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Sample records for marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor

  1. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto . E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.

  2. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naozumi; Jin, Hong; Liu, Tianju; Chensue, Stephen W; Phan, Sem H

    2004-01-01

    The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP(+) cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP(+) cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP(+) cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP(+) cells that also express type I collagen. GFP(+) lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not alpha-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP(+) fibroblasts with TGF-beta failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells.

  3. Characteristics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Guoping; Jin Huiming . E-mail: hmjin@shmu.edu.cn; Hu Renming

    2006-09-29

    Evidence for dysfunction of endothelial repair in aged mice was sought by studying the pattern of induced differentiation, quantity, and function of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in aged mice. The CD117-positive stem cell population was separated from bone marrow by magnetic activated cell-sorting system (MACS), and EPCs were defined by demonstrating the expression of CD117{sup +}CD34{sup +}Flk-1{sup +} by flow cytometry. After 7 days of culture, the number of clones formed was counted, and proliferation and migration of EPCs were analyzed by MTT[3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay and modified Boyden chamber assay. The results demonstrated that compared to the control group, the quantity of bone marrow-derived CD117{sup +} stem cells and EPCs, as well as the proliferation, migration, the number of clones formed, and phagocytotic function of EPCs were significantly reduced in aged mice. There were no significant differences in the morphology and induced differentiation pattern of EPCs between the aged mouse group and the control group. Authors suggest that the dysfunction of EPCs may serve as a surrogate parameter of vascular function in old mice.

  4. PPARα Is Essential for Microparticle-Induced Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Benameur, Tarek; Tual-Chalot, Simon; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martínez, María Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for neovascularization. We hypothesized that microparticles (MPs), small fragments generated from the plasma membrane, can activate angiogenic programming of EPCs. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the effects of MPs obtained from wild type (MPsPPARα+/+) and knock-out (MPsPPARα−/−) mice on EPC differentiation and angiogenesis. Bone marrow-derived cells were isolated from WT or KO mice and were cultured in the presence of MPsPPARα+/+ or MPsPPARα−/− obtained from blood of mice. Only MPsPPARα+/+ harboring PPARα significantly increased EPC, but not monocytic, differentiation. Bone marrow-derived cells treated with MPsPPARα+/+ displayed increased expression of pro-angiogenic genes and increased in vivo angiogenesis. MPsPPARα+/+ increased capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells that was associated with enhanced expressions of endothelial cell-specific markers. Finally, the effects of MPsPPARα+/+ were mediated by NF-κB-dependent mechanisms. Conclusions/Significance Our results underscore the obligatory role of PPARα carried by MPs for EPC differentiation and angiogenesis. PPARα-NF-κB-Akt pathways may play a pivotal stimulatory role for neovascularization, which may, at least in part, be mediated by bone marrow-derived EPCs. Improvement of EPC differentiation may represent a useful strategy during reparative neovascularization. PMID:20811625

  5. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) may serve as the marker for osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xu; He, Jiaxue; Shi, Yingai; Pi, Chenchen; Yang, Yue; Sun, Yanan; Ma, Cao; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Yulin; Li, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Decreased bone volume and strength with aging and enhanced risk of fractures are in part due to reduced number of bone-forming mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cellular dysfunction. In a previous study, we found that osteogenic differentiation of the multipotent and omnipotent preosteoblasts are accompanied by the alterations of intracellular NAD metabolism in which nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) plays a regulatory role. The increased Nampt during osteoblast differentiation, the enzyme catalyzing NAD resynthesis from nicotinamide was noted. However, whether Nampt will also be able to affect osteogenic differentiation of primary bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), it is still uncertain. Here we report the role of Nampt in regulating osteoblast differentiation in primary mouse BM-MSCs. We found that Nampt expression was progressively elevated during BM-MSCs osteogenic differentiation. The Nampt inhibitor FK866 or knock-down of Nampt in BM-MSCs led to declined osteoblastogenesis, including attenuated ALP activity, diminished matrix mineralization and down-regulated osteoblast specific marker genes. In addition, declined osteoblastogenesis by Nampt deficiency or addition of FK866 was related to lower intracellular NAD concentration and decreased Sirt1 activity. The present findings demonstrate that osteogenic differentiation in MSCs can be modulated by intracellular NAD metabolism, in which Nampt may serve as an applicable marker for the osteoblast determination.

  6. Glycosaminoglycans enhance osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Smitha; Mathew, Suja Ann; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh; Totey, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Extracellular matrix plays an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The biomimetic approach of cell-based tissue engineering is based on mirroring this in vivo micro environment for developing a functional tissue engineered construct. In this study, we treated normal tissue culture plates with selected extracellular matrix components consisting of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-4-sulphate, dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, heparin and hyaluronic acid. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adult human bone marrow were cultured on the glycosaminoglycan treated culture plates to evaluate their regulatory role in cell growth and osteoblast differentiation. Although no significant improvement on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation was observed on the glycosaminoglycan-treated tissue culture plates, there was selective osteoblast differentiation, indicating its potential role in differentiation rather than proliferation. Osteoblast differentiation studies showed high osteogenic potential for all tested glycosaminoglycans except chondroitin-4-sulphate. Osteoblast differentiation-associated genes such as osterix, osteocalcin, integrin binding sialoprotein, osteonectin and collagen, type 1, alpha 1 showed significant upregulation. We identified osterix as the key transcription factor responsible for the enhanced bone matrix deposition observed on hyaluronic acid, heparin and chondroitin-6-sulphate. Hyaluronic acid provided the most favourable condition for osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix synthesis. Our results confirm and emphasise the significant role of extracellular matrix in regulating cell differentiation. To summarise, glycosaminoglycans of extracellular matrix played a significant role in regulating osteoblast differentiation and could be exploited in the biomimetic approach of fabricating or functionalizing scaffolds for stem cell based bone tissue engineering.

  7. Effects of biodegradable polymer particles on rat marrow-derived stromal osteoblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wake, M C; Gerecht, P D; Lu, L; Mikos, A G

    1998-07-01

    Effects of biodegradable particles of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50 with diameter ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 microm on rat marrow stromal osteoblasts in vitro have been investigated over a period of 28 days. This study examined the effects of three particle parameters, concentration, polymer molecular weight, and composition, on osteoblast proliferation and function. Cell cultures were challenged with particles at two different time points: upon cell seeding (Day 1), and after cells had begun to establish their own mineralized extracellular matrix (Day 14). The most significant trend observed in those cultures challenged with particles beginning on Day 1 was due to increasing the concentration of particles, resulting in decreased [3H]-thymidine incorporation, cell count, and mineralization. Those cultures challenged with particles beginning on Day 14 were significantly more mineralized than those challenged with particles beginning on Day 1. In addition, increasing osteocalcin secretion confirmed the osteoblastic phenotype of the derived stromal cells. These studies suggest that the particles may affect the bone remodeling process surrounding a degrading implant by direct interaction with osteoblasts in addition to their indirect contributions to the inflammatory mechanism via mediators secreted by macrophages upon their phagocytosis.

  8. Extracellular matrix protein mediated regulation of the osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Smitha; Bhonde, Ramesh; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Totey, Satish

    2012-09-01

    The biomimetic approach of tissue engineering exploits the favorable properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), to achieve better scaffold performance and tissue regeneration. ECM proteins regulate cell adhesion and differentiation through integrin mediated signal transduction. In the present study, we have examined the role of ECM proteins such as collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin and vitronectin in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were grown on selected ECM protein treated tissue culture plates. The growth kinetics was assessed by calculating the doubling time of the cells on different ECM treated plates. The cells were directed to osteoblast lineage by growing them in osteogenic induction media for 21 day. Differentiation was evaluated at different time points by osteoblast differentiation associated gene expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, histochemical staining for mineralized matrix and calcium quantification. The doubling time of hMSCs cultured on collagen type I was significantly low, which was followed by laminin and fibronectin treated plates. However, doubling time of hMSCs cultured on vitronectin treated plate was not significantly different than that of the untreated control. High ALP gene (ALPL) expression and associated enhancement of mineralization were observed on collagen type I, fibronectin and vitronectin treated plates. Collagen type I showed early onset of mineralization with high ALP activity and up-regulation of osteopontin, ALPL, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin genes. Vitronectin also up-regulated these genes and showed the highest amount of calcium in the secreted mineral matrix. Therefore, we conclude that, ECM proteins indeed modified the growth patterns and induced the osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs. Our findings have significant implication for bone tissue engineering applications.

  9. Micro-/Nano- sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Zhou, Gang; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-03-01

    Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials provides a new way for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. Nano-biomaterials are highlighted due to their advantageous features compared with conventional micro-materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite (μ/n-HA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). μ/n-HA were prepared by a microwave synthesizer and precipitation method, respectively. Different sizes of μ/n-HA were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and co-cultured with rBMSCs. It was shown that rBMSCs expressed higher levels of osteoblast-related markers by n-HA than μ-HA stimulation. The size of HA is an important factor for affecting the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. This provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated cells.

  10. Particle Radiation-Induced Nontargeted Effects in Bone-Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Sharath P.; Park, Daniel; Muralidharan, Sujatha; Wage, Justin; Kiladjian, Albert; Onufrak, Jillian; Enderling, Heiko; Yan, Xinhua; Goukassian, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone-marrow- (BM-) derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for endothelial cell maintenance and repair. During future space exploration missions astronauts will be exposed to space irradiation (IR) composed of a spectrum of low-fluence protons (1H) and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei (e.g., iron-56Fe) for extended time. How the space-type IR affects BM-EPCs is limited. In media transfer experiments in vitro we studied nontargeted effects induced by 1H- and 56Fe-IR conditioned medium (CM), which showed significant increase in the number of p-H2AX foci in nonirradiated EPCs between 2 and 24 h. A 2–15-fold increase in the levels of various cytokines and chemokines was observed in both types of IR-CM at 24 h. Ex vivo analysis of BM-EPCs from single, low-dose, full-body 1H- and 56Fe-IR mice demonstrated a cyclical (early 5–24 h and delayed 28 days) increase in apoptosis. This early increase in BM-EPC apoptosis may be the effect of direct IR exposure, whereas late increase in apoptosis could be a result of nontargeted effects (NTE) in the cells that were not traversed by IR directly. Identifying the role of specific cytokines responsible for IR-induced NTE and inhibiting such NTE may prevent long-term and cyclical loss of stem and progenitors cells in the BM milieu. PMID:26074973

  11. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells protect postischemic axons after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Katya J; Park, Eugene; Liu, Elaine; Baker, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    White matter sparing after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important predictor of survival and outcome. Blood vessels and axons are intimately associated anatomically and developmentally. Neural input is required for appropriate vascular patterning, and vascular signaling is important for neuron development and axon growth. Owing to this codependence between endothelial cells and axons during development and the contribution of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in ischemic injury, we hypothesized that EPCs are important in axonal survival after TBI. We examined the effects of allogenic-cultured EPCs on white matter protection and microvascular maintenance after midline fluid percussion injury in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. We used two in vitro models of injury, mechanical stretch and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), to examine the effects of EPCs on the mechanical and ischemic components of brain trauma, respectively. Our results indicate that EPCs improve the white matter integrity and decrease capillary breakdown after injury. Cultured cortical neurons exposed to OGD had less axon degeneration when treated with EPC-conditioned media, whereas no effect was seen in axons injured by mechanical stretch. The results indicate that EPCs are important for the protection of the white matter after trauma and represent a potential avenue for therapy.

  12. Bone Marrow Derived Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Infiltrate Allogeneic and Syngeneic Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Z.; Enjoji, K.; Tigges, J. C.; Toxavidis, V.; Tchipashivili, V.; Gong, W.; Strom, T. B.; Koulmanda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Lineage (CD3e, CD11b, GR1, B220 and Ly-76) negative hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) infiltrate islet allografts within 24 h posttransplantation. In fact, lineagenegative Sca-1+cKit+ (“LSK”) cells, a classic signature for HSCs, were also detected among these graft infiltrating cells. Lineage negative graft infiltrating cells are functionally multi-potential as determined by a standard competitive bone marrow transplant (BMT) assay. By 3 months post-BMT, both CD45.1 congenic, lineage negative HSCs/HPCs and classic “LSK” HSCs purified from islet allograft infiltrating cells, differentiate and repopulate multiple mature blood cell phenotypes in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and thymus of CD45.2 hosts. Interestingly, “LSK” HSCs also rapidly infiltrate syngeneic islet transplants as well as allogeneic cardiac transplants and sham surgery sites. It seems likely that an inflammatory response, not an adaptive immune response to allo-antigen, is responsible for the rapid infiltration of islet and cardiac transplants by biologically active HSCs/HPCs. The pattern of hematopoietic differentiation obtained from graft infiltrating HSCs/HPCs, cells that are recovered from inflammatory sites, as noted in the competitive BMT assay, is not precisely the same as that of intra-medullary HSCs. This does not refute the obvious multi-lineage potential of graft infiltrating HSCs/HPCs. PMID:25387427

  13. Fracture induced mobilization and incorporation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells for bone healing.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Shoji, Taro; Iwasaki, Hiroto; Suzuki, Takahiro; Oyamada, Akira; Horii, Miki; Yokoyama, Ayumi; Nishimura, Hiromi; Lee, Sang Yang; Miwa, Masahiko; Doita, Minoru; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Asahara, Takayuki

    2008-04-01

    We recently reported that systemic administration of peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells, an endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-enriched population, contributed to fracture healing via vasculogenesis/angiogenesis. However, pathophysiological role of EPCs in fracture healing process has not been fully clarified. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis whether mobilization and incorporation of bone marrow (BM)-derived EPCs may play a pivotal role in appropriate fracture healing. Serial examinations of Laser doppler perfusion imaging and histological capillary density revealed that neovascularization activity at the fracture site peaked at day 7 post-fracture, the early phase of endochondral ossifification. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the frequency of BM cKit+Sca1+Lineage- (Lin-) cells and PB Sca1+Lin- cells, which are EPC-enriched fractions, significantly increased post-fracture. The Sca1+ EPC-derived vasuculogenesis at the fracture site was confirmed by double immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Sca1. BM transplantation from transgenic donors expressing LacZ transcriptionally regulated by endothelial cell-specific Tie-2 promoter into wild type also provided direct evidence that EPCs contributing to enhanced neovascularization at the fracture site were specifically derived from BM. Animal model of systemic administration of PB Sca1+Lin- Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)+ cells further confirmed incorporation of the mobilized EPCs into the fracture site for fracture healing. These findings indicate that fracture may induce mobilization of EPCs from BM to PB and recruitment of the mobilized EPCs into fracture sites, thereby augment neovascularization during the process of bone healing. EPCs may play an essential role in fracture healing by promoting a favorable environment through neovascularization in damaged skeletal tissue.

  14. Diabetes impairs mobilization of mouse bone marrow-derived Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Barthelmes, D; Irhimeh, M R; Gillies, M C; Karimipour, M; Zhou, M; Zhu, L; Shen, W Y

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells circulating in the peripheral blood (PB) contribute to vascular repair. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a 'cocktail' consisting of erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tetrahydrobiopterin to mobilize hematopoietic lineage negative/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 positive (Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+)) cells from the bone marrow (BM) to PB in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were studied after 16weeks of hyperglycemia. Half the mice in each group (non-diabetic and diabetic) received daily intraperitoneal injections of the cocktail for 6 consecutive days while the other half received vehicle buffer. Mobilization of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells, which were expanded in MCP301 medium, was evaluated after isolating them from BM and PB and their phenotypic and morphological properties were studied. We found that 16weeks of diabetes affected neither the total number of BM mononucleated cells nor the number of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells in BM compared with non-diabetic controls. In non-diabetic mice, cocktail treatment resulted in a significant decrease in BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells, paralleled by a significant increase of these cells in PB. Such changes in the number of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells in BM and PB after the cocktail treatment were less marked in diabetic mice. In vitro studies of BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells from diabetic and non-diabetic mice did not reveal any differences in either phenotypes or colony forming potential. These findings indicate that diabetes impairs the mobilization of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells from BM to PB. Impaired mobilization of BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells soon after the onset of diabetes may contribute to complications such as diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Altered SDF-1-mediated differentiation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Elena; Avitabile, Daniele; Totta, Pierangela; Straino, Stefania; Spallotta, Francesco; Cencioni, Chiara; Torella, Anna Rita; Rizzi, Roberto; Porcelli, Daniele; Zacheo, Antonella; Vito, Luca Di; Pompilio, Giulio; Napolitano, Monica; Melillo, Guido; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Pesce, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    In diabetic patients and animal models of diabetes mellitus (DM), circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number is lower than in normoglycaemic conditions and EPC angiogenic properties are inhibited. Stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays a key role in bone marrow (BM) c-kit+ stem cell mobilization into peripheral blood (PB), recruitment from PB into ischemic tissues and differentiation into endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of DM in vivo and in vitro, on murine BM-derived c-kit+ cells and on their response to SDF-1. Acute hindlimb ischemia was induced in streptozotocin-treated DM and control mice; circulating c-kit+ cells exhibited a rapid increase followed by a return to control levels which was significantly faster in DM than in control mice. CXCR4 expression by BM c-kit+ cells as well as SDF-1 protein levels in the plasma and in the skeletal muscle, both before and after the induction of ischemia, were similar between normoglycaemic and DM mice. However, BM-derived c-kit+ cells from DM mice exhibited an impaired differentiation towards the endothelial phenotype in response to SDF-1; this effect was associated with diminished protein kinase phosphorylation. Interestingly, SDF-1 ability to induce differentiation of c-kit+ cells from DM mice was restored when cells were cultured under normoglycaemic conditions whereas c-kit+ cells from normoglycaemic mice failed to differentiate in response to SDF-1 when they were cultured in hyperglycaemic conditions. These results show that DM diminishes circulating c-kit+ cell number following hindlimb ischemia and inhibits SDF-1-mediated AKT phosphorylation and differentiation towards the endothelial phenotype of BM-derived c-kit+ cells. PMID:20196780

  16. Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Protect Against Scopolamine-Induced Alzheimer-Like Pathological Aberrations.

    PubMed

    Safar, Marwa M; Arab, Hany H; Rizk, Sherine M; El-Maraghy, Shohda A

    2016-04-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD have displayed decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) which repair and maintain the endothelial function. Transplantation of EPCs has emerged as a promising approach for the management of cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic stroke, however, its impact on AD has been poorly described. Thus, the current study aimed at investigating the effects of bone marrow-derived (BM) EPCs transplantation in repeated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, an experimental model that replicates biomarkers of AD. Intravenously transplanted BM-EPCs migrated into the brain of rats and improved the learning and memory deficits. Meanwhile, they mitigated the deposition of amyloid plaques and associated histopathological alterations. At the molecular levels, BM-EPCs blunted the increase of hippocampal amyloid beta protein (Aβ), amyloid precursor protein (APP) and reinstated the Aβ-degrading neprilysin together with downregulation of p-tau and its upstream glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). They also corrected the perturbations of neurotransmitter levels including restoration of acetylcholine and associated esterase along with dopamine, GABA, and the neuroexitatory glutamate. Furthermore, BM-EPCs induced behavioral recovery via boosting of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its upstream cAMP response element binding (CREB), suppression of the proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and upregulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10). BM-EPCs also augmented Nrf2 and seladin-1. Generally, these actions were analogous to those exerted by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) and the reference anti-Alzheimer donepezil. For the first time, these findings highlight the beneficial actions of BM-EPCs against the memory

  17. Adhesion and migration of marrow-derived osteoblasts on injectable in situ crosslinkable poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with a covalently linked RGDS peptide.

