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Sample records for market monitor development

  1. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  2. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  3. Developing a market orientation.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-03-01

    Developing a market-orientated organization is a complex task. An organization's market orientation is reflected in its ability to fulfil its customer's needs. The organization must look outside itself and adopt a flexible response to changing needs. This paper will examine what is meant by the term marketing and why it is necessary for an organization to incorporate the marketing concept. Analysis of the organization's culture and its relevance to the development of market orientation will also be considered. Reference will be made to health care where appropriate.

  4. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    SciTech Connect

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.

  5. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  6. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  7. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  8. Marketing in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pickering, A H

    1979-10-27

    I fully support the views of Mr. Chetley of War on Want on the marketing of infant foods in developing countries (Oct. 6, p. 747). My experience of eight years medical work in West Africa prompts me to broaden the debate. Advertising and promotional practices used by many European and American pharmaceutical companies are in many instances directed primarily to the non-professional and often poorly educated general public and appear to be geared simply to achieve the maximum volume of sales. Likewise, the cynical disregard of cigarette manufacturers for the dangers of smoking is very apparent in the way in which advertising and promotional campaigns are conducted in developing countries. Fifteen years ago cigarettes were largely imported items but now, certainly in one major West African country, there is a large and flourishing tobacco industry which appears to be run primarily by European interests and which is obviously not there for the health benefit of the people. Is it not a sad reflection on the morality of the society in which we live that, while striving to control unethical and undesirable practices at home, we make little or no effort to regulate those practices abroad when profit is the objective?

  9. Momentum: "Developing Masterful Marketing Plans."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meservey, Lynne D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how directors can plan and develop a written marketing plan which can increase enrollment at child care centers. Components of successful marketing plans include parent retention; program merchandising; staff and director training; sales promotions; networking; and enrichment programs/fundraising. (NH)

  10. Momentum: "Developing Masterful Marketing Plans."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meservey, Lynne D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how directors can plan and develop a written marketing plan which can increase enrollment at child care centers. Components of successful marketing plans include parent retention; program merchandising; staff and director training; sales promotions; networking; and enrichment programs/fundraising. (NH)

  11. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  12. Novel statistical tools for monitoring the safety of marketed drugs.

    PubMed

    Almenoff, J S; Pattishall, E N; Gibbs, T G; DuMouchel, W; Evans, S J W; Yuen, N

    2007-08-01

    Robust tools for monitoring the safety of marketed therapeutic products are of paramount importance to public health. In recent years, innovative statistical approaches have been developed to screen large post-marketing safety databases for adverse events (AEs) that occur with disproportionate frequency. These methods, known variously as quantitative signal detection, disproportionality analysis, or safety data mining, facilitate the identification of new safety issues or possible harmful effects of a product. In this article, we describe the statistical concepts behind these methods, as well as their practical application to monitoring the safety of pharmaceutical products using spontaneous AE reports. We also provide examples of how these tools can be used to identify novel drug interactions and demographic risk factors for adverse drug reactions. Challenges, controversies, and frontiers for future research are discussed.

  13. Marketing Instructional Development Internally, Externally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, James

    This description of the marketing process as a practical way to manage the function of instruction development emphasizes the importance of the identification and evaluation of customer needs before developing objectives. To assist the instructional development agency in focusing on this aspect of planning, a check list of possible marketing…

  14. Marketing Instructional Development Internally, Externally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, James

    This description of the marketing process as a practical way to manage the function of instruction development emphasizes the importance of the identification and evaluation of customer needs before developing objectives. To assist the instructional development agency in focusing on this aspect of planning, a check list of possible marketing…

  15. Fiberoptic Sensor Market Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilber, Jon

    1984-11-01

    Fiberoptic sensor technology has been developed to satisfy particular needs in specific applications (primarily in the military sector). The technology is now on the verge of commercialization in a broad range of applications in the private sector. As the technology becomes more generic, unforeseen applications will emerge. A review of the patents granted for fiberoptic sensors indicates the range and magnitude of commercial interest in this technology.

  16. Test Marketing in New Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klompmaker, Jay E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the role of test marketing in new product development, based on interviews with marketing executives. Attempts to clarify when a test market should be done, what its aims should be, and how it should be used. (JG)

  17. Test Marketing in New Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klompmaker, Jay E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the role of test marketing in new product development, based on interviews with marketing executives. Attempts to clarify when a test market should be done, what its aims should be, and how it should be used. (JG)

  18. Developing a water market readiness assessment framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Loch, Adam; Crase, Lin; Young, Mike; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2017-09-01

    Water markets are increasingly proposed as a demand-management strategy to deal with water scarcity. Water trading arrangements, on their own, are not about setting bio-physical limits to water-use. Nevertheless, water trading that mitigates scarcity constraints can assist regulators of water resources to keep water-use within limits at the lowest possible cost, and may reduce the cost of restoring water system health. While theoretically attractive, many practitioners have, at best, only a limited understanding of the practical usefulness of markets and how they might be most appropriately deployed. Using lessons learned from jurisdictions around the world where water markets have been implemented, this study attempts to fill the existing water market development gap and provide an initial framework (the water market readiness assessment (WMRA)) to describe the policy and administrative conditions/reforms necessary to enable governments/jurisdictions to develop water trading arrangements that are efficient, equitable and within sustainable limits. Our proposed framework consists of three key steps: 1) an assessment of hydrological and institutional needs; 2) a market evaluation, including assessment of development and implementation issues; and 3) the monitoring, continuous/review and assessment of future needs; with a variety of questions needing assessment at each stage. We apply the framework to three examples: regions in Australia, the United States and Spain. These applications indicate that WMRA can provide key information for water planners to consider on the usefulness of water trading processes to better manage water scarcity; but further practical applications and tests of the framework are required to fully evaluate its effectiveness.

  19. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  20. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  1. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  2. Space market model development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

  3. Market research on garment-based "wearables" and biophysical monitoring and a new monitoring method.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Claudia; Burr, Stacey

    2004-01-01

    Technology advancements are foremost on the minds of scientists and developers who are working to overcome the many hurdles associated with bringing consumers the enhanced benefits associated with next generation wearable health systems. Often the technology work takes a front seat to the basic requirements of traditional consumer apparel. The choices of what consumers elect to place and carry on their body can be practical, logical, emotional and sometimes seemingly random. By providing insights and data to support the claims, developers of wearable health systems of the future will be able improve their chance of consumer adoption and continued use by gaining a clearer picture of the people that will be wearing the systems. Results from 5 different consumer research studies are presented, examining consumer buying patterns, gender differences, regional differences, their receptivity to health benefits delivered via clothing and what they want from technology enhanced clothing. Market research related to biophysical monitoring utilizing smart fabrics or interactive textiles show a critical level of commercial activity. Medical applications focused on the aged, infant and critical patient care are taking the lead. This paper presents a look at the biophysical monitoring market and discusses new materials useful in garment systems and the challenges remaining for their development and integration with textiles. A new method of non-invasive monitoring of periodic activity is discussed.

  4. Developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dychtwald, K; Zitter, M

    1988-09-01

    The initial stages of developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals are explored in this excerpt from the book, The Role of the Hospital in an Aging Society: A Blueprint for Action. The elderly have unique perceptual, cognitive, social, and psychological needs and preferences, and a marketing strategy for eldercare services must reflect these factors, as well as the financial role of third-party payers and the decision-making influence of families and physicians. Among the elements the hospital must address when developing a marketing strategy are market selection and segmentation, targeting markets with specific services, pricing, and positioning the hospital for a maximum share of the eldercare market.

  5. [Necessity of applying pharmacovigilance in post-marketing safety monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine injections].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Nan; Chen, Wen; Fu, Zheng; Du, Wen-min; He, Jia

    2008-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection has become one of the hotspots in the new TCM research and development. The serious adverse drug reactions happened in clinical have arosed attention widely in the whole society. It's very urgent to monitor the post-marketing safety of TCM injections. This paper elucidated the pharmacovigilance's necessity in the post-marketing safety monitoring of TCM injections, basing on the reason of safety problem of TCM injections and the future developing trend of adverse drug reaction monitoring. Also, this paper introduced the rapid signal detection method of spontaneous reporting system database by data mining technology.

  6. Smokeless tobacco in Canada: deterring market development

    PubMed Central

    Wyckham, R.

    1999-01-01

    DATA SOURCES—A review of the literature identified demographic, cultural, and marketing variables related to the uptake and continuation of smokeless tobacco use. Government and industry data on production, marketing, and consumption of smokeless tobacco products are presented.
METHODS—The Canadian and American markets are compared in terms of prevalence, consumption per capita, and marketing practices. Lessons to be learned from the well-orchestrated development of the American market in the past 30 years are examined. Canadian tobacco regulations are described. Strategies by which the increased exploitation of the Canadian smokeless tobacco market can be deterred are discussed.
CONCLUSIONS—A long-term, independently financed strategy built around a national smokeless tobacco de-marketing organisation with a constellation of private local institutions is suggested as a means of combating smokeless tobacco marketing efforts.


Keywords: smokeless tobacco; marketing; Canada PMID:10629248

  7. Developing a Social Media and Marketing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulds, David J.; Mangold, W. Glynn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the process used and experiences gained in developing a social media and marketing course. As the first known paper on this topic appearing in the marketing education literature, the paper provides educators with a framework for developing similar courses. The course was developed using a sound instructional design model, the…

  8. Developing a Social Media and Marketing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulds, David J.; Mangold, W. Glynn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the process used and experiences gained in developing a social media and marketing course. As the first known paper on this topic appearing in the marketing education literature, the paper provides educators with a framework for developing similar courses. The course was developed using a sound instructional design model, the…

  9. Developing a strategic marketing plan.

    PubMed

    Zipin, M L

    1989-06-01

    Strategic planning is essential to the survival of today's hospital. Whether the hospital is an academic medical center, a community hospital or some other type of organization, the key to success is a thorough market planning process. The four-phase process described here focuses on an academic medical center, but it is equally applicable to other types of hospitals.

  10. A review of market monitoring activities at U.S. independent system operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Goldman, Charles; Bartholomew, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers have increasingly recognized the structural impediments to effective competition in electricity markets, which has resulted in a renewed emphasis on the need for careful market design and market monitoring in wholesale and retail electricity markets. In this study, we review the market monitoring activities of four Independent System Operators in the United States, focusing on such topics as the organization of an independent market monitoring unit (MMU), the role and value of external market monitors, performance metrics and indices to aid in market analysis, issues associated with access to confidential market data, and market mitigation and investigation authority. There is consensus across the four ISOs that market monitoring must be organizationally independent from market participants and that ISOs should have authority to apply some degree of corrective actions on the market, though scope and implementation differ across the ISOs. Likewise, current practices regarding access to confidential market data by state energy regulators varies somewhat by ISO. Drawing on our interviews and research, we present five examples that illustrate the impact and potential contribution of ISO market monitoring activities to enhance functioning of wholesale electricity markets. We also discuss several key policy and implementation issues that Western state policymakers and regulators should consider as market monitoring activities evolve in the West.

  11. Developing an urban forest carbon market

    Treesearch

    M. Armstrong; J. Siry; Michael Bowker

    2009-01-01

    Countries, states, localities, businesses, and individuals are taking action to mitigate greenhouse gas levels and production as a response to concerns over climate change. Europe currently has mandatory greenhouse gas emission legislation and a large developed emission trading market, as opposed to the U.S. where voluntary markets to reduce green house gas emissions...

  12. Marketing Development Information in South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geethananda, Hemamalee

    1993-01-01

    Discusses adapting traditional marketing strategies for the nonprofit sector, including libraries and information centers, and describes experiences of the Development Information Network for South Asia in Sri Lanka. Topics addressed include librarians' value systems, including free access to information; the need for information marketing;…

  13. Drug development: from concept to marketing!

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Nihad A M; Ellis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Drug development is an expensive, long and high-risk business taking 10-15 years and is associated with a high attrition rate. It is driven by medical need, disease prevalence and the likelihood of success. Drug candidate selection is an iterative process between chemistry and biology, refining the molecular properties until a compound suitable for advancing to man is found. Typically, about one in a thousand synthesised compounds is ever selected for progression to the clinic. Prior to administration to humans, the pharmacology and biochemistry of the drug is established using an extensive range of in vitro and in vivo test procedures. It is also a regulatory requirement that the drug is administered to animals to assess its safety. Later-stage animal testing is also required to assess carcinogenicity and effects on the reproductive system. Clinical phases of drug development include phase I in healthy volunteers to assess primarily pharmacokinetics, safety and toleration, phase II in a cohort of patients with the target disease to establish efficacy and dose-response relationship and large-scale phase III studies to confirm safety and efficacy. Experience tells us that approximately only 1 in 10 drugs that start the clinical phase will make it to the market. Each drug must demonstrate safety and efficacy in the intended patient population and its benefits must outweigh its risks before it will be approved by the regulatory agencies. Strict regulatory standards govern the conduct of pre-clinical and clinical trials as well as the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. The assessment of the new medicinal product's safety continues beyond the initial drug approval through post-marketing monitoring of adverse events. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. American fuel cell market development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past three decades several attempts have been made to introduce fuel cells into commercial markets. The prospective users recognized the attractive features of fuel cells, however they were unwilling to pay a premium for the features other than the easily-calculated fuel cost savings. There was no accepted method for a user to calculate and the accrue the economic value of the other features. The situation is changing. The Clean Air Act signed into law by President Bush on November 15, 1990, mandates a nation wide reduction in SO 2, NO x and ozone emissions. This law affects specific utilities for SO 2 reduction, and specific regions of the country for NO x and ozone reductions — the latter affecting the utility-, industrial- and transportation-sectors in these regions. The Act does not direct how the reductions are to be achieved; but it specifically establishes a trading market for emission allowances whereby an organization that reduces emissions below its target can sell its unused allowance to another organization. In addition to the Clean Air Act, there are other environmental issues emerging such as controls on CO 2 emissions, possible expansion of the list of controlled emissions, mandated use of alternative fuels in specific transportation districts and restrictions on electrical transmission systems. All of these so-called 'environmental externalities' are now recognized as having a real cost that can be quantified, and factored in to calculations to determine the relative economic standing of various technologies. This in turn justifies a premium price for fuel cells hence the renewed interest in the technology by the utility and transportation market segments.

  15. Developing and Implementing a Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalmon, Byron G.

    1987-01-01

    A program focusing on recruitment of new freshmen at the University of Colorado at Boulder illustrates some major planning considerations in the development, implementation, and evaluation of a marketing plan. (MSE)

  16. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  17. Developments in radioactive scrap monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bellian, J.G.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past ten years there have been major developments in radiation monitoring systems used for detecting shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The extent of the problem and industry`s awareness of the problem have both grown significantly during that time. The multimillion dollar expenses associated with decontamination after a source passes into the melt and the potential health hazard to employees and the public have added further impetus to the development of monitoring systems. Early attempts at scrap monitoring could detect some radiation, but testing with real life situations showed them to be virtually incapable of detecting shielded sources of radioactivity in incoming vehicles. More sophisticated detector technology and the development of advanced software made useful by more powerful microprocessors led to successive generations of monitoring systems with order-of-magnitude improvement in detection capability. The next generation includes larger detectors and more complex algorithms offering further improvement in truck and rail car monitoring. Complete solutions require monitoring at additional locations within the site, such as the charge bucket and conveyor lines, and at the scrap processor`s site.

  18. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  19. A Marketing Manual for Job Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serapio, Manuel G., Jr.

    This manual is intended for job developers and people working in educational, vocational, and training organizations with responsibilities for job development and placement. It is designed to help them perform their responsibilities more effectively by making them more responsive to market needs and more efficient in executing their…

  20. Marketing concepts for pharmaceutical service development.

    PubMed

    Grauer, D W

    1981-02-01

    Marketing concepts as a mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers are discussed. Pharmacy as a profession must define itself broadly to take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values. New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i.e., patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance. Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time. A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers.

  1. Multi-Year SSL Market Development Support Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, Marc R.

    2012-05-01

    This plan sets out a strategic, five year framework for guiding DOE's market development support activities for high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products for the U.S. general illumination market. The market development support activities described in this plan, which span federal fiscal years 2012 to 2016, are intended to affect the types of SSL general illumination products adopted by the market, to accelerate commercial adoption of those products, and to support appropriate application of those products to maximize energy savings. DOE has established aggressive FY16 goals for these activities, including goals for the types of products brought to market, the market adoption of those products, and the energy savings achieved through use of SSL products. These goals are for the combined effect of DOE's SSL market development support and R and D investment, as well as the leveraged activities of its partners. Goals include: (1) inducing the market introduction of SSL products achieving 140 lumens per Watt (lm/W) for warm white products, and 155 lm/W for cool white products, and (2) inducing sales of high-performance SSL products that achieve annual site electricity savings of 21 terawatt hours (0.25 quadrillion Btus primary energy) by FY16. To overcome identified market barriers and to achieve the above five year goals, DOE proposes to carry out the following strategy. DOE will implement a multi-year program to accelerate adoption of good quality, high performance SSL products that achieve significant energy savings and maintain or improve lighting quality. Relying on lessons learned from past emerging technology introductions, such as compact fluorescent lamps, and using newly developed market research, DOE will design its efforts to minimize the likelihood that the SSL market will repeat mistakes that greatly delayed market adoption of earlier emerging technology market introductions. To achieve the maximum effect per dollar invested, DOE will work

  2. The Development of Competent Marketing Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ian; Tsarenko, Yelena; Wagstaff, Peter; Powell, Irene; Steel, Marion; Brace-Govan, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The process of transition from university undergraduate to business professional is a crucial stage in the development of a business career. This study examines both graduate and employer perspectives on the essential skills and knowledge needed by marketing professionals to successfully perform their roles. From in-depth interviews with 14…

  3. Marketing and Development for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, G. Jeremiah, Ed.; Smith, Nanette J., Ed.

    This collection of 23 essays provides an overview of current marketing and resource development practices in community colleges. The first of the five sections in the book, "Organizing for Successful Advancement," contains chapters on "Organization of the Successful Institutional Office," by Nanette J. Smith; "The President and Institutional…

  4. Marketing and Development for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, G. Jeremiah, Ed.; Smith, Nanette J., Ed.

    This collection of 23 essays provides an overview of current marketing and resource development practices in community colleges. The first of the five sections in the book, "Organizing for Successful Advancement," contains chapters on "Organization of the Successful Institutional Office," by Nanette J. Smith; "The President and Institutional…

  5. Product Development in Higher Education Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Mark; Howcroft, Barry; Fairless, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: During the last 20 years or so the changing environment in which universities operate has meant that commensurately more emphasis has been placed on marketing principles. In light of this emphasis, it is perhaps a little surprising that relatively little attention has been directed towards the processes by which universities develop their…

  6. The Development of Competent Marketing Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ian; Tsarenko, Yelena; Wagstaff, Peter; Powell, Irene; Steel, Marion; Brace-Govan, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The process of transition from university undergraduate to business professional is a crucial stage in the development of a business career. This study examines both graduate and employer perspectives on the essential skills and knowledge needed by marketing professionals to successfully perform their roles. From in-depth interviews with 14…

  7. Developing Functional Networks of Frontier Capital Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    development in countries where social capital can be as important as financial capital. As Stiglitz and Gallegati (2011) note, “Some network designs may be...entities enabling classification of capital market structure and functions in innovative ways. 3 Stiglitz , Joseph E. and Mauro Gallegati

  8. Product Development in Higher Education Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Mark; Howcroft, Barry; Fairless, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: During the last 20 years or so the changing environment in which universities operate has meant that commensurately more emphasis has been placed on marketing principles. In light of this emphasis, it is perhaps a little surprising that relatively little attention has been directed towards the processes by which universities develop their…

  9. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  10. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or promotional...

  11. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or...

  12. Remote Arrhythmia Monitoring System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liszka, Kathy J.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is taking a step forward with the efforts of team members from the NASA Glenn Research Center, the MetroHealth campus of Case Western University, and the University of Akron. The Arrhythmia Monitoring System is a completed, working test bed developed at Glenn that collects real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a mobile or homebound patient, combines these signals with global positioning system (GPS) location data, and transmits them to a remote station for display and monitoring. Approximately 300,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks, which are arrhythmia cases. However, not all patients identified at risk for arrhythmias can be monitored continuously because of technological and economical limitations. Such patients, who are at moderate risk of arrhythmias, would benefit from technology that would permit long-term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment. Embedded Web Technology developed at Glenn to remotely command and collect data from embedded systems using Web technology is the catalyst for this new telemetry system (ref. 1). In the end-to-end system architecture, ECG signals are collected from a patient using an event recorder and are transmitted to a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) using Bluetooth, a short-range wireless technology. The PDA concurrently tracks the patient's location via a connection to a GPS receiver. A long distance link is established via a standard Internet connection over a 2.5-generation Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS)1 cellular, wireless infrastructure. Then, the digital signal is transmitted to a call center for monitoring by medical professionals.

  13. Mind Map Marketing: A Creative Approach in Developing Marketing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Lars Torsten; Hauer, Amie M.

    2004-01-01

    In this conceptual article, the authors describe an alternative course structure that joins learning key marketing concepts to creative problem solving. The authors describe an approach using a convergent-divergent-convergent (CDC) process: key concepts are first derived from case material to be organized in a marketing matrix, which is then used…

  14. Mind Map Marketing: A Creative Approach in Developing Marketing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Lars Torsten; Hauer, Amie M.

    2004-01-01

    In this conceptual article, the authors describe an alternative course structure that joins learning key marketing concepts to creative problem solving. The authors describe an approach using a convergent-divergent-convergent (CDC) process: key concepts are first derived from case material to be organized in a marketing matrix, which is then used…

  15. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  16. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  17. New Course Development in Multicultural Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    The multicultural market has witnessed tremendous growth in many societies, yet multicultural marketing is marginalized in the marketing curriculum. The focus of this article is to stimulate more discussion of multicultural issues within marketing by proposing suggestions for a multicultural marketing course and identifying appropriate teaching…

  18. New Course Development in Multicultural Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    The multicultural market has witnessed tremendous growth in many societies, yet multicultural marketing is marginalized in the marketing curriculum. The focus of this article is to stimulate more discussion of multicultural issues within marketing by proposing suggestions for a multicultural marketing course and identifying appropriate teaching…

  19. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  20. The developing international private power market

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.B.

    1989-09-01

    A review group comprised of representatives from ten U.S. power industry companies recently released a report recommending increased assistance by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies to provide reliable supplies of electricity and efficient use of energy. The report called for integrating U.S. foreign aid and trade policy to support U.S. industry in expanding overseas markets. The review group estimates a potential market of $370 billion to $900 billion worth of power equipment and services over the next 20 years. Recommendations of the Review Group include: Provide funding to support feasibility studies for electric power projects; Increase economic support funds and development assistance to emphasize energy, infrastructure, trade and investment; expand USAID's energy and private power activities through the formation of an Energy/Power, Infrastructure and Trade Institute as a public-private partnership; and include considerations of the U.S. trade balance in USAID's programs. The Report also criticized the U.S. power industry for an inadequate commitment to long term involvement in overseas markets.

  1. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  2. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  3. Monitoring of bisphenols in canned tuna from Italian markets.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Margherita; Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Grumetto, Lucia; Albrizio, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring of food contamination from bisphenols is a necessary process for the consumers' risk assessment. A method for the quali-quantitative analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol B (BPB), Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), and Bisphenol F Diglycidyl Ether (BFDGE), by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), was performed and validated for their determination in 33 samples of tuna fish, canned in either oil or aqueous medium. Samples were collected in Italian markets. Tuna and the correspondent preservation medium were analyzed separately. Detected levels of bisphenols ranged from 19.1 to 187.0 ng/g in tuna matrix and from 6.3 to 66.9 ng/mL in oil medium. No bisphenols were found in aqueous medium. At least one of the analytes was found in 83% of the tuna samples in oil medium, whereas tuna samples in aqueous medium showed BPA alone in 67% of samples. 21% of the oil medium samples resulted positive for at least one bisphenol. On the basis of measured concentrations and general daily ingestion rate of canned tuna fish, the probable daily intake of BPA for Italian population was calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  5. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market development and promotion. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for...

  6. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research, promotion... development, and marketing promotion, including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote...

  7. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research, promotion, and market development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or...

  8. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research, promotion, and market development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish...

  9. Space market model development project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.

  10. Development and implementation of a GEOGLAM Crop Monitor web interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, P.; Sanchez, A.; Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. J.; McGaughey, K.; Barker, B.

    2016-12-01

    Beginning in September 2013, the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor activity has provided earth observation (EO) data to a network of partners and collected crop assessments on a subnational basis through a web interface known as the Crop Assessment Tool. Based on the collection of monthly crop assessments, a monthly crop condition bulletin is published in the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) Market Monitor report. This workflow has been successfully applied to food security applications through the Early Warning Crop Monitor activity. However, a lack of timely and accurate information on crop conditions and prospects at the national scale is a critical issue in the majority of southern and eastern African countries and some South American countries. Such information is necessary for informed and prompt decision making in the face of emergencies, food insecurity and planning requirements for agricultural markets. This project addresses these needs through the development of relevant, user-friendly remote sensing monitor systems, collaborative internet technology, and collaboration with national and regional agricultural monitoring networks. By building on current projects and relationships established through the various GEOGLAM Crop Monitor activities, this project aims to ultimately provide EO-informed crop condition maps and charts designed for economics and policy oriented audiences, thereby providing quick and easy to understand products on crop conditions as the season progresses. Integrating these data and assessments vertically throughout the system provides a basis for regional sharing and collaboration in food security applications.

  11. An analysis of stock market efficiency: Developed vs Islamic stock markets using MF-DFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Syed Aun R.; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Bacha, Obiyathulla I.; Masih, Mansur

    An efficient market has been theoretically proven to be a key component for effective and efficient resource allocation in an economy. This paper incorporates econophysics with Efficient Market Hypothesis to undertake a comparative analysis of Islamic and developed countries’ markets by extending the understanding of their multifractal nature. By applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) we calculated the generalized Hurst exponents, multifractal scaling exponents and generalized multifractal dimensions for 22 broad market indices. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the markets in Islamic countries, where they have traces of highly efficient performance particularly in crisis periods. A key finding is the empirical evidence of the impact of the ‘stage of market development’ on the efficiency of the market. If Islamic countries aim to improve the efficiency of resource allocation, an important area to address is to focus, among others, on enhancing the stage of market development.

  12. Development of Consistency between Marketing and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, A. Michael

    1986-01-01

    Examined descriptive information about marketing, enrollment management, institutional planning and factors affecting them. A factor analysis of statistically appropriate variables identified factors associated with a state of symbiosis between marketing and institutional planning. (Author/BL)

  13. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section... Marketing, research and development. The committee may, with the approval of the Secretary, establish, or provide for the establishment of, projects including production research, marketing research...

  14. Developing Functional Networks of Frontier Capital Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    ABSTRACT Examining the structure , dynamics, and unique characteristics of a capital market network in which it operates is vital to understanding...opportunities. Examining the structure , dynamics, and unique characteristics of the capital market network in which they operate is vital to...behavior and economics. The individual motivations, information availability, transaction systems , and cultural realities in these markets provide a rich

  15. Bayou Vista: A Market-Driven Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, G. Martin; Teal, Elisabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    The case touches on several areas of marketing: ethics, sales issues, conflicts of interest, marketing forecasts, and issues of pricing. Joe Brice, the visionary and real estate broker for a 36-lot subdivision of moderately priced single-family homes targeting the $190,000 to $260,000 range, seems to have identified an unmet housing market,…

  16. Bayou Vista: A Market-Driven Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, G. Martin; Teal, Elisabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    The case touches on several areas of marketing: ethics, sales issues, conflicts of interest, marketing forecasts, and issues of pricing. Joe Brice, the visionary and real estate broker for a 36-lot subdivision of moderately priced single-family homes targeting the $190,000 to $260,000 range, seems to have identified an unmet housing market,…

  17. Incorporating voltage security into the planning, operation and monitoring of restructured electric energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar

    As open access market principles are applied to power systems, significant changes are happening in their planning, operation and control. In the emerging marketplace, systems are operating under higher loading conditions as markets focus greater attention to operating costs than stability and security margins. Since operating stability is a basic requirement for any power system, there is need for newer tools to ensure stability and security margins being strictly enforced in the competitive marketplace. This dissertation investigates issues associated with incorporating voltage security into the unbundled operating environment of electricity markets. It includes addressing voltage security in the monitoring, operational and planning horizons of restructured power system. This dissertation presents a new decomposition procedure to estimate voltage security usage by transactions. The procedure follows physical law and uses an index that can be monitored knowing the state of the system. The expression derived is based on composite market coordination models that have both PoolCo and OpCo transactions, in a shared stressed transmission grid. Our procedure is able to equitably distinguish the impacts of individual transactions on voltage stability, at load buses, in a simple and fast manner. This dissertation formulates a new voltage stability constrained optimal power flow (VSCOPF) using a simple voltage security index. In modern planning, composite power system reliability analysis that encompasses both adequacy and security issues is being developed. We have illustrated the applicability of our VSCOPF into composite reliability analysis. This dissertation also delves into the various applications of voltage security index. Increasingly, FACT devices are being used in restructured markets to mitigate a variety of operational problems. Their control effects on voltage security would be demonstrated using our VSCOPF procedure. Further, this dissertation investigates

  18. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Personal Computer Monitors. Implications for Market Transformation Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar

    2012-06-29

    Displays account for a significant portion of electricity consumed in personal computer (PC) use, and global PC monitor shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of PC monitors that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that display efficiency will likely improve by over 40% by 2015 compared to today’s technology. We evaluate the cost effectiveness of a key technology which further improves efficiency beyond this level by at least 20% and find that its adoption is cost effective. We assess the potential for further improving efficiency taking into account the recent development of universal serial bus (USB) powered liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and find that the current technology available and deployed in USB powered monitors has the potential to deeply reduce energy consumption by as much as 50%. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to capture global energy saving potential from PC monitors which we estimate to be 9.2 terawatt-hours [TWh] per year in 2015.

  19. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-12-31

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  20. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  1. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J.; Xin, D.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  2. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES...

  3. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 922.45 Section 922.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS...

  4. 7 CFR 916.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 916.45 Section 916.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NECTARINES...

  5. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES...

  6. 7 CFR 916.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 916.45 Section 916.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NECTARINES...

  7. Embedding Marketing in International Campus Development: Lessons from UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations for embedding a market- and marketing-informed approach within the development process for a new international campus. It includes a brief outline of the current global profile of international campuses (as one form of transnational education) before highlighting the role of marketing at key stages of campus…

  8. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 922.45 Section 922.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS...

  9. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 922.45 Section 922.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS...

  10. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 922.45 Section 922.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 922.45 Section 922.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. 7 CFR 905.54 - Marketing, research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing, research and development. 905.54 Section 905.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. Embedding Marketing in International Campus Development: Lessons from UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations for embedding a market- and marketing-informed approach within the development process for a new international campus. It includes a brief outline of the current global profile of international campuses (as one form of transnational education) before highlighting the role of marketing at key stages of campus…

  15. Developing a promotional strategy: important questions for social marketing.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L

    2007-10-01

    Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative.

