Science.gov

Sample records for marmora sea

  1. Application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and chemometrics to the differentiation of marmora samples from the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Marini, Federico; Tomassetti, Mauro; Piacentini, Mario; Campanella, Luigi; Flamini, Paola

    2016-06-07

    Near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray fluorescence spectra were recorded for 15 different samples of marmora, from the Mediterranean Basin and of different colours. After appropriate pretreatment (SNV transform + second derivative), the results were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) treatment with a view to differentiating them. The observed differences among the samples were chemically interpreted by highlighting the NIR wavelengths and minerals, respectively, contributing the most to the PCA models. Moreover, a mid-level data fusion protocol allowed integrating the information from the different techniques and, in particular, to correctly identify (based on the distance in the score space) three test samples of known type. Moreover, it should be stressed that positive results on the differentiation and identification of marmora were obtained using two completely non-invasive, non-destructive and relatively inexpensive techniques, which can also be used in situ.

  2. Estimation of Suspended and Dissolved Matter Concentration In Sea Water On Shelves By Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelevin, V.; Rostovtseva, V.

    Falling of rivers into the seas or surging in shallow aquatoria cause the violation of the balance between living and dead matter occurring in the open ocean ( Pelevin and Rostovtseva, 2001). That means in littoral arias the one-parameter model of sea waters optical properties developed for the open ocean (Pelevin and Rostovtseva, 1997) is not valid. We suggest to use the three-parameters model of light scattering and absorbing prop- erties of sea water for the most arias on shelves. The three parameters are: the coeffi- cient of light absorption by coloured matter at 500 nm (coloured matter includes both chlorophyll pigments and "yellow substance"), the coefficient of light absorption by suspended matter and the coefficient of light backscattering by suspended matter. For some specific shelf arias with coloured suspended matter we suggest to add the fourth parameter taking into account the spectral dependence of backscattering by suspended matter. The method of such type arias determination is also given. The algorithm of solution of the inverse problem of these parameters estimation using optical remote sensing data obtained from satellites is developed. It consists of two steps: the rough determination of the parameters values by some spectral characteris- tics and then the minimization of real and model spectra discrepancy. The suggested algorithm was used for spectral distribution of upward radiation mea- sured in the Black, Marmora and Baltic Seas. Comparison of the obtained results with some data of direct measurements carried out in these aquatoria proved the validity of the model for these shelf waters and showed the efficiency of the suggested approach. V.N.Pelevin and V.V.Rostovtseva , 1997, Estimation of lightscattering and lightabsorb- ing admixture concentration in open ocean waters of different types.- Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics, 10(9), 989-995. V.N.Pelevin and V.V.Rostovtseva, 2001, Modelling of optic- biological parameters of open ocean waters

  3. Salish Sea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Health of the Salish Sea Report is a collaboration between EPA and Environment Canada to examine the health of the Salish Sea ecosystem in Washington and British Columbia, encompassing the Puget Sound and Georgia Basin.

  4. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of ... 2000 - The Red Sea between the East Africa coast and Saudi Arabian peninsula. project:  MISR category:  ...

  5. Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies of the Bering Sea were relatively clear again in this SeaWiFS image showing a band of aquamarine colored water. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Much of the Bering Sea is clear in this SeaWiFS image. The large expanse of bright aquamarine water is clearly visible. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Caspian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from December 3, 2001, winter sea ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) Seas. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian Sea averages only 17 feet in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the Sea is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the sea bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral Sea is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral Sea 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The Sea is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18oF, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral Sea continue to be diverted for agriculture, the Sea becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... sometimes results in copious phytoplankton production and oxygen depletion of the subsurface waters. Although red phytoplankton fluorescences have been associated with the low oxygen concentrations in the intermediate and deep waters of the Arabian Sea, ...

  9. Sea Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  10. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  11. Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  13. Sea Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-28

    OE-10, 47i- 476, (1985). 15. S. Tang and 0. H. Shemdin , "Measurement of High-frequency Waves using a Wave Fol- lower," J. Geophys. Res. 88. 9832...DESCRIPTION OF THE SEA SURFACE ................................................................... 2 The Wave Spectrum...Very Low Grazing Angles ......................................................................... 16 At HF and mm- Wave Frequencies

  14. From Sea to Shining Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Deep down in the depths of the sea, beautiful fish, mysterious ocean life, and unusual plants glimmer and glow in the eerie atmosphere of an ever-changing ocean. This article describes how, with this vision and a purpose in mind, three teachers pulled open classroom walls and joined forces so their second graders could create a mammoth 30 x 75"…

  15. Melting Ice, Rising Seas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  16. Mammals of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  17. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  18. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  19. Beaufort Sea: information update

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.

    1988-04-01

    The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

  20. Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral.

  1. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss... boundaries; and (3) Be managed and maintained using acceptable growing practices for the geographical...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss... boundaries; and (3) Be managed and maintained using acceptable growing practices for the geographical...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss... boundaries; and (3) Be managed and maintained using acceptable growing practices for the geographical...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss..., as determined by CCC. (e) The land, waterbed, or facility in which the eligible commodity was...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss..., as determined by CCC. (e) The land, waterbed, or facility in which the eligible commodity was...

  6. Deep sea waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

  7. All That Unplowed Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

  8. The Caspian Sea Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostianoy, Andrey; Kosarev, A.

    The systematic description of the knowledge accumulated on the physical oceanography, marine chemistry and pollution, and marine biology of the Caspian Sea forms the basis of this book. It presents the principal characteristic features of the environmental conditions of the sea and their changes in the second half of the 20th century. At present, the principal problems of the Caspian Sea are related to the interannual sea level changes and their forecast and to the estimation of the intensity of the chemical pollution of the sea and its impact upon the biota.

  9. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  10. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    PubMed Central

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  12. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-05-07

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans.

  13. SeaQuaKE: Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    SeaQuaKE: Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange Technical Progress Report No. 3 Prepared for: Office...From - To) September 2014  November 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SeaQuaKE: Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange Technical Progress Report No. 1...ONRBAA13-001 14. ABSTRACT This is the 3rd quarterly Technical Progress Report summarizing progress on the Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange (SeaQuaKE

  14. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  15. Sea Anemone: Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

  16. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  17. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  18. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  19. Sea Otter Enhydra lutris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    1997-01-01

    The sea otter, Enhydra lutris, is the largest member of the Mustelidae family and is the only one which lives entirely in marine waters. Sea otters are unique among marine mammals because, unlike whales, dolphins and seals, they do not have a layer of fat or blubber to keep them warm in the cool oceans of the North Pacific. Instead, sea otters depend on dense fur that traps tiny air bubbles to insulate them from the cold water. To stay warm, they also must maintain a very high metabolic rate, requiring the sea otter to eat about 25% of its body weight per day. Sea otters eat mostly invertebrates - clams, crabs, urchins, and mussels - found in shallow coastal waters.

  20. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  1. Dead sea water intoxication.

    PubMed

    Levy-Khademi, Floris; Brooks, Rebecca; Maayan, Channa; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Wexler, Isaiah D

    2012-08-01

    Near drowning in the Dead Sea is associated with both respiratory manifestations and severe electrolyte abnormalities. It is often difficult to distinguish between the contributions of sea water aspiration or ingestion to clinical manifestations. We present a unique case of accidental ingestion of a large amount of Dead Sea water through a gastrostomy tube in which a patient with familial dysautonomia presented with severe electrolyte disturbances. Forced diuresis with large amounts of intravenous fluids resulted in clinical and biochemical improvement. Full recovery was achieved after 2 days of treatment.

  2. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  3. The north Sulu Sea productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

  4. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  5. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  6. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  7. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  9. Alaska: Beaufort Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... to improving our knowledge and understanding of polar weather and long term climate fluctuations. These views from two satellite ... the same geographic area. To identify sea ice types, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ice Center ...

  10. Sea Ice Minimum 2016

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Mar. 24, 2016, and was the lowest on record for the second year in a row, to ...

  11. A Sea Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a teacher education program organized by the Sea Education Association in Woods Hole (Massachusetts). The experience, including activities and examples of studies conducted, is discussed. Contact information for future cruises is included. (CW)

  12. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  13. Sensing the sea bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    William Wilcock and a team of scientists and engineers drilled holes in the sea floor, and inadvertently provided a breeding ground for octopuses, in their attempt to understand deep-ocean hydrothermal venting.

  14. Sea Raiders of Acadia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickason, Olive Patricia

    1976-01-01

    One of the French allies, the Micmac, waged much of the war against the English on the sea. This article discusses the determined stand by the Micmac seamen of the eastern coasts for their lands and way of life. (NQ)

  15. A Sea Floor Penetrometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    processed through an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, and stored in the memory of a mini-computer. Computer algorithms are applied to the deceleration data to provide real-time sea floor classification.

  16. Teacher at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighley, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the experiences of a teacher in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Teacher At Sea Program in which teachers are placed on NOAA vessels to work with professional scientists doing critical, real world research. (DDR)

  17. South China Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  18. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  19. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  20. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  1. Analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature changes in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Avsar, Nevin; Jin, Shuanggen; Kutoglu, Hakan; Erol, Bihter

    2016-07-01

    The Black Sea is a nearly closed sea with limited interaction with the Mediterranean Sea through the Turkish Straits. Measurement of sea level change will provide constraints on the water mass balance and thermal expansion of seawaters in response to climate change. In this paper, sea level changes in the Black Sea are investigated between January 1993 and December 2014 using multi-mission satellite altimetry data and sea surface temperature (SST) data. Here, the daily Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) gridded with a 1/8°x1/8° spatial resolution from AVISO and the NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Anomaly data set are used. The annual cycles of sea level and sea surface temperature changes reach the maximum values in November and January, respectively. The trend is 3.16±0.77 mm/yr for sea level change and -0.06±0.01°C/yr for sea surface temperature during the same 22-year period. The observed sea level rise is highly correlated with sea surface warming for the same time periods. In addition, the geographical distribution of the rates of the Black Sea level and SST changes between January 1993 and December 2014 are further analyzed, showing a good agreement in the eastern Black Sea. The rates of sea level rise and sea surface warming are larger in the eastern part than in the western part except in the northwestern Black Sea. Finally, the temporal correlation between sea level and SST time series are presented based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis.

  2. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  3. Annual sea ice. An air-sea gas exchange moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T.A.; Kelley, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Arctic annual sea ice, particularly when it is relatively warm (> -15/sup 0/C) permits significant gas exchange between the sea and air throughout the entire year. Sea ice, particularly annual sea ice, differs from freshwater ice with respect to its permeability to gases. The presence of brine allows for significant air-sea-ice exchange of CO/sub 2/ throughout the winter, which may significantly affect the global carbon dioxide balance. Other trace gases are also noted to be enriched in sea ice, but less is known about their importance to air-sea-interactions at this time. Both physical and biological factors cause and modify evolution of gases from the surface of sea ice. Quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the nature and physical behavior of sea ice with respect to brine and gases are discussed.

  4. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  5. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  6. The Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop

  7. The Barents Sea. The White Sea (Barentsovo More. Beloe More),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fauna and flora of the water basins are analyzed, pointing out the typical specimens and variations in species inhabiting the White Sea which has a higher salinity and lower water temperature than the Barents Sea. (Author)

  8. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  9. Geology of Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

    1984-09-01

    The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

  10. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  11. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  12. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  13. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  14. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. The National Sea Grant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Barbara S.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the National Sea Grant College Program which supports education and training, research, and advisory extension services through the National Office of Sea Grant and the Sea Grant Network of 30 programs in coastal and Great Lake states. Water-related topics include water's relationship to nature, society, and human expression.…

  16. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  17. Solar Sea Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  18. The Provident Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, David H.

    1988-09-01

    The Provident Sea describes the history of fish stock management (including whales and seals). The book traces, on the basis of the original scientific material, the history of the management of "the provident sea" up to recent times when problems of over-exploitation have had dramatic effects upon stocks. The need for management arose mainly from the increasing industrialization of capture. Hence the preindustrial fisheries are covered, in particular the old cod fishery on the Grand Bank and the herring fishery in the North Sea, as an essential background to current problems. The origins of fisheries and whaling science are described, as is the development up to 1965 of the science and institution in fisheries, whaling, and sealing. In the sixties and seventies, certain major fishing nations took a heavy harvest of fish stocks using sophisticated and efficient gathering methods. This in turn led to conflict and one consequence was the "Law of the Sea" conference set up to try and resolve these issues.

  19. Harvesting the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    Information on commercial fishing is provided, and a board game is described which requires students to watch for ocean signs of good fishing, choose equipment to catch specific types of fish, and consider effects of weather on working at sea. A reproducible copy of the game, with instructions, is included. (IAH)

  20. Virtual sea border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, D.; Rucinski, A.; Jankowski, T.

    2007-04-01

    Establishing a Virtual Sea Border by performing a real-time, satellite-accessible Internet-based bio-metric supported threat assessment of arriving foreign-flagged cargo ships, their management and ownership, their arrival terminal operator and owner, and rewarding proven legitimate operators with an economic incentive for their transparency will simultaneously improve port security and maritime transportation efficiencies.

  1. Egyptian Sea Cave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

  2. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

  3. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in…

  4. Sea Grant's Education Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    Considers the status of the education agenda of the Sea Grant Program as it turns 30. Projects described include Operation Pathfinder, which aims to educate minority teachers and/or teachers of minority students. Also described are a program in which seafood processors and resellers are trained in safety and health areas, and programs to train…

  5. The Cosmonaut Sea Wedge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solli, K.; Kuvaas, B.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.

    2007-01-01

    A set of multi-channel seismic profiles (~15000 km) acquired by Russia, Norway and Australia has been used to investigate the depositional evolution of the Cosmonaut Sea margin of East Antarctica. We recognize a regional sediment wedge below the upper part of the continental rise. The wedge, herein termed the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge, is positioned stratigraphically underneath the inferred glaciomarine section and extends for at least 1200 km along the continental margin and from 80 to about 250 km seaward or to the north. Lateral variations in the growth pattern of the wedge indicate several overlapping depocentres, which at their distal northern end are flanked by elongated mounded drifts and contourite sheets. The internal stratification of the mounded drift deposits suggests that westward flowing bottom currents reworked the marginal deposits. The action of these currents together with sea-level changes is considered to have controlled the growth of the wedge. We interpret the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge as a composite feature comprising several bottom current reworked fan systems.

  6. Classroom of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupper, Mary Laporta; Monte, Denise; Scheifele, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Sea Program in which participant students were deaf and collaborated with a bioacoustician. Studies the underwater noise levels of the Gulf of Maine and the possible impacts on marine life. Explains implementing this project in the science curriculum. (YDS)

  7. Sea-Level Projections from the SeaRISE Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) is a community organized modeling effort, whose goal is to inform the fifth IPCC of the potential sea-level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the 21st and 22nd century. SeaRISE seeks to determine the most likely ice sheet response to imposed climatic forcing by initializing an ensemble of models with common datasets and applying the same forcing to each model. Sensitivity experiments were designed to quantify the sea-level rise associated with a change in: 1) surface mass balance, 2) basal lubrication, and 3) ocean induced basal melt. The range of responses, resulting from the multi-model approach, is interpreted as a proxy of uncertainty in our sea-level projections. http://websrv.cs .umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

  8. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Sea ice/climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives were to determine and analyze the annual cycle of sea ice extents in the Arctic Ocean and peripheral seas and bays over the period 1973 to 1986, looking in particular for any long term trends; to examine the relationship between local sea ice covers and the surrounding atmosphere and ocean; and to examine sea ice as a potential early indicator of climate change. The work involves creating regional and hemispheric time series of sea ice variables from satellite passive microwave data and analyzing these through various intercomparisons amongst themselves and with oceanographic and atmospheric fields.

  10. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  11. Sea Basing Logistiek

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    iets wat nu voor zware goederen niet mogeljk is met de middelen binnen de Nederlandse krijgsmachit. Nederland heeft bijvoorbeeld (nog) geen specifieke...weer gevechtsklaar zijn. Nederlandse troepen voeren de reconstitute fase in het algemeen uit in Nederland . [Kang&Gue] A special concern in sea based...besluit Nederland zelf in te grijpen. De Nederlandse vredesmissie bevindt zich nabij de kust. maar ver van de grens met buurlanden. De operatie kan niet

  12. Sailing the Cyber Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    navigating within boundaries and respecting borders. There is another domain that tests such classification and definition. It is similar to the seas in its...further connect us in ways that we have not yet begun to assimilate into our societies and our cultural norms—particularly in the United States. As the...look at the underlying technologies and their transformational effect on our culture , our institutions, and our social fabric. We must also

  13. Altimeter Sea Ice Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Science Fax- 164513 Chalmers University of TechnologyI S-41296 Goteborg, Sweden 5 Altimeter Sea Ice Workshop Presentation Summary Hawkins: Present U.S...into the ground. A large tent slides over the top of the pond for solar shading and inclement weather protection. A mobile gantry, which spans the width...tracks can covering the pond to protect the growing ice from weather when necessary. A walkway mounted on the tracks serves as a mobile base on which the

  14. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.

    PubMed

    Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (∼2 M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms.

  16. Connected-Sea Partons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chang, Wen-Chen; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Peng, Jen-Chieh

    2012-12-01

    According to the path-integral formalism of the hadronic tensor, the nucleon sea contains two distinct components called the connected sea (CS) and the disconnected sea (DS). We discuss how the CS and DS are accessed in the lattice QCD calculation of the moments of the parton distributions. We show that the CS and DS components of u¯(x)+d¯(x) can be extracted by using recent data on the strangeness parton distribution, the CT10 global fit, and the lattice result of the ratio of the strange to u(d) moments in the disconnected insertion. The extracted CS and DS for u¯(x)+d¯(x) have a distinct Bjorken x dependence in qualitative agreement with expectation. The analysis also shows that the momentum fraction of u¯(x)+d¯(x) is about equally divided between the CS and DS at Q2=2.5GeV2. Implications for the future global analysis of parton distributions are presented.

  17. Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

  18. Late Pleistocene Sea Level Stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, R. M.; Lisiecki, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Sea level reconstructions have been created using wide variety of proxies and models. The accuracy of individual sea level reconstructions is limited by measurement, noise, local variations in salinity and temperature, and the assumptions particular to each reconstruction. To address these limitations, we have created a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of sea level estimates by combining 5-7 sea level reconstructions over the last 800 kyr. Principal Component analysis (PCA) of seven sea level records from 0-430 kyr ago shows that 82% of the variance in these records is explained by their first principal component (i.e., the stack). Additionally, a stack of just the 5 longer records that extends to 800 kyr closely matches the timing and amplitude of our seven-record mean. We find that the mean sea level estimate for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e is 0-4 m above modern, and that the standard deviation of individual estimates is 11 m. Mean sea level estimates for MIS 11 are 12-16 m above modern with a standard deviation of 30 m. Due to the large variability between individual reconstructions, our sea level stack may provide more robust sea level estimates than any single technique.

  19. Arctic landfast sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  20. Advanced Concepts for Sea Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    technology sea control missions, 1,000 tonnes to advances occur, and the threat needs 25,000 tonnes would be representative change, a proper balance can be...sea loiter aircraft, conventional subcavitating fully-sub- utilizing the stopped rotor concept; merged foils, thus providing a very a small sea...augmentation engines have been platform characteristics at conventional moved from their overhung location to a displacement ship speeds but at a re- . place

  1. The USGS Salton Sea Science Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, Harvey Lee; Barnum, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.

  2. Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

    This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

  3. Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

    2012-12-01

    The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

  4. Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon

    2013-04-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  5. Sea Urchin Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    In the sea urchin morphogenesis follows extensive molecular specification. The specification controls the many morphogenetic events and these, in turn, precede patterning steps that establish the larval body plan. To understand how the embryo is built it was necessary to understand those series of molecular steps. Here an example of the historical sequence of those discoveries is presented as it unfolded over the last 50 years, the years during which major progress in understanding development of many animals and plants was documented by CTDB. In sea urchin development a rich series of experimental studies first established many of the phenomenological components of skeletal morphogenesis and patterning without knowledge of the molecular components. The many discoveries of transcription factors, signals, and structural proteins that contribute to the shape of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin larva then followed as molecular tools became available. A number of transcription factors and signals were discovered that were necessary for specification, morphogenesis, and patterning. Perturbation of the transcription factors and signals provided the means for assembling models of the gene regulatory networks used for specification and controlled the subsequent morphogenetic events. The earlier experimental information informed perturbation experiments that asked how patterning worked. As a consequence it was learned that ectoderm provides a series of patterning signals to the skeletogenic cells and as a consequence the skeletogenic cells secrete a highly patterned skeleton based on their ability to genotypically decode the localized reception of several signals. We still do not understand the complexity of the signals received by the skeletogenic cells, nor do we understand in detail how the genotypic information shapes the secreted skeletal biomineral, but the current knowledge at least outlines the sequence of events and provides a useful template for future

  6. The Sea Around Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Rachel L.

    1991-12-01

    Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our

  7. Rough Sea Transfer Ship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    GROUP 2.3 2.36003 TRIAGE 20.00 60.00 GROUP 2.4 2.41005 VENDING MACHINE AREA 1.84 5.53 2.42001 LAUNDRY 27.15 81.44 GROUP 2.5...Research Enterprise Intern Program Rough Seas Transfer Ship Acknowledgements This report is the culmination of work conducted by students hired...under the National Research Enterprise Intern Program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. This program provides an opportunity for students to

  8. Law of the sea

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, E.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Law of the Sea Treaty is designed as an umbrella treaty to provide a general legal framework for dealing with sources of marine pollution, 85% of which are land-based. Unlike smaller bodies of water, the oceans may be too large to reverse the effects of pollution beyond a certain point. Besides land-based sources, the treaty addresses pollution from seabed activities, dumping, airborne pollutants, and vessels. Basic jurisdictional rights and duties are established that protect navigational freedoms as well as prevent pollution. (DCK)

  9. Taming the Outlaw Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    skull-and-crossbones flag, à la Walt Disney World’s “Pirates of the Ca- ribbean” attraction. But to those who have been victims of their blades and bul...TAMING THE OUTLAW SEA Admiral James G. Stavridis, U.S. Navy, and Lieutenant Commander Richard E. LeBron, U.S. Navy The goods of the world move...the poet Arion of Methymna in an attempt to steal his riches.2 As is the case today in the Horn of Africa, piracy in the ancient Mediterranean world

  10. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens

  11. Long Term Sea Level Change in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Emin, Özsoy

    2016-04-01

    Since 1992, altimeter missions have dramatically improved our knowledge and understanding of the oceans.This study investigates the long term sea level change during 1992-2015 in the Black Sea. The satellite altimeter data of the Topex-Poseidon, ERS-1 ands ERS-2 missions and sea level variations of 25 tide gauge stations and temperature/salinity data of 25 Argo float observed in the Black Sea are used for the analysis. The altimeter data are assessed and compared with the data from tide gauges and Argo floats in the Black Sea. First ARGO T/S profiles are used to assess the discrepancies observed between the altimeters. Then in situ measurements are compared with multiple altimeter data to detect in situ measurement anomalies and the corrections applied to improve the consistency of the data sets.

  12. Ice in Caspian Sea and Aral Sea, Kazakhstan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this MODIS image from December 3, 2001, winter sea ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) Seas. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian Sea averages only 17 ft in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the Sea is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the sea bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral Sea is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral Sea 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The Sea is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18o F, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral Sea continue to be diverted for agriculture, the Sea becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Greenland Sea observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmandsen, P.; Mortensen, H.B.; Pedersen, L.T.; Skriver, H.; Minnett, P.

    1992-12-31

    ERS-1 SAR data have been acquired over the Greenland Sea and Fram Strait during two periods, the Ice Phase of three-day repeat cycle from January to March 1992 and a one-month period in the 35-day repeat cycle from 16 July to 15 August 1992. Most data became available by way of the Broadband Data Dissemination System, i.e. with a spatial resolution of about 100 m. With these data various algorithms have been tested to derive sea ice parameters such as ice extent, ice concentration and ice displacement. In the latter period data were collected to support the activities of a research vessel in the area mainly related to the large polynyas that form east and north of Greenland. The formation of polynyas could clearly be outlined but also other phenomena were observed related to the influence of wind streets and gravity waves associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. The data will have to be studied further including full-resolution data to substantiate the conclusions arrived at.

  14. A Silurian sea spider.

    PubMed

    Siveter, Derek J; Sutton, Mark D; Briggs, Derek E G; Siveter, David J

    2004-10-21

    Pycnogonids (sea spiders) are marine arthropods numbering some 1,160 extant species. They are globally distributed in depths of up to 6,000 metres, and locally abundant; however, their typically delicate form and non-biomineralized cuticle has resulted in an extremely sparse fossil record that is not accepted universally. There are two opposing views of their phylogenetic position: either within Chelicerata as sister group to the euchelicerates, or as a sister taxon to all other euarthropods. The Silurian Herefordshire Konservat-Lagerstatte in England (approximately 425 million years (Myr) bp) yields exceptionally preserved three-dimensional fossils that provide unrivalled insights into the palaeobiology of a variety of invertebrates. The fossils are preserved as calcitic void in-fills in carbonate concretions within a volcaniclastic horizon, and are reconstructed digitally. Here we describe a new pycnogonid from this deposit, which is the oldest adult sea spider by approximately 35 Myr and the most completely known fossil species. The large chelate first appendage is consistent with a chelicerate affinity for the pycnogonids. Cladistic analyses place the new species near the base of the pycnogonid crown group, implying that the latter had arisen by the Silurian period.

  15. Sea modeling and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  16. Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  17. Survival on Land and Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-01-01

    and also in abandoned rice fields, Is a plant called the arrowhead, which has an underground stem or tuber that is edible when cooked. Other water ...Drinking water at sea . . .. ...... . . . 9 Food at, sea.-- .--„.--_-.- . ... . 10 Fishing..----...-..--. ._... .. 10 Making your own fishing kit...Handling venomous fish___-__...__ 52 IV Natives.____.__...--._-_------______----- 53 V Tropical Forests._..-__-_--.-_----_____----- 58 Water

  18. SeaPort-e Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    aquilent.com 22 QUESTIONS?? 23 Back-up 24 Program Evolution Category SeaPort Original (2001 – 2004) SeaPort-Enhanced (2004...Function = Industry User Function External System Interfaces: Create Purchase Request (Navy ERP ) Receive CAR Data (FPDS-NG) Receive Award Documents (EDA) Receive Award Data (SPS)

  19. Neutrino sea scope takes shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-03-01

    A consortium of European physicists building a vast neutrino detector on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has unveiled the science it will carry out. The Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT) will use strings of radiation detectors arranged in a 3D network to measure the light emitted when neutrinos very occasionally interact with the surrounding sea water.

  20. The Law of the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  1. Polar Climate: Arctic sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, R.S.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, G.I.; Drobot, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent decreases in snow and sea ice cover in the high northern latitudes are among the most notable indicators of climate change. Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent for the year as a whole was the third lowest on record dating back to 1973, behind 1995 (lowest) and 1990 (second lowest; Hadley Center–NCEP). September sea ice extent, which is at the end of the summer melt season and is typically the month with the lowest sea ice extent of the year, has decreased by about 19% since the late 1970s (Fig. 5.2), with a record minimum observed in 2002 (Serreze et al. 2003). A record low extent also occurred in spring (Chapman 2005, personal communication), and 2004 marked the third consecutive year of anomalously extreme sea ice retreat in the Arctic (Stroeve et al. 2005). Some model simulations indicate that ice-free summers will occur in the Arctic by the year 2070 (ACIA 2004).

  2. Deep-sea soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    Bathymetric charts for many areas of the ocean are cheap and accurate, and we usually take their availability for granted. In these times of abundant information, it is easy to forget the wonder and excitement of the last century, when mechanical sounding machines revealed for the first time the major features of the ocean depths. Who would not be awed by the graceful sweep of the Blake Plateau or the plunging depths of the Puerto Rico Trench, and who could remain unimpressed by undersea mountain ranges more majestic than any in view? In his 1888 book, entitled Three Cruises of the Blake, Alexander Agassiz has this to say about the spectacular Caribbean bottom topography: “Compared to such panoramas the finest views of the range of the Alps sink into insignificance; it is only when we get a view of portions of the Andes from the sea-coast…that we get anything approximating to it in grandeur.”

  3. Pathology of sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, Richard K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Haebler, Romona J.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    In the months following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), 994 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil-spill-affected areas died (Doroff et al. 1993). Carcasses collected from these areas and otters that died in rehabilitation centers are included in this number. The actual number that died was probably much greater.Within days of the spill, the Exxon Company (USA) funded an effort to rehabilitate oil-contaminated sea otters (Davis 1990). Initially, clinical veterinarians working on the rehabilitation effort performed partial necropsies on some of the sea otters that died. Soon, veterinary pathologists from the University of Alaska and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided assistance. Later, rehabilitation centers were constructed and other veterinarians with special training in pathology were hired by Exxon to provide diagnostic support.In late April 1989, veterinary pathologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) assumed responsibility for pathologic evaluation of oil-spill-affected sea otters. The USFWS requested assistance from veterinary pathologists of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in June 1989. Eventually, as part of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment program, AFIP veterinary pathologists were asked to carry out histopathological studies of the tissue specimens collected by all parties and to perform necropsies on carcasses that had been collected and frozen. A veterinary clinical pathologist was requested to assess hematology and clinical chemistry findings in otters that had been held in the rehabilitation centers.In spite of the best efforts of many dedicated people working under extremely difficult conditions, there are significant limitations in the pathological studies. The absence of a detailed necropsy protocol and of full documentation of necropsy findings during the first several weeks after the spill resulted in important data being lost. Often, samples of all major organs were not collected. In some

  4. Arctic Sea Ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic sea ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of sea-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/sea-ice-outlook) and the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international sea-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic sea ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of sea ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate sea ice from dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data

  5. Fire in the Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Walter L.

    2000-05-01

    The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one of the largest and most devastating natural disasters of classical history that may also hold vital clues to the possible existence and fate of the lost city. In vivid prose, author Walter L. Friedrich describes the eruption of the Greek island of Santorini, or Thera, sometime in the 17th or 16th century BC. This eruption, perhaps one of the largest explosions ever witnessed by humankind, sent a giant cloud of volcanic ash into the air that eventually covered settlements on the island. Friedrich relates how this event forever altered the course of civilization in the region, and inspired a mystery that has fired humanity's imagination ever since. More than 160 elegant, full-color photographs and vivid prose capture the beauty, the geology, archaeology, history, peoples and environmental setting of Santorini. Fire in the Sea will readily appeal to the general reader interested in natural catastrophies as well as the beauty of the region. It will also enchant anyone who has ever dreamt about uncovering the mystery of the legend of Atlantis. Walter Friedrich is currently an associate professor at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark. He has visited Santorini at least 35 times since 1975 and has published numerous scientific articles in such international journals as Nature, Lethaia, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, and other publications.

  6. Contrasts in Arctic shelf sea-ice regimes and some implications: Beaufort Sea versus Laptev Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Dethleff, D.; Nurnberg, D.

