nuclear electronics for data acquisition. Following standard system calibration, the results are produced immediately at the end of the counting period.

  17. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... development projects designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or... paid advertising. The expenses of such projects shall be paid from funds collected pursuant to...

  18. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... development projects designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or... paid advertising. The expenses of such projects shall be paid from funds collected pursuant to...

  19. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... development projects designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or... paid advertising. The expenses of such projects shall be paid from funds collected pursuant to...

  20. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925... efficient production of grapes. The expense of such projects shall be paid from funds collected pursuant...

  1. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925... efficient production of grapes. The expense of such projects shall be paid from funds collected pursuant...

  2. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925... efficient production of grapes. The expense of such projects shall be paid from funds collected pursuant...

  3. Development of on-line laser power monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Li, Kuan-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Since the laser was invented, laser has been applied in many fields such as material processing, communication, measurement, biomedical engineering, defense industries and etc. Laser power is an important parameter in laser material processing, i.e. laser cutting, and laser drilling. However, the laser power is easily affected by the environment temperature, we tend to monitor the laser power status, ensuring there is an effective material processing. Besides, the response time of current laser power meters is too long, they cannot measure laser power accurately in a short time. To be more precisely, we can know the status of laser power and help us to achieve an effective material processing at the same time. To monitor the laser power, this study utilize a CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) camera to develop an on-line laser power monitoring system. The CMOS camera captures images of incident laser beam after it is split and attenuated by beam splitter and neutral density filter. By comparing the average brightness of the beam spots and measurement results from laser power meter, laser power can be estimated. Under continuous measuring mode, the average measuring error is about 3%, and the response time is at least 3.6 second shorter than thermopile power meters; under trigger measuring mode which enables the CMOS camera to synchronize with intermittent laser output, the average measuring error is less than 3%, and the shortest response time is 20 millisecond.

  4. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jisha, N. V.; Krishnakumar, D. N.; Surya Prakash, G.; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-03-15

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify {sup 41}Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation.

  5. Recent Developments in Home Sleep-Monitoring Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jessica M.; Strecker, Robert E.; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2012-01-01

    Improving our understanding of sleep physiology and pathophysiology is an important goal for both medical and general wellness reasons. Although the gold standard for assessing sleep remains the laboratory polysomnogram, there is an increasing interest in portable monitoring devices that provide the opportunity for assessing sleep in real-world environments such as the home. Portable devices allow repeated measurements, evaluation of temporal patterns, and self-experimentation. We review recent developments in devices designed to monitor sleep-wake activity, as well as monitors designed for other purposes that could in principle be applied in the field of sleep (such as cardiac or respiratory sensing). As the body of supporting validation data grows, these devices hold promise for a variety of health and wellness goals. From a clinical and research standpoint, the capacity to obtain longitudinal sleep-wake data may improve disease phenotyping, individualized treatment decisions, and individualized health optimization. From a wellness standpoint, commercially available devices may allow individuals to track their own sleep with the goal of finding patterns and correlations with modifiable behaviors such as exercise, diet, and sleep aids. PMID:23097718

  6. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jisha, N V; Krishnakumar, D N; Surya Prakash, G; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2012-03-01

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify (41)Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation. PMID:22462965

  7. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jisha, N V; Krishnakumar, D N; Surya Prakash, G; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2012-03-01

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify (41)Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation.

  8. Monitoring Water Targets in the Post-2015 Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) provides a comprehensive approach to developing water services in a way that ensures social equity, health, well-being and sustainability for all. In particular, the water goal includes targets related to sanitation, wastewater, water quality, water efficiency, integrated water management and ecosystems (details to be finalized in September 2015). As part of its implementation, methods to monitor target indicators must be developed. National governments will be responsible for reporting on progress toward these targets using national data sets and possibly information from global data sets that applies to their countries. Oversight of this process through the use of global data sets is desirable for encouraging the use of standardized information for comparison purposes. Disparities in monitoring due to very sparse data networks in some countries can be addressed by using geospatially consistent data products from space-based remote sensing. However, to fully exploit these data, capabilities will be needed to downscale information, to interpolate and assimilate data both in time and space, and to integrate these data with socio-economic data sets, model outputs and survey data in a geographical information system framework. Citizen data and other non-standard data types may also supplement national data systems. A comprehensive and integrated analysis and dissemination system is needed to enable the important contributions that satellites could make to achieving Water SDG targets. This presentation will outline the progress made in assessing the needs for information to track progress on the Water SDG, options for meeting these needs using existing data infrastructure, and pathways for expanding the role of Earth observations in SDG monitoring. It will also discuss the potential roles of Future Earth's Sustainable Water Futures Programme (SWFP) and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in coordinating these efforts.

  9. Brands or generics: the dilemma of pharmaceutical marketing in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Quraeshi, Z A; Luqmani, M; Malhotra, N

    1983-01-01

    A significant issue in pharmaceutical marketing in many developing countries is whether drugs should be sold by generic or by brand names. In Pakistan, legislation prohibited the sale of brand name drugs in order to increase price competition, and strengthen the market position of indigenous manufacturers to compete against multinationals. However, the government's objectives were not achieved for reasons discussed in the article. The Pakistan case has implications for multinational firms and for other developing countries in similar situations.

  10. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  11. Visitor impact assessment and monitoring systems: Evolution and current development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.; Cole, D.N.; Bondrup-Nielsen, Soren

    2002-01-01

    Managers of protected areas are increasingly concerned with recreation impacts to the resource and how they should be managed. Impact management programs must be based on information about the severity and extent of impacts and how they are changing over time. This information need has generated considerable interest in the development of visitor impact assessment and monitoring (VIAM) systems. Over the past three decades VIAM systems have been implemented in various protected areas. This paper provides a historical review of VIAM systems and discusses the current areas of refinement in their methodology. Potential areas of future research are also outlined.

  12. Combining Internet monitoring processes, packaging and isotopic analyses to determine the market structure: example of Gamma Butyrolactone.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Diego; Giannasi, Pauline; Rossy, Quentin; Esseiva, Pierre

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is becoming more and more popular among drug users. The use of websites and forums to obtain illicit drugs and relevant information about the means of consumption is a growing phenomenon mainly for new synthetic drugs. Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL), a chemical precursor of Gamma Hydroxy Butyric acid (GHB), is used as a "club drug" and also in drug facilitated sexual assaults. Its market takes place mainly on the Internet through online websites but the structure of the market remains unknown. This research aims to combine digital, physical and chemical information to help understand the distribution routes and the structure of the GBL market. Based on an Internet monitoring process, thirty-nine websites selling GBL, mainly in the Netherlands, were detected between January 2010 and December 2011. Seventeen websites were categorized into six groups based on digital traces (e.g. IP addresses and contact information). In parallel, twenty-five bulk GBL specimens were purchased from sixteen websites for packaging comparisons and carbon isotopic measurements. Packaging information showed a high correlation with digital data confirming the links previously established whereas chemical information revealed undetected links and provided complementary information. Indeed, while digital and packaging data give relevant information about the retailers, the supply routes and the distribution close to the consumer, the carbon isotopic data provides upstream information about the production level and in particular the synthesis pathways and the chemical precursors. A three-level structured market has been thereby identified with a production level mainly located in China and in Germany, an online distribution level mainly hosted in the Netherlands and the customers who order on the Internet. PMID:23523397

  13. Developing a market orientation in the Health Service: a survey of acute NHS Trusts in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Laing, A W; Galbraith, A

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the introduction of the quasi market mechanism into the Health Service has required that managers within NHS trusts acquire new managerial skills relating to market operations and, more importantly, reorientate their organizations towards the marketplace. Examines the pattern of development which has occurred within acute trusts across Scotland in the past three years, and argues that managers in the majority of trusts have developed a remarkably robust and relevant conceptualization of the nature and application of marketing within the NHS, reflecting the difficulties managers have faced in selling the concept of marketing to a generally sceptical body of clinicians. Notes, in part owing to such professional scepticism, that the development of marketing as an implementable approach to operations has lagged significantly behind the managerial conceptualization, although this cannot be attributed solely to resistance from clinicians and other health care professionals. Rather, suggests that such limited progress in implementing a market orientation reflects a range of "structural" barriers, both within individual trusts and the specific market environment faced by trusts.

  14. New paradigm for drug developments--from emerging market statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Chen, Xun; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Peng-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Paradigm for new drug development has changed dramatically over the last decade. Even though new technology increases efficiency in many aspects, partially due to much more stringent regulatory requirements, it actually now takes longer and costs more to develop a new drug. To deal with challenge, some initiatives are taken by the pharmaceutical industry. These initiatives include exploring emerging markets, conducting global trials and building research and development centers in emerging markets to curb spending. It is particularly the current trend that major pharmaceutical companies offshore a part of their biostatistical support to China. In this paper, we first discuss the skill set for trial statisticians in the new era. We then elaborate on some of the approaches for acquiring statistical talent and capacity in general, particularly in emerging markets. We also make some recommendations on the use of the PDUFA strategy and collaborations among industry, health authority and academia from emerging market statistical perspective.

  15. New paradigm for drug developments--from emerging market statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Chen, Xun; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Peng-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Paradigm for new drug development has changed dramatically over the last decade. Even though new technology increases efficiency in many aspects, partially due to much more stringent regulatory requirements, it actually now takes longer and costs more to develop a new drug. To deal with challenge, some initiatives are taken by the pharmaceutical industry. These initiatives include exploring emerging markets, conducting global trials and building research and development centers in emerging markets to curb spending. It is particularly the current trend that major pharmaceutical companies offshore a part of their biostatistical support to China. In this paper, we first discuss the skill set for trial statisticians in the new era. We then elaborate on some of the approaches for acquiring statistical talent and capacity in general, particularly in emerging markets. We also make some recommendations on the use of the PDUFA strategy and collaborations among industry, health authority and academia from emerging market statistical perspective. PMID:23810938

  16. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Walter, W. R.; Myers, S. C.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.; Ruppert, S.; Hauk, T. F.; Dodge, D.; Ganzberger, M.; Ramirez, A. L.; Ryall, F.

    2010-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a long-standing research and development program for nuclear explosion monitoring. Here, we cover aspects of recent work applied to the Middle East region, specifically data management, seismic location, event identification, and magnitude estimation. Seismic data from broadband stations in the region is available through a combination of expanding global networks, improved and increasingly available national networks, and temporary deployments. Managing the huge amounts of data necessary to perform the work is an underappreciated aspect of monitoring research. Our research database provides vertically-integrated management of seismic data, catalogs, picks, magnitudes, etc., as well as analysis tools that are fully integrated into the database. Seismic locations have improved significantly through a succession of models starting with empirical corrections to 1-D models, progressing through to 2 1/2 -D models which significantly improve regional body-wave travel times by characterizing the upper mantle as a gradient, and on through high-resolution fully 3-D models that are currently in development. Our surface wave tomography results provide additional constraints on Earth lithospheric structure and can be used to improve Ms determination. Event identification has been achieved through a number of methods including the traditional mb:Ms discriminant, regional high-frequency P/S discriminants, and analysis of the complete moment tensor solution, which also has the possibility of distinguishing between explosions and mining-type events. Optimal use of these methods requires calibration, such as the multi-phase attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle that has been developed for the region. Use of the models reduces scatter of the earthquake population and reduces misclassification. Another important aspect of explosion monitoring is getting robust estimates of event magnitude, and hence explosive yield. This has been

  17. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  18. Development of Ultrasonic Surface Wave Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druffner, C.; Nalladega, V.; Na, J. K.

    2011-06-01

    To increase the power generating capacity of a wind turbine composite turbine blade manufacturers have been increasing the size of blades. Current utility-scale windmills are equipped with blades ranging from 40 m (130 ft) to 90 m (300 ft) in their sweep diameter. The increased blade size brings greater structural and safety demands. Recent blade recalls and field failures highlights the market need for sensors capable of part quality inspections on manufacturing line and for structural health monitoring (SHM) of the composites in service. An ultrasonic surface wave sensor technology based on interdigitization transduction (IDT) has been developed that can inspect and detect defects in the composite blades. The current work covers the design, fabrication, and characterization of the IDT sensors. The sensor characterization, coverage area, and detection capability for a variety of defects such as impact, cracking and delamination will be discussed.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED EMISSION CONTROLS FOR THE RETROFIT MARKET

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, B; Rumminger, M; Streichsbier, M

    2003-08-24

    Bringing a diesel retrofit product to market involves two primary phases: development and deployment. Critical product development steps include technology selection, system integration, laboratory and durability testing, and regulatory agency verification work. This initial product development phase is then followed by a deployment phase, which consists of building and managing the infrastructure for installation, distribution, service, sales and warranty support. Building relationships with regulators and air quality program developers is also a critical aspect of the deployment process. A successful path to market requires close cooperation between developer, distributor, customer and regulator.

  20. Two dimensional spectral camera development for cartilage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, A.; Graf, A.; Wenzel, U.; Princz, S.; Miller, R.; Mantz, H.; Hessling, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the joint project "BioopTiss" between the Ulm University Medical Center and Ulm University of Applied Sciences, a bioreactor is under development to grow facial cartilage by the methods of tissue engineering. In order to ensure a sufficient quality of the cartilage for implantation, the cartilage growth must be monitored continuously. Current monitoring methods destroy the cultured cartilage so that it is no longer suitable for implantation. Alternatively, it is possible to analyze the cartilage using fluorescence spectroscopy with UV light excitation. This allows a non-invasive assessment of cartilage in terms of composition and quality. The cultured cartilage tissue can reach a size of several square centimeters. For recording fluorescence spectra of every point of the cartilage sample, a highly sensitive spectral camera has been developed which allows distinguishing collagen I from collagen II non-invasively by their fluorescence. This spectral camera operates according to the computed tomography imaging spectrometry (CTIS) principle, which allows obtaining many spectra of a small area with only one snapshot.

  1. Development of a novel fiber optic sensor for humidity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Pascal; Culshaw, Brian; Pierce, S. Gareth

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes ongoing research into the development of a fiber optic sensor for humidity sensing. Particular attention is paid to the compatibility of this fiber optic sensor with an existing system which is already in use for structural deformation monitoring. In order to achieve this, a special transducing coating induces a length variation of the optical fiber as a function of the surrounding humidity levels. An advantage of this setup is that the sensor can not only be read by the same reading unit but can also easily be multiplexed with other sensor types to form a multi functional sensor network. This is of a particular interest for monitoring materials such as reinforced concrete, where structural health assessment criteria include deformation, depassivation and humidity. Several sensor configurations have been tested using dry-wet cycles at room temperature. Through this testing a prototype humidity sensor has been developed which responds consistently to humidity. Using pH sensitive coatings, the same design could be used for a fiber optic pH sensor.

  2. Post-Marketing Health Technology Monitoring. The Analysis of an Experience from a Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ibargoyen-Roteta, Nora; Cabriada-Nuño, Jose Luis; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hernández-Ramírez, Vicent; Clofent-Vilaplana, Juan; Domènech-Morral, Eugeni; Ginard-Vicens, Daniel; Oliva-Oliva, Gloria; Queiro-Verdes, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A system for monitoring the use of aphaeresis in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), named system for monitoring aphaeresis in ulcerative colitis (SiMAC), was designed in 2006 in the Basque Country. In the present study, the opinion of the clinicians who participated in SiMAC was evaluated, in order to identify the barriers and gather suggestions that could improve implementation of this kind of system. Methods: A mixed questionnaire was designed, in order to gather clinicians’ assessments of the SiMAC monitoring system. Results: The response rate was 73.9% (17/23). The data from 40.96% (159/388) of patients with UC treated with aphaeresis was recorded. The main reasons for not including the data from all treated patients were a lack of required data or not meeting the study inclusion criteria. Positive aspects of the SiMAC were identified, as the simplicity of data collection and its systematic, multi-center approach. The negative aspects mentioned were the use of a local computer application and the lack of time for health professionals to enter data. Discussion: The use of monitoring systems helps to formalize the introduction of technologies of little-known effectiveness; involve clinicians and medical societies in coming to agreement and obtaining information about the safety, effectiveness or efficiency of new technologies; and provide relevant information to healthcare administrations for making decisions about the introduction of new technologies into healthcare practice. In order for a monitoring system to work, the process must be straightforward. A minimum set of key variables that are easy to collect must be selected, and an effort made to involve a range of stakeholders, especially institutions and scientific societies, to support the work group. PMID:21863141

  3. Duke Power Company's development of a biofouling monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Derwort, J.E.; Gnilka, A. )

    1991-11-01

    Biofouling programs at Duke Power Company (DPC) can be traced to the invasion of the Catawba River system by Corbicula in 1968. Raw water systems at Plant Allen, a coal-fired station on Lake Wylie, became heavily infested by clams during the 1970s. Development of programs was accelerated as a result of the shutdown of Catawba nuclear station (CNS) on lake Wylie in 1986 due to clam infestations in safety-related systems, increased biofouling problems at McGuire nuclear station (MNS) on lake Norman, and by the issuance of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Generic Letter (GL) 89-13 (issued in 1989). Historical data were reviewed to identify pertinent questions, and a refined, multifaceted Corbicula monitoring plan was developed. This plan was implemented at CNS and MNS in 1989.