  16. Moving toward New Horizons for Marketing Education: Designing a Marketing Training for the Poor in Developing and Emerging Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teklehaimanot, Mebrahtu L.; Ingenbleek, Paul T. M.; Tessema, Workneh K.; van Trijp, Hans C. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, marketing education has broadened to poor people in developing and emerging countries. In this article, the authors use four empirical studies that apply well-established training design procedures to design a marketing training program for Ethiopian pastoralists. Because pastoralists operate in extremely remote, traditional, and…

  17. Monitoring risk: post marketing surveillance and signal detection.

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C

    2009-12-01

    The primary goal of postmarketing surveillance is to provide information for risk assessment of a drug. Drugs affecting the central nervous system form a unique group of products for surveillance because they are often misused, abused, and diverted. These medications include opioid analgesics, stimulants, sedative-hypnotics, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants and other drug classes. Their adverse events are difficult to monitor because the perpetrator often attempts to conceal the misuse, abuse and diversion of the product. A postmarketing surveillance system for prescription drugs of abuse in the U.S. should include product specific information that is accurate, immediately available, geographically specific and includes all areas of the country. Most producers of branded opioid analgesic products have created systems that measure abuse from multiple vantage points: criminal justice, treatment professionals, susceptible patient populations and acute health events. In the past, the U.S. government has not established similar requirements for the same products produced by generic manufacturers. However, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 includes generic opioid analgesic products by requiring that all products containing potent opioid drugs perform rigorous surveillance and risk management. While general risk management guidance has been developed by FDA, more specific analyses and guidance are needed to improve surveillance methodology for drugs which are misused, abused, diverted.

  18. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  19. Clean Air Markets - Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about monitoring mass sulfur dioxide and mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, and heat input by units affected by the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  20. Monitoring Diffuse Impacts: Australian Tourism Developments.

    PubMed

    Warnken; Buckley

    2000-04-01

    / The scientific quality of monitoring for diffuse environmental impacts has rarely been quantified. This paper presents an analysis of all formal environmental monitoring programs for Australian tourism developments over a 15-year period from 1980 to 1995. The tourism sector provides a good test bed for this study because tourism developments are (1) often adjacent to or even within conservation reserves and other relatively undisturbed natural environments, and (2) often clustered, with resulting cumulative impacts that require detection at an early stage. Here we analyze the precision and reliability with which monitoring programs as actually implemented can detect diffuse environmental impacts against natural variation. Of 175 Australian tourism developments subject to EIA from 1980 to 1993 inclusive, only 13 were subject to formal monitoring. Only 44 individual parameters, in total, were monitored for all these developments together. No baseline monitoring was conducted for nine of the 44 parameters. For the remaining 35, only one was monitored for a full year. Before, after, control, impact, paired sampling (BACIP) monitoring designs were used for 24 of the 44 parameters, and power analysis in 10. The scientific quality of monitoring was significantly better for developments subject to control by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA). The key factor appears to be the way in which GBRMPA uses external referees and manages external consultants. The GBRMPA model merits wider adoption.

  1. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems.

  2. Monitoring of Landslides with Mass Market Gps: AN Alternative Low Cost Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cina, A.; Piras, M.; Bendea, H. I.

    2013-01-01

    The territory of Italy is seriously afflicted by hydrological risk, with 82% of its area affected by this phenomenon. In recent years, technologies and advanced research have played an important role in realizing complex automatic systems devoted to landslide monitoring and to alerting the population. Sometimes, the cost of these systems (communications network, sensors, software, technologies) prevents their use, and in particular the cost of sensors has a large impact on the final investment. For example, geodetic GNSS receivers are usually employed to conduct landslide monitoring, but they are costly. Nowadays, new technologies make it possible to use small and efficient low cost single frequency GPS receivers, which are able to achieve a centimetric or better level of accuracy, in static positioning. The rapid development and diffusion of the GNSS network to provide a positioning service has made it possible to use single frequency receivers, thanks to the use of virtual RINEX. This product is generated by a network of permanent stations. In this research, the actual performance of a mass market GPS receiver was tested, with the purpose of verifying if these sensors can be used for landslide monitoring. A special slide was realized, in order to conduct a dedicated test of the detection of displacements. Tests were carried out considering two factors: acquisition time and distance from the Virtual Station. The accuracy and precision of movement determination were evaluated and compared, for each test, considering the different factors. The tests and results are described in this contribution.

  3. Developing native plant nurseries in emerging market areas

    Treesearch

    Elliott Duemler

    2012-01-01

    The importance of developing a market for quality native plant materials in a region prior to the establishment of a nursery is crucial to ensure its success. Certain tactics can be applied to help develop a demand for native plant materials in a region. Using these tactics will help create a new market for native plant materials.

  4. Understanding MBA Consumer Needs and the Development of Marketing Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Lynn; Anderson, Murphy; Ingenito, Cristina; Duffy, David; Krimm, Paul; Thomson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The need to develop marketing strategies in higher education is evident. In order to develop effective strategies, marketers must understand the basic needs that their product fulfills. Exploratory research was utilized to identify and better understand the needs that motivate consumers to pursue an MBA degree. This paper emphasizes the importance…

  5. Understanding MBA Consumer Needs and the Development of Marketing Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Lynn; Anderson, Murphy; Ingenito, Cristina; Duffy, David; Krimm, Paul; Thomson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The need to develop marketing strategies in higher education is evident. In order to develop effective strategies, marketers must understand the basic needs that their product fulfills. Exploratory research was utilized to identify and better understand the needs that motivate consumers to pursue an MBA degree. This paper emphasizes the importance…

  6. Corruption and stock market development: A quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    2011-11-01

    Studying the relation between corruption and economic factors and examining its consequences for economic development have attracted many economists and physicists in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of stock market development on corruption. Analyzing a data set of corruption and stock market development measures such as market capitalization and total value of share trading for 46 countries around the world for the period 2007-2009, we examine the dependence of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) on stock market development. Our findings suggest that there exists a power-law dependence between corruption and stock market development. We also observe a negative relation between level of corruption and financial system improvement.

  7. The use of existing environmental networks for the post-market monitoring of GM crop cultivation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Smets, G; Alcalde, E; Andres, D; Carron, D; Delzenne, P; Heise, A; Legris, G; Martinez Parrilla, M; Verhaert, J; Wandelt, C; Ilegems, M; Rüdelsheim, P

    2014-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment requires that both Case-Specific Monitoring (CSM) and General Surveillance (GS) are considered as post-market implementing measures. Whereas CSM is directed to monitor potential adverse effects of GMOs or their use identified in the environmental risk assessment, GS aims to detect un-intended adverse effects of GMOs or their use on human and animal health or the environment. Guidance documents on the monitoring of genetically modified (GM) plants from the Commission and EFSA clarify that, as appropriate, GS can make use of established routine surveillance practices. Networks involved in routine surveillance offer recognised expertise in a particular domain and are designed to collect information on important environmental aspects over a large geographical area. However, as the suitability of existing monitoring networks to provide relevant data for monitoring impacts of GMOs is not known, plant biotechnology companies developed an approach to describe the processes and criteria that will be used for selecting and evaluating existing monitoring systems. In this paper, the availability of existing monitoring networks for this purpose is evaluated. By cataloguing the existing environmental monitoring networks in the EU, it can be concluded that they can only be used, in the context of GMO cultivation monitoring, as secondary tools to collect baseline information.

  8. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  9. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  10. Developing Marketing Strategies for University Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    University teaching hospitals face increasing competition from community hospitals, expanding regulation of health care, consumerism, and a declining urban population base. New marketing strategies are seen as ways in which teaching hospitals can achieve better relationships with institutions, practitioners, and surrounding communities and…

  11. Marketing and Its Effects on Student Development Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Don G.; Akins, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the intended outcomes of marketing (e.g., attracting new students who differ from the traditional ones and who require different programs and services) and discusses the resultant problems for student development programs. Presents strategies for preventing these problems, founded on careful, knowledge-based planning of marketing and…

  12. Developing a Marketing Strategy for Adult and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    The project described in this report aimed to develop an effective and affordable educational marketing strategy in one local British continuing education provider, as a case study for adult and continuing education nationally. Methods employed were as follows: a marketing consultant visited education centers; business and community directories…

  13. NAWDP Job Developer's Marketing Kit for Employment & Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, Susan

    This guide was developed to meet the marketing, outreach, and recruitment needs of job training organizations. It is designed to help organizations create a positive and professional image of local job training programs in their business community. The guide is organized in three sections that cover the following: (1) marketing and outreach…

  14. Developing a Marketing Strategy for Adult and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    The project described in this report aimed to develop an effective and affordable educational marketing strategy in one local British continuing education provider, as a case study for adult and continuing education nationally. Methods employed were as follows: a marketing consultant visited education centers; business and community directories…

  15. Marketing and Its Effects on Student Development Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Don G.; Akins, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the intended outcomes of marketing (e.g., attracting new students who differ from the traditional ones and who require different programs and services) and discusses the resultant problems for student development programs. Presents strategies for preventing these problems, founded on careful, knowledge-based planning of marketing and…

  16. Space market model development project, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the prototype operations of the Space Business Information Center are presented. A clearinghouse for space business information for members of the U.S. space industry composed of public, private, and academic sectors was conducted. Behavioral and evaluation statistics were recorded from the clearinghouse and the conclusions from these statistics are presented. Business guidebooks on major markets in space business are discussed. Proprietary research and briefings for firms and agencies in the space industry are also discussed.

  17. Developing GP monitoring systems guided by a soft systems approach.

    PubMed

    Hindle, T

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes a selected aspect of a research project concerned with 'contracts and competition' in the recently reformed National Health Service. The particular feature highlighted in this paper is the central role played by the general practitioners in the health service as principal sources of the demands made on provider units (particularly hospitals) and, hence, critical determinants of volumes and costs in contracting. A practical outcome of the research has been the development of GP monitoring systems to be used by provider units particularly in the context of marketing-led referral expectations. The approach used to highlight areas of potential GP contract management and monitoring improvements has been a development of soft systems methodology.

  18. 77 FR 24171 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... agricultural export assistance programs, including the Market Access Program (MAP), the Emerging Markets... Commodity Credit Corporation Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market... the 2013 Foreign Market Development Cooperator (Cooperator) program. The intended effect of this...

  19. 7 CFR 917.39 - Production research, market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research, and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or efficient...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT...

  20. 7 CFR 917.39 - Production research, market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research, and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or efficient...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT...

  1. Monitoring fetal development with magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Padhye, N S; Brazdeikis, A; Verklan, M T

    2004-01-01

    Fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) is useful for noninvasive assessment of the status of the autonomic nervous system of the developing fetus. In this pilot study we acquired fetal magnetocardiograms (fMCG) in a magnetically shielded environment. Each recording was of 5-minute duration and was subsequently repeated in a high-frequency noise environment to examine the feasibility of conducting future recordings in clinical environments that lack facilities for magnetic shielding. The fMCG (n=17) were recorded at 9 spatial locations above the pregnant abdomen at 26 to 35 weeks gestational age (GA) by a second-order SQUID gradiometer. The signal-to-noise was adequate for reliable QRS detection even in the noisy environment, especially for GA >/= 30. The total spectral power of the RR-series, as well as band powers at low (0.05 to 0.25 Hz) and high (0.25 to 1.00 Hz) frequencies independently exhibited an increasing trend with GA. There was no evidence of bias in spectral power due to lack of shielding. These results provide experimental evidence supporting further studies in magnetically unshielded environments and may have an important implication for future clinical use of fMCG in the assessment of fHRV.

  2. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors.

  3. Developing Markets for Recycled Products: Demand Lags behind Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; Weltman, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Colleges and universities are saving their recyclables for collection, but paying less attention to developing markets for recycled materials. Institutions can help by purchasing recycled paper. Costs can be reduced through contract and consortium buying and user conservation measures. (MSE)

  4. Marketing Nature-Oriented Tourism or Rural Development and Wildlands Management in Developing Countries: A Bibliography

    Treesearch

    C. Denise Ingram; Patrick B. Durst

    1987-01-01

    Annotated bibliography that specifically links tourism marketing and wildlands management. The bibliography is divided into five sections: Information Sources, Wildlands Management, Planning and Development, Tourism Impacts, Marketing and Promotion.Indexed by author and geographical location.

  5. Continuous respirable mine dust monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, B.K.; Williams, K.L.; Stein, S.W.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published the Report of the Coal Mine Respirable Dust Task Group, Review of the Program to Control Respirable Coal Mine Dust in the United States. As one of its recommendations, the report called for the accelerated development of two mine dust monitors: (1) a fixed-site monitor capable of providing continuous information on dust levels to the miner, mine operator, and to MSHA, if necessary, and (2) a personal sampling device capable of providing both a short-term personal exposure measurement as well as a full-shift measurement. In response to this recommendation, the U.S. Bureau of Mines initiated the development of a fixed-site machine-mounted continuous respirable dust monitor. The technology chosen for monitor development is the Rupprecht and Patashnick Co., Inc. tapered element oscillating microbalance. Laboratory and in-mine tests have indicated that, with modification, this sensor can meet the humidity and vibration requirements for underground coal mine use. The U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research Center (DOE-PRC) is continuing that effort by developing prototypes of a continuous dust monitor based on this technology. These prototypes are being evaluated in underground coal mines as they become available. This effort, conducted as a joint venture with MSHA, is nearing completion with every promise of success.

  6. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a {open_quotes}waffle-iron{close_quotes} effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A FACILITY MONITORING TESTBED

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. MIELKE; C. M. BOYLE; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Advanced Surveillance Technology (AST) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), funded by the Nonproliferation Research and Engineering Group (NN-20) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is fielding a facility monitoring application testbed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-Pulsed Field Laboratory (NHMFL-PFL). This application is designed to utilize continuous remote monitoring technology to provide an additional layer of personnel safety assurance and equipment fault prediction capability in the laboratory. Various off-the-shelf surveillance sensor technologies are evaluated. In this testbed environment, several of the deployed monitoring sensors have detected transient precursor equipment-fault events. Additionally the prototype remote monitoring system employs specialized video state recognition software to determine whether the operations occurring within the facility are acceptable, given the observed equipment status. By integrating the Guardian reasoning system developed at LANL, anomalous facility events trigger alarms signaling personnel to the likelihood of an equipment failure or unsafe operation.

  8. Sector strength and efficiency on developed and emerging financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we analyse the importance of sectors and market efficiency on developed and emerging financial markets. To perform this we analyse New York Stock Exchange between 2004 and 2013 and Warsaw Stock Exchange between 2000 and 2013. To find out the importance of sectors we construct minimal spanning trees for annual time series consisting of daily log returns and calculate centrality measures for all stocks, which we then aggregate by sectors. Such analysis is of interest to analysts for whom the knowledge of the influence of particular groups of stocks to the market behaviour is crucial. We also analyse the predictability of price changes on those two markets formally, using the information-theoretic concept of entropy rate, to find out the differences in market efficiency between a developed and an emerging market, and between sectors themselves. We postulate that such analysis is important to the study of financial markets as it can contribute to the profitability of investments, particularly in the case of algorithmic trading.

  9. Developing Market Opportunities for Flexible Rooftop Applications of PV Using Flexible CIGS Technology: Market Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sabnani, L.; Skumanich, A.; Ryabova, E.; Noufi, R.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge in developments for building-integrated phototovoltaics (BiPV) roof top materials based on CIGS. Several new companies have increased their presence and are looking to bring products to market for this application in 2011. For roof-top application, there are significant key requirements beyond just having good conversion efficiency. Other attributes include lightweight, as well as moisture-proof, and fully functionally reliable. The companies bringing these new BIPV/BAPV products need to ensure functionality with a rigorous series of tests, and have an extensive set of 'torture' tests to validate the capability. There is a convergence of form, aesthetics, and physics to ensure that the CIGS BiPV deliver on their promises. This article will cover the developments in this segment of the BiPV market and delve into the specific tests and measurements needed to characterize the products. The potential market sizes are evaluated and the technical considerations developed.

  10. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    The reform trend of the 1990's in electricity markets recreates, to some extent, the institutional framework from which they developed one century ago. Although these reforms do not endeavor to completely remove regulation, the basic objectives of deregulation dwell on limiting central and governmental control over the industry in order to promote free competition at all possible levels. To assess whether the electricity industry is or is not moving back to a 19th century structure is not the goal of this thesis. We will rather try to understand on what grounds deregulation reforms stand and review how different countries and large utilities have reacted to this trend. The special nature of electricity (non-storable basic good, centrally produced) creates different obstacles in the restructuring of electricity markets, compared to other industries like the airline or telecommunication ones. For example, the dominant positions of some utilities, the production structure and the importance of electricity in modern life could transform these reforms in a threatening move for consumers. Another specific issue arising from deregulation, now that national energy policy goals no longer rule the behavior of utilities, is how investment will be coordinated in the new market. A key element to keep in sight is the competition level targeted by these reforms. To which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets remains an unanswered question. Indeed, the oligopolistic structure of the market could prevent such an outcome. An investigation of the investment dynamics in such a context seems therefore appropriate, and this will be an important theme of the thesis. This work offers an analysis of deregulated electricity markets and studies the oligopolistic market dynamics that could prevail in the new structure. Two complementary approaches are used for these purposes. The first is institutional and presents a thorough illustration of the economic arguments

  11. Development of a decentralized telehomecare monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yeh-Liang; Yang, Che-Chang; Tsai, Tzung-Cheng; Cheng, Chih-Ming; Wu, Chang-Huei

    2007-02-01

    Although the usefulness of telehomecare has been recognized, and all technologies required are readily available, expectations for its widespread adoption have not been realized. This paper presents the development of a portable telehomecare monitoring system (PTMS). What sets this work apart from most other systems is the focus on a highly decentralized monitoring model and the portable nature of the system. We believe that this is the approach that is needed to make such systems economically viable and acceptable to the end-users. The PTMS is a decentralized system, in which a single household is the fundamental unit for sensing, data transmission, data storage and analysis. It is not necessary to subscribe service from a health welfare center, and the infrastructure required is minimal, too. Equipped with different sensors, the PTMS can be used for long-term personal health data management in a home environment, and it can be easily implemented in a home environment at very low cost. Similar to the largescale telehomecare systems, the PTMS also provides caregivers with convenient access to the health data and real-time event-driven messages in urgent situations. Several PTMS applications are described in this paper, including environmental monitoring, monitoring of activities of daily living, a radiofrequency identification (RFID)-based entrance guard system, sleep quality monitoring, vital sign parameter monitoring, and a tele-presence robot.

  12. Modeling of market segmentation for new IT product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Mavrogianni, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    Businesses from all Information Technology sectors use market segmentation[1] in their product development[2] and strategic planning[3]. Many studies have concluded that market segmentation is considered as the norm of modern marketing. With the rapid development of technology, customer needs are becoming increasingly diverse. These needs can no longer be satisfied by a mass marketing approach and follow one rule. IT Businesses can face with this diversity by pooling customers[4] with similar requirements and buying behavior and strength into segments. The result of the best choices about which segments are the most appropriate to serve can then be made, thus making the best of finite resources. Despite the attention which segmentation gathers and the resources that are invested in it, growing evidence suggests that businesses have problems operationalizing segmentation[5]. These problems take various forms. There may have been a rule that the segmentation process necessarily results in homogeneous groups of customers for whom appropriate marketing programs and procedures for dealing with them can be developed. Then the segmentation process, that a company follows, can fail. This increases concerns about what causes segmentation failure and how it might be overcome. To prevent the failure, we created a dynamic simulation model of market segmentation[6] based on the basic factors leading to this segmentation.

  13. Monitoring drug markets in the Internet age and the evolution of drug monitoring systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lucy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Bruno, Raimondo; Van Buskirk, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, drug monitoring systems have been in place for more than a decade allowing for the measurement of ongoing trends in drug use and the detection of new drugs. The Drug Trends Unit at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre monitors drugs through four separate systems. The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) measures the price, purity, and availability of drugs that are primarily injected. The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) monitors psychostimulants that are used recreationally. The National Illicit Drugs Indicator Project (NIDIP) analyzes indicator data including drug-related hospitalizations and deaths. Finally, the Drugs and Emerging Technologies Project (DNeT) analyzes the role of the Internet in the procurement and use of novel psychoactive substances. This paper provides an overview of each component of the system, demonstrating how the system has evolved over time.

  14. Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S.…

  15. Monitoring of pesticide residues of five notable vegetables at Agbogbloshie market in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osei-Fosu, P; Donkor, A K; Nyarko, S; Nazzah, N K; Asante, I K; Kingsford-Adabo, R; Arkorful, N A

    2014-11-01

    The study monitored the concentrations of pesticide residues in vegetables arriving at Agbogbloshie, a central market in the Accra Metropolis from different parts of Ghana and beyond. A total of 810 samples of 5 different vegetables from Central, Volta, Greater Accra, Ashanti, Eastern Regions, and neighboring country (Togo) were collected from January 2009 through to December 2011. In all, 18 % of the samples had no detectable residues, 62 % were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs), and 20 % also exceeded the EU (MRLs) adopted values. Overall, lettuce contained the highest number of residues above their MRLs besides cucumber and cabbage. The pesticide residues were mainly organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. The results demonstrate the need for continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetables arriving at the various major markets in Ghana.

  16. Deregulation and competitive power markets -- Its impact on developing economies

    SciTech Connect

    Saran, K.

    1998-07-01

    The aim of privatization in developed countries is to encourage competition in generation and supply of power whereas the focus of developing economies is to bridge the demand supply gap by addition of capacity. However, there needs to be a reconciliation between these two apparently having conflicting objectives even in case of developing economies. In competitive power markets it is necessary that rules of the game are identified in advance and followed uniformly by all players. Existence of a ``referee'' would be necessary to regulate the game so as to ensure fair play. The regulatory institution would serve this purpose and work as a stimulator to development of privatization and competitive power markets in developing economies. Consumer interests should be of upper-most priority in the mind while establishing power markets and regulatory institutions, particularly as market forces are unfavorable to consumer interests in power shortage conditions. As competition fosters, gradually market forces take over and the ``harsh'' regulator would convert itself to a ``silent vigil referee'' so as to ensure genuine competition. The debate of deregulation vs. regulation will continue but the show must go on for building of an increasingly sound, competitive and vibrant power sector in the interest of end use consumers. The planned and phased restructuring though a delayed process is a preferred process and India is fully determined to achieve this.

  17. [Establishment of model of traditional Chinese medicine injections post-marketing safety monitoring].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin-E; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Li-Cai; Li, Yan-Feng; Hao, Zhe

    2013-09-01

    To establish a nurse based post-marketing safety surveillance model for traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs). A TCMIs safety monitoring team and a research hospital team engaged in the research, monitoring processes, and quality control processes were established, in order to achieve comprehensive, timely, accurate and real-time access to research data, to eliminate errors in data collection. A triage system involving a study nurse, as the first point of contact, clinicians and clinical pharmacists was set up in a TCM hospital. Following the specified workflow involving labeling of TCM injections and using improved monitoring forms it was found that there were no missing reports at the ratio of error was zero. A research nurse as the first and main point of contact in post-marketing safety monitoring of TCM as part of a triage model, ensures that research data collected has the characteristics of authenticity, accuracy, timeliness, integrity, and eliminate errors during the process of data collection. Hospital based monitoring is a robust and operable process.

  18. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  19. Developing psychophysiological profiles for monitoring stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldow, Roberta L.; Bergen, Michael T.; Belin, Kari; Bululu, Luba; Couso, Olivita; McLaughlin, Joselyn; Short, Kenneth R.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Training prepares first responders for disasters including terrorist attacks. To train effectively it should be as realistic as possible and elicit the stress response. We are developing a profile that will be a marker for intensity of stress as well as differentiate stress from exertion. We have monitored stress during several training scenarios for different groups including civilian SWAT teams and the military. In addition, we can monitor stress to exposure to nonlethal weapons. We have monitored stress during exposure to blunt impact using a paintball paradigm. We have measured salivary substances (such as cortisol and DHEA [markers for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis]) and amylase [marker for the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system], physiological parameters (such as activity and heart rate), and neuropsychological assessment tools (such as Borg's perceived exertion scale, Spielberger's STAI and Thayer's ADC). With these neuroendocrine, physiological and behavioral indices in hand, we are poised to examine stress induction in preparedness in trainees.

  20. Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops.

    PubMed

    Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Cagáň, Ľudovít; Sehnal, František

    2017-03-29

    Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of genetically modified (GM) crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected. Modeling based on the gradual elimination of the least abundant species, or of the fewest categories of functional traits, showed that a trait-based analysis of the most common species may be suitable for PMEM. Species represented by fewer than 230 individuals (all localities combined) should be excluded and species with an abundance higher than 600 should be preserved for statistical analyses. Sixteen species, representing 15 categories of functional traits fulfill these criteria, are typical dominant inhabitants of agroecocoenoses in Central Europe, are easy to determine, and their functional classification is well known. The effect of sampling year is negligible when at least four samples are collected during maize development beginning from 1 April. The recommended methodology fulfills PMEM requirements, including applicability to large-scale use. However, suggested thresholds of carabid comparability should be verified before definitive conclusions are drawn.

  1. Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Cagáň, Ľudovít; Sehnal, František

    2017-01-01

    Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of genetically modified (GM) crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected. Modeling based on the gradual elimination of the least abundant species, or of the fewest categories of functional traits, showed that a trait-based analysis of the most common species may be suitable for PMEM. Species represented by fewer than 230 individuals (all localities combined) should be excluded and species with an abundance higher than 600 should be preserved for statistical analyses. Sixteen species, representing 15 categories of functional traits fulfill these criteria, are typical dominant inhabitants of agroecocoenoses in Central Europe, are easy to determine, and their functional classification is well known. The effect of sampling year is negligible when at least four samples are collected during maize development beginning from 1 April. The recommended methodology fulfills PMEM requirements, including applicability to large-scale use. However, suggested thresholds of carabid comparability should be verified before definitive conclusions are drawn. PMID:28353663

  2. Developing Gyrfalcon surveys and monitoring for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; Booms, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    We developed methods to monitor the status of Gyrfalcons in Alaska. Results of surveys and monitoring will be informative for resource managers and will be useful for studying potential changes in ecological communities of the high latitudes. We estimated that the probability of detecting a Gyrfalcon at an occupied nest site was between 64% and 87% depending on observer experience and aircraft type (fixed-wing or helicopter). The probability of detection is an important factor for estimating occupancy of nesting areas, and occupancy can be used as a metric for monitoring species' status. We conclude that surveys of nesting habitat to monitor occupancy during the breeding season are practical because of the high probability of seeing a Gyrfalcon from aircraft. Aerial surveys are effective for searching sample plots or index areas in the expanse of the Alaskan terrain. Furthermore, several species of cliff-nesting birds can be surveyed concurrently from aircraft. Occupancy estimation also can be applied using data from other field search methods (e.g., from boats) that have proven useful in Alaska. We believe a coordinated broad-scale, inter-agency, collaborative approach is necessary in Alaska. Monitoring can be facilitated by collating and archiving each set of results in a secure universal repository to allow for statewide meta-analysis.

  3. Marketing Education (ME)--Curriculum Development and Business Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Madison.

    This publication contains 47 competitive events developed by 40 businesspeople who worked with 20 marketing education teachers. The events are intended for use at the Distributive Education Clubs of America State Career Development Conference. These events are divided into the following categories: advertising services; apparel and accessories;…

  4. Marketing Education (ME)--Curriculum Development and Business Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Madison.

    This publication contains 47 competitive events developed by 40 businesspeople who worked with 20 marketing education teachers. The events are intended for use at the Distributive Education Clubs of America State Career Development Conference. These events are divided into the following categories: advertising services; apparel and accessories;…

  5. Photovoltaic market analysis program: Background, model development, applications and extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilien, G. L.; Fuller, F. H.

    1981-04-01

    Tools and procedures to help guide government spending decisions associated with stimulating photovoltaic market penetration were developed. The program has three main components: (1) theoretical analysis aimed at understanding qualitatively what general types of policies are likely to be most cost effective in stimulating PV market penetration; (2) operational model developent (PV1), providing a user oriented tool to study quantitatively the relative effectiveness of specific government spending options and (3) field measurements, aimed at providing objective estimates of the parameters used in the diffusion model used in PV1. Existing models of solar technology diffusion are reviewed and the structure of the PV1 model is described. Theoretical results on optimal strategies for spending federal market development and subsidy funds are reviewed. The validity of these results is checked by comparing them with PV1 projections of penetration and cost forecasts for 15 government policy strategies which are simulated on the PV1 model.

  6. Community Work Development: A Marketing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Como, Perry; Hagner, David

    This manual is concerned with developing community-based work for persons with disabilities, particularly disabled workers in segregated settings and individuals who are considered not yet ready for or capable of work. The first part of the publication deals with the following topics: the concepts of community, work, and severe disabilities; the…

  7. Developing competitive and sustainable Polish generic medicines market.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-10-01

    To descriptively analyze the policy environment surrounding the Polish generic medicines retail market. The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting generic for originator medicines in Poland using IMS Health pharmaceutical intelligence data. Poland has a mature, high-volume, low-value generic medicines market, primarily driven by the establishment of the reference price at the price of the cheapest medicine in combination with pricing regulation and the low level of medicine prices. The practice of discounting in the distribution chain implies that the National Health Fund and patients do not capture the potential savings from a generic medicines market where companies compete on price. This high-volume market has benefited in the past from the limited availability of originator medicines and a short data exclusivity period, even though there are no incentives for physicians to prescribe generic medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense generic medicines. Increased generic substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 21%. To develop a competitive and sustainable market, Poland needs to consider moving away from competition by discount to competition by price. This could be achieved by replacing maximum distribution margins by fixed margins. Also, Poland may wish to raise reference prices as a temporary measure to boost market entry for medicine classes with few generic medicines.

  8. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  9. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the spring of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I developed a system health and status display for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of the servers, gateways, network switches, and firewalls used in the firing room.

  10. SABIC developing key role in petrochemical markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-07

    This paper reports that Sabic, Saudi Arabia's state petrochemical company, has emerged as a major player in that industry. Sabic was created in 1976 mainly to add value to Saudi hydrocarbon resources by using associated gas, formerly mostly flared, as feedstock for basic petrochemical products. Its role expanded to include downstream petrochemical products, fertilizer, and metals, essentially creating an industrial base in Saudi Arabia. Since then, Sabic has developed with joint venture partners 15 companies, each representing a world scale industrial plant. The first 12 of those were on stream by yearend 1985. Total industrial output, mainly petrochemicals, has increased to more than 11 million metric tons in 1989 from almost 3 million tons in 1984.

  11. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  12. Developing an Evidence-Based Epilepsy Risk Assessment eHealth Solution: From Concept to Market.