    1994-01-01

    The winter ice-regime of the 500 km) from the mainland than in the Beaufort Sea. As a result, the annual freeze-up does not incorporate old, deep-draft ice, and with a lack of compression, such deep-draft ice is not generated in situ, as on the Beaufort Sea shelf. The Laptev Sea has as much as 1000 km of fetch at the end of summer, when freezing storms move in and large (6 m) waves can form. Also, for the first three winter months, the polynya lies inshore at a water depth of only 10 m. Turbulence and freezing are excellent conditions for sediment entrainment by frazil and anchor ice, when compared to conditions in the short-fetched Beaufort Sea. We expect entrainment to occur yearly. Different from the intensely ice-gouged Beaufort Sea shelf, hydraulic bedforms probably dominate in the Laptev Sea. Corresponding with the large volume of ice produced, more dense water is generated in the Laptev Sea, possibly accompanied by downslope sediment transport. Thermohaline convection at the midshelf polynya, together with the reduced rate of bottom disruption by ice keels, may enhance benthic productivity and permit establishment of open-shelf benthic communities which in the Beaufort Sea can thrive only in the protection of barrier islands. Indirect evidence for high benthic productivity is found in the presence of walrus, who also require year-round open water. By contrast, lack of a suitable environment restricts walrus from the Beaufort Sea, although over 700 km farther to the south. We could speculate on other consequences of the different ice regimes in the Beaufort and Laptev Seas, but these few examples serve to point out the dangers of exptrapolating from knowledge gained in the North American Arctic to other shallow Arctic shelf settings. ?? 1994.

  7. Rubber tubes in the sea.

    PubMed

    Farley, F J M; Rainey, R C T; Chaplin, J R

    2012-01-28

    A long tube with elastic walls containing water is immersed in the sea aligned in the direction of wave travel. The waves generate bulges that propagate at a speed determined by the distensibility of the tube. If the bulge speed is close to the phase velocity of the waves, there is a resonant transfer of energy from the sea wave to the bulge. At the end of the tube, useful energy can be extracted. This paper sets out the theory of bulge tubes in the sea, and describes some experiments on the model scale and practical problems. The potential of a full-scale device is assessed.

  8. Iridium in sea-water.

    PubMed

    Fresco, J; Weiss, H V; Phillips, R B; Askeland, R A

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +/- 0.26 x 10(-14) g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments.

  9. Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    research on intelligence issues that distills lessons and improves Intelligence Community capabilities for policy-level and operational consumers . Th...ese proceedings are from the Second Symposium on Black Sea and Caspian Sea Security Issues conducted 18-23 May 2007 in Constanta, Romania. Th is...participants with a better understanding of the security issues . Th is publication is almost the entirety of their presentations, and the views expressed

  10. Influences of sea ice on eastern Bering Sea phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Li, Bingqian; Gao, Yahui

    2015-03-01

    The influence of sea ice on the species composition and cell density of phytoplankton was investigated in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2008. Diatoms, particularly pennate diatoms, dominated the phytoplankton community. The dominant species were Grammonema islandica (Grunow in Van Heurck) Hasle, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, F. oceanica (Cleve) Hasle, Navicula vanhoeffenii Gran, Thalassiosira antarctica Comber, T. gravida Cleve, T. nordenskiöeldii Cleve, and T. rotula Meunier. Phytoplankton cell densities varied from 0.08×104 to 428.8×104 cells/L, with an average of 30.3×104 cells/L. Using cluster analysis, phytoplankton were grouped into three assemblages defined by ice-forming conditions: open water, ice edge, and sea ice assemblages. In spring, when the sea ice melts, the phytoplankton dispersed from the sea ice to the ice edge and even into open waters. Thus, these phytoplankton in the sea ice may serve as a "seed bank" for phytoplankton population succession in the subarctic ecosystem. Moreover, historical studies combined with these results suggest that the sizes of diatom species have become smaller, shifting from microplankton to nannoplankton-dominated communities.

  11. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  12. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  13. 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

  14. Arctic Sea Ice Minimum, 2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Feb. 25, 2015, and was the lowest on record, to its apparent yearly minimum, ...

  15. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  16. Coastal and Semi Enclosed Seas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Numerical model process and sensitivity studies are conducted to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of shallow and deep semi-enclosed seas...and EAS domains. Shelley Riedlinger, running both EAS and Yellow Sea model codes: Pamela Posey obtains and provides atmospheric forcing, both real time...extends from 150 S latitude to 600 N latitude . Testing of this model included a spin-up of the model from 1994 to 1999 using the Navy Operational Global

  17. North Sea platforms revamped

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hare, J.

    1999-12-01

    Many of the early North Sea platforms are reaching their end-of-field life. Most are still equipped with their original drilling package. In a few cases the package has either been removed or decommissioned. The early installations were designed for much simpler and less demanding wells than the horizontal, extended-reach or designer wells common today. Extended-reach wells now can be drilled realistically from ageing platforms, without incurring massive capital expenditure. This can be achieved using the existing drilling package to the limit of its capabilities and supplementing where necessary with relatively minor upgrades or the use of temporary equipment. Drilling even a few more wells from existing platforms not only prolongs field life, it enables any surplus processing capacity to be made available to develop near-field potential with extended-reach drilling (ERD) or by tying back subsea satellite wells, or for processing third-party fluids. The paper describes well design, surface equipment, mud pumps, shakers and solids control equipment, drill cuttings disposal systems, derrick and hoisting system, top drive and drillstring, downhole equipment, well planning, casing wear, logistics, rig preparations, and ERD vs. subsea tie-backs.

  18. Correlation at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Richard L.; Farr, Keith B.; McColgan, Michele W.; Smith, Ralph G.

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses an optical correlator interfaces to a FLIR and laser rangefinder to aid aircraft landing aboard an aircraft carrier. The purpose was to recognize aircraft and provide precision track in spite of the engine plume which is visible in IR images. Toward the end of the program, an opportunity arose to piggyback on tests of a Navy FLIR system, on board the USS Enterprise. The Navy's developmental FLIR and laser rangefinder were mounted on the carrier and provided excellent imagery with concurrent range data. The correlator performed a limited set of experiments at sea, tracking an aircraft from 8000 feet until almost touchdown. The challenges to the correlator we operation in a harsh environment and real time interfacing with other hardware. Real time range information controlled a series of filters in the correlator. The system fit into a standard panel rack and utilized remote alignment. The system operated during the chock of aircraft launch and landing, with no need to open up the optical box.

  19. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  20. Aral Sea and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Usmanova, R M

    2003-01-01

    Until 1960 the Aral Sea was considered the 4th largest lake in the world by surface area. The Aral Sea has two main inflows--the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers with about 30 tributaries. From early 1960s because of extensive water use--unreturned withdrawal of water for irrigation and consequent drying up of many tributaries before reaching the main rivers--the water level in the Aral Sea began falling very rapidly. In 1965 the Aral Sea received about 56 cubic km of fresh water yearly, but this number fell to zero by the early 1980s. By 1990 the level of the Aral Sea water fell by more than 17 m, the volume of water decreased by 75%, the salinity of seawater increased up to 30 g/l, and the surface area of the sea reduced from 66,400 sq. km to 31,500 sq. km. The ecological situation in Aral Sea zone has became very dramatic. It has led to the changing of climate in the region, irrigated soils becoming deserts, deterioration of underground and surface water quality, reducing of available water for domestic and agricultural needs, loss of Aral Sea fishing and transportation importance, numerous other problems and finally put the health of present and future generations under threat. This situation not only does not promote further development of the economy of the region, but has also caused damage with irreparable negative consequences. The fact is that the basis of the regional economy is fishing and other associated businesses. Since Uzbekistan is most agricultural country its economy has serious complications. In order to prevent further deepening of this catastrophe and to improve the present situation in this area the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan has developed a series of measures: in particular it developed efficient water use schemes, changing the cotton situation (that during the Soviet period was grown as monoculture) by planting less water-consuming varieties, reviewing using of fertilizers in agriculture etc. The Aral Sea drought became an

  1. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Northern Bering Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    of Kivalina. The entire area from this point to the village of Wales was icebound. Figure 3 shows the typical ice conditions of the Bering Sea...area extending across the Bering Straits from Cape Prince of Wales to the north end of Little Diomede Island. Large concentrations of pan ice with a 7...ice conditions across the main area of sightings between Wales and Little Diomede Island throughout the survey effort. 8 !. I. I Beaufort Sea I.Brrow

  2. Past and present Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC

  3. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  4. Air-sea interactions in sea surface temperature frontal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Representation of air-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of air-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface temperatures (SST) on air-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the air-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  7. Understanding the Amundsen Sea Low

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) is a climatological low pressure system located between 170-300 ° E and 60-75°S and is a key component of the non-zonal climatological circulation at high southern latitudes. With reanalysis output identifying that climatologically the low in the Amundsen Sea is the deepest of three mean sea level pressure (MSLP) centres observed around Antarctica. The ASL strongly modulates West Antarctic climate with impacts on sea ice extent, temperature and precipitation, via its controlling influence on the variability of the meridional wind field. It has also been shown to have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Ross Sea region and to strongly modulate temperature and moisture advection over the Antarctic Peninsula. Previous work has demonstrated strong relationships between the depth of the ASL and cyclone densities in the region. However, interestingly a recent review identified that it is not easy to relate the storm density and depths of the cyclones to the climatological ASL, since the climatological location of the ASL does not occur at a clear maximum of storm activity. This study examines output from the ERA-interim reanalyses around Antarctica to further understand the contributors to the climatological pattern, partially in an effort to identify whether a more physically meaningful ASL depth index (normally simply defined as the monthly minimum MSLP) can be created. In this effort, storm track data derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and mean sea level pressure data bandpass filtered to accentuate synoptic scale variability are first examined. The contribution of persistent positive anomalies in the mean sea level pressure (defined as 8hPa positive anomalies from the climatological mean for a period of 5 days) in the region surrounding the Amundsen sea is also examined to identify whether blocking plays a role. Finally, the frequency of persistent negative anomalies (defined as a negative 8hPa occurring for

  8. Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. ); Berggren, W.A. ); Kaminski, M.A. ); D'Lorio, M.A. ); Cloetingh, S. ); Griffiths, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

  9. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  10. Analysis of sea ice dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, J.

    1988-01-01

    The ongoing work has established the basis for using multiyear sea ice concentrations from SMMR passive microwave for studies of largescale advection and convergence/divergence of the Arctic sea ice pack. Comparisons were made with numerical model simulations and buoy data showing qualitative agreement on daily to interannual time scales. Analysis of the 7-year SMMR data set shows significant interannual variations in the total area of multiyear ice. The scientific objective is to investigate the dynamics, mass balance, and interannual variability of the Arctic sea ice pack. The research emphasizes the direct application of sea ice parameters derived from passive microwave data (SMMR and SSMI) and collaborative studies using a sea ice dynamics model. The possible causes of observed interannual variations in the multiyear ice area are being examined. The relative effects of variations in the large scale advection and convergence/divergence within the ice pack on a regional and seasonal basis are investigated. The effects of anomolous atmospheric forcings are being examined, including the long-lived effects of synoptic events and monthly variations in the mean geostrophic winds. Estimates to be made will include the amount of new ice production within the ice pack during winter and the amount of ice exported from the pack.

  11. Satellite views of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive study of water properties for the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and East China Sea (ECS) has been carried out with 8-year observations between 2002 and 2009 from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua platform. Normalized water-leaving radiance spectra (nLw(λ)), chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)), total suspended matter (TSM), and sea surface temperature (SST) are used to quantify and characterize the physical, optical, biological, and biogeochemical properties and their seasonal and interannual variability in the BS, YS, and ECS regions. The BS, YS, and ECS feature highly turbid waters in the coastal regions and river estuaries with high Kd(490) over ∼3 m-1 and TSM concentrations reach over ∼50 g m-3. The optical, biological, and biogeochemical property features in these three seas show considerable seasonal variability. The dominant empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode for Kd(490) and TSM variability in the BS, YS, and ECS regions is the seasonal mode, which accounts for about two-thirds of the total variance. Phytoplankton dynamics in open oceans of the BS, YS, and ECS is also found to play an important role in the Kd(490) variation, while its impact on the ocean turbidity (Kd(490)) is much less than that of seasonal winds and sea surface thermodynamics in coastal regions. The first EOF mode in SST for the regions is seasonal and accounts for nearly 90% of the total SST variance. The major mechanisms that drive ocean color property variations in the BS, YS, and ECS are the seasonal winds, ocean stratification, and sea surface thermodynamics due to the seasonal climate change, as well as coastal bathymetry, seasonal phytoplankton blooms, and river discharges.

  12. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  13. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  14. Orientation and open-sea navigation in sea turtles

    PubMed

    Lohmann; Lohmann

    1996-01-01

    Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings (Caretta caretta L.) emerge from underground nests, scramble to the sea and begin a transoceanic migration by swimming away from their natal beach and into the open ocean. Evidence suggests that hatchlings sequentially use three different sets of cues to maintain orientation during their initial migration offshore. While on the beach, hatchlings find the ocean by crawling towards the lower, brighter seaward horizon and away from the dark, elevated silhouettes of vegetation and dunes. Upon entering the ocean, turtles initially orient seawards by swimming into waves, which can be detected as orbital movements from under water. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that turtles can transfer a course initiated on the basis of waves or visual cues to a course mediated by a magnetic compass. Thus, by setting a magnetic course on the basis of nearshore cues that indicate the seaward direction, hatchlings may continue on offshore headings after entering deep water beyond sight of land. Sea turtles may use the earth's magnetic field not only as a cue for compass orientation but also as a source of world-wide positional information. Recent experiments have demonstrated that loggerheads can detect subtle differences in magnetic field inclination and intensity, two geomagnetic features that vary across the surface of the earth. Because most nesting beaches and oceanic regions are marked by a unique combination of these features, these findings raise the possibility that adult sea turtles navigate using a bicoordinate magnetic map.

  15. Future sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Secular sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea are the result of a number of processes characterized by distinct time scales and spatial patterns. Here we predict the future sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea to year 2050 combining the contributions from terrestrial ice melt (TIM), glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the ocean response (OR) that includes the thermal expansion and the ocean circulation contributions. The three contributions are characterized by comparable magnitudes but distinctly different sea-level fingerprints across the Mediterranean basin. The TIM component of future sea-level rise is taken from Spada et al. (2013) and it is mainly driven by the melt of small glaciers and ice caps and by the dynamic ice loss from Antarctica. The sea-level fingerprint associated with GIA is studied using two distinct models available from the literature: ICE-5G(VM2) (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model progressively developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) of the National Australian University (KL05) (see Fleming and Lambeck, 2004 and references therein). Both the GIA and the TIM sea-level predictions have been obtained with the aid of the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007). The spatially-averaged OR component, which includes thermosteric and halosteric sea-level variations, recently obtained using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Carillo et al., 2012), vary between 2 and 7 cm according to scenarios adopted (EA1B and EA1B2, see Meehl at al., 2007). Since the sea-level variations associated with TIM mainly result from the gravitational interactions between the cryosphere components, the oceans and the solid Earth, and long-wavelength rotational variations, they are characterized by a very smooth global pattern and by a marked zonal symmetry reflecting the dipole geometry of the ice sources. Since the Mediterranean Sea is located in the intermediate far-field of major ice sources, TIM sea-level changes have sub

  16. Sea-State Engineering Analysis System (SEAS). Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    A tudes of errors intrinsic to their use. 3 There are four basic steps in the calculation of waves from past meteorological data. First, pressure...trends, distributions, and correlations among various data elements, which can, in turn, increase confidence in many basic planning, design, construction...data base ................................. 8 Retrieval system ............................................. 8 Basic SEAS program library

  17. Factors controlling ebro deep-sea fan growth, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Alonso, B.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, W.B.F.; Kastens, K.; O'Connel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Tectonic, sediment-source and sea-level factors control depositional patterns of the Ebro deep-sea fan system. In unstable, steep continental slope terrain, mass movement of material results in wide gullied canyons and formation of non-channelized debris aprons. These fan channels develop low sinuosity and generally traverse the continental rise without feeding into depositional lobes because of steep gradients (1:50 to 1:100) and sediment draining into the subsiding Valencia Valley graben. An abundance of sediment input points from mass failure and many river-fed canyons contributes to a depositional pattern of side-by-side debris aprons and separate channel-levee complexes. When a large sediment supply feeds a channel for a relatively long period 1) fan valley sinuosity increases: 2) channel walls are modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays: 3) channel bifurcation occurs: 4) incipient depositional lobe formation begins. Lowering of sea levels in Late Pleistocene time permitted the access of coarse river sediment to slope valleys and promoted deposition of numerous turbidites and active growth of the fan. During the Holocene, when sea levels have been high, a regime of hemipelagic sedimentation, mass movement, and debris apron sedimentation has dominated.

  18. Analytic Equation of State for Sea Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    represent the sea water data of Wilson and Bradley. In this paper the thermal expansion data of Bradshaw and Schleicher and the sound velocity data of Wilson have been incorporated to yield a new equation of state for sea water.

  19. Day Pass Down the Red Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was ta...

  20. Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

  1. Operation IceBridge: Sea Ice Interlude

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea ice comes in an array of shapes and sizes and has its own ephemeral beauty. Operation IceBridge studies sea ice at both poles, and also runs across interesting formations en route to other targ...

  2. AMSR2 Daily Arctic Sea Ice - 2014

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...

  3. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  4. Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1998-01-01

    Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes…

  5. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except...

  6. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except...

  7. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except...

  8. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except...

  9. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except...

  10. Microwave emission characteristics of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Poe, G.

    1972-01-01

    A general classification is presented for sea ice brightness temperatures with categories of high and low emission, corresponding to young and weathered sea ice, respectively. A sea ice emission model was developed which allows variations of ice salinity and temperature in directions perpendicular to the ice surface.

  11. [Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].

    PubMed

    Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas.

  12. [Medical emergencies and sea rescue].

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Fabien; Albert, Christophe; Gunepin, David; Pondaven, Eric; Querellou, Emgan

    2013-01-01

    Military nurses and doctors are on permanent standby to respond to any medical emergency which may arise at sea. This atypical form of practice is part of a specific organisation, in order to provide optimal, high-quality care in the most remote places of the oceans.

  13. Sea Ice and Oceanographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oceanus, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)

  14. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  15. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  16. Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

  17. The Sea Ice Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board…

  18. Meteorology of the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The unique meteorology of the Beaufort Sea region is dominated by the presence of sea ice and a seasonal swing from a large heat loss in winter to a gain in summer. The primary determinant of this seasonal climate shift is the annual cycle of insolation from a maximum of 500 W/m2 near the summer solstice to darkness in winter, as the Beaufort Sea lies north of Alaska and northwestern Canada beyond 72°N. Even though the Sun angle is low in summer, the length of daylight provides as much energy to the surface as anywhere on the planet. As summer progresses, relative absorption of insolation at the surface increases as the albedo decreases due to snow and ice melt and increased open water area. This annual cycle results in a change from a winter continental-like air mass similar to the adjacent land areas to a summertime marine air mass characterized by low cloud and fogs. In winter the region is also influenced by the polar atmospheric vortex with strong westerly winds centered in the stratosphere, whose presence is felt at the surface. Recent sea ice losses are changing the climatology of the region, with extended periods of increased temperatures through the autumn months.

  19. Arctic Sea Ice, Summer 2014

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of daily Arctic sea ice extent in summer 2014, from March 21, 2014 to Sept. 17, 2014 – when the ice appeared to reach it’s minimum extent for the year. It’s the sixth lowest minimum se...

  20. Navigating the Seas of Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Stephanie; Kennedy, Steve; McAlonan, Susan; Hotchkiss, Heather

    As the sun, moon, and stars helped sea captains to navigate, policy (defined as a formalized idea to encourage change) indicates general direction and speed but does not establish a specific approach to achieve implementation. Formal and informal policies have advantages and disadvantages. These are steps in navigating policy formation: identify…

  1. Management of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, W. J.; Zijlstra, J. J.

    1980-03-01

    The Wadden Sea situated along the North Sea coasts of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany and The Netherlands represents one of the world's largest bar-built type of estuaries. The area is a typical sedimentation and mineralization basin, with a large influx of organic matter from the adjoining North Sea, consequently a delicate oxygen balance and a rich benthic macrofauna, poor in species, which serves as food for juveniles of some commercially important North Sea fishes and for large numbers of migrating and wintering waders and waterfowl. Past and present activities of the human society in the area include fisheries (mainly for shrimp and mussels, semi-culture), shipping, land reclamation, recreation, dredging for sand and shells, and waste discharge from industries and human communities. Until the present these activities, although sometimes conflicting, did not fundamentally affect the area and its biota (pollution excluded), but future claims, including the construction of large deep-sea harbours, drilling for natural gas and oil, large-scale land reclamation and increased industrialization etc., might gradually induce degradation. For instance, area reduction by continued land reclamation could lead to irreversible losses of specific biotopes (e. g. salt-marshes, mud-flats), which could affect the size of bird and fish populations in a much wider region. Increased pollution, which has already inflicted damage on bird and seal populations, could reduce the fauna and hence the value of the area as a natural sanctuary. In the event of a proposal for a new human activity in the area, the present standing practice in the countries concerned requires an evaluation of its safety and economic aspects and its environmental impact. However, the various plans are considered separately and there is a general need for integrated management of the area.

  2. Sea water in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1964-01-01

    Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

  3. Facing up to sea rise.

    PubMed

    Pernetta, J

    1994-01-01

    A milder and less extreme climate, abundance of fish and mollusks, transport and communication, and fertile land at low altitudes have drawn humans to coastal areas and river valleys for centuries. More than 60% of the world's population occupy the 150 km closest to the coast. Millions of tourists come to coastlines and small tropical islands for recreation. About 80% of the global fish supply originates from the 19 km closest to the shore. Fish are the only protein source for the rapidly growing populations in many developing countries. Global climate change is increasing the sea level so much that by 2050, the mean increase will be about 38 cm (24-52 cm). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes that the effects of sea level rise will differ from place to place. Direct effects are flooding of low-lying coastal areas and increased erosion rates. An indirect effect includes higher water tables and intrusion of saline water into aquifers, resulting in loss of fresh ground water resources. These effects may make coastal areas less suitable for settlement and agriculture. Coral sand settled on top of coral reefs makes up the unstable, small atoll islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. People on these islands depend almost entirely on the sea for their livelihood and on the small amount of fresh water with which they grow root crops and drink. Rising sea levels also threaten low lying countries, e.g., Bangladesh, and densely populated deltas, e.g., the Nile. Changes in the frequency and severity of flooding will increase Bangladesh's dependence on foreign aid. IPCC sees 3 possible responses to the rising sea level: defense, retreat, and accommodation. Accommodation is the only practical choice for many developing countries. A switch from rice cultivation to mariculture of prawns and fish is an example of accommodation. We need to more completely understand the natural processes in coastal environments to be better prepared for climate change.

  4. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  5. Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.

    PubMed

    Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

    2012-08-01

    Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and

  6. Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline.

    PubMed

    Post, Eric; Bhatt, Uma S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Brodie, Jedediah F; Fulton, Tara L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kerby, Jeffrey; Kutz, Susan J; Stirling, Ian; Walker, Donald A

    2013-08-02

    After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes.

  7. Primary Production in Antarctic Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Worthen, Denise L.; Lizotte, Michael P.; Dixon, Paul; Dieckmann, Gerhard

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model shows that in Antarctic sea ice, increased flooding in regions with thick snow cover enhances primary production in the infiltration (surface) layer. Productivity in the freeboard (sea level) layer is also determined by sea ice porosity, which varies with temperature. Spatial and temporal variation in snow thickness and the proportion of first-year ice thus determine regional differences in sea ice primary production. Model results show that of the 40 tera-grams of carbon produced annually in the Antarctic ice pack, 75 percent was associated with first-year ice and nearly 50 percent was produced in the Weddell Sea.

  8. On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of maritime Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Royce; Page, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The United States Coast Guard Academy Physics Section is proud to present our initial conceptions of ``On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of Maritime Governance,'' a program funded by an APS Outreach Grant in 2013. In our classes, the Physics Section has focused on active student engagement for the past ten years. Recently, we have refined our program to make heavy use of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) and our own highly interactive adaptation which we call Interactive Lecture Labs (ILLs). ``On the Sea'' is a unique opportunity to investigate their use in a different learning modality from our standard college level military academic use. Multigenerational science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) projects are a prolific source of academic discourse, while learning through play has been touted as an effective learning tool. We plan to investigate group and individual participation, intragroup communication, demographics, and prior skill (or education) in comparison to outcomes in learning objectives through projects designed to educate the Coast Guard Academy and surrounding community on the physics of the Coast Guard's missions. Progress on the lab and demonstration designs, community participation, and our emerging ILL and ILD pedagogical methods, will be reported.

  9. Shelf sea current profile measurements from the sea surface to the sea bed in autumn

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, M.J.; Glorioso, P.D.

    1995-09-01

    Current profile measurements were obtained during the autumnal breakdown of stratification at a site in the northern North Sea where the tidal currents were weak and the water depth moderate (120 m). During the two month deployment period a succession of storms passed over the site, including one extreme event. An ADCP in a sea bed frame, a conventional current meter string and some near surface current meters were amongst the instruments deployed. The ADCP data were of high quality although the frame moved during the severest storm because of wave effects at the sea bed. Its depth coverage was from 14 to 94 m above the sea bed in 8 m cells. Comparison with the current meter string showed that the ADCP`s speeds were 20% too high (reason unknown), and that its directions were rotated by 7{degree} (perhaps due to the arrangement of the bottom frame). The value of the ADCP data at tidal, inertial and low frequencies is demonstrated and of the top cell as a reference point for the estimation of near surface shear, which was confined at most to the top 25 m. Wind-driven currents measured at 2 m depth were 0.75% of the wind speed and in a direction 25{degree} to the right of the wind.

  10. The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2013-11-01

    A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

  11. Sea ice thickness and recent Arctic warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Andreas; Yang, Shuting; Kaas, Eigil

    2017-01-01

    The climatic impact of increased Arctic sea ice loss has received growing attention in the last years. However, little focus has been set on the role of sea ice thickness, although it strongly determines surface heat fluxes. Here ensembles of simulations using the EC-Earth atmospheric model (Integrated Forecast System) are performed and analyzed to quantify the atmospheric impacts of Arctic sea ice thickness change since 1982 as revealed by the sea ice model assimilation Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. Results show that the recent sea ice thinning has significantly affected the Arctic climate, while remote atmospheric responses are less pronounced owing to a high internal atmospheric variability. Locally, the sea ice thinning results in enhancement of near-surface warming of about 1°C per decade in winter, which is most pronounced over marginal sea ice areas with thin ice. This leads to an increase of the Arctic amplification factor by 37%.

  12. Microbial mercury methylation in Antarctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, Caitlin M; Tate, Michael T; Wick, Ryan R; Schultz, Mark B; Zemla, Adam; Thelen, Michael P; Schofield, Robyn; Krabbenhoft, David P; Holt, Kathryn E; Moreau, John W

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury onto sea ice and circumpolar sea water provides mercury for microbial methylation, and contributes to the bioaccumulation of the potent neurotoxin methylmercury in the marine food web. Little is known about the abiotic and biotic controls on microbial mercury methylation in polar marine systems. However, mercury methylation is known to occur alongside photochemical and microbial mercury reduction and subsequent volatilization. Here, we combine mercury speciation measurements of total and methylated mercury with metagenomic analysis of whole-community microbial DNA from Antarctic snow, brine, sea ice and sea water to elucidate potential microbially mediated mercury methylation and volatilization pathways in polar marine environments. Our results identify the marine microaerophilic bacterium Nitrospina as a potential mercury methylator within sea ice. Anaerobic bacteria known to methylate mercury were notably absent from sea-ice metagenomes. We propose that Antarctic sea ice can harbour a microbial source of methylmercury in the Southern Ocean.

  13. Sea level trends and interannual variability in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level trends and interannual variability has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 19 stations. Relative sea level trends range between -2.0 and 10.7 mm/y depending on the length of the available record. Records from stations longer than 40 years converge toward values between 1.2 - 5.2 mm/yr, still a significant range which in some stations is less and in some other significantly larger than the global average. The longest station, Cristobal (102 years) shows a trend of 1.9 mm/yr and, in addition a significant acceleration of 1.6±0.3 mm/y/cy. The observed sea level trends are not affected by the atmospheric pressure effect, within the levels of significance. They are also the same (within the levels of significance) at all seasons. Altimetry shows trends (over 18 years of data) with values up to 5.2 mm/y. In some areas the values are statistically insignificant, but at no areas statistically significant negative values are found. Steric trends from the top 800 m (over the period of altimetric observations) have a basin average trend of 1 mm/y, but it shows large spatial variability with negative trends of -7 mm/y in the Yucatan Basin and positive trends up to 4.9 mm/y in the Venezuela Basin. Decadal trends were found to vary significantly at tide-gauge records as well as altimetric and steric measurements. We further explore the residual interannual variability by comparison with surface wind and climatic indices. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

  14. A sea of worms: polychaete checklist of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mikac, Barbara

    2015-04-07

    The checklist of polychaetes of the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean) based on bibliographic sources published from 1840 to 2014, as well as on novel data, with 49 new records for the area, is herein presented. The Adriatic Sea polychaete fauna comprises at present of 764 species in 360 genera and 62 families. The richest family is the Syllidae, with 112 species (c.a. 15% of the all taxa). Eight families account for as much as 50% of the diversity (Syllidae, Serpulidae, Sabellidae, Phyllodocidae, Spionidae, Polynoidae, Terebellidae and Nereididae). Among the three Adriatic sectors (Northern, Central and Southern Adriatic), the Northern Adriatic is the richest one, whereas the composition of the most diverse families is very similar in all sectors. Data on endemisms (6), aliens (29) and valid species with the type locality in the Adriatic Sea (90) are also discussed. The list of all relevant papers citing each species in the Adriatic is included, allowing future detailed information retrievals for distinct purposes. Results suggest that the number of species will keep increasing in the future, as new surveys will be undertaken, so regular updates of the present list will be necessary.

  15. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  16. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D; Le, Hai N; Stachurski, Zbigniew H

    2012-01-01

    The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  17. Primary productivity in the sea

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in primary productivity is discussed in the book based on 27 symposia texts and 19 poster abstracts. Most papers deal with particular cellular processes in pelagic phytoplankton and their relationship to whole plant photosynthesis and growth. In addition, presentations on the productivity of the seaweed, Laminaria, zooxanthellae and whole corals are included. Other articles discuss predictive modeling, new developments in remote sensing, nutrient regeneration within the sea, grazing effects, and carbon cycling. (JMT)

  18. Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this poster presentation is to develop technologies to enable fundamental research into understanding the potential for and limits to chemolithoautotrophic life. The Medusa Isosampler (isobaric sampler), for sampling fluids eminating from deep sea hydrothermal vents and cold seep sites analogous to extraterrestrial environments, is described by the presentation. The following instruments are integrated with the isosampler, and also described: in situ flow-through chemical sensor, intrinsic fluorescent-based microbial detector, isotope ratio spectral detector.

  19. Dsp in Moroccan Mediterranean Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachid, Fadel

    At sea temperate, there is usually a sole major floraison of the phytoplancton (in the spring) that exhausts the available stock of nutritious salt. This phenomenon is natural. It's more known under the name of "red tide or colored waters", it brings about a danger, with hazardous consequences on the wildlife water wildlife. The toxins emitted by certain seaweeds, of this phytoplancton, are transmitted through the trophic chain to man. Sometimes the contamination of these sea fruits provokes empoisoning to the consumers. Sometimes phytoplanctonics efflorescences do not present any significant coloring but can generate an increased liberation of toxins in sea water. The relative concentration of the one here then is detected in the shellfishes. These organisms concentrate the phocotoxines in their hepatopancreas. These are therefore bio potential indicators of the sea environment. We studied, in parallel, the variation of the characteristic abiotics of the Mediterranean sites previously choosen (physico-chimicals parameters and oceanographics parameters) and the variation of the relative toxicity of the bio indicators in every site. It in springs that the zones navies, subjected to important water provisions coming from a river, undergo several excessive floraisons during the spring and the summer, thanks to their continuous supplying in nutriments. We noted that the arrival new water masses. We draw from this that the coastal areas, due to the precipitations of the winter, translates itself at the level of the embouchure of the estuary Oued Laou by the maximum concentration of contained toxins in the shellfishes and that these waters were loaded with drifts of the olive waste, liquid loss abandoned to himself after extraction of the oil of the renowned olives of this region.