  4. Expecting the unexpected: applying the Develop-Distort Dilemma to maximize positive market impacts in health.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara

    2012-10-01

    Although health interventions start with good intentions to develop services for disadvantaged populations, they often distort the health market, making the delivery or financing of services difficult once the intervention is over: a condition called the 'Develop-Distort Dilemma' (DDD). In this paper, we describe how to examine whether a proposed intervention may develop or distort the health market. Our goal is to produce a tool that facilitates meaningful and systematic dialogue for practitioners and researchers to ensure that well-intentioned health interventions lead to productive health systems while reducing the undesirable distortions of such efforts. We apply the DDD tool to plan for development rather than distortions in health markets, using intervention research being conducted under the Future Health Systems consortium in Bangladesh, China and Uganda. Through a review of research proposals and interviews with principal investigators, we use the DDD tool to systematically understand how a project fits within the broader health market system, and to identify gaps in planning for sustainability. We found that while current stakeholders and funding sources for activities were easily identified, future ones were not. The implication is that the projects could raise community expectations that future services will be available and paid for, despite this actually being uncertain. Each project addressed the 'rules' of the health market system differently. The China research assesses changes in the formal financing rules, whereas Bangladesh and Uganda's projects involve influencing community level providers, where informal rules are more important. In each case, we recognize the importance of building trust between providers, communities and government officials. Each project could both develop and distort local health markets. Anyone intervening in the health market must recognize the main market perturbations, whether positive or negative, and manage them so

  5. DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING AN ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY MONITORING, ASSESSMENT AND OUTREACH PROGRAM/THE MYSOUND PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT MYSound Project. The handbook highlights information and monitoring technologies developed from the EMPACT Long Island Sound Marine Monitoring (MYSound) Project. As part of the MYSound effort, telemetering data-buoys...

  6. [Health care units image development on the market of medical services].

    PubMed

    Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    The cause for this document is to present a deliberation on public health facility image development on the medical services market. Marketization of the health service, growing awareness of Polish citizens and their expectation of high service quality as well as increased competition in the healthcare system market is the reason why health unit managers need to put a lot of strength and effort in sustaining or improving the image of the facility they run. Such action gives a chance for obtaining a competitive advantage. PMID:21469289

  7. [Health care units image development on the market of medical services].

    PubMed

    Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    The cause for this document is to present a deliberation on public health facility image development on the medical services market. Marketization of the health service, growing awareness of Polish citizens and their expectation of high service quality as well as increased competition in the healthcare system market is the reason why health unit managers need to put a lot of strength and effort in sustaining or improving the image of the facility they run. Such action gives a chance for obtaining a competitive advantage.

  8. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  9. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  10. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials. PMID:22048230

  11. Development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy monitoring of fuel markers to prevent fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Timothy; Clarkson, John; White, Peter C.; Meakin, Nicholas; McDonald, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Governments often tax fuel products to generate revenues to support and stimulate their economies. They also subsidize the cost of essential fuel products. Fuel taxation and subsidization practices are both subject to fraud. Oil marketing companies also suffer from fuel fraud with loss of legitimate sales and additional quality and liability issues. The use of an advanced marking system to identify and control fraud has been shown to be effective in controlling illegal activity. DeCipher has developed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as its lead technology for measuring markers in fuel to identify and control malpractice. SERS has many advantages that make it highly suitable for this purpose. The SERS instruments are portable and can be used to monitor fuel at any point in the supply chain. SERS shows high specificity for the marker, with no false positives. Multiple markers can also be detected in a single SERS analysis allowing, for example, specific regional monitoring of fuel. The SERS analysis from fuel is also quick, clear and decisive, with a measurement time of less than 5 minutes. We will present results highlighting our development of the use of a highly stable silver colloid as a SERS substrate to measure the markers at ppb levels. Preliminary results from the use of a solid state SERS substrate to measure fuel markers will also be presented.

  12. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  13. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-10-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  14. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  15. Doctors develop vascular center. Marketing new Jupiter, Fla., facility a collaborative effort.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    Two interventional radiologists came to Jupiter Medical Center, Jupiter, Fla., as it was making a number of strategic expansion efforts. Together, the doctors developed a center devoted exclusively to their specialty, committing some of their time to the marketing and outreach education about interventional radiology. Using a multi-faceted marketing approach, the campaign has raised knowledge and awareness of The Vascular Institute to the point of reversing the outflow of patients.

  16. [Development and Design of Portable Sleep Electroencephalogram Monitoring System].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Ye, Datian; Peng, Cheng

    2015-06-01

    The growing rate of public health problem for increasing number of people afflicted with poor sleep quality suggests the importance of developing portable sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems. The system could record the overnight EEG signal, classify sleep stages automatically, and grade the sleep quality. We in our laboratory collected the signals in an easy way using a single channel with three electrodes which were placed in frontal position in case of the electrode drop-off during sleep. For a test, either silver disc electrodes or disposable medical electrocardiographic electrodes were used. Sleep EEG recorded by the two types of electrodes was compared to each other so as to find out which type was more suitable. Two algorithms were used for sleep EEG processing, i. e. amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) algorithm and sample entropy algorithm. Results showed that both algorithms could perform sleep stage classification and quality evaluation automatically. The present designed system could be used to monitor overnight sleep and provide quantitative evaluation.

  17. Development of a Personal Integrated Environmental Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments. PMID:25420154

  18. Development of a personal integrated environmental monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-11-20

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments.

  19. Development of wireless sensor network for monitoring indoor air pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad

    2015-05-01

    The air that we breathe with everyday contains variety of contaminants and particles. Some of these contaminants and particles are hazardous to human health. Most of the people don't realize that the content of air they being exposed to whether it was a good or bad air quality. The air quality whether in indoor or outdoor environment can be influenced by physical factors like dust particles, gaseous pollutants (including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) and biological like molds and bacteria growth which largely depend on temperature and humidity condition of a room. These kinds of pollutants can affect human health, physical reaction, comfort or work performance. In this study, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system for monitor air pollutant in indoor environment was developed. The system was divided into three parts: web-based interface program, sensing module and a base station. The measured data was displayed on the web which is can be accessed by the user. The result shows that the overall measured parameters were meet the acceptable limit, requirement and criteria of indoor air pollution inside the building. The research can be used to improve the indoor air quality level in order to create a comfortable working and healthy environment for the occupants inside the building.

  20. Development of a personal integrated environmental monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments. PMID:25420154

  1. Application of stochastic differential geometry to the term structure of interst rates in developed markets

    SciTech Connect

    Taranenko, Y.; Barnes, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with further developments of the new theory that applies stochastic differential geometry (SDG) to dynamics of interest rates. We examine mathematical constraints on the evolution of interest rate volatilities that arise from stochastic differential calculus under assumptions of an arbitrage free evolution of zero coupon bonds and developed markets (i.e., none of the party/factor can drive the whole market). The resulting new theory incorporates the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) model of interest rates and provides new equations for volatilities which makes the system of equations for interest rates and volatilities complete and self consistent. It results in much smaller amount of volatility data that should be guessed for the SDG model as compared to the HJM model. Limited analysis of the market volatility data suggests that the assumption of the developed market is violated around maturity of two years. Such maturities where the assumptions of the SDG model are violated are suggested to serve as boundaries at which volatilities should be specified independently from the model. Our numerical example with two boundaries (two years and five years) qualitatively resembles the market behavior. Under some conditions solutions of the SDG model become singular that may indicate market crashes. More detail comparison with the data is needed before the theory can be established or refuted.

  2. Marketing Education National Research Conference Report. Marketing Practices: Implications for Developing a Future Workforce. (Key West, Florida, April 15-17, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Marcella M., Ed.

    This conference provided a forum for presenting research findings to educators and other audiences interested in marketing education. The following papers were presented: "Application and Utilization of the Marketing Education Baccalaureate Degree in the Public School--Training and Development Arenas" (Wyant, Prey); "The Impact of Alternative…

  3. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  4. Development of an information data base for watershed monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. Y.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner data, Defense Mapping Agency digital terrain data, conventional maps, and ground data were integrated to create a comprehensive information data base (the Image Based Information System), to monitor the water quality of the Lake Tahoe Basin. Landsat imagery was used as the planimetric base to which all other data were registered. A georeference image plane, which provided an interface between all data planes for the Lake Tahoe Basin data base, was created from the drainage basin map. The data base was used to extract each drainage basin for separate display. The Defense Mapping Agency-created elevation image was processed with VICAR software to produce a component representing slope magnitude, which was cross-tabulated with the drainage basin georeference table. Future applications of the data base include the development of precipitation modeling, surface runoff models, and classification of drainage basin cover types.

  5. AAL service development loom--from the idea to a marketable business model.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Johannes; Auinger, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) market is still in an early stage of development. Previous approaches of comprehensive AAL services are mostly supply-side driven and focused on hardware and software. Usually this type of AAL solutions does not lead to a sustainable success on the market. Research and development increasingly focuses on demand and customer requirements in addition to the social and legal framework. The question is: How can a systematic performance measurement strategy along a service development process support the market-ready design of a concrete business model for AAL service? Within the EU funded research project DALIA (Assistant for Daily Life Activities at Home) an iterative service development process uses an adapted Osterwalder business model canvas. The application of a performance measurement index (PMI) to support the process has been developed and tested. Development of an iterative service development model using a supporting PMI. The PMI framework is developed throughout the engineering of a virtual assistant (AVATAR) as a modular interface to connect informal carers with necessary and useful services. Future research should seek to ensure that the PMI enables meaningful transparency regarding targeting (e.g. innovative AAL service), design (e.g. functional hybrid AAL service) and implementation (e.g. marketable AAL support services). To this end, a further reference to further testing practices is required. The aim must be to develop a weighted PMI in the context of further research, which supports both the service engineering and the subsequent service management process. PMID:26063267

  6. AAL service development loom--from the idea to a marketable business model.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Johannes; Auinger, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) market is still in an early stage of development. Previous approaches of comprehensive AAL services are mostly supply-side driven and focused on hardware and software. Usually this type of AAL solutions does not lead to a sustainable success on the market. Research and development increasingly focuses on demand and customer requirements in addition to the social and legal framework. The question is: How can a systematic performance measurement strategy along a service development process support the market-ready design of a concrete business model for AAL service? Within the EU funded research project DALIA (Assistant for Daily Life Activities at Home) an iterative service development process uses an adapted Osterwalder business model canvas. The application of a performance measurement index (PMI) to support the process has been developed and tested. Development of an iterative service development model using a supporting PMI. The PMI framework is developed throughout the engineering of a virtual assistant (AVATAR) as a modular interface to connect informal carers with necessary and useful services. Future research should seek to ensure that the PMI enables meaningful transparency regarding targeting (e.g. innovative AAL service), design (e.g. functional hybrid AAL service) and implementation (e.g. marketable AAL support services). To this end, a further reference to further testing practices is required. The aim must be to develop a weighted PMI in the context of further research, which supports both the service engineering and the subsequent service management process.

  7. Time series analysis of the developed financial markets' integration using visibility graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Enyu; Small, Michael; Feng, Gang

    2014-09-01

    A time series representing the developed financial markets' segmentation from 1973 to 2012 is studied. The time series reveals an obvious market integration trend. To further uncover the features of this time series, we divide it into seven windows and generate seven visibility graphs. The measuring capabilities of the visibility graphs provide means to quantitatively analyze the original time series. It is found that the important historical incidents that influenced market integration coincide with variations in the measured graphical node degree. Through the measure of neighborhood span, the frequencies of the historical incidents are disclosed. Moreover, it is also found that large "cycles" and significant noise in the time series are linked to large and small communities in the generated visibility graphs. For large cycles, how historical incidents significantly affected market integration is distinguished by density and compactness of the corresponding communities.

  8. Development of a commercial micro corrosion monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niblock, Trevor G. E.; Surangalikar, Harshal S.; Morse, Jeffrey; Laskowski, Bernard C.; Castro-Cedeno, Mario H.; Wilson, Alan R.

    2002-11-01

    Analatom Inc. in conjunction with the DSTO (Defence Science & Technology Organisation) has been developing a micro Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) system for assessing the integrity of high value structures. The device operates on the principle that as a metal corrodes, the oxide formed effectively creates an anodic cell. Hence, if the metal can be separated into two sections, a potential and resistance can be measured between each section. These values can be used to compute the effective mass loss of the device. By matching the material properties of the device with that of the structure whose "health" is being monitored, it is possible to establish a corrosion rate of the structure. Previous research at DSTO has shown that such a system can be fabricated and operated on the micro scale. The task has now been to develop the device into a commercially viable system; it is this development that is examined in this paper. In the original system, a potentiostat is used to evaluate the device for data relating the mass loss during corrosion. This system is now replaced with simplified electronics to reduce both the cost and size of the device. Signal conditioning into the LPR is critical as potentials over 20mV across the terminals can be a source of corrosion of the device. Micro controllers and small board computers are used to run this signal conditioning process and the LPR interface circuit.

  9. Energy efficiency initiatives in emerging markets and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon-Cox, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    During the Presidential Missions to India, Pakistan, China, and South Africa, led by Secretary of Energy, Hazel R. O`Leary, energy efficiency and sustainable energy development have been important focus areas that relate to the issues of Global Warming and Climate Change. The missions have provided opportunities to discuss energy efficiency, sustainable energy development and economic progress with the host countries and to identify areas where there are opportunities for cooperative ventures in energy efficiency technologies and practices that will lead to both economic and environmental benefits. The format for the development of opportunities in energy efficiency technologies and practices in the above countries has been for the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with a broad cross section of industrial companies, energy efficiency organizations and other interested parties to develop country specific teams with designated team leaders for each area identified during the mission. The US teams then draft action plans which serve as a basis for discussion with their international counterparts leading to mutually acceptable implementation plans. US country specific, coordinating committees, comprising DOE personnel and team leaders hold meetings with their international counterparts to review progress and overcome any issues or barriers encountered. The paper describes the progress made to date by the US-China and US-India teams. It should be noted that this paper is not a comprehensive review of DOE`s international energy efficiency activities in the aforementioned countries.

  10. Developments in the Market for Client-based Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 19 human resource managers, 6 consultants, and 11 business faculty investigated the effectiveness of client-based management education. Results suggested that strategic management education is a business imperative and many companies are developing partnerships with business schools to deliver training that supports business…

  11. Crafts Development and Marketing Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Caroline C.; And Others

    This manual was developed to help Peace Corps volunteers assist local craftspeople in developing nations in initiating and operating small businesses to produce and market their products. The manual is organized in eight chapters that cover the following topics: the crafts environment, common problems and solutions for a crafts business,…

  12. Power Pack Your Center Brochure--Keys To Developing an Effective Marketing Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassom, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that a center's informational brochure can be either a valuable marketing tool or an expensive elimination incentive. Provides a list of five questions center directors should address before beginning the design and development of the center brochure. Lists seven guidelines for brochure development. (SD)

  13. New Markets for Meeting Old Needs: U.S. Distance Education and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Winthrop

    This paper analyzes the broad context and covers practical applications for delivering distance education in countries of the developing world. It begins by examining market trends in global higher education and continues by reviewing existing distance education activity in developing countries. This is followed by a discussion of the…

  14. Developing a competitive advantage in the market for radiology services.

    PubMed

    Kropf, R; Szafran, A J

    1988-01-01

    This article describes how managers of outpatient diagnostic radiology services can develop a competitive advantage by increasing the value of services to patients and referring physicians. A method is presented to identify changes to services that increase their value. The method requires the definition of the "value chains" of patients and referring physicians. Particular attention is paid to the use of information systems technology to suggest and implement service changes. A narrow range of health services was selected because the approach requires a detailed understanding of consumers and how they use services. The approach should, however, be examined carefully by managers seeking to develop a competitive advantage for a wide range of health services.