    PubMed

    Newman, Craig; Shankar, Rohit; Hanna, Jane; McLean, Brendan; Osland, Alex; Milligan, Cathryn; Ball, Abbie; Jory, Caryn; Walker, Matthew

    2016-06-07

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is possibly the most common cause of death as a result of complications from epilepsy. The need to educate and regularly review risk for all patients with epilepsy is paramount, but rarely delivered in actual clinical practice. Evidence suggests that education around SUDEP and modifiable risk variables translate into better self-management of epilepsy. We aimed to develop and implement an eHealth solution to support education and self-management of risks, in epilepsy. We undertook an innovation pathways approach, including problem identification, feasibility assessment, design, implementation, and marketing. People with epilepsy were provided a smartphone-based app (Epilepsy Self-Monitor, EpSMon), which translates the clinical risk assessment tool into an educational and self-monitoring platform, for the self-management of epilepsy. Results include the success of the marketing campaign, and in what areas, with an estimated reach of approximately 38 million people. EpSMon has proved a success in academic and clinical circles, attracting awards and nominations for awards. The number of users of EpSMon, after 3 months, turned out to be lower than expected (N=221). A 4-month trial of the app in use in the United Kingdom, and the success of the marketing strategy, point to necessary changes to the model of delivery and marketing, summarized in this paper. These include the marketing message, user cost model, and need for the availability of an Android version. EpSMon has proven a success in respect to its reception by academics, clinicians, stakeholder groups, and the patients who use it. There is work needed to promote the model and increase its acceptability/attractiveness, including broadening the marketing message, increasing its availability, and reducing its cost. Future development and promotion of the tool will hopefully inform iterative design of its core features for a receptive audience and lead to increased uptake

  13. Developments in seismic monitoring for risk reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents recent state-of-the-art developments to obtain displacements and drift ratios for seismic monitoring and damage assessment of buildings. In most cases, decisions on safety of buildings following seismic events are based on visual inspections of the structures. Real-time instrumental measurements using GPS or double integration of accelerations, however, offer a viable alternative. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and structural characteristics (including storey geometry), can be estimated to compute drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can then be compared to these thresholds in order to estimate damage conditions drift ratios. This approach is demonstrated in three steel frame buildings in San Francisco, California. Recently recorded data of strong shaking from these buildings indicate that the monitoring system can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can also be used for risk monitoring, as a method to assess performance-based design and analysis procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics of a building, and as a possible long-term damage detection tool.

  14. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  15. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  16. Problem Analysis: Application in Developing Marketing Strategies for Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John; Moore, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The problem analysis technique can help colleges understand students' salient needs in a competitive market. A preliminary study demonstrates the usefulness of the approach for developing strategies aimed at maintaining student loyalty and improving word-of-mouth promotion to other prospective students. (Author/MSE)

  17. Older People as a Developing Market for Cultural Heritage Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Anna; Zipsane, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable for the heritage sector to see the growing population of senior citizens as a developing market? Jamtli is an open air museum in the north of Sweden. The main target group is families with children, but an increasing number of activities for older adults are being offered. The growing population of older people is a…

  18. Integrating Development, Alumni Relations, and Marketing for Fundraising Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    At many institutions, the vice president of institutional advancement oversees the functions of development, alumni relations, and marketing and communications. University leaders expect these functions to be integrated and to work hand-in-hand to advance the institution's mission, particularly in the area of private donations. The reality is that…

  19. Developments in U.S. Alternative Fuel Markets

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The alternative fueled vehicle (AFV)/alternative fuels industry experienced a number of market-related changes in the second half of the 1990s. This article describes each of the alternative transportation fuels and the AFVs in detail. It provides information on the development to date and looks at trends likely to occur in the future.

  20. Integrating Development, Alumni Relations, and Marketing for Fundraising Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    At many institutions, the vice president of institutional advancement oversees the functions of development, alumni relations, and marketing and communications. University leaders expect these functions to be integrated and to work hand-in-hand to advance the institution's mission, particularly in the area of private donations. The reality is that…

  1. Older People as a Developing Market for Cultural Heritage Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Anna; Zipsane, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable for the heritage sector to see the growing population of senior citizens as a developing market? Jamtli is an open air museum in the north of Sweden. The main target group is families with children, but an increasing number of activities for older adults are being offered. The growing population of older people is a…

  2. Potato development and skin set in fresh market red varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bright, attractive, uniformly pigmented skin is critically important for fresh market red-skinned potatoes. We will summarize what is known about the potato skin development, with an emphasis on pigment accumulation and loss. We will provide some insight into what may be responsible for changes in...

  3. Market-based licensing for HPV vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines hold great promise for preventing cervical cancer, but 93 percent of mortality worldwide occurs in low- and middle-income countries, where high vaccine costs can restrict dissemination. Current models for promoting international access to health care innovations include differential pricing, advance market commitments, and voluntary and compulsory licensing. Some of these mechanisms have been effective, but much room for improvement remains. We discuss the usefulness of a new type of license that uses market forces to lower prices through generic competition in low- and middle-income countries while ensuring that pharmaceutical companies are appropriately reimbursed for their research and development.

  4. Measuring Alcohol Marketing Engagement: The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Alcohol Marketing Engagement Scale.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela; Morse, David T; Hood, Kristina; Walker, Courtney

    Ample evidence exists in support of the influence of media, both traditional and electronic, on perceptions and engagement with alcohol marketing. We describe the development, calibration, and evidence for technical quality and utility for a new measure, the Alcohol Marketing Engagement Scale. Using two samples of college undergraduates (n1 = 199, n2 = 732), we collected field test responses to a total of 13 items. Initial support for scale validity is presented via correlations with attributes previously shown to be related to alcohol engagement. While the joint map of estimated scale locations of items and respondents indicates the need for further scale development, the results of the present analyses are promising. Implications for use in research are discussed.

  5. [Post-marketing clinical safety assessment of Shenmai injection based on active monitoring and passive monitoring in large data background].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Ai, Qing-hua; Song, Nian-bin

    2015-12-01

    This paper adopted a series of related analysis methods to comprehensively analyze post-marketing clinical safety data of Shenmai injection from 4,220 cases of SRS and 32,358 cases of multicenter, prospective, registered hospital centralized monitoring in large data background, calculated ADR incidence rate was 0.93 per 1,000, main symptoms of ADR includes chest pain, chills, skin itching, palpitations, fever, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, flushing, numbness, allergic reaction, cyanosis, rash, low back pain, and "breath", "anaphylactoid reaction" and "flush" were the safety warning signals of Shenmai injection. Primary disease for chronic pulmonary heart disease, thyroid disease, and combined with cerebral vascular disease, prior to the injection and continuous use of alprostadil, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, combined with quinolones, penicillins were suspicious influence factors of ADR of Shenmai injection, these promot the clinical safety.

  6. Monitoring the marketing, distribution, and use of Sprinkles micronutrient powders in rural western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird; Obure, Alfredo; Were, Vincent; Ochieng, Cliff; Ogange, Lorraine; Owuor, Mercy; Ngure, Frances; Quick, Robert; Juliao, Patricia; Jung, Christina; Teates, Kathryn; Cruz, Kari; Jefferds, Maria Elena D

    2010-06-01

    In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with local Kenyan institutions to implement the Nyando Integrated Child Health and Education Project, an effectiveness study that used social marketing and a community-based distribution program to promote the sale of Sprinkles and other health products. To describe monitoring of wholesale sales, household demand, promotional strategies, and perceived factors influencing Sprinkles sales among vendors. Ongoing quantitative and qualitative monitoring of Sprinkles sales began in May 2007 in 30 intervention villages. Data sources included baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys; office records of Sprinkles sales to vendors; biweekly household monitoring of Sprinkles use; and qualitative data collection, including vendor focus groups and key informant interviews. A total of 550 children aged 6 to 35 months were enrolled at baseline, and 451 were available at 12-month follow-up. During this period, nearly 160,000 sachets were sold wholesale to vendors, with variability in sales influenced by the social, political, and economic context. Vendors living closer to the wholesale office purchased more Sprinkles, so a second office was opened closer to remote vendors. On average, 33% of households purchased Sprinkles during household monitoring visits. Training sessions and community launches were important for community support and raising awareness about Sprinkles. Vendor incentives motivated vendors to sell Sprinkles, and consumer incentives promoted purchases. Sprinkles program monitoring in Kenya was critically important for understanding sales and distribution trends and vendor perceptions. Understanding these trends led to strategic changes to the intervention over time.

  7. Epidemiological monitoring plan for geothermal developments.

    PubMed

    Deane, M

    1984-01-27

    In order to assure that geothermal developments in the Imperial Valley of California proceeded on an environmentally sound basis, The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contracted with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive study of six aspects of the region and its potential problems: Air Quality Water Quality, Ecosystem Quality (Soil, Plants, Animals, etc.) Subsidence and Induced Seismicity, Health Effects, and Socio-Economic Effects which may result from the proposed development. This report of the possible health effects is designed to be repeated as geothermal developments progress. It includes both general health attributes and attributes which may be likely to be adversely affected by such developments and is focussed on two different populations, one likely to be affected and a second which is less likely to be affected. Such a design permits the easier identification of possible effects against a background of time-dependent processes in later phases of the study. This baseline study documents that before such developments, there were differences in health status of the two areas, which were chosen to maximize demographic comparability. It further identifies that odor, a possible problem associated with geothermal development, is currently present, and at times intense. Without such baseline monitoring, the likelihood is great that such effects in the future might be falsely ascribed to the geothermal development.

  8. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  9. Building a data set over 12 globally distributed sites to support the development of agriculture monitoring applications with Sentinel-2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developing better agricultural monitoring capabilities based on Earth Observation data is critical for strengthening food production information and market transparency. The coming Sentinel-2 mission has the optimal capacity for regional to global agriculture monitoring in terms of resolution (10-20...

  10. Marketers Understanding Engineers and Engineers Understanding Marketers: The Opportunities and Constraints of a Cross-Discipline Course Using 3D Printing to Develop Marketable Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifschneider, Louis; Kaufman, Peter; Langrehr, Frederick W.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Marketers are criticized for not understanding the steps in the engineering research and development process and the challenges of manufacturing a new product at a profit. Engineers are criticized for not considering the marketability of and customer interest in such a product during the planning stages. With the development of 3D printing, rapid…

  11. Marketers Understanding Engineers and Engineers Understanding Marketers: The Opportunities and Constraints of a Cross-Discipline Course Using 3D Printing to Develop Marketable Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifschneider, Louis; Kaufman, Peter; Langrehr, Frederick W.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Marketers are criticized for not understanding the steps in the engineering research and development process and the challenges of manufacturing a new product at a profit. Engineers are criticized for not considering the marketability of and customer interest in such a product during the planning stages. With the development of 3D printing, rapid…

  12. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  13. Markets slow to develop for Niger delta gas reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-11-27

    Nigeria produces a very high quality, light, sweet crude oil but with a large percentage of associated gas derived from a high gas-to-oil ratio. Official proved gas reserves, both associated and nonassociated, are 120 tcf. Proved and probable reserves are estimated as high as 300 tcf. The internal market for gas has only begun to develop since the 1980s, and as a result approximately 77% of associated gas production is flared. Domestic gas consumption is currently approximately 700 MMcfd and is projected to have a medium term potential of 1.450 bcfd. The article discusses resource development, gas markets, gas flaring, gas use programs, the Bonny LNG scheme, the gas reserve base, LNG project status, competition, and energy opportunities.

  14. Implementing marketing strategy (Part four).

    PubMed

    Dodson, D C; Dotson, M; McIlwain, T F; Young, D

    1993-01-01

    Every organization must monitor and evaluate the performance of its marketing strategies. The health care marketer must continually develop effective measures related to outcomes so that marketing efforts can be justified and garnish the support and resources they deserve. A major task for the marketing executive for the next decade is to develop marketing strategies and prove that those strategies are being met and that they help the health care organization carry out its objective to meet its mission.

  15. Direction of polyethylene separator development for the SLI market

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrete, J.

    1997-12-01

    Recent separator advancements have improved the oxidation stability and puncture resistance of Polyethylene (PE) separators. These improvements, at the same time, have been accomplished even as the market continues to demand separators with lower backweb thickness. Results of development work to evaluate improved oxidation resistance is presented. Evaluation of separator characteristics as well as separator performance in a battery are presented and form the basis for an improved separator design.

  16. Miniature PCR based portable bioaerosol monitor development.

    PubMed

    Agranovski, I E; Usachev, E V; Agranovski, E; Usacheva, O V

    2017-01-01

    A portable bioaerosol monitor is greatly demanded technology in many areas including air quality control, occupational exposure assessment and health risk evaluation, environmental studies and, especially, in defence and bio-terrorism applications. Our recent groundwork allowed us to formulate the concept of a portable bioaerosol monitor, which needs to be light, user friendly, reliable and capable of detecting airborne pathogens within 1-1·5 h on the spot. Conceptually, the event of a bioaerosol concentration burst is determined by triggers to commence the representative air sampling with sequential real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of the targeted micro-organism present in the air. To minimize reagent consumption and idle running of the technology, an event of a bioaerosol burst is confirmed by three parameters: aerosol particle size, concentration and composition. Only particle sizes above 200 nm attract interest in the bioaerosol. Only an elevated aerosol concentration above the threshold (background aerosol concentration) is a signal to commence the analytical procedure. The combination of our previously developed personal bioaerosol sampler, aerosol particle counter based trigger and portable real-time PCR device formed the basis of the bioaerosol monitoring technology. The portable real-time PCR device was advanced to provide internally controlled detection, significantly reducing false-positive alarms. The technique is capable of detecting selected airborne micro-organisms on the spot within 30-80 min, depending on the genome organization of the particular strain. Due to recent outbreaks of infectious airborne diseases and the continuing threat of intentionally released bioaerosol attacks, investigations into the possibility of the early and reliable detection of pathogenic micro-organisms in the air is becoming increasingly important. The proposed technology consisting of a bioaerosol sampler, technology trigger and PCR device is

  17. The Marketing Mix and Development of Medical Tourism in Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Alireza; Rahimi Zarchi, Mohammad Kazem; Kavosi, Zahra; Shafaghat, Tahere; Keshtkaran, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, medical tourism market has been raised as one of the income-earning and competitive industries in the world and is considered as a modern field of advanced tourism. Therefore, a great number of countries are seeking to develop this type of tourism and one of the strategies for developing this industry is using the marketing mix elements. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic and cross sectional one. The research community included all the public and private hospitals of Shiraz among which, 7 public and 9 private hospitals were studied. The study data were collected through a researcher-made check list whose face and content validity was confirmed by the experts. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software. According to the objectives of the study, the descriptive results were presented in frequency tables and Chi-square test was used for data analysis. In addition, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: According to the results, both public and private hospitals of Shiraz were in the best condition regarding staff and physician mix and in the worst condition concerning promoting and facilities mixes. No significant difference was found between public and private hospitals regarding the mixes. Conclusion: From marketing mix elements view, paying more attention to media advertisements and providing more facilities can improve the status of the hospitals which, consequently, results in attracting more medical tourists and developing this industry in Shiraz. PMID:23678337

  18. The marketing mix and development of medical tourism in shiraz.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Alireza; Rahimi Zarchi, Mohammad Kazem; Kavosi, Zahra; Shafaghat, Tahere; Keshtkaran, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, medical tourism market has been raised as one of the income-earning and competitive industries in the world and is considered as a modern field of advanced tourism. Therefore, a great number of countries are seeking to develop this type of tourism and one of the strategies for developing this industry is using the marketing mix elements. This study was a descriptive-analytic and cross sectional one. The research community included all the public and private hospitals of Shiraz among which, 7 public and 9 private hospitals were studied. The study data were collected through a researcher-made check list whose face and content validity was confirmed by the experts. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software. According to the objectives of the study, the descriptive results were presented in frequency tables and Chi-square test was used for data analysis. In addition, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. According to the results, both public and private hospitals of Shiraz were in the best condition regarding staff and physician mix and in the worst condition concerning promoting and facilities mixes. No significant difference was found between public and private hospitals regarding the mixes. From marketing mix elements view, paying more attention to media advertisements and providing more facilities can improve the status of the hospitals which, consequently, results in attracting more medical tourists and developing this industry in Shiraz.

  19. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the summer of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays and support applications at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I created control scripts using the Application Control Language (ACL) to analyze the health and status of Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This application provides a system health and status display I created with summarized data for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of KGCS subsystems.

  20. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets.

    PubMed

    Baker, C S; Lento, G M; Cipriano, F; Palumbi, S R

    2000-06-22

    the International Whaling Commission. For the range of exploitation consistent with the market sample, this protected stock was predicted to decline towards extinction over the next few decades. These results confirmed the power of molecular methods in monitoring retail markets and pointed to the inadequacy of the current moratorium for ensuring the recovery of protected species. More importantly, the integration of genetic evidence with a model of population dynamics identified an urgent need for actions to limit undocumented exploitation of a 'protected' stock of whales.

  1. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C S; Lento, G M; Cipriano, F; Palumbi, S R

    2000-01-01

    the International Whaling Commission. For the range of exploitation consistent with the market sample, this protected stock was predicted to decline towards extinction over the next few decades. These results confirmed the power of molecular methods in monitoring retail markets and pointed to the inadequacy of the current moratorium for ensuring the recovery of protected species. More importantly, the integration of genetic evidence with a model of population dynamics identified an urgent need for actions to limit undocumented exploitation of a 'protected' stock of whales. PMID:10902685

  2. Glucose Sensing for Diabetes Monitoring: Recent Developments

    PubMed Central

    Bruen, Danielle; Delaney, Colm; Florea, Larisa

    2017-01-01

    This review highlights recent advances towards non-invasive and continuous glucose monitoring devices, with a particular focus placed on monitoring glucose concentrations in alternative physiological fluids to blood. PMID:28805693

  3. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... processing, marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries subject to this part. The expense of such... Section 930.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  5. Sex, gender, and pharmaceutical politics: From drug development to marketing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jill A; Ronald, Lorna M

    2010-08-01

    Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender norms affect the provision of health care products and services, but there has been little explicit analysis of the impact of sex differences and gender norms on the regulation of pharmaceutical development and marketing. This article provides an overview of the regulation of pharmaceuticals and examines the ways that regulatory agencies account for sex and gender in their review of scientific data and marketing materials. The primary focus is on the US context, but information is also included about regulatory models in Europe, Canada, and Japan for comparative purposes. Specific examples show how sex differences and gender norms influence scientific and policy decisions about pharmaceuticals. The United States and Canada were found to be the only countries that have explicit requirements to include women in clinical trials and to perform sex-based subgroup analysis on study results. The potential influence of politics on regulatory decisions may have led to an uneven application of standards, as seen through the examples of mifepristone (for abortion) and sildenafil citrate (for erectile dysfunction). Three detailed case studies illustrate the importance of considering sex and gender in pharmaceutical development and marketing: Phase I clinical trials; human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine; and tegaserod, a drug for irritable bowel syndrome. Sex and gender play important roles in pharmaceutical regulation, from the design of clinical trials and the approval of new drugs to advertising and postmarketing surveillance. However, regulatory agencies pay insufficient attention to both biological sex differences and sociocultural gender norms. This disregard perpetuates inequalities by ignoring drug safety problems that predominate in women and by allowing misleading drug marketing that reinforces gender stereotypes. Recommendations have been made to improve the regulation of pharmaceuticals in regard to sex and

  6. Development of living body information monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Torigoe, Ippei; Miyagawa, Hidekazu; Murayama, Nobuki; Hayashida, Yuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2010-03-01

    The easy monitoring systems of contact and non-contact living body information for preventing the the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were proposed as an alternative monitoring system of the infant's vital information. As for the contact monitoring system, respiration sensor, ECG electrodes, thermistor and IC signal processor were integrated into babies' nappy holder. This contact-monitoring unit has RF transmission function and the obtained data are analyzed in real time by PC. In non-contact mortaring system, the infrared thermo camera was used. The surrounding of the infant's mouth and nose is monitored and the respiration rate is obtained by thermal image processing of its temperature change image of expired air. This proposed system of in-sleep infant's vital information monitoring system and unit are very effective as not only infant's condition monitoring but also nursing person's one.

  7. Development of living body information monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Torigoe, Ippei; Miyagawa, Hidekazu; Murayama, Nobuki; Hayashida, Yuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2009-12-01

    The easy monitoring systems of contact and non-contact living body information for preventing the the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were proposed as an alternative monitoring system of the infant's vital information. As for the contact monitoring system, respiration sensor, ECG electrodes, thermistor and IC signal processor were integrated into babies' nappy holder. This contact-monitoring unit has RF transmission function and the obtained data are analyzed in real time by PC. In non-contact mortaring system, the infrared thermo camera was used. The surrounding of the infant's mouth and nose is monitored and the respiration rate is obtained by thermal image processing of its temperature change image of expired air. This proposed system of in-sleep infant's vital information monitoring system and unit are very effective as not only infant's condition monitoring but also nursing person's one.

  8. Development and marketing of a prosthetic urinary control valve system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, J. B., Jr.; Rabinowitz, R.; Rogers, D. W.; Harrison, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    An implantable prosthetic for the control of urinary incontinence was developed and marketed. Three phases are presented: bench development studies, animal trials, and human clinical trials. This work was performed under the direction of a Research Team at Rochester General Hospital (RGH). Bench trials were completed on prototype hardware and provided early verification of the device's ability to withstand repeated cyclic testing. Configurational variants were evaluated and a preferred design concept was established. Silicone rubber (medical grade) was selected as the preferred material for the prosthesis.

  9. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... development projects designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT...

  10. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... development projects designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption or... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT...

  11. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  12. Design and Development of Patient Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazwanie Azizulkarim, Azra; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    Patient monitoring system allows continuous monitoring of patient vital signs, support decision making among medical personnel and help enhance patient care. This system can consist of devices that measure, display and record human’s vital signs, including body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and other health-related criteria. This paper proposes a system to monitor the patient’s conditions by monitoring the body temperature and pulse rate. The system consists of a pulse rate monitoring software and a wearable device that can measure a subject’s temperature and pulse rate only by using a fingertip. The device is able to record the measurement data and interface to PC via Arduino microcontroller. The recorded data can be viewed as a historical file or can be archived for further analysis. This work also describes the preliminary experimental results of the selected sensors to show the usefulness of the sensors for the proposed patient monitoring system.

  13. European market developments in prebiotic- and probiotic-containing foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Young, J

    1998-10-01

    A growing number of food manufacturers in western Europe are beginning to explore the commercial opportunities for foodstuffs containing health-promoting microbial food supplements (probiotics) and health-promoting non-digestible food ingredients (prebiotics). A prebiotic is considered to affect the host beneficially by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of naturally present or introduced bacterial species in the colon, also leading to a claimed improvement in host health. Increasingly, probiotics and prebiotics are used in combination, this being termed a synbiotic (Gibson & Roberfroid, 1995). Throughout European history, fermented milk products in particular have been considered beneficial to health, but only in recent years has there been scientific support for these beliefs. Issues considered important to the continuing development of this growing market are proof of safety, proof of efficacy, consumer education, market positioning, price and appropriate health claims strategies. Until recently, much of the innovation in the use of probiotics and prebiotics has been in the dairy cabinet, with an ever-growing number and range of 'health-promoting' yoghurts and yoghurt-type fermented milk being made available to the European consumer, a market which is currently estimated to be worth in excess of $US2 billion per annum (Hilliam et al. 1997). However, prebiotics are beginning to find increasing application outside the dairy sector, particularly in baked goods. A key driver behind the broadening application of prebiotics has been the pro-active stance taken by key prebiotic suppliers such as Beghin-Say, Orafti and Cosucra. To date, market activity in probiotic- and prebiotic-containing foods has centred around three health propositions, namely improving general gut health, lowering blood cholesterol and improving the body's natural defences.

  14. The role of marketing in pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    Calfee, John E

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing, which is primarily targeted at physicians, has been criticised because it may distort physician prescribing and thus potentially raise costs and/or worsen health. An alternative view, presented in this paper, is that successful marketing of pharmaceuticals can improve consumer welfare by increasing incentives for research and development (R&D) investment and by providing guidance to R&D to make it more consistent with consumer preferences. There are a number of arguments that support this view, despite impediments to pharmaceutical marketing such as the prohibited dissemination of off-label information in the US, difficulties in estimating potential pharmaceutical demand, and the long time lag between demand assessment and the introduction of new drugs. For example, physicians are often slow to modify their prescribing practices, even when new evidence-based practice guidelines are issued by prestigious organisations. Pharmaceutical promotion is likely to be particularly valuable because information plays a key role, is highly technical, and can change rapidly. Even consumer advertising can potentially improve health, for example, by improving patient compliance with drug therapy. In addition to disseminating information about the benefits of new therapies, an essential (and perhaps unique) role for pharmaceutical promotion is to encourage physicians and payers to pay closer attention to consumer needs (i.e. willingness to pay) for new medical technology. Moreover, successful marketing of pharmaceuticals increases the returns from R&D, thus increasing incentives to explore consumer demand and to contribute to basic research on the role of drug therapy. Consumer benefits from this process may be very large.

  15. Developing hydrological monitoring networks with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Vega, Andres; Villacis, Marcos; Moulds, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The open source hardware platform Arduino is very cost-effective and versatile for the development of sensor networks. Here we report on experiments on the use of Arduino-related technologies to develop and implement hydrological monitoring networks. Arduino Uno boards were coupled to a variety of commercially available hydrological sensors and programmed for automatic data collection. Tested sensors include water level, temperature, humidity, radiation, and precipitation. Our experiments show that most of the tested analogue sensors are quite straightforward to couple to Arduino based data loggers, especially if the electronic characteristics of the sensor are available. However, some sensors have internal digital interfaces, which are more challenging to connect. Lastly, tipping bucket rain gauges prove the most challenging because of the very specific methodology, i.e. registration of bucket tips instead of measurements at regular intervals. The typically low data generation rate of hydrological instruments is very compatible with available technologies for wireless data transmission. Mesh networks such as Xbee prove very convenient and robust for dispersed networks, while wifi is also an option for shorter distances and particular topographies. Lastly, the GSM shield of the Arduino can be used to transfer data to centralized databases. In regions where no mobile internet (i.e. 3G) connection is available, data transmission via text messages may be an option, depending on the bandwidth requirements.

  16. Asset health monitors: development, sustainment, advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the Captive Carry Health Monitor Unit (HMU) and the Humidity Indicator HMU. Each of these devices provides end users information that can be used to ensure the proper maintenance and performance of the missile. These two efforts have led to the ongoing development and evolution of the next generation Captive Carry HMU and the next generation Humidity Indicator HMU. These next generation efforts are in turn, leading to the future of HMUs. This evolutionary development process inherently allows for direct and indirect impact toward new HMU functionality, operability and performance characteristics by influencing their requirements, testing, communications, data archival, and user interaction. Current designs allow systems to operate in environments outside the limits of typical consumer electronics for up to or exceeding 10 years. These designs are battery powered and typically provided in custom mechanical packages that employ sensors for temperature, shock/vibration, and humidity measurements. The data taken from these sensors is then analyzed onboard using unique algorithms. The algorithms are developed from test data and fielded prototypes. Onboard data analysis provides field users with a simple indication of missile exposure. The HMU provides missile readiness information to the user based on storage and use conditions observed. To continually advance current designs PNNL evaluates the potential for enhancing sensor capabilities by improving performance or power saving features, increasing algorithm and processing abilities, and adding new features. Future work at PNNL includes the utilization of power harvesting, using a defined wireless protocol, and defining a data/information structure. These efforts will lead to improved performance allowing the HMUs to benefit users with direct access to HMUs in the field as well as benefiting those with the ability to make strategic and high-level supply and

  17. Improvement of bioprocess monitoring: development of novel concepts

    PubMed Central

    Clementschitsch, Franz; Bayer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The advancement of bioprocess monitoring will play a crucial role to meet the future requirements of bioprocess technology. Major issues are the acceleration of process development to reduce the time to the market and to ensure optimal exploitation of the cell factory and further to cope with the requirements of the Process Analytical Technology initiative. Due to the enormous complexity of cellular systems and lack of appropriate sensor systems microbial production processes are still poorly understood. This holds generally true for the most microbial production processes, in particular for the recombinant protein production due to strong interaction between recombinant gene expression and host cell metabolism. Therefore, it is necessary to scrutinise the role of the different cellular compartments in the biosynthesis process in order to develop comprehensive process monitoring concepts by involving the most significant process variables and their interconnections. Although research for the development of novel sensor systems is progressing their applicability in bioprocessing is very limited with respect to on-line and in-situ measurement due to specific requirements of aseptic conditions, high number of analytes, drift, and often rather low physiological relevance. A comprehensive survey of the state of the art of bioprocess monitoring reveals that only a limited number of metabolic variables show a close correlation to the currently explored chemical/physical principles. In order to circumvent this unsatisfying situation mathematical methods are applied to uncover "hidden" information contained in the on-line data and thereby creating correlations to the multitude of highly specific biochemical off-line data. Modelling enables the continuous prediction of otherwise discrete off-line data whereby critical process states can be more easily detected. The challenging issue of this concept is to establish significant on-line and off-line data sets. In this context

  18. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-05-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Abuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  19. Portal Monitor Future Development Work: Hardware Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, Michael C.

    2012-07-03

    LANL portal monitor was a modification of a previously installed (permanent) unattended monitoring system (UMS). Modifications to the UMS to make the portal were sometimes based on mistaken assumptions about exercise-specific installation and access. Philosophical approach to real-time portal differs in some areas from UMS.

  20. Developing an Evidence-Based Epilepsy Risk Assessment eHealth Solution: From Concept to Market

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rohit; Hanna, Jane; McLean, Brendan; Osland, Alex; Milligan, Cathryn; Ball, Abbie; Jory, Caryn; Walker, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is possibly the most common cause of death as a result of complications from epilepsy. The need to educate and regularly review risk for all patients with epilepsy is paramount, but rarely delivered in actual clinical practice. Evidence suggests that education around SUDEP and modifiable risk variables translate into better self-management of epilepsy. Objective We aimed to develop and implement an eHealth solution to support education and self-management of risks, in epilepsy. Methods We undertook an innovation pathways approach, including problem identification, feasibility assessment, design, implementation, and marketing. People with epilepsy were provided a smartphone-based app (Epilepsy Self-Monitor, EpSMon), which translates the clinical risk assessment tool into an educational and self-monitoring platform, for the self-management of epilepsy. Results Results include the success of the marketing campaign, and in what areas, with an estimated reach of approximately 38 million people. EpSMon has proved a success in academic and clinical circles, attracting awards and nominations for awards. The number of users of EpSMon, after 3 months, turned out to be lower than expected (N=221). A 4-month trial of the app in use in the United Kingdom, and the success of the marketing strategy, point to necessary changes to the model of delivery and marketing, summarized in this paper. These include the marketing message, user cost model, and need for the availability of an Android version. Conclusions EpSMon has proven a success in respect to its reception by academics, clinicians, stakeholder groups, and the patients who use it. There is work needed to promote the model and increase its acceptability/attractiveness, including broadening the marketing message, increasing its availability, and reducing its cost. Future development and promotion of the tool will hopefully inform iterative design of its core features for

  1. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  2. [EU law on marketing authorization of medicines. History, current state of development and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Nettesheim, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The article describes the development of EU policies and regulations on the marketing authorization of medicines. First, it describes the changing perspective of the EU towards the regulation of such authorizations. While its original focus was on the liberalization of national markets, it has today assumed overarching political responsibility for the development and marketing of medicines. Second, the article describes the current, rather fragmented regulatory system. Finally, political perspectives on the integration of markets for medicines are developed.