    PubMed

    Behravesh, Esfandiar; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Mikos, Antonios G

    2003-05-01

    Marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured on poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) (P(PF-co-EG)) based hydrogels modified in bulk with a covalently linked RGDS model peptide. A poly(ethylene glycol) spacer arm was utilized to covalently link the peptide to the hydrogel. Three P(PF-co-EG) block copolymers were synthesized with varying poly(ethylene glycol) block lengths relative to poly(ethylene glycol) spacer arm. A poly(ethylene glycol) block length of nominal molecular weight 2000 and spacer arm of nominal molecular weight 3400 were found to reduce nonspecific cell adhesion and show RGDS concentration dependent marrow-derived osteoblast adhesion. A concentration of 100 nmol/mL RGDS was sufficient to promote adhesion of 84 +/- 17% of the initial seeded marrow-derived osteoblasts compared with 9 +/- 1% for the unmodified hydrogel after 12 h. Cell spreading was quantified as a method for evaluating adhesivity of cells to the hydrogel. A megacolony migration assay was utilized to assess the migration characteristics of the marrow-derived osteoblasts on RGDS modified hydrogels. Marrow-stromal osteoblasts migration was greater on hydrogels modified with 100 nmol/mL linked RGDS when compared with hydrogels modified with 1000 nmol/mL linked RGDS, while proliferation was not affected. These P(PF-co-EG) hydrogels modified in the bulk with RGDS peptide are potential candidates as in situ forming scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

  18. Gelatin Directly Enhances Neurogenic Differentiation Potential in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Without Stimulation of Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Han, Na Rae; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Yun, Jung Im; Kim, Choonghyo; Park, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Seung Tae

    2016-09-01

    Gelatin has been reported to induce generation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with enhanced potential of differentiation into neuronal lineage cells. However, the presence of various cell types besides MSCs in bone marrow has raised doubts about the effects of gelatin. In the following report, we determined whether gelatin can directly enhance neurogenic differentiation potential in MSCs without proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). MSCs comprised a high proportion of bone marrow-derived primary cells (BMPCs) and gelatin induced significant increases in MSC proliferation during primary culture, and the proportion of MSCs was maintained at more than 99% throughout the subculture. However, NPCs comprised a low percentage of BMPCs and a decrease in proliferation was detected despite gelatin treatment during the primary culture, and the proportion of subcultured NPCs gradually decreased. In a similar manner, MSCs exposed to gelatin during primary culture showed more enhanced neurogenic differentiation ability than those not exposed to gelatin. Together, these results demonstrate that gelatin directly enhances neurogenic differentiation in bone marrow-derived MSCs without stimulating NPC proliferation.

  19. Assessment of the Role of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice for Inducing Osteoblast Differentiation in Isolated Rat Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sharmila; Tamizhselvi, Ramasamy; George, Leema; Manickam, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Morinda citrifolia (Noni), an important traditional medicinal plant still used in patients with bone fractures or dislocation to promote connective tissue repair and to reduce inflammation. However, the effects of Noni on bone metabolism and whether it influences the osteogenic differentiation is yet to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) juice on the proliferation rate of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and the osteoblastic differentiation as shown by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression in vitro. Methods and Results Treatment with 200 μg/ml Noni juice enhanced the proliferation rate of the BMSC and also upregulated the osteogenic differentiation marker genes ALP and OCN, and Runx2 measured by RTPCR. Consistent with these results collagen scaffolds implanted in vivo, which were loaded with BMSC pre-exposed to Noni, showed increased bone density measured by computed tomography and histological analysis revealed neo-angiogenesis for bone formation. Conclusions These results suggest that Noni stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as adjuvant natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27572713

  20. Age- and gender-related changes in the cellularity of human bone marrow and the prevalence of osteoblastic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Muschler, G F; Nitto, H; Boehm, C A; Easley, K A

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow harvested by aspiration contains connective tissue progenitor cells which can be induced to express a bone phenotype in vitro. The number of osteoblastic progenitors can be estimated by counting the colony-forming units which express alkaline phosphatase (CFU-APs). This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that human aging is associated with a significant change in the number or prevalence of osteoblastic progenitors in the bone marrow. Four 2-ml bone marrow aspirates were harvested bilaterally from the anterior iliac crest of 57 patients, 31 men (age 15-83) and 26 women (age 13-79). A mean of 64 million nucleated cells was harvested per aspirate. The mean prevalence of CFU-APs was found to be 55 per million nucleated cells. These data revealed a significant age-related decline in the number of nucleated cells harvested per aspirate for both men and women (P = 0.002). The number of CFU-APs harvested per aspirate also decreased significantly with age for women (P = 0.02), but not for men (P = 0.3). These findings are relevant to the harvest of bone marrow derived connective tissue progenitors for bone grafting and other tissue engineering applications, and may also be relevant to the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss and post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  1. TNF-TNFR2/p75 signaling inhibits early and increases delayed nontargeted effects in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Sharath P; Song, Jin; Park, Daniel; Enderling, Heiko; McDonald, J Tyson; Gee, Hannah; Garrity, Brittany; Shtifman, Alexander; Yan, Xinhua; Walsh, Kenneth; Natarajan, Mohan; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A

    2014-05-16

    TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is highly expressed after being irradiated (IR) and is implicated in mediating radiobiological bystander responses (RBRs). Little is known about specific TNF receptors in regulating TNF-induced RBR in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs). Full body γ-IR WT BM-EPCs showed a biphasic response: slow decay of p-H2AX foci during the initial 24 h and increase between 24 h and 7 days post-IR, indicating a significant RBR in BM-EPCs in vivo. Individual TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling in RBR was evaluated in BM-EPCs from WT, TNFR1/p55KO, and TNFR2/p75KO mice, in vitro. Compared with WT, early RBR (1-5 h) were inhibited in p55KO and p75KO EPCs, whereas delayed RBR (3-5 days) were amplified in p55KO EPCs, suggesting a possible role for TNFR2/p75 signaling in delayed RBR. Neutralizing TNF in γ-IR conditioned media (CM) of WT and p55KO BM-EPCs largely abolished RBR in both cell types. ELISA protein profiling of WT and p55KO EPC γ-IR-CM over 5 days showed significant increases in several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1α (Interleukin-1 alpha), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and MCP-1. In vitro treatments with murine recombinant (rm) TNF-α and rmIL-1α, but not rmMCP-1 or rmRANTES, increased the formation of p-H2AX foci in nonirradiated p55KO EPCs. We conclude that TNF-TNFR2 signaling may induce RBR in naïve BM-EPCs and that blocking TNF-TNFR2 signaling may prevent delayed RBR in BM-EPCs, conceivably, in bone marrow milieu in general.

  2. TNF-TNFR2/p75 Signaling Inhibits Early and Increases Delayed Nontargeted Effects in Bone Marrow-derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Sharath P.; Song, Jin; Park, Daniel; Enderling, Heiko; McDonald, J. Tyson; Gee, Hannah; Garrity, Brittany; Shtifman, Alexander; Yan, Xinhua; Walsh, Kenneth; Natarajan, Mohan; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A.

    2014-01-01

    TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is highly expressed after being irradiated (IR) and is implicated in mediating radiobiological bystander responses (RBRs). Little is known about specific TNF receptors in regulating TNF-induced RBR in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs). Full body γ-IR WT BM-EPCs showed a biphasic response: slow decay of p-H2AX foci during the initial 24 h and increase between 24 h and 7 days post-IR, indicating a significant RBR in BM-EPCs in vivo. Individual TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling in RBR was evaluated in BM-EPCs from WT, TNFR1/p55KO, and TNFR2/p75KO mice, in vitro. Compared with WT, early RBR (1–5 h) were inhibited in p55KO and p75KO EPCs, whereas delayed RBR (3–5 days) were amplified in p55KO EPCs, suggesting a possible role for TNFR2/p75 signaling in delayed RBR. Neutralizing TNF in γ-IR conditioned media (CM) of WT and p55KO BM-EPCs largely abolished RBR in both cell types. ELISA protein profiling of WT and p55KO EPC γ-IR-CM over 5 days showed significant increases in several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1α (Interleukin-1 alpha), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and MCP-1. In vitro treatments with murine recombinant (rm) TNF-α and rmIL-1α, but not rmMCP-1 or rmRANTES, increased the formation of p-H2AX foci in nonirradiated p55KO EPCs. We conclude that TNF-TNFR2 signaling may induce RBR in naïve BM-EPCs and that blocking TNF-TNFR2 signaling may prevent delayed RBR in BM-EPCs, conceivably, in bone marrow milieu in general. PMID:24711449

  3. The effects of retinoic acid on reversing the adipocyte differentiation into an osteoblastic tendency in ST2 cells, a murine bone marrow-derived stromal cell line.

    PubMed

    Ding, J; Woo, J T; Nagai, K

    2001-07-01

    Although the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line ST2 has been known to be differentiated into osteoblasts, the differentiation characteristics of the cell into adipocyte and the concerned relationship between its adipogenesis and osteogenesis remains unknown. The adipogenic induction medium which is made up of insulin, dexamethasone (DEX) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine(IBMX), stimulated the expression of n early adipogenic marker PPAR gamma and a late marker GPDH in ST2 cells. The triglyceride accumulation and lipid stain level generated by the induction medium in ST2 cells was inhibited by RA with IC(50) at about 1 nM. The induction medium up-regulated expression of PPARgamma and GPDH was also inhibited by RA whereas RA (30 nM) exterted no effect on the cell growth. Interestingly, treatment of the cells with induction medium in the presense of RA caused a 3- or 10-fold higher in ALP activity respectively as compared to those treated with RA or the induction medium alone. RT-PCR analysis showed that such a synergistic effect of RA and the induction medium paralleled the process of inhibition on adipogenesis. Additional experiments showed that IBMX played a key role in increasing the effect of RA and ALP activity. Our results suggested that the relationship between adipogenesis and osteogenesis in ST2 cells was reciprocally interrelated and the process of adipogenesis could be potentially reversed into an osteoblastogenic tendency. This is the first report demonstrating that RA transforms adipogenic potential into an osteoblastic tendency.

  4. Spine fusion using cell matrix composites enriched in bone marrow-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Muschler, George F; Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2003-02-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting.

  5. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-Liang; Rokosh, D Gregg; Guo, Yiru; Bolli, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI) continues to be the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although pharmaceutical agents and interventional strategies have contributed greatly to therapy, new and superior treatment modalities are urgently needed given the overall disease burden. Stem cell-based therapy is potentially a promising strategy to lead to cardiac repair after MI. An array of cell types has been explored in this respect, including skeletal myoblasts, bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and more recently, cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Recently studies have obtained evidence that transplantation of CPCs or BM-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells can improve cardiac function and alleviate cardiac remodeling, supporting the potential therapeutic utility of these cells for cardiac repair. This report summarizes the current data from those studies and discusses the potential implication of these cells in developing clinically-relevant stem cell-based therapeutic strategies for cardiac regeneration.

  6. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand is required for thymic dendritic cell generation from bone marrow-derived CD117⁺ hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunyun; Jiang, Dong; Hu, Yizhou; Li, Yiping; Zhang, Xueguang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Thymic dendritic cells (TDCs) are a type of dendritic cell (DC) in the thymus, which can enhance the proliferation of thymic T lymphocytes, regulate negative selection and induce central tolerance through autoantigen presentation. However, further investigations using TDCs has been restricted due to insufficient numbers. Therefore, an effective expansion method for TDCs in vitro is urgently required to further examine their biological characteristics. In the present study, a novel system was established using fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC) and a hanging drop culture system in the presence of fms‑like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), termed the Flt3L/FTOC system. TDCs were successfully generated and expanded from CD117+ bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conventional DCs (cDCs; CD11c+B220‑ DCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs; CD11c+B220+ DCs) were found in the TDCs generated using the Flt3L/FTOC system. These cells exhibited the specific morphological features of DCs, which were confirmed using Giemsa staining. Furthermore, the cytokine and surface marker profiles were also analyzed. Higher expression levels of interferon‑α and interleukin‑12 were observed in the pDCs, compared with the cDCs, and higher expression levels of toll‑like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9 were found in the pDCs than in the cDCs. In addition, the Flt3L/FTOC‑derived TDCs also exhibited the ability to stimulate the allogenic T cell response. In conclusion, a novel in vitro culture system of thymic cDCs and pDCs using Flt3L was established, and this may provide a methodological basis for understanding the properties of TDCs.

  7. Dynamics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell/mesenchymal stem cell interaction in co-culture and its implications in angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, A.; Planell, J.A.; Engel, E.

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} BM-EPCs and MSCs establish complex, self-organizing structures in co-culture. {yields} Co-culture decreases proliferation by cellular self-regulatory mechanisms. {yields} Co-cultured cells present an activated proangiogenic phenotype. {yields} qRT-PCR and cluster analysis identify new target genes playing important roles. -- Abstract: Tissue engineering aims to regenerate tissues and organs by using cell and biomaterial-based approaches. One of the current challenges in the field is to promote proper vascularization in the implant to prevent cell death and promote host integration. Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow resident stem cells widely employed for proangiogenic applications. In vivo, they are likely to interact frequently both in the bone marrow and at sites of injury. In this study, the physical and biochemical interactions between BM-EPCs and MSCs in an in vitro co-culture system were investigated to further clarify their roles in vascularization. BM-EPC/MSC co-cultures established close cell-cell contacts soon after seeding and self-assembled to form elongated structures at 3 days. Besides direct contact, cells also exhibited vesicle transport phenomena. When co-cultured in Matrigel, tube formation was greatly enhanced even in serum-starved, growth factor free medium. Both MSCs and BM-EPCs contributed to these tubes. However, cell proliferation was greatly reduced in co-culture and morphological differences were observed. Gene expression and cluster analysis for wide panel of angiogenesis-related transcripts demonstrated up-regulation of angiogenic markers but down-regulation of many other cytokines. These data suggest that cross-talk occurs in between BM-EPCs and MSCs through paracrine and direct cell contact mechanisms leading to modulation of the angiogenic response.

  8. Assessment of Methods for Rapid Intraoperative Concentration and Selection of Marrow-Derived Connective Tissue Progenitors for Bone Regeneration Using the Canine Femoral Multidefect Model.

    PubMed

    Luangphakdy, Viviane; Boehm, Cynthia; Pan, Hui; Herrick, James; Zaveri, Phil; Muschler, George F

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of large bone defects remains an unsolved clinical challenge, despite a wide array of existing bone graft materials and strategies. Local deficiency in osteogenic connective tissue progenitors (CTP-Os) due to tissue loss is one of the central biological barriers to bone regeneration. Density separation (DS) and selective retention (SR) represent two promising methods that can be used intraoperatively to rapidly concentrate cells and potentially select CTP-Os. This project was designed to compare DS and SR using the canine femoral multidefect (CFMD) model. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used as a standardized scaffold for cell transplantation. Two experiments were performed using a cohort of six animals in each comparison. In Cohort I, unprocessed bone marrow aspirate (BMA) clot was compared to DS processing. MCA combined with raw BMA or DS processed cells produced a robust and advanced stage of bone regeneration throughout the defect in 4 weeks with reconstitution of hematopoietic marrow. However, the retention of DS processed cells and CTP-Os in the MCA matrix was low compared to BMA clot. In Cohort II, MCA with DS-T cells (addition of calcium chloride thrombin to induce clotting and enhance cell and CTP-O retention) was compared to MCA with SR cells. A mean of 276 ± 86 million nucleated cells and 29,030 ± 10,510 CTP-Os were implanted per defect in the DS-T group. A mean of 76 ± 42 million nucleated cells and 30,266 ± 15,850 CTP-Os were implanted in the SR group. Bone formation was robust and not different between treatments. Histologically, both groups demonstrated regeneration of hematopoietic marrow tissue. However, SR sites contained more hematopoietic vascular tissues, less fibrosis, and less residual allograft, particularly in the intramedullary cavity, suggesting a more advanced stage of remodeling (p = 0.04). These data demonstrate excellent overall performance of DS and SR processing methods. Both methods achieve a bone

  9. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  10. Notch signaling maintains bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors by suppressing osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Matthew J.; Tu, Xiaolin; Wu, Ximei; Bai, Shuting; Zhao, Haibo; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Teitelbaum, Steven L.; Ross, F. Patrick; Kopan, Raphael; Long, Fanxin

    2009-01-01

    Postnatal bone marrow houses mesenchymal progenitor cells that are osteoblast precursors. These cells have established therapeutic potential 1 but they are difficult to maintain and expand in vitro, presumably because little is known about the mechanisms controlling their fate decisions. To investigate the potential role of Notch signaling in osteoblastogenesis, we used conditional alleles to genetically remove components of the Notch signaling system during skeletal development. We find that Notch disruption in the limb skeletogenic mesenchyme markedly enhanced trabecular bone mass in adolescent mice. Notably, mesenchymal progenitors were virtually depleted in the bone marrow of the high-bone-mass animals. As a result, these animals developed severe osteopenia as they aged. Moreover, Notch appeared to inhibit osteoblast differentiation through Hes/Hey proteins that diminished Runx2 transcriptional activity via physical interaction. These results support a model wherein Notch signaling in bone marrow normally acts to maintain a pool of mesenchymal progenitors by suppressing osteoblast differentiation. Thus, mesechymal progenitors may be expanded in vitro by activating Notch, whereas bone formation in vivo may be enhanced by transiently suppressing this pathway. PMID:18297083

  11. Distinct Requirements for Cranial Ectoderm and Mesenchyme-Derived Wnts in Specification and Differentiation of Osteoblast and Dermal Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Goodnough, L. Henry; DiNuoscio, Gregg J.; Ferguson, James W.; Williams, Trevor; Lang, Richard A.; Atit, Radhika P.

    2014-01-01

    The cranial bones and dermis differentiate from mesenchyme beneath the surface ectoderm. Fate selection in cranial mesenchyme requires the canonical Wnt effector molecule β-catenin, but the relative contribution of Wnt ligand sources in this process remains unknown. Here we show Wnt ligands are expressed in cranial surface ectoderm and underlying supraorbital mesenchyme during dermal and osteoblast fate selection. Using conditional genetics, we eliminate secretion of all Wnt ligands from cranial surface ectoderm or undifferentiated mesenchyme, to uncover distinct roles for ectoderm- and mesenchyme-derived Wnts. Ectoderm Wnt ligands induce osteoblast and dermal fibroblast progenitor specification while initiating expression of a subset of mesenchymal Wnts. Mesenchyme Wnt ligands are subsequently essential during differentiation of dermal and osteoblast progenitors. Finally, ectoderm-derived Wnt ligands provide an inductive cue to the cranial mesenchyme for the fate selection of dermal fibroblast and osteoblast lineages. Thus two sources of Wnt ligands perform distinct functions during osteoblast and dermal fibroblast formation. PMID:24586192

  12. Soluble factor cross-talk between human bone marrow-derived hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells enhances in vitro CFU-F and CFU-O growth and reveals heterogeneity in the mesenchymal progenitor cell compartment.