  15. Development of a nanowire based titanium needle probe sensor for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Devesh C.

    The need for continuous monitoring of various physiological functions such as blood glucose levels, neural functions and cholesterol levels has fostered the research and development of various schemes of biosensors to sense and help control the respective function. The needs of patients for sensors with minimal discomfort, longer life and better performance have necessitated the development towards smaller and more efficient sensors. In addition, the need for higher functionality from smaller sensors has led to the development of sensors with multiple electrodes, each electrode capable of sensing a different body function. Such multi-electrode sensors need to be fabricated using micro-fabrication processes in order to achieve precise control over the size, shape and placement of the electrodes. Multielectrode sensors fabricated using silicon and polymers have been demonstrated. One physiological function that attracts widespread interest is continuous glucose monitoring in our blood, since Diabetes affects millions of people all over the world. Significant deviations of blood glucose levels from the normal levels of 4-8 mM can cause fainting, coma and damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. For chronic patients, continuous monitoring of glucose levels is essential for accurate and timely treatment. A few continuous monitoring sensors are available in the market, but they have problems and cannot replace the strip type one-time glucose monitoring systems as yet. To address this need, large scale research efforts have been targeted towards continuous monitoring. The demand for higher accuracy and sensitivity has motivated researchers to evaluate the use of nanostructures in sensing. The large surface area-to-volume ratio of such structures could enable further miniaturization and push the detection limits, potentially enabling even single molecule detection. This research involved the development of a biocompatible titanium needle probe sensor for

  16. Development of structural health monitoring systems for railroad bridge testbeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun-Jun; Min, Jiyoung; Yun, Chung-Bang; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Yong-Su; Park, Su-Yeol

    2011-04-01

    Recently a challenging project has been carried out for construction of a national network for safety management and monitoring of civil infrastructures in Korea. As a part of the project, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems have been established on railroad bridges employing various types of sensors such as accelerometers, optical fiber sensors, and piezoelectric sensors. This paper presents the current status of railroad bridge health monitoring testbeds. Emerging sensors and monitoring technologies are under investigation. They are local damage detection using PZT-based electro-mechanical impedances; vibration-based global monitoring using accelerations, FBG-based dynamic strains; and wireless sensor data acquisition systems. The monitoring systems provide real-time measurements under train-transit and environmental loadings, and can be remotely accessible and controllable via the web. Long-term behaviors of the railroad bridge testbeds are investigated, and guidelines for safety management are to be established by combining numerical analysis and signal processing of the measured data.

  17. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  18. DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

  19. Development of sensing techniques for weaponry health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Eugene; Ruffin, Paul B.; Walker, Ebonee A.; Brantley, Christina L.

    2013-04-01

    Due to the costliness of destructive evaluation methods for assessing the aging and shelf-life of missile and rocket components, the identification of nondestructive evaluation methods has become increasingly important to the Army. Verifying that there is a sufficient concentration of stabilizer is a dependable indicator that the missile's double-based solid propellant is viable. The research outlined in this paper summarizes the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center's (AMRDEC's) comparative use of nanoporous membranes, carbon nanotubes, and optical spectroscopic configured sensing techniques for detecting degradation in rocket motor propellant. The first sensing technique utilizes a gas collecting chamber consisting of nanoporous structures that trap the smaller solid propellant particles for measurement by a gas analysis device. In collaboration with NASA-Ames, sensing methods are developed that utilize functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as the key sensing element. The optical spectroscopic sensing method is based on a unique light collecting optical fiber system designed to detect the concentration of the propellant stabilizer. Experimental setups, laboratory results, and overall effectiveness of each technique are presented in this paper. Expectations are for the three sensing mechanisms to provide nondestructive evaluation methods that will offer cost-savings and improved weaponry health monitoring.

  20. Development of acoustic health monitoring for railroad tank cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostautas, Richard; Finlayson, Richard; Godinez, Valery; Pollock, Adrian; Penya, Jose

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the research and development of an Acoustic Health Monitoring (AHM) system that uses Guided Lamb Wave (GLW) technology to determine the thickness of railroad tank car shells for identification of wall loss due to corrosion. In recent regulatory changes, the emphasis has shifted from the traditional hydrotest to more modern methods for assuring tank car integrity. The new generation of maintenance programs will rely heavily on nondestructive testing, and will use damage tolerance concepts and risk analysis to establish inspection frequencies and items to inspect. It is the responsibility of the owners to set up experience-based maintenance programs that are suitable for the working conditions of their own particular fleets. Development of an ideal AHM system for railroad cars would be an instrument that incorporates Acoustic Emission (AE) and GLW technology. The combination of active and passive acoustic technologies integrated into a single system would be a highly efficient means of determining the structural integrity of tank cars. The integration of the GLW technology will allow identification of corrosion wall loss in a zone between two sensors, rather than at a single point (traditional ultrasonic thickness measurements). Thus, a much larger area of the structure can be inspected for approximately the same inspection cost. With a suitable integration of this new technology into the overall inspection and corrosion management program, the fleet can be more efficiently maintained and the risk of accidental release through progressive corrosion damage can be significantly reduced.

  1. Electronic ballasts: Developments in the U.S. market

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, D.J.; Sardinsky, R.; Hawthorne, S.; Lovins, A.B.; Kiernan, P.

    1992-12-31

    Sales of electronic fluorescent ballasts are soaring as manufacturers continue to introduce better-performing models. Improvements include higher power factor, lower harmonic distortion, better reliability, four-lamp capability, and applicability to a wider variety of lamps. However, the juiciest plum -- a modestly priced, highly reliable, high-power-quality, continuously dimming ballast -- is still awaited. Manufacturers are addressing reported problems with batch failures, power quality, and unpredictable equipment incompatibilities, but are having difficulty keeping up with growing demand. Back orders of several months are common. This update summarizes technical data on current offerings and describes recent developments in making electronic ballasts.

  2. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%.

  3. Market Size and Innovation: Effects of Medicare Part D on Pharmaceutical Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that Medicare Part D increased prescription drug use among seniors, and increased pharmaceutical firms’ revenues from sales. Previous studies also indicate that increases in market size induce pharmaceutical innovation. This paper assesses the impact of the Medicare Part D legislation on pharmaceutical research and development (R&D), using time-series data on the number of drugs entering preclinical and clinical development by therapeutic class and phase. We find that the passage and implementation of Medicare Part D is associated with significant increases in pharmaceutical R&D for therapeutic classes with higher Medicare market share. PMID:23869113

  4. Noninterference Systems Developed for Measuring and Monitoring Rotor Blade Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.

    2003-01-01

    In the noninterference measurement of blade vibrations, a laser light beam is transmitted to the rotor blade tips through a single optical fiber, and the reflected light from the blade tips is collected by a receiving fiber-optic bundle and conducted to a photodetector. Transmitting and receiving fibers are integrated in an optical probe that is enclosed in a metal tube which also houses a miniature lens that focuses light on the blade tips. Vibratory blade amplitudes can be deduced from the measurement of the instantaneous time of arrival of the blades and the knowledge of the rotor speed. The in-house noninterference blade-vibration measurement system was developed in response to requirements to monitor blade vibrations in several tests where conventional strain gauges could not be installed or where there was a need to back up strain gauges should critical gauges fail during the test. These types of measurements are also performed in the aircraft engine industry using proprietary in-house technology. Two methods of measurement were developed for vibrations that are synchronous with a rotor shaft. One method requires only one sensor; however, it is necessary to continuously record the data while the rotor is being swept through the resonance. In the other method, typically four sensors are employed and the vibratory amplitude is deduced from the data by performing a least square fit to a harmonic function. This method does not require continuous recording of data through the resonance and, therefore, is better suited for monitoring. The single-probe method was tested in the Carl facility at the Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, and the multiple-probe method was tested in NASA Glenn Research Center's Spin Rig facility, which uses permanent magnets to excite synchronous vibrations. Representative results from this test are illustrated in the bar chart. Nonsynchronous vibrations were measured online during testing of the Quiet High Speed Fan in Glenn s 9- by 15-Foot

  5. Feature and Statistical Model Development in Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inho

    All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development. The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally. Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering. The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network

  6. Development of a global flood monitoring system using ATMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temimi, M.; Tesfagiorgis, K. B.; Lacava, T.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an operational global flood monitoring system using NPP-ATMS microwave brightness temperature measurements. The operational tool is based on a microwave-based soil wetness index (SWI). Swath-wise brightness temperatures (BT) of ATMS 89 GHz and 23 GHz channels are routinely downloaded from NOAA's CLASS. Each swath data is resampled to a regular grid of 35 km by 35 km using the nearest neighborhood technique to produce daily global brightness temperature maps. Global values of SWI are calculated using the difference in BT between the 89 and 23 GHz channels. Using these daily SWI values, we implemented the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) to calculate the Soil Wetness Variational Index (SWVI) which is dependent on the mean and standard deviation of SWIs of the same months of previous years using ATMS data. These SWVI values are influenced by changes in surface conditions. The determined mean and standard deviation values of SWI that were used to estimate the SWVI were determined on a monthly basis to mitigate the impact of the seasonal variation of the vegetation cover and surface conditions on the microwave signal. The determined SWVI using ATMS data showed significant sensitivity to inundation and allows for capturing changes in wet areas (inundation, flooding or very wet surface) across the globe. Snow and ice on the ground were masked out using a threshold-based approach that uses microwave brightness temperature observations. The advantage of the new ATMS sensor with respect to the older AMSU sensor that has similar channels consists of narrower orbit gaps and better spatial coverage and resolution. We nevertheless adapted the developed tool to AMSU data to investigate time series of inundation records across the globe since 2002. The obtained maps were verified against historical flood events in Australia and other parts of the world. Relationship between determined inundation and measured discharge was analyzed. A

  7. REDD+ readiness: early insights on monitoring, reporting and verification systems of project developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Shijo; Herold, Martin; Sunderlin, William D.; Verchot, Louis V.

    2013-09-01

    A functional measuring, monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system is essential to assess the additionality and impact on forest carbon in REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation) projects. This study assesses the MRV capacity and readiness of project developers at 20 REDD+ projects in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam, using a questionnaire survey and field visits. Nineteen performance criteria with 76 indicators were formulated in three categories, and capacity was measured with respect to each category. Of the 20 projects, 11 were found to have very high or high overall MRV capacity and readiness. At the regional level, capacity and readiness tended to be highest in the projects in Brazil and Peru and somewhat lower in Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. Although the MRV capacities of half the projects are high, there are capacity deficiencies in other projects that are a source of concern. These are not only due to limitations in technical expertise, but can also be attributed to the slowness of international REDD+ policy formulation and the unclear path of development of the forest carbon market. Based on the study results, priorities for MRV development and increased investment in readiness are proposed.

  8. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  9. Terrestrial ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometer intercomparisons: results and field standard development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Early, Edward A.; Thompson, Ambler E.

    1996-11-01

    Two interagency solar ultraviolet spectroradiometer intercomparisons (September 1994 and June 1995) have been conducted at Table Mountain outside Boulder, Colorado. A third intercomparison is planned for June 1996 at the same location. The intercomparisons were organized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) at a field site supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and included participants representing North American agencies currently monitoring solar ultraviolet irradiance. Instruments were characterized at the intercomparisons for wavelength error, bandwidth, and stray- light rejection. All instruments were calibrated for spectral irradiance responsivity by NIST personnel with specially developed quartz-halogen field irradiance standards. Thus, comparisons of synchronized solar irradiance measurements allowed true comparisons between instruments, without the added complication of differences in irradiance scales of the participants. Estimates of differences in individual network propagation of irradiance scales were made separately. In addition, there were extensive concurrent ancillary measurements in an effort to compile a standard data set. We will discuss the results of these experiments and the overall agreement between the participants.

  10. Positioning patient-perceived medical services to develop a marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Hong, Myung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In today's medical market, marketing philosophy is being rapidly transformed from customer searching to patient satisfaction and service improvement. The principal objective of this study was to contribute to the establishment of a desirable medical marketing strategy, through the factors of customer satisfaction and the positioning of patients' perceptions by marketing institutions. The data were collected from 282 students of the College of Public Health and Medicine in Seoul. The survey tools were developed using the SERVQUAL scale. Analysis in this study involved both statistical and network analysis. The former was used to verify the determinants of service satisfaction as perceived by respondents, via factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The latter was obtained using a positioning map and 2-mode network analysis with the matrix data converted from raw data. The determining factors for patient satisfaction were identified as facilities, accessibility, process, physicians, and medical staff. The regression equation was significant (R = 0.606), and the most influential variable was the service quality of physicians (β = .569). According to multidimensional scaling, the positioning of medical institutions indicated that patients' perceptions were affected by hospital size and specialization. By recognizing and managing patient satisfaction, medical institutions are able to foster customer loyalty and, in turn, to enhance service quality. It is necessary to develop an adequate marketing mix to provide better medical services and to overcome medical competition among institutions. PMID:22281998

  11. Positioning patient-perceived medical services to develop a marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Hong, Myung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In today's medical market, marketing philosophy is being rapidly transformed from customer searching to patient satisfaction and service improvement. The principal objective of this study was to contribute to the establishment of a desirable medical marketing strategy, through the factors of customer satisfaction and the positioning of patients' perceptions by marketing institutions. The data were collected from 282 students of the College of Public Health and Medicine in Seoul. The survey tools were developed using the SERVQUAL scale. Analysis in this study involved both statistical and network analysis. The former was used to verify the determinants of service satisfaction as perceived by respondents, via factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The latter was obtained using a positioning map and 2-mode network analysis with the matrix data converted from raw data. The determining factors for patient satisfaction were identified as facilities, accessibility, process, physicians, and medical staff. The regression equation was significant (R = 0.606), and the most influential variable was the service quality of physicians (β = .569). According to multidimensional scaling, the positioning of medical institutions indicated that patients' perceptions were affected by hospital size and specialization. By recognizing and managing patient satisfaction, medical institutions are able to foster customer loyalty and, in turn, to enhance service quality. It is necessary to develop an adequate marketing mix to provide better medical services and to overcome medical competition among institutions.

  12. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  13. Development of a Landslide Monitoring System using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen-Jones, R. M.; Hughes, P. N.; Glendinning, S.; Gunn, D.; Chambers, J.; Stirling, R.

    2015-12-01

    Current assessments of slope stability rely on the use of point sensors, the results of which are often difficult to interpret, have relatively high associated installation and maintenance costs, and do not provide large-area coverage. A new system is currently under development, based on the use of integrated geophysical - geotechnical sensors to monitor ground water conditions via electrical resistivity tomography. This study presents the results of an in-situ electrical resistivity tomography survey, gathered over a two year investigation period at a full-scale clay test embankment in Northumberland, UK. The 3D resistivity array comprised 288 electrodes, at 0.7m grid spacing, covering an area of approximately 90 m2. The first year of investigation involved baseline data collection, followed by a second year which saw a series of deliberate interventions targeted at weakening the slope, to determine whether corresponding geotechnical property changes would be reflected in resistivity images derived from ERT. These interventions included the manual extension of four tension cracks already present in the slope, and the installation of a sprinkler system, eight months later. Laboratory methods were employed to derive a system of equations for relating resistivity to geotechnical parameters more directly relevant to slope stability, including moisture content, suction and shear strength. These equations were then applied to resistivity data gathered over the baseline and intervention periods, yielding geotechnical images of the subsurface which compared well with in-situ geotechnical point sensors. During the intervention period, no slope movement was recorded, however, tensiometers at 0.5 m and 1.0 m depths showed elevated pore pressures, with positive pressures being recorded at depths less than 0.5 m. Resistivity images were successful in capturing the extension of the tension cracks, and in identifying the development of a potential shear failure plane as water

  14. A Model for the Development an Upper-Division Marketing Certificate Program: Professional Sales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Joyce L.