  3. A Project to Develop a Marketing Plan for Dwight David Eisenhower Health Service Region by Audit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    1986), and Zikmund & D’Amico (1986). All four marketing scholars, including Kotler (1984), reference to Philip Kotler’s selected component format (see...motivate both negative and positive behavior in publics can be considered a critical factor in health care service delivery ( Kotler , & Clarke, 1987...monitoring of communicated information is the institution of a marketing plan within the organization ( Kotler & Clarke, 1987). MARKETING Within the

  4. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  5. Markets

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey Prestemon; Robert Huggett; Douglas Carter

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsAlthough timber production in the South more than doubled from the 1960s to the late 1990s, output levels have declined over the last 10 years, signaling structural changes in timber markets.For softwood products, production declines are most clearly related to demand issues. Demand for softwood solid wood products...

  6. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research § 923.45 Marketing... promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries. The expense of such projects shall...

  7. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research § 923.45 Marketing... promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries. The expense of such projects shall...

  8. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research § 923.45 Marketing... promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries. The expense of such projects shall...

  9. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research § 923.45 Marketing... promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries. The expense of such projects shall...

  10. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research § 923.45 Marketing... promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of cherries. The expense of such projects shall...

  11. How to Develop a Marketing Strategy for Your Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, George F.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of marketing (referred to as the six p's: product, pricing, point of sale, people, promotion, and positioning) and shows how they can be applied to the marketing of day care centers. (SKC)

  12. How to Develop a Marketing Strategy for Your Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, George F.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of marketing (referred to as the six p's: product, pricing, point of sale, people, promotion, and positioning) and shows how they can be applied to the marketing of day care centers. (SKC)

  13. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  14. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  15. Built by Design: Developing a Customized Marketing Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Discusses steps for building a customized, adequately staffed union and student activities marketing department so that union marketing activities and expenses fit into a well-considered structure and can be evaluated for their contribution to meeting organizational goals. (EV)

  16. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production research and market research and... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925.45 Production research and market research and development. The committee, with the approval of the...

  17. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production research and market research and... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925.45 Production research and market research and development. The committee, with the approval of the...

  18. Developing a Marketing Mind-Set: Training and Mentoring for County Extension Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Christopher T.; Elizer, Amy Hastings; Hastings, Shirley; Barry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing the county Extension program is a critical responsibility of the entire county staff. This article describes a unique peer-to-peer training and mentoring program developed to assist county Extension staff in improving marketing skills and successfully developing and implementing a county Extension marketing plan. Data demonstrating…

  19. Developing a Marketing Mind-Set: Training and Mentoring for County Extension Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Christopher T.; Elizer, Amy Hastings; Hastings, Shirley; Barry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing the county Extension program is a critical responsibility of the entire county staff. This article describes a unique peer-to-peer training and mentoring program developed to assist county Extension staff in improving marketing skills and successfully developing and implementing a county Extension marketing plan. Data demonstrating…

  20. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and market research and... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925.45 Production research and market research and development. The committee, with the approval of...

  1. A System for Monitoring the Adjustment of Graduates to the Changing Job Market. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dold, Charles N.; Duff, Franklin L.

    A computerized system set up at the University of Illinois for monitoring graduates and their experiences in the labor market is discussed, along with trends among graduates that have occurred over an 11-year period. The university initiated studies of graduates in 1972. About one-third of the content of the surveys is devoted to vocational…

  2. A System for Monitoring the Adjustment of Graduates to the Changing Job Market. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dold, Charles N.; Duff, Franklin L.

    A computerized system set up at the University of Illinois for monitoring graduates and their experiences in the labor market is discussed, along with trends among graduates that have occurred over an 11-year period. The university initiated studies of graduates in 1972. About one-third of the content of the surveys is devoted to vocational…

  3. Developing Pedagogical Competence: Issues and Implications for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhavaram, Sreedhar; Laverie, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence in pedagogy and research is the sine qua non of marketing educators' careers. However, there is evidence in the literature that marketing academics focus "more on" and "are more competent" in research than teaching. This imbalance, in a majority of instances, can be traced back to doctoral education. Doctoral programs in marketing are…

  4. Strategic Marketing Planning: Creative Strategies for Developing Unique Income Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, John A.

    After discussing current community college financial problems, this paper examines the acquisition of alternative funding through the application of marketing strategies and strategic planning. The paper first differentiates marketing from sales or promotion and then describes the ability of a marketing program to attract new consumers and to…

  5. Developing Relationships with School Customers: The Role of Market Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Sonja Martin

    Purpose: While the role of relationship marketing to consumers' overall satisfaction with schools has been discussed in the education management literature, empirical studies on the marketing mechanisms that underpin school-customer relationships are limited. The purpose of this paper is to establish the association between market orientation (MO)…

  6. Developing Pedagogical Competence: Issues and Implications for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhavaram, Sreedhar; Laverie, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence in pedagogy and research is the sine qua non of marketing educators' careers. However, there is evidence in the literature that marketing academics focus "more on" and "are more competent" in research than teaching. This imbalance, in a majority of instances, can be traced back to doctoral education. Doctoral programs in marketing are…

  7. [Wireless medical monitoring--current status and developments].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhuang-zhi; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Jun; Jiang, Jie-Hui

    2006-09-01

    Wireless medical monitoring overcomes the limitations of conventional wired-monitoring, enabling people to get their physiological and pathological informations anytime and anywhere. This review summarizes the basic components and principles of wireless medical monitoring, including the techniques for measuring and transmitting vital signs. Its status,developments in R&D and applications are presented with a series of examples. Limitations and potential uses of wireless medical monitoring are also discussed.

  8. School Principals as Marketing Managers: The Expanding Role of Marketing for School Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anast-May, Linda; Mitchell, Mark; Buckner, Barbara Chesler; Elsberry, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance that school principals attach to aspects of their role as marketing managers for their schools and their relative satisfaction with their efforts to date. The study included 60 principals from two school districts. Findings suggest that principals are aware of the importance of marketing in today's…

  9. Joint Venture Marketing Training: Development Marketing Plans Utilizing Foreign and American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, David; Jones, Kevin

    This paper describes a workshop prepared and presented by the Business Administration Department of the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, that is designed to provide training in evaluating a European market for an American product and preparing a plan for marketing the product in Europe. It is noted that the program can work with both students…

  10. Joint Venture Marketing Training: Development Marketing Plans Utilizing Foreign and American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, David; Jones, Kevin

    This paper describes a workshop prepared and presented by the Business Administration Department of the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, that is designed to provide training in evaluating a European market for an American product and preparing a plan for marketing the product in Europe. It is noted that the program can work with both students…

  11. School Principals as Marketing Managers: The Expanding Role of Marketing for School Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anast-May, Linda; Mitchell, Mark; Buckner, Barbara Chesler; Elsberry, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance that school principals attach to aspects of their role as marketing managers for their schools and their relative satisfaction with their efforts to date. The study included 60 principals from two school districts. Findings suggest that principals are aware of the importance of marketing in today's…

  12. The case for workforce development in social marketing.

    PubMed

    Pounds, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, and the Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice have emphasized the increasing need to train the public health workforce in social marketing. With only 21 U.S. academic institutions offering course work in social marketing and only four institutions offering degrees in social marketing there is a gap between what academic institutions are offering and these recommendations (Kelly, 2013 ). The successful application of social marketing in public health practice relies on academic institutions creating and promoting social marketing-related programs.

  13. Market governance for safe food in developing countries: the case of low-pesticide vegetables in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Hoi, Pham; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter J M

    2009-01-01

    In many developed countries private arrangements have emerged in food governance. Following limited successes of state regulation, market actors and mechanisms are increasingly included in the environmental and safety governance of domestic and global food chains and networks. But do such private governance arrangements also work in domestic markets in developing countries? Pesticide use in vegetable supply is taken as a case to explore the role of market actors and dynamics in food safety governance in Vietnam. The so-called safe vegetable production system in the Red River Delta, introduced 10 years ago as a domestic alternative to conventional vegetable production, is analyzed through detailed monitoring of farmers, surveys of retailers and consumers, and in-depth interviews with state officials and vegetable traders. The paper finds limited success of this low-pesticide vegetable production, distribution and consumption system. This private arrangement in food governance lacked trust from market actors (especially consumers), and was short of an active state that organized transparency and got market actors involved. As such, market governance in food safety needs to be strong.

  14. Development of river sediment monitoring in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Mlakar, Marina; Maldini, Krešimir

    2017-04-01

    Establishment of regular river sediment monitoring, in addition to water monitoring, is very important. Unlike water, which represents the current state of a particular watercourse, sediment represents a sort of record of the state of pollution in the long run. Sediment monitoring is crucial to gain a real insight into the status of pollution of particular watercourses and to determine trends over a longer period of time. First scientific investigations of river sediment geochemistry in Croatia started 1989 in the Krka River estuary [1], while first systematic research of a river basin in Croatia was performed 2005 in Kupa River drainage basin [2]. Up to now, several detailed studies of both toxic metals and organic pollutants have been conducted in this drainage basin and some other rivers, also Croatian scientists participated in river sediment research in other countries. In 2008 Croatian water authorities (Hrvatske Vode) started preliminary sediment monitoring program, what was successfully conducted. In the first year of preliminary program only 14 stations existed, while in 2014 number of stations increased to 21. Number of monitored watercourses and of analysed parameters also increased. Current plan is to establish permanent monitoring network of river sediments throughout the state. The goal is to set up about 80 stations, which will cover all most important and most contaminated watercourses in all parts of the country [3]. Until the end of the year 2016, regular monitoring was conducted at 31 stations throughout the country. Currently the second phase of sediment monitoring program is in progress. At the moment parameters being determined on particular stations are not uniform. From inorganic compounds it is aimed to determine Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, Zn and As on all stations. The ratio of natural concentrations of those elements vs. anthropogenic influence is being evaluated on all stations. It was found that worse situation is with Ni, Hg and Cr, who

  15. Active safety monitoring of newly marketed medications in a distributed data network: application of a semi-automated monitoring system

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Joshua J.; Glynn, Robert J.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Walker, Alexander M.; Daniel, Gregory W.; Sridhar, Gayathri; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We developed a semi-automated active monitoring system that uses sequential matched-cohort analyses to assess drug safety across a distributed network of longitudinal electronic healthcare data. In a retrospective analysis, we showed that the system would have identified cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. In this study, we evaluated whether the system would generate alerts for three drug-outcome pairs: rosuvastatin and rhabdomyolysis (known null association), rosuvastatin and diabetes mellitus, and telithromycin and hepatotoxicity (two examples for which alerting would be questionable). During >5 years of monitoring, rate differences (RDs) comparing rosuvastatin to atorvastatin were -0.1 cases of rhabdomyolysis per 1,000 person-years (95% CI, -0.4, 0.1) and -2.2 diabetes cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI, -6.0, 1.6). The RD for hepatotoxicity comparing telithromycin to azithromycin was 0.3 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI, -0.5, 1.0). In a setting in which false positivity is a major concern, the system did not generate alerts for three drug-outcome pairs. PMID:22588606

  16. Active safety monitoring of newly marketed medications in a distributed data network: application of a semi-automated monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Rassen, J A; Walker, A M; Daniel, G W; Sridhar, G; Schneeweiss, S

    2012-07-01

    We developed a semi-automated active monitoring system that uses sequential matched-cohort analyses to assess drug safety across a distributed network of longitudinal electronic health-care data. In a retrospective analysis, we show that the system would have identified cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. In this study, we evaluated whether the system would generate alerts for three drug-outcome pairs: rosuvastatin and rhabdomyolysis (known null association), rosuvastatin and diabetes mellitus, and telithromycin and hepatotoxicity (two examples for which alerting would be questionable). Over >5 years of monitoring, rate differences (RDs) in comparisons of rosuvastatin with atorvastatin were -0.1 cases of rhabdomyolysis per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.4, 0.1) and -2.2 diabetes cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: -6.0, 1.6). The RD for hepatotoxicity comparing telithromycin with azithromycin was 0.3 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: -0.5, 1.0). In a setting in which false positivity is a major concern, the system did not generate alerts for the three drug-outcome pairs.

  17. Development of end-market uses for sludge derived oils

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, H.W.; Houde, J. Jr.; Mohamed, H.H. El.

    1995-11-01

    Pyrolytic processes can be utilized to convert organic materials into solid and liquid fuels. The economic viability of most of these processes will be greatly affected by the end-use market for the oil, in terms of both a guaranteed outlet for the product and the potential revenue. Since these oils are not conventional products, significant effort may be required to establish firm markets. The {open_quotes}Oil from Sludge{close_quotes} (OFS) technology developed by the Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) has been shown to produce oil yields ranging from 10 to 30% (on a dry weight basis) from dried sewage sludge. Efforts over the last several years have focused on developing high-value, non-combustion uses for the oil, primarily in the asphalt industry. Two applications which have shown significant promise are as an asphalt antistripping agent and as an additive for recycling aged asphalt. This paper will focus on the antistripping application. This research has been a joint effort of the WTC, the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, the National Research Council of Canada and SNC-Lavalin. The program included preliminary characterization of the sludge derived oil (SDO), laboratory tests to evaluate its potential as an antistripping agent and to determine the effect of SDO on asphalt performance factors, field tests to evaluate engineering properties and a highway test trial on an operating highway. The study included that SDO is an effective antistripping agent and provides protection against moisture induced damage comparable to that achieved with commercial additives. The addition of SDO did not adversely affect the performance of asphalt concrete but did result in increased workability and compaction, and increased resistance to damage by low temperature, rutting and fatigue.

  18. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    SciTech Connect

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  19. Marketing Remote Sensing Data for North Pacific Fisheries Development and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Fish poaching, drug trafficking, ocean dumping, and other illegal activities are important problems on the high seas and in national economic zones. The primary thrust of the EOCAP II project, "Marketing Remote Sensing Data for North Pacific Fisheries Development and Management", was to use space-based sensors to improve the effectiveness of marine monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). Our initial objectives were to concentrate on the development of MCS tools using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometry (AVHRR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Although we have successfully completed development of an initial version of our SAR-based monitoring tool (OmniVision), project activity has resulted in a much broader application of space-based assets to marine applications. Based in part on work commenced within EOCAP II, a new company, Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing, Inc. (OCENS), has been launched and the development of several new software products outside of the MCS arena initiated. One of those products, SeaStation, is near completion with a Fall, 1995 release date. Equity investment in OCENS now totals $70,000-with an additional amount being sought in the first round of financing. One of the pre-eminent objectives of EOCAP II is to make contributions to the US economy and job growth through the expansion of commercial uses of remotely sensed data. OCENS and the software products it is introducing into marine and coastal zone markets responds to this primary object*e. EOCAP II funding leveraged the market and technical know-how of OCENS founders into smart products that benefit marine and coastal zone users. Although technical difficulties and geopolitical shifts damaged the commercial feasibility of initial project objectives, the flexibility of the EOCAP II program now permits long-term business success. This in no small part stems from the fact that the EOCAP program recognizes the realities of small and start-up businesses and does not

  20. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Samaniego, J.; Pérez-Murcia, M. D.; Bustamante, M. A.; Paredes, C.; Pérez-Espinosa, A.; Gavilanes-Terán, I.; López, M.; Marhuenda-Egea, F. C.; Brito, H.; Moral, R.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador), more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17) with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10) with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25) with C/N ratio 33), prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter decomposition

  1. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Jara-Samaniego, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Gavilanes-Terán, I; López, M; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Brito, H; Moral, R

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador), more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17) with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10) with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25) with C/N ratio 33), prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter decomposition

  2. The Spatial Geography of Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…

  3. The Spatial Geography of Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…

  4. 75 FR 26191 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    .... The FAS also considers the extent to which a proposed project targets markets with the greatest growth... Commodity Credit Corporation Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market... the 2011 Foreign Market Development Cooperator (Cooperator) program. The intended effect of this...

  5. 78 FR 23888 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... project targets markets with the greatest growth potential. These factors are part of the FAS resource... Commodity Credit Corporation Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market... the 2014 Foreign Market Development Cooperator (Cooperator) program. The intended effect of this...

  6. Sod Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Vocational Agriculture Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Developed for use by vocational agriculture teachers in Iowa, this instructional unit provides information about the growing and marketing of sod for lawns. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The manual includes an…

  7. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  8. A Structural and Functional Model of Teachers' Monitoring Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalimova, Alfiya R.; Barinova, Nataliya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused by a strong need to conduct monitoring processes in all types of teaching processes and a poor development of theoretical, content and technological, scientific and methodological material for teachers' monitoring skills development during their teaching practice. The aim of the article is to create and…

  9. Embedded Sensor Array Development for Composite Structure Integrity Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Bryan, W. L.; Clonts, L. G.; Franks, S.

    2007-06-26

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Accellent Technologies, Inc. (the "Participant") was for the development of an embedded ultrasonic sensor system for composite structure integrity monitoring.

  10. Breaking down market barriers in the developing world

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    In the next several decades, the growth in world energy demand will be greatest in the developing world, due to the combination of rapid population growth, industrialization, and urbanization. The World Bank estimates that over the next decade, developing countries will require $100 billion annually or a total of more than one trillion dollars in capital investments to address the explosive growth in their energy needs. Despite $60 billion in energy investments annually, more than half the developing world's population, roughly two billion people, remain without basic electric service. Most of these people live in remote areas with little hope of being connected to a utility grid for years if not decades to come. At the same time, many urban areas experience brown-outs and power failures, placing an overwhelming burden on finite investment resources and making rural electrification even less likely. As the environmental consequences of conventional energy sources, particularly diesel, coal, and oil, are better understood, a new development challenge has emerged: How to help developing countries meet their energy needs in a manner which is environmentally as well as economically sustainable Along with this challenge, however, comes opportunity. These rapidly growing energy needs and increasingly stringent environmental constraints represent extraordinary markets for solar and other renewable energy systems. For a variety of rural and urban applications, ranging from household electrification to water pumping and grid connection, solar energy systems have distinguished themselves as the least-cost, environmentally benign technology of choice. If solar and other renewable energy technology suppliers were to capture even 10% of the developing world's projected annual energy investment, this would represent more than $10 billion in technology sales per year for the next decade.

  11. The Development of a Portable ECG Monitor Based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, CHI Jian; Tao, YAN Yan; Meng Chen, LIU; Li, YANG

    With the advent of global information, researches of Smart Home system are in the ascendant, the ECG real-time detection, and wireless transmission of ECG become more useful. In order to achieve the purpose we developed a portable ECG monitor which achieves the purpose of cardiac disease remote monitoring, and will be used in the physical and psychological disease surveillance in smart home system, we developed this portable ECG Monitor, based on the analysis of existing ECG Monitor, using TMS320F2812 as the core controller, which complete the signal collection, storage, processing, waveform display and transmission.

  12. INTEGRATED MONITORING HARDWARE DEVELOPMENTS AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    R. PARKER; J. HALBIG; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The hardware of the integrated monitoring system supports a family of instruments having a common internal architecture and firmware. Instruments can be easily configured from application-specific personality boards combined with common master-processor and high- and low-voltage power supply boards, and basic operating firmware. The instruments are designed to function autonomously to survive power and communication outages and to adapt to changing conditions. The personality boards allow measurement of gross gammas and neutrons, neutron coincidence and multiplicity, and gamma spectra. In addition, the Intelligent Local Node (ILON) provides a moderate-bandwidth network to tie together instruments, sensors, and computers.

  13. Product line development by DRG builds market strength.

    PubMed

    Block, L F; Press, C E

    1985-12-01

    In this excerpt from the book Building Market Strength Through DRGs, DRGs are divided into three categories--profit makers, break-even DRGs, and losers. It is the marketer's responsibility to attract patients with profitable DRGs, examine break-even DRGs for potential profitability, and determine whether losers should be continued.

  14. Developing Graduate Marketing Programs for Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadraba, Petr G.; O'Keefe, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the authors' experiences in introducing marketing concepts to students involved in the transition from planned to market economies. It addresses critical issues involved in the translation of these concepts within languages that often have no words that are synonymous with these terms. The authors discuss methods…

  15. A Framework for Curriculum Development in Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This book is designed to show marketing education teachers how Missouri's Show-Me Knowledge and Performance Standards can be reflected in the Marketing Education Framework. It is organized to present each of the nine competency strands (instructional units) by learner outcome and competencies. The instructional units are as follows: communications…

  16. Developing Graduate Marketing Programs for Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadraba, Petr G.; O'Keefe, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the authors' experiences in introducing marketing concepts to students involved in the transition from planned to market economies. It addresses critical issues involved in the translation of these concepts within languages that often have no words that are synonymous with these terms. The authors discuss methods…

  17. Health Care: Development of Data for a Marketing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, Van J.

    1985-01-01

    Marketing in health care is a relatively new process. It is a business tool that can serve a very useful purpose. Health care management has become aware of the usefulness of marketing in long-range planning. Through a well-thought-out marketing plan, the provider will not be leaving the future to chance. A well-conceived, patient-oriented, competitor-aware marketing plan should place the medical practice at a strategic advantage as the health care industry joins other industries in the competitive marketplace for the consumer's dollar. The ever-increasing political and regulatory environment that the health care field is undergoing emphasizes the need for the inclusion of marketing skills, such as cost containment, in the medical curriculum. It should be the obligation of the training facilities as well as medical societies to respond to this need by providing the education that will enable black providers to survive in this competitive environment. PMID:4020892

  18. Health care: development of data for a marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Stitt, V J

    1985-06-01

    Marketing in health care is a relatively new process. It is a business tool that can serve a very useful purpose. Health care management has become aware of the usefulness of marketing in long-range planning. Through a well-thought-out marketing plan, the provider will not be leaving the future to chance. A well-conceived, patient-oriented, competitor-aware marketing plan should place the medical practice at a strategic advantage as the health care industry joins other industries in the competitive marketplace for the consumer's dollar.The ever-increasing political and regulatory environment that the health care field is undergoing emphasizes the need for the inclusion of marketing skills, such as cost containment, in the medical curriculum. It should be the obligation of the training facilities as well as medical societies to respond to this need by providing the education that will enable black providers to survive in this competitive environment.

  19. Unraveling Hidden Order in the Dynamics of Developed and Emerging Markets

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of asset price returns is an important subject in modern finance. Traditionally, the dynamics of stock returns are assumed to lack any temporal order. Here we present an analysis of the autocovariance of stock market indices and unravel temporal order in several major stock markets. We also demonstrate a fundamental difference between developed and emerging markets in the past decade - emerging markets are marked by positive order in contrast to developed markets whose dynamics are marked by weakly negative order. In addition, the reaction to financial crises was found to be reversed among developed and emerging markets, presenting large positive/negative autocovariance spikes following the onset of these crises. Notably, the Chinese market shows neutral or no order while being regarded as an emerging market. These findings show that despite the coupling between international markets and global trading, major differences exist between different markets, and demonstrate that the autocovariance of markets is correlated with their stability, as well as with their state of development. PMID:25383630

  20. Unraveling hidden order in the dynamics of developed and emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of asset price returns is an important subject in modern finance. Traditionally, the dynamics of stock returns are assumed to lack any temporal order. Here we present an analysis of the autocovariance of stock market indices and unravel temporal order in several major stock markets. We also demonstrate a fundamental difference between developed and emerging markets in the past decade - emerging markets are marked by positive order in contrast to developed markets whose dynamics are marked by weakly negative order. In addition, the reaction to financial crises was found to be reversed among developed and emerging markets, presenting large positive/negative autocovariance spikes following the onset of these crises. Notably, the Chinese market shows neutral or no order while being regarded as an emerging market. These findings show that despite the coupling between international markets and global trading, major differences exist between different markets, and demonstrate that the autocovariance of markets is correlated with their stability, as well as with their state of development.

  1. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.E.; Phillips, G.W.; Aakenes, U.R.

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, the world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radio-activity during dynamic seasonal and episodic chances is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. We have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m{sup 3} increase in the {sup 137}Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station will be discussed.

  2. Residual water bactericide monitor development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A silver-ion bactericidal monitor is considered for the Space Shuttle Potable Water System. Potentiometric measurement using an ion-selective electrode is concluded to be the most feasible of available techniques. Four commercially available electrodes and a specially designed, solid-state, silver-sulfide electrode were evaluated for their response characteristics and suitability for space use. The configuration of the solid-state electrode with its Nernstian response of 10 to 10,000 ppb silver shows promise for use in space. A pressurized double-junction reference electrode with a quartz-fiber junction and a replaceable bellows electrolyte reservoir was designed verification-tested, and paired with a solid-state silver-sulfide electrode in a test fixture.

  3. Sediment transport monitoring for sustainable hydropower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüther, Nils; Guerrero, Massimo; Stokseth, Siri

    2015-04-01

    Due to the increasing demand of CO2 neutral energy not only in Europe but also in World, a relatively large amount of new hydro power plants (HPP) are built. In addition, will existing ones refurbished and renewed in order to run them more cost effective. A huge thread to HPPs is incoming sediments in suspension from the rivers upstream. The sediments settle in the reservoir and reduce the effective head and volume and reduce consequently the life time of the reservoir. In addition are the fine sediments causing severe damages to turbines and infrastructure of a HPP. For estimating the amount of incoming sediments in suspension and therefore planning efficient counter measures, it is essential to monitor the rivers within the catchment of the HPP for suspended sediments. This work is considerably time consuming and requires highly educated personnel and is therefore expensive. Consequently will this study present a method to measure suspended sediment concentrations and their grain size distribution with a dual frequency acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). This method is more cost effective and reliable in comparison to traditional measurement methods. Having more detailed information about the sediments being transported in a river, the hydro power plant can be planned, built, and operated much more efficiently and sustainable. The two horizontal ADCPs are installed at a measurement cross section in the Devoll river in Albania. To verify the new method, the suspended load concentrations will be monitored also in the traditional ways at the same cross sections. It is planned to install turbidity measurement devices included with an automatic sampling devices. It is also planned to use an optical in situ measurement device (LISST SL by Sequoia Inc.) to have detailed information of sediment concentration and grain sizes over the depth.

  4. The nature, development and contribution of social marketing to public health practice since 2004 in England.

    PubMed

    French, Jeff

    2009-11-01

    Social marketing is a highly systematic approach to health improvement that sets out unambiguous success criteria focused on behaviour change. This paper reviews the key concepts and principles of social marketing and its recent rapid development across government in England in the public health field. This paper outlines the role of the National Social Marketing Centre and concludes with a discussion of the probable future impact of social marketing on public health practice. The paper argues that there is a close ideological match between social marketing and liberal democratic imperatives. Social marketing's focus on outcome, return on investment and its emphasis on developing interventions that can respond to diverse needs, means it is probable that social marketing will increasingly be required by governments as a standard part of public health programmes.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  6. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 932.45 Production research and marketing research and development projects. (a) The following activities... necessary to effectively regulate such activity. (b) In recommending marketing research and development...

  7. Developing a promotion plan for health care marketing.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-07-01

    Promotion of a health care provider's services is essential for communication with its customers and consumers. It is relevant to an organization's marketing strategy and is an element of what is described as the marketing mix. This paper considers the relationship of promotion to the marketing of services and proposes a plan for the promotion of the organization as a whole which can also be applied to an individual service or specialty. Whilst specific reference is made to an National Health Service (NHS) Trust it is also relevant to a Directly Managed Unit.

  8. Development of a Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Forde, Sarah; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved…

  9. Development of a Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Forde, Sarah; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved…

  10. The Developing Child: Tools for Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Micheline

    1991-01-01

    This document examines the use of measurement tools to evaluate children's psychological development. The first part of the document discusses the identification and quantification of developmental landmarks and the reasons for evaluation. The second part reviews several evaluation instruments. The Ruth Griffiths mental development scales are used…

  11. The Developing Child: Tools for Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Micheline

    1991-01-01

    This document examines the use of measurement tools to evaluate children's psychological development. The first part of the document discusses the identification and quantification of developmental landmarks and the reasons for evaluation. The second part reviews several evaluation instruments. The Ruth Griffiths mental development scales are used…

  12. Historical achievements of self-monitoring of blood glucose technology development in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigeki

    2011-09-01

    Japanese companies were the first in the world to achieve a colorimetric glucose measurement meter back in 1973. Over the following 40 or so years, they succeeded in achieving a much greater level of user-friendliness and performance and in so doing, have contributed to the spread of self-monitoring of blood glucose. This article aims to unravel the history of blood glucose measurement's technological developments; to look at the direction and features of the development path Japan is taking; as well as to introduce some Japanese products that are on the market.

  13. Development and Validation of a Collocated Exposure Monitoring Methodology using Portable Air Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Che, W.; Frey, H. C.; Lau, A. K. H.

    2016-12-01

    Portable air monitors are currently being developed and used to enable a move towards exposure monitoring as opposed to fixed site monitoring. Reliable methods are needed regarding capturing spatial and temporal variability in exposure concentration to obtain credible data from which to develop efficient exposure mitigation measures. However, there are few studies that quantify the validity and repeatability of the collected data. The objective of this study is to present and evaluate a collocated exposure monitoring (CEM) methodology including the calibration of portable air monitors against stationary reference equipment, side-by-side comparison of portable air monitors, personal or microenvironmental exposure monitoring and the processing and interpretation of the collected data. The CEM methodology was evaluated based on application to portable monitors TSI DustTrak II Aerosol Monitor 8530 for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and TSI Q-Trak model 7575 with probe model 982 for CO, CO2, temperature and relative humidity. Taking a school sampling campaign in Hong Kong in January and June, 2015 as an example, the calibrated side-by-side measured 1 Hz PM2.5 concentrations showed good consistency between two sets of portable air monitors. Confidence in side-by-side comparison, PM2.5 concentrations of which most of the time were within 2 percent, enabled robust inference regarding differences when the monitors measured in classroom and pedestrian during school hour. The proposed CEM methodology can be widely applied in sampling campaigns with the objective of simultaneously characterizing pollutant concentrations in two or more locations or microenvironments. The further application of the CEM methodology to transportation exposure will be presented and discussed.

  14. American superconductor: Combining development expertise with market savvy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    In 1986, scientists at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory made one of the most important discoveries in science: high temperature superconductors (HS). This new class of ceramic conducts electricity with little or no resistance, at temperatures that are maintainable with existing, convenient cooling technologies. Transforming these brittle ceramic HTS material into commercially viable wires and wire products is the mission of American Superconductor Corporation (ASC), founded in 1987 and now the leading US company in the HTS market. ASC is focusing on the development of superconductor wires and wire products for such applications as power transmission cables, electric motors, and magnetic energy storage devices. Recently American superconductor corporation announced the signing of an agreement with Hoechst AG of Germany that will enable further advances in its techniques for manufacturing of superconductor wires. The company has also joined forces with several national laboratories in a Wire Development Group. This group includes representatives from Argonne, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, as well as the University of Wisconsin Applied Superconductivity Center. With this type of support, ASC is realizing dramatic progress. In 1992, the company began daily production of 300-foot long wires; by the end of 1993, ASC expects to produce wires ten times that length. With Pirelli, ASC has produced three-foot long prototype multistrand conductors which already transmit up to 500 Amps of current at 77K, a significant fraction of the operating current anticipated for commercial power transmission cables. By the middle of 1994, the company expects to deliver 100-foot long multistrand conductors operating at 77K, and transmitting 1,000 Amps.