    PubMed

    Baksh, Dolores; Davies, John E; Zandstra, Peter W

    2005-11-01

    The homeostatic adult bone marrow (BM) is a complex tissue wherein physical and biochemical interactions serve to maintain a balance between the hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic compartments. To focus on soluble factor interactions occurring between mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells, a serum-free adhesion-independent culture system was developed that allows manipulation of the growth of both mesenchymal and hematopoietic human BM-derived progenitors and the balance between these compartments. Factorial experiments demonstrated a role for stem cell factor (SCF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) in the concomitant growth of hematopoietic (CD45+) and nonhematopoietic (CD45-) cells, as well as their derivatives. Kinetic tracking of IL-3alpha receptor (CD123) and SCF receptor (CD117) expression on a sorted CD45- cell population revealed the emergence of CD45-CD123+ cells capable of osteogenesis. Of the total fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-Fs) and osteoblast colony-forming units (CFU-O), approximately 24% of CFU-Fs and about 22% of CFU-Os were recovered from this population. Cell-sorting experiments demonstrated that the CD45+ cell population secreted soluble factors that positively affect the survival and proliferation of CFU-Fs and CFU-Os generated from the CD45- cells. Together, our results provide insight into the intercellular cytokine network between hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells and provide a strategy to mutually culture both mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells in a defined scalable bioprocess.

  13. Differentiation and proliferation of periosteal osteoblast progenitors are differentially regulated by estrogens and intermittent parathyroid hormone administration.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Mami; Rached, Marie Therese; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Bilezikian, John P; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2008-11-01

    The periosteum is now widely recognized as a homeostatic and therapeutic target for actions of sex steroids and intermittent PTH administration. The mechanisms by which estrogens suppress but PTH promotes periosteal expansion are not known. In this report, we show that intermittent PTH(1-34) promotes differentiation of periosteal osteoblast precursors as evidenced by the stimulation of the expression or activity of alkaline phosphatase as well as of targets of the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and Wnt pathways. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol (E2) had no effect by itself. However, it attenuated PTH- or BMP-2-induced differentiation of primary periosteal osteoblast progenitors. Administration of intermittent PTH to ovariectomized mice induced rapid phosphorylation of the BMP-2 target Smad1/5/8 in the periosteum. A replacement dose of E2 had no effect by itself but suppressed PTH-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. In contrast to its effects to stimulate periosteal osteoblast differentiation, PTH promoted and subsequently suppressed proliferation of periosteal osteoblast progenitors in vitro and in vivo. E2 promoted proliferation and attenuated the antiproliferative effect of PTH. Both hormones protected periosteal osteoblasts from apoptosis induced by various proapoptotic agents. These observations suggest that the different effects of PTH and estrogens on the periosteum result from opposing actions on the recruitment of early periosteal osteoblast progenitors. Intermittent PTH promotes osteoblast differentiation from periosteum-derived mesenchymal progenitors through ERK-, BMP-, and Wnt-dependent signaling pathways. Estrogens promote proliferation of early osteoblast progenitors but inhibit their differentiation by osteogenic agents such as PTH or BMP-2.

  14. The transcription factor protein Sox11 enhances early osteoblast differentiation by facilitating proliferation and the survival of mesenchymal and osteoblast progenitors.

    PubMed

    Gadi, Jogeswar; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Jung; Jami, Ajita; Ruthala, Kalyani; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2013-08-30

    Sox11 deletion mice are known to exhibit developmental defects of craniofacial skeletal malformations, asplenia, and hypoplasia of the lung, stomach, and pancreas. Despite the importance of Sox11 in the developing skeleton, the role of Sox11 in osteogenesis has not been studied yet. In this study, we identified that Sox11 is an important transcription factor for regulating the proliferation and survival of osteoblast precursor cells as well as the self-renewal potency of mesenchymal progenitor cells via up-regulation of Tead2. Furthermore, Sox11 also plays an important role in the segregation of functional osteoblast lineage progenitors from osteochondrogenic progenitors. Facilitation of osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal cells was achieved by enhanced expression of the osteoblast lineage specific transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix. Morpholino-targeted disruption of Sox11 in zebrafish impaired organogenesis, including the bones, which were under mineralized. These results indicated that Sox11 plays a crucial role in the proliferation and survival of mesenchymal and osteoblast precursors by Tead2, and osteogenic differentiation by regulating Runx2 and Osterix.

  15. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juan; Chen, Jian; Kim, Jae Chan; Yao, Ke

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and involved in its destructive and regenerative disease course, tissue specimens were collected from 3 eyes of 3 patients with Mooren's ulcer that underwent lamellar keratectomy. Three normal donor limbal corneoscleras served as controls. Immunohistochemical staining patterns were analyzed by using the following antibodies: CD34 (a marker of hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelium), c-kit (a marker of hematopoietic and stromal progenitor cells) and STRO-1 (a differentiation antigen present on bone marrow fibroblast cells and on various nonhematopoietic progenitor cells). Strong positive CD34, c-kit and STRO-1 cells were revealed in Mooren's ulcer specimens, especially in the superficial stroma. A few weakly expressed CD34 stromal cells were seen in normal limbal cornea, but no immunoreactivity for c-kit and STRO-1 was found. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and contribute to its destructive and regeneration process by synergizing with other factors. Specific therapeutic strategies that target the role of these cells in Mooren's ulcer are anticipated.

  16. Isolation of Murine Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells using Twist2 Cre Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaling; Wang, Liping; Fatahi, Reza; Kronenberg, Mark; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rowe, David; Li, Yingcui; Maye, Peter

    2010-01-01

    While human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are of great interest for their potential therapeutic value, its murine equivalent remains an important basic research model that can provide critical insights into the biology of this progenitor cell population. Here we present a novel transgenic strategy that allowed for the selective identification and isolation of murine BMSCs at the early stages of stromal cell culture. This strategy involved crossing Twist2 –Cre mice with Cre reporter mice such as Z/EG or Ai9, which express EGFP or Tomato fluorescent protein, respectively, upon Cre mediated excision of a stop sequence. Using this approach, we identified an adherent fluorescent protein+ cell population (T2C+) that is present during the earliest stages of colony formation and by day 5 of culture represents ~20% of the total cell population. Cell surface profiling by flow cytometry showed that T2C+ cells are highly positive for SCA1 and CD29 and negative for CD45, CD117, TIE2, and TER119. Isolation of T2C+ cells by FACS selected for a cell population with skeletal potential that can be directed to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, or chondrocytes. We also demonstrated in a calvarial bone defect model that T2C+ cells retain a strong efficacy for osteogenic repair and can support a hematopoietic environment. Collectively, these studies provide evidence that the Twist2-Cre x Cre reporter breeding strategy can be used to positively identify and isolate multipotent murine BMSCs. PMID:20673822

  17. Maintenance and expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in biomimetic osteoblast niche.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Liu, Ting; Hou, Li; Meng, Wentong; Wang, Yuchun; Zhi, Wei; Deng, Li

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we employed bio-derived bone scaffold and composited with the marrow mesenchymal stem cell induced into osteoblast to replicate a "biomimetic niche." The CD34(+) cells or mononuclear cells (MNC) from umbilical cord blood were cultured for 2-5 weeks in the biomimetic niche (3D system) was compared with conventional two dimensional cultures (2D system) without adding cytokine supplement. After 2 weeks in culture, the CD34(+) cells from umbilical cord blood in the 3D system increased 3.3-4.8 folds when compared with the initial CD34(+) cells. CD34(+)/CD38(-) cells accounted for 82-90% of CD34(+) cells. After 5 weeks, CD34(+)/CD38(-) cells in the 3D system increased when compared with initial (1.3 ± 0.3 × 10(3) vs. 1.0 ± 0.5 × 10(4), p < 0.05), but were decreased in the 2D system (1.3 ± 0.3 × 10(3) vs. 2.5 ± 0.7 × 10(2), p < 0.05). The CFU progenitors were produced more in the 3D system than in the 2D system (4.6-9.3 folds vs. 1.0-1.5 folds) after 2 weeks in culture, and the colony distribution in the 3D system manifested higher percentage of BFU-E and CFU-GEMM, but in the 2D system was mainly CFU-GM. The LTC-ICs in the 3D system showed 5.2-7.2 folds increase over input at 2 weeks in culture, and maintain the immaturation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) over 5 weeks. In conclusion, this new 3D hematopoietic progenitor cell culture system is the first to utilize natural cancellous bone as scaffold with osteoblasts as supporting cells; it is mimicry of natural bone marrow HSC niche. Our primary work has demonstrated it could maintain and expand HSC/HPC in vitro.

  18. Bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Diane S

    2008-08-15

    Bone marrow-derived cells can take on the phenotype of epithelial cells and express epithelial-specific genes in multiple organs. Here, we focus on recent data on the appearance of marrow-derived epithelial cells in the adult lung. These findings have garnered significant skepticism because in most cases marrow-derived epithelial cells are very rare, the marrow cell of origin is not known, the techniques for detection have needed improvement, and there seem to be multiple mechanisms by which this occurs. Recent studies have focused on these concerns. Once these important concerns are addressed, further studies on the function(s) of these cells will need to be performed to determine whether this engraftment has any clinical significance-either beneficial or detrimental.

  19. Exposure of periodontal ligament progenitor cells to lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli changes osteoblast differentiation pattern

    PubMed Central

    ALBIERO, Mayra Laino; AMORIM, Bruna Rabelo; MARTINS, Luciane; CASATI, Márcio Zaffalon; SALLUM, Enilson Antonio; NOCITI, Francisco Humberto; SILVÉRIO, Karina Gonzales

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLMSCs) are an important alternative source of adult stem cells and may be applied for periodontal tissue regeneration, neuroregenerative medicine, and heart valve tissue engineering. However, little is known about the impact of bacterial toxins on the biological properties of PDLSMSCs, including self-renewal, differentiation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Objective : This study investigated whether proliferation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and osteogenic differentiation of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105+ cells) would be affected by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EcLPS). Material and Methods : Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was assessed in PDL-CD105+ cells by the immunostaining technique and confirmed using Western blotting assay. Afterwards, these cells were exposed to EcLPS, and the following assays were carried out: (i) cell viability using MTS; (ii) expression of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes; (iii) osteoblast differentiation assessed by mineralization in vitro, and by mRNA levels of run-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) determined by quantitative PCR. Results : PDL-CD105+ cells were identified as positive for TLR4. EcLPS did not affect cell viability, but induced a significant increase of transcripts for IL-6 and IL-8. Under osteogenic condition, PDL-CD105+ cells exposed to EcLPS presented an increase of mineralized matrix deposition and higher RUNX2 and ALP mRNA levels when compared to the control group. Conclusions : These results provide evidence that CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cells are able to adapt to continuous Escherichia coli endotoxin challenge, leading to an upregulation of osteogenic activities. PMID:26018305

  20. Lithium-end-capped polylactide thin films influence osteoblast progenitor cell differentiation and mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Gomillion, Cheryl T.; Lakhman, Rubinder Kaur; Kasi, Rajeswari M.; Weiss, R. A.; Kuhn, Liisa T.; Goldberg, A. Jon

    2015-01-01

    End-capping by covalently binding functional groups to the ends of polymer chains offers potential advantages for tissue engineering scaffolds, but the ability of such polymers to influence cell behavior has not been studied. As a demonstration, polylactide (PLA) was end-capped with lithium carboxylate ionic groups (hPLA13kLi) and evaluated. Thin films of the hPLA13kLi and PLA homopolymer were prepared with and without surface texturing. Murine osteoblast progenitor cells from collagen 1α1 transgenic reporter mice were used to assess cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. Measurement of green fluorescent protein expressed by these cells and xylenol orange staining for mineral allowed quantitative analysis. The hPLA13kLi was biologically active, increasing initial cell attachment and enhancing differentiation, while reducing proliferation and strongly suppressing mineralization, relative to PLA. These effects of bound lithium ions (Li+) had not been previously reported, and were generally consistent with the literature on soluble additions of lithium. The surface texturing generated here did not influence cell behavior. These results demonstrate that end-capping could be a useful approach in scaffold design, where a wide range of biologically active groups could be employed, while likely retaining the desirable characteristics associated with the unaltered homopolymer backbone. PMID:24733780

  1. Recql4 haploinsufficiency in mice leads to defects in osteoblast progenitors: Implications for low bone mass phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jieping; Murthy, Sreemala; Winata, Therry; Werner, Sean; Abe, Masumi; Prahalad, Agasanur K. . E-mail: aprahala@iupui.edu; Hock, Janet M.

    2006-05-26

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie skeletal abnormalities in defective Recql4-related syndromes are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to explore the function of Recql4 in osteoblast biology both in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry on adult mouse bone showed Recql4 protein localization in active osteoblasts around growth plate, but not in fully differentiated osteocytes. Consistent with this finding, Recql4 gene expression was high in proliferating mouse osteoblastic MC3T3.E1 cells and decreased as cells progressively lost their proliferation activity during differentiation. Recql4 overexpression in osteoblastic cells exhibited higher proliferation activity, while its depletion impeded cell growth. In addition, bone marrow stromal cells from male Recql4+/- mice had fewer progenitor cells, including osteoprogenitors, indicated by reduced total fibroblast colony forming units (CFU-f) and alkaline phosphatase-positive CFU-f colonies concomitant with reduced bone mass. These findings provide evidence that Recql4 functions as a regulatory protein during osteoprogenitor proliferation, a critical cellular event during skeleton development.

  2. Nonhematopoietic cells are the primary source of bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kassmer, Susannah H; Bruscia, Emanuela M; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Krause, Diane S

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells differentiate into nonhematopoietic cells of multiple tissues. To date, it remains unknown which population(s) of BM cells are primarily responsible for this engraftment. To test the hypothesis that nonhematopoietic stem cells in the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells, either wild-type hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic BM cells were transplanted into irradiated surfactant-protein-C (SPC)-null mice. Donor-derived, SPC-positive type 2 pneumocytes were predominantly detected in the lungs of mice receiving purified nonhematopoietic cells and were absent from mice receiving purified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We conclude that cells contained in the nonhematopoietic fraction of the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells. These nonhematopoietic cells may represent a primitive stem cell population residing in adult BM.

  3. Effects of Fibronectin Coating on Bacterial and Osteoblast Progenitor Cells Adherence in a Co-culture Assay.

    PubMed

    Hindié, Mathilde; Wu, Dongni; Anselme, Karine; Gallet, Olivier; Di Martino, Patrick

    2016-07-06

    Bacterial adherence to the surface of implants functionalized with cell-adhesive biomolecules is a critical first step of infection development. This study was designed to determine how the immobilization of human plasmatic fibronectin (pFN) could impact bacterial and osteoblast cells interaction with the surface during concomitant exposition to the two cell-types. Calibrated suspensions of P. aeruginosa PAOI or S. aureus CIP4.83 bacteria and STRO-1(+)A osteoblast progenitor cells were mixed, co-seeded on glass coverslips coated or not with pFN and incubated at 37 °C. After 3 h of co-culture, the presence of bacteria did not modify the STRO-1(+)A cells adherence to glass. pFN coating significantly enhanced STRO-1(+)A cells, CIP4.83 and PAOI adherence to glass and bacterial interaction with STRO-1(+)A cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations revealed that cells on the pFN-coated substrate exhibited a greater spreading, better organized network of cytoskeletal filaments, and an increased cellular FN expression than cells on the uncoated substrate. The use of fluorescently labeled pFN showed that adherent STRO-1(+)A cells were able to remodel and to concentrate coated pFN at the cells surface. Thus, the use of FN coating could increase the risk of bacterial adherence to the material surface, acting either directly onto the coating layer or indirectly on adherent osteoblastic cells. This may increase the infection risk in the presence of bacterial contamination.

  4. Differential expression of CCN-family members in primary human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Schutze, Norbert; Noth, Ulrich; Schneidereit, Jutta; Hendrich, Christian; Jakob, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Background The human cysteine rich protein 61 (CYR61, CCN1) as well as the other members of the CCN family of genes play important roles in cellular processes such as proliferation, adhesion, migration and survival. These cellular events are of special importance within the complex cellular interactions ongoing in bone remodeling. Previously, we analyzed the role of CYR61/CCN1 as an extracellular signaling molecule in human osteoblasts. Since mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow are important progenitors for various differentiation pathways in bone and possess increasing potential for regenerative medicine, here we aimed to analyze the expression of CCN family members in bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells and along the osteogenic, the adipogenic and the chondrogenic differentiation. Results Primary cultures of human mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from the femoral head of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts was done in monolayer culture, differentiation into chondrocytes was induced in high density cell pellet cultures. For either pathway, established differentiation markers and CCN-members were analyzed at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and the CYR61/CCN1 protein was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. RT-PCR and histochemical analysis revealed the appropriate phenotype of differentiated cells (Alizarin-red S, Oil Red O, Alcian blue, alkaline phosphatase; osteocalcin, collagen types I, II, IX, X, cbfa1, PPARγ, aggrecan). Mesenchymal stem cells expressed CYR61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2, CTGF-L/WISP2/CCN5 and WISP3/CCN6. The CYR61/CCN1 expression decreased markedly during osteogenic differentiation, adipogenic differentiation and chondrogenic differentiation. These results were confirmed by immuncytochemical analyses. WISP2/CCN5 RNA expression declined during adipogenic differentiation and WISP3/CCN6 RNA expression was markedly reduced in chondrogenic differentiation. Conclusion The decrease in CYR61/CCN1

  5. SSH-BM-I, a tryptamine derivative, stimulates mineralization in terminal osteoblast differentiation but inhibits osteogenesis of pre-committed progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshikazu; Somei, Masanori; Tsuda, Hiromasa

    2011-01-01

    SSH-BM-I was synthesized from tryptamine by using a newly developed synthetic method, and it has structural similarity to bromomelatonin. Recently, it had been reported that SSH-BM-I increases osteoblasts in scales of gold fish. However, the effect of SSH-BM-I on osteoblast differentiation in mammalian cells has not yet been examined. Therefore, this study examined the effect of SSH-BM-I on osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal progenitor-like cells and mature osteoblast-like cells. SSH-BM-I enhanced terminal osteoblast differentiation, as indicated by mineralization, which was accompanied by upregulation of the osteogenic marker genes bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC). However, in mesenchymal progenitor ROB-C26 cultures, no mineralized nodules were observed regardless of SSH-BM-I treatment, although BMP-2 was able to induce nodule formation in these cells. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced nodule formation was suppressed by SSH-BM-I treatment in ROB-C26 cultures. We further investigated the impact of the timing and duration of SSH-BM-I treatment on osteoblast differentiation. The effect of SSH-BM-I treatment on osteoblast differentiation of ROB-C26 in the presence of BMP-2 switches from negative to positive sometime between day 6 and 9, because SSH-BM-I treatment enhanced the formation of mineralized nodules when it was started on day 9, but suppressed nodule formation when it was started at day 6 or earlier. These results suggest that the stimulatory effects of SSH-BM-I on the formation of mineralized nodules depend on the degree of cell differentiation.