  20. Rationale of the SEAS study

    PubMed Central

    van der Bilt, I.A.C.; Hasan, D.; Rinkel, G.J.E.; Wilde, A.A.M.; Visser, F.C.

    2006-01-01

    The SEAS study is a prospective national, multicentre, multidisciplinary, cohort study in which the cardiac abnormalities following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage are studied. Incidence, clinical implications and predictive variables of cardiac abnormalities following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage will be studied. Cardiac abnormalities are defined as ECG changes, echocardiographic function abnormalities, and biochemical changes. A total of 350 patients will be included over a period of three years including follow-up. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:25696571

  1. Salton Sea solar pond project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

  2. Solitons and SeaSat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    second statement is demonstrated to be false. The% Kadomtsev-.1etviashvile equation relevant to Internal Waves is shown not to have SOliL -solutions. This...more than one space dimension. The second statement is demonstrated to be false. The Kadomtsev-Petviashvile equation relevant to Internal Waves Is...observed by SeaSat has led to suggestions that the phenomena may be related to Internal 0 Wave Solitons. Most observations were made under conditions for

  3. The Nordic seas: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drange, Helge; Dokken, Trond; Furevik, Tore; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Berger, Wolfgang; Nesje, Atle; Arild Orvik, Kjell; Skagseth, Øystein; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Østerhus, Svein

    The aim of this overview paper is to provide a brief synthesis of the five review papers contained in the monograph. Prevailing southwesterly winds, oceanic flow patterns, and oceanic summer heat storage make the temperatures of the Nordic Seas region 10—20°C above the mean temperature of locations at similar latitudes. The combination of the large heat import from the south plus the polar location implies that the region is prone to natural climate variations and is particularly vulnerable for external forcings. Indeed, proxy data for the Holocene epoch reveal large, high-frequency climate fluctuations, as well as long-term variations spanning the "Medieval Warm Period" and the "Little Ice Age". In phase with a strengthening of the westerly winds since the 1960s, several oceanic key variables show trends unprecedented in available instrumental records, some of which extend back 50—100 years. State-of-the-art climate models indicate that several of the changes may be linked to increased forcing of greenhouse gases and are therefore likely to be sustained or even amplified in the future. Furthermore, the marine cycling of carbon, and through that the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, is closely linked to the climate state of the region. The Nordic Seas region is, as one of few ocean locations, a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide throughout the year. With the rapid developments in data acquisition, computational resources, and societal concerns for climate change and environmental issues, the review papers give an updated account of the present knowledge of the complex climate states of the Nordic Seas and how the Nordic Seas influence the climate outside the region.

  4. Respiration in Neonate Sea Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Paladino, Frank V.; Strohl, Kingman P.; Pilar Santidrián, T.; Klann, Kenneth; Spotila, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The pattern and control of respiration is virtually unknown in hatchling sea turtles. Using incubator-raised turtles, we measured oxygen consumption, frequency, tidal volume, and minute volume for leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle hatchlings for the first six days after pipping. In addition, we tested the hatchlings’ response to hypercapnic, hyperoxic, and hypoxic challenges over this time period. Hatchling sea turtles generally showed resting ventilation characteristics that are similar to those of adults: a single breath followed by a long respiratory pause, slow frequency, and high metabolic rate. With hypercapnic challenge, both species responded primarily by elevating respiratory frequency via a decrease in the non-ventilatory period. Leatherback resting tidal volume increased with age but otherwise, neither species’ resting respiratory pattern nor response to gas challenge changed significantly over the first few days after hatching. At the time of nest emergence, sea turtles have achieved a respiratory pattern that is similar to that of actively diving adults. PMID:17258487

  5. Satellite observations of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Zwally, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of Antarctic and Arctic sea ice studies using data from the Nimbus-5 ESMR and the Nimbus-7 SMMR passive microwave radiometers. Four years (1973-1976) of ESMR data for the Antarctic Ocean define the characteristics of the seasonal cycle including regional contrasts and interannual variations. Major advances include the discovery of the Weddell polynya and the presence of substantial areas of open water in the Antarctic winter pack ice. Regional differences in sea ice extent on time-scales of about a month are shown to be associated with variations in surface-wind fields. In the Arctic, the computation of sea ice concentration is complicated by the presence of multiyear ice, but the amount of multiyear ice becomes an important measurable quantity with dual-polarized, multifrequency passive microwave sensors. Analysis of SMMR data demonstrates its advantage for studying the spatial and temporal variability of the Arctic ice cover. Large observed interannual variations in the distribution of the multiyear pack ice and the presence of significant divergent areas in the central Arctic during winter contrast markedly with the classical view of the Arctic pack ice.

  6. MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

  7. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  8. Sea ice data for all: NSIDC's Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizcarra, N.; Stroeve, J. C.; Serreze, M. C.; Scambos, T. A.; Meier, W.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic sea ice has long been recognized as a sensitive climate indicator and has undergone a dramatic decline over the past thirty years. The National Snow and Ice Data Center's Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis blog continues to offer the public a transparent view of sea ice data and analysis. We have expanded our interactive sea ice graph to include Antarctic sea ice in response to increased attention from the public as a result of unexpected behavior of sea ice in the south. This poster explores the blog's new features and how other researchers, the media, and the public are currently using them.

  9. Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Elliott, Scott; Turner, Adrian

    2012-06-18

    Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

  10. Sources of Sea Salts to Coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, M. A.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Vance, T.; Wong, G. J.; Goodwin, I. D.; Domensino, B.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Antarctic sea salt aerosols are partitioned into two main sources, namely ocean sea spray and surface sea ice. The sea spray source is related to windiness over the surface ocean and the action of bubbles bursting. The sea ice source is due to frost flowers which form on the surface of sea ice, which are concentrated in sea salts and are lofted by wind action over the sea ice zone. At high accumulation coastal sites, with seasonal resolution, it is possible to estimate the sources of both using deviations of the sodium to sulphate ratio from that found in seawater. To date, from ice core records in east Antarctica (including iceberg B09B near the Mertz Glacier, Law Dome, Wilkes Land and Wilhelm II land), we have found that the source strength from surface sea ice to the Antarctic ice sheet diminishes with elevation and distance inland. We present new data from coastal ice core sites including Mill Island off the coast of east Antarctica and the upper and lower Totten glacier to the east of Law Dome. Using this combined dataset we estimate the source strengths of sea salt aerosols, their partitioning and quantify the relationship with elevation and distance inland.

  11. Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

    2008-12-01

    As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

  12. A multivariate Baltic Sea environmental index.

    PubMed

    Dippner, Joachim W; Kornilovs, Georgs; Junker, Karin

    2012-11-01

    Since 2001/2002, the correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation index and biological variables in the North Sea and Baltic Sea fails, which might be addressed to a global climate regime shift. To understand inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in environmental variables, a new multivariate index for the Baltic Sea is developed and presented here. The multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental (BSE) index is defined as the 1st principal component score of four z-transformed time series: the Arctic Oscillation index, the salinity between 120 and 200 m in the Gotland Sea, the integrated river runoff of all rivers draining into the Baltic Sea, and the relative vorticity of geostrophic wind over the Baltic Sea area. A statistical downscaling technique has been applied to project different climate indices to the sea surface temperature in the Gotland, to the Landsort gauge, and the sea ice extent. The new BSE index shows a better performance than all other climate indices and is equivalent to the Chen index for physical properties. An application of the new index to zooplankton time series from the central Baltic Sea (Latvian EEZ) shows an excellent skill in potential predictability of environmental time series.

  13. A checklist of the deep sea fishes of the Levant Sea, Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Goren, Menachem; Galil, Bella S

    2015-08-04

    We list sixty five fish species collected at depths greater than 500 m in the Levant Basin, including 10 depth records. The Levantine bathyal ichthyofauna is characterized by its eurybathy, with an upper bathymetric boundary that permitted penetration of the shallow Gibraltar and Siculo-Tunisian sills, and a much lower bathymetric boundary than recorded for conspecifics elsewhere. The opportunistic and resilient ichthyofauna re-colonized recently the deep-sea following the last anoxic event (~ 6 kyr), forming assemblages notably distinct from those in the western Mediterranean. The exploration and production of deep seabed hydrocarbons have raised the specter of severe direct impacts to the deep habitats. There is an urgent need for documenting the full extent of deep-sea biodiversity, and for providing information for the development of competent and pragmatic management plans and effective conservation policies.

  14. Methane in coastal sea water, sea ice, and bottom sediments, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes data acquired from 1990 to 1994 for the gas-hydrate portion of the USGS project 'Permafrost and gas hydrate as possible sources of methane' of the USGS Global Change and Climate History program. The objective of this project has been to test the hypothesis that gas hydrate deposits of the Beaufort Sea continental shelf are destabilized by the ~10?C temperature increase that has resulted from the Holocene transgression of the Arctic Ocean. To test this idea we have selected an area off the north coast of Alaska centered on Harrison Bay. We have measured the concentration of methane in surficial sediments, in the water column when ice is present and absent, and in seasonal sea ice. Our results show that more methane is present in the water when ice is present than when ice is absent, and that methane is also present within the ice itself, often at higher concentrations than in the water. Thus the Beaufort Sea shelf of Alaska is a seasonal source of methane. The primary source of this methane has not yet been defined, but gas hydrate is a reasonable candidate.

  15. Sea ice, climate, and multiscale composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    In September of 2012, the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea ice reached its lowest level ever recorded in more than three decades of satellite measurements. In fact, compared to the 1980's and 1990's, this represents a loss of more than half of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. While global climate models generally predict sea ice declines over the 21st century, the precipitous losses observed so far have significantly outpaced most projections. I will discuss how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics are being used to study key sea ice processes and advance how sea ice is represented in climate models. This work is helping to improve projections of the fate of Earth's ice packs, and the response of polar ecosystems. A brief video of a recent Antarctic expedition where sea ice properties were measured will be shown. Supported by NSF and ONR.

  16. The Dead Sea transform fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdler, R. W.

    1990-08-01

    A new map showing the major features of the Dead Sea transform fault system based on seismicity, satellite imagery, geological maps and bathymetric charts is presented. Special attention is given to the possible northward continuation of the transform system beneath the Mediterranean Sea near Ed Damur, south of Beirut. The map shows the Dead Sea transform system to be a series of offset, overlapping, left-lateral transform faults with a rhombochasm between each pair. The system has similarities with the equatorial fracture zones in the Atlantic Ocean. Throughout, the Dead Sea transform system is considered in its regional setting, i.e. as extending from the Red Sea spreading centre in the south to the Eurasian collision zone in the north. It is suggested that it may intersect the latter somewhere east of Cyprus making that area the northernmost termination of the Dead Sea transform system.

  17. Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    2000-03-10

    Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.

  18. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-11-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles (<1 mm) originating from the degradation of larger plastic debris. These microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments. Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea.

  19. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  20. Impact of sea ice initialization on sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill on seasonal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guemas, V.; Chevallier, M.; Déqué, M.; Bellprat, O.; Doblas-Reyes, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present a robust assessment of the impact of sea ice initialization from reconstructions of the real state on the sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill. We ran two ensemble seasonal prediction experiments from 1979 to 2012 : one using realistic sea ice initial conditions and another where sea ice is initialized from a climatology, with two forecast systems. During the melting season in the Arctic Ocean, sea ice forecasts become skilful with sea ice initialization until 3-5 months ahead, thanks to the memory held by sea ice thickness. During the freezing season in both the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, sea ice forecasts are skilful for 7 and 2 months, respectively, with negligible differences between the two experiments, the memory being held by the ocean heat content. A weak impact on the atmosphere prediction skill is obtained.

  1. Glider Surveys of Philippine Archipelago Seas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-03

    Strait at the western encl. The Bohol glider was directed along and across the mode!~predicted transport path between the Pacific and the Sulu Sea. The...contributes to long-term interests in understanding: • How physical processes in a tropical Western Pacific archipelago’s straits and seas are forced by the...observations to assimilation models. • Survey the sparsely-sampled Bohol Sea, crossing all boundaries with straits and following Pacific -Sulu

  2. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  3. The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1994-07-01

    The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was initiated in 1993 to address widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts associated with the radioactive waste dumped into the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas. This article discusses the project with these general topics: A brief history of dumping activities; the international control system; perspectives on arctic Seas dumping; the IASAP aims and implementation; the IASAP work plan and progress. 2 figs.

  4. The Baltic: A Sea in Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    AD-A245 947 c2 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTICft ELEc-r KNI FEB 1 8 1992_! DI,. THESIS THE BALTIC: A SEA IN TRANSITION by John L...10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) THE BALTIC: A SEA...navies deployed in the Baltic Sea are highly capable, and the geographic importance of the region has predicated a unique pattern of naval development

  5. Functional Measures of Sea Turtle Hearing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    anatomy among stages and species and physiologically by brainstem evoked potential techniques. Sea turtles employed in this work were provided by NMFS...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Sea turtle hearing was investigated fmorphometrically by analyzing variations in auditory anatomy a and physiologically by...A t Project Title: Functional Measures of Sea Turtle Hearing ONR Award No: N00014-02-1-0510 Organization Award No: 13051000 Final Report Award Period

  6. SeaWiFS: Summer in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ross Sea has been somewhat cloud free lately, providing SeaWiFS with views such as this one from December 26, 2001. Note the deep green water; this is a highly productive part of the world'd oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound. The ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission. PMID:26155464

  8. Lena River Delta and East Siberian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Sea otter health: challenging a pet hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  10. Introduction to the petroleum geology of the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Glennie, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on North Sea oil and gas deposits. Topics considered include North Sea exploration from 1964-1983, the structural framework and the pre-Permian history of the North Sea area, the late Permian period, the Triassic period, the Jurasic period, the Cretaceous period, the Cenozoic era, source rocks of the North Sea, and North Sea hydrocarbon plays.

  11. 75 FR 20568 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...; Designated Federal Official, National Sea Grant Advisory Board; Deputy Director, National Sea Grant College... years on the state of the national sea grant college program. The Board shall indicate in each such... the Board if the individual is (A) the director of a sea grant college or sea grant institute; (B)...

  12. The role of sea ice dynamics in global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibler, William D., III

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: general characteristics of sea ice drift; sea ice rheology; ice thickness distribution; sea ice thermodynamic models; equilibrium thermodynamic models; effect of internal brine pockets and snow cover; model simulations of Arctic Sea ice; and sensitivity of sea ice models to climate change.

  13. 50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sea Scallop Access Areas. 648.59 Section... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.59 Sea Scallop Access Areas. (a) Delmarva Sea Scallop Access Area. (1... Sea Scallop Access Area, described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, only if the vessel...

  14. Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija Bjarnadottir, Holmfridur

    2007-10-15

    The Impact Assessment research community repeatedly asserts that the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) should take the issue of context into consideration. The primary aim of this paper then is to attempt to give substance to the concept of 'context' in relation to the implementation of SEA. The second aim is to discuss the relevance of context consciousness and sensitivity in relation to one of the main aims given to SEA implementation i.e. to contribute to the 'integration' of environmental perspectives in planning processes. Context must be defined in relation to a certain question. In this paper the question in focus is the assumption that SEA implementation will contribute to integration of environmental issues in planning processes. Research results relating to the use of environmental tools, like for example SEA, and experiences of integration efforts, strongly indicate that the use of a single tool like SEA is not enough to achieve this integration. The current 'context free' normative and procedural assumptions concerning the aim of SEA implementation and 'best practice' in term of SEA can be criticised on the same grounds as normative and procedural planning theories, as being context free. The assumptions behind the current formulations of the aim and best practice of SEA need to be revisited. A firm empirical and theoretical knowledge and discussion is needed, especially in relation to the issue of context and integration. This paper provides a starting point in this direction.

  15. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine--sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Peng; Gao, Yun; Jiao, Bing-Hua; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The sea urchin is an ancient, common, seafloor-dwelling marine invertebrate that belongs to the phylum Echinodermata. There are multiple species of sea urchin with resources that are widely distributed in China, where they were used in ancient times as Traditional Chinese Medicine for treating a variety of diseases. At present, it is known that the shell, spine and gonad of the sea urchin have many medicinal values determined through modern research. In this paper, we summarized the major chemical constituents and medicinal value of the sea urchin.

  17. Population status of California sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-30

    The main objective of the study was to develop a simulation model to facilitate analysis of the risk of oil spills to the threatened California sea otter population. Existing data on the dynamics and demography of the population were synthesized. The additional data needed for model development were collected through radiotelemetry studies of sea otters in Alaska and California. The simulation model contains four interrelated stochastic submodels: a short-term population model, a long-term population model, a sea otter distribution model, and a sea otter movement model. The report includes a detailed description of the model, the data on which it is based, and an operating manual.

  18. Dynamic Singularity Spectrum Distribution of Sea Clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Zhang, Shuning

    2015-12-01

    The fractal and multifractal theory have provided new approaches for radar signal processing and target-detecting under the background of ocean. However, the related research mainly focuses on fractal dimension or multifractal spectrum (MFS) of sea clutter. In this paper, a new dynamic singularity analysis method of sea clutter using MFS distribution is developed, based on moving detrending analysis (DMA-MFSD). Theoretically, we introduce the time information by using cyclic auto-correlation of sea clutter. For transient correlation series, the instantaneous singularity spectrum based on multifractal detrending moving analysis (MF-DMA) algorithm is calculated, and the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of sea clutter is acquired. In addition, we analyze the time-varying singularity exponent ranges and maximum position function in DMA-MFSD of sea clutter. For the real sea clutter data, we analyze the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of real sea clutter in level III sea state, and conclude that the radar sea clutter has the non-stationary and time-varying scale characteristic and represents the time-varying singularity spectrum distribution based on the proposed DMA-MFSD method. The DMA-MFSD will also provide reference for nonlinear dynamics and multifractal signal processing.

  19. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, R. A.; Özsoy, E.; Schrum, C.; Sur, H. I.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December-January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February-July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August-November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. The model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  20. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, R. A.; Özsoy, E.; Schrum, C.; Sur, H. İ.

    2009-09-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December-January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February-July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August-November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. Model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  1. Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

    2012-07-01

    An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

  2. North Atlantic Nordic Seas exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.

    2000-02-01

    The northeastern part of the North Atlantic is unique in the sense that it is much warmer in the surface than other ocean areas at similar latitudes. The main reason for this is the large northward transport of heat that extends to high latitudes and crosses the Greenland-Scotland Ridge to enter the Nordic Seas and the Arctic. There the warm Atlantic water is converted to colder water masses that return southwards over the ridge partly as surface outflows and partly as overflows through the deep passages across the ridge. In this paper, the state of knowledge on the exchanges especially across the eastern part of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is reviewed based on results from the ICES NANSEN (North Atlantic-Norwegian Sea Exchanges) project, from the Nordic WOCE project and from other sources. The accumulated evidence allows us to describe the exchanges in fair detail; the origins of the waters, the patterns of their flow towards and over the ridge and their ultimate fate. There is also increasing information on temporal variations of the exchanges although dynamical changes are still not well understood. Quantitative estimates for the volume transport of most of the overflow branches seem reasonably well established, and transport measurements of the Atlantic inflows to the Nordic Seas are approaching acceptable levels of confidence which allows preliminary budgets to be presented. The deep overflows are driven by pressure gradients set up by the formation of deep and intermediate water. The dominance of deep overflows over surface outflows in the water budget argues that this thermohaline forcing also dominates over direct wind stress and estuarine forcing in driving the Atlantic water inflow across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, while wind stress seems to influence the characteristics and distribution of the Atlantic water north of the ridge.

  3. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  4. Bayesian Hierarchical Air-Sea Interaction Modeling: Application to the Labrador Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niiler, Pearn P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives are to: 1) Organize data from 26 MINIMET drifters in the Labrador Sea, including sensor calibration and error checking of ARGOS transmissions. 2) Produce wind direction, barometer, and sea surface temperature time series. In addition, provide data from historical file of 150 SHARP drifters in the Labrador Sea. 3) Work with data interpretation and data-modeling assimilation issues.

  5. Sea level trends for all sections of the Baltic Sea coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Suursaar, Ülo; Knudsen, Per; She, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To better understand influence of sea level rise on societal vulnerability and coastal erosion processes, it is important to know the sea level trend. The coastline of the Baltic Sea is not uniformly exposed, and therefore we will determine the sea level trend of the last 10, 50 and 100 years for all sections of the coastline. The observational record of sea level in the Baltic Sea is quite unique with several records of more than 100 years of data. However, the information is confined to the tide gauge locations. Here, we utilize a statistical method based on least squares regression and originally developed for short term sea level variability (Madsen et al. 2015, JGR, doi:10.1002/2015JC011070) to spread out the sea level information from selected tide gauges to all sections of the Baltic Sea coast. Monthly mean tide gauge observations are retrieved from PSMSL and supplemented with Estonian observations. The spatial distribution of the sea level is obtained from model reanalysis from the Copernicus Marine Service and satellite altimetry observations and land rise information is taken into account. Results are validated against independent tide gauges, providing a consistent record of 20th century sea level trends and variability, including uncertainties, for the entire Baltic Sea coastline. This work is sponsored by the EMODnet project Baltic Checkpoint.

  6. Unlocking a Sea Ice Secret

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rachel Obbard

    2013-04-22

    Dr. Rachel Obbard and her research group from Dartmouth College traveled to the Antarctic to collect samples of sea ice. Next stop: the GeoSoilEnviroCARS x-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. This U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science synchrotron x-ray research facility gave the Obbard team the frontier scientific tools they needed to study the path bromide takes as it travels from the ocean to the atmosphere.

  7. Advanced deep sea diving equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danesi, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Design requirements are generated for a deep sea heavy duty diving system to equip salvage divers with equipment and tools that permit work of the same quality and in times approaching that done on the surface. The system consists of a helmet, a recirculator for removing carbon dioxide, and the diver's dress. The diver controls the inlet flow by the recirculatory control valve and is able to change closed cycle operation to open cycle if malfunction occurs. Proper function of the scrubber in the recirculator minimizes temperature and humidity effects as it filters the returning air.

  8. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  9. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  10. 50 CFR Appendix F to Part 622 - Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements F Appendix F to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries...—Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements A. Sea...

  11. Arctic Sea Ice from March to August 2016

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from the prior sea ice maximum March 24, 2016, through Aug. 13, 2016. The Arctic sea ice cover like...

  12. 76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Fish and... (Service), announce a ] meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup... and implementation of sea lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricide that are...

  13. Snow on Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massom, Robert A.; Eicken, Hajo; Hass, Christian; Jeffries, Martin O.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Sturm, Matthew; Worby, Anthony P.; Wu, Xingren; Lytle, Victoria I.; Ushio, Shuki; Morris, Kim; Reid, Phillip A.; Warren, Stephen G.; Allison, Ian

    2001-08-01

    Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a complex and highly variable role in air-sea-ice interaction processes and the Earth's climate system. Using data collected mostly during the past 10 years, this paper reviews the following topics: snow thickness and snow type and their geographical and seasonal variations; snow grain size, density, and salinity; frequency of occurrence of slush; thermal conductivity, snow surface temperature, and temperature gradients within snow; and the effect of snow thickness on albedo. Major findings include large regional and seasonal differences in snow properties and thicknesses; the consequences of thicker snow and thinner ice in the Antarctic relative to the Arctic (e.g., the importance of flooding and snow-ice formation); the potential impact of increasing snowfall resulting from global climate change; lower observed values of snow thermal conductivity than those typically used in models; periodic large-scale melt in winter; and the contrast in summer melt processes between the Arctic and the Antarctic. Both climate modeling and remote sensing would benefit by taking account of the differences between the two polar regions.

  14. North Sea development activity surges

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that operators in the North Sea have reported a burst of upstream activity. Off the U.K.: Amoco (U.K.) Exploration Co. installed three jackets in its North Everest and Lomond fields. It also completed laying the Central Area Transmission System (CATS) pipeline, which will carry the fields' gas to shore. BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd. installed the jacket for it Unity riser platform 5 {1/2} km from its Forties Charlie platform. Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. tested a successful appraisal well in Britannia field in Block 15/30, about 130 miles northeast of Aberdeen. In the Norwegian North Sea, Saga Petroleum AS placed Snorre oil and gas field on production 6 weeks ahead of schedule and 1.5 billion kroner under budget at a cost of 16.6 billion kroner; and downstream off the U.K., Phillips Petroleum Co. (U.K.) Ltd. awarded Allseas Marine Contractors SA, Essen, Belgium, a pipelay and trenching contract for its Ann field development project in Block 49/6a.

  15. CO2 and sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  16. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths  (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activites enabled the U.S Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. This program, orginally conceived by Wilfred A. Elders, professor of geology at the University of California at Riverside, was coordinated under an inter-agency accord among the Geological Survey, the U.S Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. 

  17. Mapping of sea bottom topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkoen, C. J.; Wensink, G. J.; Hesselmans, G. H. F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Under suitable conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas is visible in remote sensing radar imagery. Two experiments were performed to establish which remote sensing technique or combination yields optimal imaging of bottom topography and which hydro-meteorological conditions are favorable. A further goal is to gain experience with these techniques. Two experiments were performed over an area in the North Sea near the measuring platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN). The bottom topography in the test area is dominated by sand waves. The crests of the sand waves are perpendicular to the coast line and the dominating (tidal-)current direction. A 4x4 sq km wide section of the test area was studied in more detail. The first experiment was undertaken on 16 Aug. 1989. During the experiment the following remote sensing instruments were used: Landsat-Thematic Mapper, and NASA/JPL Airborne Imaging Radar (AIR). The hydro-meteorological conditions; current, wind, wave, and air and water temperature were monitored by MPN, a ship of Rijkswaterstaat (the OCTANS), and a pitch-and-roll WAVEC-buoy. The second experiment took place on 12 July 1992. During this experiment data were collected with the NASA/JPL polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and a five-band helicopter-borne scatterometer. Again the hydro-meteorological conditions were monitored at MPN and the OCTANS. Furthermore, interferometric radar data were collected.

  18. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  19. Sea ice concentration temporal variability over the Weddell Sea and its relationship with tropical sea surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barreira, S.; Compagnucci, R.

    2007-01-01

    Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in S-Mode (correlation between temporal series) was performed on sea ice monthly anomalies, in order to investigate which are the main temporal patterns, where are the homogenous areas located and how are they related to the sea surface temperature (SST). This analysis provides 9 patterns (4 in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and 5 in the Weddell Sea) that represent the most important temporal features that dominated sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) variability in the Weddell, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas over the 1979-2000 period. Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations data set derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm and acquired from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) were used. Monthly means SST are provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis. The first temporal pattern series obtained by PCA has its homogeneous area located at the external region of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas and Drake Passage, mostly north of 60°S. The second region is centered in 30°W and located at the southeast of the Weddell. The third area is localized east of 30°W and north of 60°S. South of the first area, the fourth PC series has its homogenous region, between 30° and 60°W. The last area is centered at 0° W and south of 60°S. Correlation charts between the five Principal Components series and SST were performed. Positive correlations over the Tropical Pacific Ocean were found for the five PCs when SST series preceded SICA PC series. The sign of the correlation could relate the occurrence of an El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm (cold) event with posterior positive (negative) anomalies of sea ice concentration over the Weddell Sea.

  20. [Sea buckthorn and sea buckthorn oils--recent developments in China and central Asia].

    PubMed

    Aitzetmüller, K; Xin, Y

    1999-08-01

    Since several years, sea buckthorn and sea buckthorn oils are booming in China, Russia and Central Asia. The background of this development is described and the different species and varieties of sea buckthorn are mentioned. The two different oils obtained from sea buckthorn (pulp oil and seed oil) and their composition is discussed. The use of sea buckthorn and its oils for medical and pharmaceutical purposes has its roots in ancient Tibet. The various "health claims", particularly by Russian and Chinese medical authorities, could not be discussed here. However, a number of recent papers are quoted here without further comment.

  1. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...

  2. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...

  3. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...

  4. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...

  5. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...

  6. More on Sea Turtles and Seaweed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Tian

    2005-01-01

    "Sea turtle" and "seaweed"--otherwise known as "returnee from abroad" and "unemployed from abroad," respectively-- are a pair of popular new terms that are innately connected. In this article, the author discusses the common plight faced by "sea turtles" and "seaweeds" who returned from…

  7. Sea level rise and coastal erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherman, S. P.; Zhang, K.; Douglas, B. C.

    2003-04-01

    One of the most certain consequences of global warming is an increase of global (eustatic) sea level. The resulting inundation from rising seas will heavily impact low-lying areas; at least 100 million persons live within one meter of mean sea level and are at increased risk in the coming decades. The very existence of some island states and deltaic coasts is threatened by sea level rise. An additional threat affecting some of the most heavily developed and economically valuable real estate will come from an exacerbation of sandy beach erosion. As the beach is lost, fixed structures nearby are increasingly exposed to the direct impact of storm waves, and will ultimately be damaged or destroyed unless expensive protective measures are taken. It has long been speculated that the underlying rate of long-term sandy beach erosion is two orders of magnitude greater than the rate of rise of sea level, so that any significant increase of sea level has dire consequences for coastal inhabitants. We present an analysis of a large and consistent database of shoreline positions and sea levels to show that there is an underlying highly multiplicative relation of sandy beach erosion to sea level rise. This result means that the already-severe coastal erosion problems witnessed in the 20th century will be exacerbated in the 21st century under plausible global warming scenarios.

  8. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as ‘infinite’. PMID:17148336

  9. Mesoscale Eddies in the Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova, H. G.; Kessler, W. S.; McWilliams, J. C.; Molemaker, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Water mass transformation in the strong equatorward flows through the Solomon Sea influences the properties of the Equatorial Undercurrent and subsequent cold tongue upwelling. High eddy activity in the interior Solomon Sea seen in altimetric sea surface height (SSH) and in several models may provide a mechanism for these transformations. We investigate these effects using a mesoscale (4-km resolution) sigma-coordinate (ROMS) model of the Solomon Sea nested in a basin solution, forced by a repeating seasonal cycle, and evaluated against observational data. The model generates a vigorous upper layer eddy field; some of these are apparently shed as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent threads through the complex topography of the region, others are independent of the strong western boundary current. We diagnose the scales and vertical structure of the eddies in different parts of the Solomon Sea to illuminate their generation processes and propagation characteristics, and compare these to observed eddy statistics. Hypotheses tested are that the Solomon Sea mesoscale eddies are generated locally by baroclinic instability, that the eddies are shed as the South Equatorial Current passes around and through the Solomon Island chain, that eddies are generated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, or that eddies occurring outside of the Solomon Sea propagate into the Solomon Sea. These different mechanisms have different implications for the resulting mixing and property fluxes. They also provide different interpretations for SSH signals observed from satellites (e.g., that will be observed by the upcoming SWOT satellite).