  15. Drug companies monitor prescriptions and sales to fine-tune their marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Market research companies analyse drug prescriptions and sales in community and hospital pharmacies, thus enabling drug companies to refine their marketing strategies. Some information of interest to drug companies is provided directly by healthcare professionals, sometimes unwittingly, and sometimes in return for small "favours".

  16. Development of a telemetric heat stress monitor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-21

    Hazardous-materials workers and firefighters wear clothing that protects them from external hazards, but the sealed environment of a protective suit makes its wearer susceptible to heat stress. A prototype of the Telemetric Heat Stress Monitor (THSM) was developed at LANL to warn workers, and personnel monitoring the workers, of incipient heat stress by detecting the workers` elevated temperatures and heart rates. The purpose of this CRADA was to transfer the information and technology from LANL to the industrial partner, and to assist in the further development of a commercial THSM product. The THSM is the first extensive telemetric physiological monitor to be developed; previous monitors used wires between the sensors and the recording and display equipment. Developing a reliable, small, battery-powered, inexpensive telemetry system to share the RF spectrum with today`s proliferating wireless devices was a significant technical accomplishment.

  17. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.45 Production research, marketing research and development. The committee may, with the approval of the...

  18. 7 CFR 917.39 - Production research, market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production research, market research and development... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research § 917.39 Production research, market research and development. The committees, with the approval of the Secretary, may...

  19. A Simple Model to Teach Business Cycle Macroeconomics for Emerging Market and Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The canonical neoclassical model is insufficient to understand business cycle fluctuations in emerging market and developing economies. The author reformulates the model proposed by Aguiar and Gopinath (2007) in a simple setting that can be used to teach business cycle macroeconomics for emerging market and developing economies at the…

  20. Development of an Updated Strategic Marketing Plan for Fox Valley Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Susan A.

    This project was conducted to develop a comprehensive strategic marketing plan for Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC). Components included a review of the literature, establishing criteria for the plan, validation of the criteria, the actual development of the plan involving a formative committee, and the review of institutional marketing plans…

  1. A Simple Model to Teach Business Cycle Macroeconomics for Emerging Market and Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The canonical neoclassical model is insufficient to understand business cycle fluctuations in emerging market and developing economies. The author reformulates the model proposed by Aguiar and Gopinath (2007) in a simple setting that can be used to teach business cycle macroeconomics for emerging market and developing economies at the…

  2. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.45 Production research, marketing research and development. The committee may, with the approval of...

  3. 7 CFR 917.39 - Production research, market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, market research and development... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research § 917.39 Production research, market research and development. The committees, with the approval of the Secretary,...

  4. Program and Curriculum Development in International Marketing in an Emerging Economy: Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaynak, Erdener; Kucukemiroglu, Orsay

    1997-01-01

    Offers ways in which business schools in developing countries can develop need-oriented business programs and how a functional area course, international marketing, can be internationalized in both content and structure. Reports a study of marketing curriculum change and student (n=208) response in Turkey. (MSE)

  5. The Development of Advertising and Marketing Education: The First 75 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Edd

    2008-01-01

    Advertising and marketing education in colleges began in 1893, when Joseph Johnson of the University of Pennsylvania developed a curriculum in journalism that included information about advertising. Other universities developed curricula in journalism that included advertising in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Courses in marketing were offered in…

  6. Development of a Questionnaire To Evaluate Fox Valley Technical College's Marketing Communications with Prospective Student Inquiries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Susan A.

    A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of Fox Valley Technical College's (FVTC's) marketing communications with prospective students. The literature on customer service, marketing communications, and institutional image was reviewed, and 17 construct criteria and 7 content criteria were developed as the framework for the…

  7. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.45 Production research, marketing research and development. The committee may, with the approval of...

  8. 7 CFR 917.39 - Production research, market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production research, market research and development... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research § 917.39 Production research, market research and development. The committees, with the approval of the Secretary,...

  9. Development and Validation of a Farmers' Market Audit Tool in Rural and Urban Communities.

    PubMed

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; Gustafson, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The number of farmers' markets in the United States is growing. Although there are tools to analyze food availability at grocery stores, corner stores, and convenience stores, little research exists about the availability of food types at farmers' markets. This research developed an audit tool to measure the food environment at farmers' markets in rural and urban food environments and examined its psychometric properties, including face validity, interrater reliability, and discriminant validity. The Farmers' Market Audit Tool was reviewed by content experts, revised, and then tested in six farmers' markets by researchers across three states in 2013, including Kentucky, North Carolina, and Montana. Seven food categories were developed, including vegetables, fruits, meats, cheeses, eggs, grains, and samples. Interrater reliability was high within farmers' market across states. As expected, discriminant validity indicated a systematic disagreement within and between states due to seasonality and ability to grow different types of food across different farmers' markets. The total scores assessing the healthfulness of each farmers' market was 38 (range = 28-50). Using the Farmers' Market Audit Tool at farmers' markets is a reliable and valid method to capture the availability of food offerings.

  10. Developing and testing technologies for future remote monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.S.; Dupree, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    Remote monitoring systems presently operating in facilities in a number of countries around the world are providing valuable information on the installation and operation of such systems. Results indicate they are performing reliably. While the technology for remote monitoring exists today, it may be some time before numerous constraints on implementation can be resolved. However, the constraints should not prevent the designing of systems that can be used for remote monitoring. Selection of the proper technology path for future development should include a flexible approach to front-end detection, data formats, data processing, and other areas. A brief description of two of the existing remote monitoring systems, and some general recommendations for future remote monitoring systems, will be presented.

  11. Development of sensors to monitor stroke patients

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, S.A.; Glass, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    In the United States, approximately 550,000 new cases of stroke are reported annually, resulting in 150,000 deaths and leaving 300,000 survivors disabled. Thromboembolic strokes account for an estimated 300,000-400,000 of the 550,000 reported new cases of stroke each year. These thromboembolic strokes may be treatable by thrombolytic therapy which involves injecting a thrombolytic agent directly into the thrombus. As the clot dissolves, it breaks into fragments. One particular diagnostic fragment is the D dimer fragment which has antigenic properties. At LLNL, the authors are developing various catheter-based microtools to treat stroke. As part of the package, fiber optic pH sensors and D dimer biosensors are being developed for novel applications, in that they will be coaxially threaded through a catheter to the damaged area of the brain. The pH sensor would allow local measurements of tissue viability, providing an assessment on the patient`s status and indicating the optimal treatment plan. The D dimer biosensor would allow local measurements of the products of thrombolysis, i.e., D dimer, assisting in the identification of clot type and providing feedback on the dosage and infusion rate of the thrombocytic agent.

  12. Monitoring compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in west Africa: multisite cross sectional survey in Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, Victor M; Ross, Jay S; Kanon, Souleyman; Ouedraogo, Andre N

    2003-01-01

    SubstitutesViolations by manufacturers of breast milk substitutes have been reported in industrialised and developing countriesWhat this study addsManufacturers of breast milk substitutes are violating the code in Togo and Burkina FasoThe levels of code violations are similar in a country with (Burkina Faso) and one without (Togo) legislation on the marketing of breast milk substitutesLegislation must be accompanied by effective information, training, and monitoring systems to ensure compliance with the code PMID:12531842

  13. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  14. Industrial robots in Europe - market, applications and developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schraft, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Different companies involving a wide range of products and manufacturing processes were studied to define the requirements for industrial robots. A survey of all such automatic units offered on the world market was made to establish a data base. Principal applications include coating, spot welding, and loading and unloading operations.

  15. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  16. Industrial robots in Europe - market, applications and developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schraft, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Different companies involving a wide range of products and manufacturing processes were studied to define the requirements for industrial robots. A survey of all such automatic units offered on the world market was made to establish a data base. Principal applications include coating, spot welding, and loading and unloading operations.

  17. The Internal Agency Approach to Managing and Developing Marketing Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruell, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the internal agency model of a marketing communications department forces the department to compete with outside sources for work, while department members sharpen their skills and improve their knowledge of their company's business. Describes the process for creating such an internal agency, including initiating, implementing, and…

  18. Introducing Professional and Career Development Skills in the Marketing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Craig A.; Bridges, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    According to recent studies in academic journals, business practitioners have expressed the view that marketing graduates lack certain professional and career skills. In addition, informal discussions with campus recruiters have suggested that their experience is very similar. This exploratory study reports the results of a survey of the…

  19. Enterprise Information Space: User's View, Developer's View, and Market Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishik, Claire; Farquhar, Adam; Smith, Reid

    1999-01-01

    Discusses experiences of Schlumberger IT Sourcing (Austin, Texas) in designing and deploying knowledge management (KM) systems and outlines the empathic design approach. The new "market" approach in Schlumberger which leads to the simplification of intranet systems and interfaces, creation of a new classification system, and better…

  20. An Ethical Justification for Expanding the Notion of Effectiveness in Vaccine Post-Market Monitoring: Insights from the HPV Vaccine in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Komparic, Ana; Smith, Maxwell J.; Thompson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Health regulators must carefully monitor the real-world safety and effectiveness of marketed vaccines through post-market monitoring in order to protect the public’s health and promote those vaccines that best achieve public health goals. Yet, despite the fact that vaccines used in collective immunization programmes should be assessed in the context of a public health response, post-market effectiveness monitoring is often limited to assessing immunogenicity or limited programmatic features, rather than assessing effectiveness across populations. We argue that post-market monitoring ought to be expanded in two ways to reflect a ‘public health notion of post-market effectiveness’, which incorporates normative public health considerations: (i) effectiveness monitoring should yield higher quality data and grant special attention to underrepresented and vulnerable populations; and (ii) the scope of effectiveness should be expanded to include a consideration of the various social factors that maximize (and minimize) a vaccine’s effectiveness at the population level, paying particular attention to how immunization programmes impact related health gradients. We use the case of the human papillomavirus vaccine in Canada to elucidate how expanding post-market effectiveness monitoring is necessary to close the gap between clinical practice and public health, and to ensure that vaccines are effective in a morally relevant sense. PMID:26955399

  1. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  2. Development of a current monitor using a negative impedance circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Tetsuro

    2014-11-01

    I developed a beam current transformer (CT) for monitoring the beam of a slow-cycling accelerator. The beam monitor is a new type of CT that measures the average current of a circulating beam using a negative impedance circuit (NIC). Adding an NIC can extend the low-frequency cutoff of a CT down to 0 Hz (Ninomiya et al., 2006 [1]). This report presents the detail of our proposed beam-monitoring system. The measurable band width of the CT is 30 kHz. The stability of the droop time constant of the square pulse response is 2%/s. This beam monitor was developed for the synchrotron at the Wakasa-Wan Energy Research Center (WERC) and is currently installed there.

  3. Monitoring and analysis of dam deformations Sherman Island hydroelectric development

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, M.W.; Asce, A.M.; Zuccolotto, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    A modern integrated deformation monitoring program established for a reconstructed buttress dam is presented. A brief overview of the monitoring program will be provided along with discussions on equipment calibration aspects, how to assess the quality of the observation data, methods used to verify stability of the deformation network and to establish a trend of the deformations, how to develop deformation models which accurately reflect the spatial and temporal motions of the structure, including an investigation into the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for monitoring the deformations.

  4. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  5. The development and applications of thermal biosensors for bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, K; Rank, M; Svitel, J; Dzgoev, A; Danielsson, B

    1999-12-01

    Enzyme thermistors are biosensors that use thermal resistors to measure the heat change caused by an enzymatic reaction. They combine the selectivity of enzymes with the sensitivity of biosensors and allow continuous analysis in a flow-injection mode. They can be used to monitor fermentation systems, biocatalysis, enzyme-catalysed synthesis and clinical and food technology. This article gives an overview of the general principles of enzyme thermistors, the sampling process and the ongoing developments in the field of bioprocess monitoring.

  6. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  7. How to institute and develop a strategic marketing plan for your pediatric dental office.

    PubMed

    Nacht, E S

    1994-01-01

    As what may be the most important element in a successful pediatric dental practice, marketing is often misunderstood. It requires careful planning and a long-term commitment. Before implementing your marketing plan, understand the definition of marketing and what it will mean to your practice. To develop your plan, ask yourself several important questions that will help you analyze where you are now, as well as where you want to be. Then, promote your practice by incorporating 12 important qualities into your plan. The plan is the blueprint for your efforts to repeatedly, consistently, and positively communicate with your market for the long term.

  8. Customer service, access and capacity: vital signs for developing a marketing plan.

    PubMed

    Bendycki, N; Zeroske, J

    1994-01-01

    Marketing plans that do not include an analysis of customer service, access and capacity issues are incomplete documents. Unresolved customer service, access and capacity issues can undermine an otherwise well-designed marketing plan. The medical and administrative leadership of the group practice or clinical department must work together to identify customer service, access and capacity issues which are affecting the practice's ability to respond to the needs of the marketplace. Someone with marketing expertise can provide valuable input to this process. The resulting solutions need to be developed which are realistic and in keeping with the general marketing direction of the practice.

  9. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  10. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  11. Developing A School-Wide Progress-Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.; Reschly, Amy L.; Lembke, Erica S.; Magnusson, Deanne; Callender, Stacy A.; Windram, Holly; Stachel, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of a process for universal screening and progress monitoring in reading at the elementary level that can be used in a school-wide Response to Intervention (RtI) model. University personnel worked with teachers and administration at an urban elementary school to develop and implement the model in response to a…

  12. 5 CFR 9901.409 - Monitoring and developing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.409 Monitoring and developing performance. (a) In applying the requirements of the performance management system and its implementing...) Developing performance is integrated with the performance management process and is a shared...

  13. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2009/10-2011/12 Service Plan Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…

  14. Connecting the Dots: The Labor Market Information View of Workforce Development. Essays for the Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Richard, Ed.

    This monograph is comprised of 12 essays related to the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), each of which serves as a generic primer on a topic relevant to work force development staff and researchers nationwide. The essays are "Learning the Language of LMI (Labor Market Information): Basic Labor Market Information Terms and…

  15. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2009/10-2011/12 Service Plan Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…

  16. Making Network Markets in Education: The Development of Data Infrastructure in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the development of data infrastructure in Australian schooling with a specific focus on interoperability standards that help to make new markets for education data. The conceptual framework combines insights from studies of infrastructure, economic markets and digital data. The case of the Australian National Schools…

  17. An Investigation of Strategic Decision Making in Service Marketing through Case Study Development and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosetti, Joseph L.; Maceiko, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Through the collaborative efforts of an undergraduate student and a professor of marketing, this paper focuses on a case study and corresponding teaching notes developed as a final component of an independent study in service marketing. The case utilizes the hospitality industry as the template for analysis of the appropriateness of marketing…

  18. Broadening Student Perspectives on Marketing Research Ethics: Development and Applications of a Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handlin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an ethics module developed by the author to engage marketing research students during the fall semester, when they are bombarded by political polls. The module matches ethically questionable polling practices to similarly troubling practices in marketing research. The goals are to show that ethical principles are not topic- or…

  19. Marketing Informal Education Institutions in Israel: The Centrality of Customers' Active Involvement in Service Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2004-01-01

    The current paper outlines a unique marketing perspective that prevails in some informal education institutions in Israel parallel with "traditional modes of marketing", such as promotion, public relations and the like. Based on a case study research in five community centres, a service development based on active participation of the…

  20. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  1. Extension's Role in Developing a Farmers' Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civittolo, David

    2012-01-01

    Interest in access to local food is increasing. Communities of all types and sizes have volunteers interested in creating farmers' markets. Extension can play an important role in the development of farmers' markets because it is ideally suited to organize and coordinate these volunteer energies. By helping community volunteers focus…

  2. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 932... efficient production of California olives. Such projects may provide for any marketing research and... efficient production of California olives. Such projects may provide for any form of marketing...

  3. Teaching Students To Develop a Website as a Tool for Marketing Pharmaceutical Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.; Kavookjian, Jan; Munden, C. Dianne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which pharmacy student teams developed a World Wide Web page to market a hypothetical pharmacy and promote pharmaceutical care services. The exercise successfully involved students in using both creative and analytic skills to gain hands-on experience in constructing a mission statement and marketing plan for a new…

  4. Extension's Role in Developing a Farmers' Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civittolo, David

    2012-01-01

    Interest in access to local food is increasing. Communities of all types and sizes have volunteers interested in creating farmers' markets. Extension can play an important role in the development of farmers' markets because it is ideally suited to organize and coordinate these volunteer energies. By helping community volunteers focus…

  5. Marketing Informal Education Institutions in Israel: The Centrality of Customers' Active Involvement in Service Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2004-01-01

    The current paper outlines a unique marketing perspective that prevails in some informal education institutions in Israel parallel with "traditional modes of marketing", such as promotion, public relations and the like. Based on a case study research in five community centres, a service development based on active participation of the…

  6. Connecting the Dots: The Labor Market Information View of Workforce Development. Essays for the Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Richard, Ed.

    This monograph is comprised of 12 essays related to the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), each of which serves as a generic primer on a topic relevant to work force development staff and researchers nationwide. The essays are "Learning the Language of LMI (Labor Market Information): Basic Labor Market Information Terms and…

  7. An Investigation of Strategic Decision Making in Service Marketing through Case Study Development and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosetti, Joseph L.; Maceiko, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Through the collaborative efforts of an undergraduate student and a professor of marketing, this paper focuses on a case study and corresponding teaching notes developed as a final component of an independent study in service marketing. The case utilizes the hospitality industry as the template for analysis of the appropriateness of marketing…

  8. Teaching Students To Develop a Website as a Tool for Marketing Pharmaceutical Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.; Kavookjian, Jan; Munden, C. Dianne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which pharmacy student teams developed a World Wide Web page to market a hypothetical pharmacy and promote pharmaceutical care services. The exercise successfully involved students in using both creative and analytic skills to gain hands-on experience in constructing a mission statement and marketing plan for a new…

  9. An Experiment with Official and Parallel Foreign Exchange Markets in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlett, Denise; Ganje, Jeela

    1999-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment that demonstrates under what conditions the parallel market rate approximates the free-market value of the domestic currency. Students act as foreign exchange traders in a developing country. Provides results of the experiment and discussion questions. (CMK)

  10. Strategies for Developing the Affective Work Competencies of Marketing Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Earl C.

    Effective strategies for developing the affective work competencies of marketing education students include teaching procedures, acquisition of skills and materials for teaching in the affective domain, and implementation considerations. Affective concerns in marketing can be grouped into three broad types of performance categories--self-concept,…

  11. The long road of biopharmaceutical drug development: from inception to marketing.

    PubMed

    Mundae, M K; Ostör, A J K

    2010-01-01

    The development of therapeutics is costly, time-consuming and has high attrition rates. Biopharmaceutical medications differ from traditional agents in their discovery, design, structure and formulation. Prior to marketing a drug must show efficacy and acceptable toxicity in both preclinical and clinical trials. Regulatory bodies have a pivotal role in the licensing, naming and marketing of an agent.

  12. Developing viable medical equipment, in general and for patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D. J. W.

    1970-01-01

    The importance of the relationship between demonstrable clinical advantage and total costs in the use of equipment, the role of the professional medical administrator in its development and the differences between the industrial and the ethical medical approaches to marketing are stressed. In the final analysis routine service equipment should be assessed by actual profitability, recognizing the effects of philanthropic or research funding when it occurs. PMID:5476131

  13. Multinational Alcohol Market Development and Public Health: Diageo in India.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and alcohol consumption is rising steadily in India. The growth of multinational alcohol corporations, such as Diageo, contributes to India's changing alcohol environment. We provide a brief history of India's alcohol regulation for context and examine Diageo's strategies for expansion in India in 2013 and 2014. Diageo is attracted to India's younger generation, women, and emerging middle class for growth opportunities. Components of Diageo's responsibility strategy conflict with evidence-based public health recommendations for reducing harmful alcohol consumption. Diageo's strategies for achieving market dominance in India are at odds with public health evidence. We conclude with recommendations for protecting public health in emerging markets.

  14. Smart alerts: development of software to optimize data monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dherte, Patrick Marcel; Negrão, Mariana Pires Gentil; Mori Neto, Silvio; Holzhacker, Rafael; Shimada, Vanessa; Taberner, Paula; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is useful for vital follow-ups and prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of several events in anesthesia. Although alarms can be useful in monitoring they can cause dangerous user's desensitization. The objective of this study was to describe the development of specific software to integrate intraoperative monitoring parameters generating "smart alerts" that can help decision making, besides indicating possible diagnosis and treatment. A system that allowed flexibility in the definition of alerts, combining individual alarms of the parameters monitored to generate a more elaborated alert system was designed. After investigating a set of smart alerts, considered relevant in the surgical environment, a prototype was designed and evaluated, and additional suggestions were implemented in the final product. To verify the occurrence of smart alerts, the system underwent testing with data previously obtained during intraoperative monitoring of 64 patients. The system allows continuous analysis of monitored parameters, verifying the occurrence of smart alerts defined in the user interface. With this system a potential 92% reduction in alarms was observed. We observed that in most situations that did not generate alerts individual alarms did not represent risk to the patient. Implementation of software can allow integration of the data monitored and generate information, such as possible diagnosis or interventions. An expressive potential reduction in the amount of alarms during surgery was observed. Information displayed by the system can be oftentimes more useful than analysis of isolated parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. [Narcotics and illicit drug market. Status and 10-year development].

    PubMed

    Lindholst, Christian; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Kaa, Elisabet

    2008-01-07

    A description of the illicit drug market in Denmark's second largest city is provided based upon the prevalence of narcotics and illicitly sold medicals during the years 2002 and 2003. The changes on the illicit drug market are described by comparing the results to a similar study conducted ten years earlier. The study is comprised of 469 cases of seized material by Aarhus Police during the period January 1st 2002-December 31st 2003. Additional information relating to the 341 persons charged is also included in the study. Heroine, cocaine and amphetamine were seized in 31%, 30% and 28% of the cases, respectively, and comprise the most frequently encountered hard drugs on the market. The prevalence of cocaine in Aarhus Police District has increased more than tenfold during the past ten years. The purity of the three drugs decreased significantly during the same period, although large variations in the quality of drugs were observed. Medicals were found in 16% of the seizures (containing 32 different active substances). The most frequent group of medicals was benzodiazepines, which made up a total of 74% of the medicals in the study. Anabolic steroids, ecstasy and methamphetamine were each found in 4% of the seizures. Men with an average age of 29.1 years comprised 92% of the persons charged in the study. Persons with a foreign nationality comprised 15% of the charged, while 25% had a birthplace outside Denmark. The prevalence of stimulants especially cocaine have increased significantly during the past ten years. Meanwhile the purity of the drugs has decreased. The benzodiazepines are still the most frequent group of medicals on the illicit market.

  16. The Challenge of Assessing Creative Problem Solving in Client-Based Marketing Development Projects: A SOLO Taxonomy Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskari, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Creativity and marketing imagination are essential core competencies for marketers. Therefore, higher marketing education emphasizes creativity in several ways. However, assessing creativity and creative problem solving is challenging and tools for this purpose have not been developed in the context of marketing education. To address this gap, we…

  17. The Challenge of Assessing Creative Problem Solving in Client-Based Marketing Development Projects: A SOLO Taxonomy Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskari, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Creativity and marketing imagination are essential core competencies for marketers. Therefore, higher marketing education emphasizes creativity in several ways. However, assessing creativity and creative problem solving is challenging and tools for this purpose have not been developed in the context of marketing education. To address this gap, we…

  18. Research on the Development of Green Finance in Shenzhen to Boost the Carbon Trading Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiping; Xiong, Siqin; Zhou, Yucheng; Zou, Zijian; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyses the current development situations of Shenzhen carbon trading market and China’s green finance, and makes the policy recommendations for promoting the carbon trading market by developing green finance in Shenzhen. Shenzhen should take the lead in driving the localized application of green principle, and formulate Shenzhen green bond guidelines ASAP, to promote carbon trading associated enterprises to finance by using green bonds; it shall work to lower the threshold for financial institutions to participate in carbon trading market, and explore development of carbon derivatives.

  19. Development and Applications of the U.S. Drought Monitor and North America Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, R. R.

    2007-05-01

    Drought is an important climatological phenomenon which has significant socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Several drought indices have been developed during the last hundred years to quantify drought, but all of them either were developed for specific applications and/or regions, or have limitations which restrict their use. In the U.S., a drought monitoring tool was developed in the late 1990s through a federal-state collaborative effort to consolidate and centralize drought monitoring activities. This tool, the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), consists of a weekly map and narrative product which describes current drought conditions according to a scale ranging from moderate drought (D1) to exceptional drought (D4). Conditions which are dry but not yet of drought severity are categorized as abnormally dry (D0). The USDM draws its strength from the collaborative input at the federal (USDA, NOAA), regional (NOAA Regional Climate Centers), state, and local levels and from the objective synthesis of several drought-related indices. In late 2002, the methodology of the USDM was extended internationally to develop the North America Drought Monitor (NADM), which is a monthly map and narrative product that describes drought across the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. This paper will describe the development of the USDM and NADM, and discuss examples of their applications.

  20. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-03-04

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided.

  1. Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers.

  2. Preliminary development of an intelligent computer assistant for engine monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the F-18 high-angle-of-attack vehicle program, an AI method was developed for the real time monitoring of the propulsion system and for the identification of recovery procedures for the F404 engine. The aim of the development program is to provide enhanced flight safety and to reduce the duties of the propulsion engineers. As telemetry data is received, the results are continually displayed in a number of different color graphical formats. The system makes possible the monitoring of the engine state and the individual parameters. Anomaly information is immediately displayed to the engineer.

  3. Preliminary development of an intelligent computer assistant for engine monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the F-18 high-angle-of-attack vehicle program, an AI method has been developed for the real-time monitoring of the propulsion system and for the identification of recovery procedures for the F404 engine. The aim of the development program is to provide enhanced flight safety and to reduce the duties of the propulsion engineers. As telemetry data is received, the results are continually displayed in a number of different color graphical formats. The system makes possible the monitoring of the engine state and the individual parameters. Anomaly information is immediately displayed to the engineer.

  4. Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, D.

    1995-05-01

    Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks.

  5. Recent development of 3D display technology for new market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Sik

    2003-11-01

    A multi-view 3D video processor was designed and implemented with several FPGAs for real-time applications and a projection-type 3D display was introduced for low-cost commercialization. One high resolution projection panel and only one projection lens is capable of displaying multiview autostereoscopic images. It can cope with various arrangements of 3D camera systems (or pixel arrays) and resolutions of 3D displays. This system shows high 3-D image quality in terms of resolution, brightness, and contrast so it is well suited for the commercialization in the field of game and advertisement market.

  6. Development of AN Open-Source Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Geodetical and Geotechnical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, P.; Schweimler, B.

    2016-04-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  7. Development of an automated potable water bactericide monitoring unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. M.; Brawner, C. C.; Sauer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A monitor unit has been developed that permits the direct determination of the level of elemental iodine, used for microbiological control, in a spacecraft potable water supply system. Salient features of unit include low weight, volume and maintenance requirements, complete automatic operation, no inflight calibration, no expendables (except electrical current) and high accuracy and precision. This unit is capable of providing a signal to a controller that, in turn, automatically adjusts the addition rate of iodine to the potable water system so that a predetermined level of iodine can be maintained. In addition, the monitor provides a reading whereby the crewman can verify that the proper amount of iodine (within a range) is present in the water. A development history of the monitor is presented along with its design and theory of operation. Also presented are the results generated through testing of the unit in a simulated Shuttle potable water system.

  8. Using Labor Market Information in Program Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebesch, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The community college environment is complex and dynamic, requiring constant monitoring. To ensure that workforce education, a core component of community colleges' missions, remains aligned with colleges' environments, responsive to employers' needs, suited to students' interests and abilities, and current in content and technology, it is…

  9. Using Labor Market Information in Program Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebesch, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The community college environment is complex and dynamic, requiring constant monitoring. To ensure that workforce education, a core component of community colleges' missions, remains aligned with colleges' environments, responsive to employers' needs, suited to students' interests and abilities, and current in content and technology, it is…

  10. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  11. Tobacco product developments in the Australian market in the 4 years following plain packaging.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; White, Sarah; Lindorff, Kylie; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-10-09

    This paper aimed to identify continued and emerging trends in the Australian tobacco market following plain packaging implementation, over a period of substantial increases in tobacco taxes. Since 2012, our surveillance activities (including review of trade product and price lists, ingredient reports submitted by tobacco companies to government and monitoring of the retail environment) found several trends in the factory-made cigarette market. These include the continued release of extra-long and slim cigarettes and packs with bonus cigarettes, particularly in the mainstream and premium market segments; new menthol capsule products; other novel flavourings in cigarettes; filter innovations including recessed and firm filters; continued use of evocative and descriptive product names; the proliferation of the new super-value market segment; and umbrella branding, where new products are introduced within established brand families. Several similar trends were also observed within the smoking tobacco market. While not all of these trends were new to the Australian market at the time of plain packaging implementation, their continued and increased use is notable. Plain packaging legislation could be strengthened to standardise cigarette and pack size, restrict brand and variant names, and ban features such as menthol capsules and filters innovations that provide novelty value or that may provide false reassurance to smokers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. 77 FR 27177 - Notice of Funds Availability; Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Notice of Funds Availability; Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program; Correction AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of... Federal Register of April 23, 2012, concerning funds availability and inviting applications for the...

  13. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925... efficient production of grapes. The expense of such projects shall be paid from funds collected pursuant...

  14. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925... efficient production of grapes. The expense of such projects shall be paid from funds collected pursuant...

  15. Wireless and Powerless Sensing Node System Developed for Monitoring Motors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    Reliability and maintainability of tooling systems can be improved through condition monitoring of motors. However, it is difficult to deploy sensor nodes due to the harsh environment of industrial plants. Sensor cables are easily damaged, which renders the monitoring system deployed to assure the machine's reliability itself unreliable. A wireless and powerless sensing node integrated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) sensor, a signal processor, a communication module, and a self-powered generator was developed in this study for implementation of an easily mounted network sensor for monitoring motors. A specially designed communication module transmits a sequence of electromagnetic (EM) pulses in response to the sensor signals. The EM pulses can penetrate through the machine's metal case and delivers signals from the sensor inside the motor to the external data acquisition center. By using induction power, which is generated by the motor's shaft rotation, the sensor node is self-sustaining; therefore, no power line is required. A monitoring system, equipped with novel sensing nodes, was constructed to test its performance. The test results illustrate that, the novel sensing node developed in this study can effectively enhance the reliability of the motor monitoring system and it is expected to be a valuable technology, which will be available to the plant for implementation in a reliable motor management program. PMID:27873798

  16. Identifying, Measuring and Monitoring Value during Project Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliniotou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of the research done by Loughborough University in conjunction with ten construction industry collaborators in an attempt to identify what construction professionals mean by value. The aim of the research is to establish a common approach to identify value in projects and to monitor its development throughout the…

  17. 5 CFR 9901.409 - Monitoring and developing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.409 Monitoring and developing performance. (a) In applying the requirements of the performance management system and its...