    The sequential components of a model for the development of an upper-division marketing certificate program in professional sales are described in this report as they were implemented at the University of Minnesota's General College during Fall 1980. After introductory material examining the responsibilities of the professional sales…

  15. Social Media and Marketing Education: A Review of Current Practices in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…

  16. Retailing I: A Foundation for Marketing and Distributive Education Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kathryn Scruggs

    Designed to serve as a foundation for competency-based marketing and distributive education curriculum development, this package consists of task lists, performance objectives, and performance guides for use in planning an introductory level retailing course. Job descriptions are given for receiving clerks, stock clerks, and salespersons/sales…

  17. Matching of Developed Generic Competences of Graduates in Higher Education with Labour Market Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Pileicikiene, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Higher education provides graduates with both monetary and non-monetary benefits. Globalization and technological developments foster utilitarian approach, therefore the transmission of competences that are relevant in labour market is an important target for higher education institutions. The paper presents findings of research on the match of…

  18. Challenges in the clinical development requirements for the marketing authorization of new medicines in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kudrin, Alex

    2009-03-01

    A rapid growth of investment into clinical research and new drug development has manifested itself by an exponential increase of new products coming onto the worldwide market. The emerging pharmaceutical and biotech markets in Southeast Asia are believed to be extremely promising from a commercial point of view in the next decade. The unique position of the Asian market and the diversity in clinical research initiatives are linked with diverse regulatory requirements for clinical development and registration of new medicines. Some of these differences have an impact on timelines for marketing authorizations in South Korea, China, Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and other countries. One of the approaches to streamlining regulatory strategy in different countries is the initiation of multicountry international clinical trials trying to address requirements and allowing registration in several regional countries simultaneously. Increasing cooperation between South Asian countries in relation to regulatory requirements and clinical development will facilitate the registration of innovative medicines in this rapidly developing region of the world and enable improved cohesiveness between countries in a drug safety framework.

  19. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    PubMed

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  20. Developing and Teaching an Online MBA Marketing Research Class: Implications for Online Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qin; Ganesh, Gopala

    2014-01-01

    The authors intend to describe the experience of developing and teaching an online marketing research class for master of business administration students. The class has been taught for four fall semesters. Each time, the class also completed an online survey, analyzed the resulting data, and wrote a detailed report for a real client. The course…

  1. Using Innovative Technology to Develop Sustainable Assessment Practices in Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debuse, Justin C. W.; Lawley, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Timely, constructive feedback on assessment is critically important to students and yet is increasingly difficult for time-poor academics to consistently provide. Marketing educators also face pressure to incorporate sustainability into both the curriculum and practices such as assessment. This article outlines the development of an innovative…

  2. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  3. The Emerging External Labor Market and the Impact on Enterprise's Human Resource Development in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, John; Zhu, Ying

    2002-01-01

    Labor strategies of eight enterprises in Shanghai and Beijing were profiled. Changes in national policy had created a highly competitive market. High skill requirements of jobs and shortages of skilled labor meant companies emphasized internal employee development over recruitment. However, they lacked strategies for retaining trained employees.…

  4. 76 FR 21327 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Development Cooperator Program Announcement Type: New. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number... markets for U.S. agricultural commodities and products through cost-share assistance. Financial assistance... provides a clear, long-term agricultural trade strategy, and a program effectiveness time line...

  5. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2008/09 Annual Service Plan Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Service Plan Report reflects the Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's success in achieving the overall priorities of the Government of British Columbia, in the current economic conditions and other relevant external factors related to the strategic direction and operations of this Ministry. This paper also highlights…

  6. [Macroscopic analysis on production and marketing of medicinal material resources for sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peigen; Zhao, Runhuai; Long, Xingehao; Guo, Baolin

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, the production and marketing of medicinal materials of plant origin are sorted and analyzed. The total annual yield and total output value are presented. The resources sustainable development is discussed by three aspects, i.e., the yield Top 60 items, rare and endangered species and several wild drugs should be deeply concerned. Relevant measures and implementation are recommended respectively.

  7. An exploration of the applicability of situational segmentation in the health care market: development of a situational taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1990-01-01

    Competition in the health care market has intensified in recent years. Health care providers are increasingly adopting innovative marketing techniques to secure their positions in the marketplace. This paper examines an innovative marketing technique, situational segmentation, and assesses its applicability to the health care market. Situational segmentation has proven useful in many consumer goods markets but has received little attention in the context of health care marketing. A two-stage research process is used to develop a taxonomy of situational factors pertinent to health care choice. In stage one, focus group interviews are used to gather information which is instrumental to questionnaire development. In stage two, the responses of 151 subjects to a 51 item questionnaire are factor analyzed. The results demonstrate that situational segmentation is a viable strategy in the health care market.

  8. Using the Process of Disruption to Find New Markets and to Develop New Marketing Programs for Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Mark John

    2009-01-01

    The market for management education has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. However, increasing competition stemming from new entrants such as for-profit universities and from the globalization of management education have changed the dynamics of the market thereby presenting business schools with difficult challenges. The process of disruption…

  9. Learning Marketing Accounting Skills in the Introductory Marketing Course: The Development, Use, and Acceptance of a Self-Study Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi Ju; Greenberg, Barnett; Dickson, Peter; Goodrich, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A self-study tutorial designed to teach, through a learning-by-doing application, how important marketing accounting is to the whole firm, and why every business graduate should have a solid understanding of marketing accounting is tested using an exam and satisfaction survey. Performance on the exam and satisfaction with the tutorial depended…

  10. Development of a Scheimpflug Lidar System for Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a Scheimpflug lidar system which was employed for atmospheric aerosol monitoring in southern Sweden. Atmospheric aerosol fluctuation was observed around rush-hour. The extinction coefficient over 6 km was retrieved, i.e., 0.15 km-1, by employing the slop-method during the time when the atmosphere was relatively homogenous. The measurements successfully demonstrate the potential of using a Scheimpflug lidar technique for atmospheric aerosol monitoring applications.

  11. The development of a monitoring system for use in Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Fuess, D.A.

    1996-08-12

    In April 1993, the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM), through the U.S. Department of State, requested hardware to monitor two rocket motor test stands in Iraq. The Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory responded with project Dustcloud. Within two weeks of the request, LLNL delivered two video monitoring systems which were deployed to Iraq and installed at the Al Azim solid motor test site and the Al Rafah liquid engine test site, each about 75 km from Baghdad. The original request included a set of loosely defined requirements to perform remote monitoring in accordance with applicable United Nations Resolutions. The Sheraton Hotel in Baghdad was to be the site of the central monitoring station. While these first systems satisfied the original requirements, they were technically cumbersome and did not lend themselves to easy expansion, or mass production. A request for a second phase design was received in May 1994. The second phase design provided a more general solution to the monitoring requirement and extended the number of monitored facilities to a total of 25 and provided a continuous monitoring capability at a mutually agreed upon site located outside of the monitored country. The Phase II hardware was placed in service in June 1994. In both the Phase I and Phase II designs we worked against extremely tight time constraints where the schedule was driven solely by international negotiations and agreements. One result of the tight time schedules was the inability to consider a wide range of international sources for the hardware. This paper is devoted to an in depth discussion of the requirements and the hardware design.

  12. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  13. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323

  14. Real-time particulate fallout contamination monitoring technology development at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Schwindt, Chris J.

    1998-10-01

    Two separate real-time particulate fallout monitoring instruments have been developed by the contamination monitoring Laboratory at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center. These instruments monitor particular fallout contamination deposition rates in cleanrooms and allow certification of cleanliness levels as well as proactive protection of valuable flight hardware.

  15. Development of lightweight structural health monitoring systems for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Matthew

    This thesis investigates the development of structural health monitoring systems (SHM) for aerospace applications. The work focuses on each aspect of a SHM system covering novel transducer technologies and damage detection techniques to detect and locate damage in metallic and composite structures. Secondly the potential of energy harvesting and power arrangement methodologies to provide a stable power source is assessed. Finally culminating in the realisation of smart SHM structures. 1. Transducer Technology A thorough experimental study of low profile, low weight novel transducers not normally used for acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonics (AU) damage detection was conducted. This included assessment of their performance when exposed to aircraft environments and feasibility of embedding these transducers in composites specimens in order to realise smart structures. 2. Damage Detection An extensive experimental programme into damage detection utilising AE and AU were conducted in both composites and metallic structures. These techniques were used to assess different damage mechanism within these materials. The same transducers were used for novel AE location techniques coupled with AU similarity assessment to successfully detect and locate damage in a variety of structures. 3. Energy Harvesting and Power Management Experimental investigations and numerical simulations were undertaken to assess the power generation levels of piezoelectric and thermoelectric generators for typical vibration and temperature differentials which exist in the aerospace environment. Furthermore a power management system was assessed to demonstrate the ability of the system to take the varying nature of the input power and condition it to a stable power source for a system. 4. Smart Structures The research conducted is brought together into a smart carbon fibre wing showcasing the novel embedded transducers for AE and AU damage detection and location, as well as vibration energy

  16. Organizational and market factors associated with leadership development programs in hospitals: a national study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Thompson, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership in hospitals is widely recognized as the key to organizational performance. Clinical, financial, and operational performance is increasingly being linked to the leadership practices of hospital managers. Moreover, effective leadership has been described as a means to achieve competitive advantage. Recent environmental forces, including reimbursement changes and increased competition, have prompted many hospitals to focus on building leadership competencies to successfully address these challenges. Using the resource dependence theory as our conceptual framework, we present results from a national study of hospitals examining the association of organizational and market factors with the provision of leadership development program activities, including the presence of a leadership development program, a diversity plan, a program for succession planning, and career development resources. The data are taken from the American Hospital Association's (AHA) 2008 Survey of Hospitals, the Area Resource File, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. The results of multilevel logistic regressions of each leadership development program activity on organizational and market factors indicate that hospital size, system and network affiliation, and accreditation are significantly and positively associated with all leadership development program activities. The market factors significantly associated with all leadership development activities include a positive odds ratio for metropolitan statistical area location and a negative odds ratio for the percentage of the hospital's service area population that is female and minority. For-profit hospitals are less likely to provide leadership development program activities. Additional findings are presented, and the implications for hospital management are discussed.

  17. Policy Building Blocks: Helping Policymakers Determine Policy Staging for the Development of Distributed PV Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing body of qualitative and a limited body of quantitative literature supporting the common assertion that policy drives development of clean energy resources. Recent work in this area indicates that the impact of policy depends on policy type, length of time in place, and economic and social contexts of implementation. This work aims to inform policymakers about the impact of different policy types and to assist in the staging of those policies to maximize individual policy effectiveness and development of the market. To do so, this paper provides a framework for policy development to support the market for distributed photovoltaic systems. Next steps include mathematical validation of the framework and development of specific policy pathways given state economic and resource contexts.

  18. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  19. Development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system suitable for use in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Witz, S.; Hartung, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system for use in the evaluation of candidate water recovery systems and for study of techniques for measuring potability parameters is reported. Sensing techniques for monitoring of the most desirable parameters are reviewed in terms of their sensitivities and complexities, and their recommendations for sensing techniques are presented. Rationale for selection of those parameters to be monitored (pH, specific conductivity, Cr(+6), I2, total carbon, and bacteria) in a next generation water monitor is presented along with an estimate of flight system specifications. A master water monitor development schedule is included.

  20. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  1. Development of smart toothbrush monitoring system for ubiquitous healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Kim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kyungho

    2006-01-01

    The design of an intelligent toothbrush, capable of monitoring brushing motion, orientation through the grip axis, during toothbrushing is described. Inappropriate tooth-brushing styles, even in adults, sometimes cause dental problems, cavities, gingivitis, etc. This smart system provides user to monitor his or her brushing pattern using accelerometer and magnetic sensors for evaluation of toothbrushing style. Directional information of toothbrush with respect to the earth's magnetic field and activity data were measured by a miniaturized low-power micro-controller, MSP430 and transmitted to personal computer by 2.4 GHz radio transmitter, nRF2401. A personal computer provides an on-line display of activity and orientation measurements during toothbrushing. The signal trace is then analyzed to extract clinically relevant information. This preliminary study showed that the proposed monitoring system was conceived to aid dental care personnel in patient education and instruction in oral hygiene regarding brushing style. PMID:17945966

  2. Biopower markets in developing countries: Meeting the demands for cleaner power

    SciTech Connect

    Demeter, C.P.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide expansion of democracy economic freedom and the explosion of private investment and trading is fueling a boom in global economic growth at double the rate of only a decade ago. Dependence on power and process heat is growing in lockstep during a time of significant structural change in electric markets. Many countries are creating more competitive market environments for power production and sales through changes in regulation, ownership, and pricing structures. But while demand for heat and power is expanding and creating a higher standard of living for many around the world, there is growing global concern about increases in carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and its possible link to climate changes. On a local level, flooding and non-point runoff, deforestation and habitat loss, salination of drinking water aquifers, solid waste disposal and landfill capacity shortages all put an increasing strain on our environment`s ability to cleanse itself. This could have subsequent adverse impacts on human health and welfare. This article explores emerging markets for biomass power development in India, china, Asia, and Latin America. Exploiting these markets requires understanding each country`s resources, energy needs, and government attitudes about foreign power developers. 6 figs.

  3. Structured Case Analysis: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in a Marketing Case Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebba, Joanne M.; Hamilton, Janet G.

    2007-01-01

    Structured case analysis is a hybrid pedagogy that flexibly combines diverse instructional methods with comprehensive case analysis as a mechanism to develop critical thinking skills. An incremental learning framework is proposed that allows instructors to develop and monitor content-specific theory and the corresponding critical thinking skills.…

  4. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself.

  5. Emission allowances and utility compliance choices: Market development and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. ); McDermott, K.A. . Center for Regulatory Studies)

    1992-01-01

    This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state PUCs, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusion; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to date by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements. (VC)

  6. Emission allowances and utility compliance choices: Market development and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-05-01

    This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state PUCs, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusion; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to date by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements. (VC)

  7. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself. PMID:22309968

  8. Large resource development projects as markets for passive solar technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roze-Benson, R V

    1980-12-01

    A basic premise of this study is that large resource development projects provide a major market opportunity for passive solar manufactured buildings. The primary objectives of the work are to document selected resource development projects and identify their potential housing needs and development schedules, to contact resource industry representatives and assess some of the processes and motivations behind their involvement in housing decisions, and to provide passive solar manufactured buildings producers with results of these steps as early initial market intelligence. The intent is to identify not only the industries, location of their planned projects, and their likely worker housing needs, but also the individuals involved in making housing-related decisions. The 56 identified projects are located within 18 states and cover 11 types of resources. The report documents individual projects, provides protections of total worker-related housing needs, and presents overviews of resource development company involvement in the new construction market. In addition, the report profiles three organizations that expressed a strong interest in implementing the use of low-cost passive solar manufactured buildings in resource-development-related activities.

  9. Reservoir shore development in long range terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using long range terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial long range laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of

  10. Strategy Developed for Selecting Optimal Sensors for Monitoring Engine Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Sensor indications during rocket engine operation are the primary means of assessing engine performance and health. Effective selection and location of sensors in the operating engine environment enables accurate real-time condition monitoring and rapid engine controller response to mitigate critical fault conditions. These capabilities are crucial to ensure crew safety and mission success. Effective sensor selection also facilitates postflight condition assessment, which contributes to efficient engine maintenance and reduced operating costs. Under the Next Generation Launch Technology program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, has developed a model-based procedure for systematically selecting an optimal sensor suite for assessing rocket engine system health. This optimization process is termed the systematic sensor selection strategy. Engine health management (EHM) systems generally employ multiple diagnostic procedures including data validation, anomaly detection, fault-isolation, and information fusion. The effectiveness of each diagnostic component is affected by the quality, availability, and compatibility of sensor data. Therefore systematic sensor selection is an enabling technology for EHM. Information in three categories is required by the systematic sensor selection strategy. The first category consists of targeted engine fault information; including the description and estimated risk-reduction factor for each identified fault. Risk-reduction factors are used to define and rank the potential merit of timely fault diagnoses. The second category is composed of candidate sensor information; including type, location, and estimated variance in normal operation. The final category includes the definition of fault scenarios characteristic of each targeted engine fault. These scenarios are defined in terms of engine model hardware parameters. Values of these parameters define engine simulations that generate

  11. The participatory design of a performance oriented monitoring and evaluation system in an international development environment.