  6. Proliferative activity of vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kramvis, A.; Garnett, H.M.

    1987-11-01

    Vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cell population cultured in Fischer's medium supplemented with 12.5% fetal calf serum and 12.5% horse serum consists of two cell shapes: fusiform (type I) and polygonal (type II). Limiting-dilution cloning of the cells suggested that the two morphologically distinct cell types belong to the same cellular system even though they differ in their proliferative capabilities. The labeling index of type II cells, as measured by autoradiography, was found to be consistently lower than that of type I cells. It is probable that these two phenotypes represent different stages of differentiation, where progenitor type I gives rise to type II cells. The bone marrow-derived adherent cells were found to be cytokinetically at rest in vivo, using the thymidine suicide test, and relatively radioresistant with a D0 = 2.1 Gy and n = 2.36 at the time of explantation from the bone. Furthermore, in culture these cells are characterized by a relatively long cell cycle of 60 h, where the length of the S phase is 30 h, G2 is 12 h, M is 6 h, and G1 is 12 h. Thus, the vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells represent a cell population with a low turnover rate both in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Bone marrow-derived cells homing for self-repair of periodontal tissues: a histological characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Li, Chen; Xie, Han; Lu, Yuwang; Wu, Ying; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis, a disease leads to the formation of periodontal defect, can result in tooth loss if left untreated. The therapies to repair/regenerate periodontal tissues have attracted lots of attention these years. Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), a group of cells containing heterogeneous stem/progenitor cells, are capable of homing to injured tissues and participating in tissue repair/regeneration. The amplification of autologous BMDCs' potential in homing for self-repair/regeneration, therefore, might be considered as an alternative therapy except for traditional cell transplantation. However, the knowledge of the BMDCs' homing and participation in periodontal repair/regeneration is still known little. For the purpose of directly observing BMDCs' involvement in periodontal repair, chimeric mouse models were established to make their bone marrow cells reconstituted with cells expressing green enhanced fluorescence protein (EGFP) in this study. One month after bone marrow transplantation, periodontal defects were made on the mesial side of bilateral maxillary first molars in chimeric mice. The green fluorescence protein-positive (GFP+) BMDCS in periodontal defect regions were examined by bioluminescent imaging and immunofluorescence staining. GFP+ BMDCs were found to aggregate in the periodontal defect regions and emerge in newly-formed bones or fibers. Some of them also co-expressed markers of fibroblasts, osteoblasts or vascular endothelial cells. These results indicated that BMDCs might contribute to the formation of new fibers, bones and blood vessels during periodontal repair. In conclusion, we speculated that autologous BMDCs were capable of negotiating into the surgical sites created by periodontal operation and participating in tissue repair.

  8. Bone marrow-derived cells homing for self-repair of periodontal tissues: a histological characterization and expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Li, Chen; Xie, Han; Lu, Yuwang; Wu, Ying; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis, a disease leads to the formation of periodontal defect, can result in tooth loss if left untreated. The therapies to repair/regenerate periodontal tissues have attracted lots of attention these years. Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), a group of cells containing heterogeneous stem/progenitor cells, are capable of homing to injured tissues and participating in tissue repair/regeneration. The amplification of autologous BMDCs’ potential in homing for self-repair/regeneration, therefore, might be considered as an alternative therapy except for traditional cell transplantation. However, the knowledge of the BMDCs’ homing and participation in periodontal repair/regeneration is still known little. For the purpose of directly observing BMDCs’ involvement in periodontal repair, chimeric mouse models were established to make their bone marrow cells reconstituted with cells expressing green enhanced fluorescence protein (EGFP) in this study. One month after bone marrow transplantation, periodontal defects were made on the mesial side of bilateral maxillary first molars in chimeric mice. The green fluorescence protein-positive (GFP+) BMDCS in periodontal defect regions were examined by bioluminescent imaging and immunofluorescence staining. GFP+ BMDCs were found to aggregate in the periodontal defect regions and emerge in newly-formed bones or fibers. Some of them also co-expressed markers of fibroblasts, osteoblasts or vascular endothelial cells. These results indicated that BMDCs might contribute to the formation of new fibers, bones and blood vessels during periodontal repair. In conclusion, we speculated that autologous BMDCs were capable of negotiating into the surgical sites created by periodontal operation and participating in tissue repair. PMID:26722424

  9. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O.; Ochoa, Oscar; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R.; Centonze, Victoria E.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Michalek, Joel E.; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K.

    2009-01-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type (WT) or CCR2−/− mice into irradiated WT or CCR2−/− host mice. Regardless of the host genotype, muscle regeneration and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were similar in mice replenished with WT BM, whereas BM-derived cells and macrophage accumulation were decreased and muscle regeneration was impaired in all animals receiving CCR2−/− BM. Furthermore, numbers of MPCs (CD34+/Sca-1−/CD45− cells) were significantly increased in mice receiving CCR2−/− BM despite the decreased size of regenerated myofibers. Thus, the expression of CCR2 on BM-derived cells regulated macrophage recruitment into injured muscle, numbers of MPC, and the extent of regenerated myofiber size, all of which were independent of CCR2 expression on host-derived cells. Future studies in regenerative medicine must include consideration of the role of BM-derived cells, possibly macrophages, in CCR2-dependent events that regulate effective skeletal muscle regeneration.—Sun, D., Martinez, C. O., Ochoa, O., Ruiz-Willhite, L., Bonilla, J. R., Centonze, V. E., Waite, L. L., Michalek, J. E., McManus, L. M., Shireman, P. K. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:18827026

  10. Repair of bone defects with prefabricated vascularized bone grafts and double-labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Lin, Guo-Dong; Meng, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Huang, Fei; Xu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the repair of bone defects with prefabricated vascularized bone grafts and double-labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a rat model. BMSCs were separated from rat bone marrow. LTR-CMVpro-RFP and LTR-CMVpro-GFP were transfected into the BMSCs for in vitro and in vivo tracking. BMSCs-RFP and BMSCs-GFP were induced into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). Rats were divided into five groups: Group A: in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP + in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group B: in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group C: in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group D: implantation of EPCs-RFP + implantation of with arteriovenous vascular bundle + simultaneous OBs-GFP implantation; Group E: demineralized bone matrix (DBM) grafts (blank control). Among five groups, Group A had the fastest bone regeneration and repair, and the regenerated bone highly resembled normal bone tissues; Group D also had fast bone repair, but the repair was slightly slower than Group A. Therefore, in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP plus in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle and secondary OBs-GFP implantation could be the best treatment for bone defect. PMID:28150691

  11. The teleost intervertebral region acts as a growth center of the centrum: in vivo visualization of osteoblasts and their progenitors in transgenic fish.

    PubMed

    Inohaya, Keiji; Takano, Yoshiro; Kudo, Akira

    2007-11-01

    The vertebral column is a defined feature of vertebrates. In birds and mammals, the sclerotome yields cartilaginous material for the vertebral column. In teleosts, however, it remains uncertain whether the sclerotome participates in vertebral column formation. To investigate osteoblast development in the teleost, we established transgenic systems that allow in vivo observation of osteoblasts and their progenitors marked by fluorescence of DsRed and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), respectively. In twist-EGFP transgenic medaka, EGFP-positive cells first appeared in the ventromedial portion of respective somites corresponding to the sclerotome, migrated dorsally around the notochord, and concentrated in the intervertebral regions. Ultrastructural analysis of the intervertebral regions revealed that some of these cells were directly located on the osteoidal surface of the perichordal centrum, and enriched with rough endoplasmic reticulum in their cytoplasm. By using the double transgenic medaka of twist-EGFP and osteocalcin-DsRed, we clarified that the EGFP-positive cells in the intervertebral region differentiated into mature osteoblasts expressing the DsRed. In vivo bone labeling in fact confirmed active matrix formation and mineralization of the perichordal centrum exclusively in the intervertebral region of zebrafish larvae as well as medaka larvae. These findings strongly suggest that the teleost intervertebral region acts as a growth center of the perichordal centrum, where the sclerotome-derived cells differentiate into osteoblasts.

  12. Potentiation of osteoclastogenesis by adipogenic conversion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Keisuke; Suzuki, Keiji; Hozumi, Akira; Goto, Hisataka; Tomita, Masato; Koseki, Hironobu; Yamashita, Shunichi; Osaki, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are the indispensable component of the bone marrow, being the common precursors for adipocytes and osteoblasts. We show here that adipogenic differentiation resulted in increase in the production of adipocyte markers, such as adiponectin,fatty-acid binding proteins (FABP4), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), as well as the receptor activator of nuclear-κB ligand (RANKL). Co-culture of osteoclast precursors (OCPs) with BMSCs-derived adipocytes significantly enhanced osteoclast differentiation with low-dose RANKL, whose levels alone could not promote osteoclastogenesis. These results demonstrate for the first time that adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs plays a pivotal role in maintaining bone homeostasis.

  13. The role of bone marrow-derived cells during the bone healing process in the GFP mouse bone marrow transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Katase, Naoki; Buery, Rosario Rivera; Tamamura, Ryo; Ito, Satoshi; Takagi, Shin; Iida, Seiji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Bone healing is a complex and multistep process in which the origin of the cells participating in bone repair is still unknown. The involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in tissue repair has been the subject of recent studies. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells in bone healing were traced using the GFP bone marrow transplantation model. Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild mice. After transplantation, bone injury was created using a 1.0-mm drill. Bone healing was histologically assessed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperative days. Immunohistochemistry for GFP; double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry for GFP-F4/80, GFP-CD34, and GFP-osteocalcin; and double-staining for GFP and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were performed. Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced the hematopoietic cells into GFP-positive donor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteoblasts or osteocytes in the repair stage were GFP-negative, whereas osteoclasts in the repair and remodeling stages and hematopoietic cells were GFP-positive. The results indicated that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. The role of bone marrow-derived cells might be limited to adjustment of the microenvironment by differentiating into inflammatory cells, osteoclasts, or endothelial cells in immature blood vessels.

  14. Selective retention of bone marrow-derived cells to enhance spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Muschler, George F; Matsukura, Yoichi; Nitto, Hironori; Boehm, Cynthia A; Valdevit, Antonio D; Kambic, Helen E; Davros, William J; Easley, Kirk A; Powell, Kimerly A

    2005-03-01

    Connective tissue progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from fresh bone marrow aspirates using some porous matrices as a surface for cell attachment and selective retention, and for creating a cellular graft that is enriched with respect to the number of progenitor cells. We evaluated the potential value of this method using demineralized cortical bone powder as the matrix. Matrix alone, matrix plus marrow, and matrix enriched with marrow cells were compared in an established canine spinal fusion model. Fusions were compared based on union score, fusion mass, fusion volume, and by mechanical testing. Enriched matrix grafts delivered a mean of 2.3 times more cells and approximately 5.6 times more progenitors than matrix mixed with bone marrow. The union score with enriched matrix was superior to matrix alone and matrix plus marrow. Fusion volume and fusion area also were greater with the enriched matrix. These data suggest that the strategy of selective retention provides a rapid, simple, and effective method for concentration and delivery of marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting procedures in various clinical settings.

  15. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 as marker of epithelial phenotype reveals marrow-derived hepatocytes, but not duct cells, after liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Swenson, E Scott; Guest, Ian; Ilic, Zoran; Mazzeo-Helgevold, Maria; Lizardi, Pablo; Hardiman, Camille; Sell, Stewart; Krause, Diane S

    2008-07-01

    The potential bone marrow origin of hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and ductal progenitor cells in the liver was examined in female mice after transplantation of bone marrow cells from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic donors. Following stable hematopoietic engraftment, the livers of the recipients were injured with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4), with or without local irradiation of the liver) or 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC, with or without local irradiation of the liver). The presence of numerous marrow-derived, GFP-positive inflammatory cells had the potential to lead to erroneous interpretation of marrow-derived hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and ductal progenitor cells. Identification of marrow-derived ductal progenitor or cholangiocyte phenotype using colocalization of GFP or Y chromosome with pancytokeratin staining also failed to distinguish epithelial cells from closely apposed inflammatory cells. To address this inadequacy, we developed a rigorous new immunofluorescence protocol to identify marrow-derived epithelial cells in the liver using Y chromosome (donor marker) and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF1, a nuclear marker of liver epithelial, nonhematopoietic phenotype). Using the Y/HNF1 method, rare (approximately one in 20,000) hepatocytes in female mice transplanted with male bone marrow contained a donor-derived Y chromosome. On the other hand, no Y chromosomes were found in cholangiocytes or ductal progenitor cells in mice with liver injury due to DDC or CCl(4). The use of a nuclear marker of mature hepatocytes or cholangiocytes, such as HNF1, improves discrimination of marrow-derived epithelial cells in tissue sections.

  16. Extracellular calcium (Ca2+(o))-sensing receptor in a murine bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (ST2): potential mediator of the actions of Ca2+(o) on the function of ST2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Kifor, O.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+(o)) homeostasis by mediating the actions of Ca2+(o) on parathyroid gland and kidney. Bone marrow stromal cells support the formation of osteoclasts from their progenitors as well as the growth of hematopoietic stem cells by secreting humoral factors and through cell to cell contact. Stromal cells also have the capacity to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts. Bone resorption by osteoclasts probably produces substantial local increases in Ca2+(o) that could provide a signal for stromal cells in the immediate vicinity, leading us to determine whether such stromal cells express the CaR. In this study, we used the murine bone marrow-derived, stromal cell line, ST2. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using an antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in ST2 cells. We also identified CaR transcripts in ST2 cells by Northern analysis using a CaR-specific probe and by RT-PCR with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products. Exposure of ST2 cells to high Ca2+(o) (4.8 mM) or to the polycationic CaR agonists, neomycin (300 microM) or gadolinium (100 microM), stimulated both chemotaxis and DNA synthesis in ST2 cells. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the bone marrow-derived stromal cell line, ST2, possesses both CaR protein and messenger RNA that are very similar if not identical to those in parathyroid and kidney. Furthermore, as ST2 cells have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, the CaR in stromal cells could participate in bone turnover by stimulating the proliferation and migration of such cells to sites of bone resorption as a result of local, osteoclast-mediated release of Ca2+(o) and, thereafter, initiating bone formation after their differentiation into osteoblasts.

  17. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Induces Osteoblast Inhibition by B Lymphocytes and Osteoclast Activation by T Lymphocytes during Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Mobilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Sidan; Li, Tianshou; Chen, Yongbing; Nie, Yinchao; Li, Changhong; Liu, Lanting; Li, Qiaochuan; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-08-01

    In the bone marrow (BM), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in specialized niches near osteoblast cells at the endosteum. HSPCs that egress to peripheral blood are widely used for transplant, and mobilization is most commonly performed with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, the cellular targets of G-CSF that initiate the mobilization cascade and bone remodeling are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether T and B lymphocytes modulate the bone niche and influence HSPC mobilization. We used T and B defective mice to show that G-CSF-induced mobilization of HSPCs correlated with B lymphocytes but poorly with T lymphocytes. In addition, we found that defective B lymphocytes prevent G-CSF-mediated osteoblast disruption, and further study showed BM osteoblasts were reduced coincident with mobilization, induced by elevated expression of dickkopf1 of BM B lymphocytes. BM T cells were also involved in G-CSF-induced osteoclast activation by regulating the Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κ B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) axis. These data provide evidence that BM B and T lymphocytes play a role in G-CSF-induced HSPC mobilization by regulating bone remodeling.

  18. CCN1 Promotes VEGF Production in Osteoblasts and Induces Endothelial Progenitor Cell Angiogenesis by Inhibiting miR-126 Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Su, Chen-Ming; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Huang, Chien-Chung; Wang, Shih-Wei; Liu, Shih-Chia; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from preexisting vasculature. The perpetuation of angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of various disease states including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61 or CCN1) is an important proinflammatory cytokine in RA. Here, we investigated the role of CCN1 in angiogenesis associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and osteoblasts. We found higher expression of CCN1 and VEGF in synovial fluid from RA patients compared with healthy controls. CCN1 induced VEGF expression in osteoblasts and increased endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) angiogenesis by inhibiting miR-126 via the protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α) signaling pathway. CCN1 knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. Inhibition of CCN1 expression with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) ameliorated articular swelling, cartilage erosion, and angiogenesis in the ankle joint of mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Our study is the first to describe how CCN1 promotes VEGF expression in osteoblasts and increased EPCs angiogenesis in RA disease. CCN1 may serve as a potential target for RA treatment. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Bone marrow-derived stem cells initiate pancreatic regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hess, David; Li, Li; Martin, Matthew; Sakano, Seiji; Hill, David; Strutt, Brenda; Thyssen, Sandra; Gray, Douglas A; Bhatia, Mickie

    2003-07-01

    We show that transplantation of adult bone marrow-derived cells expressing c-kit reduces hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced pancreatic damage. Although quantitative analysis of the pancreas revealed a low frequency of donor insulin-positive cells, these cells were not present at the onset of blood glucose reduction. Instead, the majority of transplanted cells were localized to ductal and islet structures, and their presence was accompanied by a proliferation of recipient pancreatic cells that resulted in insulin production. The capacity of transplanted bone marrow-derived stem cells to initiate endogenous pancreatic tissue regeneration represents a previously unrecognized means by which these cells can contribute to the restoration of organ function.

  20. [Functional activity of bone marrow-derived peptides (myelopeptides)].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova, A A; Petrov, R V

    2009-12-01

    The review describes structure and functions of bone marrow-derived peptides (myelopeptides). The final biological effects of these endogenous bioregulators (antitumor, antiviral, anti-infectious, antileukemia etc.) are due to their immunocorrecting and differentiating activity. Myelopeptides are the integral parts of the immune homeostasis maintenance system. Nowadays, medical preparations with no side effects and natural mechanisms of action are being developed on the basis of synthesized myelopeptides.

  1. Disruption of cell-matrix interactions by heparin enhances mesenchymal progenitor adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Weijun; Shitaye, Hailu; Friedman, Michael; Bennett, Christina N.; Miller, Joshua; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Hankenson, Kurt D.

    2008-11-01

    Differentiation of marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitors to either the osteoblast or adipocyte lineage is reciprocally regulated. Factors that promote osteoblastogenesis inhibit adipogenesis, while adipogenic factors are inhibitory to osteoblast differentiation. Heparin, a soluble glycosaminoglycan, inhibits bone formation in vivo and osteoblast cell differentiation and function in vitro, and has been shown to promote adipocyte differentiation. To elucidate the role that heparin plays in the adipogenic induction of murine mesenchymal progenitors, we studied immortalized marrow stromal cells (IM-MSC), the MSC cell line, ST2, and 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes. Heparin alone was not sufficient to induce adipogenesis, but enhanced the induction under a variety of adipogenic cocktails. This effect was both dose- and time-dependent. Heparin showed a positive effect at concentrations > 0. 1 {mu}g/ml when applied before day 3 during the induction course. Heparin's effect on adipogenesis was independent of cell proliferation, cell density, and extracellular lipid. This effect is likely related to the unique structure of heparin because another polyanionic glycosaminoglycan, dextran sulfate, did not promote adipogenic differentiation. Heparin treatment altered morphology and adhesion characteristics of progenitor cells, resulting in cell rounding and aggregation. As well, heparin counteracted the known inhibitory effect of fibronectin on adipogenesis and decreased basal focal adhesion kinase and paxillin phosphorylation. We conclude that heparin-mediated disruption of cell-matrix adhesion enhances adipogenic potential.