  18. Identifying, Measuring and Monitoring Value during Project Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliniotou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of the research done by Loughborough University in conjunction with ten construction industry collaborators in an attempt to identify what construction professionals mean by value. The aim of the research is to establish a common approach to identify value in projects and to monitor its development throughout the…

  19. Brands or generics: the dilemma of pharmaceutical marketing in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Quraeshi, Z A; Luqmani, M; Malhotra, N

    1983-01-01

    A significant issue in pharmaceutical marketing in many developing countries is whether drugs should be sold by generic or by brand names. In Pakistan, legislation prohibited the sale of brand name drugs in order to increase price competition, and strengthen the market position of indigenous manufacturers to compete against multinationals. However, the government's objectives were not achieved for reasons discussed in the article. The Pakistan case has implications for multinational firms and for other developing countries in similar situations.

  20. Combining Internet monitoring processes, packaging and isotopic analyses to determine the market structure: example of Gamma Butyrolactone.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Diego; Giannasi, Pauline; Rossy, Quentin; Esseiva, Pierre

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is becoming more and more popular among drug users. The use of websites and forums to obtain illicit drugs and relevant information about the means of consumption is a growing phenomenon mainly for new synthetic drugs. Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL), a chemical precursor of Gamma Hydroxy Butyric acid (GHB), is used as a "club drug" and also in drug facilitated sexual assaults. Its market takes place mainly on the Internet through online websites but the structure of the market remains unknown. This research aims to combine digital, physical and chemical information to help understand the distribution routes and the structure of the GBL market. Based on an Internet monitoring process, thirty-nine websites selling GBL, mainly in the Netherlands, were detected between January 2010 and December 2011. Seventeen websites were categorized into six groups based on digital traces (e.g. IP addresses and contact information). In parallel, twenty-five bulk GBL specimens were purchased from sixteen websites for packaging comparisons and carbon isotopic measurements. Packaging information showed a high correlation with digital data confirming the links previously established whereas chemical information revealed undetected links and provided complementary information. Indeed, while digital and packaging data give relevant information about the retailers, the supply routes and the distribution close to the consumer, the carbon isotopic data provides upstream information about the production level and in particular the synthesis pathways and the chemical precursors. A three-level structured market has been thereby identified with a production level mainly located in China and in Germany, an online distribution level mainly hosted in the Netherlands and the customers who order on the Internet.

  1. Developing a market orientation in the Health Service: a survey of acute NHS Trusts in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Laing, A W; Galbraith, A

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the introduction of the quasi market mechanism into the Health Service has required that managers within NHS trusts acquire new managerial skills relating to market operations and, more importantly, reorientate their organizations towards the marketplace. Examines the pattern of development which has occurred within acute trusts across Scotland in the past three years, and argues that managers in the majority of trusts have developed a remarkably robust and relevant conceptualization of the nature and application of marketing within the NHS, reflecting the difficulties managers have faced in selling the concept of marketing to a generally sceptical body of clinicians. Notes, in part owing to such professional scepticism, that the development of marketing as an implementable approach to operations has lagged significantly behind the managerial conceptualization, although this cannot be attributed solely to resistance from clinicians and other health care professionals. Rather, suggests that such limited progress in implementing a market orientation reflects a range of "structural" barriers, both within individual trusts and the specific market environment faced by trusts.

  2. Development of U-Mart System with Plural Brands and Plural Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Yoshihito; Mori, Naoki; Ono, Isao; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Kita, Hajime; Matsumoto, Keinosuke

    In this paper, we first discuss the notion that artificial market systems should meet the requirements of fidelity, transparency, reproducibility, and traceability. Next, we introduce history of development of the artificial market system named U-Mart system that meet the requirements well, which have been developed by the U-Mart project. We have already developed the U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 3.0” to solve problems of old U-Mart systems. In version 3.0 system, trading process is modularized and universal market system can be easily introduced.
    However, U-Mart system version 3.0 only simulates the single brand futures market. The simulation of the plural brands and plural markets has been required by lot of users. In this paper, we proposed a novel U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 4.0” to solve this problem of U-Mart system version 3.0. We improve the server system, machine agents and GUI in order to simulate plural brands and plural markets in U-Mart system version 4.0. The effectiveness of the proposed system is confirmed by statistical analysis of results of spot market simulation with random agents.

  3. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  4. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-11-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  5. Development of a small wireless device for perspiration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ogai, Kazuhiro; Fukuoka, Masakazu; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Uchide, Kiyoshi; Nemoto, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    A small and wireless device that can capture the temporal pattern of perspiration by a novel structure of water vapor collection combined with reusable desiccant has been developed. The novel device consists of a small cylindrical case with a temperature/relative humidity sensor, battery-driven data logger, and silica gel (desiccant). Water vapor of perspiration was detected by the change in relative humidity and then adsorbed by silica gel, allowing continuous recording of perspiration within a closed and wireless chamber, which has not been previously achieved. By comparative experiments using the commercially-available perspiration monitoring device, the developed device could measure perspiration as efficiently as the conventional one, with a normalized cross coefficient of 0.738 with 6 s delay and the interclass correlation coefficient [ICC(2, 1)] of 0.84. These results imply a good agreement between the conventional and developed devices, and thus suggest the applicability of the developed device for perspiration monitoring.

  6. New paradigm for drug developments--from emerging market statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Chen, Xun; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Peng-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Paradigm for new drug development has changed dramatically over the last decade. Even though new technology increases efficiency in many aspects, partially due to much more stringent regulatory requirements, it actually now takes longer and costs more to develop a new drug. To deal with challenge, some initiatives are taken by the pharmaceutical industry. These initiatives include exploring emerging markets, conducting global trials and building research and development centers in emerging markets to curb spending. It is particularly the current trend that major pharmaceutical companies offshore a part of their biostatistical support to China. In this paper, we first discuss the skill set for trial statisticians in the new era. We then elaborate on some of the approaches for acquiring statistical talent and capacity in general, particularly in emerging markets. We also make some recommendations on the use of the PDUFA strategy and collaborations among industry, health authority and academia from emerging market statistical perspective. © 2013.

  7. Development of the atmospheric volcanic monitoring system in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G. N.; Bjornsson, H.; Arason, P.; von Löwis, S.; Sigurøsson, G. S.; Karlsdóttir, S.

    2012-04-01

    The development of the atmospheric volcanic plume monitoring system has escalated since the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. Radars provide a near-real time capability to observe volcanic eruptions both day and night. At high latitudes this is important, over the darkest periods of winter when radar and satellite images are the only means of measurements. Also weather conditions can be such at any time of the year that they obscure observations from survey flights and even from satellites. Prior to and during the 39 days eruption in 2010 only one operational radar was installed in Iceland, the fixed C-band radar at Keflavík International Airport. The main purpose of this radar is weather monitoring but it can simultaneously be used for volcanic plume monitoring within a radius of 480 km. The radar has been used for plume monitoring since 1991 when an eruption started in Hekla, only a few days after the installation of the radar. Since November 2010 a X-band dual polarization radar has been on loan from the Italian Civil Protection Agency to the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) and during the eruption in Grímsvötn in 2011 the combined system, together with visual observations, gave a good picture of the eruption. Also, in cooperation with the UK National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) a Lidar has been operating in South-Iceland since May 2011. The Lidar was moved to Keflavík airport during the Grímsvötn eruption to monitor the atmosphere above the airport and assist in decision making regarding openings and closures of the airport. In 2012 a second fixed position C-band weather radar will be installed in East-Iceland. This means that the geophysically active region in both south and northeast of Iceland will be covered. In addition, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has financed two X-band mobile radars to be installed and used in Iceland, solely for volcanic plume monitoring, with the first one becoming operational in

  8. Development of a Remote Monitoring System Using Meteor Burst Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ewanic, M.A.; Dunstan, M.T.; Reichhardt, D.K.

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring the cleanup and closure of contaminated sites requires extensive data acquisition, processing, and storage. At remote sites, the task of monitoring often becomes problematical due to the lack of site infrastructure (i.e., electrical power lines, telephone lines, etc.). MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has designed an economical and efficient remote monitoring system that will handle large amounts of data; process the data, if necessary; and transmit this data over long distances. Design criteria MSE considered during the development of the remote monitoring system included: the ability to handle multiple, remote sampling points with independent sampling frequencies; robust (i.e., less susceptible to moisture, heat, and cold extremes); independent of infrastructure; user friendly; economical; and easy to expand system capabilities. MSE installed and tested a prototype system at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center (MMATC), Butte, Montana, in June 2005. The system MSE designed and installed consisted of a 'master' control station and two remote 'slave' stations. Data acquired at the two slave stations were transmitted to the master control station, which then transmits a complete data package to a ground station using meteor burst technology. The meteor burst technology has no need for hardwired land-lines or man-made satellites. Instead, it uses ionized particles in the Earth's atmosphere to propagate a radio signal. One major advantage of the system is that it can be configured to accept data from virtually any type of device, so long as the signal from the device can be read and recorded by a standard data-logger. In fact, MSE has designed and built an electrical resistivity monitoring system that will be powered and controlled by the meteor burst system components. As sites move through the process of remediation and eventual closure, monitoring provides data vital to the successful long term management of the site. The remote

  9. Development of an advanced antineutrino detector for reactor monitoring

    DOE PAGES

    Classen, T.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N. S.; ...

    2014-11-05

    We present the development of a compact antineutrino detector for the purpose of nuclear reactor monitoring, improving upon a previously successful design. Our paper will describe the design improvements of the detector which increases the antineutrino detection efficiency threefold over the previous effort. There are two main design improvements over previous generations of detectors for nuclear reactor monitoring: dual-ended optical readout and single volume detection mass. The dual-ended optical readout eliminates the need for fiducialization and increases the uniformity of the detector's optical response. The containment of the detection mass in a single active volume provides more target mass permore » detector footprint, a key design criteria for operating within a nuclear power plant. This technology could allow for real-time monitoring of the evolution of a nuclear reactor core, independent of reactor operator declarations of fuel inventories, and may be of interest to the safeguards community.« less

  10. Development of an advanced antineutrino detector for reactor monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, T.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N. S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Ho, A.; Jonkmans, G.; Kogler, L.; Reyna, D.; Sur, B.

    2014-11-05

    We present the development of a compact antineutrino detector for the purpose of nuclear reactor monitoring, improving upon a previously successful design. Our paper will describe the design improvements of the detector which increases the antineutrino detection efficiency threefold over the previous effort. There are two main design improvements over previous generations of detectors for nuclear reactor monitoring: dual-ended optical readout and single volume detection mass. The dual-ended optical readout eliminates the need for fiducialization and increases the uniformity of the detector's optical response. The containment of the detection mass in a single active volume provides more target mass per detector footprint, a key design criteria for operating within a nuclear power plant. This technology could allow for real-time monitoring of the evolution of a nuclear reactor core, independent of reactor operator declarations of fuel inventories, and may be of interest to the safeguards community.

  11. Development of an advanced antineutrino detector for reactor monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Classen, T.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N. S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Ho, A.; Jonkmans, G.; Kogler, L.; Reyna, D.; Sur, B.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a compact antineutrino detector for the purpose of nuclear reactor monitoring, improving upon a previously successful design. This paper will describe the design improvements of the detector which increases the antineutrino detection efficiency threefold over the previous effort. There are two main design improvements over previous generations of detectors for nuclear reactor monitoring: dual-ended optical readout and single volume detection mass. The dual-ended optical readout eliminates the need for fiducialization and increases the uniformity of the detector's optical response. The containment of the detection mass in a single active volume provides more target mass per detector footprint, a key design criteria for operating within a nuclear power plant. This technology could allow for real-time monitoring of the evolution of a nuclear reactor core, independent of reactor operator declarations of fuel inventories, and may be of interest to the safeguards community.

  12. Development of the Personal TVOC Monitor and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Takao; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yoshinobu; Nakahara, Takeshi; Matsumura, Toshiro

    To clarify the interrelations between the origin of SBS and VOC, it is necessary to measure instantaneous concentration of VOC, when an illness derived from SBS breaks out. In this study, we developed a direct-reading instrument that can observe the concentration of TVOC continuously using semiconductor gas sensor. The investigation results of sensing property indicates that the instrument exhibits high sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene and xylene (sufficient sensitivity to detect 30 μg/m3), and very low sensitivity to lower paraffinic hydrocarbons such as Methane and Propane. In additionally, output concentration of this monitor also exhibited a good correlative to TVOC concentration, measured by GC/MS. It means that this monitor can be used for personal exposure measurement and other real time monitoring of TVOC.

  13. Development and testing of crop monitoring methods to improve global agricultural monitoring in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Bydekerke, L.

    2014-12-01

    The SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) is funded through the EC FPY7 Research programme with the particular aim to contribute to the GEOGLAM Research Agenda. It is a partnership of globally distributed expert organizations, focusses on developing innovative techniques and datasets in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterize cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, are used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series are be explored to better assess crop yield gaps and shifts in cultivation. The third research topic entails the development of best practices for assessing the impact of crop land and cropping system change on the environment. In support of the GEO JECAM (Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring) initiative, case studies in Ukraine, Russia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and China are carried out in order to explore possible methodological synergies and particularities according to different cropping systems. This presentation will report on the progress made with respect to the three topics above.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED EMISSION CONTROLS FOR THE RETROFIT MARKET

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, B; Rumminger, M; Streichsbier, M

    2003-08-24

    Bringing a diesel retrofit product to market involves two primary phases: development and deployment. Critical product development steps include technology selection, system integration, laboratory and durability testing, and regulatory agency verification work. This initial product development phase is then followed by a deployment phase, which consists of building and managing the infrastructure for installation, distribution, service, sales and warranty support. Building relationships with regulators and air quality program developers is also a critical aspect of the deployment process. A successful path to market requires close cooperation between developer, distributor, customer and regulator.

  15. Integrated monitoring technology developments at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Klosterbuer, S.F.; Abhold, M.E.; Buenafe, C.

    1997-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory staff have participated in the development and installation of unattended monitoring systems in facilities in Europe, North America, Asia, and Central Asia. These systems were designed to respond to needs generated by safeguards inspectors and plant operators to have around-the-clock inspection capabilities. The unattended monitoring systems in support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards require that the inspectors visit the facilities at intervals of 1-3 months rather than having a continuous presence. A first generation of instruments and software was developed to instrument facilities from approximately 1988-1996 and is still in use today. This paper describes a second generation of instrumentation and software now under development at Los Alamos to meet the increased needs of the end users. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Developments of fast emittance monitors for ion sources at RCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Yorita, T. Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Shimada, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Saito, T.; Tamura, H.; Kamakura, K.

    2016-02-15

    Recently, several developments of low energy beam transport line and its beam diagnostic systems have been performed to improve the injection efficiency of ion beam to azimuthally varying field cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. One of those is the fast emittance monitor which can measure within several seconds for the efficient beam development and a Pepper-Pot Emittance Monitor (PPEM) has been developed. The PPEM consists of pepper-pot mask, multichannel plate, fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera. The CCD image is taken via IEEE1394b to a personal computer and analyzed immediately and frequently, and then real time measurement with about 2 Hz has been achieved.

  17. Developments of fast emittance monitors for ion sources at RCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Shimada, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Saito, T.; Tamura, H.; Kamakura, K.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, several developments of low energy beam transport line and its beam diagnostic systems have been performed to improve the injection efficiency of ion beam to azimuthally varying field cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. One of those is the fast emittance monitor which can measure within several seconds for the efficient beam development and a Pepper-Pot Emittance Monitor (PPEM) has been developed. The PPEM consists of pepper-pot mask, multichannel plate, fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera. The CCD image is taken via IEEE1394b to a personal computer and analyzed immediately and frequently, and then real time measurement with about 2 Hz has been achieved.

  18. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical risk management (CRM) plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals) was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1) Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2) Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3) Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian). It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety. PMID:21144039

  19. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H. III

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  20. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument.

    PubMed

    Briner, Matthias; Kessler, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Wehner, Theo; Manser, Tanja

    2010-12-13

    Clinical risk management (CRM) plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals) was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1) Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2) Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3) Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian). It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  1. Expecting the unexpected: applying the Develop-Distort Dilemma to maximize positive market impacts in health.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara

    2012-10-01

    Although health interventions start with good intentions to develop services for disadvantaged populations, they often distort the health market, making the delivery or financing of services difficult once the intervention is over: a condition called the 'Develop-Distort Dilemma' (DDD). In this paper, we describe how to examine whether a proposed intervention may develop or distort the health market. Our goal is to produce a tool that facilitates meaningful and systematic dialogue for practitioners and researchers to ensure that well-intentioned health interventions lead to productive health systems while reducing the undesirable distortions of such efforts. We apply the DDD tool to plan for development rather than distortions in health markets, using intervention research being conducted under the Future Health Systems consortium in Bangladesh, China and Uganda. Through a review of research proposals and interviews with principal investigators, we use the DDD tool to systematically understand how a project fits within the broader health market system, and to identify gaps in planning for sustainability. We found that while current stakeholders and funding sources for activities were easily identified, future ones were not. The implication is that the projects could raise community expectations that future services will be available and paid for, despite this actually being uncertain. Each project addressed the 'rules' of the health market system differently. The China research assesses changes in the formal financing rules, whereas Bangladesh and Uganda's projects involve influencing community level providers, where informal rules are more important. In each case, we recognize the importance of building trust between providers, communities and government officials. Each project could both develop and distort local health markets. Anyone intervening in the health market must recognize the main market perturbations, whether positive or negative, and manage them so

  2. [Health care units image development on the market of medical services].

    PubMed

    Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    The cause for this document is to present a deliberation on public health facility image development on the medical services market. Marketization of the health service, growing awareness of Polish citizens and their expectation of high service quality as well as increased competition in the healthcare system market is the reason why health unit managers need to put a lot of strength and effort in sustaining or improving the image of the facility they run. Such action gives a chance for obtaining a competitive advantage.

  3. Characteristics of Medical Practices in Three Developed Managed Care Markets

    PubMed Central

    Landon, Bruce E; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Frank, Richard; McNeil, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe physician practices, ranging from solo and two-physician practices to large medical groups, in three geographically diverse parts of the country with strong managed care presences. Data Sources/Study Design Surveys of medical practices in three managed care markets conducted in 2000–2001. Study Design We administered questionnaires to all medical practices affiliated with two large health plans in Boston, MA, and Portland, OR, and to all practices providing primary care for cardiovascular disease patients admitted to five large hospitals in Minneapolis, MN. We offer data on how physician practices are structured under managed care in these geographically diverse regions of the country with a focus on the structural characteristics, financial arrangements, and care management strategies adopted by practices. Data Collection A two-staged survey consisting of an initial telephone survey that was undertaken using CATI (computerized assisted telephone interviewing) techniques followed by written modules triggered by specific responses to the telephone survey. Principal Findings We interviewed 468 practices encompassing 668 distinct sites of care (overall response rate 72 percent). Practices had an average of 13.9 member physicians (range: 1–125). Most (80.1 percent) medium- (four to nine physicians) and large-size (10 or more physicians) groups regularly scheduled meetings to discuss resource utilization and referrals. Almost 90 percent of the practices reported that these meetings occurred at least once per month. The predominant method for paying practices was via fee-for-service payments. Most other payments were in the form of capitation. Overall, 75 percent of physician practices compensated physicians based on productivity, but there was substantial variation related to practice size. Nonetheless, of the practices that did not use straight productivity methods (45 percent of medium-sized practices and 54 percent of large practices), most

  4. Characteristics of medical practices in three developed managed care markets.

    PubMed

    Landon, Bruce E; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Frank, Richard; McNeil, Barbara J

    2005-06-01

    To describe physician practices, ranging from solo and two-physician practices to large medical groups, in three geographically diverse parts of the country with strong managed care presences. Surveys of medical practices in three managed care markets conducted in 2000-2001. We administered questionnaires to all medical practices affiliated with two large health plans in Boston, MA, and Portland, OR, and to all practices providing primary care for cardiovascular disease patients admitted to five large hospitals in Minneapolis, MN. We offer data on how physician practices are structured under managed care in these geographically diverse regions of the country with a focus on the structural characteristics, financial arrangements, and care management strategies adopted by practices. A two-staged survey consisting of an initial telephone survey that was undertaken using CATI (computerized assisted telephone interviewing) techniques followed by written modules triggered by specific responses to the telephone survey. We interviewed 468 practices encompassing 668 distinct sites of care (overall response rate 72 percent). Practices had an average of 13.9 member physicians (range: 1-125). Most (80.1 percent) medium- (four to nine physicians) and large-size (10 or more physicians) groups regularly scheduled meetings to discuss resource utilization and referrals. Almost 90 percent of the practices reported that these meetings occurred at least once per month. The predominant method for paying practices was via fee-for-service payments. Most other payments were in the form of capitation. Overall, 75 percent of physician practices compensated physicians based on productivity, but there was substantial variation related to practice size. Nonetheless, of the practices that did not use straight productivity methods (45 percent of medium-sized practices and 54 percent of large practices), most used arrangements consisting of combinations of salary and productivity formulas. We

  5. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  6. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  7. Post-marketing safety monitoring of shenqifuzheng injection: a solution made of dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) and huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici).

    PubMed

    Ai, Qinghua; Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yanming; Huang, Wenhua; Liang, Hong; Cao, Hui

    2014-08-01

    To identify the potential risk factors associated with Shenqifuzheng injection (SFI), a solution made of Dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) and Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici), for the timely provision of information to regulatory authorities. A comprehensive analysis of the production process, quality standards, pharmacology, post-marketing clinical studies, and safety evaluation using the primary literature of adverse reactions (ADR), case analyses, and systematic reviews, intensive hospital safety monitoring of post-marketing drugs, and data provided by the hospital information system (HIS). Sub-acute toxicity tests suggesting that a dose of 15 mL/kg (concentrated solution) had specific biological effects, whereas a smaller dose engendered no observable effects. Long-term toxicity testing in domestic rabbits showed that after SFI was administered for 90 days, the animals in each dosing group showed no chronic toxic reactions. Among 20 100 cases observed, the incidence of an ADR was 1.85 per thousand. From March to November 2013, of the leading institutions and 22 sub-centers involved in the post-marketing clinical safety intensive hospital monitoring, 21 units completed 8484 cases of monitoring, and reported 23 cases of adverse reactions. No damage to renal function was found using SFI at a dosage and a treatment course larger and longer than that recommended for the adjuvant treatment of tumors. This could reduce the mortality rate of admitted patients based on the analysis of the data provided by the HIS. A total of 16 clinical case reports of adverse reactions related to SFI in 1999-2012 were obtained through literature retrieval. These reports contained information concerning 17 cases, with adverse reaction symptoms including thrombocytopenia, rash, chills, feeling cold, palpitation, dyspnea, edema of a lower extremity, palpebral edema, and superficial vein inflammation, among others. This study introduces "get full access" to the flow of information on

  8. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials.

  9. Post-Marketing Health Technology Monitoring. The Analysis of an Experience from a Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ibargoyen-Roteta, Nora; Cabriada-Nuño, Jose Luis; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hernández-Ramírez, Vicent; Clofent-Vilaplana, Juan; Domènech-Morral, Eugeni; Ginard-Vicens, Daniel; Oliva-Oliva, Gloria; Queiro-Verdes, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A system for monitoring the use of aphaeresis in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), named system for monitoring aphaeresis in ulcerative colitis (SiMAC), was designed in 2006 in the Basque Country. In the present study, the opinion of the clinicians who participated in SiMAC was evaluated, in order to identify the barriers and gather suggestions that could improve implementation of this kind of system. Methods: A mixed questionnaire was designed, in order to gather clinicians’ assessments of the SiMAC monitoring system. Results: The response rate was 73.9% (17/23). The data from 40.96% (159/388) of patients with UC treated with aphaeresis was recorded. The main reasons for not including the data from all treated patients were a lack of required data or not meeting the study inclusion criteria. Positive aspects of the SiMAC were identified, as the simplicity of data collection and its systematic, multi-center approach. The negative aspects mentioned were the use of a local computer application and the lack of time for health professionals to enter data. Discussion: The use of monitoring systems helps to formalize the introduction of technologies of little-known effectiveness; involve clinicians and medical societies in coming to agreement and obtaining information about the safety, effectiveness or efficiency of new technologies; and provide relevant information to healthcare administrations for making decisions about the introduction of new technologies into healthcare practice. In order for a monitoring system to work, the process must be straightforward. A minimum set of key variables that are easy to collect must be selected, and an effort made to involve a range of stakeholders, especially institutions and scientific societies, to support the work group. PMID:21863141

  10. Marketing Education National Research Conference Report. Marketing Practices: Implications for Developing a Future Workforce. (Key West, Florida, April 15-17, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Marcella M., Ed.

    This conference provided a forum for presenting research findings to educators and other audiences interested in marketing education. The following papers were presented: "Application and Utilization of the Marketing Education Baccalaureate Degree in the Public School--Training and Development Arenas" (Wyant, Prey); "The Impact of…

  11. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  12. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  13. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  14. Final Technical Report: Development of Post-Installation Monitoring Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Polagye, Brian

    2014-03-31

    The development of approaches to harness marine and hydrokinetic energy at large-scale is predicated on the compatibility of these generation technologies with the marine environment. At present, aspects of this compatibility are uncertain. Demonstration projects provide an opportunity to address these uncertainties in a way that moves the entire industry forward. However, the monitoring capabilities to realize these advances are often under-developed in comparison to the marine and hydrokinetic energy technologies being studied. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County has proposed to deploy two 6-meter diameter tidal turbines manufactured by OpenHydro in northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The goal of this deployment is to provide information about the environmental, technical, and economic performance of such turbines that can advance the development of larger-scale tidal energy projects, both in the United States and internationally. The objective of this particular project was to develop environmental monitoring plans in collaboration with resource agencies, while simultaneously advancing the capabilities of monitoring technologies to the point that they could be realistically implemented as part of these plans. In this, the District was joined by researchers at the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington, Sea Mammal Research Unit, LLC, H.T. Harvey & Associates, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Over a two year period, the project team successfully developed four environmental monitoring and mitigation plans that were adopted as a condition of the operating license for the demonstration project that issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in March 2014. These plans address nearturbine interactions with marine animals, the sound produced by the turbines, marine mammal behavioral changes associated with the turbines, and changes to benthic habitat associated with colonization

  15. Application of stochastic differential geometry to the term structure of interst rates in developed markets

    SciTech Connect

    Taranenko, Y.; Barnes, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with further developments of the new theory that applies stochastic differential geometry (SDG) to dynamics of interest rates. We examine mathematical constraints on the evolution of interest rate volatilities that arise from stochastic differential calculus under assumptions of an arbitrage free evolution of zero coupon bonds and developed markets (i.e., none of the party/factor can drive the whole market). The resulting new theory incorporates the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) model of interest rates and provides new equations for volatilities which makes the system of equations for interest rates and volatilities complete and self consistent. It results in much smaller amount of volatility data that should be guessed for the SDG model as compared to the HJM model. Limited analysis of the market volatility data suggests that the assumption of the developed market is violated around maturity of two years. Such maturities where the assumptions of the SDG model are violated are suggested to serve as boundaries at which volatilities should be specified independently from the model. Our numerical example with two boundaries (two years and five years) qualitatively resembles the market behavior. Under some conditions solutions of the SDG model become singular that may indicate market crashes. More detail comparison with the data is needed before the theory can be established or refuted.

  16. Commercialization and Industrial Development for the Fetal Hear Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives for this task were to continue the development and testing of the NASA/ODU passive acoustic fetal heart rate monitor, with the goal of transferring the technology to the commercial sector. Areas of work included: 1. To assist in the development of a new hardware front end electronics box for the fetal heart rate monitor, so as to reduce the size of the electronics box, and also to provide for a "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" mode of operation. To make necessary changes in the operating software to support the two modes of operation. 2. To provide an option for a strip chart recording for the system, so that medical personnel could more easily make comparisons with ultra sound strip chart recordings. and 3. To help with continued testing of the system.

  17. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  18. Design development of a neural network-based telemetry monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper identifies the requirements and describes an architectural framework for an artificial neural network-based system that is capable of fulfilling monitoring and control requirements of future aerospace missions. Incorporated into this framework are a newly developed training algorithm and the concept of cooperative network architectures. The feasibility of such an approach is demonstrated for its ability to identify faults in low frequency waveforms.

  19. Monitoring Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables at Two of the Biggest Fresh Produce Markets in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni T; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    In most countries, fresh produce sold at local markets is usually not analyzed for agricultural chemical residues as export products are, which raises concerns about the perceived safety levels of local food supplies in contrast with exported products. The aim of this study was to determine pesticide residue levels in fruits and vegetables sold at two of the biggest fresh produce markets in Africa. A total of 199 fruit and vegetable samples were collected between 2012 and 2014 and analyzed for 74 pesticides commonly used in the horticultural sector. Of the samples analyzed, 91% were compliant with set maximum residue levels (MRLs). The remaining samples either contained unregistered chemicals (8%) or exceeded set MRL values (1%). Products containing more than one pesticide residue constituted 4.02% of all samples tested. Imazalil and iprodione were found to be the most frequently detected pesticides (12 samples each). Boscalid, endosulfan, profenofos, and procymidone were associated with the most noncompliance, including exceeding MRL values or being unregistered for the specific crop. The establishment of a national pesticide monitoring program is essential for the country and would ensure that pesticides are used in accordance with good agricultural practices.

  20. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  1. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  2. Development of an Indicator to Monitor Mediterranean Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered. PMID:25826210

  3. Does market exclusivity hinder the development of Follow-on Orphan Medicinal Products in Europe?

    PubMed

    Brabers, Anne E M; Moors, Ellen H M; van Weely, Sonja; de Vrueh, Remco L A

    2011-09-05

    We determined whether the market exclusivity incentive of the European Orphan Drug Regulation results in a market monopoly or that absence of another Orphan Medicinal Product (OMP) for the same rare disorder, a so-called follow-on OMP, is a matter of time or market size. In the interest of rare disorder patients better understanding of the effect of the market exclusivity incentive on follow-on OMP development is warranted. First, the impact of various market-, product- and disease-related characteristics on follow-on OMP development in the EU was determined by comparing rare disorders with an approved OMP and at least one follow-on OMP (N = 26), with rare disorders with an approved OMP and no follow-on OMP (N = 18). Next, we determined whether manufacturers continued development of a follow-on OMP upon approval of the first OMP for the intended rare disorder. Since in the EU significant benefit of an OMP has to be established, we determined for each follow-on OMP for which development was continued on what grounds significant benefit was assumed by the sponsor. Data were collected from the public domain only. The likelihood of a rare disorder with an approved OMP to obtain at least one follow-on OMP development was strongly associated with disease prevalence, turnover of the first OMP, disease class, disease-specific scientific output and age of onset. Out of a total of 120 follow-on OMPs only one follow-on OMP could be identified for which development was discontinued upon approval of the first OMP for the same rare disorder. Only a substantial level of discontinuation of follow-on OMP development would have indicated the existence of a market monopoly. Moreover, sponsors that continued development of a follow-on OMP predominantly assumed that their product had an improved efficacy compared to the first approved OMP. This study provides evidence that absence of follow-on OMP development is a matter of time or market size, rather than that the market exclusivity

  4. Time series analysis of the developed financial markets' integration using visibility graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Enyu; Small, Michael; Feng, Gang

    2014-09-01

    A time series representing the developed financial markets' segmentation from 1973 to 2012 is studied. The time series reveals an obvious market integration trend. To further uncover the features of this time series, we divide it into seven windows and generate seven visibility graphs. The measuring capabilities of the visibility graphs provide means to quantitatively analyze the original time series. It is found that the important historical incidents that influenced market integration coincide with variations in the measured graphical node degree. Through the measure of neighborhood span, the frequencies of the historical incidents are disclosed. Moreover, it is also found that large "cycles" and significant noise in the time series are linked to large and small communities in the generated visibility graphs. For large cycles, how historical incidents significantly affected market integration is distinguished by density and compactness of the corresponding communities.