    PubMed

    Guerra-López, Ingrid; Hicks, Karen

    2015-02-01

    This article illustrates the application of the impact monitoring and evaluation process for the design and development of a performance monitoring and evaluation framework in the context of human and institutional capacity development. This participative process facilitated stakeholder ownership in several areas including the design, development, and use of a new monitoring and evaluation system, as well their targeted results and accomplishments through the use of timely performance data gathered through ongoing monitoring and evaluation. The process produced a performance indicator map, a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework, and data collection templates to promote the development, implementation, and sustainability of the monitoring and evaluation system of a farmer's trade union in an African country.

  12. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  13. Development of a portable passive-acoustic bedload monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hydrophone-based passive acoustic bedload-monitoring system was designed, tested and deployed by researchers at the University of Mississippi and the National Sedimentation Laboratory in Oxford, MS. The hydrophone system was designed to be easily deployed and operated by non-experts. In addition, ...

  14. Comparison and cost analysis of drinking water quality monitoring requirements versus practice in seven developing countries.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-07-18

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country's ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  15. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries. PMID:25046632

  16. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  17. Development of monitoring and control technology based on trace gas monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Shi, J.; Hickey, B.

    1997-07-01

    Trace gases are generated by many biological reactions. During anaerobic decomposition, trace levels of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases are produced. This work was designed to test how effectively hydrogen and CO could be to monitor high-rate anaerobic systems that has signficant mass transfer and complex hydraulics. An experimental program was designed to examine the behavior of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system under steady state and in response to organic loading perturbations. The responses of trace gases CO and H{sub 2} were tracked using an on-line, real-time gas-monitoring system linked to a computer-controlled data acquisition package. Data on conventional process parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were concurrently collected.

  18. Development of monitoring and control technology based on trace gas monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liebowitz, B.

    1997-07-01

    Trace gases are generated by many biological reactions. During anaerobic decomposition, trace levels of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases are produced. It was shown previously that these trace gases are intrinsically related to the biochemical reactions occurring and, therefore, offer promise for on-line process monitoring and control. This work was designed to test how effectively hydrogen and CO could be to monitor high-rate anaerobic systems that has significant mass transfer and complex hydraulics. An experimental program was designed to examine the behavior of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system under steady state and in response to organic loading perturbations. The responses of trace gases CO and H{sub 2} were tracked using an on-line, real-time gas-monitoring system linked to a computer-controlled data acquisition package. Data on conventional process parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were concurrently collected. Monitoring of conventional process indicators (i.e., pH, VFA, gas production) and trace gas (H{sub 2} and CO) indicators was conducted using a matrix of nine different steady-state OLRs (4-23 kg COD/m{sup 3} -d) and system HRTs (0.5 to 2.5 days) was performed to determine any correlation among the indicators. Of OLR, HRT, and influent COD, only OLR had any significant influence on the process indicators examined. All parameters except methane increased with increases in OLR; methane decreased with increased OLR. The OLR and gas production rate (GP) were observed to be linearly correlated.

  19. Development and Validation of a Parental Monitoring Instrument: Measuring How Parents Monitor Adolescents' Activities and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Scott A.; Branstetter, Steven; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole V.; Rishel, Carrie; Stanton, Bonita F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the development and validation of the Parental Monitoring Instrument (PMI). The PMI was administered to a sample of 518 parent-adolescent (aged 12 to 17 years) dyads. Initial findings provide evidence of instrument reliability and validity. The exploratory factor analysis results suggested a seven-factor…

  20. Post-marketing safety monitoring of a new group B meningococcal vaccine in New Zealand, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, Anne; Galloway, Yvonne; Stehr-Green, Paul; Reid, Stewart; Radke, Sarah; Sexton, Kerry; Kieft, Charlotte; Macdonald, Claire; Neutze, Jocelyn; Drake, Ross; Isaac, Dorothy; O'Donnell, Mary; Tatley, Michael; Oster, Philipp; O'Hallahan, Jane

    2007-01-01

    New Zealand introduced a new outer membrane vesicle vaccine in 2004 to combat an epidemic of group B meningococcal disease. An Independent Safety Monitoring Board oversaw intensive safety monitoring, which included hospital surveillance, health professional reporting (passive and active) and mortality monitoring. With over three million doses administered to individuals aged under 20 years, the monitoring results provide consistent evidence supporting the vaccine's safety.

  1. US/ECRE and renewable energy market development: An institutional perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    The author presents a summary of the structure and program of the US Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE). This organization was founded in 1982 as a consortium of US renewable energy trade associations, and is the non-profit/industry counterpart of CORECT. It serves to accelerate the diffusion of sustainable renewable energy services worldwide, and to enhance US industry`s position in this expanded marketplace. The projected energy growth in the next 20 years is expected to favor developing countries. Barriers in the way of renewable energy development include technology awareness, financing and risk reception, policy decisions, and institutional barriers. The industrial team hopes to address this problem through several different programs: strategic alliances; end-user outreach; industry market development; policy/project development; financing and facilitation. The program involves several phases: first, market conditioning; second, regional conferences and exhibitions; third, follow-up and implementation. There are currently four major focus areas for US effort: Latin America and the Caribbean; southern Africa; Asia; Russia and the FSU. The status of programs addressed toward these markets is described in more detail.

  2. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Doris, E.; Krasko, V.; Hillman, D.

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  3. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.

  4. Donor Agency Experience with the Monitoring and Evaluation of Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnendijk, Annette L.

    1989-01-01

    The experience of development assistance (donor) agencies with the monitoring and evaluation of their projects in the developing countries is reviewed. The concepts and definitions of monitoring and evaluation are traced and problems and issues that emerged in the 1970's are reviewed. Future directions are discussed. (SLD)

  5. Developing control charts to review and monitor medication errors.

    PubMed

    Ciminera, J L; Lease, M P

    1992-03-01

    There is a need to monitor reported medication errors in a hospital setting. Because the quantity of errors vary due to external reporting, quantifying the data is extremely difficult. Typically, these errors are reviewed using classification systems that often have wide variations in the numbers per class per month. The authors recommend the use of control charts to review historical data and to monitor future data. The procedure they have adopted is a modification of schemes using absolute (i.e., positive) values of successive differences to estimate the standard deviation when only single incidence values are available in time rather than sample averages, and when many successive differences may be zero. PMID:10116719

  6. Development of an atmospheric monitoring plan for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    An environmental health monitoring plan for Space Station will ensure crew health during prolonged habitation. The Space Station, Freedom, will operate for extended periods, 90+ days, without resupply. A regenerative, closed loop life support system will be utilized in order to minimize resupply logistics and costs. Overboard disposal of wastes and venting of gases to space will be minimal. All waste material will be treated and recycled. The concentrated wastes will be stabilized and stored for ground disposal. The expected useful life of the station (decades) and the diversity of materials brought aboard for experimental or manufacturing purposes, increases the likelihood of cabin contamination. Processes by which cabin contamination can occur include: biological waste production, material off-gassing, process leakage, accidental containment breach, and accumulation due to poor removal efficiencies of the purification units. An industrial hygiene approach was taken to rationalize monitoring needs and to identify the substances likely to be present, the amount, and their hazard.

  7. Developing detection and monitoring strategies for Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Roda, Amy; Millar, Jocelyn G; Rascoe, John; Weihman, Scott; Stocks, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A pheromone-based system to locate and monitor Planococcus minor (Maskell), a pest of over 250 plants including citrus, grape, and cacao, was tested. The difficulty in distinguishing P. minor from the citrus mealybug, P. citri, makes finding and evaluating the impact of the pest challenging. Studies conducted in Puerto Rico determined that synthetic P. minor pheromone lures preaged 120 d in the field caught similar number of males as lures not aged (fresh). Molecular analysis of trapped mealybug males using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1, the internal transcriber space two locus, and 28S-D2 gene showed the pheromone traps to be species specific. Traps baited with P. minor pheromone were used to monitor the pest in south Florida and to locate potential infestations. P. minor males were found at all locations studied in South Florida and were present in low numbers (1.03 +/- 0.69 mean +/- SE/trap/14 d). Over 14,000 terminals, fruit, and flowers were visually inspected over a 6 mo period of peak trap catches before the first adult P. minor female was found. The synthetic pheromone lures proved to be an effective tool to locate and monitor this pest new to the continental United States.

  8. Developing detection and monitoring strategies for Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Roda, Amy; Millar, Jocelyn G; Rascoe, John; Weihman, Scott; Stocks, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A pheromone-based system to locate and monitor Planococcus minor (Maskell), a pest of over 250 plants including citrus, grape, and cacao, was tested. The difficulty in distinguishing P. minor from the citrus mealybug, P. citri, makes finding and evaluating the impact of the pest challenging. Studies conducted in Puerto Rico determined that synthetic P. minor pheromone lures preaged 120 d in the field caught similar number of males as lures not aged (fresh). Molecular analysis of trapped mealybug males using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1, the internal transcriber space two locus, and 28S-D2 gene showed the pheromone traps to be species specific. Traps baited with P. minor pheromone were used to monitor the pest in south Florida and to locate potential infestations. P. minor males were found at all locations studied in South Florida and were present in low numbers (1.03 +/- 0.69 mean +/- SE/trap/14 d). Over 14,000 terminals, fruit, and flowers were visually inspected over a 6 mo period of peak trap catches before the first adult P. minor female was found. The synthetic pheromone lures proved to be an effective tool to locate and monitor this pest new to the continental United States. PMID:23356070

  9. Development of an abort gap monitor for the large hadroncollider

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires monitoring the parasitic charge in the 3.3ms long gap in the machine fill structure. This gap, referred to as the abort gap, corresponds to the raise time of the abort kickers magnets. Any circulating particle present in the abort gap at the time of the kickers firing is lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, and can potentially damage a number of the LHC components. CERN specifications indicate a linear density of 6 x 106 protons over a 100 ns interval as the maximum charge safely allowed to accumulate in the abort gap at 7 TeV. We present a study of an abort gap monitor, based on a photomultiplier tube with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting such low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dedicated diagnostics port. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using a Hamamatsu 5961U MCP-PMT, which indicate that such an instrument has the required sensitivity to meet LHC specifications.

  10. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves.

  11. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves. PMID:16167561

  12. The technical development of crystals and oscillators in China and their market situation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Hai; Zhou, Hui; Gao, Jianning; Bai, Lina

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the manufacture of and demand for crystals and oscillators in China have been increasing quickly because of the development of industries, communications, science, transportation, and electronic techniques. This paper introduces the manufacture, research, and characteristics of the technical development of crystals and oscillators in the last ten years in China. To meet the demand from industry, science, and other markets, the number of companies that produce and research crystals and oscillators has increased from several to more than 300 in the last 20 years. Manufacturing technology and equipment have also improved. For marketing and technical reasons, more than 75% of the companies manufacture mainly 49 micro, 49 micros, and microm crystals. Now more and more companies plan to build production lines to make cold-weld crystals and other precision crystals, and at least two companies have already built their production lines. Most of the precision crystals are AT-cut but some are SC-cut. Integrated TCXOs and DTCXOs have been made by different companies, and the frequency-temperature stability of them is from +/- 2 ppm to +/- 0.5 ppm in a wide temperature range. Specifications of some OCXOs are almost the same as those of foreign OCXOs. The main design techniques in China are experimental. However, in recent years, specially designed software has been developed for oscillator design, and advanced instrumentation and equipment are used. The market situation for crystals and oscillators has increased. PMID:16471429

  13. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    PubMed Central

    Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Navarra, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU) and United States (US) policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products. PMID:23606886

  14. Development of a feed monitor system for a helium-cooled Michelson intererometer for the Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Essenwanger, P.

    1980-01-01

    A Michelson interferometer feed monitor system developed for Spacelab is described. The device is helium cooled and is to be used to measure far infrared radiation sources in space. Performance data and development sequence are presented.

  15. Drug development for neglected diseases: a deficient market and a public-health policy failure.

    PubMed

    Trouiller, Patrice; Olliaro, Piero; Torreele, Els; Orbinski, James; Laing, Richard; Ford, Nathan

    2002-06-22

    There is a lack of effective, safe, and affordable pharmaceuticals to control infectious diseases that cause high mortality and morbidity among poor people in the developing world. We analysed outcomes of pharmaceutical research and development over the past 25 years, and reviewed current public and private initiatives aimed at correcting the imbalance in research and development that leaves diseases that occur predominantly in the developing world largely unaddressed. We compiled data by searches of Medline and databases of the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, and reviewed current public and private initiatives through an analysis of recently published studies. We found that, of 1393 new chemical entities marketed between 1975 and 1999, only 16 were for tropical diseases and tuberculosis. There is a 13-fold greater chance of a drug being brought to market for central-nervous-system disorders or cancer than for a neglected disease. The pharmaceutical industry argues that research and development is too costly and risky to invest in low-return neglected diseases, and public and private initiatives have tried to overcome this market limitation through incentive packages and public-private partnerships. The lack of drug research and development for "non-profitable" infectious diseases will require new strategies. No sustainable solution will result for diseases that predominantly affect poor people in the South without the establishment of an international pharmaceutical policy for all neglected diseases. Private-sector research obligations should be explored, and a public-sector not-for-profit research and development capacity promoted.

  16. The development of power specific redlines for SSME safety monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Bosch, Claudia M.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been an increased awareness in the necessity for rocket engine health monitoring because of the cost and complexity of present and future systems. A current rocket engine system, the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), combines a limited redline system with closed-loop control of the engine's thrust level and mixture ratio. Despite these features, 27 tests of the SSME have resulted in major incidents. A SSME transient model was used to examine the effect of variations in high pressure turbopump performance on various engine parameters. Based on analysis of the responses, several new parameters are proposed for further investigation as power-level specific redlines.

  17. The development of power specific redlines for SSME safety monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Bosch, Claudia M.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been an increased awareness in the necessity for rocket engine health monitoring because of the cost and complexity of present and future systems. A current rocket engine system, the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), combines a limited redline system with closed-loop control of the engine's thrust level and mixture ratio. Despite these features, 27 tests of the SSME have resulted in major incidents. An SSME transient model was used to examine the effect of variations in high pressure turbopump performance on various engine parameters. Based on analysis of the responses, several new parameters are proposed for further investigation as power-level specific redlines.

  18. Development of a locomotive engine condition monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, C.; Holloway, R.; Webster, G.

    1997-12-31

    Outlines test procedures and results of a study of the application of the instantaneous crankshaft angular velocity (ICAV) engine condition monitoring system applied to three freight locomotives. The study involved the assessment of a prototype repair-shop diagnostic tool, based on prior experimental programs and the ICAV technology. Engine testing was carried out at four-month intervals for three separate trials on the locomotives. Experimental data obtained included power output, fuel consumption, cylinder firing pressure waveforms, and the ICAV waveforms. The performance of the ICAV system was judged on its ability to accurately predict the change in indicated mean effective pressure of each cylinder from one test to the next.

  19. Sustainability of cross-functional teams for marketing strategy development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ken; Antonucci, Don

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a case study on a cross-functional team used for marketing strategy development and execution at a health insurance company. The study found a set of success factors that contributed to the initial success of the team, but the factors were not enough to maintain the team's high level of productivity over time. The study later identified a set of 8 factors that helped sustain the team's high-productivity level. The 2 sets (ie, success and its subsequent sustainability factors) are analyzed against a normative model of team effectiveness. All the factors are explained by the normative model except for 1 sustainability factor, "challenge motivator." In fact, the study found the "challenge motivator" to be the most critical factor to keep up the team's productivity over time. Apart from a performance crisis, the authors developed 3 "challenge motivators"--first, more granular market information that could unearth hidden performance issues; second, constant value creation to shareholders as the firm being publicly traded; and third, the firm's strategic mandate to meet and exceed customer expectations that puts ultimate performance pressure on the marketing strategy team.