  2. Robust growth of avirulent phase II Coxiella burnetii in bone marrow-derived murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cockrell, Diane C.; Long, Carrie M.; Robertson, Shelly J.; Shannon, Jeffrey G.; Miller, Heather E.; Myers, Lara; Larson, Charles L.; Starr, Tregei; Beare, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Published data show that murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) restrict growth of avirulent phase II, but not virulent phase I, Coxiella burnetii. Growth restriction of phase II bacteria is thought to result from potentiated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which leads to production of inhibitory effector molecules. Past studies have used conditioned medium from L-929 murine fibroblasts as a source of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to promote differentiation of bone marrow-derived myeloid precursors into macrophages. However, uncharacterized components of conditioned medium, such as variable amounts of type I interferons, can affect macrophage activation status and their permissiveness for infection. In the current study, we show that the C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II (NMII) strain grows robustly in primary macrophages from C57BL/6J mice when bone marrow cells are differentiated with recombinant murine M-CSF (rmM-CSF). Bacteria were readily internalized by BMDM, and replicated within degradative, LAMP1-positive vacuoles to achieve roughly 3 logs of growth over 6 days. Uninfected BMDM did not appreciably express CD38 or Egr2, markers of classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, respectively, nor did infection change the lack of polarization. In accordance with an M0 phenotype, infected BMDM produced moderate amounts of TNF and nitric oxide. Similar NMII growth results were obtained using C57BL/6J myeloid progenitors immortalized with an estrogen-regulated Hoxb8 (ER-Hoxb8) oncogene. To demonstrate the utility of the ER-Hoxb8 system, myeloid progenitors from natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) C57BL/6J knock-in mice were transduced with ER-Hoxb8, and macrophages were derived from immortalized progenitors using rmM-CSF and infected with NMII. No difference in growth was observed when compared to macrophages from wild type mice, indicating depletion of metal ions by the Nramp1

  3. Neuropeptide Y Induces Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Mobilization by Regulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity Through Y1 Receptor in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Hee; Lee, Jong Kil; Kim, Namoh; Min, Woo-Kie; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Herzog, Herbert; Schuchman, Edward H; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2016-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization is an essential homeostatic process regulated by the interaction of cellular and molecular components in bone marrow niches. It has been shown by others that neurotransmitters released from the sympathetic nervous system regulate HSPC egress from bone marrow to peripheral blood. In this study, we investigate the functional role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on this process. NPY deficient mice had significantly impaired HSPC mobilization due to increased expression of HSPC maintenance factors by reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in bone marrow. Pharmacological or endogenous elevation of NPY led to decrease of HSPC maintenance factors expression by activating MMP-9 in osteoblasts, resulting in HSPC mobilization. Mice in which the Y1 receptor was deleted in osteoblasts did not exhibit HSPC mobilization by NPY. Furthermore, NPY treatment in ovariectomized mice caused reduction of bone loss due to HSPC mobilization. These results suggest a new role of NPY on HSPC mobilization, as well as the potential therapeutic application of this neuropeptide for stem cell-based therapy. Stem Cells 2016;34:2145-2156.

  4. Fluid shear stress stimulates prostaglandin and nitric oxide release in bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, T. N.; Du, T.; Frangos, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is a porous tissue that is continuously perfused by interstitial fluid. Fluid flow, driven by both vascular pressure and mechanical loading, may generate significant shear stresses through the canaliculi as well as along the bone lining at the endosteal surface. Both osteoblasts and osteocytes produce signaling factors such as prostaglandins and nitric in response to fluid shear stress (FSS); however, these humoral agents appear to have more profound affects on osteoclast activity at the endosteal surface. We hypothesized that osteoclasts and preosteoclasts may also be mechanosensitive and that osteoclast-mediated autocrine signaling may be important in bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the effect of FSS on nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) release by neonatal rat bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells. These cells were tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive, weakly nonspecific esterase (NSE) positive, and capable of fusing into calcitonin-responsive, bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells. Bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells exposed for 6 h to a well-defined FSS of 16 dynes/cm(2) produced NO at a rate of 7.5 nmol/mg protein/h, which was 10-fold that of static controls. This response was completely abolished by 100 microM N(G)-amino-L-arginine (L-NAA). Flow also stimulated PGE(2) production (3.9 microg/mg protein/h) and PGI(2) production (220 pg/mg protein/h). L-NAA attenuated flow-induced PGE(2) production by 30%, suggesting that NO may partially modulate PGE(2) production. This is the first report demonstrating that marrow derived cells are sensitive to FSS and that autocrine signaling in these cells may play an important role in load-induced remodeling and signal transduction in bone. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell plasticity and their application perspectives.

    PubMed

    Menabde, G; Gogilashvili, K; Kakabadze, Z; Berishvili, E

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the characteristics of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell plasticity. Stem cells are uncommitted entities capable of both self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. In general, there are certain types of stem cell populations that are identified from embryonic and postnatal tissues. Embryonic stem cells are derived from mammalian blastocytes and theoretically have the ability to generate differentiated cell types arising from the three germ layers: mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm. In contrast, postnatal stem cells are thought to be tissue specific, committed precursors capable of developing into a restricted number of cell lineages. Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSCs), also known as mesenchymal stem cells, have been identified as a population of organized hierarchical postnatal stem cells with the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, myoblasts and neural cells. Recently, studies on the plasticity of BMSSCs challenge the traditional dogma that the differentiation and commitment of postnatal stem cells are limited to cell populations resident in their local environment. Current boneregenerative techniques, such as autologous bone grafting, allografts and alloplastic materials, have limitations that hinder their use in a wider range of clinical conditions. Hence, the development of improved methods, such as BMSSC-mediated bone regeneration, is necessary for achieving future viable therapeutic alternatives.

  6. Differentiation potential and GFP labeling of sheep bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Czernik, Marta; Fidanza, Antonella; Sardi, Martina; Galli, Cesare; Brunetti, Dario; Malatesta, Daniela; Della Salda, Leonardo; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ptak, Grazyna E; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important cell population in the bone marrow microenvironment. MSCs have the capacity to differentiate in vitro into several mesenchymal tissues including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. This study was designed to isolate, expand, and characterize the differentiation ability of sheep bone marrow-derived MSCs and to demonstrate the possibility to permanently express a reporter gene. Bone marrow was collected from the iliac crest and mononuclear cells were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Sheep MSCs cell lines were stable characterized as CD44+ and CD34- and then transfected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene. The GFP expression was maintained in about half (46.6%) of cloned blastocysts produced by nuclear transfer of GFP+ sheep MSCs, suggesting the possibility to establish multipotent embryonic cells' lines carrying the fluorescent tag for comparative studies on the differentiation capacity of adult stem cells (MSCs) versus embryonic stem cells. We found that sheep MSCs under appropriate culture conditions could be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblast lineages. Our results confirm the plasticity of sheep MSCs and establish the foundation for the development of a pre-clinical sheep model to test the efficiency and safety of cell replacement therapy.

  7. Bones of contention: marrow-derived cells in myocardial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Mark A; Murry, Charles E

    2008-06-01

    Almost 7 years have passed since the initial publication reporting that bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. The subsequent years produced hundreds of investigations that ran the gamut of findings from validation to disproof. Undeterred by the concurrent debate, clinical trials ensued to test the safety and efficacy of bone marrow-derived cell population for autologous therapy in clinical treatment of myocardial disease. In the following conversational exchange, two scientists with distinct perspectives weigh the pros and cons of pursuing bone marrow stem cell therapy and look toward finding a consensus of where the future lies for regenerative medicine and the heart. The conclusion is that the two camps may not be as far apart as it may seem from the rancor in literature and at meetings, and the potential of one day achieving regenerative therapy is indeed a vision that both parties enthusiastically share.

  8. Bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy for metastatic brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Staples, Meaghan; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Sanberg, Paul R; Freeman, Thomas B; van Loveren, Harry; Kim, Seung U; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    We propose that stem cell therapy may be a potent treatment for metastatic melanoma in the brain. Here we discuss the key role of a leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) that accompanies the development of brain metastases. We review the need to characterize the immunological and inflammatory responses associated with tumor-derived BBB damage in order to reveal the contribution of this brain pathological alteration to the formation and growth of brain metastatic cancers. Next, we discuss the potential repair of the BBB and attenuation of brain metastasis through transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with the endothelial progenitor cell phenotype. In particular, we review the need for evaluation of the efficacy of stem cell therapy in repairing a disrupted BBB in an effort to reduce neuroinflammation, eventually attenuating brain metastatic cancers. The demonstration of BBB repair through augmented angiogenesis and vasculogenesis will be critical to establishing the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment/prevention of metastatic brain tumors. The overarching hypothesis we advanced here is that BBB breakdown is closely associated with brain metastatic cancers of melanoma, exacerbating the inflammatory response of the brain during metastasis, and ultimately worsening the outcome of metastatic brain cancers. Abrogating this leaky BBB-mediated inflammation via stem cell therapy represents a paradigm-shifting approach to treating brain cancer. This review article discusses the pros and cons of cell therapy for melanoma brain metastases.

  9. Bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fotino, Carmen; Ricordi, Camillo; Lauriola, Vincenzo; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Pileggi, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    The bone marrow is an invaluable source of adult pluripotent stem cells, as it gives rise to hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal cells, amongst others. The use of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMC) transplantation (BMT) may be of assistance in achieving tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in modulating immune responses in the context of autoimmunity and transplantation. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the effects of BMC to preserve functional beta-cell mass in subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and to favor engraftment and survival of transplanted islets. Additional trials are evaluating the impact of BMT (i.e., mesenchymal stem cells) on the progression of diabetes complications. This article reviews the progress in the field of BMC for the treatment of subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes, and summarizes clinical data of pilot studies performed over the last two decades at our research center by combining allogeneic islet transplantation with donor-specific BMC. Clinical data is summarized from pilot studies performed at our research center over the last two decades.

  10. Mobilised bone marrow-derived cells accelerate wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Yu; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Shi-Zhao; Han, Shu; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2013-08-01

    Massive skin defects caused by severe burn and trauma are a clinical challenge to surgeons. Timely and effective wound closure is often hindered by the lack of skin donor site. Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to 'differentiate' into multiple tissue cells. In this study we focused on the direct manipulation of endogenous BMDCs, avoiding the immunocompatibility issues and complicated cell isolation, purification, identification and amplification procedures in vitro on wound repair. We found that mobilisation of the BMDCs into the circulation significantly increased the amount of BMDCs at the injury site which in turn accelerated healing of large open wound. We used a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse model to track BMDCs and to investigate their role in full-thickness skin excisional wounds. We have shown that bone marrow mobilisation by granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) exerted multiple beneficial effects on skin repair, both by increasing the engraftment of BMDCs into the skin to differentiate into multiple skin cell types and by upregulating essential cytokine mRNAs critical to wound repair. The potential trophic effects of G-CSF on bone marrow stem cells to accelerate wound healing could have a significant clinical impact.

  11. Osteogenic induction of bone marrow-derived stromal cells on simvastatin-releasing, biodegradable, nano- to microscale fiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wadagaki, Ryu; Mizuno, Daiki; Yamawaki-Ogata, Aika; Satake, Makoto; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Hagiwara, Sumitaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Narita, Yuji; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2011-07-01

    Tissue engineering is an effective approach for the treatment of bone defects. Statins have been demonstrated to promote osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs). Electrospun biodegradable fibers have also shown applicability to drug delivery in the form of bone tissue engineered scaffolds with nano- to microscale topography and high porosity similar to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a simvastatin-releasing, biodegradable, nano- to microscale fiber scaffold (SRBFS) for bone tissue engineering with BMSCs. Simvastatin was released from SRBFS slowly. BMSCs were observed to spread actively and rigidly adhere to SRBFS. BMSCs on SRBFS showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity 2 weeks after cell culture. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis was suppressed by SRBFS in vitro. The new bone formation and mineralization in the SRBFS group were significantly better than in the biodegradable fiber scaffold (BFS) without simvastatin 12 weeks after implantation of the cell-scaffold construct into an ectopic site on the murine back. These results suggest that SRBFS promoted osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro and in vivo, and demonstrate feasibility as a bone engineering scaffold.

  12. Growth of connective tissue progenitor cells on microtextured polydimethylsiloxane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mata, Alvaro; Boehm, Cynthia; Fleischman, Aaron J; Muschler, George; Roy, Shuvo

    2002-12-15

    Growth of human connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs) was characterized on smooth and microtextured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. Human bone-marrow-derived cells were cultured for 9 days under conditions promoting osteoblastic differentiation on smooth PDMS surfaces and on PDMS post microtextures that were 6 microm high and 5, 10, 20, and 40 microm in diameter, respectively. Glass tissue-culture dishes were used as controls. The number of viable cells was determined, and an alkaline phosphatase stain was used as a marker for osteoblastic phenotype. CTPs attached, proliferated, and differentiated on all surfaces. Cells on the smooth PDMS and control surfaces spread and proliferated as colonies in proximity to other cells and migrated in random directions, with cell process lengths of up to 80 microm. In contrast, cells on the PDMS post microtextures grew as sparsely distributed networks of cells, with processes, occasionally up to 300 microm, that appeared to interact with the posts. Cell counts revealed that there were fewer (50%) CTPs on the smooth PDMS surface than were on the glass control surfaces. However, there were consistently more (>144%) CTPs on the PDMS post textures than on the controls. In particular, the 10-microm-in-diameter posts (268%) exhibited a significantly (p < 0.05) greater cell number than did the smooth PDMS.

  13. The natural flavonoid galangin inhibits osteoclastic bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-κB in collagen-induced arthritis and bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Jung, In-Tae; Choi, Junyoung; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Dong; Park, Dong-Suk; Choi, Do-Young

    2013-01-05

    We investigated the effect of galangin, a natural flavonoid, on osteoclastic bone destruction in collagen-induced arthritis and examined the molecular mechanisms by which galangin affects osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow derived macrophages. In mice with collagen-induced arthritis, administration of galangin significantly reduced the arthritis clinical score, edema and severity of disease without toxicity. Interestingly, galangin treatment during a later stage of collagen-induced arthritis, using mice with a higher clinical arthritis score, still significantly slowed the progression of the disease. Extensive cartilage and bone erosive changes as well as synovial inflammation, synovial hyperplasia and pannus formation were dramatically inhibited in arthritic mice treated with galangin. Furthermore, galangin-treated arthritic mice showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-17. We found that galangin inhibited osteoclastogenic factors and osteoclast formation in bone marrow-derived macrophages and osteoblast co-cultured cells, and increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels in osteoblasts. Galangin and NF-κB siRNA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Also, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and p38 inhibitor SB203580 reduced RANKL-induced expressions of phospho-c-Jun, c-fos and NFATc1 genes during osteoclast development. In addition, galangin suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, inflammatory cytokines and osteoclast formation in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our data suggest that galangin prevented osteoclastic bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis in osteoclast precursors as well as in collagen-induced arthritis mice without toxicity via attenuation of RANKL-induced activation of JNK, p38 and NF-κB pathways.

  14. PELA microspheres with encapsulated arginine-chitosan/pBMP-2 nanoparticles induce pBMP-2 controlled-release, transfected osteoblastic progenitor cells, and promoted osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolong; Qiu, Sujun; Zhang, Yuxian; Yin, Jie; Min, Shaoxiong

    2017-03-01

    Repair of the bone injury remains a challenge in clinical practices. Recent progress in tissue engineering and therapeutic gene delivery systems have led to promising new strategies for successful acceleration of bone repair process. The aim of this study was to create a controlled-release system to slowly release the arginine-chitosan/plasmid DNA nanoparticles encoding BMP-2 gene (Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs), efficiently transfect osteoblastic progenitor cells, secrete functional BMP-2 protein, and promote osteogenic differentiation. In this study, chitosan was conjugated with arginine to generate arginine-chitosan polymer (Arg-CS) for gene delivery. Mix the Arg-CS with pBMP-2 to condense pBMP-2 into nano-sized particles. In vitro transfection assays demonstrated that the transfection efficiency of Arg-CS/pBMP-2 nanoparticles and the expression level of BMP-2 was obviously exceed control groups. Further, PELA microspheres as the controlled-release carrier for the nanoparticles were used to encapsulate Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs. We demonstrated that the Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs could slowly release from the PELA microspheres at least for 42 d. During the co-culture with the PELA microspheres, the content of BMP-2 protein secreted by MC3T3-E1 reached the peak at 7 d. After 21d, the secretion of BMP-2 protein still maintain a higher level. The alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and osteogenesis-related gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR analysis all showed the PELA microspheres entrapping with Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs can obviously induce the osteogenic differentiation. The results indicated that the Arg-CS is a suitable gene vector which can promote the gene transfection. And the novel PELA microspheres-nanoparticle controlled-release system has potential clinical application in the future after further research.

  15. p62 is required to retain short-term repopulating and myeloid progenitor cells through inhibition of IKK/NF-κB/Ccl4 signaling at the bone marrow macrophage-osteoblast niche

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung Hee; Sengupta, Amitava; Nayak, Ramesh C.; Duran, Angeles; Lee, Sang Jun; Pratt, Ronald G.; Wellendorf, Ashley M.; Hill, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marcus; Gonzalez-Nieto, Daniel; Aronow, Bruce J.; Starczynowski, Daniel T.; Civitelli, Roberto; Diaz-Meco, Maria T.; Moscat, Jorge; Cancelas, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    In the bone marrow (BM), hematopoietic progenitors (HP) reside in specific anatomical niches near osteoblasts (Ob), macrophages (MΦ) and other cells forming the BM microenvironment. A connection between immunosurveillance and traffic of HP has been demonstrated but the regulatory signals that instruct immune regulation on HP circulation are unknown. We discovered that the BM microenvironment deficiency of p62, an autophagy regulator and signal organizer, results in loss of autophagic repression of macrophage contact-dependent activation of Ob NF-κB signaling. Consequently, Ob p62-deficient mice lose bone, Ob Ccl4 expression and HP chemotaxis towards Cxcl12 resulting in egress of short-term hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors. Finally, Ccl4 expression and myeloid progenitor egress are reversed by the deficiency of the p62 PB1 binding partner Nbr1. A functional ‘MΦ-Ob niche’ is required for myeloid progenitor/short-term stem cell retention, in which Ob p62 is required to maintain NF-κB signaling repression, osteogenesis and BM progenitor retention. PMID:25533346

  16. Systemic and Local Administration of Allogeneic Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Fracture Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuo; Xu, Liangliang; Zhang, Yifeng; Sun, Yuxin; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are immune privileged and a cell source for tissue repair. Previous studies showed that there is systemic mobilization of osteoblastic precursors to the fracture site. We hypothesized that both systemic and local administration of allogeneic MSCs may promote fracture healing. Bone marrow-derived MSCs and skin fibroblasts were isolated from GFP Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured, and characterized. Closed transverse femoral fracture with internal fixation was established in 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned into four groups receiving PBS injection, MSC systemic injection, fibroblast systemic injection, and MSC fracture site injection; 2 × 10(6) cells were injected at 4 days after fracture. All animals were sacrificed at 5 weeks after fracture; examinations included weekly radiograph, micro-CT, mechanical testing, histology, immunohistochemistry, and double immunofluorescence. The callus size of MSC injection groups was significantly larger among all the groups. Radiographs and 3D reconstruction images showed that the fracture gaps united in the MSC injected groups, while gaps were still seen in the fibroblast and PBS injection groups. The mechanical properties were significantly higher in the MSC injection groups than those in the fibroblast and PBS groups, but no difference was found between the MSC local and systemic injection groups. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence demonstrated that GFP-positive MSCs were present in the callus in the MSC injection groups at 5 weeks after fracture, and some differentiated into osteoblasts. Quantitative analysis revealed the number of GFP-positive cells in the callus in the MSC systemic injection group was significantly lower than that of the MSC local injection group. The proportion of GFP osteoblasts in GFP-positive cells in the MSC systemic injection group was significantly lower than that of the MSC local injection group. These findings provide critical

  17. Mitigating HZE Radiation-Induced Deficits in Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells and Skeletal Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth K.; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Terada, Masahiro; Alwood, Joshua; Halloran, Bernard; Tahimic, Candice

    2016-01-01

    Future long-duration space exploration beyond the earths magnetosphere will increase human exposure to space radiation and associated risks to skeletal health. We hypothesize that oxidative stress resulting from radiation exposure causes progressive bone loss and dysfunction in associated tissue. In animal studies, increased free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility.