  10. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Jabiru find stirs Timor Sea interest

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-20

    The Jabiru oil field in the Timor Sea has been the hot topic around Australia since its discovery by Broken Hill Pty. in late 1983. Because of the potential of the area, Australia and Indonesia have resumed talks on the boundary disputes of the Timor Sea. The new Australian Resource Rent Tax (RRT) is also discussed in relation to this area.

  13. Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, K; Rozanski, K; Povinec, P; Oregioni, B; Gastaud, J

    1999-09-30

    Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H-3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea are rapidly ventilated, although the hydraulic turnover time of the sea is approximately 200 years. The concentration levels of the anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the water column can be explained by global fallout and therefore, at the sampling sites visited, there were no signs of dumping of radioactive wastes. The anthropogenic radionuclide data support the idea of fast exchange of water masses in the Caspian Sea. The isotopic and oceanographic data collected during the cruises have shown potential to allow for a better understanding of the water circulation in the Caspian Sea.

  14. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  15. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    geostrophic adjustment in sea de Alboran. Revista Las Ciencias XXV(4):765-779. straits and wide estuaries: theory and laboratory experi- Stevenson, R. E. (1977... Comunicaciones 3, Zaragoza: Whitehead, J. A. and A. R. Miller (1979). Labora- 1151-1166. tory simulation of the gyre in the Alboran Sea. Jour- Parrilla, G

  16. The strength anisotropia of sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Evdokimov, G.N.; Rogachko, S.I.

    1994-12-31

    The hydraulic-engineering structure calculations of sea ice formation force require the sea ice strength data. The strength characteristics values and the types of sea ice formations in view of water depth define the type and the design of future structures in each particular region of supposed construction. The most objective information on the sea ice physical and technical properties can be obtained by field investigations ad the existing methods of their calculations refer to a great number of errors. The accumulated bank of data on studying the sea ice formation strength properties show one that ice as a natural material is of great crystalline structure variety. The level ice fields have a number of particularities. The crystal sizes increase in ice thickness. The crystals consist of fresh-water thin plates 0.5--0.6 mm in thickness oriented by pickle-water interlayers. Difference in thickness of the sea ice cover structure is one of the main causes of the changes strength characteristics layer. Besides that the sea ice strength depends upon the destroying force direction in reference to crystal orientation which characterizes the sea ice anisotropia as a material.

  17. Teaching Wide Sargasso Sea in New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2005-01-01

    High school teacher Susan Arpajian Jolley emphasizes experience and understanding by using the related novels "Wide Sargasso Sea" and "Jane Eyre" to help her students travel into unfamiliar cultural territory. "Wide Sargasso Sea" relates to Caribbean history and culture, feminism, race relations, colonialism, and…

  18. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  19. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nations, as well as those waters that are seaward of territorial seas of the United States and other nations. (d) Under customary international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the... economic zones pursuant to article 58 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and...

  20. Atlantic Air-Sea Interaction Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodwell, M. J.

    INTRODUCTION DATA AND MODELS THE ANALYSIS METHOD ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FORCING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observational Evidence Model Results POTENTIAL SEASONAL PREDICTABILITY BASED ON THE ATMOSPHERE GENERAL - CIRCULATION MODEL CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION REFERENCES

  1. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    PubMed

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  2. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  3. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'.

  4. Sea Level Rise and Decadal Variations in the Ligurian Sea Inferred from the Medimaremetre Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpytchev, M.; Coulomb, A.; Vallee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Estimations of sea level rise over the last centuries are mostly based on the rare historical sea level records from tide gauge stations usually designed for navigational purposes. In this study, we examine the quality of sea level measurements performed by a mean sea level gauge operated in Nice from 1887 to 1909 and transferred to the nearby town of Villefranche-sur-Mer in 1913 where it stayed in operation untill 1974. The mean sea level gauges, called medimaremetres, were invented for geodetic studies and installed in many French ports since the end of the XIX century. By construction, the medimaremetre was connected to the sea through a porous porcelain crucible in order to filter out the tides and higher frequency sea level oscillations. Ucontrolled properties of the crucible and some systematic errors made the medimaremetre data to be ignored in the current sea level researches. We demonstrate that the Nice-Villefranche medimaremetre measurements are coherent with two available historical tide gauge records from Marseille and Genova and a new century-scale sea level series can be build up by combining the medimaremetre data with the those recorded by a tide gauge operating in Nice since the 1980s. We analyse the low frequency variabilities in Marseille, Nice-Villefranche and Genova and get new insights on the decadal sea level variations in the Ligurian Sea since the end of the XIX century.

  5. Quantifying the influence of sea ice on ocean microseism using observations from the Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, Victor C.; McNamara, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Microseism is potentially affected by all processes that alter ocean wave heights. Because strong sea ice prevents large ocean waves from forming, sea ice can therefore significantly affect microseism amplitudes. Here we show that this link between sea ice and microseism is not only a robust one but can be quantified. In particular, we show that 75–90% of the variability in microseism power in the Bering Sea can be predicted using a fairly crude model of microseism damping by sea ice. The success of this simple parameterization suggests that an even stronger link can be established between the mechanical strength of sea ice and microseism power, and that microseism can eventually be used to monitor the strength of sea ice, a quantity that is not as easily observed through other means.

  6. Quantifying the influence of sea ice on ocean microseism using observations from the Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, V.C.; McNamara, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Microseism is potentially affected by all processes that alter ocean wave heights. Because strong sea ice prevents large ocean waves from forming, sea ice can therefore significantly affect microseism amplitudes. Here we show that this link between sea ice and microseism is not only a robust one but can be quantified. In particular, we show that 75-90% of the variability in microseism power in the Bering Sea can be predicted using a fairly crude model of microseism damping by sea ice. The success of this simple parameterization suggests that an even stronger link can be established between the mechanical strength of sea ice and microseism power, and that microseism can eventually be used to monitor the strength of sea ice, a quantity that is not as easily observed through other means. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  8. Volga River Delta and Caspian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color MODIS image from May 10, 2002, captures Russia's Volga River (running south through the center) emptying into the northern portion of the Caspian Sea. The waters of the Caspian Sea are quite murky in this image, highlighting the water quality problems plaguing the sea. The sea is inundated with sewage and industrial and agricultural waste, which is having measurable impact on human health and wildlife. According reports from the Department of Energy, in less than a decade the sturgeon catch dropped from 30,000 tons to just over 2,000 tons. National and international groups are currently joining together to find strategies of dealing with the environmental problems of the Caspian Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Ecological role of purple sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Pearse, John S

    2006-11-10

    Sea urchins are major components of marine communities. Their grazing limits algal biomass, and they are preyed upon by many predators. Purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) are among the best studied species. They live in environments that alternate between two stable states: luxuriant, species-rich kelp forests and sea urchin-dominated "barrens." The transition from one state to the other can be initiated by several factors, including the abundance of algal food, predators, storm intensities, and incidence of disease. Purple sea urchins compete with other grazers, some of which are important fishery resources (such as abalones and red sea urchins), and they are harvested for scientific research. Revelations from their genome will lead to a better understanding of how they maintain their ecological importance, and may in turn enhance their economic potential.

  10. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  11. Liquid hydrocarbons probable under Ross Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, A. K.; Davey, F.J.; Hinz, K.

    1988-01-01

    Thick glacial strata, which have no source-rock potential, cover the Ross Sea. If these strata persist to great depths, then hydrocarbon-generation prospects will be poor. Deeply buried strata within Ross Sea rift-grabens, if like other Gondwana rift-deposits, could have good potential for hydrocarbon generation. Current hydrocarbon assessments of the Ross Sea and adjacent areas must be considered highly speculative because the deeply buried rift(?) strata have not been sampled in situ. The assessment of the Ross Sea relies on geophysical/geologic data, two-stage rift models, and data from formerly nearby Gondwana rift-basins. We conclude that conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and entrapment are likely throughout the Ross Sea, and especially in the Victoria Land basin, if adequate source beds exist. -Authors

  12. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  14. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.

    2016-02-01

    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  15. SEAS: Student Experiments At Sea - An Education Outreach Pilot Program Sponsored by the Ridge2000 Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.

    2004-12-01

    SEAS is a pilot program for middle and high school students who want to learn science by doing science. SEAS students study the deep sea hydrothermal vent environment and learn to ask questions about this exciting, relatively unexplored world, just as researchers do. SEAS students also learn how to answer their own questions through the process of scientific investigation. With the SEAS program, students have the opportunity to participate in the actual discovery process, along side deep-sea researchers. SEAS builds upon the successes of programs like Dive&Discover and Extreme2000, which demonstrated the capability deep-sea scientists have in engaging students with live research. SEAS extends this concept by inviting students to participate in deep-sea research through formal proposal and report competitions. SEAS challenges students to higher levels of achievement. A curriculum, developed by teachers expert in the translation of scientific inquiry in the classroom, prepares students to participate. SEAS was concept-tested during the 2003-2004 school year, with 14 pilot teachers and approximately 800 students. Twenty Ridge2000 scientists contributed their time and expertise to the SEAS program in its first year. Five student proposals were selected and conducted at sea in April during a Ridge2000 research cruise to the East Pacific Rise. All results were posted to the SEAS website (http://www.ridge2000.org/SEAS/) during the cruise, and students were invited to analyze data for their final reports. Final student reports, along with scientists comments were also posted. During the 2004-2005 school year, SEAS will be evaluated for its impact on student learning and attitudes toward science. The benefits of SEAS to the Ridge2000 scientific community are many. Scientists are invited to contribute in a variety of ways, all of which help satisfy the requirement of NSFs Broader Impacts Criterion. They may contribute time and expertise by answering student questions and

  16. SEAS Classroom to Sea Labs: New Directions for Ridge 2000 Communitywide Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.

    2005-12-01

    Lessons learned from the two year SEAS pilot program emphasize that student participation in deep-sea research is an important motivator in student learning. Further, SEAS students experience a paradigm shift in understanding evidence-based reasoning and the process of scientific discovery. At the same time, we have learned that fostering authentic student investigations within the confines of the academic year is challenging and only fits classrooms with some academic flexibility. As a result, this year, SEAS will focus on the new Classroom to Sea Lab as a means to help foster student inquiry in the secondary school science classroom. The Classroom to Sea Lab invites student participation in deep-sea research but does so without requiring students to identify and propose suitable sea-going experiments. Classroom to Sea labs are designed to feature current deep-sea research, and emphasize critical skills in laboratory techniques, data collection and analysis, and scientific reporting. Labs are conducted in the classroom (by students) and at sea (by scientists for the students), resulting in parallel datasets for comparison. Labs also feature the work of practicing scientists. An annual Classroom to Sea Report Fair invites students to summarize their findings and submit written analyses for scientist feedback and prizes, emphasizing the importance of communications skills in science. This year, the SEAS program will feature the Shallow-water vs. Deep-sea Vent Mussel Classroom to Sea lab. In this lab, students explore differences in mussel anatomy and feeding strategies, and understand how chemosynthetic symbionts function in this animal. The lab instructs students to dissect shallow-water mussels and measure the proportion of gill tissue to total body tissue. Students are also instructed to download a dataset of vent mussel measurements and compare average proportions. Finally, students are invited to submit their analyses of the lab to the on-line Report Fair

  17. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  18. Sea Ice Biogeochemistry: A Guide for Modellers

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes. PMID:24586604

  19. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  20. International Arctic Seas Assessment Project.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, K L; Salo, A; Bewers, J M; Cooper, J; Dyer, R S; Lynn, N M; Mount, M E; Povinec, P P; Sazykina, T G; Schwarz, J; Scott, E M; Sivintsev, Y V; Tanner, J E; Warden, J M; Woodhead, D

    1999-09-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency responded to the news that the former Soviet Union had dumped radioactive wastes in the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas, by launching the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project in 1993. The project had two objectives: to assess the risks to human health and to the environment associated with the radioactive wastes dumped in the Kara and Barents Seas; and to examine possible remedial actions related to the dumped wastes and to advise on whether they are necessary and justified. The current radiological situation in the Arctic waters was examined to assess whether there is any evidence for releases from the dumped waste. Potential future releases from the dumped wastes were predicted, concentrating on the high-level waste objects containing the major part of the radionuclide inventory of the wastes. Environmental transport of released radionuclides was modelled and the associated radiological impact on humans and the biota was assessed. The feasibility, costs and benefits of possible remedial measures applied to a selected high-level waste object were examined. Releases from identified dumped objects were found to be small and localised to the immediate vicinity of the dumping sites. Projected future annual doses to members of the public in typical local population groups were very small, less than 1 microSv--corresponding to a trivial risk. Projected future doses to a hypothetical group of military personnel patrolling the foreshore of the fjords in which wastes have been dumped were higher, up to 4 mSv/year, which still is of the same order as the average annual natural background dose. Moreover, since any of the proposed remedial actions were estimated to cost several million US$ to implement, remediation was not considered justified on the basis of potentially removing a collective dose of 10 man Sv. Doses calculated to marine fauna were insignificant, orders of magnitude below those at which detrimental effects on

  1. Geomagnetic Navigation in Sea Turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, K.; Putman, N.; Lohmann, C.

    2011-12-01

    Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the north Atlantic Ocean before returning to the North American coast. Newly hatched turtles (hatchlings) begin the migration with a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields function as navigational markers and elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial geographic boundaries. In laboratory experiments, young turtles that had never before been in the ocean were exposed to fields like those that exist at various, widely separated locations along their transoceanic migratory route. Turtles responded by swimming in directions that would, in each case, help them remain within the North Atlantic gyre currents and advance along the migratory pathway. The results demonstrate that turtles can derive both longitudinal and latitudinal information from the Earth's field, and provide strong evidence that hatchling loggerheads inherit a remarkably elaborate set of responses that function in guiding them along their open-sea migratory route. For young sea turtles, couplings of oriented swimming to regional magnetic fields appear to provide the fundamental building blocks from which natural selection can sculpt a sequence of responses capable of guiding first-time ocean migrants along complex migratory routes. The results imply that hatchlings from different populations in different parts of the world are likely to have magnetic navigational responses uniquely suited for the migratory routes that each group follows. Thus, from a conservation perspective, turtles from different populations are not interchangeable. From an evolutionary perspective, the responses are not incompatible with either secular variation or magnetic polarity reversals. As Earth's field gradually changes, strong selective pressure presumably acts to maintain an approximate match between the responses of hatchlings and the fields that exist at critical points along

  2. Ecology of North Sea fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  3. Organic iodine in Antarctic sea ice: A comparison between winter in the Weddell Sea and summer in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granfors, Anna; Ahnoff, Martin; Mills, Matthew M.; Abrahamsson, Katarina

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have recognized sea ice as a source of reactive iodine to the Antarctic boundary layer. Volatile iodinated compounds (iodocarbons) are released from sea ice, and they have been suggested to contribute to the formation of iodine oxide (IO), which takes part in tropospheric ozone destruction in the polar spring. We measured iodocarbons (CH3I, CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2) in sea ice, snow, brine, and air during two expeditions to Antarctica, OSO 10/11 to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer and ANT XXIX/6 to the Weddell Sea in austral winter. These are the first reported measurements of iodocarbons from the Antarctic winter. Iodocarbons were enriched in sea ice in relation to seawater in both summer and winter. During summer, the positive relationship to chlorophyll a biomass indicated a biological origin. We suggest that CH3I is formed biotically in sea ice during both summer and winter. For CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2, an additional abiotic source at the snow/ice interface in winter is suggested. Elevated air concentrations of CH3I and CH2ClI during winter indicate that they are enriched in lower troposphere and may take part in the formation of IO at polar sunrise.

  4. Sea-Salt Aerosol Forecasts Compared with Wave and Sea-Salt Measurements in the Open Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishcha, P.; Starobinets, B.; Bozzano, R.; Pensieri, S.; Canepa, E.; Nickovie, S.; di Sarra, A.; Udisti, R.; Becagli, S.; Alpert, P.

    2012-03-01

    Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) could influence the Earth's climate acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, there were no regular measurements of SSA in the open sea. At Tel-Aviv University, the DREAM-Salt prediction system has been producing daily forecasts of 3-D distribution of sea-salt aerosol concentrations over the Mediterranean Sea (http://wind.tau.ac.il/saltina/ salt.html). In order to evaluate the model performance in the open sea, daily modeled concentrations were compared directly with SSA measurements taken at the tiny island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean. In order to further test the robustness of the model, the model performance over the open sea was indirectly verified by comparing modeled SSA concentrations with wave height measurements collected by the ODAS Italia 1 buoy and the Llobregat buoy. Model-vs.-measurement comparisons show that the model is capable of producing realistic SSA concentrations and their day-today variations over the open sea, in accordance with observed wave height and wind speed.

  5. Sea level change: a philosophical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1993-07-01

    The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere

  6. Palaeogeography of the Caspian Sea marine Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Tamara; Svitoch, Aleksander; Makshaev, Radik; Khomchenko, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Vertical succession of the fossil molluscs of Didacna genus along the Pleistocene sequence of the Caspian Sea area allows for detailed subdivision of the sediments. Zone, i.e. the Caspian Sea Pleistocene, is the highest stratigraphical unit of the regional Quaternary stratigraphic scale. It corresponds to the biozone of Didacna Eichwald subgenus. Based on the fossil groups of Didacna molluscs, the deposits are subdivided into the Baku, Urundzhik-Singil', lower and upper Khazarian, Khvalinian, and post-Khvalinian horizons. Further subdision is based on the changes in Didacna assemblages. Three big transgressive epochs are distinguished in the Pleistocene history of the Caspian Sea that were separated by deep and long regressions. These are the Baku, early Khazarian and Khvalinian transgressions. In transgressive sea basins, the sea level reached the height of 40-50 m and was regulated by the outflow of the Caspian waters into the Black Sea via the Manych depression. The areas of transgressive basins were similar. At the Caucasian coast, the extent of the Baku and early Khazarian transgressions exceeded that of the Khvalinian transgression, while in the Northern Caspian Sea Region the latter was slightly more extensive than the preceding ones. The Urundzhik, late Khazarian and New Caspian transgressions represented sea-level rise of lower rank. All of them were recorded within big regressive epochs being usually related to warm (interglacial) climatic conditions: Singil' (Likhvin), Mikulino and Holocene, respectively. Like at present, the Pleistocene Caspian Sea represented a self-regulating system. Maximal extent of ancient sea basins was dependent upon the height of the Manych sill (that was the main regulating factor), the amount of precipitation, river runoff, and decrease in evaporation. Minimal extent of the sea basin was dependent upon the area and capacity of its southern and middle depressions. At the same time, the rest states (extents) of the Caspian Sea

  7. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jie Christensen, Per; Kornov, Lone

    2013-01-15

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The

  8. Tides of the Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kjerfve, B.

    1981-05-20

    Analysis of tidal characteristics from 45 gauge locations indicates that the Caribbean Sea has a microtidal range, for the most part between 10 and 20 cm. The tide is primarily either mixed semidiurnal or mixed diurnal but a substantial section from Puerto Rico to Venezuela experiences diurnal tides. Empirical charts of six component tides (M/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, K/sub 1/, O/sub 1/, and P/sub 1/) show local detail of phase and amplitude. Each of the semidiurnal component tides is characterized by anticlockwise rotating amphidromes centered in the eastern Caribbean. There is evidence of strong radiational forcing of the S/sub 2/ tide in the south-western Caribbean. The diurnal component tides are largely uniform in both phase and amplitude for most of the western and central Caribbean. However, the diurnal phases increase rapidly towards the northwest and the Yucatan Channel.

  9. Chemical Composition of Sea Fog Water Along the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yanyu; Niu, Shengjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Feng

    2012-12-01

    The chemical and microphysical properties of sea fog were measured during a field experiment on Donghai Island, Zhanjiang of China from March 15 to April 18, 2010. The average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) value of the six sea fog cases during the experiment was 5.2 and 1,884 μS/cm. The observed total ion concentration of sea fog was four orders of magnitude higher than those in the North Pacific and other sea areas of China. The dominant anion and cation in all sea fog water samples were Cl- and Na+, respectively. From backward trajectory analysis and ion loading computation, it can be concluded that the ions in the samples were transported either from pollutants in distant industrial cities or from local ion deposition processes. The concentration of Ca2+ in the sea fog water samples in Case 2 suggested that a dust storm in the Inner Mongolia, a northern region of China several thousand kilometers away, could reach the South China Sea. The data also showed that the sea fog droplet spectrum over the South China Sea is unimodal. Through relationship analysis, it is illustrated that the evolution of microphysics (such as droplet concentration, diameter, and liquid water content) during fog process could affect the chemical properties of sea fog.

  10. Putting SEA in context: A discourse perspective on how SEA contributes to decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens

    2009-04-15

    Over the last couple of years there is an ongoing debate in the environmental assessment literature about the contribution of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to public decision-making and how this can be understood and enhanced by better incorporating insights from policy analysis, planning theory and political sciences. By explicitly framing SEA as an element in a process where stakeholders with diverging interests struggle, acceptability of SEA processes and results by stakeholders has become an important element in SEA evaluation. In addition, the importance of other context variables, such as the institutional organisation, and the need for SEA to adapt to this context, is stressed. Thus far, publications in this area have been dealing with the operationalisation of SEA's 'contribution', typologies of roles that SEA can or should play in different policy settings and on factors that stimulate or impede SEA to play these roles. In this paper an alternative approach is suggested that starts from the deliberative processes around a particular policy issue or decision supported by SEA. Of particular interest are 'discourses': the frames through which groups of actors give meaning to aspects of the policy issues and decisions that are supported by SEA. Discourses do not only reflect conflicts of interests and power play, but also the ways in which actors perceive and understand aspects of the world. Decision-making is conceptualised as a 'system of competing discourse coalitions and their struggles to 'control shared meanings' and to gain acceptance of their framing of a policy issue' [Durning D. A review of Fischer and Forrester (1993) The argumentative turn in policy analysis and planning. Policy Sci 1995;28(1):102-8]. SEA is one of the events in this process that may impact upon dominant discourses. Discourse analysis allows for an understanding of arguments that are considered legitimate for (not) incorporating particular elements of SEA. In addition it

  11. Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    Despite its purported importance, previous studies of the influence of sea-level rise on coastal aquifers have focused on specific sites, and a generalized systematic analysis of the general case of the sea water intrusion response to sea-level rise has not been reported. In this study, a simple conceptual framework is used to provide a first-order assessment of sea water intrusion changes in coastal unconfined aquifers in response to sea-level rise. Two conceptual models are tested: (1) flux-controlled systems, in which ground water discharge to the sea is persistent despite changes in sea level, and (2) head-controlled systems, whereby ground water abstractions or surface features maintain the head condition in the aquifer despite sea-level changes. The conceptualization assumes steady-state conditions, a sharp interface sea water-fresh water transition zone, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer properties, and constant recharge. In the case of constant flux conditions, the upper limit for sea water intrusion due to sea-level rise (up to 1.5 m is tested) is no greater than 50 m for typical values of recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer depth. This is in striking contrast to the constant head cases, in which the magnitude of salt water toe migration is on the order of hundreds of meters to several kilometers for the same sea-level rise. This study has highlighted the importance of inland boundary conditions on the sea-level rise impact. It identifies combinations of hydrogeologic parameters that control whether large or small salt water toe migration will occur for any given change in a hydrogeologic variable.

  12. Influence of sea ice on Arctic precipitation.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Ben G; Feng, Xiahong; Michel, Fred A; Posmentier, Eric S

    2016-01-05

    Global climate is influenced by the Arctic hydrologic cycle, which is, in part, regulated by sea ice through its control on evaporation and precipitation. However, the quantitative link between precipitation and sea ice extent is poorly constrained. Here we present observational evidence for the response of precipitation to sea ice reduction and assess the sensitivity of the response. Changes in the proportion of moisture sourced from the Arctic with sea ice change in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland Sea regions over the past two decades are inferred from annually averaged deuterium excess (d-excess) measurements from six sites. Other influences on the Arctic hydrologic cycle, such as the strength of meridional transport, are assessed using the North Atlantic Oscillation index. We find that the independent, direct effect of sea ice on the increase of the percentage of Arctic sourced moisture (or Arctic moisture proportion, AMP) is 18.2 ± 4.6% and 10.8 ± 3.6%/100,000 km(2) sea ice lost for each region, respectively, corresponding to increases of 10.9 ± 2.8% and 2.7 ± 1.1%/1 °C of warming in the vapor source regions. The moisture source changes likely result in increases of precipitation and changes in energy balance, creating significant uncertainty for climate predictions.

  13. Sea-ice thermodynamics and brine drainage.

    PubMed

    Worster, M Grae; Rees Jones, David W

    2015-07-13

    Significant changes in the state of the Arctic ice cover are occurring. As the summertime extent of sea ice diminishes, the Arctic is increasingly characterized by first-year rather than multi-year ice. It is during the early stages of ice growth that most brine is injected into the oceans, contributing to the buoyancy flux that mediates the thermo-haline circulation. Current operational sea-ice components of climate models often treat brine rejection between sea ice and the ocean similarly to a thermodynamic segregation process, assigning a fixed salinity to the sea ice, typical of multi-year ice. However, brine rejection is a dynamical, buoyancy-driven process and the salinity of sea ice varies significantly during the first growth season. As a result, current operational models may over predict the early brine fluxes from newly formed sea ice, which may have consequences for coupled simulations of the polar oceans. Improvements both in computational power and our understanding of the processes involved have led to the emergence of a new class of sea-ice models that treat brine rejection dynamically and should enhance predictions of the buoyancy forcing of the oceans.

  14. Recent changes in Antarctic Sea Ice.

    PubMed

    Turner, John; Hosking, J Scott; Bracegirdle, Thomas J; Marshall, Gareth J; Phillips, Tony

    2015-07-13

    In contrast to the Arctic, total sea ice extent (SIE) across the Southern Ocean has increased since the late 1970s, with the annual mean increasing at a rate of 186×10(3) km(2) per decade (1.5% per decade; p<0.01) for 1979-2013. However, this overall increase masks larger regional variations, most notably an increase (decrease) over the Ross (Amundsen-Bellingshausen) Sea. Sea ice variability results from changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions, although the former is thought to be more significant, since there is a high correlation between anomalies in the ice concentration and the near-surface wind field. The Southern Ocean SIE trend is dominated by the increase in the Ross Sea sector, where the SIE is significantly correlated with the depth of the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL), which has deepened since 1979. The depth of the ASL is influenced by a number of external factors, including tropical sea surface temperatures, but the low also has a large locally driven intrinsic variability, suggesting that SIE in these areas is especially variable. Many of the current generation of coupled climate models have difficulty in simulating sea ice. However, output from the better-performing IPCC CMIP5 models suggests that the recent increase in Antarctic SIE may be within the bounds of intrinsic/internal variability.

  15. Severe Storm in the Sea of Azov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A fierce storm struck both the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on November 11, 2007. According to news reports, as many as 10 ships either sank or ran aground, one of them an oil tanker. The Russian tanker Volganeft-139 was anchored to the sea floor in the Kerch Strait linking the Black and Azov Seas when 108-kilometer- (67-mile-) per-hour winds tore the ship apart. As of November 12, up to 2,000 metric tons of fuel oil had leaked from the ship. On November 11, 2007, the day the storm struck, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of the region. Thick clouds obscure the view of much of the land area, including Ukraine, Belarus, western Russia, and Georgia. Clouds also obscure the Sea of Azov, although skies over the Black Sea are somewhat clearer. Over the Sea of Azov and immediately to the north, the clouds form a vague swirling pattern, suggestive of a low-pressure cyclonic system.

  16. Influence of sea ice on Arctic precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Ben G.; Feng, Xiahong; Michel, Fred A.; Posmentier, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    Global climate is influenced by the Arctic hydrologic cycle, which is, in part, regulated by sea ice through its control on evaporation and precipitation. However, the quantitative link between precipitation and sea ice extent is poorly constrained. Here we present observational evidence for the response of precipitation to sea ice reduction and assess the sensitivity of the response. Changes in the proportion of moisture sourced from the Arctic with sea ice change in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland Sea regions over the past two decades are inferred from annually averaged deuterium excess (d-excess) measurements from six sites. Other influences on the Arctic hydrologic cycle, such as the strength of meridional transport, are assessed using the North Atlantic Oscillation index. We find that the independent, direct effect of sea ice on the increase of the percentage of Arctic sourced moisture (or Arctic moisture proportion, AMP) is 18.2 ± 4.6% and 10.8 ± 3.6%/100,000 km2 sea ice lost for each region, respectively, corresponding to increases of 10.9 ± 2.8% and 2.7 ± 1.1%/1 °C of warming in the vapor source regions. The moisture source changes likely result in increases of precipitation and changes in energy balance, creating significant uncertainty for climate predictions. PMID:26699509

  17. Track Reconstruction at SeaQuest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Reuben; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The SeaQuest experiment, at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, is a fixed target experiment that uses the Drell-Yan process to measure the quark and antiquark structure in the nucleon sea. A naïve assumption is that the number of anti-up and anti-down quarks within a nucleon sea would be the same. However, evidence shows that this is not true. The goal of SeaQuest is to more accurately measure this asymmetry in the nucleon sea. In this process event tracking is an integral step in analyzing the data collected. This is difficult due to the size of the experiment, the number of detectors and the beam dump. The beam dump is a 5m block of iron that lies just beyond the target to protect the detectors from the beam. This poses a problem for accurately tracking muons back to the target. Therefore, it is important to crosscheck two independent event trackers. Sqerp, the SeaQuest Event Reconstruction Program, is one of these trackers used at SeaQuest. This tracks events through two magnets, 4 detector stations, and 18 planes of wires. Sqerp deals with difficult problems such as matching hits in each detector station and how detector alignment affects this. This poster will focus on the methods used by Sqerp and the work done in optimizing these processes. This research was supported by US DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  18. Challenges to sea otter recovery and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other species that in recent centuries experienced unregulated human exploitation, sea otters were extirpated throughout large portions of their historic range in the North Pacific. For most of the twentieth century, with cessation of the fur trade and because of concerted efforts at conservation, sea otters recovered much of their historic range and abundance. Late in the twentieth century, increased predation by killer whales in southwest Alaska drove sea otter populations to a few percentage points of their prior abundance, and one of the nation’s largest oil spills in south-central Alaska caused the death of several thousand animals and required more than two decades for recovery. In California, entanglement in fishing gear and environmental degradation, among other factors, have contributed to slow growth in sea otter abundance. We discuss the role of density dependence and spatial structuring of populations in reduced rates of sea otter recovery recently detected in the Northeast Pacific, and consider the potential effects of multiple low-level and cumulative threats on sea otter populations. The resilience demonstrated by sea otters over the past century will be tested in upcoming decades as human activities continue to degrade nearshore coastal areas of the North Pacific.