  20. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  1. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  2. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  3. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  4. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  5. "Into the Melting Pot": The Development of a European Dimension in a 4-Year Programme in Languages and International Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, R. Leslie

    In response to the need for improved international trade in Ireland, an undergraduate program of applied languages and international marketing was developed at the National Institute for Higher Education, a unique Irish technological university in Dublin. In the first year, students study French and German and four business subjects (marketing,…

  6. Observation of Frustrated Correlation Structure in a Well-Developed Financial Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Iino, T.; Iyetomi, H.

    We approach the correlation structure in the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) market through a concept of community of network. To construct a network, the correlation matrix of stock price changes, purified by random matrix theory, is regarded as an adjacency matrix. The stock correlation network thus constructed has negatively weighted links as well as positively weighted links. By extracting groups in which stocks are mainly interconnected by positive links, we find that the stocks decomposed into four comoving groups forming communities, three of which are strongly anticorrelated to each other, and the remainder is comparatively neutral to the rest of the communities. The conflicting triangle relationship between communities may cause complicated behavior in a well-development market such as TSE. Additionally, it is observed that some industrial sectors form distinctive coherent groups and others are separated to competing communities.

  7. PV Installation Labor Market Analysis and PV JEDI Tool Developments (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.

    2012-06-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  8. Policies and market factors driving wind power development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-07-30

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,100 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states in which a substantial amount of wind energy capacity has been developed or planned. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  9. Simulating a thermal water quality trading market for education and model development.

    PubMed

    Bier, Asmeret

    2010-12-01

    Thermal water quality trading is an emerging policy tool that allows thermal polluters to comply with effluent restrictions by paying landowners to plant shade trees. A simulation game was created to help participants understand the structure, dynamics, benefits, and drawbacks of thermal water quality trading markets. Simulation participants negotiate to make trades, and their decisions are entered into a system dynamics model that simulates tree growth and water temperature. A debriefing session allows the participants to discuss outcomes and strategies. The exercise has been performed twice and has proven to be a useful teaching tool. These simulations provided valuable insight into decision-making strategies in thermal water quality trading markets, suggesting decision rules that the researchers used for subsequent model development.

  10. Stakeholder insights on the planning and development of an independent benchmark standard for responsible food marketing.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Macdonald, Laura

    2016-06-01

    A mixed methods qualitative survey investigated stakeholder responses to the proposal to develop an independently defined, audited and certifiable set of benchmark standards for responsible food marketing. Its purpose was to inform the policy planning and development process. A majority of respondents were supportive of the proposal. A majority also viewed the engagement and collaboration of a broad base of stakeholders in its planning and development as potentially beneficial. Positive responses were associated with views that policy controls can and should be extended to include all form of marketing, that obesity and non-communicable diseases prevention and control was a shared responsibility and an urgent policy priority and prior experience of independent standardisation as a policy lever for good practice. Strong policy leadership, demonstrable utilisation of the evidence base in its development and deployment and a conceptually clear communications plan were identified as priority targets for future policy planning. Future research priorities include generating more evidence on the feasibility of developing an effective community of practice and theory of change, the strengths and limitations of these and developing an evidence-based step-wise communications strategy.

  11. Stakeholder insights on the planning and development of an independent benchmark standard for responsible food marketing.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Macdonald, Laura

    2016-06-01

    A mixed methods qualitative survey investigated stakeholder responses to the proposal to develop an independently defined, audited and certifiable set of benchmark standards for responsible food marketing. Its purpose was to inform the policy planning and development process. A majority of respondents were supportive of the proposal. A majority also viewed the engagement and collaboration of a broad base of stakeholders in its planning and development as potentially beneficial. Positive responses were associated with views that policy controls can and should be extended to include all form of marketing, that obesity and non-communicable diseases prevention and control was a shared responsibility and an urgent policy priority and prior experience of independent standardisation as a policy lever for good practice. Strong policy leadership, demonstrable utilisation of the evidence base in its development and deployment and a conceptually clear communications plan were identified as priority targets for future policy planning. Future research priorities include generating more evidence on the feasibility of developing an effective community of practice and theory of change, the strengths and limitations of these and developing an evidence-based step-wise communications strategy. PMID:27085486

  12. Development of a portable field monitor for PCBs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    With the advent of recent regulations and those yet pending concerning allowable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), personnel in all aspects of the electric power industry, analytical support personnel, and those in the regulatory functions themselves have realized that the PCB problem, as well as these associated regulations, has far surpassed available monitoring capability. In short, detailed, stringent regulations are being set for contamination levels where no accepted ASTM procedure or instrumentation exists. The largest PCB problems occur in the form of PCB-contaminated oil in field transformers and storage containers, and pure askarel in transformers and capacitors. The most immediate need for a portable field instrument would be for use under PCB spill conditions. Portable monitors based on the principles of photoionization detection (PID) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) have been adapted and evaluated for this purpose. The latter includes both flow cell and horizontal multiple internal reflectance (HMIR) sampling configurations. Extensive work has also been performed on solvent-solvent and solvent-soil extractions, as well as PCB adsorption on packings, for use under spill conditions.

  13. The stakeholder approach: a new perspective on developing and marketing clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Droms, Courtney M; Ferguson, Michael; Giuliano, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The use of evidence-based medical practice has become the standard for health care decision-making. Thus, it has become increasingly important for medical device manufactures to provide evidence for the efficacy of their products. As new products, services, and solutions are developed, it is important to perform a stakeholder analysis to assess clinical evidence needs. As evidenced by the variety of stakeholders in clinical trials, we expect that each has different interests in how clinical trials are developed, conducted, and promoted to the general public. This analysis of the stakeholders' concerns provides recommendations for marketing professionals on meeting the needs of these stakeholders.

  14. The stakeholder approach: a new perspective on developing and marketing clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Droms, Courtney M; Ferguson, Michael; Giuliano, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The use of evidence-based medical practice has become the standard for health care decision-making. Thus, it has become increasingly important for medical device manufactures to provide evidence for the efficacy of their products. As new products, services, and solutions are developed, it is important to perform a stakeholder analysis to assess clinical evidence needs. As evidenced by the variety of stakeholders in clinical trials, we expect that each has different interests in how clinical trials are developed, conducted, and promoted to the general public. This analysis of the stakeholders' concerns provides recommendations for marketing professionals on meeting the needs of these stakeholders. PMID:24617719

  15. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  16. Impact of BRICS' investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market.

    PubMed

    Kaddar, Miloud; Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector's price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS' accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes.

  17. [Development of ultrasound-based monitor of relative blood volume].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunzhong; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Zhongwei; Fan, Jianghong; Xia, Wubing; Zhou, Hongbo; Yi, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Assessing dry weight accurately is crucial in providing effective and safe haemodialysis. Biases towards dry weight assessment may bring a series of dialysis complications. This study introduces an online detection technique of relative blood volume (RBV) based on ultrasound, which analyzes the correlation between changes in blood density and sound speed. By measuring the attenuation in sound velocity, this method was employed to calculate RBV, and then to evaluate the dry weight of patients on dialysis. TDC-GP2 time measurement chip and MSP430 Single-chip Microcontroller (SCM) were used in the system to measure the ultrasonic travel time. In the clinical trials, RBV values range between 71.3% and 108.1%, showing consistent result with Fresenius 4008S blood volume monitor (BVM). This detection method possesses several advantages, such as real time, convenient, reproducible, non-invasive, and etc. PMID:24645597

  18. Development of a contact lens quality monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of contact lens samples depends strongly on their free volume fractions. It is expected that the free volume fraction of the test samples will also impact their attenuation coefficients for soft x rays. Samples with larger free volume fractions should have lower linear attenuation coefficients. Linear attenuation coefficients for Cd-109/Ag-109 x rays have been measured in five contact lens samples. It has been shown that the difference in the linear attenuation coefficients of discs from any given sample are entirely due to the difference in their respective volume fractions. It is therefore concluded that an x ray attenuation measurement system can serve as a quality monitor for contact lens polymers.

  19. Development and Flight Demonstration of Space Debris Monitor (SDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kobayashi, Masanori; Sakurai, Akira; Yasaka, Tetsuo; Funakoshi, Kunihiro; Hasegawa, Sunao; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Kimoto, Yugo; Okudaira, Osamu; Kamiya, Koki; Nakamura, Maki

    2016-07-01

    The space debris monitor (SDM) is a large-area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micro-meteoroids and space debris of the sub-millimeter to millimeter size in the near-Earth space environment. These meteoroid and debris particles are very small to be detected by ground-based observations (radars and optical telescopes) but are sufficiently large to cause serious damage to spacecraft equipment in the low Earth orbit region. The nominal detection area of the SDM is 0.1 m^2 (0.35 m × 0.3 m), but its dimensions can be easily modified to accommodate different SDM constraints. The SDM is made from a flexible printed circuit, which is produced from a thin film of a nonconductive material (such as polyimide) on which thin conductive stripes are formed in parallel. The stripe width is approximately 50 μm, and the spatial separation is approximately 100 μm, as shown in Figure 1. When a micro-debris particle with an effective diameter near to or larger than the spatial separation of the stripes (here approximately 100 μm) collides with the sensor film at a velocity sufficient to penetrate it, one or more of the stripes are cut and become nonconductive. Debris impacts can thus be detected by monitoring the electrical conductivity (resistivity) of the stripes. This sensor system can measure the size of the incident micro-debris particles by detecting the number of severed stripes. The measurement concept is registered as a patent in many countries. The first SDM was launched with HTV-5 on August 19, 2015 and represented the world's first micro-debris measurement demonstration experiment to be conducted on the ISS using the concept of conductive (resistive) strip lines for real-time debris detection.

  20. Status and trends monitoring of the mainstem Columbia River: sample frame development and review of programs relevant to the development of an integrated approach to monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Waste, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Implementing an Integrated Status and Trends Monitoring program (ISTM) for the mainstem Columbia River will help identify trends in important natural resources and help us understand the long-term collective effects of management actions. In this report, we present progress towards the completion of a stepwise process that will facilitate the development of an ISTM for the mainstem Columbia River. We discuss planning and regulatory documents that can be used to identify monitoring goals and objectives and present existing monitoring and research activities that should be considered as the development of a Columbia River ISTM proceeds. We also report progress towards the development of sample frames for the Columbia and Snake Rivers and their floodplains. The sample frames were formulated using Digital Elevation Models (DEM’s) of the river channel and upland areas and a Generalized Random-Tessellation Stratified (GRTS) algorithm for an area based resource to generate “master sample(s).” Working with the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) we facilitated the transfer of the sample frames to the PNAMP “Monitoring Sample Designer” tool. We then discuss aspects of response and survey designs as they pertain to the formulation of a mainstem Columbia River ISTM. As efforts to formulate an ISTM for the mainstem Columbia River proceed, practitioners should utilize the extensive literature describing the planning and implementation of fish and wildlife mitigation and recovery efforts in the Columbia River Basin. While we make progress towards establishing an ISTM framework, considerable work needs to be done to formulate an ISTM program for the mainstem Columbia River. Long-term monitoring programs have been established for other large rivers systems; scientists that have experience planning, implementing, and maintaining large river monitoring efforts such as those in the Colorado, Illinois, and Mississippi Rivers should be consulted and

  1. Monitoring Rural Development in East Asia. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 439.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Guido; Ng, Ronald

    The paper presents results of discussions during an 8-day workshop (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 1979) on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of East Asian and Pacific rural development projects. Major workshop themes identified are managerial, technical, and institutional aspects of monitoring. The introduction discusses previous World Bank…

  2. Development of Decision Support System for Remote Monitoring of PIP Corn

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA is developing a multi-level approach that utilizes satellite and airborne remote sensing to locate and monitor genetically modified corn in the agricultural landscape and pest infestation. The current status of the EPA IRM monitoring program based on remote sensed imager...

  3. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  4. Development and Evaluation of Video Systems for Performance Testing and Student Monitoring. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, John; Pulliam, Robert

    A video performance monitoring system was developed by the URS/Matrix Company, under contract to the USAF Human Resources Laboratory and was evaluated experimentally in three technical training settings. Using input from 1 to 8 video cameras, the system provided a flexible combination of signal processing, direct monitor, recording and replay…

  5. Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-05-01

    Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus

  6. Usability in product development practice; an exploratory case study comparing four markets.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Jasper; van Driel, Liesbeth; van Eijk, Daan

    2015-03-01

    This study explored how usability was dealt with in four product development organizations active in different sectors: high-end automotive, professional printers and copiers, office coffee makers and fast moving consumer goods. The primary differentiators of the selected cases were whether they were targeting businesses or consumers and the degree of product complexity. Interviews with 19 product development practitioners were conducted, focussing on three topics: 1) the product development process and the integration of user involvement, 2) multidisciplinary teamwork, and 3) organizational attitude towards usability. Based on the interviews, context descriptions of the companies were created and barriers and enablers for usability were identified. To verify the findings and to discuss remaining issues a feedback workshop was held in which the primary contact from each company participated. The results indicate that differences in product-market combination lead to differences in organizational attitude towards usability. The prioritization of usability in an organization seems to be influenced by the degree of product complexity (complex products are more prone to suffer from usability issues) and whether developers think that usability is a purchase consideration for their clients. The product-market combination a company targets also affects the methods for user-centred design that a company can apply and that are relevant. What methods for user-centred design are used also seems to be influenced by the attitude towards usability: if usability is considered more important, methods that require more resources can be applied. PMID:25480002

  7. Usability in product development practice; an exploratory case study comparing four markets.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Jasper; van Driel, Liesbeth; van Eijk, Daan

    2015-03-01

    This study explored how usability was dealt with in four product development organizations active in different sectors: high-end automotive, professional printers and copiers, office coffee makers and fast moving consumer goods. The primary differentiators of the selected cases were whether they were targeting businesses or consumers and the degree of product complexity. Interviews with 19 product development practitioners were conducted, focussing on three topics: 1) the product development process and the integration of user involvement, 2) multidisciplinary teamwork, and 3) organizational attitude towards usability. Based on the interviews, context descriptions of the companies were created and barriers and enablers for usability were identified. To verify the findings and to discuss remaining issues a feedback workshop was held in which the primary contact from each company participated. The results indicate that differences in product-market combination lead to differences in organizational attitude towards usability. The prioritization of usability in an organization seems to be influenced by the degree of product complexity (complex products are more prone to suffer from usability issues) and whether developers think that usability is a purchase consideration for their clients. The product-market combination a company targets also affects the methods for user-centred design that a company can apply and that are relevant. What methods for user-centred design are used also seems to be influenced by the attitude towards usability: if usability is considered more important, methods that require more resources can be applied.

  8. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  9. Rapid Fishery Assessment by Market Survey (RFAMS)--an improved rapid-assessment approach to characterising fish landings in developing countries.

    PubMed

    White, William T; Last, Peter R; Dharmadi; Faizah, Ria; Chodrijah, Umi; Buckworth, Rik C; Dichmont, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The complex multi-gear, multi-species tropical fisheries in developing countries are poorly understood and characterising the landings from these fisheries is often impossible using conventional approaches. A rapid assessment method for characterising landings at fish markets, using an index of abundance and estimated weight within taxonomic groups, is described. This approach was developed for contexts where there are no detailed data collection protocols, and where consistent data collection across a wide range of fisheries types and geographic areas is required, regardless of the size of the site and scale of the landings. This methodology, which was demonstrated at seven fish landing sites/fish markets in southern Indonesia between July 2008 and January 2011, provides a rapid assessment of the abundance and diversity in the wild catch over a wide variety of taxonomic groups. The approach has wider application for species-rich fisheries in developing countries where there is an urgent need for better data collection protocols, monitoring future changes in market demographics, and evaluating health of fisheries. PMID:25275308

  10. Rapid Fishery Assessment by Market Survey (RFAMS) – An Improved Rapid-Assessment Approach to Characterising Fish Landings in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    White, William T.; Last, Peter R.; Dharmadi; Faizah, Ria; Chodrijah, Umi; Buckworth, Rik C.; Dichmont, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The complex multi-gear, multi-species tropical fisheries in developing countries are poorly understood and characterising the landings from these fisheries is often impossible using conventional approaches. A rapid assessment method for characterising landings at fish markets, using an index of abundance and estimated weight within taxonomic groups, is described. This approach was developed for contexts where there are no detailed data collection protocols, and where consistent data collection across a wide range of fisheries types and geographic areas is required, regardless of the size of the site and scale of the landings. This methodology, which was demonstrated at seven fish landing sites/fish markets in southern Indonesia between July 2008 and January 2011, provides a rapid assessment of the abundance and diversity in the wild catch over a wide variety of taxonomic groups. The approach has wider application for species-rich fisheries in developing countries where there is an urgent need for better data collection protocols, monitoring future changes in market demographics, and evaluating health of fisheries. PMID:25275308

  11. Rapid Fishery Assessment by Market Survey (RFAMS)--an improved rapid-assessment approach to characterising fish landings in developing countries.