  18. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells: Commitment and Regulation of Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage and regulation of BM adipocyte formation are not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss recent findings pertaining to identification and characterization of adipocyte progenitor cells in BM and the regulation of differentiation into mature adipocytes. We have also emphasized the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:27708616

  19. VEGF treatment promotes bone marrow-derived CXCR4+ mesenchymal stromal stem cell differentiation into vessel endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiming; Xia, Shudong; Fang, Hanyun; Pan, Jiansheng; Jia, Yinfeng; Deng, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cells serve an important role in the process of blood vessel repair. However, the mechanism of vascular repair mediated by C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4-positive (CXCR4+) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) following myocardial infarction remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on vessel endothelial differentiation from BMSCs. CXCR4+ BMSCs were isolated from the femoral bone marrow of 2-month-old mice and the cells were treated with VEGF. Expression of endothelial cell markers and the functional properties were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry and vascular formation analyses. The results indicated that the CXCR4+ BMSCs from femoral bone marrow cells expressed putative cell surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells. Treatment with VEGF induced platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression at the transcriptional and translational levels, compared with untreated controls. Moreover, VEGF treatment induced CXCR4+ BMSCs to form hollow tube-like structures on Matrigel, suggesting that the differentiated endothelial cells had the functional properties of blood vessels. The results demonstrate that the CXCR4+ BMSCs were able to differentiate into vessel endothelial cells following VEGF treatment. For cell transplantation in vascular disease, it may be concluded that CXCR4+ BMSCs are a novel source of endothelial progenitor cells with high potential for application in vascular repair. PMID:28352314

  20. JAK3/STAT6 Stimulates Bone Marrow-Derived Fibroblast Activation in Renal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingyin; Zhang, Zhengmao; Yang, Jun; Mitch, William E; Wang, Yanlin

    2015-12-01

    Renal fibrosis is a final common manifestation of CKD resulting in progressive loss of kidney function. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying the activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors in the kidney are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the Janus kinase 3 (JAK3)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6) signaling pathway in the activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts. In cultured mouse monocytes, IL-4 or IL-13 activated STAT6 and induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin and collagen I), which was abolished by a JAK3 inhibitor (CP690,550) in a dose-dependent manner or blocked in the absence of STAT6. In vivo, STAT6 was activated in interstitial cells of the obstructed kidney, an effect that was abolished by CP690,550. Mice treated with CP690,550 accumulated fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the obstructed kidneys compared with vehicle-treated mice. Treatment with CP690,550 also significantly reduced myofibroblast transformation, matrix protein expression, fibrosis development, and apoptosis in obstructed kidneys. Furthermore, STAT6-deficient mice accumulated fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the obstructed kidneys, produced less extracellular matrix protein, and developed much less fibrosis. Finally, wild-type mice engrafted with STAT6(-/-) bone marrow cells displayed fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the obstructed kidneys and showed less severe renal fibrosis compared with wild-type mice engrafted with STAT6(+/+) bone marrow cells. Our results demonstrate that JAK3/STAT6 has an important role in bone marrow-derived fibroblast activation, extracellular matrix production, and interstitial fibrosis development.

  1. Adipose lineage specification of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Susan M.; Miller, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Timothy; Erickson, Paul F.; Kong, Raymond; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Nemenoff, Raphael; Moldovan, Radu; Morandi, Shelley A.; Davis, James A.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported the production of white adipocytes in adipose tissue from hematopoietic progenitors arising from bone marrow. However, technical challenges have hindered detection of this adipocyte population by certain other laboratories. These disparate results highlight the need for sensitive and definitive techniques to identify bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes. In these studies we exploited new models and methods to enhance detection of this adipocyte population. Here we showed that confocal microscopy with spectrum acquisition could effectively identify green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive BMP-derived adipocytes by matching their fluorescence spectrum to that of native GFP. Likewise, imaging flow cytometry made it possible to visualize intact unilocular and multilocular GFP-positive BMP-derived adipocytes and distinguished them from non-fluorescent adipocytes and cell debris in the cytometer flow stream. We also devised a strategy to detect marker genes in flow-enriched adipocytes from which stromal cells were excluded. This technique also proved to be an efficient means for detecting genetically labeled adipocytes and should be applicable to models in which marker gene expression is low or absent. Finally, in vivo imaging of mice transplanted with BM from adipocyte-targeted luciferase donors showed a time-dependent increase in luciferase activity, with the bulk of luciferase activity confined to adipocytes rather than stromal cells. These results confirmed and extended our previous reports and provided proof-of-principle for sensitive techniques and models for detection and study of these unique cells. PMID:23700536

  2. Transgelin is a TGFβ-inducible gene that regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of human skeletal stem cells through actin cytoskeleston organization.

    PubMed

    Elsafadi, M; Manikandan, M; Dawud, R A; Alajez, N M; Hamam, R; Alfayez, M; Kassem, M; Aldahmash, A; Mahmood, A

    2016-08-04

    Regenerative medicine is a novel approach for treating conditions in which enhanced bone regeneration is required. We identified transgelin (TAGLN), a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-inducible gene, as an upregulated gene during in vitro osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hMSC). siRNA-mediated gene silencing of TAGLN impaired lineage differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes but enhanced cell proliferation. Additional functional studies revealed that TAGLN deficiency impaired hMSC cell motility and in vitro transwell cell migration. On the other hand, TAGLN overexpression reduced hMSC cell proliferation, but enhanced cell migration, osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation, and in vivo bone formation. In addition, deficiency or overexpression of TAGLN in hMSC was associated with significant changes in cellular and nuclear morphology and cytoplasmic organelle composition as demonstrated by high content imaging and transmission electron microscopy that revealed pronounced alterations in the distribution of the actin filament and changes in cytoskeletal organization. Molecular signature of TAGLN-deficient hMSC showed that several genes and genetic pathways associated with cell differentiation, including regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion pathways, were downregulated. Our data demonstrate that TAGLN has a role in generating committed progenitor cells from undifferentiated hMSC by regulating cytoskeleton organization. Targeting TAGLN is a plausible approach to enrich for committed hMSC cells needed for regenerative medicine application.

  3. The Effect of Quercetin on the Osteogenesic Differentiation and Angiogenic Factor Expression of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuning; Wu, Yuqiong; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Xiuli; Xia, Lunguo; Lin, Kaili; Xu, Yuanjin

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely used in regenerative medicine in light of their ability to differentiate along the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. As a type of traditional Chinese medicine, quercetin has been preliminarily reported to promote osteogenic differentiation in osteoblasts. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the proliferation, viability, cellular morphology, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rat BMSCs (rBMSCs) were examined by MTT assay, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition assays, and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were involved in these processes was also explored. The results showed that quercetin significantly enhanced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration of 2 μM achieving the greatest stimulatory effect. Moreover, the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) and p38 pathways was observed in quercetin-treated rBMSCs. Furthermore, these induction effects could be repressed by either the ERK inhibitor PD98059 or the p38 inhibitor SB202190, respectively. These data indicated that quercetin could promote the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rBMSCs in vitro, partially through the ERK and p38 signaling pathways. PMID:26053266

  4. Bone marrow-derived pancreatic stellate cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Gisela; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Hofmeister-Mielke, Nicole; Koczan, Dirk; Jaster, Robert; Liebe, Stefan; Wolff, Daniel; Emmrich, Jörg

    2010-03-01

    Origin and fate of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) before, during and after pancreatic injury are a matter of debate. The crucial role of PSCs in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis is generally accepted. However, the turnover of the cells remains obscure. The present study addressed the issue of a potential bone marrow (BM) origin of PSCs. We used a model of stable hematopoietic chimerism by grafting enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-expressing BM cells after irradiation of acceptor rats. Chimerism was detected by FACS analysis of eGFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood. Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was used to induce acute pancreatic inflammation with subsequent recovery over 4 weeks. Investigations have been focused on isolated cells to detect the resting PSC population. The incidence of eGFP-positive PSC obtained from the pancreas of chimeric rats was approximately 7% in healthy pancreatic tissue and increased significantly to a mean of 18% in the restored pancreas 4 weeks after DBTC-induced acute inflammation. Our results suggest that BM-derived progenitor cells represent a source of renewable stellate cells in the pancreas. Increased numbers of resting PSCs after regeneration point toward enhanced recruitment of BM-derived cells to the pancreas and/or re-acquisition of a quiescent state after inflammation-induced activation.

  5. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes contribute to liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver injury often leads to hepatic fibrosis, a condition associated with increased levels of circulating TGF-β1 and lipopolysaccharide, activation of myofibroblasts, and extensive deposition of extracellular matrix, mostly collagen Type I. Hepatic stellate cells are considered to be the major1 but not the only source of myofibroblasts in the injured liver.2 Hepatic myofibroblasts may also originate from portal fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells, and fibrocytes.3 Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, this bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I-producing CD45+ cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Due to the ability to differentiate into collagen Type I producing cells/myofibroblasts, fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of liver, skin, lung, and kidney fibrosis. However, studies of different organs often contain controversial results on the number of fibrocytes recruited to the site of injury and their biological function. Furthermore, fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and were shown to possess antimicrobial activity. Finally, in response to specific stimuli, fibrocytes can give rise to fully differentiated macrophages, suggesting that in concurrence with the high plasticity of hematopoietic cells, fibrocytes exhibit progenitor properties. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the role of CD45+Collagen Type I+ BM-derived cells in response to fibrogenic liver injury and septicemia and discuss the most recent evidence supporting the critical role of fibrocytes in the mediation of pro-fibrogenic and/or pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25966982

  6. Viscoelastic properties of human mesenchymally-derived stem cells and primary osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Eric M.; Topel, Matthew; Zauscher, Stefan; Vail, Thomas P.; Guilak, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of single cells play important roles in regulating cell-matrix interactions, potentially influencing the process of mechanotransduction. Recent studies also suggest that cellular mechanical properties may provide novel biological markers, or “biomarkers,” of cell phenotype, reflecting specific changes that occur with disease, differentiation, or cellular transformation. Of particular interest in recent years has been the identification of such biomarkers that can be used to determine specific phenotypic characteristics of stem cells that separate them from primary, differentiated cells. The goal of this study was to determine the elastic and viscoelastic properties of three primary cell types of mesenchymal lineage (chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes) and to test the hypothesis that primary differentiated cells exhibit distinct mechanical properties compared to adult stem cells (adipose-derived or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells). In an adherent, spread configuration, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes all exhibited significantly different mechanical properties, with osteoblasts being stiffer than chondrocytes and both being stiffer than adipocytes. Adipose-derived and mesenchymal stem cells exhibited similar properties to each other, but were mechanically distinct from primary cells, particularly when comparing a ratio of elastic to relaxed moduli. These findings will help more accurately model the cellular mechanical environment in mesenchymal tissues, which could assist in describing injury thresholds and disease progression or even determining the influence of mechanical loading for tissue engineering efforts. Furthermore, the identification of mechanical properties distinct to stem cells could result in more successful sorting procedures to enrich multipotent progenitor cell populations. PMID:17825308

  7. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until now, the isolation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bBM-MSCs) have not been established, which prompted us to optimize the differentiation protocol for bBM-MSCs. In this study, bBM-MSCs were freshly isolated from three 6-month-old cattle and used for p...

  8. Systemic Injection of RPE65-Programmed Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Prevents Progression of Chronic Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoping; Pay, S Louise; Yan, Yuanqing; Thomas, James; Lewin, Alfred S; Chang, Lung-Ji; Grant, Maria B; Boulton, Michael E

    2017-04-05

    Bone marrow stem and progenitor cells can differentiate into a range of non-hematopoietic cell types, including retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-like cells. In this study, we programmed bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) ex vivo by inserting a stable RPE65 transgene using a lentiviral vector. We tested the efficacy of systemically administered RPE65-programmed BMDCs to prevent visual loss in the superoxide dismutase 2 knockdown (Sod2 KD) mouse model of age-related macular degeneration. Here, we present evidence that these RPE65-programmed BMDCs are recruited to the subretinal space, where they repopulate the RPE layer, preserve the photoreceptor layer, retain the thickness of the neural retina, reduce lipofuscin granule formation, and suppress microgliosis. Importantly, electroretinography and optokinetic response tests confirmed that visual function was significantly improved. Mice treated with non-modified BMDCs or BMDCs pre-programmed with LacZ did not exhibit significant improvement in visual deficit. RPE65-BMDC administration was most effective in early disease, when visual function and retinal morphology returned to near normal, and less effective in late-stage disease. This experimental paradigm offers a minimally invasive cellular therapy that can be given systemically overcoming the need for invasive ocular surgery and offering the potential to arrest progression in early AMD and other RPE-based diseases.

  9. Cigarette smoke inhibits recruitment of bone-marrow-derived stem cells to the uterus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuping; Gan, Ye; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to female infertility and a decreased incidence of endometriosis. Bone marrow derived stem cells are recruited to uterine endometrium and endometriosis. The effect of cigarette smoking on stem cell recruitment to any organ is uncharacterized. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to the uterus and differentiation would be diminished by cigarette smoke. We used human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in vitro and a mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure. After myeloablation female C57BL/6J received bone marrow cells from males. Mice were exposed to room air or smoke from unfiltered cigarettes. Immunofluorescence and Y-FISH was performed on uterine sections. In vitro hMSCs were treated with 8-Br-cAMP to induce endometrial cell differentiation with or without cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and decidualization assessed morphologically and by prolactin expression. After 4 weeks the total number of Y-chromosome cells in the uterus was reduced by 68% in the smoke exposed mice. Both leukocytes and bone marrow derived endometrial cells were reduced by 60% and 73%, respectively. Differentiation of bone marrow derived cell to endometrial epithelial cells was reduced by 84%. hMSC treated with CSE failed to show cytological characteristics of decidualization. mRNA levels of the decidualization marker prolactin were decreased by 90% in CSE treated cells. Smoking inhibits both recruitment of bone marrow derived stem cells to uterus and stem cell differentiation. Inhibition of stem cells recruitment may be a general mechanism by which smoking leads to long term organ damage through inability to repair or regenerate multiple tissues.

  10. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, He; Otani, Atsushi; Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-08

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a {sup 137}Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that

  11. Bioactive lipid coating of bone allografts directs engraftment and fate determination of bone marrow-derived cells in rat GFP chimeras.

    PubMed

    Das, Anusuya; Segar, Claire E; Chu, Yihsuan; Wang, Tiffany W; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Xeujun; Ogle, Roy C; Cui, Quanjun; Botchwey, Edward A

    2015-09-01

    Bone grafting procedures are performed to treat wounds incurred during wartime trauma, accidents, and tumor resections. Endogenous mechanisms of repair are often insufficient to ensure integration between host and donor bone and subsequent restoration of function. We investigated the role that bone marrow-derived cells play in bone regeneration and sought to increase their contributions by functionalizing bone allografts with bioactive lipid coatings. Polymer-coated allografts were used to locally deliver the immunomodulatory small molecule FTY720 in tibial defects created in rat bone marrow chimeras containing genetically-labeled bone marrow for monitoring cell origin and fate. Donor bone marrow contributed significantly to both myeloid and osteogenic cells in remodeling tissue surrounding allografts. FTY720 coatings altered the phenotype of immune cells two weeks post-injury, which was associated with increased vascularization and bone formation surrounding allografts. Consequently, degradable polymer coating strategies that deliver small molecule growth factors such as FTY720 represent a novel therapeutic strategy for harnessing endogenous bone marrow-derived progenitors and enhancing healing in load-bearing bone defects.

  12. Using brain slice cultures of mouse brain to assess the effect of growth factors on differentiation of bone marrow derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bratincsák, András; Lonyai, Anna; Shahar, Tal; Hansen, Arne; Tóth, Zsuzsanna E; Mezey, Eva

    2007-03-30

    Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSCs) have been reported to form neurons and supportive cells in the brain. We describe a technique that combines the simplicity of in vitro studies with many of the advantages of in vivo experiments. We cultured mouse brain slices, deposited GFP-tagged BMDSCs evenly distributed on their surfaces, and then added test factors to the culture medium. Addition of both SDF-1 and EGF resulted in morphological changes of BMDSC and in the induction of islet-1, a marker of neuroepithelial progenitors. We conclude that organotypic tissue culture (OTC) may allow us to detect the effects of exogenous factors on the differentiation of BMDSCs (or any other type of stem cells) in an environment that may resemble the CNS after brain injury. Once such factors have been identified they could be evaluated for tissue regeneration in more complex, whole animal models.

  13. Unlocking bat immunology: establishment of Pteropus alecto bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Chionh, Yok Teng; Irac, Sergio Erdal; Ahn, Matae; Jia Ng, Justin Han; Fossum, Even; Bogen, Bjarne; Ginhoux, Florent; Irving, Aaron T; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Bats carry and shed many emerging infectious disease agents including Ebola virus and SARS-like Coronaviruses, yet they rarely display clinical symptoms of infection. Bat epithelial or fibroblast cell lines were previously established to study the bat immune response against viral infection. However, the lack of professional immune cells such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages has greatly limited the significance of current investigations. Using Pteropus alecto (P. alecto) GM-CSF plus IL4, FLT3L and CSF-1, we successfully generated bat bone marrow-derived DC and macrophages. Cells with the phenotype, morphology and functional features of monocyte-derived DC, bona fide DC or macrophages were obtained in GM-CSF/IL4, FLT3L or CSF-1 cultures, respectively. The successful generation of the first bat bone marrow-derived immune cells paves the way to unlocking the immune mechanisms that confer host resilience to pathogens in bats. PMID:27934903

  14. Unlocking bat immunology: establishment of Pteropus alecto bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Chionh, Yok Teng; Irac, Sergio Erdal; Ahn, Matae; Jia Ng, Justin Han; Fossum, Even; Bogen, Bjarne; Ginhoux, Florent; Irving, Aaron T; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-12-09

    Bats carry and shed many emerging infectious disease agents including Ebola virus and SARS-like Coronaviruses, yet they rarely display clinical symptoms of infection. Bat epithelial or fibroblast cell lines were previously established to study the bat immune response against viral infection. However, the lack of professional immune cells such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages has greatly limited the significance of current investigations. Using Pteropus alecto (P. alecto) GM-CSF plus IL4, FLT3L and CSF-1, we successfully generated bat bone marrow-derived DC and macrophages. Cells with the phenotype, morphology and functional features of monocyte-derived DC, bona fide DC or macrophages were obtained in GM-CSF/IL4, FLT3L or CSF-1 cultures, respectively. The successful generation of the first bat bone marrow-derived immune cells paves the way to unlocking the immune mechanisms that confer host resilience to pathogens in bats.