  19. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. Even following a 15-year-long effort through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and U.S. and Canadian Endangered/Threatened Species programs to fund research focused on sea duck habitats there are still important gaps in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Importantly, many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered, largely as a result of anthropogenic effects. Our goal here is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups (e.g., eiders) within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, this chapter will examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Finally, we will evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for

  20. New Coccolithophore Bloom in Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the fourth year in a row it appears as if there is a bloom of coccolithophores-marine single-celled plants with calcite scales-in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska. Similar blooms were rare before 1997, but they have appeared every year since then. Scientists believe the coccolithophore blooms are the result of changing wind patterns in the region. Weaker than normal winds fail to mix the water of the Bering Sea, resulting in the growth of coccolithophores instead of other types of phytoplankton. Seabird populations have also been changing as a result of this climate change. The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, saw the coccolith-brightened waters of the Bering Sea in 1997, 1998, and 1999. The waters have looked fairly bright again this winter and spring, as seen in this SeaWiFS image acquired April 29, 2000. But scientists are unsure whether this year's phenomenon is caused by living coccolithophorids, re-suspended coccoliths, or something else. Like all phytoplankton, coccolithophores contain chlorophyll and have the tendency to multiply rapidly near the surface. Yet, in large numbers, coccolithophores periodically shed their tiny scales, called 'coccoliths,' by the bucketful into the surrounding waters. The calcium-rich coccoliths turn the normally dark water a bright, milky aquamarine, making coccolithophore blooms easy to spot in satellite imagery. The edge of the whitish cloud in the water seen in this image is roughly 50 kilometers off the West Coast of Alaska. For more information see: SeaWiFS home page Changing Currents Color the Bering Sea a New Shade of Blue Image courtesy SeaWiFS project

  1. Pulsations, interpulsations, and sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    It is postulated that worldwide transgressions (pulsations) and regressions (interpulsations) through the course of geologic time are related to the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems and to sea-floor spreading. Two multiple working hypotheses are advanced to explain major transgressions and regressions and the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems. One hypothesis interrelates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to the hypothesis of sub-Mohorovicic serpentinization. The second hypothesis relates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to a hypothesis involving thermal expansion and contraction.

  2. Common Era Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Kemp, A.; Kopp, R. E., III

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic coast of North America provides a sedimentary record of Common Era sea levels with the resolution to identify the mechanisms that cause spatial variability in sea-level rise. This coast has a small tidal range, improving the precision of sea-level reconstructions. Coastal subsidence (from glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) creates accommodation space that is filled by salt-marsh peat and preserves accurate and precise sea-level indicators and abundant material for radiocarbon dating. In addition, the western North Atlantic Ocean is sensitive to spatial variability in sea-level change, because of static equilibrium effects from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, ocean circulation and wind-driven variability in the Gulf Stream and GIA induced land-level change from ongoing collapse of Laurentide forbuldge. We reveal three distinct patters in sea-level during the Common Era along the North American Atlantic coast, likely linked to wind-driven changes in the Gulf Stream: (1) Florida, sea level is essentially flat, with the record dominated by long-term geological processes; (2) North Carolina, sea level falls to a minimum near the beginning of the second millennium, climbing to an early Little Ice Age maximum in the fifteenth century, and then declining through most of the nineteenth century; and (3) New Jersey, a sea-level maximum around 900 CE, a sea-level minimum around 1500 CE, and a long-term sea-level rise through the second half of the second millennium. We combine the salt-marsh data from North American Atlantic coast with tide-gauge records and lower resolution proxies from the northern and southern hemispheres. We apply a noisy-input Gaussian process spatio-temporal modeling framework, which identifies a long-term falling global mean sea-level (GMSL), interrupted in the middle of the 19th century by an acceleration yielding a 20th century rate of rise extremely likely (probability P = 0:95) faster than any previous century in the Common Era.

  3. Wave climate of the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobrolyubov, Sergey; Myslenkov, Stanislav; Korablina, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    The implementation of the SWAN spectral wave model for the White Sea with using unstructured grid was presented. The main area of the Barents Sea was added to calculation region because it produces swell which incomes to the White Sea from the outside. Spatial resolution of unstructured grid is 500 m-5 km for the White Sea and 10-20 km for the Barents sea. NCEP/CFSR (~0.3°) input wind forcing was used. The results of the numerical modeling include wind wave fields for the White Sea with time step of 3 hours from 1979 to 2010. Spatial extreme value analysis of significant wave heights was performed. The storm situations, when the significant wave height exceeded 3 and 4 meters, were identified for the 32-year period. It allowed to analyze the variability of wind wave climate in the White Sea. The storminess of the White Sea tended to increase from 1979 to 1991, then decreased to minimum at 2000 and increased again till 2010. This work showed the following results. For example, in the Voronka (part of the White Sea) the synoptic situations with a wave height of more than 2 m (50-60 cases) took place about three times more than in the Basin (part of the White Sea), with heights of more than 3 m (25-40 cases) five or six times more. Cases with wave heights greater than 5 m in the Basin is extremely rare, while in the Voronka they occur 10 times a year. The significant wave height of a possible one time in 100 years is up to 7 meters in the Basin, up to 13 m in the Voronka, up to 3 m in the Onega Bay. In May, the smallest wavelength occurs in the Onega Bay, and is only 25 m. In the Basin wavelength is increased to 50 m. The longer wavelengths observed in the Voronka - 100 m. In November in the Basin (especially in the western part) and in the Voronka wavelength greatly increased to 75 and 200 m, respectively. In May, in the Onega Bay, Basin and Gorlo (part of the White Sea) swell height does not exceed 1 m. Only in the Voronka, it increases up to 3 meters. By November

  4. Stratospheric Impacts on Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Long-term circulation change in the stratosphere can have substantial effects on the oceans and their circulation. In this study we investigate whether and how sea ice at the ocean surface responds to intraseasonal stratospheric variability. Our main question is whether the surface impact of stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) is strong and long enough to affect sea ice. A related question is whether the increased frequency of SSWs during the 2000s contributed to the rapid decrease in Arctic sea ice during this time. To this end we analyze observations of sea ice, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and a long control integration with a stratospherically-enhanced version of the GFDL CM2.1 climate model. From both observations and the model we find that stratospheric extreme events have a demonstrable impact on the distribution of Arctic sea ice. The areas most affected are near the edge of the climatological ice line over the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean. The absolute changes in sea ice coverage amount to +/-10 %. Areas and magnitudes of increase and decrease are about the same. It is thus unlikely that the increased SSW frequency during the 2000s contributed to the decline of sea ice during that period. The sea ice changes are consistent with the impacts of a negative NAO at the surface and can be understood in terms of (1) dynamical change due to altered surface wind stress and (2) thermodynamical change due to altered temperature advection. Both dynamical and thermodynamical change positively reinforce each other in producing sea change. A simple advection model is used to demonstrate that most of the sea ice change can be explained from the sea ice drift due to the anomalous surface wind stress. Changes in the production or melt of sea ice by thermodynamical effects are less important. Overall, this study adds to an increasing body of evidence that the stratosphere not only impacts weather and climate of the atmosphere but also the surface and

  5. Sea Ice, Climate and Fram Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunkins, K.

    1984-01-01

    When sea ice is formed the albedo of the ocean surface increases from its open water value of about 0.1 to a value as high as 0.8. This albedo change effects the radiation balance and thus has the potential to alter climate. Sea ice also partially seals off the ocean from the atmosphere, reducing the exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide. This is another possible mechanism by which climate might be affected. The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 83 to 84) is an international, multidisciplinary study of processes controlling the edge of the ice pack in that area including the interactions between sea, air and ice.

  6. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    to tow an electromagnetic induction meter over sea ice in McMurdo Sound , Antarctica. This proof-of-concept survey aimed to demonstrate improved...Documentation Page ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 iv Figures and Tables Figures 1 The runway and roads on McMurdo Sound sea ice in November 2009. (Map data...4 4 The EM31 in the sled towed by Yeti along Pegasus Cut-Off Road on McMurdo Sound sea ice. The blue box housed the battery

  7. Freak waves in random oceanic sea states.

    PubMed

    Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Bertone, S

    2001-06-18

    Freak waves are very large, rare events in a random ocean wave train. Here we study their generation in a random sea state characterized by the Joint North Sea Wave Project spectrum. We assume, to cubic order in nonlinearity, that the wave dynamics are governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. We show from extensive numerical simulations of the NLS equation how freak waves in a random sea state are more likely to occur for large values of the Phillips parameter alpha and the enhancement coefficient gamma. Comparison with linear simulations is also reported.

  8. District cooling in Stockholm using sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Fermbaeck, G.

    1995-12-31

    In May this year Stockholm Energi started supplying properties in central Stockholm with cooling for comfort and for various processes from its new district cooling system. The project is unique in that most of the cooling energy is produced using cold water from the Baltic Sea. The following article describes the system and provides a summary of the considerations that resulted in venturing to invest in sea-water cooling for such a large project. There is also a description of the hydrological conditions that made the system feasible in Stockholm and some speculations about the possibilities to use cooled sea water elsewhere in the world.

  9. Microseisms and sea wave height in the Ligurian Sea: a preliminary analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, A.; Ferretti, G.; Scafidi, D.; Barani, S.; Pasta, M.; Spallarossa, D.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of the relationship between microseisms and sea wave heights is a fundamental step for understanding the interaction of sea storms with near coastal environment, as well as to gain insights about the possibility of forecasting sea wave heights from microseism. The possibility to predict sea wave heights in the Ligurian Sea is analyzed in this study using about a month of observations from both seismic recordings from a near-coast station (IMI - Imperia Monte Faudo) and significant sea wave heights measured from a buoy (Côte d'Azur buoy, Météo-France network). We focus on the analysis of the vertical component of microseism, which reveals a strong correlation with measured sea wave heights. Looking at the amplitude spectrogram of the vertical component of microseism, we recognize the effects of several meteo-marine events that can be ascribed to Atlantic barometric pressure lows and a series of sea storms in the Ligurian Sea. Moreover, the distinction between primary and secondary microseism is inferred from the spectrogram, even if, because of the superposition of Atlantic and Ligurian effects, it sometimes results difficult. Analysis of microseism polarization reveals a double origin which determines two prevailing orientations, corresponding to Atlantic and Ligurian meteo-marine phenomena. We feature the spectral properties of microseism making a close correlation among (1) the power spectral density spectrum of microseism, (2) the significant sea wave heights measured from the buoy and (3) sea storms occurred in the period under study, showing that there is a good correlation between spectral energy content of microseism and sea wave height. Finally, in order to set up a predictive law, we solve an inverse problem to find the optimal parameters that allow us to estimate the sea wave height given the vertical component of microseism. Specifically, the application of the definition of significant height wave height for the microseism needs the

  10. Effects of Mackenzie River Discharge and Bathymetry on Sea Ice in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mackenzie River discharge and bathymetry effects on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea are examined in 2012 when Arctic sea ice extent hit a record low. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature revealed warmer waters closer to river mouths. By 5 July 2012, Mackenzie warm waters occupied most of an open water area about 316,000 sq km. Surface temperature in a common open water area increased by 6.5 C between 14 June and 5 July 2012, before and after the river waters broke through a recurrent landfast ice barrier formed over the shallow seafloor offshore the Mackenzie Delta. In 2012, melting by warm river waters was especially effective when the strong Beaufort Gyre fragmented sea ice into unconsolidated floes. The Mackenzie and other large rivers can transport an enormous amount of heat across immense continental watersheds into the Arctic Ocean, constituting a stark contrast to the Antarctic that has no such rivers to affect sea ice.

  11. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  12. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  13. Having a BLAST: Searchable transcriptome resources for the gilthead sea bream and the European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Louro, Bruno; Marques, João Pedro; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M

    2016-12-01

    The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) are the most important aquaculture species in the Mediterranean Sea and since the last decade it has been seen an exponential increase in their available molecular resources. In order to improve accessibility to transcriptome resources, Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), mRNA sequences and raw read sequences were assembled and deposited in BLAST queryable databases. The publicly available sea bream and sea bass sequences (6.4 and 247.5 million) generated 45,094 and 68,117 assembled sequences, with, respectively, arithmetic mean size of 998 and 2125bp and N50 of 1302 and 2966bp. The assemblies will be regularly updated and new analytical tools added to the web server at http://sea.ccmar.ualg.pt.

  14. SIPEX--Exploring the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicus, Sandra; Dobson, Jane; Worby, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Sea ice in the polar regions plays a key role in both regulating global climate and maintaining marine ecosystems. The international Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystem eXperiment (SIPEX) explored the sea ice zone around Antarctica in September and October 2007, investigating relationships between the physical sea ice environment and the structure of…

  15. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  16. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  17. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  18. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  19. The Secret of the Svalbard Sea Ice Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Van Woert, Michael L.; Neumann, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    An elongated sea ice feature called the Svalbard sea ice barrier rapidly formed over an area in the Barents Sea to the east of Svalbard posing navigation hazards. The secret of its formation lies in the bottom bathymetry that governs the distribution of cold Arctic waters masses, which impacts sea ice growth on the water surface.

  20. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) From January 1 through February 28, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in, or harvested from, the...

  1. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  2. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  3. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  4. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in,...

  5. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 20 black sea bass in,...

  6. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Black sea bass gear restrictions. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass gear restrictions....

  7. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic...

  9. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic...

  10. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic...

  12. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  13. 50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sea Scallop Access Areas. 648.59 Section 648.59 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.59 Sea Scallop Access Areas. (a) Delmarva Sea Scallop Access Area....

  14. Taxonomic research on deep-sea macrofauna in the South China Sea using the Chinese deep-sea submersible Jiaolong.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinzheng

    2017-01-05

    This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of the deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, six new species were described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa Gong, Li & Qiu, 2014, Saccocalyx microhexactin Gong, Li & Qiu, 2015, and Semperella jiaolongae Gong, Li & Qiu, 2015 as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae Dong & Li, 2015, Uroptychus spinulosus Dong & Li, 2015 and Globospongicola jiaolongi Jiang, Kou & Li, 2015, and some newly recorded species from the South China Sea were reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community was reported (Li, 2015), as was the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge Lophophysema eversa Gong, Li & Qiu, 2014 (Zhang et al., 2015). The population structures of two dominant species, the shrimp Shinkaia crosnieri and the mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons, from the cold seep Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri community in the South China Sea and the hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, were compared using molecular analysis. The systematic position of the shrimp genus Globospongicola was discussed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Walrus areas of use in the Chukchi Sea during sparse sea ice cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Kochnev, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens feeds on benthic invertebrates on the continental shelf of the Chukchi and Bering Seas and rests on sea ice between foraging trips. With climate warming, ice-free periods in the Chukchi Sea have increased and are projected to increase further in frequency and duration. We radio-tracked walruses to estimate areas of walrus foraging and occupancy in the Chukchi Sea from June to November of 2008 to 2011, years when sea ice was sparse over the continental shelf in comparison to historical records. The earlier and more extensive sea ice retreat in June to September, and delayed freeze-up of sea ice in October to November, created conditions for walruses to arrive earlier and stay later in the Chukchi Sea than in the past. The lack of sea ice over the continental shelf from September to October caused walruses to forage in nearshore areas instead of offshore areas as in the past. Walruses did not frequent the deep waters of the Arctic Basin when sea ice retreated off the shelf. Walruses foraged in most areas they occupied, and areas of concentrated foraging generally corresponded to regions of high benthic biomass, such as in the northeastern (Hanna Shoal) and southwestern Chukchi Sea. A notable exception was the occurrence of concentrated foraging in a nearshore area of northwestern Alaska that is apparently depauperate in walrus prey. With increasing sea ice loss, it is likely that walruses will increase their use of coastal haul-outs and nearshore foraging areas, with consequences to the population that are yet to be understood.

  16. Increased land use by Chukchi Sea polar bears in relation to changing sea ice conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  17. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C.; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions. PMID:26580809

  18. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  19. Sea-level variability in the Mediterranean Sea from altimetry and tide gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaduce, A.; Pinardi, N.; Oddo, P.; Spada, G.; Larnicol, G.

    2016-11-01

    Sea-level variability in the Mediterranean Sea was investigated by means of in-situ (tide-gauge) and satellite altimetry data over a period spanning two decades (from 1993 to 2012). The paper details the sea-level variations during this time period retrieved from the two data sets. Mean sea-level (MSL) estimates obtained from tide-gauge data showed root mean square differences (RMSDs) in the order of 40-50 % of the variance of the MSL signal estimated from satellite altimetry data, with a dependency on the number and quality of the in-situ data considered. Considering the individual time-series, the results showed that coastal tide-gauge and satellite sea-level signals are comparable, with RMSDs that range between 2.5 and 5 cm and correlation coefficients up to the order of 0.8. A coherence analysis and power spectra comparison showed that two signals have a very similar energetic content at semi-annual temporal scales and below, while a phase drift was observed at higher frequencies. Positive sea-level linear trends for the analysis period were estimated for both the mean sea-level and the coastal stations. From 1993 to 2012, the mean sea-level trend (2.44± 0.5 mm year^{-1}) was found to be affected by the positive anomalies of 2010 and 2011, which were observed in all the cases analysed and were mainly distributed in the eastern part of the basin. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition showed that these events were related to the processes that have dominant periodicities of ˜10 years, and positive residual sea-level trend were generally observed in both data-sets. In terms of mean sea-level trends, a significant positive sea-level trend (>95 %) in the Mediterranean Sea was found on the basis of at least 15 years of data.

  20. Sea ice and the ocean mixed layer over the Antarctic shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, A.; Holland, P.; Feltham, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    An ocean mixed layer model has been incorporated into the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE, to investigate regional variations in the surface-driven formation of Antarctic shelf sea waters. The model captures well the expected sea ice thickness distribution and produces deep (>500 m) mixed layers in the Weddell and Ross shelf seas each winter. By deconstructing the surface power input to the mixed layer, we have shown that the salt/fresh water flux from sea ice growth/melt dominates the evolution of the mixed layer in all shelf sea regions, with a smaller contribution from the mixed layer-surface heat flux. The Weddell and Ross shelf seas have the highest annual ice growth, with a large fraction exported northwards each year, whereas the Bellingshausen shelf sea experiences the highest annual ice melt, driven by the advection of ice from the northeast. Forcing the model with ERA-Interim (1980-2011) and hadGEM2-ES (1980-2099) atmospheric data allows us to look at the impact of atmospheric trends on the sea ice and ocean mixed layer. Both simulations show a shallowing of the wintertime mixed layer in the Amundsen & Bellingshausen seas, potentially increasing the access of warm CDW to ice shelves in both regions. The ERA-I hindcast simulation shows a significant freshening in the Ross and salinification in the Weddell due to surface driven trends (primarily through changes in the sea ice). The Ross freshening is smaller than observed however, highlighting the important role of ice shelf melt in the Amundsen Sea.

  1. Sea-ice distribution and variability in the East Greenland Sea, 2003-13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Parmiggiani, Fiorigi

    2014-10-01

    This study presents an analysis of the sea-ice area time series for the East Greenland Sea for the period January 2003 - December 2013. The data used are a subset of the Arctic Sea Ice Concentration data set derived from the observations of the passive microwave sensors AMSR-E and AMSR-2 and produced, on a daily basis, by the Inst. of Environ. Physics of the University of Bremen. The area of interest goes, approximately, from 57°N to 84°N and from 53°W to 15°E. On the basis of previous studies, the parameter Sea Ice Area as the sum of all pixels whose sea ice concentration is above 70%, was introduced for measuring sea-ice extent. A first survey of the Greenland Sea data set showed a large anomaly in year 2012; this anomaly, clearly linked with the transition period from AMSR-E to AMSR-2 when re-sampled SSM/I data were used, was partially corrected with a linear regression procedure. The correlation between monthly mean Sea Ice Area and other geophysical parameters, like air temperature, surface wind and cloud cover, was further investigated. High anti-correlation coefficients between air temperature, at sea level and in five different tropospheric layers, and observed ice cover is confirmed. Our analysis shows that the strong decline of Arctic sea-ice area in the last 10 years is not observed in the East Greenland Sea; this implies that large reductions have occurred in the Canadian and Russian Arctic. This result confirms a hypothesis recently postulated to explain the different sea-ice decline in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

  2. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a...ice age, and iv) onset dates of melt and freezeup. 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice- albedo feedback to the observed decrease of...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover 5a

  3. Sea-level variability in the Mediterranean Sea from altimetry and tide gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaduce, Antonio; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Spada, Giorgio; Larnicol, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level variability in the Mediterranean Sea was investigated by means of in-situ (tide-gauge) and satellite altimetry data over a period spanning two decades (from 1993 to 2012). The paper details the sea-level variations during this time period retrieved from the two data sets. Mean sea-level (MSL) estimates obtained from tide-gauge data showed root mean square differences (RMSDs) in the order of 40-50 % of the variance of the MSL signal estimated from satellite altimetry data, with a dependency on the number and quality of the in-situ data considered. Considering the individual time-series, the results showed that coastal tide-gauge and satellite sea-level signals are comparable, with RMSDs that range between 2.5 and 5 cm and correlation coefficients up to the order of 0.8. A coherence analysis and power spectra comparison showed that two signals have a very similar energetic content at semi-annual temporal scales and below, while a phase drift was observed at higher frequencies. Positive sea-level linear trends for the analysis period were estimated for both the mean sea-level and the coastal stations. From 1993 to 2012, the mean sea-level trend (2.44 ± 0.5 mm yr-1) was found to be affected by the positive anomalies of 2010 and 2011, which were observed in all the cases analysed and were mainly distributed in the eastern part of the basin. Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) showed that these events were related to the processes that have dominant periodicities of ˜10 years, and positive residual sea-level trend were generally observed in both data-sets. In terms of mean sea-level trends, a significant positive sea-level trend (> 95 %) in the Mediterranean Sea was found on the basis of at least 15 years of data.

  4. Coccoliths in the Celtic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    As the basis of the marine food chain, phytoplankton are important indicators of change in the oceans. These marine flora also extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for use in photosynthesis, and play an important role in global climate. Phytoplankton blooms that occur near the surface are readily visible from space, enabling a global estimation of the presence of chlorophyll and other pigments. There are more than 5,000 different species of phytoplankton however, and it is not always possible to identify the type of phytoplankton present using space-based remote sensing.

    Coccolithophores, however, are a group of phytoplankton that are identifiable from space. These microscopic plants armor themselves with external plates of calcium carbonate. The plates, or coccoliths, give the ocean a milky white or turquoise appearance during intense blooms. The long-term flux of coccoliths to the ocean floor is the main process responsible for the formation of chalk and limestone.

    This image is a natural-color view of the Celtic Sea and English Channel regions, and was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on June 4, 2001 during Terra orbit 7778. It represents an area of 380 kilometers x 445 kilometers, and includes portions of southwestern England and northwestern France. The coccolithophore bloom in the lower left-hand corner usually occurs in the Celtic Sea for several weeks in summer. The coccoliths backscatter light from the water column to create a bright optical effect. Other algal and/or phytoplankton blooms can also be discerned along the coasts near Portsmouth, England and Granville, France.

    At full resolution, evidence of human activity is also apparent in this image. White specks associated with ship wakes are present in the open water, and aircraft contrails are visible within the high cirrus clouds over the English Channel.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  5. Phylogenomics of strongylocentrotid sea urchins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strongylocentrotid sea urchins have a long tradition as model organisms for studying many fundamental processes in biology including fertilization, embryology, development and genome regulation but the phylogenetic relationships of the group remain largely unresolved. Although the differing isolating mechanisms of vicariance and rapidly evolving gamete recognition proteins have been proposed, a stable and robust phylogeny is unavailable. Results We used a phylogenomic approach with mitochondrial and nuclear genes taking advantage of the whole-genome sequencing of nine species in the group to establish a stable (i.e. concordance in tree topology among multiple lies of evidence) and robust (i.e. high nodal support) phylogenetic hypothesis for the family Strongylocentrotidae. We generated eight draft mitochondrial genome assemblies and obtained 13 complete mitochondrial genes for each species. Consistent with previous studies, mitochondrial sequences failed to provide a reliable phylogeny. In contrast, we obtained a very well-supported phylogeny from 2301 nuclear genes without evidence of positive Darwinian selection both from the majority of most-likely gene trees and the concatenated fourfold degenerate sites: ((P. depressus, (M. nudus, M. franciscanus), (H. pulcherrimus, (S. purpuratus, (S. fragilis, (S. pallidus, (S. droebachiensis, S. intermedius)). This phylogeny was consistent with a single invasion of deep-water environments followed by a holarctic expansion by Strongylocentrotus. Divergence times for each species estimated with reference to the divergence times between the two major clades of the group suggest a correspondence in the timing with the opening of the Bering Strait and the invasion of the holarctic regions. Conclusions Nuclear genome data contains phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this group. However, mitochondrial genome data does not. Vicariance can explain major patterns observed in the

  6. Arctic sea ice decline: Projected changes in timing and extent of sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than most regions of the world due in part to increasing greenhouse gases and positive feedbacks associated with the loss of snow and ice cover. One consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades?a decline that is projected to continue by state-of-the-art models. Many stakeholders are therefore interested in how global warming may change the timing and extent of sea ice Arctic-wide, and for specific regions. To inform the public and decision makers of anticipated environmental changes, scientists are striving to better understand how sea ice influences ecosystem structure, local weather, and global climate. Here, projected changes in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are examined because sea ice influences the presence of, or accessibility to, a variety of local resources of commercial and cultural value. In this study, 21st century sea ice conditions in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are based on projections by 18 general circulation models (GCMs) prepared for the fourth reporting period by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Sea ice projections are analyzed for each of two IPCC greenhouse gas forcing scenarios: the A1B `business as usual? scenario and the A2 scenario that is somewhat more aggressive in its CO2 emissions during the second half of the century. A large spread of uncertainty among projections by all 18 models was constrained by creating model subsets that excluded GCMs that poorly simulated the 1979-2008 satellite record of ice extent and seasonality. At the end of the 21st century (2090-2099), median sea ice projections among all combinations of model ensemble and forcing scenario were qualitatively similar. June is projected to experience the least amount of sea ice loss among all months. For the Chukchi Sea, projections show extensive ice melt during July and ice-free conditions during August, September, and October by the end of the century, with high agreement

  7. Practical application of a sea-water battery in deep-sea basin and its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Araki, Eiichiro; Mochizuki, Masashi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

    Stable power supply is essential for various long-term sea floor geophysical observations. Due to a simple structure and a large energy capacity, sea-water batteries have been developed and used for such observations. However, the characteristics of sea-water batteries have not been well known in the case of installations at depths more than 5000 m in deep-sea basin. In 2000, a sea floor borehole broadband seismic observatory was installed in the northwestern Pacific basin where the water depth is 5577 m. For electric power supply, a Sea-Water Battery (SWB) system with monitoring and control was developed and used. The SWB system consists of four sea-water battery cells, a DC/DC converter, the Power Control System, the Data Logger, and an accumulator. The conditions of the SWB system were recorded more than 1 year, and the monitoring data was recovered. The SWB system generated enough power for the observation system consuming power of 6 W in average and continued to supply power for at least 5 years. From the monitoring data, the SWB can supply up to the long-term average of at least 13 W. The energy density is estimated to be 318 Wh kg -1. The sea-water battery is useful for application of long-term power consumption even in the deep-sea basin.

  8. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  9. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  10. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea Polynya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Ethan; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Despite warming trends in global temperatures, sea ice extent in the southern hemisphere has shown an increasing trend over recent decades. Wind-driven sea ice export from coastal polynyas is an important source of sea ice production. Areas of major polynyas in the Ross Sea, the region with largest increase in sea ice extent, have been suggested to produce the vast amount of the sea ice in the region. We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on polynyas and the subsequent sea ice production. We utilize Bootstrap sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite based, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature images. These are compared with surface wind measurements made by automatic weather stations of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Meteorology Program. Our analysis focusses on the winter period defined as 1st April to 1st November in this study. Wind data was used to classify each day into characteristic regimes based on the change of wind speed. For each regime, a composite of SIC anomaly was formed for the Ross Sea region. We found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya area (RSP). Conversely we found negative SIC anomalies in this area during persistent strong winds. By analyzing sea ice motion vectors derived from SSM/I brightness temperatures, we find significant sea ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross Sea during strong wind events. These anomalies persist for several days after the strong wing event. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC within the RSP and wind speed indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of sea ice in the RSP. This rapid decrease in SIC is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. This increase occurs on a time scale greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and the resulting Sea ice motion anomalies, highlighting the production

  11. Sea Ice Variability in the Sea of Okhotsk from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Sea of Okhotsk, located between 50 and 60 N, is bounded by the Kamchatka Peninsula, Siberia, Sakhalin Island, and the Kuril Island chain and is the largest midlatitude seasonal sea ice zone in the Northern Hemisphere. The winter sea ice cover begins to form in November and expands to cover most of the sea by March. Over the following three months, the ice retreats with only small ice-covered areas remaining by the beginning of June. The sea is ice free or nearly ice free on average for six months of the year, from June through November. The recent compilation of a consistent, long-term record of Northern Hemisphere sea ice extents based on passive microwave satellite observations from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer and from four Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imagers provides the basis for assessing long-term sea ice extent variability in the Sea of Okhotsk. Analysis of this 20-year data record (1979-1998) shows that based on yearly averages the overall extent of the Sea of Okhotsk ice cover is decreasing at the rate of -8.1+/-2.1x10(exp 3) sq km/yr (-17.2%/decade), in contrast to the rate of decrease of -33.3+/-0.7x10(exp 3) sq km/yr (-2.7%/decade) for the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. There is large regional sea ice extent variability of the Arctic ice cover. Two of the nine Arctic regions analyzed, the Bering Sea and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, show increases of 0.8+/-1.4xl0(exp 3) sq km/yr (2.7%/decade) and 1.2+/-0.5xl0(exp 3) sq km/yr (17.1%/decade), respectively. Interestingly, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Gulf of St. Lawrence show about equal percentage changes, but of opposite sign. The Sea of Okhotsk exhibits its greatest percent decrease (-24.3%/decade) during spring (April-June). The year of maximum winter sea ice extent for the Sea of Okhotsk was 1979, whereas the minimum winter sea ice extent occurred in 1984.

  12. Ship measurements of submicron aerosol size distributions over the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Yum, Seong Soo; Lee, Young-Gon; Choi, Byoung-Cheol

    2009-08-01

    During the spring of 2005, the total particle concentrations and the submicron aerosol size distributions were measured on board the research vessel over the south sea of Korea and the Korean sector of the Yellow Sea. Similar measurements were made over the East China Sea in autumn 2005. The aerosol properties varied dynamically according to the meteorological conditions, the proximity to the land masses and the air mass back trajectories. The average total particle concentration was the lowest over the East China Sea, 4335 ± 2736 cm - 3, but the instantaneous minimum, 837 cm - 3, for the entire ship measurement was recorded during the Yellow Sea cruise. There was also a long (more than 6 h) stretch of low total particle concentrations that fell as low as 1025 cm - 3 during the East China Sea cruise when the ship was the farthest from the shores and the air mass back trajectories resided long hours over the sea. These observations lead to the suggestion of ~ 1000 cm - 3 as the background total particle concentration over the marine boundary layer in the studied region of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, implying significant anthropogenic influence even for the background value. In the mean time, average aerosol size distributions were unimodal and the mode diameter ranged between 52 and 86 nm, excluding the fog periods, which suggests that the aerosols measured in this study experienced relatively less aging processes within the marine boundary layer.

  13. Lithospheric strength and elastic thickness of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gac, Sébastien; Klitzke, Peter; Minakov, Alexander; Faleide, Jan Inge; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Interpretation of tomography data indicates that the Barents Sea region has an asymmetric lithospheric structure characterized by a thin and hot lithosphere in the west and a thick and cold lithosphere in the east. This suggests that the lithosphere is stronger in the east than in the west. This asymmetric lithosphere strength structure may have a strong control on the lithosphere response to tectonic and surface processes. In this paper, we present computed strength and effective elastic thickness maps of the lithosphere of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. Those are estimated using physical parameters from a 3D lithospheric model of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. The lithospheric strength is computed assuming a temperature-dependent ductile and brittle rheology for sediments, crust and mantle lithosphere. Results show that lithospheric strength and elastic thickness are mostly controlled by the lithosphere thickness. The model generally predicts much larger lithospheric strength and elastic thickness for the Proterozoic parts of the East Barents Sea and Kara Sea. Locally, the thickness and lithology of the continental crust disturb this general trend. At last, the gravitational potential energy (GPE) is computed. Our results show that the difference in GPE between the Barents Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge provides a net horizontal force large enough to cause contraction in the western and central Barents Sea.