    PubMed

    White, William T; Last, Peter R; Dharmadi; Faizah, Ria; Chodrijah, Umi; Buckworth, Rik C; Dichmont, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The complex multi-gear, multi-species tropical fisheries in developing countries are poorly understood and characterising the landings from these fisheries is often impossible using conventional approaches. A rapid assessment method for characterising landings at fish markets, using an index of abundance and estimated weight within taxonomic groups, is described. This approach was developed for contexts where there are no detailed data collection protocols, and where consistent data collection across a wide range of fisheries types and geographic areas is required, regardless of the size of the site and scale of the landings. This methodology, which was demonstrated at seven fish landing sites/fish markets in southern Indonesia between July 2008 and January 2011, provides a rapid assessment of the abundance and diversity in the wild catch over a wide variety of taxonomic groups. The approach has wider application for species-rich fisheries in developing countries where there is an urgent need for better data collection protocols, monitoring future changes in market demographics, and evaluating health of fisheries.

  12. Seismic Monitoring Developments In The North-eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.; Crs Team

    NE Italy is an area affected by moderate seismicity with large events (ML>5.0) occur- ring with return period shorter than 50 years. Recently, two main events occurred in Friuli (May6, 1976, ML=6.4) and western Slovenia (April 12, 1998, ML=5,6). There- fore, the seismological monitoring of the area is of extreme importance from the sci- entific and the social point of view. At present, the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) is monitoring the area with a short period seismic network including 17 stations covering the Friuli-Venezia Giulia and the north-east of the Veneto region. Furthermore, in cooperation with the University of Trieste, it operates two broad-band stations sited in Trieste and Villanova Grotte (central Friuli). OGS has now planned to extend its sensing capabilities by implementing a new inte- grated network including both short period and broad-band seismic stations as well as GPS stations for measures of deformation. The network will include new and existing instrumentation and will cover the area from the Garda lake to the slovenian border. Three main guidelines have inspired the design of such network: - on-line acquisition: data acquisition should occur in nearly real-time at the cen- tral stations in Udine. To this purpose, various transmission technologies will be considered (e.g. radio, telephone lines, GSM and satellite). - data integration: all data should be merged in the same database and made avail- able to the users through a uniform interface, independently from their type and modality of acquisition. - open access: data should be made available in near real-time to the entire sci- entific community, accessing the central data base and, when possible, directly the remote stations. The implementation of such goals will guarantee the full integration with the other networks covering the area, in particular the Slovenia and Austria networks. To this purpose, an experimental transfrontier broad-band network

  13. Acoustic Wave Monitoring of Biofilm Development in Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilm development in porous media can result in significant changes to the hydrogeological properties of subsurface systems with implications for fluid flow and contaminant transport. As such, a number of numerical models and simulations have been developed in an attempt to qua...

  14. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a

  15. Development of the GRB Monitor for the CALET Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Kotani, Taro; Nakahira, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kei; Ohyama, Takuya; Doshida, Takaaki; Kojima, Tohru; Shiraki, Takayuki; Kataoka, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Tomida, Hiroshi; Torii, Shoji

    2009-05-25

    The CALET mission is a Japanese-led effort involving candidate experiments on the International Space Station, planned for launch in 2013. The CALET main detector is a pair conversion telescope which is dedicated to observing high energy electrons and gamma-rays in the GeV-TeV range. CALET can observe gamma-ray bursts over an unprecedented 9 decade energy range from {approx}keV to {approx}TeV with a combination of a gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) with low energy coverage. GBM is now designed as multiple scintillators made of BGO and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators. The prototype LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal with 3 inch diameter and 0.5 inch thickness displays a very good performance: 2.9{+-}0.1% FWHM energy resolution at 662 keV and 4 keV lower energy threshold. Furthermore, degradations in performance by the anticipated proton irradiation in the orbit are not significant. Results on proton-induced background are also presented.

  16. Research and Development for the Mu2e Extinction Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, Casey Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Mu2e is a planned experiment to search for flavor-violating conversion from a muon to an electron. The experiment will use a pulsed 8 GeV proton beam to produce muons which will then stop in an aluminum target. Mu2e will search for the $\\mu^- + Al \\rightarrow e^- + Al$ process. For Mu2e, an extinction rate of 10$^{-10}$ is required to reduce the backgrounds to an acceptable level. Extinction is the ratio of the amount of protons striking the production target between beam pulses to the number striking it during the beam pulse. One of the backgrounds, off-target interactions, was simulated using G4beamline and Fermilab's Grid setup to confirm that an extinction rate of 10$^{-10}$ is possible. The extinction level will be measured by the extinction monitor which will include scintillation counters read out by photomultiplier tubes. In order to build a beam time profile, low fake responses (after pulses) are needed in the photomultiplier tubes. This thesis determines the best combination of resistors, voltage, and other components that provide the lowest after pulse rate.

  17. Developments in in vivo monitoring for radionuclides at AWE.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J

    2011-12-01

    The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) has routinely used high purity germanium crystals for in vivo monitoring, detection and measurement of radionuclides in the chest, wounds and whole body of personnel over the past 30 years. However, recent organisational changes have resulted in the relocation and modification of this capability. Hence, this paper reviews and compares the performance of the original twin six crystal detector arrays (contained within environmental radiation shielding), that were first used at AWE in 1980, with the latest unshielded systems that employ smaller numbers of larger crystals. It has been concluded that the required sensitivity of 20 mSv for actinides in the chest was achieved using the recently procured twin dual crystal detector arrays outside of the conventional heavy duty environmental radiation shield used with the original system. Sensitivities of around 1 µSv, for fission and activation products in the whole body and around 1 mSv, for actinides in wounds, were achieved using single large collimated, but otherwise unshielded, detectors.

  18. Developments in real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano.

    PubMed

    Laiolo, M; Cigolini, C; Coppola, D; Piscopo, D

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of one year of continuous radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano collected at two automated real-time stations. These were deployed on the NE flank (at 520 m a.s.l.) and within the summit area (900 m a.s.l.). Higher daily emissions at the lower station approached 4,200 Bq/m³, with bulk averages around 1,800 (±980) Bq/m³; whereas the summit station reached peak values of 23,000 Bq/m³ and bulk averages of 12,500 Bq/m³ (±4,000). Negative correlations are observed between radon emissions, soil temperature and, to a lesser extent, atmospheric pressure. In contrast, increases in radon concentrations were observed during periods of higher rainfall conditions. Therefore, trends in radon concentrations may be decoupled from those of other geochemical parameters (CO₂ fluxes and CO₂/SO₂ plume ratios) during periods of heavy to moderate rainfalls. Multiple Linear Regression statistics (including the effects of soil temperature, atmospheric pressure and tidal forces) led us to compute the residuals given by the difference of measured and calculated ²²²Rn concentrations. The cross-check between the daily measured radon activities and the absolute variations in radon residuals, for the data collected at the summit station, give us the opportunity to suggest a methodological approach that can be used in the attempt of predicting some major changes in volcanic activity. PMID:22230018

  19. REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENTS IN SPACE REMOTE SENSING FOR MONITORING RESOURCES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Allen H.; Lauer, D.T.; Bailey, G.B.; Moore, D.G.; Rohde, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Space remote sensing systems are compared for suitability in assessing and monitoring the Earth's renewable resources. Systems reviewed include the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the French Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT), the German Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS), the European Space Agency (ESA) Spacelab Metric Camera, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Large Format Camera (LFC) and Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A and -B), the Russian Meteor satellite BIK-E and fragment experiments and MKF-6M and KATE-140 camera systems, the ESA Earth Resources Satellite (ERS-1), the Japanese Marine Observation Satellite (MOS-1) and Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1), the Canadian Radarsat, the Indian Resources Satellite (IRS), and systems proposed or planned by China, Brazil, Indonesia, and others. Also reviewed are the concepts for a 6-channel Shuttle Imaging Spectroradiometer, a 128-channel Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (SISEX), and the U. S. Mapsat.

  20. Developments in real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano.

    PubMed

    Laiolo, M; Cigolini, C; Coppola, D; Piscopo, D

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of one year of continuous radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano collected at two automated real-time stations. These were deployed on the NE flank (at 520 m a.s.l.) and within the summit area (900 m a.s.l.). Higher daily emissions at the lower station approached 4,200 Bq/m³, with bulk averages around 1,800 (±980) Bq/m³; whereas the summit station reached peak values of 23,000 Bq/m³ and bulk averages of 12,500 Bq/m³ (±4,000). Negative correlations are observed between radon emissions, soil temperature and, to a lesser extent, atmospheric pressure. In contrast, increases in radon concentrations were observed during periods of higher rainfall conditions. Therefore, trends in radon concentrations may be decoupled from those of other geochemical parameters (CO₂ fluxes and CO₂/SO₂ plume ratios) during periods of heavy to moderate rainfalls. Multiple Linear Regression statistics (including the effects of soil temperature, atmospheric pressure and tidal forces) led us to compute the residuals given by the difference of measured and calculated ²²²Rn concentrations. The cross-check between the daily measured radon activities and the absolute variations in radon residuals, for the data collected at the summit station, give us the opportunity to suggest a methodological approach that can be used in the attempt of predicting some major changes in volcanic activity.

  1. Distributed fiber optic sensor development, testing, and evaluation for geotechnical monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iten, Michael; Hauswirth, Dominik; Puzrin, Alexander M.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, an overview of optical sensor development, testing and evaluation for several geotechnical monitoring applications is presented. Additionally, sensor integration and data interpretation are addressed as key influences to the overall success of the monitoring project. They should be taken into consideration already in the design stage. Particular focus is given on strain sensor development to minimize the slippage of the fiber inside the protection. For the first time, slippage progression monitoring by high spatially resolved Brillouin measurements is presented as a new tool for sensor testing and evaluation for geotechnical projects. The main findings of the study are that in a geotechnical monitoring project, special care has to be taken by choosing the sensor slippage properties, longitudinal stiffness and robustness, as well as in the design of the sensor system itself (fixation, gauge length and bond strength). With appropriate alignment of these factors, reasonable monitoring data can be obtained, as shown in the applications proposed in this manuscript.

  2. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  3. LEAD SAFE YARDS: DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING A MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, AND OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR YOUR COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed a technology transfer handbook on how to plan and implement a residential soil lead monitoring, assessment, mitigation and outreach program for residential communities. The handbook provides guidance on 1) identifying potentially impacted communities, 2) c...

  4. Establishing cause for developing and implementing a broad-based marketing effort for the health education field.

    PubMed

    Stellefson, Michael; Barry, Adam; Chaney, Beth H; Chaney, J Don; Hanik, Bruce

    2011-05-01

    What exactly is health education? Professionals with advanced degrees in health education have most likely encountered questions such as these either during introductory coursework or from those inquiring about the field. These queries can prove quite perplexing when asked by individuals who are unaware of the health education profession. Because the act of marketing health education is crucial to the sustainability of the field, the purpose of this article is to (a) explore the issue of describing and promoting health education, (b) establish ideas that can facilitate the provision of coordinated marketing efforts, and (c) offer marketing management and implementation principles that can assist in marketing both health education and health educators. Based on this discussion, the authors suggest building mainstream consensus in regards to marketing message development and implementation to better position health education.

  5. Progress of the APS high heat load X-ray beam position monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Barraza, J.; Ding, H.; Kuzay, T.M.; Ramanathan, M.

    1997-09-01

    Several novel design developments have been established for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) insertion device (ID) X-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) to improve its performance: (1) optimized geometric configuration of the monitor`s sensory blades; (2) smart XBPM system with an intelligent digital signal processor, which provides a self-learning and calibration function; and (3) transmitting XBPM with prefiltering in the commissioning windows for the front end. In this write-up, the authors summarize the recent progress on the XBPM development for the APS ID front ends.

  6. How To Develop, Market and Manage a Comprehensive Staff and Organizational Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnesen, Vernon A.; Parker, Lynn Sullivan

    This booklet is designed to assist community colleges in the design and implementation of staff and organizational development programs and reviews relevant issues and provides practical ideas for successful development efforts. After chapter I briefly introduces the audience for and intent of the booklet, chapter II describes 12 development…

  7. [Role of children physical development in radiation hygienic monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Mikhaĭlov, A I; Kozlova, E Iu

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with longstanding work on studies of physical development parameters among preschoolers aged 4-7 and dwelling on territories near to objects with potential radiation danger, also on radiation-connected anxiety in parents of the examined children. The stated objects when exploited in normal mode were proved to cause no influence on the children's development. Social and economical factors appeared to play leading role in developmental parameters formation. Increased level of radiation-connected anxiety in parents of the children examined appeared to be out of proportion to real favorable radiation background of the territories examined. PMID:25069276

  8. Development of an Innovative Direct Push Sensor System for Long Term Monitoring of Environmental Waste Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C. A.; Riha, B. D.; Bosze, S.; Rossabi, J.

    2001-12-01

    As the focus of environmental restoration in the federal complex moves from active characterization and remediation to long term monitoring, the costs of long-term monitoring will escalate and eventually dominate ongoing environmental restoration budgets. Most of the major DOE sites including the Savannah River Site have a documented need for some type of long term monitoring system that does not rely on the use of standard groundwater monitoring wells. We have developed and installed a prototype monitoring system that can be used to measure and/or sample multiple parameters appropriate for long term monitoring of environmental waste sites. This system is designed to function as a sentinel system that detects when a significant change in water quality parameters or contaminant concentration occurs in a well characterized system. The sensor drive configuration is flexible and the sensor system is installed using direct push methods. Site specific monitoring scenarios will be need to be developed to address the specific long term monitoring objectives at a given site. The drive point has a sample port (soil gas or groundwater) and windows/ports for additional sensors. A prototype system was installed and has been monitored at the D-area at the Savannah River Site since July. The probes are located in an area where multiple contaminant plumes dominated by volatile organic compounds, metals and tritium are currently monitored using standard groundwater wells. Currently, the prototype system measures temperature, resisitivity, ORP and pH on a continuous basis. In addition, concetrations of volatile organic compounds and tritium are measured periodically by laboratory analysis of diffusion bag samples deployed in the sample ports of the prototype system. Results will be reported from a three-month monitoring interval. The results will be compared with baseline analyses of samples collected from the adjacent groundwater well.