  15. Adeno associated viral-mediated intraosseous labeling of bone marrow derived cells for CNS tracking.

    PubMed

    Selenica, Maj-Linda B; Reid, Patrick; Pena, Gabriela; Alvarez, Jennifer; Hunt, Jerry B; Nash, Kevin R; Morgan, Dave; Gordon, Marcia N; Lee, Daniel C

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation, including microglial activation in the CNS, is an important hallmark in many neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial stimuli not only impact the brain microenvironment by production and release of cytokines and chemokines, but also influence the activity of bone marrow derived cells and blood born macrophage populations. In many diseases including brain disorders and spinal cord injury, researchers have tried to harbor the neuroprotective and repair properties of these subpopulations. Hematopoietic bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) are of great interest, especially during gene therapy because certain hematopoietic cell subpopulations traffic to the sites of injury and inflammation. The aim of this study was to develop a method of labeling endogenous bone marrow derived cells through intraosseous impregnation of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) or lentivirus. We utilized rAAV serotype 9 (rAAV-9) or lentivirus for gene delivery of green florescence protein (GFP) to the mouse bone marrow cells. Flow cytometry showed that both viruses were able to efficiently transduce mouse bone marrow cells in vivo. However, the rAAV9-GFP viral construct transduced BMDCs more efficiently than the lentivirus (11.2% vs. 6.8%), as indicated by cellular GFP expression. We also demonstrate that GFP labeled cells correspond to bone marrow cells of myeloid origin using CD11b as a marker. Additionally, we characterized the ability of bone marrow derived, GFP labeled cells to extravasate into the brain parenchyma upon acute and subchronic neuroinflammatory stimuli in the mouse CNS. Viral mediated over expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) or intracranial injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recruited GFP labeled BMDCs from the periphery into the brain parenchyma compared to vehicle treated mice. Altogether our findings demonstrate a useful method of labeling endogenous BMDCs via viral transduction and the ability to track subpopulations throughout the body

  16. Granule cargo release from bone marrow-derived cells sustains cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Dong, Anping; Ahamed, Jasimuddin; Sunkara, Manjula; Smyth, Susan S

    2014-11-15

    Bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, including platelets, may contribute to the progression of pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, the underlying mechanisms for this are still unclear. One potential mechanism is through release of granule cargo. Unc13-d(Jinx) (Jinx) mice, which lack Munc13-4, a limiting factor in vesicular priming and fusion, have granule secretion defects in a variety of hematopoietic cells, including platelets. In the current study, we investigated the role of granule secretion in the development of LVH and cardiac remodeling using chimeric mice specifically lacking Munc13-4 in marrow-derived cells. Pressure overload was elicited by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Chimeric mice were created by bone marrow transplantation. Echocardiography, histology staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were used to study LVH progression and inflammatory responses. Wild-type (WT) mice that were transplanted with WT bone marrow (WT→WT) and WT mice that received Jinx bone marrow (Jinx→WT) developed LVH and a classic fetal reprogramming response early (7 days) after TAC. However, at late times (5 wk), mice lacking Munc13-4 in bone marrow-derived cells (Jinx→WT) failed to sustain the cardiac hypertrophy observed in WT chimeric mice. No difference in cardiac fibrosis was observed at early or late time points. Reinjection of WT platelets or platelet releasate partially restored cardiac hypertrophy in Jinx chimeric mice. These results suggest that sustained LVH in the setting of pressure overload depends on one or more factors secreted from bone marrow-derived cells, possibly from platelets. Inhibiting granule cargo release may represent a novel target for preventing sustained LVH.

  17. One-step bone marrow-derived cell transplantation in talarosteochondral lesions: mid-term results

    PubMed Central

    BUDA, ROBERTO; VANNINI, FRANCESCA; CAVALLO, MARCO; BALDASSARRI, MATTEO; NATALI, SIMONE; CASTAGNINI, FRANCESCO; GIANNINI, SANDRO

    2013-01-01

    Purpose to verify the capability of scaffold-supported bone marrow-derived cells to be used in the repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Methods using a device to concentrate bone marrow-derived cells, a scaffold (collagen powder or hyaluronic acid membrane) for cell support and platelet gel, a one-step arthroscopic technique was developed for cartilage repair. In a prospective clinical study, we investigated the ability of this technique to repair talar osteochondral lesions in 64 patients. The mean follow-up was 53 months. Clinical results were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale score. We also considered the influence of scaffold type, lesion area, previous surgery, and lesion depth. Results the mean preoperative AOFAS scale score was 65.2 ± 13.9. The clinical results peaked at 24 months, before declining gradually to settle at a score of around 80 at the maximum follow-up of 72 months. Conclusions the use of bone marrow-derived cells supported by scaffolds to repair osteochondral lesions of the talus resulted in significant clinical improvement, which was maintained over time. Level of Evidence level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25606518

  18. CXCL16 recruits bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors in renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Song-Chang; Chen, Jiyuan; He, Liqun; Dong, Feixia; Xu, Jing; Han, Shuhua; Du, Jie; Entman, Mark L; Wang, Yanlin

    2011-10-01

    Although fibroblasts are responsible for the production and deposition of extracellular matrix in renal fibrosis, their origin is controversial. Circulating fibroblast precursors may contribute to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis, but the signaling mechanisms underlying the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors into the kidney in response to injury are incompletely understood. Here, in the unilateral ureteral obstruction model of renal fibrosis, tubular epithelial cells upregulated the chemokine CXCL16 in obstructed kidneys, and circulating fibroblast precursors expressed the CXCL16 receptor, CXCR6. Compared with wild-type mice, CXCL16-knockout mice accumulated significantly fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors in obstructed kidneys. CXCL16-knockout mice also exhibited significantly fewer CD45-, collagen I-, and CXCR6-triple-positive fibroblast precursors in injured kidneys. Furthermore, targeted deletion of CXCL16 inhibited myofibroblast activation, reduced collagen deposition, and suppressed expression of collagen I and fibronectin. In conclusion, CXCL16 contributes to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis by recruiting bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors.

  19. Evidence for transdifferentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells: recent progress and controversies.

    PubMed

    Tao, Helen; Ma, David D F

    2003-02-01

    Adult bone marrow-derived stem cells have traditionally been known as tissue-specific stem cells capable of producing blood cells. This concept is being challenged by a series of recent discoveries. It has been demonstrated that there are heterogeneous stem cell populations in adult bone marrow compartment. Under appropriate experimental conditions, a certain type of bone marrow stem cells appears to differentiate (or transdifferentiate) into a variety of non-haemopoietic cells of ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal origins (such as myocytes, neural cells and hepatocytes). The plasticity, that is, the ability to regenerate cells belonging to different organs and tissues of adult (postnatal) stem cells, has raised the therapeutic possibility of using these stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration. Presently, definitive evidence for plasticity or transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells is lacking. Despite controversies concerning the plasticity of bone marrow-derived stem cells, early clinical trials are being conducted in patients suffering from myocardial infarct, arthritic and neurological diseases using autologous bone marrow stem cells. This review summarises recent progresses and controversies in transdifferentiation of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells to non-haemopoietic tissues.

  20. Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Therapies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Felipe Gonçalves; de Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually, and is also a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 10 to 27% of all cases and has a fatality rate of about 50% in the first 30 days, with limited treatment possibilities. In the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (particularly mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells) has been intensively investigated in preclinical models of different neurological diseases, including models of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. More recently, clinical studies, most of them small, unblinded, and nonrandomized, have suggested that the therapy with bone marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This review discusses the available evidence on the use of bone marrow-derived cells to treat hemorrhagic strokes. Distinctive properties of animal studies are analyzed, including study design, cell dose, administration route, therapeutic time window, and possible mechanisms of action. Furthermore, clinical trials are also reviewed and discussed, with the objective of improving future studies in the field. PMID:27698671

  1. Macromolecular crowding amplifies adipogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by enhancing the pro-adipogenic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ang, Xiu Min; Lee, Michelle H C; Blocki, Anna; Chen, Clarice; Ong, L L Sharon; Asada, H Harry; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The microenvironment plays a vital role in both the maintenance of stem cells in their undifferentiated state (niche) and their differentiation after homing into new locations outside this niche. Contrary to conventional in-vitro culture practices, the in-vivo stem cell microenvironment is physiologically crowded. We demonstrate here that re-introducing macromolecular crowding (MMC) at biologically relevant fractional volume occupancy during chemically induced adipogenesis substantially enhances the adipogenic differentiation response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Both early and late adipogenic markers were significantly up-regulated and cells accumulated 25-40% more lipid content under MMC relative to standard induction cocktails. MMC significantly enhanced deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen IV and perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. As a novel observation, MMC also increased the presence of matrix metalloproteinase -2 in the deposited ECM, which was concomitant with geometrical ECM remodeling typical of adipogenesis. This suggested a microenvironment that was richer in both matrix components and associated ligands and was conducive to adipocyte maturation. This assumption was confirmed by seeding undifferentiated MSCs on decellularized ECM deposited by adipogenically differentiated MSCs, Adipo-ECM. On Adipo-ECM generated under crowding, MSCs differentiated much faster under a classical differentiation protocol. This was evidenced throughout the induction time course, by a significant up-regulation of both early and late adipogenic markers and a 60% higher lipid content on MMC-generated Adipo-ECM in comparison to standard induction on tissue culture plastic. This suggests that MMC helps build and endow the nascent microenvironment with adipogenic cues. Therefore, MMC initiates a positive feedback loop between cells and their microenvironment as soon as progenitor cells are empowered to build and shape it

  2. The peripheral chimerism of bone marrow-derived stem cells after transplantation: regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues in lethally irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Filip, Stanislav; Mokrý, Jaroslav; Vávrová, Jiřina; Sinkorová, Zuzana; Mičuda, Stanislav; Sponer, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Hrebíková, Hana; Dayanithi, Govindan

    2014-05-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells represent a heterogeneous cell population containing haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. These cells have been identified as potential candidates for use in cell therapy for the regeneration of damaged tissues caused by trauma, degenerative diseases, ischaemia and inflammation or cancer treatment. In our study, we examined a model using whole-body irradiation and the transplantation of bone marrow (BM) or haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to study the repair of haematopoiesis, extramedullary haematopoiesis and the migration of green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)) transplanted cells into non-haematopoietic tissues. We investigated the repair of damage to the BM, peripheral blood, spleen and thymus and assessed the ability of this treatment to induce the entry of BM cells or GFP(+) lin(-) Sca-1(+) cells into non-haematopoietic tissues. The transplantation of BM cells or GFP(+) lin(-) Sca-1(+) cells from GFP transgenic mice successfully repopulated haematopoiesis and the haematopoietic niche in haematopoietic tissues, specifically the BM, spleen and thymus. The transplanted GFP(+) cells also entered the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) following whole-body irradiation. Our results demonstrate that whole-body irradiation does not significantly alter the integrity of tissues such as those in the small intestine and liver. Whole-body irradiation also induced myeloablation and chimerism in tissues, and induced the entry of transplanted cells into the small intestine and liver. This result demonstrates that grafted BM cells or GFP(+) lin(-) Sca-1(+) cells are not transient in the GIT. Thus, these transplanted cells could be used for the long-term treatment of various pathologies or as a one-time treatment option if myeloablation-induced chimerism alone is not sufficient to induce the entry of transplanted cells into non-haematopoietic tissues.

  3. Overexpression of microRNA-124 promotes the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Defeng; Chen, Yi; Han, Yaxin; Lv, Chen; Tu, Guanjun

    2014-06-15

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important regulatory role in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. In this study, we examined the effects of miRNA-124 (miR-124) overexpression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, we focused on the effect of overexpression on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neurons. First, we used GeneChip technology to analyze the expression of miRNAs in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells and neurons. miR-124 expression was substantially reduced in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells compared with the other cell types. We constructed a lentiviral vector overexpressing miR-124 and transfected it into bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Intracellular expression levels of the neuronal early markers β-III tubulin and microtubule-associated protein-2 were significantly increased, and apoptosis induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation was reduced in transfected cells. After miR-124-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord, a large number of cells positive for the neuronal marker neurofilament-200 were observed in the transplanted region. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotion scores showed that the motor function of the hind limb of rats with spinal cord injury was substantially improved. These results suggest that miR-124 plays an important role in the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neurons. Our findings should facilitate the development of novel strategies for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for spinal cord injury.

  4. The LIM protein LIMD1 influences osteoblast differentiation and function

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, Hilary F.; Bai Shuting; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2008-09-10

    The balance between bone resorption and bone formation involves the coordinated activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Communication between these two cell types is essential for maintenance of normal bone homeostasis; however, the mechanisms regulating this cross talk are not completely understood. Many factors that mediate differentiation and function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts have been identified. The LIM protein Limd1 has been implicated in the regulation of stress osteoclastogenesis through an interaction with the p62/sequestosome protein. Here we show that Limd1 also influences osteoblast progenitor numbers, differentiation, and function. Limd1{sup -/-} calvarial osteoblasts display increased mineralization and accelerated differentiation. While no significant differences in osteoblast number or function were detected in vivo, bone marrow stromal cells isolated from Limd1{sup -/-} mice contain significantly more osteoblast progenitors compared to wild type controls when cultured ex vivo. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in nuclear {beta}-catenin staining in differentiating Limd1{sup -/-} calvarial osteoblasts suggesting that Limd1 is a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. These results demonstrate that Limd1 influences not only stress osteoclastogenesis but also osteoblast function and osteoblast progenitor commitment. Together, these data identify Limd1 as a novel regulator of both bone osetoclast and bone osteoblast development and function.

  5. Aging impairs peritoneal but not bone marrow-derived macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Eimear; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Snoddy, Rachel; Fallon, Padraic G; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Fitzgerald, Denise C

    2014-08-01

    Aging results in deterioration of the immune system, which is associated with increased susceptibility to infection and impaired wound healing in the elderly. Phagocytosis is an essential process in both wound healing and immune defence. As such, age-related impairments in phagocytosis impact on the health of the elderly population. Phagocytic efficiency in peritoneal macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages and bone marrow monocytes from young and old mice was investigated. Aging significantly impaired phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages, both in vitro and in vivo. However, bone marrow-derived macrophages and bone marrow monocytes did not exhibit age-related impairments in phagocytosis, suggesting no intrinsic defect in these cells. We sought to investigate underlying mechanisms in age-related impairments in phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages. We hypothesized that microenvironmental factors in the peritoneum of old mice impaired macrophage phagocytosis. Indeed, macrophages from young mice injected into the peritoneum of old mice exhibited impaired phagocytosis. Proportions of peritoneal immune cells were characterized, and striking increases in numbers of T cells, B1 and B2 cells were observed in the peritoneum of old mice compared with young mice. In addition, B cell-derived IL-10 was increased in resting and LPS-activated peritoneal cell cultures from old mice. These data demonstrate that aging impairs phagocytosis by tissue-resident peritoneal macrophages, but not by bone marrow-derived macrophages/monocytes, and suggest that age-related defects in macrophage phagocytosis may be due to extrinsic factors in the tissue microenvironment. As such, defects may be reversible and macrophages could be targeted therapeutically in order to boost immune function in the elderly.

  6. Autologous bone marrow-derived cells for healing excisional dermal wounds of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Borena, B M; Pawde, A M; Amarpal; Aithal, H P; Kinjavdekar, P; Singh, R; Kumar, D

    2009-11-07

    The wound-healing potential of autologous bone marrow-derived nucleated cells was evaluated in full-thickness skin wounds in the thoracolumbar region of 20 clinically healthy rabbits. Three wounds of 2 x 2 cm, one on the left side and two right of the midline, were created on the dorsal lumbar region of each rabbit under xylazine-ketamine anaesthesia. The wounds of each animal were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: injection of autologous bone marrow-derived cells into wound margins (BI), topical application of bone marrow-derived cells over the wound surface (BT) or 5 per cent povidone iodine solution (PI) (control). Wounds were observed for 28 days for granulation tissue formation, wound contraction, histomorphological and histochemical evaluation, and time to complete healing. The mean (se) time to appearance of granulation tissue was significantly less in BI-treated wounds (3.22 [0.22] days) than the BT-treated (3.89 [0.40] days) and PI-treated (4.89 [0.47] days) groups. On days 14 and 21 after surgery, wound contraction was significantly (P<0.05) higher in BI-treated wounds (73.00 and 97.35 per cent) than in those treated with BT (58.75 and 84.87 per cent) and PI (54.84 and 84.60 per cent). Histomorphological findings showed an earlier disappearance of inflammatory reaction, better epithelialisation, significantly more neovascularisation, more fibroplasia and collagenation, and earlier histological maturation in BI- and BT-treated wounds than in control wounds.

  7. In Vivo Transplantation of Autogenous Marrow-Derived Cells Following Rapid Intraoperative Magnetic Separation Based on Hyaluronan to Augment Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Powrnima; Fleury, Sean; Luangphakdy, Viviane; Shinohara, Kentaro; Pan, Hui; Boehm, Cynthia; Vasanji, Amit; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Walker, Esteban; Yaszemski, Michael; Hascall, Vincent; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This project was designed to test the hypothesis that rapid intraoperative processing of bone marrow based on hyaluronan (HA) could be used to improve the outcome of local bone regeneration if the concentration and prevalence of marrow-derived connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) could be increased and nonprogenitors depleted before implantation. Methods HA was used as a marker for positive selection of marrow-derived CTPs using magnetic separation (MS) to obtain a population of HA-positive cells with an increased CTP prevalence. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used as an osteoconductive carrier scaffold for loading of HA-positive cells. The canine femoral multidefect model was used and four cylindrical defects measuring 10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in length were grafted with MCA combined with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow that was enriched in HA+ CTPs and depleted in red blood cells and nonprogenitors. Outcome was assessed at 4 weeks using quantitative 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of bone formation and histomorphological assessment. Results Histomorphological assessment showed a significant increase in new bone formation and in the vascular sinus area in the MS-processed defects. Robust bone formation was found throughout the defect area in both groups (defects grafted with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow.) Percent bone volume in the defects, as assessed by micro-CT, was greater in defects engrafted with MS processed cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Rapid intraoperative MS processing to enrich CTPs based on HA as a surface marker can be used to increase the concentration and prevalence of CTPs. MCA grafts supplemented with heparinized bone marrow or MS processed cells resulted in a robust and advanced stage of bone regeneration at 4 weeks. A greater new bone formation and vascular sinus area was found in defects grafted with MS processed cells

  8. Bone marrow derived stem cells in trauma and orthopaedics: a review of the current trend.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagwant; Onimowo, Jemina O; Khan, Wasim S

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a promising therapeutic option to enhance tissue regeneration and repair. The development of bone tissue engineering is directly related to changes in materials technology. While the inclusion of material requirements is standard in the design process of engineered bone substitutes, it is critical to incorporate clinical requirements in order to engineer a clinically relevant device. This review focuses on the potentials of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in trauma and orthopaedics and presents the need for bone tissue-engineered alternatives.

  9. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    PubMed Central

    Mindaye, Samuel T.; Lo Surdo, Jessica; Bauer, Steven R.; Alterman, Michail A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5], [6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results. PMID:26702413

  10. Bone marrow-derived cells migrate to the liver and contribute to the generation of different cell types in chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carine Machado; Solano de Freitas Souza, Bruno; Andrade de Oliveira, Sheilla; Paredes, Bruno Diaz; Barreto, Elton Sá; Neto, Hélio Almeida; Ribeiro dos Santos, Ricardo; Pereira Soares, Milena Botelho

    2015-12-01

    The main pathogenic event caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection is characterized by a granulomatous inflammatory reaction around parasite eggs and fibrosis in the liver. We have previously shown that transplantation of bone marrow cells (BMC) promotes a reduction in liver fibrosis in chronically S. mansoni-infected mice. Here we investigated the presence and phenotype of bone marrow-derived cells in livers of S. mansoni-infected mice. During the chronic phase of infection, C57BL/6 mice had an increased number of circulating mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells in the peripheral blood when compared to uninfected controls. In order to investigate the fate of BMC in the liver, we generated bone marrow chimeric mice by transplanting BMC from transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice into lethally irradiated wild-type C57BL/6 mice. S. mansoni-infected chimeric mice did not demonstrate increased mortality and developed similar liver histopathological features, when compared to wild-type S. mansoni-infected mice. GFP(+) bone marrow-derived cells were found in the liver parenchyma, particularly in periportal regions. CD45(+)GFP(+) cells were found in the granulomas. Flow cytometry analysis of digested liver tissue characterized GFP(+) cells as lymphocytes, myeloid cells and stem cells. GFP(+) cells were also found in areas of collagen deposition, although rare GFP(+) cells expressed the myofibroblast cell marker α-SMA. Additionally GFP(+) endothelial cells (co-stained with von Willebrand factor) were frequently observed, while BMC-derived hepatocytes (GFP(+) albumin(+) cells) were sparsely found in the liver of chimeric mice chronically infected with S. mansoni. In conclusion, BMC are recruited to the liver during chronic experimental infection with S. mansoni and contribute to the generation of different cell types involved, not only in disease pathogenesis, but possibly in liver regeneration and repair.