  14. Applicability of highly branched isoprenoids as a sea ice proxy in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jae Il; Belt, Simon T.; Gal, Jong-Ku; Smik, Lukas; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is an integral component of the polar climate system, constraining the effect of changing surface albedo, ocean-atmosphere heat exchanges, the formation of deep and intermediate waters that participate in driving the meridional overturning circulation and thus global climate. In recent years, a mono-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkene which is biosynthesised by certain sea ice diatoms during the spring bloom and, upon ice melt, deposited into underlying sediments, has been uniquely observed in Arctic sea ice and in Arctic sediments. Hence, the term IP25 (ice proxy with 25 carbon atoms) was proposed to distinguish this compound from other HBI isomers and has become an established proxy for the reconstruction of Arctic sea ice. In contrast, a monounsaturated HBI alkene, i.e. IP25, has not been observed in sea ice or sediments from the Antarctic. Hence, the application of diene and triene HBI concentrations and the resulting diene/triene (D/T) ratio was alternatively introduced as sea ice/open water indicators in the Southern Ocean. However, there is still lack of data covering the wide areas around the Antarctic, especially from the Ross Sea. Hence, we investigated surface sediment samples from the Ross Sea (n=14) collected during the R/V ARAON cruise in 2015 as well as from the Antarctic Peninsula (n=17) collected during several R/V ARAON cruises between 2001 and 2013. We will present our preliminary results and will discuss the applicability of the HBI in the Ross Sea.

  15. Sea ice and oceanic processes on the Ross Sea continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, S. S.; Comiso, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of Antarctic sea ice concentrations on the Ross Sea continental shelf have been investigated in relation to oceanic and atmospheric forcing. Sea ice data were derived from Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperatures from 1979-1986. Ice cover over the shelf was persistently lower than above the adjacent deep ocean, averaging 86 percent during winter with little month-to-month of interannual variability. The large spring Ross Sea polynya on the western shelf results in a longer period of summer insolation, greater surface layer heat storage, and later ice formation in that region the following autumn.

  16. Satellite Remote Sensing: Passive-Microwave Measurements of Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave measurements of sea ice have provided global or near-global sea ice data for most of the period since the launch of the Nimbus 5 satellite in December 1972, and have done so with horizontal resolutions on the order of 25-50 km and a frequency of every few days. These data have been used to calculate sea ice concentrations (percent areal coverages), sea ice extents, the length of the sea ice season, sea ice temperatures, and sea ice velocities, and to determine the timing of the seasonal onset of melt as well as aspects of the ice-type composition of the sea ice cover. In each case, the calculations are based on the microwave emission characteristics of sea ice and the important contrasts between the microwave emissions of sea ice and those of the surrounding liquid-water medium.

  17. Comparison Graph of Sea Ice Minimum - 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated graph tracks the retreat of sea ice, measured in millions of square kilometers, averaged from the start of the satellite record in 1979 through 2000 (white). Next, the graph follows t...

  18. Sea Ice Thickness Comparison: 1979 vs 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation compares the difference in the area, volume and depth of the average September Arctic sea ice between 1979, shown in blue, and 2013, shown in orange. The data from these two years ha...

  19. Multi-year Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Video Gallery

    The most visible change in the Arctic region in recent years has been the rapid decline of the perennial ice cover. The perennial ice is the portion of the sea ice floating on the surface of the oc...

  20. Arctic Cyclone Breaks Up Sea Ice

    NASA Video Gallery

    A powerful storm wreaked havoc on the Arctic sea ice cover in August 2012. This visualization shows the strength and direction of the winds and their impact on the ice: the red vectors represent th...

  1. Approaching the 2015 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the sun sets over the Arctic, the end of this year’s melt season is quickly approaching and the sea ice cover has already shrunk to the fourth lowest in the satellite record. With possibly some ...

  2. The Lakes and Seas of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander G.

    2016-06-01

    Analogous to Earth's water cycle, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle supports standing bodies of liquid and drives processes that result in common morphologic features including dunes, channels, lakes, and seas. Like lakes on Earth and early Mars, Titan's lakes and seas preserve a record of its climate and surface evolution. Unlike on Earth, the volume of liquid exposed on Titan's surface is only a small fraction of the atmospheric reservoir. The volume and bulk composition of the seas can constrain the age and nature of atmospheric methane, as well as its interaction with surface reservoirs. Similarly, the morphology of lacustrine basins chronicles the history of the polar landscape over multiple temporal and spatial scales. The distribution of trace species, such as noble gases and higher-order hydrocarbons and nitriles, can address Titan's origin and the potential for both prebiotic and biotic processes. Accordingly, Titan's lakes and seas represent a compelling target for exploration.

  3. Aquarius: One Year Observing the Salty Seas

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video provides a global tour of sea surface salinity using measurements taken by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Re...

  4. Night Views Over the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Mediterranean Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 22:58:09 to 23:13:15 GMT,...

  5. Global sea level linked to global temperature

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100. PMID:19995972

  6. End of SeaWiFS

    NASA Video Gallery

    After 13 years of service, researchers are no longer able to communicate with SeaWiFS. This extremely important instrument, which gave scientists data on ocean color, filled in a vital information ...

  7. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  8. Interaction of oil with arctic sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of the paper is to summarize relavant knowledge about the interactions between arctic sea ice and oil. The completion of further experimental oil spill studies, along with recent laboratory studies of the interaction of oil and sea ice and studies of environmental conditions, makes an updating of those works desirable. An attempt is made to identify the major factors in the interaction between oil and arctic sea ice and to present them in a way that defines the scope of the problem. Generally, the paper is restricted to factors that can be expected to play a major role in the sequence of events following a large under-ice blowout in the Beaufort Sea during winter.

  9. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  10. Measurement of light scattering in deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragos, N.; Balasi, K.; Domvoglou, T.; Kiskiras, I.; Lenis, D.; Maniatis, M.; Stavropoulos, G.

    2016-04-01

    The deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, being prepared by the KM3NET collaboration, will contain thousands of optical sensors to readout. The accurate knowledge of the optical properties of deep-sea water is of great importance for the neutrino event reconstruction process. In this study we describe our progress in designing an experimental setup and studying a method to measure the parameters describing the absorption and scattering characteristics of deep-sea water. Three PMTs will be used to measure in situ the scattered light emitted from six laser diodes in three different wavelengths covering the Cherenkov radiation spectrum. The technique for the evaluation of the parameters is based on Monte Carlo simulations and our results show that we are able to determine these parameters with satisfying precision.

  11. Mercury speciation in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Jože; Horvat, Milena; Ogrinc, Nives; Fajon, Vesna; Žagar, Dušan; Cossa, Daniel; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-07-15

    Mercury and its speciation were studied in surface and deep waters of the Adriatic Sea. Several mercury species (i.e. DGM – dissolved gaseous Hg, RHg – reactive Hg, THg – total Hg, MeHg – monomethyl Hg and DMeHg – dimethylmercury) together with other water parameters were measured in coastal and open sea deep water profiles. THg concentrations in the water column, as well as in sediments and pore waters, were the highest in the northern, most polluted part of the Adriatic Sea as the consequence of Hg mining in Idrija and the heavy industry of northern Italy. Certain profiles in the South Adriatic Pit exhibit an increase of DGM just over the bottom due to its diffusion from sediment as a consequence of microbial and/or tectonic activity. Furthermore, a Hg mass balance for the Adriatic Sea was calculated based on measurements and literature data.

  12. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  13. Submarine pingos in the beaufort sea.

    PubMed

    Shearer, J M; Macnab, R F; Pelletier, B R; Smith, T B

    1971-11-19

    Numerous underwater mounds found on the continental shelf of the Beaufort Sea are thought to be pingos (hills that have a central core of ice) which have formed in the marine environment subsequent to oceanic transgression.

  14. The old man and the sea.

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D. F.

    2010-01-01

    The summary of this presentation is: (1) the origin and structure of the sea remain critical themes in the physics of the nucleon and nucleus; (2) We need to push to higher x values and E906/SeaQuest is especially well suited for this. We start this summer and run for two years; (3) The other really key measurement is improved precision in the spin carried by the sea quarks and the spin-correlations in the sea - COMPASS, RHIC, J-PARC, JLAB 12 GeV.; and (4) This is difficult and may require the next generation of polarized Drell-Yan experiments. Whatever we measure, Tony Thomas will have thought of it first and helped stimulate the experiments.

  15. Arctic Sea Ice Changes 2011-2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation showing changes in monthly Arctic sea ice volume using data from ESA's CryoSat-2 (red dots) and estimates from the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) (solid li...

  16. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  17. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  18. The Irish Sea: Is it eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, R. J.; Tett, P.; Kennington, K.; Mills, D. K.; Shammon, T. M.; Stewart, B. M.; Greenwood, N.; Flanagan, C.; Devlin, M.; Wither, A.

    2008-01-01

    The question of whether the Irish Sea is eutrophic is addressed by reviewing the evidence for anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, elevated phytoplankton production and biomass and undesirable disturbance in the context of the EU and OSPAR definitions of eutrophication. Winter concentrations of dissolved available inorganic phosphate (DAIP), nitrogen (DAIN as nitrate and nitrite) and silicate (Si) in coastal waters and concentrations of DAIP and Si in offshore waters of the Irish Sea are elevated relative to winter Celtic Sea shelf break concentrations (0.5 μM DAIP, 7.7 μM DAIN and 2.7 μM Si). Significant, negative nutrient salinity relationships and analysis of the Isle of Man nutrient time-series indicate that the elevated Irish Sea levels of DAIP and DAIN are the result of anthropogenic enrichment with highest concentrations (≈2.0 μM DAIP, 30 μM DAIN and 17 μM Si) measured in near shore eastern Irish Sea waters. Summer levels of phytoplankton chlorophyll (Chl) range from <0.1 to 11.4 mg m -3 (mean: 3.4 mg m -3) and from <0.1 to 16.4 mg m -3 (mean: 2.2 mg m -3) in coastal and offshore waters of the western Irish Sea, respectively. Offshore eastern Irish Sea summer chlorophyll levels range from 0.3 to 3.8 mg m -3 (mean: 1.8 mg m -3). Higher levels of spring (up to 43.9 mg m -3) and summer (up to 22.7 mg m -3) biomass in Liverpool Bay are attributed to nutrient enrichment. Estimates of spring and summer production in different regions of the Irish Sea are ≤194 g C m -2. The absence of: (a) oxygen depletion in near shore and open waters of the Irish Sea (except the seasonally isolated western Irish Sea bottom water); (b) trends in the frequency of Phaeocystis spp. blooms and occurrence of toxin producing algae; and (c) changes in the dominant life form of pelagic primary producers, point to a lack of undesirable disturbance and hence argue against anthropogenic eutrophication in the Irish Sea. This conclusion is discussed in the context of future trends in

  19. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  20. Electromagnetic Scattering from a Ship at Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    each sub-area is represented by a polarization transforming reflec- tion coefficient derived from the bistatic radar cross-section of the patch. The...from the sea and a ship with conical hull. Hollow cone antenna pattern is used. SAH=00 , ATA=609, polarization is horizontal ...................... .. 2...I ix1 60 Total scattered signature from the sea and a ship with conical hull. Hollow c8ne antenna pattern is used. SAH=450, ATA=60 polarization is

  1. Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  3. Gases in Sea Ice 1975 - 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    understanding the magnitude and rate of exchange of CO, CH4 , and N20 in the I arctic. These trace gases are crucial to many important tropospheric...These factors are of prime importance in producing low sea surface temperatures through water stirring, reduced isolation, and increased sensible and...air. Open water during the winter in the form of leads and polyni may amount to as much as 11 percent in area and are important in the air-sea

  4. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    represent sea ice more rigorously in climate models. OBJECTIVES Viewed from high above, the melting sea ice surface can be thought of as a two phase ...composite of ice and melt water. The boundaries between the two phases evolve with increasing complexity and a rapid onset of large scale...connectivity, or percolation of the melt phase . We plan to document this phenomenon with photographic imagery and to develop percolation and other models to

  5. Microwave Radiometric Measurement of Sea Surface Salinity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    potential problems of polution and urban water sup- plies. Although salinity can be measured from a surface vessel, economic consider- ations advocate...Washington, DC 20350 Commander Naval Sea System Commandaa ComAinder ATTN: Mr. C. Smith, NAVSEA 63R* Nval Air Development Center "’-’. "Washington, DC...20362 ATTN: Mr. R. Bollard, Code 2062% .’* Warminster, PA 18974 • .’.Commander CNaval Sea System CommandCoimCander Headquarters Naval Air Systems

  6. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  7. Annotated Bibliography of Relative Sea Level Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    contribution, and--future sea-level scenarios. If an accelerated rise of sea level occurs as predicted, coastal communities will be faced with deciding the...Moreover, seismic sequence analysis in ne.. u.plo- ration areas allow for reliable predictions of geologic age ahead of drilli.g and facilitate...comparable age suggest a strong seaward tilt of the outer continental shelf. The outer -shelf over the Baltimore Canyon trough geosyncline has

  8. Deep sea tides determination from GEOS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A.; Yanaway, A.

    1978-01-01

    GEOS 3 altimeter data in a 5 degree X 5 degree square centered at 30 deg N, 70 deg W were analyzed to evaluate deep sea tide determination from a spacecraft. The signal to noise ratio of known tidal variability to altimeter measurement of sea level above the ellipsoid was 0.1. A sample was obtained in a 5 deg x 5 deg area approximately once every four days. The randomly spaced time series was analyzed using two independent least squares techniques.

  9. Modeling Gas Dynamics in California Sea Lions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    for diving California sea lions. Aim 1: Pressure-volume (compliance) loops from excised California sea lions lungs and upper airways (trachea...were used to update the parameters that estimate the pulmonary shunt during diving. The compliance estimates were related to lung and tracheal volumes...during compression to pulmonary shunt (Bostrom, Fahlman et al. 2008). In the existing model, the compliance parameter for the lung was for

  10. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  11. 50 CFR Appendix F to Part 622 - Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements F Appendix F to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries... 622—Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements...

  12. 75 FR 59154 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension... Federal Register a temporary rule to extend the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass... recreational harvest limit (RHL) based on the increased 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings...

  13. 75 FR 38935 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule... emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial fishing quota... year. Extending the increase to the 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings (TAL) will...

  14. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    that survives the summer melt season in each of the Arctic peripheral seas. The Lagrangian Model is forced with weekly mean satellite-derived sea- ice ...GCM to drive the Lagrangian code and map the regions for the multi-year ice surviving the summer melt in each of the Arctic peripheral seas in todays...1995, Emery et al. 1997, Meier et al. 2000, Tschudi et al. 2010) 3- Assess whether the source region of sea ice melting in peripheral seas in the

  15. Nonlinear Internal Wave Interaction in the China Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-K.

    1998-01-01

    This project researched the nonlinear wave interactions in the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The complicated nature of the internal wave field, including the generation mechanisms, was studied, and is discussed. Discussion of wave-wave interactions in the East China Sea, the area of the China Sea northeast of Taiwan, and the Yellow Sea is included.

  16. Trend analysis of Arctic sea ice extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. E.; Barbosa, S. M.; Antunes, Luís; Rocha, Conceição

    2009-04-01

    The extent of Arctic sea ice is a fundamental parameter of Arctic climate variability. In the context of climate change, the area covered by ice in the Arctic is a particularly useful indicator of recent changes in the Arctic environment. Climate models are in near universal agreement that Arctic sea ice extent will decline through the 21st century as a consequence of global warming and many studies predict a ice free Arctic as soon as 2012. Time series of satellite passive microwave observations allow to assess the temporal changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. Much of the analysis of the ice extent time series, as in most climate studies from observational data, have been focussed on the computation of deterministic linear trends by ordinary least squares. However, many different processes, including deterministic, unit root and long-range dependent processes can engender trend like features in a time series. Several parametric tests have been developed, mainly in econometrics, to discriminate between stationarity (no trend), deterministic trend and stochastic trends. Here, these tests are applied in the trend analysis of the sea ice extent time series available at National Snow and Ice Data Center. The parametric stationary tests, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Phillips-Perron (PP) and the KPSS, do not support an overall deterministic trend in the time series of Arctic sea ice extent. Therefore, alternative parametrizations such as long-range dependence should be considered for characterising long-term Arctic sea ice variability.

  17. The summer Bohai Sea hydrological environment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanshan, Xu; Shuangquan, Wu; Ling, Du; Huan, Li; Cheng, Li

    2017-01-01

    The Bohai Sea is a nearly closed shallow sea which goes deep into china mainland, it has a supper shallow water shelf properties. The research about the Bohai Sea environment must consider the wind, tide, temperature and salinity. The fixed point observed temperature, salinity and current data were analysed. The results show that the Bohai Sea is regular half-day tidal current trend, and the tidal current trend is the substantially reciprocating flow properties. The reciprocating flow direction within the bay is trend towards the bay’s direction; the rest is trend towards the sea shore. During the observation, the current direction is stable and the current rate is small at all fixed points, with a good correlation with wind. Thereinto the Liaodong Bay has a clockwise circulation and the Laizhou Bay flows substantially clockwise either, which consistent with the historical trend observation. One fixed point in the Bohai Bay flows different trend compared with the historical observation. The Bohai Sea surface temperature is slightly lower than that in August of the calendar year; salinity has a decreased trend compared to historical statistics.

  18. Investigation of radar discrimination of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parashar, S. K.; Biggs, A. W.; Fung, A. K.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The ability of radar to discriminate sea ice types and their thickness was studied. Radar backscatter measurements at 400 MHz (multi-polarization) and 13.3 GHz (VV polarization) obtained from NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program Mission 126 were analyzed in detail. The scatterometer data were separated into seven categories of sea ice according to age and thickness as interpreted from stereo aerial photographs. The variations of radar backscatter cross-section with sea ice thickness at various angles are presented at the two frequencies. There is a reversal of angular character of radar return from sea ice less than 18 cm thick at the two frequencies. Multi-year ice (sea ice greater than 180 cm thick) gives strongest return at 13.3 GHz. First-year ice (30 cm to 90 cm thick) gives strongest return at 400 MHz. Open water can be differentiated at both the frequencies. Four-polarization 16.5 GHz radar imagery was also obtained. Open water and three categories of sea ice can be identified on the images. The results of the imagery analysis are consistent with the radar scatterometer results.

  19. Temperature Impacts on Deep-Sea Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, M.; Danovaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes.

  20. Glacier Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A. S.; Cogley, J. G.; Moholdt, G.; Wouters, B.; Wiese, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Global mean sea level is rising in response to two primary factors: warming oceans and diminishing glaciers and ice sheets. If melted completely, glaciers would raise sea levels by half a meter, much less than that the 80 meters or so that would result from total melt of the massive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. That is why glacier contributions to sea level rise have been less studied, allowing estimates of to vary widely. Glacier contributions to sea level change are challenging to quantify as they are broadly distributed, located in remote and poorly accessible high latitude and high altitude regions, and ground observations are sparse. Advances in satellite altimetry (ICESat) and gravimetry (GRACE) have helped, but they also have their own challenges and limitations. Here we present an updated (2003-2014) synthesis of multiple techniques adapted for varying regions to show that rates of glacier loss change little between the 2003-2009 and 2003-2014 periods, accounting for roughly one third of global mean sea level rise. Over the next century and beyond glaciers are expected to continue to contribute substantial volumes of water to the world's oceans, motivating continued study of how glaciers respond to climate change that will improve projections of future sea levels.

  1. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes.

  2. Abundance of sea kraits correlates with precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sea kraits (Laticauda spp.)--amphibious sea snakes--dehydrate without a source of fresh water, drink only fresh water or very dilute brackish water, and have a spatial distribution of abundance that correlates with freshwater sites in Taiwan. The spatial distribution correlates with sites where there is a source of fresh water in addition to local precipitation. Here we report six years of longitudinal data on the abundance of sea kraits related to precipitation at sites where these snakes are normally abundant in the coastal waters of Lanyu (Orchid Island), Taiwan. The number of observed sea kraits varies from year-to-year and correlates positively with previous 6-mo cumulative rainfall, which serves as an inverse index of drought. Grouped data for snake counts indicate that mean abundance in wet years is nearly 3-fold greater than in dry years, and this difference is significant. These data corroborate previous findings and suggest that freshwater dependence influences the abundance or activity of sea kraits on both spatial and temporal scales. The increasing evidence for freshwater dependence in these and other marine species have important implications for the possible impact of climate change on sea snake distributions.

  3. Thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, K.; Swift, J. H.; Carmack, E. C.

    1985-05-01

    The renewal of the deep North Atlantic by the various overflows of the Greenland-Scotland ridges is only one manifestation of the convective and mixing processes which occur in the various basins and shelf areas to the north: the Arctic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian seas, collectively called the Arctic Mediterranean. The traditional site of deep ventilation for these basins is the Greenland Sea, but a growing body of evidence also points to the Arctic Ocean as a major source of deep water. This deep water is relatively warm and saline, and it appears to be a mixture of dense, brine-enriched shelf water with intermediate strata in the Arctic Ocean. The deep water exits the Arctic Ocean along the Greenland slope to mix with the Greenland Sea deep water. Conversely, very cold low-salinity deep water from the Greenland Sea enters the Arctic Ocean west of Spitsbergen. Within the Arctic Ocean, the Lomonosov Ridge excludes the Greenland Sea deep water from the Canadian Basin, leaving the latter warm, saline, and rich in silica. In general, the entire deep-water sphere of the Arctic Mediterranean is constrained by the Greenland-Scotland ridges to circulate internally. Therefore it is certain of the intermediate waters formed in the Greenland and Iceland seas which ventilate the North Atlantic. These waters have a very short residence time in their formation areas and are therefore able to rapidly transmit surface-induced signals into the deep North Atlantic.

  4. Ice core reconstruction of sea ice change in the Amundsen-Ross Seas since 1702 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Abram, Nerilie J.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic sea ice has been increasing in recent decades, but with strong regional differences in the expression of sea ice change. Declining sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea since 1979 (the satellite era) has been linked to the observed warming on the Antarctic Peninsula, while the Ross Sea sector has seen a marked increase in sea ice during this period. Here we present a 308 year record of methansulphonic acid from coastal West Antarctica, representing sea ice conditions in the Amundsen-Ross Sea. We demonstrate that the recent increase in sea ice in this region is part of a longer trend, with an estimated ~1° northward expansion in winter sea ice extent (SIE) during the twentieth century and a total expansion of ~1.3° since 1702. The greatest reconstructed SIE occurred during the mid-1990s, with five of the past 30 years considered exceptional in the context of the past three centuries.

  5. Multiyear study of the dependence of sea salt aerosol on wind speed and sea ice conditions in the coastal Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, N. W.; Quinn, P. K.; McNamara, S. M.; Pratt, K. A.

    2016-08-01

    Thinning of Arctic sea ice gives rise to ice fracturing and leads (areas of open water surrounded by sea ice) that are a potential source of sea salt aerosol. Atmospheric particle inorganic ion concentrations, local sea ice conditions, and meteorology at Barrow, AK, from 2006 to 2009, were combined to investigate the dependence of submicron (aerodynamic diameter < 1 µm) and supermicron (aerodynamic diameter 1-10 µm) sea salt mass concentrations on sea ice coverage and wind speed. Consistent with a wind-dependent source, supermicron sea salt mass concentrations increased in the presence of nearby leads and wind speeds greater than 4 m s-1. Increased supermicron and submicron sea salt chloride depletion was observed for periods of low winds or a lack of nearby open water, consistent with transported sea salt influence. Sea salt aerosol produced from leads has the potential to alter cloud formation, as well as the chemical composition of the Arctic atmosphere and snowpack.

  6. On the Predictability of Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward

    We investigate the persistence and predictability of sea ice in numerical models and observations. We first use the 3rd generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) General Circulation Model (GCM) to investigate the inherent persistence of sea-ice area and thickness. We find that sea-ice area anomalies have a seasonal decay timescale, exhibiting an initial decorrelation similar to a first order auto-regressive (AR1, or red noise) process. Beyond this initial loss of memory, there is a re-emergence of memory at certain times of the year. There are two distinct modes of re-emergence in the model, one driven by the seasonal coupling of area and thickness anomalies in the summer, the other by the persistence of upper ocean temperature anomalies that originate from ice anomalies in the melt season and then influence ice anomalies in the growth season. Comparison with satellite observations where available indicate these processes appear in nature. We then use the 4th generation CCSM (CCSM4) to investigate the partition of Arctic sea-ice predictability into its initial-value and boundary forced components under present day forcing conditions. We find that initial-value predictability lasts for 1-2 years for sea-ice area, and 3-4 years for sea-ice volume. Forced predictability arises after just 4-5 years for both area and volume. Initial-value predictability of sea-ice area during the summer hinges on the coupling between thickness and area anomalies during that season. We find that the loss of initial-value predictability with time is not uniform --- there is a rapid loss of predictability of sea-ice volume during the late spring early summer associated with snow melt and albedo feedbacks. At the same time, loss of predictability is not uniform across different regions. Given the usefulness of ice thickness as a predictor of summer sea-ice area, we obtain a hindcast of September sea-ice area initializing the GCM on May 1with an estimate of observed sea-ice thickness

  7. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  8. Hydrographic variability in the Irminger Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Marieke Femke

    2010-10-01

    This thesis deals with the hydrography of the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean, particularly the Irminger Sea. The data sets used for this study include historical observations (since 1950), near-annual observations (since 1990) of the AR7E section from Greenland to Ireland and daily observations (between 2003 and 2008) from two moorings in the centre of the Irminger Sea. A multi-decadal variability is seen in the upper 2 km of the Irminger Sea and the nearby Labrador Sea. This variability includes a maximum in temperature and salinity around 1970 followed by a minimum in the late 1980s and early 1990s followed by an increase until present. This multi-decadal variability seems to be caused by correlating changes in the atmospheric heat flux and the wind stress curl. Deep convective mixing in the Labrador Sea, occurring every 10 year, distributes the sea-to-air heat loss over the water column. Through advection, the convective mixing in the Labrador Sea largely determines the hydrography of the North Atlantic. The convectively formed Labrador Sea Water (LSW) spreads to the Irminger Sea (2 year) and the eastward located Iceland Basin (5 year). The LSW decays by advection and lateral mixing with the more saline Icelandic Slope Water. The low temperature and salinity signal of the LSW returns in the North East Atlantic Deep Water in the Irminger Sea, with a delay of 2 year. For the Denmark Strait Overflow Water, the fast hydrographic variability described by Dickson et al. (2003) reappears in the observations included here. Although, the freshening trend observed between 1965 and 2000 changed into a weaker salinifying trend observed between 2001 and 2008. Notably, the range of the sub-annual variability exceed the inter-annual variability at all depths. Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) shows occasional rapid drops in salinity and temperature as well as a non-linear annual cycle in temperature. Both types of variability are assumed to be related to changes in the

  9. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  10. Sea water intrusion by sea-level rise: scenarios for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A; Pingel, Thomas J; Garcia, Elizabeth S

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a method to assess the contributions of 21st-century sea-level rise and groundwater extraction to sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Sea water intrusion is represented by the landward advance of the 10,000 mg/L iso-salinity line, a concentration of dissolved salts that renders groundwater unsuitable for human use. A mathematical formulation of the resolution of sea water intrusion among its causes was quantified via numerical simulation under scenarios of change in groundwater extraction and sea-level rise in the 21st century. The developed method is illustrated with simulations of sea water intrusion in the Seaside Area sub-basin near the City of Monterey, California (USA), where predictions of mean sea-level rise through the early 21st century range from 0.10 to 0.90 m due to increasing global mean surface temperature. The modeling simulation was carried out with a state-of-the-art numerical model that accounts for the effects of salinity on groundwater density and can approximate hydrostratigraphic geometry closely. Simulations of sea water intrusion corresponding to various combinations of groundwater extraction and sea-level rise established that groundwater extraction is the predominant driver of sea water intrusion in the study aquifer. The method presented in this work is applicable to coastal aquifers under a variety of other scenarios of change not considered in this work. For example, one could resolve what changes in groundwater extraction and/or sea level would cause specified levels of groundwater salinization at strategic locations and times.