  9. Development of a Distributed In Situ Instrument for Snowpack Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalka, C.; Frolik, J.; Walker, M. J.; Moeser, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are formed by micro-stations, each of which can be deployed independently to characterize spatially distributed variables, such as snow water equivalent (SWE). Snowcloud is a novel WSN-based system featuring application specific technologies specialized for studying variations in snowpack in harsh alpine environments. The Snowcloud WSN system makes use of low-cost, very portable hardware architectures. Unlike fixed based data acquisition systems, Snowcloud can be easily repositioned to gather intensive information about specific locations, and the low cost allows more data points to be monitored. Power consumption in Snowcloud is regulated by a network software protocol that optimizes both radio and sensor actuation, extending operating life. Snowcloud also exploits a multi-tiered architecture to provide data reliability despite traditional volatility of WSN nodes. This includes in-network data replication, and an on-site "smart" network gateway allowing remote data retrieval over cell- or radio-modem while buffering data on local massive storage in case of modem failure. Snowcloud complements information about snowpack depth and SWE currently collected from fixed-base systems, such as the 750 SNOTEL sites that form the primary network for water supply forecasting in the western United States, and data collected manually from snow courses. Snowcloud is particularly useful for temporary seasonal deployment in steep alpine environments or areas with landcover (such as forested areas) that inhibits acquisition of snowpack information by fixed-base stations, manual surveys and satellites. The highly portable framework of Snowcloud creates an ideal utility for augmenting manual measurements in areas that have established snow courses and in areas that are excessively difficult or dangerous to measure manually. Snowcloud is also useful for enhancing SWE approximations at basin scales. SWE is highly variable spatially and temporally and

  10. Development of a noninvasive system for monitoring dairy cattle sleep.

    PubMed

    Klefot, J M; Murphy, J L; Donohue, K D; O'Hara, B F; Lhamon, M E; Bewley, J M

    2016-10-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess sleep in production livestock primarily because of limitations with monitoring capabilities. Consequently, biological understanding of production circumstances and facility options that affect sleep is limited. The objective of this study was to assess if data collected from a proof-of-concept, noninvasive 3-axis accelerometer device are correlated with sleep and wake-like behaviors in dairy cattle. Four Holstein dairy cows housed at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy in September 2013 were visually observed for 2 consecutive 24-h periods. The accelerometer device was attached to a harness positioned on the right side of each cow's neck. Times of classified behaviors of wake (standing, head up, alert, eyes open) or sleep-like behaviors (lying, still, head resting on ground, eyes closed) were recorded continuously by 2 observers who each watched 2 cows at a time. The radial signal was extracted from 3 different axes of the accelerometer to obtain a motion signal independent of direction of movement. Radial signal features were examined for maximizing the performance of detecting sleep-like behaviors using a Fisher's linear discriminant analysis classifier. The study included 652min of high-activity wake behaviors and 107min of sleep-like behavior among 4 cows. Results from a bootstrapping analysis showed an agreement between human observation and the linear discriminant analysis classifier, with an accuracy of 93.7±0.7% for wake behavior and 92.2±0.8% for sleep-like behavior (±95% confidence interval).This prototype shows promise in measuring sleep-like behaviors. Improvements to both hardware and software should allow more accurate determinations of subtle head movements and respiratory movements that will further improve the assessment of these sleep-like behaviors, including estimates of deep, light, and rapid eye movement sleep. These future studies will require simultaneous electroencephalography and

  11. Development of a noninvasive system for monitoring dairy cattle sleep.

    PubMed

    Klefot, J M; Murphy, J L; Donohue, K D; O'Hara, B F; Lhamon, M E; Bewley, J M

    2016-10-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess sleep in production livestock primarily because of limitations with monitoring capabilities. Consequently, biological understanding of production circumstances and facility options that affect sleep is limited. The objective of this study was to assess if data collected from a proof-of-concept, noninvasive 3-axis accelerometer device are correlated with sleep and wake-like behaviors in dairy cattle. Four Holstein dairy cows housed at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy in September 2013 were visually observed for 2 consecutive 24-h periods. The accelerometer device was attached to a harness positioned on the right side of each cow's neck. Times of classified behaviors of wake (standing, head up, alert, eyes open) or sleep-like behaviors (lying, still, head resting on ground, eyes closed) were recorded continuously by 2 observers who each watched 2 cows at a time. The radial signal was extracted from 3 different axes of the accelerometer to obtain a motion signal independent of direction of movement. Radial signal features were examined for maximizing the performance of detecting sleep-like behaviors using a Fisher's linear discriminant analysis classifier. The study included 652min of high-activity wake behaviors and 107min of sleep-like behavior among 4 cows. Results from a bootstrapping analysis showed an agreement between human observation and the linear discriminant analysis classifier, with an accuracy of 93.7±0.7% for wake behavior and 92.2±0.8% for sleep-like behavior (±95% confidence interval).This prototype shows promise in measuring sleep-like behaviors. Improvements to both hardware and software should allow more accurate determinations of subtle head movements and respiratory movements that will further improve the assessment of these sleep-like behaviors, including estimates of deep, light, and rapid eye movement sleep. These future studies will require simultaneous electroencephalography and

  12. Developments in CD4 and viral load monitoring in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Christopher F

    2014-02-01

    CD4 counts and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load testing are essential components of HIV care, and making these tests available in resource-limited settings is critical to the roll-out of HIV treatment globally. Until recently, the evidence supporting the importance of laboratory monitoring in resource-limited settings was lacking, but there is now a consensus emerging that testing should become routine to ensure the longevity of treatment programs. Low-cost, point-of-care testing offers the potential to fill this role as it potentially improves all aspects of HIV care, ranging from the diagnosis and staging of HIV infection in both infants and adults to monitoring for treatment failure once antiretroviral therapy has been initiated. It is imperative for low-cost solutions to become a reality, but it is equally imperative that close scrutiny be given to each new device that hits the market to ensure they perform optimally in all settings.

  13. Development of a new risk-based framework to guide investment in water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Dani J; Ghadouani, Anas; Sinang, Som Cit; Ivey, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    An innovative framework for optimising investments in water quality monitoring has been developed for use by water and environmental agencies. By utilising historical data, investigating the accuracy of monitoring methods and considering the risk tolerance of the management agency, this new methodology calculates optimum water quality monitoring frequencies for individual water bodies. Such information can be applied to water quality constituents of concern in both engineered and natural water bodies and will guide the investment of monitoring resources. Here we present both the development of the framework itself and a proof of concept by applying it to the occurrence of hazardous cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes. This application to existing data demonstrates the robustness of the approach and the capacity of the framework to optimise the allocation of both monitoring and mitigation resources. When applied to cyanobacterial blooms in the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia, we determined that optimising the monitoring regime at individual lakes could greatly alter the overall monitoring schedule for the region, rendering it more risk averse without increasing the amount of monitoring resources required. For water resources with high-density temporal data related to constituents of concern, a similar reduction in risk may be observed by applying the framework.

  14. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update, geothermal program monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This paper is a progress and development update describing three projects in the U.S. which involve the use of geothermal energy and ground-source heat pumps. The first project is located at Fort Polk Army Base in Louisiana. Four thousand government housing units are being retrofitted with efficient ground-soured near Bend, Oregon.

  15. Acaricide research and development, resistance and resistance monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks have a significant deleterious effect on humans, agricultural systems, and companion animals. Strategies based on the use of chemicals were developed to control these pests and to mitigate their impacts on human and animal health and agriculture. There is considerable economic incentive to con...

  16. Method Development and Monitoring of Cyanotoxins in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes method development of two ambient water LC/MS/MS methods for microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a. Ruggedness of the methods will be demonstrated by evaluation of quality control samples derived from various water bodies across the country.

  17. Monitoring Federal Money: Equity Under the Community Development Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guggenheim, Joe

    1977-01-01

    The Coordinator for the Coalition for Block Grant Compliance in Detroit and Executive Director of the Michigan Committee on Law and Housing discusses his organization's involvement in the federal community development block grant programs and the need for other individuals and citizen organizations to become so involved. (JM)

  18. Internal marketing within a health care organization: developing an implementation plan.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses how the concept of internal marketing can be applied within a health care organization. In order to achieve a market orientation an organization must identify the needs and wants of its customers and how these may change in the future. In order to achieve this, internal marketing is a necessary step to the implementation of the organizations marketing strategy. An outline plan for the introduction of an internal marketing programme within an acute hospital trust is proposed. The plan identifies those individuals and departments who should be involved in the planning and implementation of the programme. The benefits of internal marketing to the Trust are also considered.

  19. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shen, Bo; Gao, Zhiming; Baxter, Van D; Iu, Ipseng

    2011-01-01

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  20. Sustainable Development Goals for Monitoring Action to Improve Global Health.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2016-01-01

    Women and children compose the largest segment of the more than 1 billion people worldwide who are unable to access needed health care services. To address this and other global health issues, the United Nations brought together world leaders to address growing health inequities, first by establishing the Millennium Development Goals in 2000 and more recently establishing Sustainable Development Goals, which are an intergovernmental set of 17 goals consisting of 169 targets with 304 indicators to measure compliance; they were designed to be applicable to all countries. Goal number 3, "Good Health and Well-Being: Ensure Heathy Lives and Promote Well-Being for All at All Ages," includes targets to improve the health of women and newborns.

  1. Monitoring sustainable development. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, R

    1997-01-01

    The Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada (FPSN) has sponsored environmental and development projects in the Sierra Nevada mountains in Colombia for 10 years. This region, an acknowledged ecological treasure, has been plagued with armed conflict and deforestation. FPSN believed their efforts were having a positive impact on the environment, but, through their participation in the field-testing of a new research methodology, they now have valuable, new information upon which to base their projects and increase the likelihood of project success. The new methodology used by FPSN since 1994 is participatory and reflective analytical mapping (PRAM) and is based on Map Maker, a computer software program that creates simple maps of any geographic area from complex environmental and social information. PRAM methodology is based on the idea that sustainable development depends on both environmental and social factors. The FPSN field-testing involved identification of the six social and environmental indicators that would have the greatest impact on sustainability. Environmental data came from FPSN's files, and social data came from community leaders and experts. The data were used to rate each of the 11 municipalities in the region and to generate color-coded maps. This analysis revealed that three regions previously ignored by FPSN were home to the weakest economies and the highest level of social despair. This field work allowed FPSN to understand that sustainability requires social as well as environmental improvements and that FPSN needs to develop links with appropriate agencies to effect social changes. PMID:12290331

  2. Impact of BRICS' investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market.

    PubMed

    Kaddar, Miloud; Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector's price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS' accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes. PMID:24940018

  3. Impact of BRICS’ investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa – the countries known as BRICS – have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector’s price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS’ accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes. PMID:24940018

  4. Effective Monitoring and Control of Outsourced Software Development Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponisio, Laura; Vruggink, Peter

    In our study of four outsourcing projects we discover mechanisms to support managerial decision making during software development processes. We report on Customer Office, a framework used in practice that facilitates reasoning about projects by highlighting information paths and making co-ordination issues explicit. The results suggest a key role of modularisation and standardisation to assist in value creation, by facilitating information flow and keeping the overview of the project. The practical implications of our findings are guidelines for managing outsourcing projects such as to have a modularised view of the project based on knowledge domains and to standardise co-ordination operations.

  5. Development of a software platform for providing environmental monitoring data for the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Seki, A; Saito, O; Nago, H; Suzuki, K; Tomishima, K; Saito, K; Takemiya, H

    2015-04-01

    In nuclear emergencies, it is especially important to carry out a wide range of environmental monitoring and provide the data immediately so as to understand the current distribution of radionuclides and investigate countermeasures. Therefore, it is indispensable for a nuclear emergency response to establish a system that supports rapid provision of these data. The authors have been developing the software platform by integrating technologies of environmental monitoring, information processing and network communication, based on the experience of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident. It was discovered that the platform is effective in reducing the time needed to publish the monitoring data. Reducing the cost and workload for publishing the monitoring data is also important because monitoring should be continued over a few decades in the case of the Fukushima accident. The authors' platform is expected to help to mitigate the problem, too. PMID:25536964

  6. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  7. Developing a common language for using social marketing: an analysis of Public Health literature.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Ellery, Jane; Thomas, Kamilah B; Marshall, Robert

    2010-10-01

    The term social marketing has been used to describe a multitude of interventions that incorporate the use of traditional marketing techniques to promote a behavior that will improve the health or well-being of a target audience or of society as a whole. However, there is wide variation in the way social marketing is defined and used. This systematic review article examines how social marketing has been defined and applied to social problems within the public health literature from 2001-2006, by adapting a grading-system borrowed from evidence-based medicine and utilizing Kotler and Zaltman's definition of social marketing. Additionally, definitions of social marketing were identified in the reviewed articles. Identifying a common language in the description and design of social marketing interventions will benefit researchers and practitioners interested in social marketing as a behavior change approach.

  8. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges.

  9. Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices.

    PubMed

    Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B

    2013-12-01

    Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy

  10. Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices.

    PubMed

    Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B

    2013-12-01

    Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy

  11. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Song, Qijian; Mamidi, Sujan; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lee, Rian; Cregan, Perry; Osorno, Juan M; McClean, Phillip E

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney) were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6× to 5.1× coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate.

  12. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Song, Qijian; Mamidi, Sujan; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lee, Rian; Cregan, Perry; Osorno, Juan M.; McClean, Phillip E.

    2013-01-01

    Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney) were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6× to 5.1× coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate. PMID:24860578

  13. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Song, Qijian; Mamidi, Sujan; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lee, Rian; Cregan, Perry; Osorno, Juan M; McClean, Phillip E

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney) were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6× to 5.1× coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate. PMID:24860578

  14. Monitoring neurotoxins in industry: development of a neurobehavioral test battery.

    PubMed

    Baker, E L; Feldman, R G; White, R F; Harley, J P; Dinse, G E; Berkey, C S

    1983-02-01

    To facilitate the early detection of neurotoxicity in workers exposed to hazardous substances, we assembled a set of noninvasive neurobehavioral tests designed to assess memory, verbal concept formation, visuomotor performance, and mood. The tests were administered to an unexposed reference population and multivariate prediction equations were developed to control for effects of age, gender, and education. To define the briefest test set with appropriate sensitivity and specificity, we applied factor analysis and stepwise logistic regression to data from our referents and a group of lead-exposed workers. As a result, we have identified a comprehensive set of tests that can be administered in less than 40 minutes by trained medical technicians on plant premises and used to detect the early effects of neurotoxic substances on exposed workers. Guidelines for applying this technique to common work-place exposures, including other metals and organic solvents, are discussed.

  15. NGAM webinar materials for talk by C. Serest on May 2012 Market Technology Symposium, fenceline monitoring session

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk supports the NGAM workshop and webinar seires and prepares for NGAM 2 The Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) webinar and workshop series captures the revolution in air pollution measurement science enabled by rapid advances in sensors, communication...

  16. 78 FR 23888 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... eligible for consideration. The FAS allocates funds in a manner that effectively supports the strategic... nonprofit U.S. trade organizations to ] share the cost of certain overseas marketing and promotion... for virtually all of the FAS marketing programs, financial assistance programs, and market...

  17. 75 FR 26191 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... all Cooperator marketing plan expenditures. (b) Past Export Performance (20) The 6-year average share... average share (2005-2010) of all Cooperator marketing plan expenditures plus a 6-year average share (2005...; The applicant's 6-year average share (2005-2010) of all Cooperator marketing plan expenditures plus...

  18. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Roetker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  19. The message development tool: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Marifran; Basu, Ambar

    2010-07-01

    That messages are essential, if not the most critical component of any communicative process, seems like an obvious claim. More so when the communication is about health--one of the most vital and elemental of human experiences (Babrow & Mattson, 2003). Any communication campaign that aims to change a target audience's health behaviors needs to centralize messages. Even though messaging strategies are an essential component of social marketing and are a widely used campaign model, health campaigns based on this framework have not always been able to effectively operationalize this key component, leading to cases where initiating and sustaining prescribed health behavior has been difficult (MacStravic, 2000). Based on an examination of the VERB campaign and an Australian breastfeeding promotion campaign, we propose a message development tool within the ambit of the social marketing framework that aims to extend the framework and ensure that the messaging component of the model is contextualized at the core of planning, implementation, and evaluation efforts. PMID:20706895

  20. Markets, Availability, Notice, and Technical Performance of Terahertz Systems: Historic Development, Present, and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrein, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Although a lot of work has already been done under the older terms "far infrared" or "sub-millimeter waves", the term "terahertz" stands for a novel technique offering many potential applications. The latter term also represents a new generation of systems with the opportunity for coherent, time-resolved detection. In addition to the well-known technical opportunities, an historical examination of Internet usage, as well as the number of publications and patent applications, confirms ongoing interest in this technique. These activities' annual growth rate is between 9 % and 21 %. The geographical distribution shows the center of terahertz activities. A shift from the scientific to more application-oriented research can be observed. We present a survey among worldwide terahertz suppliers with special focus on the European region and the use of terahertz systems in the field of measurement and analytical applications. This reveals the current state of terahertz systems' commercial and geographical availability as well as their costs, target markets, and technical performance. Component cost distribution using the example of an optical pulsed time-domain terahertz system gives an impression of the prevailing cost structure. The predication regarding prospective market development, decreasing system costs and higher availability shows a convenient situation for potential users and interested customers. The causes are primarily increased competition and larger quantities in the future.