  5. Marketing strategy: an essential component of business development for academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Souba, W W; Haluck, C A; Menezes, M A

    2001-02-01

    Historically, academic health centers (AHCs) have detached themselves from commercialism and entrepreneurism, viewing these activities as being inconsistent with many of their core academic values. Word-of-mouth promotion was their primary, if not sole, marketing strategy. Less emphasis was placed on preparing, pricing, distributing, and promoting these services to targeted audiences. Understanding customers' needs was not a top priority. The marketing strategies and tools currently being developed and utilized by AHCs were reviewed. In an effort to attract customers and win contracts, AHCs are aggressively marketing themselves by designing new services, promoting those services much more intensely, restructuring the entire distribution system that delivers those services, and crafting pricing strategies that build in flexibility. With growing frequency, these marketing tactics are part and parcel of a carefully crafted data-driven strategic plan designed to meet the business-development goals of the institution. In order to carry out their missions, AHCs have recognized that they can no longer rest on their "ivory tower" laurels. They must learn how to market themselves in a market economy.

  6. AAL service development loom--from the idea to a marketable business model.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Johannes; Auinger, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) market is still in an early stage of development. Previous approaches of comprehensive AAL services are mostly supply-side driven and focused on hardware and software. Usually this type of AAL solutions does not lead to a sustainable success on the market. Research and development increasingly focuses on demand and customer requirements in addition to the social and legal framework. The question is: How can a systematic performance measurement strategy along a service development process support the market-ready design of a concrete business model for AAL service? Within the EU funded research project DALIA (Assistant for Daily Life Activities at Home) an iterative service development process uses an adapted Osterwalder business model canvas. The application of a performance measurement index (PMI) to support the process has been developed and tested. Development of an iterative service development model using a supporting PMI. The PMI framework is developed throughout the engineering of a virtual assistant (AVATAR) as a modular interface to connect informal carers with necessary and useful services. Future research should seek to ensure that the PMI enables meaningful transparency regarding targeting (e.g. innovative AAL service), design (e.g. functional hybrid AAL service) and implementation (e.g. marketable AAL support services). To this end, a further reference to further testing practices is required. The aim must be to develop a weighted PMI in the context of further research, which supports both the service engineering and the subsequent service management process.

  7. Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Development at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Wu, M. C.; Allison, S. G.; DeHaven, S. L.; Ghoshal, A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is applying considerable effort on the development of sensor technology for structural health monitoring (SHM). This research is targeted toward increasing the safety and reliability of aerospace vehicles, while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Research programs are focused on applications to both aircraft and space vehicles. Sensor technologies under development span a wide range including fiber-optic sensing, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and are the major focus of this presentation. In addition, recent advances in active and passive acoustic sensing will also be discussed.

  8. Initial Development of a Continuous Emission Monitor for Dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Coggiola; Harald Oser; Gregory W. Faris; David R. Crosley

    2002-03-30

    Under contract DE-AC26-98FT-40370, SRI International has completed the third phase of a planned three-phase effort to develop a laboratory prototype continuous emission monitor (CEM) for dioxins and furans generated during the incineration of waste materials at DOE remediation sites. The project was initiated on July 29, 1998 with the technical effort completed in October 2001. During this research effort, SRI has made numerous improvements in our jet-REMPI instrument. These improvements have involved characterization and optimization of the molecular cooling in the gas jet, implementation of a custom-fabricated, four pulsed valve assembly, new data acquisition and display software, and preliminary development of a wavelength and mass calibration approach. We have also measured the REMPI excitation spectra of numerous organic compounds that are likely to be present in the exhaust stream of a waste incinerator. These spectra must be well characterized in the laboratory to understand any potential interferences that might arise when monitoring for dioxin and furan congeners. Our results to date continue to validate the original concept of using jet-REMPI as the detection method in a dioxin CEM. Using only commercial components with minor modifications, we have already demonstrated a detection sensitivity in the low ppt range with sufficient chemical specificity to separately detect two closely related congeners of dichlorodibenzodioxin present in a mixture. To demonstrate the utility of this methodology outside of the controlled conditions of the laboratory, we performed a series of pseudo-field experiments at the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The instrument used for those studies was built by SRI under contract with US EPA, and was an exact duplicate of the SRI system. This duplication allowed the experiments to be conducted without transporting the SRI system to the EPA site. Using the

  9. Development of Monitoring & Verification Technology (MVT) for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Instrumentation and Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian

    2008-09-29

    The objective of this CRADA is to further develop the Multiple Elemental Soil Analysis (MESA) system, based on inelastic neutron scattering technology that was originally developed by Dr. Lucian Wielopolski at BNL. The scope of this CRADA will center on the quantification and monitoring of non-destructive in situ carbon loading in soils to evaluate land application emission reduction activities. To accomplish this objective, the CRADA will center on three main joint activities as described below: A. To further develop and characterize a prototype, field deployable MESA system for static and scanning purposes. B. To develop applicable protocols for agricultural land applications; system validation and field sampling schemes. C. To implement field experiments for independent systems validation, verification, and acceptance by third parties for use in the market segment and commercialization. The technical approach involves a system for monitoring characteristic gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei stimulated by inelastic neutron scattering from a carbon nucleus. The system consists of a neutron generator emitting fast, 14 MeV, neutrons, shielding materials, and a detection system with nuclear electronics for data acquisition. Following standard system calibration, the results are produced immediately at the end of the counting period.

  10. Integrity Constraint Monitoring in Software Development: Proposed Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco G.

    1997-01-01

    In the development of complex software systems, designers are required to obtain from many sources and manage vast amounts of knowledge of the system being built and communicate this information to personnel with a variety of backgrounds. Knowledge concerning the properties of the system, including the structure of, relationships between and limitations of the data objects in the system, becomes increasingly more vital as the complexity of the system and the number of knowledge sources increases. Ensuring that violations of these properties do not occur becomes steadily more challenging. One approach toward managing the enforcement or system properties, called context monitoring, uses a centralized repository of integrity constraints and a constraint satisfiability mechanism for dynamic verification of property enforcement during program execution. The focus of this paper is to describe possible software architectures that define a mechanism for dynamically checking the satisfiability of a set of constraints on a program. The next section describes the context monitoring approach in general. Section 3 gives an overview of the work currently being done toward the addition of an integrity constraint satisfiability mechanism to a high-level program language, SequenceL, and demonstrates how this model is being examined to develop a general software architecture. Section 4 describes possible architectures for a general constraint satisfiability mechanism, as well as an alternative approach that, uses embedded database queries in lieu of an external monitor. The paper concludes with a brief summary outlining the, current state of the research and future work.

  11. The development of an obstetric tele-monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen-Giovagnoli, B; Peters, C; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M B; Mischi, M; van Pul, C; Cottaar, E J E; Oei, S G

    2015-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction and preterm uterine contractions can turn a normal pregnancy into a problematic one. In previous work, we have developed a system for electrophysiological measurement of fetal heart rate (fHR), fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) and (premature) uterine contractions to enable early detection of foetal problems. In this work we have expanded this system into a tele-monitoring system for measurement at home. In order to permit home monitoring, the communication chain of the data has to be designed such that home-measured signals (fHR, fECG, uterine activities) are available in the hospital in real-time. Furthermore, the data must be transferred wirelessly to any location (worldwide) for interpretation by gynaecologists. A web application helps the gynaecologist or midwife to access the signals everywhere, provided that internet access is available. We developed a webserver as the heart of the entire system; it manages the patient database, transforms the signals in a graphical representation similar to that of the cardiotocography and manages the data communication with the proper data security policy. This tele-monitoring system can be used also during home deliveries enabling prompt transfer and proper intervention in the hospital when complications occur.

  12. Development and application of a general purpose ambulatory monitor.

    PubMed

    Petley, G W; Clitheroe, S; Clewlow, F; Deakin, C D; Chauhan, A J

    1998-01-01

    This paper details the development and application of a multi-channel, general purpose, lightweight, portable monitor. The monitor is constructed with separate analogue and digital circuitry so that a dedicated analogue board may be developed for each new application with the same general purpose digital board, the latter requiring only changes to the firmware. At the heart of the digital circuit is an Arizona Microchip PIC 16C64 microcontroller, which can communicate with a computer via a serial port and perform both simple and relatively complex data analysis prior to storing data in memory. The low-power design enables the circuit to operate for potentially longer than a week on one set of batteries. Designed with medical applications in mind, preliminary data from three studies utilising the monitor are described. These include measurements of bladder pressure, personal exposure to pollutant gases and body temperature. The studies demonstrate the system's versatility in a variety of investigations requiring different signal processing and sampling protocols. It is hoped that, in the future, this ambulatory device will contribute to the diagnosis, treatment and understanding of a wide variety of disease conditions.

  13. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this market definition study is to assess the market potential for the use of photovoltaic power systems for remote villages in developing countries. The approach used was to conduct an in-depth literature search followed by in-country surveys of selected developing countries in Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The purpose of these surveys was to determine the current energy situation in these countries, the level of rural electrification activity, their knowledge and interest in solar and specifically photovoltaics, their financial resource capability, and the probability of development of a market for photovoltaics based on these and other factors. Findings are presented. The conclusion reached by the survey is that there is a significant market potential for photovoltaics in village power applications in developing countries. Extrapolation of the number of unelectrified villages results in an estimated potential of as much as 20,000 MWp, a potential similar in magnitude to previous UN and World Bank estimates. Recommendations for market stimulation are presented. (WHK)

  14. Bunch shape monitor development in J-PARC linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, A.; Tamura, J.; Liu, Y.; Miyao, T.

    2017-07-01

    In the linac at the Japan accelerator research complex (J-PARC), we decided to use bunch shape monitors (BSMs) as phase-width monitors. Both centroid-phase set point at the frequency jump from SDTL (324 MHz) to ACS (972 MHz) and phase-width control are key issues for suppressing excess beam loss. BSM was designed and developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia. Because the BSM was first used between acceleration cavities, we need to improve it to protect it from the leakage-magnetic field of the quadrupole magnets and from outgassing impacts on the cavities. In this paper, we introduce these improvements to the BSM for the adoption of the location nearby the acceleration cavities.

  15. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  16. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  17. The Development of Public Relations To Meet the New European Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal; Brown, Robert

    The development of public relations follows when economic development and democracy thrive. EC 1992, with its plans for the European Common Market Community, is a public relations opportunity for U.S. public relations firms. In a survey of 31 firms, 6 owned or were owned by networks, 17 had membership in a network, 8 had no public relations…

  18. Skills for the Changing Workplace: A Marketing Educator's Guide. Research and Development Series No. 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmbrod, Catharine P.; Gordon, Marilyn J.

    This three-part instructional guide was developed to assist vocational instructors in marketing education to help their students in the development of broadly applicable, nontechnical (often called quality of work life--QWL) skills. The first section of the guide describes in detail the important QWL skills needed for work and identifies specific…

  19. Perspectives on the Development of a Comprehensive Labor Market Information System for Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Rodger S.

    This report recommends a course of action for the State of Michigan to follow in developing a comprehensive labor market information system as a basis for planning educational curricula and for delivering other manpower or human resource development services. The author gives a broad conceptual definition of a comprehensive manpower information…

  20. New Markets for Meeting Old Needs: U.S. Distance Education and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Winthrop

    This paper analyzes the broad context and covers practical applications for delivering distance education in countries of the developing world. It begins by examining market trends in global higher education and continues by reviewing existing distance education activity in developing countries. This is followed by a discussion of the…

  1. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  2. Crafts Development and Marketing Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Caroline C.; And Others

    This manual was developed to help Peace Corps volunteers assist local craftspeople in developing nations in initiating and operating small businesses to produce and market their products. The manual is organized in eight chapters that cover the following topics: the crafts environment, common problems and solutions for a crafts business,…

  3. Development of Ultrasonic Surface Wave Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druffner, C.; Nalladega, V.; Na, J. K.

    2011-06-01

    To increase the power generating capacity of a wind turbine composite turbine blade manufacturers have been increasing the size of blades. Current utility-scale windmills are equipped with blades ranging from 40 m (130 ft) to 90 m (300 ft) in their sweep diameter. The increased blade size brings greater structural and safety demands. Recent blade recalls and field failures highlights the market need for sensors capable of part quality inspections on manufacturing line and for structural health monitoring (SHM) of the composites in service. An ultrasonic surface wave sensor technology based on interdigitization transduction (IDT) has been developed that can inspect and detect defects in the composite blades. The current work covers the design, fabrication, and characterization of the IDT sensors. The sensor characterization, coverage area, and detection capability for a variety of defects such as impact, cracking and delamination will be discussed.

  4. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%.

  5. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    PubMed Central

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation. PMID:27854267

  6. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jisha, N V; Krishnakumar, D N; Surya Prakash, G; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2012-03-01

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify (41)Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation.

  7. Development of on-line laser power monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Li, Kuan-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Since the laser was invented, laser has been applied in many fields such as material processing, communication, measurement, biomedical engineering, defense industries and etc. Laser power is an important parameter in laser material processing, i.e. laser cutting, and laser drilling. However, the laser power is easily affected by the environment temperature, we tend to monitor the laser power status, ensuring there is an effective material processing. Besides, the response time of current laser power meters is too long, they cannot measure laser power accurately in a short time. To be more precisely, we can know the status of laser power and help us to achieve an effective material processing at the same time. To monitor the laser power, this study utilize a CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) camera to develop an on-line laser power monitoring system. The CMOS camera captures images of incident laser beam after it is split and attenuated by beam splitter and neutral density filter. By comparing the average brightness of the beam spots and measurement results from laser power meter, laser power can be estimated. Under continuous measuring mode, the average measuring error is about 3%, and the response time is at least 3.6 second shorter than thermopile power meters; under trigger measuring mode which enables the CMOS camera to synchronize with intermittent laser output, the average measuring error is less than 3%, and the shortest response time is 20 millisecond.

  8. Recent Developments in Home Sleep-Monitoring Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jessica M.; Strecker, Robert E.; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2012-01-01

    Improving our understanding of sleep physiology and pathophysiology is an important goal for both medical and general wellness reasons. Although the gold standard for assessing sleep remains the laboratory polysomnogram, there is an increasing interest in portable monitoring devices that provide the opportunity for assessing sleep in real-world environments such as the home. Portable devices allow repeated measurements, evaluation of temporal patterns, and self-experimentation. We review recent developments in devices designed to monitor sleep-wake activity, as well as monitors designed for other purposes that could in principle be applied in the field of sleep (such as cardiac or respiratory sensing). As the body of supporting validation data grows, these devices hold promise for a variety of health and wellness goals. From a clinical and research standpoint, the capacity to obtain longitudinal sleep-wake data may improve disease phenotyping, individualized treatment decisions, and individualized health optimization. From a wellness standpoint, commercially available devices may allow individuals to track their own sleep with the goal of finding patterns and correlations with modifiable behaviors such as exercise, diet, and sleep aids. PMID:23097718

  9. Development and evaluation of a wearable blood glucose monitor.

    PubMed

    Zamzow, K L; Schmidt, D G; Shults, M C; Updike, S J; Rhodes, R K; von Heimburg, D F; Luebow, J O

    1990-01-01

    Complex operation, prolonged set-up time, reliability problems, high cost, and excessive size limits the use of currently available extracorporeal continuous blood glucose analyzers. A self-calibrating, wearable blood glucose monitor has been developed to overcome these impediments. The wearable blood glucose monitor is a 410 g forearm-mounted instrument with three miniature pumps for blood sampling, calibration, and insulin infusion, and a flow cell containing an enzyme-electrode sensor capable of determining plasma glucose levels accurately and precisely in undiluted whole blood. The unit is connected to a computer controller with graphics display. Venous blood is drawn from a 21 gauge single lumen cannula through the sensor flow cell. A rate determination of glucose is completed in 20 sec and the blood is returned to the arm vein. Heparinized saline wash solution follows. No blood loss or significant systemic heparinization occurs. Cycle time is set from 2 to 5 min. The method is linear to at least 300 mg/dl glucose, independent of hematocrit, and free of interferences from blood constituents at normal venous pO2 with a coefficient of variation of 1-3% between calibrations. The sensor has a service life of at least 3 weeks. This wearable blood glucose monitor, with its high performance sensor, reduced size, and ease of operation, shows promise for evaluating and treating diabetes.

  10. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jisha, N. V.; Krishnakumar, D. N.; Surya Prakash, G.; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-03-15

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify {sup 41}Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation.

  11. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-11-15

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  12. Electronic ballasts: Developments in the U.S. market

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, D.J.; Sardinsky, R.; Hawthorne, S.; Lovins, A.B.; Kiernan, P.

    1992-12-31

    Sales of electronic fluorescent ballasts are soaring as manufacturers continue to introduce better-performing models. Improvements include higher power factor, lower harmonic distortion, better reliability, four-lamp capability, and applicability to a wider variety of lamps. However, the juiciest plum -- a modestly priced, highly reliable, high-power-quality, continuously dimming ballast -- is still awaited. Manufacturers are addressing reported problems with batch failures, power quality, and unpredictable equipment incompatibilities, but are having difficulty keeping up with growing demand. Back orders of several months are common. This update summarizes technical data on current offerings and describes recent developments in making electronic ballasts.

  13. World Market Development and Consumer Acceptance of Irradiation Technology.

    PubMed

    Maherani, Behnoush; Hossain, Farah; Criado, Paula; Ben-Fadhel, Yosra; Salmieri, Stephane; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-11-24

    Food irradiation is an efficient technology that can be used to ensure food safety by eliminating insects and pathogens to prolong the shelf life. The process could be applied to fresh or frozen products without affecting the nutritional value. Presently more than 60 countries have adopted the technology. However, the technology adaptation differs from one country to another and, in some cases, consumers' misunderstanding and lack of acceptance may hinder the technology adaptation process. This review summarizes the development of irradiation treatment worldwide and consumer attitudes towards the introduction of this technology. Also, the wholesomeness, beneficial effects, and regulation of irradiation are assessed.

  14. World Market Development and Consumer Acceptance of Irradiation Technology

    PubMed Central

    Maherani, Behnoush; Hossain, Farah; Criado, Paula; Ben-Fadhel, Yosra; Salmieri, Stephane; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Food irradiation is an efficient technology that can be used to ensure food safety by eliminating insects and pathogens to prolong the shelf life. The process could be applied to fresh or frozen products without affecting the nutritional value. Presently more than 60 countries have adopted the technology. However, the technology adaptation differs from one country to another and, in some cases, consumers’ misunderstanding and lack of acceptance may hinder the technology adaptation process. This review summarizes the development of irradiation treatment worldwide and consumer attitudes towards the introduction of this technology. Also, the wholesomeness, beneficial effects, and regulation of irradiation are assessed. PMID:28231173

  15. Network developments and network monitoring in Internet2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, E.; Evett, S.

    Given that performance is excellent across backbone networks, and that performance is a problem end-to-end, it is clear that problems are concentrated towards the edge and in network transitions. To achieve good end-to-end performance, we need to diagnose (understand the limits of performance) and address (work with members and application communities to address those performance issues). We envision readily available performance information that is easy to find, ubiquitous, reliable, valuable, actionable (analysis suggests course of action), and automated (applications act on data received). The Internet2 End-to-End Performance Initative (E2Epi) currently focuses on the development and widespread deployment of perfSONAR [1][2], an international consortium developing a performance middleware architecture and a set of protocol standards for inter-operability between measurement and monitoring systems. perfSONAR is a set of open source web services that can be added, piecemeal, and extended to create a performance monitoring framework. It is designed to be standards-based, modular, decentralized, and open source. This makes it applicable to multiple generations of network monitoring systems and encourages outside development while still allowing it to be customized for individual science applications. perfSONAR is a joint effort of ESnet, GÉANT2 JRA1, Internet2, and RNP. The Internet2 Network is a hybrid optical and IP network, that offers dynamic and static wavelength services. The Internet2 Network Observatory supports three types of services: measurement, co-location, and experimental servers to support specific projects. The Observatory collects data and makes it publicly available.

  16. Monitoring Water Targets in the Post-2015 Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) provides a comprehensive approach to developing water services in a way that ensures social equity, health, well-being and sustainability for all. In particular, the water goal includes targets related to sanitation, wastewater, water quality, water efficiency, integrated water management and ecosystems (details to be finalized in September 2015). As part of its implementation, methods to monitor target indicators must be developed. National governments will be responsible for reporting on progress toward these targets using national data sets and possibly information from global data sets that applies to their countries. Oversight of this process through the use of global data sets is desirable for encouraging the use of standardized information for comparison purposes. Disparities in monitoring due to very sparse data networks in some countries can be addressed by using geospatially consistent data products from space-based remote sensing. However, to fully exploit these data, capabilities will be needed to downscale information, to interpolate and assimilate data both in time and space, and to integrate these data with socio-economic data sets, model outputs and survey data in a geographical information system framework. Citizen data and other non-standard data types may also supplement national data systems. A comprehensive and integrated analysis and dissemination system is needed to enable the important contributions that satellites could make to achieving Water SDG targets. This presentation will outline the progress made in assessing the needs for information to track progress on the Water SDG, options for meeting these needs using existing data infrastructure, and pathways for expanding the role of Earth observations in SDG monitoring. It will also discuss the potential roles of Future Earth's Sustainable Water Futures Programme (SWFP) and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in coordinating these efforts.

  17. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  18. Development of a wearable vital signs monitor for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Jonathan; Lemos, Diego; Meneses, Gustavo A; Hernandez, Alher M

    2010-01-01

    In development countries the vital signs data measurement normally is performed at hospitals or laboratories where patients remain under observation with many electrodes attached on the body. The integration of biomedical data acquisition systems and information technologies (IT) enables continuous real time monitoring of physiological data in daily life, which improves patient's medical care and medical research possibilities. To achieve this goal, the research and development of some wearable intelligent sensors, sensors miniaturization, signal processing, wireless transmission, and databases development for these vital data have been done. Our goal is to implement a wearable system that can be used in places located outside of hospitals and medical institutions coverage area. In this paper, we present the current stage of the project where some intelligent modules have been implemented and other are under construction. Preliminary results concerning Non-Invasive Blood Pressure (NIBP), ECG and wireless connection are also presented.

  19. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  20. Positioning patient-perceived medical services to develop a marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Hong, Myung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In today's medical market, marketing philosophy is being rapidly transformed from customer searching to patient satisfaction and service improvement. The principal objective of this study was to contribute to the establishment of a desirable medical marketing strategy, through the factors of customer satisfaction and the positioning of patients' perceptions by marketing institutions. The data were collected from 282 students of the College of Public Health and Medicine in Seoul. The survey tools were developed using the SERVQUAL scale. Analysis in this study involved both statistical and network analysis. The former was used to verify the determinants of service satisfaction as perceived by respondents, via factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The latter was obtained using a positioning map and 2-mode network analysis with the matrix data converted from raw data. The determining factors for patient satisfaction were identified as facilities, accessibility, process, physicians, and medical staff. The regression equation was significant (R = 0.606), and the most influential variable was the service quality of physicians (β = .569). According to multidimensional scaling, the positioning of medical institutions indicated that patients' perceptions were affected by hospital size and specialization. By recognizing and managing patient satisfaction, medical institutions are able to foster customer loyalty and, in turn, to enhance service quality. It is necessary to develop an adequate marketing mix to provide better medical services and to overcome medical competition among institutions.

  1. Consensus modeling to develop the farmers' market readiness assessment and decision instrument.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunlye; Dalton, Jarrod; Ngendahimana, David; Bebo, Pat; Davis, Ashley; Remley, Daniel; Smathers, Carol; Freedman, Darcy A

    2017-07-20

    Nutrition-related policy, system, and environmental (PSE) interventions such as farmers' markets have been recommended as effective strategies for promoting healthy diet for chronic disease prevention. Tools are needed to assess community readiness and capacity factors influencing successful farmers' market implementation among diverse practitioners in different community contexts. We describe a multiphase consensus modeling approach used to develop a diagnostic tool for assessing readiness and capacity to implement farmers' market interventions among public health and community nutrition practitioners working with low-income populations in diverse contexts. Modeling methods included the following: phase 1, qualitative study with community stakeholders to explore facilitators and barriers influencing successful implementation of farmers' market interventions in low-income communities; phase 2, development of indicators based on operationalization of qualitative findings; phase 3, assessment of relevance and importance of indicators and themes through consensus conference with expert panel; phase 4, refinement of indicators based on consensus conference; and phase 5, pilot test of the assessment tool. Findings illuminate a range of implementation factors influencing farmers' market PSE interventions and offer guidance for tailoring intervention delivery based on levels of community, practitioner, and organizational readiness and capacity.

  2. Development of an Agent-based Model to Analyze Contemporary Helium Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Matthew E.; Uckun, Canan; Conzelmann, Guenter; Macal, Charles M.

    2016-02-01

    Although U.S. helium demand has remained relatively flat since 2009, exports of helium have increased significantly since then, driven primarily by demand for electronic and semiconductor manufacturing in Asia. In the midst of this global demand shift, the Helium Act dictates a new procedure for pricing and distributing the gas through a reserve that historically functioned as a loose “oligarchy.” The new procedure requires prices to be determined by the open market through auctions and a survey of market prices, as opposed to increasing prices according to the consumer price index. Response to these changes has caused temporary shortages, price increases, and a significant increase in the development of the helium extraction technologies used to produce helium from formerly marginal sources. Technologies are being developed and refined to extract helium from formerly low-yielding natural gas fields containing much lower amounts of helium than the previously considered economic threshold of 0.3%. Combining these transformative policies with the potential for new and significant global supplies from Qatar, Algeria, and Russia could lead to new and unforeseen market behaviors and reactions from global helium markets. The objective of the project is to analyze the global helium markets.

  3. Ethical considerations in post-market-approval monitoring and regulation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alison; Komparic, Ana; Smith, Maxwell J

    2014-12-12

    The objective of this paper is to identify and articulate ethical considerations to help guide decision-making around the regulation and monitoring of vaccines post-licensure. While these considerations are not intended to be an exhaustive account of the ethical concerns, they can facilitate the explicit examination of ethical issues in this context. We identify the protection of public from harm as the primary consideration, and identify others that help in the discharging of this governmental obligation. Others include: transparency, a publicly acceptable risk-benefit profile, public trust, minimization of stigma, and special obligations to vulnerable populations. Regulators and researchers can use these ethical considerations to help enhance their reasoning and to improve the accountability of their decision-making. These considerations can be used to inform rational deliberations about how to balance the obligation to protect the public from harm with other relevant considerations such as the need to be transparent, while taking into account the contextual features of the situation. Further research and debate on the relevance and refinement of these ethical considerations is desirable.

  4. Developments in post-marketing comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, S

    2007-08-01

    Physicians and insurers need to weigh the effectiveness of new drugs against existing therapeutics in routine care to make decisions about treatment and formularies. Because Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of most new drugs requires demonstrating efficacy and safety against placebo, there is limited interest by manufacturers in conducting such head-to-head trials. Comparative effectiveness research seeks to provide head-to-head comparisons of treatment outcomes in routine care. Health-care utilization databases record drug use and selected health outcomes for large populations in a timely way and reflect routine care, and therefore may be the preferred data source for comparative effectiveness research. Confounding caused by selective prescribing based on indication, severity, and prognosis threatens the validity of non-randomized database studies that often have limited details on clinical information. Several recent developments may bring the field closer to acceptable validity, including approaches that exploit the concepts of proxy variables using high-dimensional propensity scores, within-patient variation of drug exposure using crossover designs, and between-provider variation in prescribing preference using instrumental variable (IV) analyses.

  5. Demystifying Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cindy

    1993-01-01

    To market their institutions effectively, college advancement professionals need to understand that marketing encompasses several specific activities and begins with the customer's needs, not the institution's. The administrator must know the institution thoroughly before developing a marketing plan and be able to develop and adapt marketing…

  6. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  7. Using the Process of Disruption to Find New Markets and to Develop New Marketing Programs for Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Mark John

    2009-01-01

    The market for management education has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. However, increasing competition stemming from new entrants such as for-profit universities and from the globalization of management education have changed the dynamics of the market thereby presenting business schools with difficult challenges. The process of disruption…

  8. Using the Process of Disruption to Find New Markets and to Develop New Marketing Programs for Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Mark John

    2009-01-01

    The market for management education has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. However, increasing competition stemming from new entrants such as for-profit universities and from the globalization of management education have changed the dynamics of the market thereby presenting business schools with difficult challenges. The process of disruption…

  9. The Development and Application of a Market Entry Process for Foreign Universities Entering the Chinese Higher Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 7-year research project which was designed to identify the most common market entry processes used by foreign universities entering the Chinese education market through alliances with Chinese counterparts. The research identifies a three-stage entry process which was used by most of the 220 universities studied…

  10. Learning Marketing Accounting Skills in the Introductory Marketing Course: The Development, Use, and Acceptance of a Self-Study Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi Ju; Greenberg, Barnett; Dickson, Peter; Goodrich, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A self-study tutorial designed to teach, through a learning-by-doing application, how important marketing accounting is to the whole firm, and why every business graduate should have a solid understanding of marketing accounting is tested using an exam and satisfaction survey. Performance on the exam and satisfaction with the tutorial depended…

  11. Learning Marketing Accounting Skills in the Introductory Marketing Course: The Development, Use, and Acceptance of a Self-Study Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi Ju; Greenberg, Barnett; Dickson, Peter; Goodrich, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A self-study tutorial designed to teach, through a learning-by-doing application, how important marketing accounting is to the whole firm, and why every business graduate should have a solid understanding of marketing accounting is tested using an exam and satisfaction survey. Performance on the exam and satisfaction with the tutorial depended…

  12. Development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy monitoring of fuel markers to prevent fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Timothy; Clarkson, John; White, Peter C.; Meakin, Nicholas; McDonald, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Governments often tax fuel products to generate revenues to support and stimulate their economies. They also subsidize the cost of essential fuel products. Fuel taxation and subsidization practices are both subject to fraud. Oil marketing companies also suffer from fuel fraud with loss of legitimate sales and additional quality and liability issues. The use of an advanced marking system to identify and control fraud has been shown to be effective in controlling illegal activity. DeCipher has developed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as its lead technology for measuring markers in fuel to identify and control malpractice. SERS has many advantages that make it highly suitable for this purpose. The SERS instruments are portable and can be used to monitor fuel at any point in the supply chain. SERS shows high specificity for the marker, with no false positives. Multiple markers can also be detected in a single SERS analysis allowing, for example, specific regional monitoring of fuel. The SERS analysis from fuel is also quick, clear and decisive, with a measurement time of less than 5 minutes. We will present results highlighting our development of the use of a highly stable silver colloid as a SERS substrate to measure the markers at ppb levels. Preliminary results from the use of a solid state SERS substrate to measure fuel markers will also be presented.