  11. Characteristics of Thermal Finestructure in the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne Expendable Bathythermograph Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    J. Oceanic Eng., 29, 1054–1060. 17 Zodiatis, G., and G. P. Gasparini (1996): Thermohaline staircase formations in the 18 Tyrrhenian Sea . Deep- Sea ...1 1 2 Characteristics of Thermal Finestructure in the Southern 3 Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne 4 Expendable...CA93943-5001, USA Tel: 1-831-656-7819 Fax: 1-831-656-3686 Email: spark@nps.edu Key words: Yellow/East China Seas , AXBT, synoptic thermal fronts

  12. Development of the Bulgarian Sea Level Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas

    2013-04-01

    Systematic sea level measurements have been started in Bulgaria in the beginning of 20th century and nowadays there are 16 coastal sea level stations in operation. Operators of sea level stations are: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH) - 6 stations, Cadastre Agency, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works (CA) - 4 stations, Port Infrastructure (PI) - 5 stations and Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS) - 1 station. Six of them are able to provide real time data. The sea level observations in the network of NIMH, performed at six main Bulgarian ports using standard poles, started in 1910. The program, implemented on the NIMH stations, includes daily measurements of the sea level with water gauges (poles). The position of a zero mark of the water gauge is checked once per year. The sea level network of the CA consists of 4 stations: Varna and Burgas (operational since 1928), Irakly and Ahtopol (since 1971). These stations are equipped with stilling-well tide gauges and with mechanical writing devices which draws sea level changes on paper. A mechanical paper writing instruments were installed in Varna and Burgas during 1928 and in 1971, a new paper writing instruments of type SUM (Russian) were installed in the stations of Irakly and Ahtopol. A set of five sea level stations in the ports of Balchik, Varna west, Pomorie, Burgas and Oil port Burgas was build during 2009 in the frame of Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS), equipped with high accuracy microwave instruments and operated by PI. In 2010 a new sea level station was set up in the IO-BAS coastal research base Shkorpolovtci. The station is equipped with high accuracy microwave instrument. These six stations are providing real time data. According to the decision of the Council of Ministers in 2012 sea level stations in Varna, Irakly, Burgas and Ahtopol will be operated jointly by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and

  13. Critical behavior of transport in sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, K. M.

    2003-10-01

    Geophysical materials such as sea ice, rocks, soils, snow, and glacial ice are composite media with complex, random microstructures. The effective fluid, gas, thermal, and electromagnetic transport properties of these materials play an important role in the large-scale dynamics and behavior of many geophysical systems. A striking feature of such media is that subtle changes in microstructural characteristics can induce changes over many orders of magnitude in the transport properties of the materials, which in turn can have significant large-scale geophysical effects. For example, sea ice, which mediates energy transfer between the ocean and atmosphere, plays a key role in global climate, and serves as an indicator of climatic change, is a porous composite of ice, brine and gases. Relevant length scales range from microns and millimeters for individual brine structures, to centimeters and meters for connected brine channels across floes, to hundreds of kilometers across an ice pack. Sea ice is distinguished from many other porous composites, such as sandstones or bone, in that its microstructure and bulk material properties can vary dramatically over a relatively small temperature range. The fluid permeability of sea ice ranges over six orders of magnitude for temperatures between 0°C and -25°C. Moreover, small changes in brine volume fraction around a threshold value of about 5%, corresponding to variations in temperature around a critical point of about -5°C, control an important transition between low and high fluid permeability regimes. Below this critical temperature, the sea ice is effectively impermeable, while for higher temperatures the brine phase becomes connected over macroscopic scales, allowing fluid transport through the ice. This transition has been observed to impact a wide range of phenomena such as surface flooding and snow-ice formation, enhancement of heat transfer due to fluid motion, mixing in the upper ocean, melt pool persistence

  14. Solution notches, earthquakes, and sea level, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Mildor, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Shortly after the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, we installed an array of five tide gauges to determine sea level and its variability in the region of uplifted corals on the coast SW of Leogane, Haiti, that had been uplift ≤30 cm during the earthquake. Each gauge consists of a pressure transducer bolted 50-80 cm below mean sea level, which samples the difference between atmospheric pressure and sea pressure every 10 minutes. The data are transmitted via the Iridium satellite and are publically available with a latency of 10 minutes to 2 hours. The measurements reveal a maximum tidal range of ≈50 cm with 2-4 week oscillations in mean sea level of several cm. Sea slope, revealed by differences between adjacent gauges, varies 2-5 cm per 10 km at periods of 2-5 weeks, which imposes a disappointing limit to the utility of the gauges in estimating post seismic vertical motions. A parallel study of the form and elevation of coastal notches and mushroom rocks (rocks notched on all sides, hence forming a mushroom shape), along the coast west of Petit Goave suggests that these notches may provide an uplift history of the region over the past several hundreds of years. Notch sections in two areas were contoured, digitized, and compared to mean sea level. The notches mimic the histogram of sea level, suggesting that they are formed by dissolution by acidic surface waters. Notches formed two distinct levels, one approximately 58 cm above mean sea level, and the other approximately 157 cm above mean sea level. Several landslide blocks fell into the sea during the 2010 earthquake, and we anticipate these are destined for conversion to future mushroom rocks. Surfaces have been prepared on these blocks to study the rate of notch formation in situ, and samples are being subjected to acid corrosion in laboratory conditions, with the hope that the depth of notches may provide an estimate of the time of fall of previous rocks to help constrain the earthquake history of this area

  15. Tropical pacing of Antarctic sea ice increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    One reason why coupled climate model simulations generally do not reproduce the observed increase in Antarctic sea ice extent may be that their internally generated climate variability does not sync with the observed phases of phenomena like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and ENSO. For example, it is unlikely for a free-running coupled model simulation to capture the shift of the PDO from its positive to negative phase during 1998, and the subsequent ~15 year duration of the negative PDO phase. In previously presented work based on atmospheric models forced by observed tropical SSTs and stratospheric ozone, we demonstrated that tropical variability is key to explaining the wind trends over the Southern Ocean during the past ~35 years, particularly in the Ross, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the regions of the largest trends in sea ice extent and ice season duration. Here, we extend this idea to coupled model simulations with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in which the evolution of SST anomalies in the central and eastern tropical Pacific is constrained to match the observations. This ensemble of 10 "tropical pacemaker" simulations shows a more realistic evolution of Antarctic sea ice anomalies than does its unconstrained counterpart, the CESM Large Ensemble (both sets of runs include stratospheric ozone depletion and other time-dependent radiative forcings). In particular, the pacemaker runs show that increased sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea is associated with a deeper Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) and stronger westerlies over the south Pacific. These circulation patterns in turn are linked with the negative phase of the PDO, characterized by negative SST anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific. The timing of tropical decadal variability with respect to ozone depletion further suggests a strong role for tropical variability in the recent acceleration of the Antarctic sea ice trend, as ozone depletion stabilized by late 1990s, prior to the most

  16. The Satellite Passive-Microwave Record of Sea Ice in the Ross Sea Since Late 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellites have provided us with a remarkable ability to monitor many aspects of the globe day-in and day-out and sea ice is one of numerous variables that by now have quite substantial satellite records. Passive-microwave data have been particularly valuable in sea ice monitoring, with a record that extends back to August 1987 on daily basis (for most of the period), to November 1970 on a less complete basis (again for most of the period), and to December 1972 on a less complete basis. For the period since November 1970, Ross Sea sea ice imagery is available at spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. This allows good depictions of the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice cover each year, along with its marked interannual variability. The Ross Sea ice extent typically reaches a minimum of approximately 0.7 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in February, rising to a maximum of approximately 4.0 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in September, with much variability among years for both those numbers. The Ross Sea images show clearly the day-by-day activity greatly from year to year. Animations of the data help to highlight the dynamic nature of the Ross Sea ice cover. The satellite data also allow calculation of trends in the ice cover over the period of the satellite record. Using linear least-squares fits, the Ross Sea ice extent increased at an average rate of 12,600 plus or minus 1,800 square kilometers per year between November 1978 and December 2007, with every month exhibiting increased ice extent and the rates of increase ranging from a low of 7,500 plus or minus 5,000 square kilometers per year for the February ice extents to a high of 20,300 plus or minus 6,100 kilometers per year for the October ice extents. On a yearly average basis, for 1979-2007 the Ross Sea ice extent increased at a rate of 4.8 plus or minus 1.6 % per decade. Placing the Ross Sea in the context of the Southern Ocean as a whole, over the November 1978-December 2007 period the Ross Sea had

  17. Spatial-temporal analysis of sea level changes in China seas and neighboring oceans by merged altimeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Zhifeng; Lei, Hui; Sun, Jiamin; Zhu, Xingrui; Liu, Congjin

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of sea level changes is critical important for social, economic and scientific development in coastal areas. Satellite altimeter makes it possible to observe long term and large scale dynamic changes in the ocean, contiguous shelf seas and coastal zone. In this paper, 1993-2015 altimeter data of Topex/Poseidon and its follow-on missions is used to get a time serious of continuous and homogeneous sea level anomaly gridding product. The sea level rising rate is 0.39 cm/yr in China Seas and the neighboring oceans, 0.37 cm/yr in the Bo and Yellow Sea, 0.29 cm/yr in the East China Sea and 0.40 cm/yr in the South China Sea. The mean sea level and its rising rate are spatial-temporal non-homogeneous. The mean sea level shows opposite characteristics in coastal seas versus open oceans. The Bo and Yellow Sea has the most significant seasonal variability. The results are consistent with in situ data observation by the Nation Ocean Agency of China. The coefficient of variability model is introduced to describe the spatial-temporal variability. Results show that the variability in coastal seas is stronger than that in open oceans, especially the seas off the entrance area of the river, indicating that the validation of altimeter data is less reasonable in these seas.

  18. Dirac Sea and its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volfson, Boris

    2013-09-01

    The hypothesis of transition from a chaotic Dirac Sea, via highly unstable positronium, into a Simhony Model of stable face-centered cubic lattice structure of electrons and positrons securely bound in vacuum space, is considered. 13.75 Billion years ago, the new lattice, which, unlike a Dirac Sea, is permeable by photons and phonons, made the Universe detectable. Many electrons and positrons ended up annihilating each other producing energy quanta and neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The weak force of the electron-positron crystal lattice, bombarded by the chirality-changing neutrinos, may have started capturing these neutrinos thus transforming from cubic crystals into a quasicrystal lattice. Unlike cubic crystal lattice, clusters of quasicrystals are "slippery" allowing the formation of centers of local torsion, where gravity condenses matter into galaxies, stars and planets. In the presence of quanta, in a quasicrystal lattice, the Majorana neutrinos' rotation flips to the opposite direction causing natural transformations in a category comprised of three components; two others being positron and electron. In other words, each particle-antiparticle pair "e-" and "e+", in an individual crystal unit, could become either a quasi- component "e- ve e+", or a quasi- component "e+ - ve e-". Five-to-six six billion years ago, a continuous stimulation of the quasicrystal aetherial lattice by the same, similar, or different, astronomical events, could have triggered Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning processes. The Universe may have started writing script into its own aether in a code most appropriate for the quasicrystal aether "hardware": Eight three-dimensional "alphabet" characters, each corresponding to the individual quasi-crystal unit shape. They could be expressed as quantum Turing machine qubits, or, alternatively, in a binary code. The code numerals could contain terminal and nonterminal symbols of the Chomsky's hierarchy, wherein, the showers of quanta, forming the

  19. Estimating the effective nitrogen import: An example for the North Sea-Baltic Sea boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, H.; Maar, M.

    2016-10-01

    Semienclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea are prone to eutrophication problems. If local nutrient abatement measures are taken to tackle these problems, their success may be limited if a strong nutrient exchange with the adjacent waters exists. The quantification of this exchange is therefore essential to estimate its impact on the ecosystem status. At the example of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, we illustrate that neither gross transports nor net transports of nutrients have a strong informative value in this context. Instead, we define an "effective import" as the import of nutrients which have not been inside the Baltic Sea before and estimate it in an ecological model with a nutrient-tagging technique. This effective import of bioreactive nitrogen from the Skagerrak to the Kattegat amounts to 103 kt/yr; from Kattegat to Belt Sea it is 54 kt/yr. The nitrogen exchange is therefore 30% stronger than other estimates, e.g., based on import in the deep water, suggest. An isolated view on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in terms of eutrophication, as it is practiced in management today, is therefore questionable. Nitrogen imported from the North Sea typically spreads eastward up to the Bornholm Basin but can be transported into the deep waters of the Gotland Basin during Major Baltic Inflows in a significant amount.

  20. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J. Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between 42 and 57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  1. Synthetic stratigraphy of epicontinental seas: a carbonate sedimentation model and its applications in sea level studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cisne, J.L.; Gildner, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    Carbonates from the central parts of epicontinental seas are ideal strata for detailed study of eustatic sea level change. On the basis of sedimentation model in which carbonate accumulation rate is directly proportional to water depth, we developed synthetic stratigraphies for sea level histories expected for post-glacial transgression and for constant and sinusoidally fluctuating ocean ridge volume increase. These histories give distinctly different trends for water depth as a function of stratigraphic position in the sections' bathymetric curves. In general, water depth is proportional to the rate of sea level rise. Depth-dependent sedimentation leads to a time lag between sea level fluctuation and corresponding depth fluctuation which, as examples show, can approach 10/sup 6/ years for depth fluctuations of even a few meters--a fundamental consideration for reconstructing sea level curves, time-correlating sections by bathymetric curves, and relating water depth on continents to ocean ridge volume. Bathymetric curves based on gradient analysis of fossil assemblages (coenocorrelation curves) for American Middle Ordovician sections approximate patterns expected for sinusoidally increasing sea level. The model's predictions are tested in an ''artificial experiment'' that takes advantage of differential subsidence between the craton's middle and its edge to make a difference in the bathymetric histories of sections that otherwise record the same sea level history. The depth dependence in sedimentation was that above wave base net accumulation per year was very roughly 3 x 10/sup -6/ of the water depth.

  2. Characterization of plutonium in deep-sea sediments of the Sulu and South China Seas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Yamada, Masatoshi; Pan, Shaoming

    2010-08-01

    Anthropogenic Pu isotopes are important geochemical tracers for sediment studies. Their distributions and sources in the water columns as well as the sediments of the North Pacific have been intensively studied; however, information about Pu in the Southeast Asian seas is limited. To study the isotopic composition of Pu, and thus to identify its sources, we collected sediment core samples in the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea during the KH-96-5 Cruise of the R/V Hakuho Maru. We analysed the activities of (239+240)Pu and the atom ratios of (240)Pu/(239)Pu using isotope dilution sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the sediments of both areas (inventory weighted mean: 0.251 for the South China Sea and 0.280 for the Sulu Sea) were higher than the global fallout value (0.178+/-0.019), suggesting the existence of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds in the North Pacific. Low inventories of (239+240)Pu in sediments were observed in the South China Sea (3.75 Bq/m(2)) and the Sulu Sea (1.38 Bq/m(2)). Most of the Pu input is still present in the water column. Scavenging and benthic mixing processes were considered to be the main processes controlling the distribution of Pu in the deep-sea sediments of both study areas.

  3. Daytime sea fog retrieval based on GOCI data: a case study over the Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yibo; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Sun, Deyong; Wang, Shengqiang; Yue, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-25

    In this paper, a new daytime sea fog detection algorithm has been developed by using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data. Based on spectral analysis, differences in spectral characteristics were found over different underlying surfaces, which include land, sea, middle/high level clouds, stratus clouds and sea fog. Statistical analysis showed that the Rrc (412 nm) (Rayleigh Corrected Reflectance) of sea fog pixels is approximately 0.1-0.6. Similarly, various band combinations could be used to separate different surfaces. Therefore, three indices (SLDI, MCDI and BSI) were set to discern land/sea, middle/high level clouds and fog/stratus clouds, respectively, from which it was generally easy to extract fog pixels. The remote sensing algorithm was verified using coastal sounding data, which demonstrated that the algorithm had the ability to detect sea fog. The algorithm was then used to monitor an 8-hour sea fog event and the results were consistent with observational data from buoys data deployed near the Sheyang coast (121°E, 34°N). The goal of this study was to establish a daytime sea fog detection algorithm based on GOCI data, which shows promise for detecting fog separately from stratus.

  4. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between $42 and $57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  5. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... raft, during daylight hours as weather and sea conditions allow, and with the agreement of the sea... number that does not match the scallop trip plan that was called in to NMFS. Confirmation numbers for trip notification calls are only valid for 48 hr from the intended sail date; and (4) Procurement...

  6. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... raft, during daylight hours as weather and sea conditions allow, and with the agreement of the sea... that was called in to NMFS. Confirmation numbers for trip notification calls are only valid for 48 hr... activities on call 24 hours a day to handle emergencies involving observers or problems concerning...

  7. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... raft, during daylight hours as weather and sea conditions allow, and with the agreement of the sea... that was called in to NMFS. Confirmation numbers for trip notification calls are only valid for 48 hr... activities on call 24 hours a day to handle emergencies involving observers or problems concerning...

  8. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... raft, during daylight hours as weather and sea conditions allow, and with the agreement of the sea... number that does not match the scallop trip plan that was called in to NMFS. Confirmation numbers for trip notification calls are only valid for 48 hr from the intended sail date; and (4) Procurement...

  9. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... raft, during daylight hours as weather and sea conditions allow, and with the agreement of the sea... that was called in to NMFS. Confirmation numbers for trip notification calls are only valid for 48 hr... service provider must have an employee responsible for observer activities on call 24 hr a day to...

  10. "The Mirror of the Sea": Narrative Identity, Sea Kayak Adventuring and Implications for Outdoor Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Beau; Wattchow, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the complex and changing nature of adventure as a form of cultural practice. Borrowing from Joseph Conrad's memoirs "The Mirror of The Sea" (1907), sea kayaking is contextualized here as a journey that takes place just as much between "landfall and departure" as it does between the paddler's ears (i.e., in…

  11. Sea Sources. Bibliographic and Resource Material of Children's Literature of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnall, Norma

    Writers have often used the sea as background or as a theme in writing for children since it is a natural setting for adventure or exploration and has an attractiveness for all of us. Included in this bibliography is a representative listing of books related to the seas and inland waters, individual stories and poems which have a bearing on sea…

  12. Fine-resolution simulation of surface current and sea ice in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiying; Zhang, Xuehong; Yu, Rucong; Liu, Hailong; Li, Wei

    2007-04-01

    A fine-resolution model is developed for ocean circulation simulation in the National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is applied to simulate surface current and sea ice variations in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas. A dynamic sea ice model in elastic-viscous-plastic rheology and a thermodynamic sea ice model are employed. A 200-year simulation is performed and a dimatological average of a 10-year period (141st 150th) is presented with focus on sea ice concentration and surface current variations in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas. The model is able to simulate well the East Greenland Current, Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift, but the simulated West Spitsbergen Current is small and weak. In the March climatology, the sea ice coverage can be simulated well except for a bit more ice in east of Spitsbergen Island. The result is also good for the September scenario except for less ice concentration east of Greenland and greater ice concentration near the ice margin. The extra ice east of Spitsbergen Island is caused by sea ice current convergence forced by atmospheric wind stress.

  13. Sea ice thickness in the Weddell Sea, inferred from upward looking sonar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Axel; Dierking, Wolfgang; Witte, Hannelore

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice has been routinely monitored by satellites since 1979. However, thickness measurements of sea ice are still very sparse, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Satellite altimetry still provides relatively uncertain estimates of ice thickness. Today, the only tool for monitoring sea ice thickness over long time periods with highest accuracy (5-10 cm) are moored upward looking sonars (ULS). The instruments measure the subsurface portion (draft) of the ice, which can be converted into total ice thickness. We present a data set of ULS time series from 13 positions in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (Weddell Sea), which were made in different years between 1990 and 2010. Monthly mean sea ice draft shows high interannual variability and can reach more than 3 m in the dynamic coastal regions of the eastern and western Weddell Sea. The thinnest ice is found away from the coast in the eastern Weddell Sea and rarely exceeds 1 m in the monthly mean. In single years the ULS data allow for a clear discrimination between thermodynamic ice growth and dynamic ice growth due to rafting and ridging of the floes. We demonstrate that the thermodynamic ice thickness can reach its theoretical maximum value of 1 m in the central Weddell basin. Despite significant gaps, the presented data set provides an important validation tool for satellite algorithms and sea ice models.

  14. Sand Sea in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image is of part of the northern sand sea. The small dunes in the image are bluer than the ice/dust filled central crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 73.7, Longitude 323 East (37 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Assimilation of sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration and sea ice drift in a model of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Alexander; Canter, Martin; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Vannitsem, Stéphane; Massonnet, François; Zunz, Violette; Mathiot, Pierre; Alvera-Azcárate, Aida; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2015-09-01

    Current ocean models have relatively large errors and biases in the Southern Ocean. The aim of this study is to provide a reanalysis from 1985 to 2006 assimilating sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration and sea ice drift. In the following it is also shown how surface winds in the Southern Ocean can be improved using sea ice drift estimated from infrared radiometers. Such satellite observations are available since the late seventies and have the potential to improve the wind forcing before more direct measurements of winds over the ocean are available using scatterometry in the late nineties. The model results are compared to the assimilated data and to independent measurements (the World Ocean Database 2009 and the mean dynamic topography based on observations). The overall improvement of the assimilation is quantified, in particular the impact of the assimilation on the representation of the polar front is discussed. Finally a method to identify model errors in the Antarctic sea ice area is proposed based on Model Output Statistics techniques using a series of potential predictors. This approach provides new directions for model improvements.

  16. Assimilation of sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration and sea ice drift in a model of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Alexander; Canter, Martin; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Vannitsem, Stéphane; Massonnet, François; Zunz, Violette; Mathiot, Pierre; Alvera-Azcárate, Aida; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2015-04-01

    Current ocean models have relatively large errors and biases in the Southern Ocean. The aim of this study is to provide a reanalysis from 1985 to 2006 assimilating sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration and sea ice drift. In the following it is also shown how surface winds in the Southern Ocean can be improved using sea ice drift estimated from infrared radiometers. Such satellite observations are available since the late seventies and have the potential to improve the wind forcing before more direct measurements of winds over the ocean are available using scatterometry in the late nineties. The model results are compared to the assimilated data and to independent measurements (the World Ocean Database 2009 and the mean dynamic topography based on observations). The overall improvement of the assimilation is quantified, in particular the impact of the assimilation on the representation of the polar front is discussed. Finally a method to identify model errors in the Antarctic sea ice area is proposed based on Model Output Statistics techniques using a series of potential predictors. This approach provides new directions for model improvements.

  17. Temporal variatiions of Sea ice cover in the Baltic Sea derived from operational sea ice products used in NWP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Martin; Paul, Gerhard; Potthast, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice cover is a crucial parameter for surface fluxes of heat and moisture over water areas. The isolating effect and the much higher albedo strongly reduces the turbulent exchange of heat and moisture from the surface to the atmosphere and allows for cold and dry air mass flow with strong impact on the stability of the whole boundary layer and consequently cloud formation as well as precipitation in the downstream regions. Numerical weather centers as, ECMWF, MetoFrance or DWD use external products to initialize SST and sea ice cover in their NWP models. To the knowledge of the author there are mainly two global sea ice products well established with operational availability, one from NOAA NCEP that combines measurements with satellite data, and the other from OSI-SAF derived from SSMI/S sensors. The latter one is used in the Ostia product. DWD additionally uses a regional product for the Baltic Sea provided by the national center for shipping and hydrografie which combines observations from ships (and icebreakers) for the German part of the Baltic Sea and model analysis from the hydrodynamic HIROMB model of the Swedish meteorological service for the rest of the domain. The temporal evolution of the three different products are compared for a cold period in Februar 2012. Goods and bads will be presented and suggestions for a harmonization of strong day to day jumps over large areas are suggested.

  18. Zaliv Kara-Bogaz-Gol, Caspian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The large eastern embayment of the Caspian Sea, the Zaliv Kara-Bogaz-Gol, provides astronauts the chance to observe several oceanographic phenomena. This view taken by the STS-111 crew from the Space Shuttle in June 2002 shows the sun reflecting off the surface waters that surround the spit that defines the Zaliv Kara-Bogaz-Gol from the open Caspian Sea. The sunglint reveals the flow of fresher water through the spit channel and into the bay. Old shorelines and accretionary features can be seen on the spit, as well as the dam that was constructed in 1980 to stop the flow into the lower Kara-Bogaz-Gol basin. The Caspian Sea has experienced dramatic changes in water levels throughout the past 100 years. From the 1930s until 1978, the water levels in the Caspian had dropped nearly 3 m. In 1980, in response to the rapidly dropping sea level, a dam was constructed to prevent water from flowing into the shallow and restricted Kara-Bogaz-Gol basin, resulting in the drying up of the bay. The dam was partially opened a few years later, and completely opened in 1992 when Caspian water levels started to rise quickly. Today, sea levels are more than 2.6 m higher than the 1978 levels, and, as shown here, water flows freely into the salty waters of the Zaliv Kara-Bogaz-Gol. Astronauts have also been documenting the coastlines around the Caspian Sea that have been impacted by the large sea level fluctuations. Astronaut photograph STS111-E-5485 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  19. Microwave remote sensing of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The long term objectives are: (1) to understand the physics of the multispectral microwave radiative characteristics of sea ice as it goes through different phases; (2) to improve characterization of sea ice cover using satellite microwave sensors; and (3) to study ice/ocean physical and biological processes associated with polynya formations and variability of the marginal sea ice region. Two field experiments were conducted to pursue these objectives. One involved measurements of radiative and physical characteristics of sea ice from a ship during a 3-month long cruise through the Weddell Sea ice pack during the Austral winter of 1986. The other involved similar measurements from two aircrafts and a submarine over the Central Arctic and Greenland Sea region. Preliminary results have already led to an enhanced understanding of the microwave signatures of pancake ice, nilas, first year ice, multiyear ice and effects of snow cover. Coastal and deep ocean polynyas and their role in bottom water formation and ocean circulation were studied using a time series of ice images from SMMR. An unsupervised cluster analysis of Arctic sea ice using SMMR and THIR emissivity and brightness temperature data was implemented. The analysis indicates the existence of several unique and persistent clusters in the Central Arctic region during winter and that the sum of the area of these clusters excluding those of first year ice is about 20 percent less than minimum ice cover area inferred from a previous summer data. This result is consistent with saline surface for some multiyear ice floes as observed during MIZEZ and suggests that a significant fraction of multiyear ice floes in the Arctic have first year ice signatures.

  20. Imperial Valley and Salton Sea, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's Salton Sea is a prominent visual for astronauts. This large lake supports the rich agricultural fields of the Imperial, Coachella and Mexicali Valleys in the California and Mexico desert. The Salton Sea formed by accident in 1905 when an irrigation canal ruptured, allowing the Colorado River to flood the Salton Basin. Today the Sea performs an important function as the sink for agricultural runoff; water levels are maintained by the runoff from the surrounding agricultural valleys. The Salton Sea salinity is high-nearly 1/4 saltier than ocean water-but it remains an important stopover point for migratory water birds, including several endangered species. The region also experiences several environmental problems. The recent increased demands for the limited Colorado River water threatens the amount of water allowed to flow into the Salton Sea. Increased salinity and decreased water levels could trigger several regional environmental crises. The agricultural flow into the Sea includes nutrients and agricultural by-products, increasing the productivity and likelihood of algae blooms. This image shows either a bloom, or suspended sediment (usually highly organic) in the water that has been stirred up by winds. Additional information: The Salton Sea A Brief Description of Its Current Conditions, and Potential Remediation Projects and Land Use Across the U.S.-Mexico Border Astronaut photograph STS111-E-5224 was taken by the STS-111 Space Shuttle crew that recently returned from the International Space Station. The image was taken June 12, 2002 using a digital camera. The image was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  1. Mean circulation of the Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, William S.; Cravatte, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    The mean absolute geostrophic circulation of the Coral Sea is constructed from climatological hydrographic data referenced to a 1000 m velocity field derived from Argo float drift. Two branches of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) enter the Coral Sea between New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands: the broad, upper thermocline North Vanuatu Jet (NVJ), and the narrow North Caledonian Jet (NCJ) extending to at least 1500 m. Most of this incoming flow leaves to the Solomon Sea. Four distinct pathways through the Coral Sea are traced by their water properties: (1) The NCJ crosses the Sea to the coast of Australia and turns north at densities sigma 25-27.4 as the main source of the Gulf of Papua (GPC) western boundary current, eventually feeding the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent; (2) part of the shallow NVJ turns into the Solomon Sea in midbasin, carrying high-salinity water above sigma 25.5; (3) another part of the NVJ continues to Australia, then turns north to join the GPC, extending it to the surface; (4) a shallow finger of NVJ water, traced by low oxygen above sigma 25, turns south along the coast, beginning the East Australian Current (EAC) at 15°S. Total transport from the Coral to the Tasman Sea is small and shallow; instead, most of the EAC is fed from south of New Caledonia, consistent with the Island Rule. However, large transport fractions occur in narrow jets close to coastlines and reefs and are not well sampled, precluding a quantitative estimate of meridional redistribution of the incoming SEC.

  2. Thermohaline residual circulation of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, Hans; Badewien, Thomas H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present estuarine circulation driven by horizontal density gradients generated by spatially homogeneous surface buoyancy fluxes over sloping bathymetry as a dynamical feature in the coastal zone being potentially relevant for cross-coastal transports. A combination of downward buoyancy flux (net precipitation, net heating) together with tidal mixing may generate a classical estuarine circulation with landward near-bottom residual currents. The Wadden Sea of the south-eastern North Sea is a prototype for such a coastal regime. It is characterised by extensive inter-tidal flats along the coast separated from the open sea by barrier islands. Here, we present long-term observations from the Wadden Sea covering the years 2006-2011. We investigated the statistics of the density gradients. Typical values for the landward density gradient were ∂ x ρ≈-3ṡ10-5 kg m-4 and maximum values were ∂ x ρ≈-6.5ṡ10-5 kg m-4. The magnitude of the density gradient resulted from the magnitude of the salinity gradient, with some modifications by the positive (towards the coast, in spring) or negative (towards the sea, in autumn) temperature gradient. To explain the generation of estuarine circulation by the surface buoyancy flux, we construct an analytical model representing the geometry and dynamics of a Wadden Sea Basin. With downward buoyancy flux, a weak classical estuarine circulation due to gravitational forcing results, whereas upward buoyancy flux drives inverse estuarine circulation. Finally, a two-dimensional (vertical-longitudinal) numerical model was set up for the idealised geometry, including tidally asymmetric turbulent mixing. This results in significantly stronger estuarine circulation due to the presence of tidal straining. The model assesses the circulation due to neutral and upward surface buoyancy fluxes. We conclude that these mechanisms may be important in many coastal areas and may substantially contribute to coast-to-sea exchange in

  3. Decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil V.; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Murray, James W.; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2016-03-01

    We show that from 1955 to 2015, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 44 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2015, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulfide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication, enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. Re-increasing oxygen inventory in 1985-1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, it also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering cold intermediate layer (CIL) formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not overcome the significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depth. By considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is urgently required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  4. Sea Level Rise Impacts On Infrastructure Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Mccown, A. W.; Backhaus, S.; Urban, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of global sea level is one of the potential consequences of climate change and represents a threat for the U.S.A coastal regions, which are highly populated and home of critical infrastructures. The potential danger caused by sea level rise may escalate if sea level rise is coupled with an increase in frequency and intensity of storms that may strike these regions. These coupled threats present a clear risk to population and critical infrastructure and are concerns for Federal, State, and particularly local response and recovery planners. Understanding the effect of sea level rise on the risk to critical infrastructure is crucial for long planning and for mitigating potential damages. In this work we quantify how infrastructure vulnerability to a range of storms changes due to an increase of sea level. Our study focuses on the Norfolk area of the U.S.A. We assess the direct damage of drinking water and wastewater facilities and the power sector caused by a distribution of synthetic hurricanes. In addition, our analysis estimates indirect consequences of these damages on population and economic activities accounting also for interdependencies across infrastructures. While projections unanimously indicate an increase in the rate of sea level rise, the scientific community does not agree on the size of this rate. Our risk assessment accounts for this uncertainty simulating a distribution of sea level rise for a specific climate scenario. Using our impact assessment results and assuming an increase of future hurricanes frequencies and intensities, we also estimate the expected benefits for critical infrastructure.

  5. Vulnerability indicators of sea water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Werner, Adrian D; Ward, James D; Morgan, Leanne K; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Teubner, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, simple indicators of the propensity for sea water intrusion (SWI) to occur (referred to as "SWI vulnerability indicators") are devised. The analysis is based on an existing analytical solution for the steady-state position of a sharp fresh water-salt water interface. Interface characteristics, that is, the wedge toe location and sea water volume, are used in quantifying SWI in both confined and unconfined aquifers. Rates-of-change (partial derivatives of the analytical solution) in the wedge toe or sea water volume are used to quantify the aquifer vulnerability to various stress situations, including (1) sea-level rise; (2) change in recharge (e.g., due to climate change); and (3) change in seaward discharge. A selection of coastal aquifer cases is used to apply the SWI vulnerability indicators, and the proposed methodology produces interpretations of SWI vulnerability that are broadly consistent with more comprehensive investigations. Several inferences regarding SWI vulnerability arise from the analysis, including: (1) sea-level rise impacts are more extensive in aquifers with head-controlled rather than flux-controlled inland boundaries, whereas the opposite is true for recharge change impacts; (2) sea-level rise does not induce SWI in constant-discharge confined aquifers; (3) SWI vulnerability varies depending on the causal factor, and therefore vulnerability composites are needed that differentiate vulnerability to such threats as sea-level rise, climate change, and changes in seaward groundwater discharge. We contend that the approach is an improvement over existing methods for characterizing SWI vulnerability, because the method has theoretical underpinnings and yet calculations are simple, although the coastal aquifer conceptualization is highly idealized.

  6. A lithosphere-scale structural model of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J. I.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Barents Sea and Kara Sea region as part of the European Arctic shelf, is geologically situated between the Proterozoic East-European Craton in the south and early Cenozoic passive margins in the north and the west. Proven and inferred hydrocarbon resources encouraged numerous industrial and academic studies in the last decades which brought along a wide spectrum of geological and geophysical data. By evaluating all available interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3-D-models, we were able to develop a new lithosphere-scale 3-D-structural model for the greater Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. The sedimentary part of the model resolves four major megasequence boundaries (earliest Eocene, mid-Cretaceous, mid-Jurassic and mid-Permian). Downwards, the 3-D-structural model is complemented by the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a newly calculated lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The thickness distribution of the main megasequences delineates five major subdomains differentiating the region (the northern Kara Sea, the southern Kara Sea, the eastern Barents Sea, the western Barents Sea and the oceanic domain comprising the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Eurasia Basin). The vertical resolution of five sedimentary megasequences allows comparing for the first time the subsidence history of these domains directly. Relating the sedimentary structures with the deeper crustal/lithospheric configuration sheds some light on possible causative basin forming mechanisms that we discuss. The newly calculated LAB deepens from the typically shallow oceanic domain in three major steps beneath the Barents and Kara shelves towards the West-Siberian Basin in the east. Thereby, we relate the shallow continental LAB and slow/hot mantle beneath the southwestern Barents Sea with the formation of deep Paleozoic/Mesozoic rift basins. Thinnest continental lithosphere is observed beneath Svalbard and the NW Barents Sea where no

  7. CryoSat-2 Estimates of Sea Ice Freeboard in the Greenland Sea of Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic region is one of the most important parts that contribute to the global climate system. As an important climatic indicator, sea ice has also undergone dramatic changes. Due to the limitations of poor geographical conditions and a lack of in-situ observations, knowledge about Arctic sea ice has not been explored well for a long time, furthermore it is especial difficult to get a high quality of Arctic Sea ice thickness information.Equipped with a Ku-band SIRAL, CryoSat-2 has been launched in 2010 as an important European Space Agency Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. CryoSat-2 has the advantage of measuring the thickness of polar sea ice and monitoring changes in the ice sheets that blanket Greenland and Antarctica with high precision. In this paper, the CryoSat-2/SIRAL radar altimeter data were used to retrieve the sea ice thickness in the Greenland Sea, Arctic, validated with the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation (ICESat) laser altimeter measurements from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Beaufort Gyre Experiment Program (BGEP) Upward Looking Sonar (ULS) measurements. Results show that the sea ice freeboard in Greenland Sea has a remarkable seasonal variation and presents an evident regional characteristics. As it show below, during the frozen season in autumn and winter the sea ice freeboard concentrated in around 0.23m , the average freeboard in Greenland Sea in June decreased to around 0.18m, the minimum freeboard 0.12m appeared in September. In the Western Greenland Sea near the Greenland and the Fram Strait with higher-latitude where multi-year ice occupy most has a larger freeboard around 0.3m in winter. In the south-eastern Greenland Sea with lower-latitude and shallow sea water, the freeboard composed by first-year ice concentrated in around 0.1m in winter. At the same time, the sea ice area also had seasonal variations, its maximum was in January and March, and minimum was in September.

  8. From Sea to Sea: Canada's Three Oceans of Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, Philippe; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Fisher, Jonathan A. D.; Gagnon, Jean-Marc; Garbary, David J.; Harvey, Michel; Kenchington, Ellen L.; Lesage, Véronique; Levesque, Mélanie; Lovejoy, Connie; Mackas, David L.; McKindsey, Christopher W.; Nelson, John R.; Pepin, Pierre; Piché, Laurence; Poulin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas) constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea), and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to serve as a

  9. From sea to sea: Canada's three oceans of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Philippe; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Fisher, Jonathan A D; Gagnon, Jean-Marc; Garbary, David J; Harvey, Michel; Kenchington, Ellen L; Lesage, Véronique; Levesque, Mélanie; Lovejoy, Connie; Mackas, David L; McKindsey, Christopher W; Nelson, John R; Pepin, Pierre; Piché, Laurence; Poulin, Michel

    2010-08-31

    Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas) constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea), and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to serve as a

  10. The potential role of sea spray droplets in facilitating air-sea gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, E. L.; Vlahos, P.; Monahan, E. C.

    2016-05-01

    For over 30 years, air-sea interaction specialists have been evaluating and parameterizing the role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea gas exchange. To our knowledge, no one, however, has studied the mirror image process of whether sea spray droplets can facilitate air-sea gas exchange. We are therefore using theory, data analysis, and numerical modeling to quantify the role of spray on air-sea gas transfer. In this, our first formal work on this subject, we seek the rate-limiting step in spray-mediated gas transfer by evaluating the three time scales that govern the exchange: τ air , which quantifies the rate of transfer between the atmospheric gas reservoir and the surface of the droplet; τ int , which quantifies the exchange rate across the air-droplet interface; and τ aq , which quantifies gas mixing within the aqueous solution droplet.

  11. The anatomy of recent large sea level fluctuations in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landerer, Felix W.; Volkov, Denis L.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract During the boreal winter months of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, Mediterranean mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rose 10 cm above the average monthly climatological values. The non-seasonal anomalies were observed in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height (from altimetry), as well as ocean mass (from gravimetry), indicating they were mostly of barotropic nature. These relatively rapid basin-wide fluctuations occurred over time scales of 1-5 months. Here we use observations and re-analysis data to attribute the non-seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and ocean mass fluctuations in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to concurrent wind stress anomalies over the adjacent subtropical Northeast Atlantic Ocean, just west of the Strait of Gibraltar, and extending into the strait itself. The observed Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fluctuations are strongly anti-correlated with the monthly North-Atlantic-Oscillation (NAO) index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5271T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5271T"><span>Decadal trends in air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 exchange in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (Antarctica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tagliabue, Alessandro; Arrigo, Kevin R.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Highly productive Antarctic shelf systems, like the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, play important roles in regional carbon budgets, but the drivers of local variations are poorly quantified. We assess the variability in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> carbon cycle using a regional physical-biogeochemical model. Regionally, total partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increases are largely controlled by the biological pump and broadly similar to those in the offshore Southern Ocean. However, this masks substantial local variability within the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where interannual fluctuations in total pCO2 are driven by the biological pump and alkalinity, whereas those for anthropogenic pCO2 are related to physical processes. Overall, the high degree of spatial variability in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> carbon cycle causes extremes in aragonite saturation that can be as large as long-term trends. Therefore, Antarctic shelf polynya systems like the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> will be strongly affected by local processes in addition to larger-scale phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882098"><span>Contrasting population histories of the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> demersal fish, Lycodes matsubarai, in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan and the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakuma, Kay; Ueda, Yuji; Hamatsu, Tomonori; Kojima, Shigeaki</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Recent studies have revealed the impact of the drastic climate change during the last glacial period on coastal marine and anadromous species in the marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> of the northwestern Pacific Ocean; however, its influence on deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> species remains poorly understood. To compare the effects of the last glacial period on populations from the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan and the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk, we examined the mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lycodes matsubarai, a deepsea demersal fish that inhabits these two <span class="hlt">seas</span>. Our results showed clear genetic differentiation of populations between the two <span class="hlt">seas</span>. The populations may have diverged during the last glacial period, probably as a result of vicariance due to the drastic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change. The population in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk was larger than that in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan, but suddenly decreased after the last glacial period. However, the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan population expanded after the last glacial period, coincident with high levels of oxygenation in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> areas. These results elucidate regional-scale impacts of climate change on deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.2659H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.2659H"><span>Recent changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area flux through the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during the summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howell, Stephen E. L.; Brady, Michael; Derksen, Chris; Kelly, Richard E. J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Over the annual cycle, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is sequestered from the Canadian Basin and transported through the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> toward the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. In recent years, the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has experienced considerable ice loss during the summer, which may be indicative of recent changes to this process. In order to investigate this, we quantify the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area flux using RADARSAT from 1997 to 2014 at three gates in Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: the Canadian Basin (entrance), mid-Beaufort (midpoint), and Chukchi (exit). There was a mean annual flux of 42 ± 56 × 103 km2 at the Canadian Basin gate, 94 ± 92 × 103 km2 at the mid-Beaufort gate and -83 ± 68 × 103 km2 at the Chukchi gate (positive and negative flux signs correspond to ice inflow and outflow, respectively). The majority of ice transport in Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was found to occur from October to May providing replenishment for ice lost during the summer months. The cross-strait gradient in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level pressure explains ˜40% of the variance in the ice area flux at the gates. Remarkably, the mean July-October net <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area flux at the Chukchi gate decreased by ˜80% from 2008 to 2014 relative to 1997-2007 and became virtually ice-free every year since 2008. This reduction was associated with younger (thinner) ice that was unable to survive the summer melt season when either being sequestered from the Canadian Basin and transported through Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during the melt season (2008-2011) or remaining immobile and present in the vicinity of the Chukchi gate during the melt season (2012-2014).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1133/pdf/ofr20131133.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1133/pdf/ofr20131133.pdf"><span>Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecosystem monitoring and assessment plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Case(compiler), H. L.; Boles, Jerry; Delgado, Arturo; Nguyen, Thang; Osugi, Doug; Barnum, Douglas A.; Decker, Drew; Steinberg, Steven; Steinberg, Sheila; Keene, Charles; White, Kristina; Lupo, Tom; Gen, Sheldon; Baerenklau, Ken A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, California’s largest lake, provides essential habitat for several fish and wildlife species and is an important cultural and recreational resource. It has no outlet, and dissolved salts contained in the inflows concentrate in the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> through evaporation. The salinity of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, which is currently nearly one and a half times the salinity of ocean water, has been increasing as a result of evaporative processes and low freshwater inputs. Further reductions in inflows from water conservation, recycling, and transfers will lower the level of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and accelerate the rate of salinity increases, reduce the suitability of fish and wildlife habitat, and affect air quality by exposing lakebed playa that could generate dust. Legislation enacted in 2003 to implement the Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) stated the Legislature’s intent for the State of California to undertake the restoration of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecosystem. As required by the legislation, the California Resources Agency (now California Natural Resources Agency) produced the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ecosystem Restoration Study and final Programmatic Environmental Impact Report (PEIR; California Resources Agency, 2007) with the stated purpose to “develop a preferred alternative by exploring alternative ways to restore important ecological functions of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> that have existed for about 100 years.” A decision regarding a preferred alternative currently resides with the California State Legislature (Legislature), which has yet to take action. As part of efforts to identify an ecosystem restoration program for the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and in anticipation of direction from the Legislature, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR), California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a team to develop a monitoring and assessment plan (MAP). This plan is the product of that effort. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1472689','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1472689"><span>Cyanobacteria toxins in the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carmichael, Wayne W; Li, RenHui</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Background The Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SS) is the largest inland body of water in California: surface area 980 km2, volume 7.3 million acre-feet, 58 km long, 14–22 km wide, maximum depth 15 m. Located in the southeastern Sonoran desert of California, it is 85 m below <span class="hlt">sea</span> level at its lowest point. It was formed between 1905 and 1907 from heavy river flows of the Colorado River. Since its formation, it has attracted both people and wildlife, including flocks of migratory birds that have made the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> a critical stopover on the Pacific flyway. Over the past 15 years wintering populations of eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) at the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, have experienced over 200,000 mortalities. The cause of these large die-offs remains unknown. The unique environmental conditions of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, including salinities from brackish freshwater at river inlets to hypersaline conditions, extreme daily summer temperatures (>38°C), and high nutrient loading from rivers and agricultural drainage favor eutrophic conditions that encourage algal blooms throughout the year. A significant component of these algal blooms are the prokaryotic group – the Cyanophyta or blue-green algae (also called Cyanobacteria). Since many Cyanobacteria produce toxins (the cyanotoxins) it became important to evaluate their presence and to determine if they are a contributing factor in eared-grebe mortalities at the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Results From November 1999 to April 2001, 247 water and sediment samples were received for phytoplankton identification and cyanotoxin analyses. Immunoassay (ELISA) screening of these samples found that eighty five percent of all water samples contained low but detectable levels of the potent cyclic peptide liver toxin called microcystins. Isolation and identification of cyanobacteria isolates showed that the picoplanktonic Synechococcus and the benthic filamentous Oscillatoria were dominant. Both organisms were found to produce microcystins dominated by microcystin-LR and YR. A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714173G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714173G"><span>Vertical Mixing in the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gertman, Isaac; Ozer, Tal; Katsenelson, Boris; Lensky, Nadav</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>For hundreds of years, the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was characterized by a stable haline stratification, supported by runoff. The penetration of the winter convection was limited to an upper mixed layer (UML) of about 30-50 m. Below the UML, a stable halocline prevented the mixing. As a result of the runoff reduction, the UML salinity increased and the gravitational stability diminished. During the winter of 1978-1979, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> water overturned, ending the long-term stable hydrological regime. Since 1979, the haline stratification structure reoccurred twice after extremely rainy winters, in 1980-82 and 1992-1995. In other years, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> was entirely mixed by winter thermal convection ( which occurs from November to March ) and had a seasonal pycnocline beneath the UML during summer. Profiles of temperature and quasi-salinity (density anomaly from 1000 kg/m3 for the chosen reference temperature of 32° C) during the last 19 years, show the formation of summer ``overturning halocline'' beneath the UML, and the thermocline that supports the stable stratification. Another warm and saline layer is formed also during the summer period near the bottom. This layer spreads from the southern part of the <span class="hlt">sea</span>, where end-brine is discharged to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> from the Israeli and Jordanian salt plants' evaporation ponds. The end-brine has extremely high salinity (˜ 350 g/kg) and, in spite of the high temperatures ( ˜ 45° C), high density (1350 kg/m^3), it therefore spreads as a gravitational current in the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> deep basin. Estimation of the density ratio (Rρ) for the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water (where measurements of water salinity is quite difficult) was done using quasi-salinity (σ32) and potential temperature (θ): Rρ= [α(partialθ/partial z)]/[β(partial σ32/partial z)], where α and β are temperature expansion and quasi-salinity contraction coefficients respectively. The values of α and β for the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water were defined from water samples collected during 2008. The Rρ values confirm that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RSPTA.37550352W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RSPTA.37550352W"><span>Linking scales in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss, Jérôme; Dansereau, Véronique</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Mechanics plays a key role in the evolution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover through its control on drift, on momentum and thermal energy exchanges between the polar oceans and the atmosphere along cracks and faults, and on ice thickness distribution through opening and ridging processes. At the local scale, a significant variability of the mechanical strength is associated with the microstructural heterogeneity of saline ice, however characterized by a small correlation length, below the ice thickness scale. Conversely, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mechanical fields (velocity, strain and stress) are characterized by long-ranged (more than 1000 km) and long-lasting (approx. few months) correlations. The associated space and time scaling laws are the signature of the brittle character of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mechanics, with deformation resulting from a multi-scale accumulation of episodic fracturing and faulting events. To translate the short-range-correlated disorder on strength into long-range-correlated mechanical fields, several key ingredients are identified: long-ranged elastic interactions, slow driving conditions, a slow viscous-like relaxation of elastic stresses and a restoring/healing mechanism. These ingredients constrained the development of a new continuum mechanics modelling framework for the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover, called Maxwell-elasto-brittle. Idealized simulations without advection demonstrate that this rheological framework reproduces the main characteristics of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mechanics, including anisotropy, spatial localization and intermittency, as well as the associated scaling laws. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025300"><span>Linking scales in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mechanics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weiss, Jérôme; Dansereau, Véronique</p> <p>2017-02-13</p> <p>Mechanics plays a key role in the evolution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover through its control on drift, on momentum and thermal energy exchanges between the polar oceans and the atmosphere along cracks and faults, and on ice thickness distribution through opening and ridging processes. At the local scale, a significant variability of the mechanical strength is associated with the microstructural heterogeneity of saline ice, however characterized by a small correlation length, below the ice thickness scale. Conversely, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mechanical fields (velocity, strain and stress) are characterized by long-ranged (more than 1000 km) and long-lasting (approx. few months) correlations. The associated space and time scaling laws are the signature of the brittle character of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mechanics, with deformation resulting from a multi-scale accumulation of episodic fracturing and faulting events. To translate the short-range-correlated disorder on strength into long-range-correlated mechanical fields, several key ingredients are identified: long-ranged elastic interactions, slow driving conditions, a slow viscous-like relaxation of elastic stresses and a restoring/healing mechanism. These ingredients constrained the development of a new continuum mechanics modelling framework for the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover, called Maxwell-elasto-brittle. Idealized simulations without advection demonstrate that this rheological framework reproduces the main characteristics of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mechanics, including anisotropy, spatial localization and intermittency, as well as the associated scaling laws.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2174526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2174526"><span>Climate Influence on Deep <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Company, Joan B.; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Palanques, Albert; Latasa, Mikel; Scharek, Renate</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Dynamics of biological processes on the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> floor are traditionally thought to be controlled by vertical sinking of particles from the euphotic zone at a seasonal scale. However, little is known about the influence of lateral particle transport from continental margins to deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ecosystems. To address this question, we report here how the formation of dense shelf waters and their subsequent downslope cascade, a climate induced phenomenon, affects the population of the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> shrimp Aristeus antennatus. We found evidence that strong currents associated with intense cascading events correlates with the disappearance of this species from its fishing grounds, producing a temporary fishery collapse. Despite this initial negative effect, landings increase between 3 and 5 years after these major events, preceded by an increase of juveniles. The transport of particulate organic matter associated with cascading appears to enhance the recruitment of this deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> living resource, apparently mitigating the general trend of overexploitation. Because cascade of dense water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon, we anticipate that its influence on deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ecosystems and fisheries worldwide should be larger than previously thought. PMID:18197243</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4877L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4877L"><span>Tidal dynamics in the Southeast Asia <span class="hlt">seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luu, Quang-Hung; Xu, Haihua; Praveen, Veluthedathekuzhiyil; Tkalich, Pavel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Southeast Asia <span class="hlt">seas</span> (<span class="hlt">SEAS</span>) are the most complicated water body that connects two of the largest oceans of the Earth, the Pacific and the Indian. Surface elevation and volume transport of the <span class="hlt">SEAS</span> are predominantly governed by ocean fluxes and tidal forces. A numerical model of tides in the <span class="hlt">SEAS</span> has been developed using the Semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian Finite-Element (SELFE) model. Bathymetry is derived from Jeppesen's C-MAP product and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans One Minute Grid (GEBCO1). An unstructured triangular mesh has been generated to better resolve the irregular coastlines. Tide potential is considered over the entire domain as well as at the open boundaries, and is corrected to account for volume transport. The surface elevation and current agree well with tide records and ADCP measurement, as well as are consistent with results from tidal prediction softwares (TotalTide, MIKE21 and FES2012). The model estimates of seasonal fluxes in the <span class="hlt">SEAS</span> are similar to previous studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22222829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22222829"><span>Fungal life in the dead <span class="hlt">sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The waters of the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930005811&hterms=nederlands&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnederlands','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930005811&hterms=nederlands&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnederlands"><span>Precise orbit computation and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wakker, Karel F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Rummel, R.; Vermaat, E.; Deruijter, W. P. M.; Vandermade, J. W.; Zimmerman, J. T. F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The research project described below is part of a long-term program at Delft University of Technology aiming at the application of European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1) and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements for geophysical purposes. This program started in 1980 with the processing of Seasat laser range and altimeter height measurements and concentrates today on the analysis of Geosat altimeter data. The objectives of the TOPEX/POSEIDON research project are the tracking of the satellite by the Dutch mobile laser tracking system MTLRS-2, the computation of precise TOPEX/POSEIDON orbits, the analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the orbit errors, the improvement of ERS-1 orbits through the information obtained from the altimeter crossover difference residuals for crossing ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON tracks, the combination of ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data into a single high-precision data set, and the application of this data set to model the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface. The latter application will focus on the determination of detailed regional mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> surfaces, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface variability, ocean topography, and ocean currents in the North Atlantic, the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, the <span class="hlt">seas</span> around Indonesia, the West Pacific, and the oceans around South Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2180J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2180J"><span>Upper Limit for Regional <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C14B..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C14B..02H"><span>The Seasonality of Antarctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holland, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Unlike the strong decline in Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is experiencing a weak overall increase in area that is the residual of opposing regional trends. This study considers the seasonal pattern of these trends. In addition to traditional ice concentration and ice area, temporal rates of change of these quantities are investigated ("intensification" and "expansion," respectively). This is crucial to the attribution of the Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice trends, since changes in wind or thermal forcing directly affect ice areal change, rather than ice area itself. The study shows that diverse regional trends all contribute significantly to the overall Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice increase. In contrast to the widely-held view of a 'south Pacific dipole', trends in the Weddell and Amundsen-Bellingshausen regions are found to best compensate in magnitude and seasonality. Perhaps most importantly, the largest concentration trends, in autumn, are actually caused by intensification trends during spring. Autumn intensification trends directly oppose autumn concentration trends in most places, seemingly as a result of ice and ocean feedbacks. Further study of changes during the spring melting season is therefore required to unravel the Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536720"><span>Dune vegetation fertilization by nesting <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hannan, Laura B; Roth, James D; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Weishampel, John F</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and delta15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (<span class="hlt">sea</span> oats [Uniola paniculata]), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) across a nesting gradient (200-1050 nests/km) along a 40.5-km stretch of beach in east central Florida, USA. The delta15N levels were higher in loggerhead than green turtle eggs, denoting the higher trophic level of loggerhead turtles. Soil N concentration and delta15N values were both positively correlated to turtle nest density. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> oat leaf tissue delta15N was also positively correlated to nest density, indicating an increased use of augmented marine-based nutrient sources. Foliar N concentration was correlated with delta15N, suggesting that increased nutrient availability from this biogenic vector may enhance the vigor of dune vegetation, promoting dune stabilization and preserving <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle nesting habitat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18197243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18197243"><span>Climate influence on deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Company, Joan B; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Palanques, Albert; Latasa, Mikel; Scharek, Renate</p> <p>2008-01-16</p> <p>Dynamics of biological processes on the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> floor are traditionally thought to be controlled by vertical sinking of particles from the euphotic zone at a seasonal scale. However, little is known about the influence of lateral particle transport from continental margins to deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ecosystems. To address this question, we report here how the formation of dense shelf waters and their subsequent downslope cascade, a climate induced phenomenon, affects the population of the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> shrimp Aristeus antennatus. We found evidence that strong currents associated with intense cascading events correlates with the disappearance of this species from its fishing grounds, producing a temporary fishery collapse. Despite this initial negative effect, landings increase between 3 and 5 years after these major events, preceded by an increase of juveniles. The transport of particulate organic matter associated with cascading appears to enhance the recruitment of this deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> living resource, apparently mitigating the general trend of overexploitation. Because cascade of dense water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon, we anticipate that its influence on deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ecosystems and fisheries worldwide should be larger than previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5860299','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5860299"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> otter oil spill avoidance study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davis, R.W.; Williams, T.M.; Awbrey, F.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>To determine whether acoustic, visual, or olfactory stimuli could be used to move <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters out of an area in the event of an oil spill, the authors recorded the responses of <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters to a variety of stimuli during captive studies in Alaska. These findings are similar to those of previous attempts to control the movements of <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters and other marine mammals and birds. An alternative to herding is to capture otters in the vicinity of the spill and temporarily hold them in captivity. This approach is only practical if the number of otters in jeopardy is small (less than 60) and there is enough time to capture them. Based on the results of the study and previous attempts by the California Department of Fish and Game to herd <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters, the authors do not think acoustic, visual, and olfactory stimuli are effective deterrents. In the absence of effective methods to keep <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters out of an oil spill, the emphasis must remain on spill prevention, containment, and cleanup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A14B..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A14B..08L"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Fog Forecasting with Lagrangian Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In 1913, G. I. Taylor introduced us to a Lagrangian view of <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog formation. He conducted his study off the coast of Newfoundland in the aftermath of the Titanic disaster. We briefly review Taylor's classic work and then apply these same principles to a case of <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog formation and dissipation off the coast of California. The resources used in this study consist of: 1) land-based surface and upper-air observations, 2) NDBC (National Data Buoy Center) observations from moored buoys equipped to measure dew point temperature as well as the standard surface observations at <span class="hlt">sea</span> (wind, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, pressure, and air temperature), 3) satellite observations of cloud, and 4) a one-dimensional (vertically directed) boundary layer model that tracks with the surface air motion and makes use of sophisticated turbulence-radiation parameterizations. Results of the investigation indicate that delicate interplay and interaction between the radiation and turbulence processes makes accurate forecasts of <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog onset unlikely in the near future. This pessimistic attitude stems from inadequacy of the existing network of observations and uncertainties in modeling dynamical processes within the boundary layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5840034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5840034"><span>Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kimura, K.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>The Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001255','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001255"><span>The <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Horn Verification Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Horn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Horn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Horn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Horn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Horn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5505730','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5505730"><span>Field development projects advance in Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vielvoye, R.</p> <p>1992-03-30</p> <p>This paper reports on the Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, lying between the Norwegian North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the western flank of the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, which is set to become Norway's second oil and gas producing province. Oil is scheduled to start to flow near the end of next year when AS Norske Shell places on production 428 million bbl Draugen field in Block 6407/9, about 60 miles off the coast of mid-Norway in the frontier <span class="hlt">sea</span> area known as Haltenbanken. Two years later, in 1995, Norske Conoco AS will add to the 95,000 b/d from Draugen when it commissions the world's first concrete hull tension leg platform (TLP) in Heidrun field. The TLP is expected to produce 200,000 b/d of oil and move associated gas by pipeline to the Norwegian mainland to feed a worldscale methanol plant planned for construction at Tjeldbergodden. The Norwegian government also has been asked to approve a gas pipeline link between Haltenbanken and the gas export infrastructure in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21414416','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21414416"><span>Phylogenetic relationships within laticaudine <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes (Elapidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lane, Amanda; Shine, Richard</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">sea</span> snake subfamily Laticaudinae consists of a single genus with eight named species, based on morphological characters. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data to clarify the adaptive radiation of these oviparous <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes in the South Pacific, with special reference to New Caledonia and Vanuatu. A mitochondrial DNA data set (ND4 gene 793 bp) was obtained from 345 individuals of the five species of Laticauda sp. <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes endemic to the region. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches yielded the same optimal tree topology, identifying two major clades (yellow-banded and blue-banded <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes). Although all laticaudine <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes rely on small islands as oviposition sites, the two lineages differ in their use of marine vs. terrestrial habitats. A highly aquatic species (Laticauda laticaudata) shows a strong pattern of genetic isolation by distance, implying that the patchy distribution of terrestrial habitats has had little impact on gene flow. The more terrestrial clade (Laticauda colubrina, Laticauda frontalis, Laticauda guineai, Laticauda saintgironsi) shows stronger geographic differentiation in allelic frequencies, associated with island groups rather than with geographic distance. Microsatellites and mtDNA suggest that L. frontalis (restricted to Vanuatu) represents a recent founder-induced speciation event, from allopatric migrants of the New Caledonian taxon L. saintgironsi. A major divergence in speciation patterns between the two major clades of laticaudine snakes thus correlates with (and perhaps, is driven by) differences in the importance of terrestrial habitats in the species' ecology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Tectp.181..207H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Tectp.181..207H"><span>Terrane amalgamation in the Philippine <span class="hlt">Sea</span> margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Robert; Nichols, Gary J.</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>The Philippine <span class="hlt">Sea</span> plate includes plateaus of thickened crust interpreted as imbricated ophiolite and arc-related terranes of late Mesozoic-early Tertiary age separated by thinner oceanic crust. The arrival of plateaus at the subducting southwest margin of the Philippine <span class="hlt">Sea</span> plate has caused the Philippine Trench to propagate southward in increments and caused transfer of terranes to the Philippine margin. New data from the Halmahera region indicate that the position, nature and evolution of plate boundaries have been strongly influenced by the heterogeneous character of the Philippine <span class="hlt">Sea</span> plate. At present the Philippine Trench terminates at an oceanic plateau which is structurally continuous with an old forearc and ophiolite terrane on Halmahera. The position of this terrane has caused Philippine <span class="hlt">Sea</span> plate-Eurasia convergence to be transferred from subduction at the Philippine Trench to the Molucca <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Collision Zone through a broad NE-SW dextral transpressional zone across Halmahera. This plate boundary configuration is unstable and requires the future development of a new subduction zone to the east of Halmahera which will result in amalgamation of the Halmahera ophiolite terrane to the Philippine margin. In the Halmahera region amalgamation of terranes to the evolving Philippine microcontinent is currently in process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820009687','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820009687"><span>An optical model for the microwave properties of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gloersen, P.; Larabee, J. K.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The complex refractive index of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is modeled and used to predict the microwave signatures of various <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice types. Results are shown to correspond well with the observed values of the complex index inferred from dielectic constant and dielectric loss measurements performed in the field, and with observed microwave signatures of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. The success of this modeling procedure vis a vis modeling of the dielectric properties of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice constituents used earlier by several others is explained. Multiple layer radiative transfer calculations are used to predict the microwave properties of first-year <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice with and without snow, and multiyear <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10499&hterms=Turquoise&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTurquoise','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10499&hterms=Turquoise&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTurquoise"><span>Blooming <span class="hlt">Seas</span> West of Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the <span class="hlt">sea</span>'s spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10539&hterms=sea+ice&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsea%2Bice','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10539&hterms=sea+ice&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsea%2Bice"><span>Record Arctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Loss in 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This image of the Arctic was produced from <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice observations collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, overlaid on the NASA Blue Marble. The image captures ice conditions at the end of the melt season. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice (white, image center) stretches across the Arctic Ocean from Greenland to Russia, but large areas of open water were apparent as well. In addition to record melt, the summer of 2007 brought an ice-free opening though the Northwest Passage that lasted several weeks. The Northeast Passage did not open during the summer of 2007, however, as a substantial tongue of ice remained in place north of the Russian coast. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), on September 16, 2007, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent dropped to 4.13 million square kilometers (1.59 million square miles)--38 percent below average and 24 percent below the 2005 record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1003347','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1003347"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Howell, John H.; Lech, John J.; Allen, John L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Larvicides are used to control <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. These larvicides are useful because they are more toxic to <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey than fish species found in the same habitat. The lampricides come from two classes of chemical compounds: (1) halonitrophenols, and (2) halonitrosalicylanilides. Selectivity of the larvicides appears to be based on the differences in the ability of <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey larvae and fishes to detoxify and/or excrete the chemicals. Glucuronide conjugation is an important mechanism for detoxification of these larvicides by fish, and selectivity of larvicides may be due to differences in glucuronyl transferase activity between lamprey and fishes. If more detailed information were available on uptake, metabolism, excretion, and the biochemistry and physiology of lamprey as compared to fishes, it might be possible to design chemicals that would be more selective than those now in use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EOSTr..89R.489S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EOSTr..89R.489S"><span>In Brief: Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The first deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20365863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20365863"><span>Instability growth rates of crossing <span class="hlt">sea</span> states.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laine-Pearson, F E</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Crossing <span class="hlt">sea</span> states can occur during adverse weather conditions. The instability of such wave trains has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of rogue (freak or extreme) waves. One model for crossing <span class="hlt">sea</span> states is weakly nonlinear and finite-amplitude short-crested waves (SCWs) on deep water. SCWs are the resonant interaction of two wave systems each with a different direction of propagation. Recently, it has been shown that the stability of these wave interactions is closely associated with the stability of the oblique nonresonant interaction between two waves. The long-wave instability of such waves is considered here; SCWs are used as a benchmark. By using a mismatch of amplitudes, it is demonstrated that instability growth rates of two crossing waves can be larger than those given by SCWs. 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