  13. Development of a field-portable air monitor for Lewisite

    SciTech Connect

    Aldstadt, J.H.; Martin, A.F.; Olson, D.C. |

    1996-03-01

    The focus of this research is the development of a prototype field-portable ambient-air monitor for measuring trace levels of volatile organoarsenicals. Lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine) is a chemical warfare agent developed during World War I and stockpiled on a large scale by the former Soviet Union. A continuous air monitor for Lewisite at the eight-hour time-weighted-average concentration (3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) is necessary to protect the safety and health of arms control treaty inspectors. Flow injection is used to integrate an air sampling device based on liquid-phase extraction with a flow-through detector based on potentiometric stripping analysis. We describe a method for the sampling and preconcentration of organoarsenicals from ambient air by using a gas permeation membrane sampler. The sampler is designed to selectively preconcentrate analyte that permeates a silicone rubber membrane into a caustic carrier stream. Instrument design is described for the sampling and detection methodologies.

  14. Two dimensional spectral camera development for cartilage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, A.; Graf, A.; Wenzel, U.; Princz, S.; Miller, R.; Mantz, H.; Hessling, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the joint project "BioopTiss" between the Ulm University Medical Center and Ulm University of Applied Sciences, a bioreactor is under development to grow facial cartilage by the methods of tissue engineering. In order to ensure a sufficient quality of the cartilage for implantation, the cartilage growth must be monitored continuously. Current monitoring methods destroy the cultured cartilage so that it is no longer suitable for implantation. Alternatively, it is possible to analyze the cartilage using fluorescence spectroscopy with UV light excitation. This allows a non-invasive assessment of cartilage in terms of composition and quality. The cultured cartilage tissue can reach a size of several square centimeters. For recording fluorescence spectra of every point of the cartilage sample, a highly sensitive spectral camera has been developed which allows distinguishing collagen I from collagen II non-invasively by their fluorescence. This spectral camera operates according to the computed tomography imaging spectrometry (CTIS) principle, which allows obtaining many spectra of a small area with only one snapshot.

  15. Development of smart sensing system for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kung-Chun; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Weng, Jian Huang

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to upgrade a wireless sensing unit which can meet the following requirements: 1) Improvement of system powering and analog signal processing 2) Enhancement of signal resolution and provide reliable wireless communication data, 3) Enhance capability for continuous long-term monitoring. Based on the prototype of the wireless sensing unit developed by Prof. Lynch at the Stanford University, the following upgrading steps are summarized: 1. Reduce system noise by using SMD passive elements and preventing the coupling digital and analog circuits, and increasing the capacity of power. 2. Improve the ADC sampling resolution and accuracy with a higher resolution Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC): a 24bits ADC with programmable gain amplifier. 3. Improve wireless communication by using the wireless radio 9XTend which supported by the router (Digi MESH) communication function using 900MHz frequency band. Based on the upgrade wireless sensing unit, verification of the new wireless sensing unit was conducted from the ambient vibration survey of a base-isolated building. This new upgrade wireless sensing unit can provide more reliable data for continuous structural health monitoring. Incorporated with the identification software (modified stochastic subspace identification method) the smart sensing system for SHM is developed.

  16. An exploration of the applicability of situational segmentation in the health care market: development of a situational taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1990-01-01

    Competition in the health care market has intensified in recent years. Health care providers are increasingly adopting innovative marketing techniques to secure their positions in the marketplace. This paper examines an innovative marketing technique, situational segmentation, and assesses its applicability to the health care market. Situational segmentation has proven useful in many consumer goods markets but has received little attention in the context of health care marketing. A two-stage research process is used to develop a taxonomy of situational factors pertinent to health care choice. In stage one, focus group interviews are used to gather information which is instrumental to questionnaire development. In stage two, the responses of 151 subjects to a 51 item questionnaire are factor analyzed. The results demonstrate that situational segmentation is a viable strategy in the health care market.

  17. Trend analysis of the pharmaceutical market in Iran; 1997–2010; policy implications for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background So far, no detailed study of the Iranian pharmaceutical market has been conducted, and only a few studies have analyzed medicine consumption and expenditure in Iran. Pharmaceutical market trend analysis remains one of the most useful instruments to evaluate the pharmaceutical systems efficiency. An increase in imports of medicines, and a simultaneous decrease in domestic production prompted us to investigate the pharmaceutical expenditure structure. On the other hand, analyzing statistics provides a suitable method to assess the outcomes of national pharmaceutical policies and regulations. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which investigates the Iranian pharmaceutical market over a 13-year period (1997–2010). This study used the Iranian pharmaceutical statistical datasheet published by the Iranian Ministry of Health. Systematic searches of the relevant Persian and English research literature were made. In addition, official government documents were analyzed as sources of both data and detailed statements of policy. Results Analysis of the Iranian pharmaceutical market in the 13-year period shows that medicine consumption sales value growth has been 28.38% annually. Determination of domestic production and import reveals that 9.3% and 42.3% annual growth, respectively, have been experienced. Conclusions The Iranian pharmaceutical market has undergone great growth in comparison with developing countries and the pharmerging group, and the market is expanding quickly while a major share goes to biotechnology drugs, which implies the need to commercialization activities in novel fields like pharmaceutical biotechnology. This market expansion has been in favor of imported medicine in sales terms, caused by the reinforcement of suspicious policies of policy makers that necessitates fundamental rearrangements. PMID:23805853

  18. Trend analysis of the pharmaceutical market in Iran; 1997-2010; policy implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Koopaei, Nasser Nassiri; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Mohamadi, Nafiseh

    2013-06-28

    So far, no detailed study of the Iranian pharmaceutical market has been conducted, and only a few studies have analyzed medicine consumption and expenditure in Iran. Pharmaceutical market trend analysis remains one of the most useful instruments to evaluate the pharmaceutical systems efficiency. An increase in imports of medicines, and a simultaneous decrease in domestic production prompted us to investigate the pharmaceutical expenditure structure. On the other hand, analyzing statistics provides a suitable method to assess the outcomes of national pharmaceutical policies and regulations. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which investigates the Iranian pharmaceutical market over a 13-year period (1997-2010). This study used the Iranian pharmaceutical statistical datasheet published by the Iranian Ministry of Health. Systematic searches of the relevant Persian and English research literature were made. In addition, official government documents were analyzed as sources of both data and detailed statements of policy. Analysis of the Iranian pharmaceutical market in the 13-year period shows that medicine consumption sales value growth has been 28.38% annually. Determination of domestic production and import reveals that 9.3% and 42.3% annual growth, respectively, have been experienced. The Iranian pharmaceutical market has undergone great growth in comparison with developing countries and the pharmerging group, and the market is expanding quickly while a major share goes to biotechnology drugs, which implies the need to commercialization activities in novel fields like pharmaceutical biotechnology. This market expansion has been in favor of imported medicine in sales terms, caused by the reinforcement of suspicious policies of policy makers that necessitates fundamental rearrangements.

  19. Social Media and Marketing Education: A Review of Current Practices in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…

  20. Retailing I: A Foundation for Marketing and Distributive Education Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kathryn Scruggs

    Designed to serve as a foundation for competency-based marketing and distributive education curriculum development, this package consists of task lists, performance objectives, and performance guides for use in planning an introductory level retailing course. Job descriptions are given for receiving clerks, stock clerks, and salespersons/sales…

  1. Developing and Teaching an Online MBA Marketing Research Class: Implications for Online Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qin; Ganesh, Gopala

    2014-01-01

    The authors intend to describe the experience of developing and teaching an online marketing research class for master of business administration students. The class has been taught for four fall semesters. Each time, the class also completed an online survey, analyzed the resulting data, and wrote a detailed report for a real client. The course…

  2. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    PubMed

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  3. [Macroscopic analysis on production and marketing of medicinal material resources for sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peigen; Zhao, Runhuai; Long, Xingehao; Guo, Baolin

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, the production and marketing of medicinal materials of plant origin are sorted and analyzed. The total annual yield and total output value are presented. The resources sustainable development is discussed by three aspects, i.e., the yield Top 60 items, rare and endangered species and several wild drugs should be deeply concerned. Relevant measures and implementation are recommended respectively.

  4. Guidelines for the development of social marketing programmes for sun protection among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K M; Jones, S C; Iverson, D

    2009-09-01

    To formulate 'best practice' guidelines for social marketing programmes for adolescents' and young adults' sun protection. A Delphi consensus process. Eleven experts in sun protection and social marketing participated in a Delphi consensus process, where they were asked to provide up to 10 key points, based on their knowledge and practical experience, which they felt were most important in developing social marketing interventions for the primary prevention of skin cancer among adolescents and young adults. After reaching consensus, the evidence base for each guideline was determined and graded via the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network grading system. Participants were then asked to indicate how strongly they rated the finalized 15 recommendations based on all aspects relating to their knowledge and practical opinion, as well as the research evidence, on a visual analogue scale. The resultant 15 guidelines offer general principles for sun protection interventions utilizing a social marketing approach. This method of guideline development brought the expertise of practitioners to the forefront of guideline development, whilst still utilizing established methods of evidence confirmation. It thus offers a useful method for guideline development in a public health context.

  5. Perspectives on the Development of LNG Market Hubs in the Asia Pacific Region

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses current initiatives to establish regional liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading hubs and pricing benchmarks in Asia and assesses the prospects for the Asian gas hubs in the near future. The report examines the characteristics of successful natural gas trading hubs and develops qualitative and quantitative indicators of the components of effective hubs, with emphasis on applying these indicators to Asian markets

  6. Matching of Developed Generic Competences of Graduates in Higher Education with Labour Market Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Pileicikiene, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Higher education provides graduates with both monetary and non-monetary benefits. Globalization and technological developments foster utilitarian approach, therefore the transmission of competences that are relevant in labour market is an important target for higher education institutions. The paper presents findings of research on the match of…

  7. A Model for the Development an Upper-Division Marketing Certificate Program: Professional Sales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Joyce L.

    The sequential components of a model for the development of an upper-division marketing certificate program in professional sales are described in this report as they were implemented at the University of Minnesota's General College during Fall 1980. After introductory material examining the responsibilities of the professional sales…

  8. Argonne Lab and U. of Chicago Form a Partnership to Develop and Market Their Scientists' Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1989-01-01

    Four investors have committed $8.5 million to start companies based on discoveries made at the University of Chicago and the Argonne National Laboratory. It may be the first venture-capital fund to market products flowing from a federal laboratory. Graduate student volunteers are doing most of the development work. (MSE)

  9. Using Innovative Technology to Develop Sustainable Assessment Practices in Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debuse, Justin C. W.; Lawley, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Timely, constructive feedback on assessment is critically important to students and yet is increasingly difficult for time-poor academics to consistently provide. Marketing educators also face pressure to incorporate sustainability into both the curriculum and practices such as assessment. This article outlines the development of an innovative…

  10. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  11. 76 FR 21327 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Development Cooperator Program Announcement Type: New. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number... markets for U.S. agricultural commodities and products through cost-share assistance. Financial assistance... which results can be measured at specific intervals using quantifiable product or country goals. The FAS...

  12. Challenges in the clinical development requirements for the marketing authorization of new medicines in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kudrin, Alex

    2009-03-01

    A rapid growth of investment into clinical research and new drug development has manifested itself by an exponential increase of new products coming onto the worldwide market. The emerging pharmaceutical and biotech markets in Southeast Asia are believed to be extremely promising from a commercial point of view in the next decade. The unique position of the Asian market and the diversity in clinical research initiatives are linked with diverse regulatory requirements for clinical development and registration of new medicines. Some of these differences have an impact on timelines for marketing authorizations in South Korea, China, Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and other countries. One of the approaches to streamlining regulatory strategy in different countries is the initiation of multicountry international clinical trials trying to address requirements and allowing registration in several regional countries simultaneously. Increasing cooperation between South Asian countries in relation to regulatory requirements and clinical development will facilitate the registration of innovative medicines in this rapidly developing region of the world and enable improved cohesiveness between countries in a drug safety framework.

  13. Using Innovative Technology to Develop Sustainable Assessment Practices in Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debuse, Justin C. W.; Lawley, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Timely, constructive feedback on assessment is critically important to students and yet is increasingly difficult for time-poor academics to consistently provide. Marketing educators also face pressure to incorporate sustainability into both the curriculum and practices such as assessment. This article outlines the development of an innovative…

  14. Development of a Marketing Services Curriculum Guide. Final Report, September 1, 1979-June 30, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Vocational Education Studies.

    A project was conducted to develop a marketing services curriculum guide for secondary and postsecondary distributive education programs in the areas of real estate and business/personal services. Interviews were conducted with business people in these two areas to establish their entry-level positions and career-advancement opportunities.…

  15. Developing and Teaching an Online MBA Marketing Research Class: Implications for Online Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qin; Ganesh, Gopala

    2014-01-01

    The authors intend to describe the experience of developing and teaching an online marketing research class for master of business administration students. The class has been taught for four fall semesters. Each time, the class also completed an online survey, analyzed the resulting data, and wrote a detailed report for a real client. The course…

  16. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  17. Argonne Lab and U. of Chicago Form a Partnership to Develop and Market Their Scientists' Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1989-01-01

    Four investors have committed $8.5 million to start companies based on discoveries made at the University of Chicago and the Argonne National Laboratory. It may be the first venture-capital fund to market products flowing from a federal laboratory. Graduate student volunteers are doing most of the development work. (MSE)

  18. Social Media and Marketing Education: A Review of Current Practices in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…

  19. Duke Power Company's development of a biofouling monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Derwort, J.E.; Gnilka, A. )

    1991-11-01

    Biofouling programs at Duke Power Company (DPC) can be traced to the invasion of the Catawba River system by Corbicula in 1968. Raw water systems at Plant Allen, a coal-fired station on Lake Wylie, became heavily infested by clams during the 1970s. Development of programs was accelerated as a result of the shutdown of Catawba nuclear station (CNS) on lake Wylie in 1986 due to clam infestations in safety-related systems, increased biofouling problems at McGuire nuclear station (MNS) on lake Norman, and by the issuance of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Generic Letter (GL) 89-13 (issued in 1989). Historical data were reviewed to identify pertinent questions, and a refined, multifaceted Corbicula monitoring plan was developed. This plan was implemented at CNS and MNS in 1989.

  20. Development stress monitoring system based on personal digital assistant (PDA).

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-hee; Yang, Gyunghye; Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Bang, Seokwon

    2004-01-01

    We have developed nonintrusive type stress monitoring system based on the PDA (Personal Digital Assistance). This system separated sensing part of the physiological signal and estimating part of the stress states. First, sensing part consists of four electrodes such as one PPG electrode, two EDA electrodes and one SKT electrode. Sensing part was able to measuring heart rate, skin temperature variation, and electrodermal activity, all of which can be acquired without discomfort from finger. Second, estimating part was developed and verified for physiological signal database that was obtained from multiple subjects by presenting stress stimuli that were elaborated to effectively induce stress. This system is a useful measure of human stress in portabel device as PDA and smart phone.

  1. Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands: data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, Laura; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Johanna J; Van Der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market strongly increased. However, little is known about their toxic effects and risks. Therefore, we determined the most frequently occurring NPS in The Netherlands and combined this with data regarding drug-related intoxications. Data from the Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) and the Dutch Poisons Information Centre (DPIC) were combined and jointly analyzed. The number of drug samples submitted to DIMS for analysis containing NPS increased from 22 in 2007 to 431 samples in 2013. The most frequently submitted NPS in 2013 included 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), methoxetamine (MXE) and 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB). From 2012 onwards, the number of NPS bought as drug of choice exceeded those appearing as adulterants in established drugs. The DPIC was consulted about 35 NPS exposures in 2013, most frequently involving 4-FA, mephedrone, MXE, 2C-B and 6-APB. Following NPS exposure, neurological and psychological symptoms were most frequently reported, like agitation and hallucinations. In addition, cardiovascular symptoms like hypertension and tachycardia often occurred. NPS are currently being purchased as drug of choice in The Netherlands and their availability and use is increasing. Although pharmacological and toxicological data are scarce, NPS can induce pronounced clinical effects. Therefore, the monitoring of trends in NPS prevalence needs to be continued, combined with reported clinical effects, and preferably supported by analytical confirmation of exposures in such patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing the health care market in developing countries: prospects and problems.

    PubMed

    Broomberg, J

    1994-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the prospects for managed market reforms in developing countries, stimulated by current reforms and policy debates in developed countries, and by perceptions of widespread public sector inefficiency in many countries. This review examines the prospects for such reforms in a developing country context, primarily by drawing on the arguments and evidence emerging from developed countries, with a specific focus on the provision of hospital services. The paper begins with a discussion of the current policy context of these reforms, and their main features. It argues that while current and proposed reforms vary in detail, most have in common the introduction of competition in the provision of health care, with the retention of a public monopoly of financing, and that this structure emerges from the dual goals of addressing current public sector inefficiencies while retaining the known equity and efficiency advantages of public health systems. The paper then explores the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence for and against these reforms, and examines their relevance for developing countries. Managed markets are argued to enhance both efficiency and equity. These arguments are analysed in terms of three distinct claims made by their proponents: that managed markets will promote increased provider competition, and hence, provider efficiency; that contractual relationships are more efficient than direct management; and that the benefits of managed markets will outweigh their costs. The analysis suggests that on all three issues, the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence remain ambiguous, and that this ambiguity is attributable in part to poor understanding of the behaviour of health sector agents within the market, and to the limited experience with these reforms. In the context of developing countries, the paper argues that most of the conditions required for successful implementation of these reforms are absent in all but a

  3. Consistency assessment with global and bridging development strategies in emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chen, Josh; Quan, Hui; Shentu, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Global trial strategy with the participation of all major regions including countries from emerging markets surely increases new drug development efficiency. Nevertheless, there are circumstances in which some countries in emerging markets cannot join the original global trial. To evaluate the extrapolability of the original trial results to a new country, a bridging trial in the country has to be conducted. In this paper, we first evaluate the efficiency loss of the bridging trial strategy compared to that of the global trial strategy as a function of between-study variability from consistency assessment perspective. The provided evidence should encourage countries in emerging markets to make a greater effort to participate in the original global trial. We then discuss sample size requirement for desired assurance probability for consistency assessment based on various approaches for both global and bridging trial strategies. Examples are presented for numerical demonstration and comparisons.

  4. Market-based collaborative control of distributed multiple product development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yonghan; Kumara, Soundar R. T.

    2000-12-01

    Due to the widespread availability of the Internet large scale distributed projects in manufacturing are becoming popular. We present a distributed, collaborative, and adaptive control approach for distributed multiple product development projects (DMPDP), which is a representative project environment in modern e-enterprises. In DMPDP environment, multiple project groups share and compete for limited resources to achieve their own goals. On the other hand, the shared resource divisions try to utilize their resources efficiently. We suggest that this kind of situation can be well modeled and efficiently solved by using two novel approaches: multiagent based information infrastructure and market-based control mechanism. In this paper, we formalize the DMPDP control problem, and propose a market-based negotiation mechanism called sequential market clearing (SMC) protocol. For clear presentation, some of information system design and implementation issues are also presented.

  5. DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING AN ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY MONITORING, ASSESSMENT AND OUTREACH PROGRAM/THE MYSOUND PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT MYSound Project. The handbook highlights information and monitoring technologies developed from the EMPACT Long Island Sound Marine Monitoring (MYSound) Project. As part of the MYSound effort, telemetering data-buoys...

  6. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-woo; Jeong, Kyu-hwan; Kim, Jong-il; Im, Chae-wan

    2015-07-01

    Internet of things (IoT) technology has recently shown a large flow of IT trends in human life. In particular, our lives are now becoming integrated with a lot of items around the 'smart-phone' with IoT, including Bluetooth, Near Field Communication (NFC), Beacons, WiFi, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Our project focuses on the interconnection of radiation dosimetry and IoT technology. The radiation workers at a nuclear facility should hold personal dosimeters such as a Thermo-Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD), an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (OSL), pocket ionization chamber dosimeters, an Electronic Personal Dosimeter (EPD), or an alarm dosimeter on their body. Some of them have functions that generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers in a real working area. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions for communicating with other areas or the responsible personnel in real time. In particular, when conducting a particular task in a high dose area, or a number of repair works within a radiation field, radiation dose monitoring is important for the health of the workers and the work efficiency. Our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system (RWRD) that can be used to monitor the radiation dose in a nuclear facility for radiation workers and a radiation protection program In this project, a radiation dosimeter is the detection device for personal radiation dose, a smart phone is the mobile wireless communication tool, and, Beacon is the wireless starter for the detection, communication, and position of the worker using BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy). In this report, we report the design of the RWRD and a demonstration case in a real radiation field. (authors)

  8. Current status and future directions of post-marketing vaccine safety monitoring with focus on USA and Europe.

    PubMed

    Bonhoeffer, Jan; Black, Steve; Izurieta, Hector; Zuber, Patrick; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2012-09-01

    Vaccine safety research is a key component of public health programs. Regulatory agencies need to be able to make informed decisions. Public health authorities need to respond to vaccine concerns before they turn into large scale scares reducing vaccine uptake and derailing immunization programs. Several post-licensure vaccine safety monitoring systems have been established in the USA and Europe, and methods such as rapid cycle analysis have been developed for real-time detection and analysis of safety issues. Accurate and reliable vaccine product testing and monitoring requires high quality data of populations of 100 million and above depending on the frequency of the event, vaccine coverage, and the time pressure during which data need to be generated. This requires post-licensure safety studies utilizing large linked population based databases of exposure and outcomes. Harmonized methods for development and linkage of these databases across countries need to be further developed, validated and implemented. Concerted action between the US and Europe could move vaccine safety monitoring to today's level of requirements globally and should be pursued.

  9. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris; Witten, Karen

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. In retrospect stakeholders questioned the decision to approve strong synthetic cannabinoid smoking products, noting their health risks because of product formulation, inconsistent manufacturing practices and smoking as the means of administration. Industry actors claimed the decision to approve synthetic cannabinoid smokeable products prevented potentially safer products from gaining market share. The system for withdrawing approved products which were subsequently found to be harmful was criticised for the poor quality of data available, limited engagement with health professionals and the slowness of product withdrawal. Many of the problems with the regime were attributed to the urgency under which the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act was established and implemented. The selection of 'safer' products, implementation of the product monitoring system, and engagement with health professionals may have benefited from more time and resources. An incremental approach to establishing the new market may have made the regulatory management of the new regime more workable. [Rychert M, Wilkins C, Witten K. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Monitoring biomedical literature for post-market safety purposes by analyzing networks of text-based coded information.

    PubMed

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Foster, Matthew; Kreimeyer, Kory; Pandey, Abhishek; Forshee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Literature review is critical but time-consuming in the post-market surveillance of medical products. We focused on the safety signal of intussusception after the vaccination of infants with the Rotashield Vaccine in 1999 and retrieved all PubMed abstracts for rotavirus vaccines published after January 1, 1998. We used the Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records system, the MetaMap tool, and the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies Annotator to process the abstracts and generate coded terms stamped with the date of publication. Data were analyzed in the Pattern-based and Advanced Network Analyzer for Clinical Evaluation and Assessment to evaluate the intussusception-related findings before and after the release of the new rotavirus vaccines in 2006. The tight connection of intussusception with the historical signal in the first period and the absence of any safety concern for the new vaccines in the second period were verified. We demonstrated the feasibility for semi-automated solutions that may assist medical reviewers in monitoring biomedical literature.

  11. Organizational and market factors associated with leadership development programs in hospitals: a national study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Thompson, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership in hospitals is widely recognized as the key to organizational performance. Clinical, financial, and operational performance is increasingly being linked to the leadership practices of hospital managers. Moreover, effective leadership has been described as a means to achieve competitive advantage. Recent environmental forces, including reimbursement changes and increased competition, have prompted many hospitals to focus on building leadership competencies to successfully address these challenges. Using the resource dependence theory as our conceptual framework, we present results from a national study of hospitals examining the association of organizational and market factors with the provision of leadership development program activities, including the presence of a leadership development program, a diversity plan, a program for succession planning, and career development resources. The data are taken from the American Hospital Association's (AHA) 2008 Survey of Hospitals, the Area Resource File, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. The results of multilevel logistic regressions of each leadership development program activity on organizational and market factors indicate that hospital size, system and network affiliation, and accreditation are significantly and positively associated with all leadership development program activities. The market factors significantly associated with all leadership development activities include a positive odds ratio for metropolitan statistical area location and a negative odds ratio for the percentage of the hospital's service area population that is female and minority. For-profit hospitals are less likely to provide leadership development program activities. Additional findings are presented, and the implications for hospital management are discussed.

  12. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  13. Policy Building Blocks: Helping Policymakers Determine Policy Staging for the Development of Distributed PV Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing body of qualitative and a limited body of quantitative literature supporting the common assertion that policy drives development of clean energy resources. Recent work in this area indicates that the impact of policy depends on policy type, length of time in place, and economic and social contexts of implementation. This work aims to inform policymakers about the impact of different policy types and to assist in the staging of those policies to maximize individual policy effectiveness and development of the market. To do so, this paper provides a framework for policy development to support the market for distributed photovoltaic systems. Next steps include mathematical validation of the framework and development of specific policy pathways given state economic and resource contexts.

  14. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  15. AIM - Agile Instrumented Monitoring for Improving User Experience of Participation in HealthIT Development.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Janne; Nieminen, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Participation of healthcare professionals in information technology development has emerged as an important challenge. As end-users, the professionals are willing to participate in the development activities, but their experiences on the current methods of participation remain mostly negative. There is lack of applicable methods for meeting the needs of agile development approach and scaling up to the largest implementation projects, while maintaining the interest of the professional users to participate in development activities and keeping up their ability to continue working in a productive manner. In this paper, we describe the Agile Instrumented Monitoring as a methodology, based on the methods of instrumented usability evaluation, for improving user experience in HealthIT development. The contribution of the proposed methodology is analyzed in relation to activities of whole iteration cycle and chosen usability evaluation methods, while the user experience of participation is addressed regarding healthcare professionals. Prospective weak and strong market tests for AIM are discussed in the conclusions for future work.

  16. Sustainability and in situ monitoring in battery development.

    PubMed

    Grey, C P; Tarascon, J M

    2016-12-20

    The development of improved rechargeable batteries represents a major technological challenge for this new century, as batteries constitute the limiting components in the shift from petrol (gasoline) powered to electric vehicles, while also enabling the use of more renewable energy on the grid. To minimize the ecological implications associated with their wider use, we must integrate sustainability of battery materials into our research endeavours, choosing chemistries that have a minimum footprint in nature and that are more readily recycled or integrated into a full circular economy. Sustainability and cost concerns require that we greatly increase the battery lifetime and consider second lives for batteries. As part of this, we must monitor the state of health of batteries continuously during operation to minimize their degradation. It is thus important to push the frontiers of operando techniques to monitor increasingly complex processes. In this Review, we will describe key advances in both more sustainable chemistries and operando techniques, along with some of the remaining challenges and possible solutions, as we personally perceive them.

  17. [Development and Design of Portable Sleep Electroencephalogram Monitoring System].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Ye, Datian; Peng, Cheng

    2015-06-01

    The growing rate of public health problem for increasing number of people afflicted with poor sleep quality suggests the importance of developing portable sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems. The system could record the overnight EEG signal, classify sleep stages automatically, and grade the sleep quality. We in our laboratory collected the signals in an easy way using a single channel with three electrodes which were placed in frontal position in case of the electrode drop-off during sleep. For a test, either silver disc electrodes or disposable medical electrocardiographic electrodes were used. Sleep EEG recorded by the two types of electrodes was compared to each other so as to find out which type was more suitable. Two algorithms were used for sleep EEG processing, i. e. amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) algorithm and sample entropy algorithm. Results showed that both algorithms could perform sleep stage classification and quality evaluation automatically. The present designed system could be used to monitor overnight sleep and provide quantitative evaluation.

  18. Options for the Development of Noninvasive Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andreas; Heinemann, Lutz; Ramírez, Araceli; Zehe, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays nanotechnology has many applications in products used in various areas of daily life; however, this technology has also an option in modern medicine and pharmacy. Therefore, this technology is also an attractive option for the field of diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Many people with diabetes measure their blood glucose levels regularly to determine the insulin dose. Ideally glucose values would be measured noninvasively (NI). However, none of all the NI approaches studied in the past decades enabled reliable NI measurements under all daily life conditions. Particularly an unfavorable signal-to-noise ratio turned out to be problematic. Based on the known physical possibilities for NI glucose monitoring the focus of this review is on nanotechnology approaches. Functional prototypes exist for some of these that showed promising results under defined laboratory conditions, indicating a good sensitivity and selectivity for glucose. On the second hand is to optimize the technological process of manufacturing. In view of the rapid progress in micro- and nanoelectronics hopefully NI glucose monitoring systems can be developed in the near future. PMID:26581879

  19. Development of wireless sensor network for monitoring indoor air pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad

    2015-05-01

    The air that we breathe with everyday contains variety of contaminants and particles. Some of these contaminants and particles are hazardous to human health. Most of the people don't realize that the content of air they being exposed to whether it was a good or bad air quality. The air quality whether in indoor or outdoor environment can be influenced by physical factors like dust particles, gaseous pollutants (including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) and biological like molds and bacteria growth which largely depend on temperature and humidity condition of a room. These kinds of pollutants can affect human health, physical reaction, comfort or work performance. In this study, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system for monitor air pollutant in indoor environment was developed. The system was divided into three parts: web-based interface program, sensing module and a base station. The measured data was displayed on the web which is can be accessed by the user. The result shows that the overall measured parameters were meet the acceptable limit, requirement and criteria of indoor air pollution inside the building. The research can be used to improve the indoor air quality level in order to create a comfortable working and healthy environment for the occupants inside the building.

  20. Sustainability and in situ monitoring in battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, C. P.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of improved rechargeable batteries represents a major technological challenge for this new century, as batteries constitute the limiting components in the shift from petrol (gasoline) powered to electric vehicles, while also enabling the use of more renewable energy on the grid. To minimize the ecological implications associated with their wider use, we must integrate sustainability of battery materials into our research endeavours, choosing chemistries that have a minimum footprint in nature and that are more readily recycled or integrated into a full circular economy. Sustainability and cost concerns require that we greatly increase the battery lifetime and consider second lives for batteries. As part of this, we must monitor the state of health of batteries continuously during operation to minimize their degradation. It is thus important to push the frontiers of operando techniques to monitor increasingly complex processes. In this Review, we will describe key advances in both more sustainable chemistries and operando techniques, along with some of the remaining challenges and possible solutions, as we personally perceive them.