  11. Osteoblast Differentiation at a Glance

    PubMed Central

    Rutkovskiy, Arkady; Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav; Vaage, Ingvar Jarle

    2016-01-01

    Ossification is a tightly regulated process, performed by specialized cells called osteoblasts. Dysregulation of this process may cause inadequate or excessive mineralization of bones or ectopic calcification, all of which have grave consequences for human health. Understanding osteoblast biology may help to treat diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, calcific heart valve disease, osteoporosis, and many others. Osteoblasts are bone-building cells of mesenchymal origin; they differentiate from mesenchymal progenitors, either directly or via an osteochondroprogenitor. The direct pathway is typical for intramembranous ossification of the skull and clavicles, while the latter is a hallmark of endochondral ossification of the axial skeleton and limbs. The pathways merge at the level of preosteoblasts, which progress through 3 stages: proliferation, matrix maturation, and mineralization. Osteoblasts can also differentiate into osteocytes, which are stellate cells populating narrow interconnecting passages within the bone matrix. The key molecular switch in the commitment of mesenchymal progenitors to osteoblast lineage is the transcription factor cbfa/runx2, which has multiple upstream regulators and a wide variety of targets. Upstream is the Wnt/Notch system, Sox9, Msx2, and hedgehog signaling. Cofactors of Runx2 include Osx, Atf4, and others. A few paracrine and endocrine factors serve as coactivators, in particular, bone morphogenetic proteins and parathyroid hormone. The process is further fine-tuned by vitamin D and histone deacetylases. Osteoblast differentiation is subject to regulation by physical stimuli to ensure the formation of bone adequate for structural and dynamic support of the body. Here, we provide a brief description of the various stimuli that influence osteogenesis: shear stress, compression, stretch, micro- and macrogravity, and ultrasound. A complex understanding of factors necessary for osteoblast differentiation paves a way to introduction

  12. Primary Structure and Antibacterial Activity of Chicken Bone Marrow-Derived β-Defensins▿

    PubMed Central

    Derache, Chrystelle; Labas, Valérie; Aucagne, Vincent; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Delmas, Agnès F.; Magallon, Thierry; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Three biologically active β-defensins were purified by chromatography from chicken bone marrow extract: avian β-defensin 1 (AvBD1), AvBD2, and the newly isolated β-defensin AvBD7. Mass spectrometry analyses showed that bone marrow-derived AvBD1, -2, and -7 peptides were present as mature peptides and revealed posttranslational modifications for AvBD1 and AvBD7 in comparison to their in silico-predicted amino acid sequences. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the nanoelectrospray-quadrupole time of flight method showed N-terminal glutaminyl cyclization of mature AvBD7 and C-terminal amidation of mature AvBD1 peptide, while posttranslational modifications were absent in bone marrow-derived mature AvBD2 peptide. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis performed on intact cells confirmed the presence of these three peptides in mature heterophils. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the three β-defensins against a large panel of gram-positive and -negative bacteria were assessed. While the three defensins displayed similar antibacterial spectra of activity against gram-positive strains, AvBD1 and AvBD7 exhibited the strongest activity against gram-negative strains in comparison to AvBD2. PMID:19738012

  13. Rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells generated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or FLT3L exhibit distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    N'diaye, Marie; Warnecke, Andreas; Flytzani, Sevasti; Abdelmagid, Nada; Ruhrmann, Sabrina; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja; Harris, Robert A; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cells are professional APCs that play a central role in the initiation of immune responses. The limited ex vivo availability of dendritic cells inspires the widespread use of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells as an alternative in research. However, the functional characteristics of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are incompletely understood. Therefore, we compared functional and phenotypic characteristics of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells generated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or FLT3 ligand bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. A comparison of surface markers revealed that FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells expressed signal regulatory protein α, CD103, and CD4 and baseline levels of MHC class II, CD40, and CD86, which were highly up-regulated upon stimulation. Conversely, GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells constitutively expressed signal regulatory protein α, CD11c, and CD11b but only mildly up-regulated MHC class II, CD40, or CD86 following stimulation. Expression of dendritic cell-associated core transcripts was restricted to FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells . GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were superior at phagocytosis but were outperformed by FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at antigen presentation and T cell stimulation in vitro. Stimulated GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells secreted more TNF, CCL5, CCL20, and NO, whereas FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells secreted more IL-6 and IL-12. Finally, whereas GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture supernatants added to resting T cell cultures promoted forkhead box p3(+) regulatory T cell populations, FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture supernatants drove Th17 differentiation. We conclude that rat GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functionally distinct. Our data support the current rationale that FLT3

  14. Effects of wollastonite on proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells in PHBV/wollastonite composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Zhai, Wanying; Chang, Jiang

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the effects of wollastonite on proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) have been investigated based on a polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV)/ wollastonite (W) composite scaffolds system. Cell morphology, proliferation, and differentiation were measured. The results showed that the incorporation of wollastonite benefited hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation rate. In addition, an increase of proliferation and differentiation rate was observed when the wollastonite content in the PHBV/W composite scaffolds increased from 10 to 20 wt%. Based on our previous studies on PHBV/W composite discs, the differentiation measurements in this paper further proved that the wollastonite itself can stimulate the hBMSCs to differentiate toward osteoblasts without any osteogenic medium, and the ionic products (Ca and Si) released from wollastonite might contribute to this advantage. It is also suggested that the osteogenic differentiation of the hBMSCs can be affected by adjusting the wollastonite content in the composite scaffolds.

  15. Biologic effect and immunoisolating behavior of BMP-2 gene-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in APA microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Ding, H F; Liu, R; Li, B G; Lou, J R; Dai, K R; Tang, T T

    2007-11-03

    We investigated the encapsulation of BMP-2 gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in alginate-poly-L-lysine (APA) microcapsules for the persistent delivery of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) to induce bone formation. An electrostatic droplet generator was employed to produce APA microcapsules containing encapsulated beta-gal or BMP-2 gene-transfected bone marrow-derived MSCs. We found that X-gal staining was still positive 28 days after encapsulation. Encapsulated BMP-2 gene-transfected cells were capable of constitutive delivery of BMP-2 proteins for at least 30 days. The encapsulated BMP-2 gene-transfected MSCs or the encapsulated non-gene transfer MSCs (control group) were cocultured with the undifferentiated MSCs. The gene products from the encapsulated BMP-2 cells could induce the undifferentiated MSCs to become osteoblasts that had higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than those in the control group (p<0.05). The APA microcapsules could inhibit the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjuncted immunoglobulin G. Mixed lymphocyte reaction also indicates that the APA microcapsules could prevent the encapsulated BMP-2 gene-transfected MSCs from initiating the cellular immune response. These results demonstrated that the nonautologous BMP-2 gene-transfected stem cells are of potential utility for enhancement of bone repair and bone regeneration in vivo.

  16. The pro-metastatic role of bone marrow-derived cells: a focus on MSCs and regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Bong Ihn; Kang, Yibin

    2012-01-01

    Several bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to promote tumour growth and progression. These cells can home to the primary tumour and become active components of the tumour microenvironment. Recent studies have also identified bone marrow-derived cells—such as mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T cells—as contributors to cancer metastasis. The innate versatility of these cells provides diverse functional aid to promote malignancy, ranging from structural support to signal-mediated suppression of the host immune response. Here, we review the role of mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T cells in cancer metastasis. A better understanding of the bipolar nature of these bone marrow-derived cells in physiological and malignant contexts could pave the way for new therapeutics against metastatic disease. PMID:22473297

  17. Macromolecular Crowding Amplifies Adipogenesis of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Enhancing the Pro-Adipogenic Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Xiu Min; Lee, Michelle H.C.; Blocki, Anna; Chen, Clarice; Ong, L.L. Sharon; Asada, H. Harry; Sheppard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The microenvironment plays a vital role in both the maintenance of stem cells in their undifferentiated state (niche) and their differentiation after homing into new locations outside this niche. Contrary to conventional in-vitro culture practices, the in-vivo stem cell microenvironment is physiologically crowded. We demonstrate here that re-introducing macromolecular crowding (MMC) at biologically relevant fractional volume occupancy during chemically induced adipogenesis substantially enhances the adipogenic differentiation response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Both early and late adipogenic markers were significantly up-regulated and cells accumulated 25–40% more lipid content under MMC relative to standard induction cocktails. MMC significantly enhanced deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen IV and perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. As a novel observation, MMC also increased the presence of matrix metalloproteinase −2 in the deposited ECM, which was concomitant with geometrical ECM remodeling typical of adipogenesis. This suggested a microenvironment that was richer in both matrix components and associated ligands and was conducive to adipocyte maturation. This assumption was confirmed by seeding undifferentiated MSCs on decellularized ECM deposited by adipogenically differentiated MSCs, Adipo-ECM. On Adipo-ECM generated under crowding, MSCs differentiated much faster under a classical differentiation protocol. This was evidenced throughout the induction time course, by a significant up-regulation of both early and late adipogenic markers and a 60% higher lipid content on MMC-generated Adipo-ECM in comparison to standard induction on tissue culture plastic. This suggests that MMC helps build and endow the nascent microenvironment with adipogenic cues. Therefore, MMC initiates a positive feedback loop between cells and their microenvironment as soon as progenitor cells are empowered to build and shape

  18. Identification of Bone Marrow-Derived Soluble Factors Regulating Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Li, Wan-Ju

    2017-02-14

    Maintaining properties of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in culture for regenerative applications remains a great challenge. An emerging approach of constructing a culture environment mimicking the bone marrow niche to regulate BMSC activities has been developed. In this study, we have demonstrated a systematic approach to identify soluble factors of interest extracted from human bone marrow and used them in BMSC culture for tissue regeneration. We have found that lipocalin-2 and prolactin are key factors in bone marrow, involved in regulating BMSC activities. Treating the cell with lipocalin-2 and prolactin delays cellular senescence of BMSCs and primes the cell for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. We have also demonstrated that BMSCs pretreated with lipocalin-2 and prolactin can enhance the repair of calvarial defects in mice. Together, our study provides research evidence of using a viable approach to prime BMSC properties in vitro for improving cell-based tissue regeneration in vivo.

  19. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A.; Zaverucha-do-Valle, Camila; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo H.; Silva-Junior, Almir J.; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M.; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized. PMID:26649049

  20. Generation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiajia; Xie, Rongxia; Li, Qiaoqiao; Chen, Wuju; Zhang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Macrophages, as the forefront of innate immune defense, have an important role in the host responses to mycobacterial infection. Therefore, a stable macrophage cell line is needed for future bovine immune system research on the bacterial infection. In this study, we established a bovine macrophage cell line by introducing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into bovine bone marrow-derived macrophages (bBMMs). The TERT-bBMMs cells expressed macrophage surface antigen (CD11b, CD282) and upregulated expression of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α in response to bacterial invasion. These results demonstrate that this cell line provide reliable cell model system for future studies on interactions between the bovine macrophages and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  1. Cancer cell-secreted IGF2 instigates fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells to promote cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chung, Sookja K.; Wang, Yang; Yip, Yim Ling; Law, Simon Y. K.; Chan, Kin Tak; Lee, Nikki P. Y.; Chan, Kwok Wah; Xu, Li Yan; Li, En Min; Tsao, Sai Wah; He, Qing-Yu; Cheung, Annie L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Local interactions between cancer cells and stroma can produce systemic effects on distant organs to govern cancer progression. Here we show that IGF2 secreted by inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)-overexpressing oesophageal cancer cells instigates VEGFR1-positive bone marrow cells in the tumour macroenvironment to form pre-metastatic niches at distant sites by increasing VEGF secretion from cancer-associated fibroblasts. Cancer cells are then attracted to the metastatic site via the CXCL5/CXCR2 axis. Bone marrow cells transplanted from nude mice bearing Id1-overexpressing oesophageal tumours enhance tumour growth and metastasis in recipient mice, whereas systemic administration of VEGFR1 antibody abrogates these effects. Mechanistically, IGF2 regulates VEGF in fibroblasts via miR-29c in a p53-dependent manner. Analysis of patient serum samples showed that concurrent elevation of IGF2 and VEGF levels may serve as a prognostic biomarker for oesophageal cancer. These findings suggest that the Id1/IGF2/VEGF/VEGFR1 cascade plays a critical role in tumour-driven pathophysiological processes underlying cancer progression. PMID:28186102

  2. The Regenerative Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Spermatogenesis of Infertile Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Vahdati, Akbar; Fathi, Alireza; Hajihoseini, Mehrdokht; Aliborzi, Ghaem; Hosseini, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Infertility is a serious social problem in advanced nations, with male factor in half of all cases of infertility. This study was conducted to determine the regenerative effect of bone marrow-derived stem cells in spermatogenesis of infertile hamster. METHODS Twelve adult male hamsters were equally divided into azoospermic and control groups. Busulfan was intraperitoneally used for induction of azoospermia, while the right testis was treated with bone marrow-derived stem cells (106 BM-SCs), labeled with sterile trypan blue, 35 days after busulfan injection. The left testis served as positive control for azoospermia. Sixty days after cell transplantation, the animals were euthanized and both testes were removed and evaluated histologically. RESULTS BM-SCs were spindle-shaped, adherent to the culture flasks and had positive expression of CD29 and CD73 and negative expression of CD45. Alcian blue staining confirmed differentiation of BM-SCs into chondrocytes. Karyotyping denoted to stability of chromosomes. Treatment with busulfan in seminiferous tubules resulted into distruption of spermatogenesis. After two months in busulfan treatment group, seminiferous tubular atrophy and germinal epitheliums degenerations were noticed with no spermatozoa in epididymis. After treatment of busulfan group with BM-SCs, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperms were present in seminiferous tubules. CONCLUSION As cell transplantation in seminiferous tubules resulted into a rapid repair of pathological changes, BM-SCs can be recommended an effective treatment measure in azoospermia. It seems that more studies are necessary to confirm the use of this technique in treatment of azoospermia and infertility in human. PMID:28289609

  3. The chemokine receptor CXCR6 contributes to recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors in renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yunfeng; Yan, Jingyin; Jin, Xiaogao; Entman, Mark L; Wang, Yanlin

    2014-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in circulation are of hematopoietic origin, and they proliferate, differentiate into myofibroblasts, and express the chemokine receptor CXCR6. As chemokines mediate the trafficking of circulating cells to sites of injury, we studied the role of CXCR6 in mouse models of renal injury. Significantly, the kidney of CXCR6 knockout mice accumulated fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in response to injury, expressed less profibrotic chemokines and cytokines, displayed fewer myofibroblasts, and expressed less α-smooth muscle actin in the obstructed kidneys compared with wild-type (WT) mice. CXCR6 deficiency inhibited total collagen deposition and suppressed the expression of collagen I and fibronectin in the obstructed kidneys. Furthermore, WT mice engrafted with CXCR6(-/-) bone marrow cells displayed fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidneys with obstructive injury and showed less severe renal fibrosis compared with WT mice engrafted with CXCR6(+/+) bone marrow cells. Transplant of WT bone marrow into CXCR6(-/-) recipients restored recruitment of myeloid fibroblasts and susceptibility to fibrosis. Hematopoietic fibroblasts migrate into injured kidney and proliferate and differentiate into myofibroblasts. Thus, CXCR6, together with other chemokines and their receptors, may have important roles in the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors into the kidney and contribute to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis.

  4. Evaluation of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, David D; Kisiday, John D; Kawcak, Chris E; Werpy, Natasha M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the assessment of clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intraarticular administered adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in the middle carpal joint of all horses, the contralateral joint being sham-operated. All horses received treatment on Day 14. Eight horses received placebo treatment and eight horses received adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction in their osteoarthritis-affected joint. The final eight horses were treated the in osteoarthritis-affected joint with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Evaluations included clinical, radiographic, synovial fluid analysis, gross, histologic, histochemical, and biochemical evaluations. No adverse treatment-related events were observed. The model induced a significant change in all but two parameters, no significant treatment effects were demonstrated, with the exception of improvement in synovial fluid effusion PGE2 levels with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to placebo. A greater improvement was seen with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and placebo treatment. Overall, the findings of this study were not significant enough to recommend the use of stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis represented in this model.

  5. Increased formation of autophagosomes in ectromelia virus-infected primary culture of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Martyniszyn, L; Szulc-Dąbrowska, L; Boratyńska-Jasińska, A; Niemiałtowski, M

    2013-01-01

    Induction of autophagy by ectromelia virus (ECTV) in primary cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) was investigated. The results showed that ECTV infection of BMDMs resulted in increased formation of autophagosomes, increased level of LC3-II protein present in aggregates and extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization. These data indicate an increased autophagic activity in BMDMs during ECTV infection.

  6. Different but synergistic effects of bone marrow-derived VEGFR2+ and VEGFR2−CD45+ cells during hepatocellular carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongyuan; Luo, Jingtao; Cui, Yunlong; Li, Huikai; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Feng; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Ti

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide in men. Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), including circulating endothelial progenitor cells, have been reported to be involved in the progression of HCC. The complexity of BMDCs inspires further interest in the study of HCC. In the present study, highly metastatic HCC models with BM function deficiency/reconstruction were established by sublethal irradiation/BM transplantation. The effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2)+ or VEGFR2−/cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45)+ BMDCs on HCC growth were evaluated. VEGFR2+ and VEGFR2−CD45+ BMDCs facilitated the recovery of BM function and promoted tumor growth, while the enhancement of tumor growth by VEGFR2−CD45+ BMDCs was independent of VEGFR2+ BMDCs. BM-derived CD45+CD133+ and VEGFR2+CD133+ cells synergistically played a role in the different stages during HCC progression. In conclusion, different types of BMDCs exhibit effects on HCC tumor growth in a coordinated manner. PMID:28123523

  7. Novel therapeutic approach to counter the recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells to tumors.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Luis R

    2006-11-01

    Evaluation of: Shaked Y, Ciarrocchi A, Franco M et al. Therapy-induced acute recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells to tumors. Science 313, 1785-1787 (2006). Recently gathered evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells can contribute to tumor angiogenesis and the growth of certain tumors. The paper under evaluation presents a novel therapeutic approach that disrupts the recruitment of these cells by tumors, therefore facilitating the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. The bone marrow microenvironment contributes to type I diabetes induced osteoblast death.

    PubMed

    Coe, Lindsay M; Irwin, Regina; Lippner, Dennean; McCabe, Laura R

    2011-02-01

    Type I diabetes increases an individual's risk for bone loss and fracture, predominantly through suppression of osteoblast activity (bone formation). During diabetes onset, levels of blood glucose and pro-inflammatory cytokines (including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)) increased. At the same time, levels of osteoblast markers are rapidly decreased and stay decreased chronically (i.e., 40 days later) at which point bone loss is clearly evident. We hypothesized that early bone marrow inflammation can promote osteoblast death and hence reduced osteoblast markers. Indeed, examination of type I diabetic mouse bones demonstrates a greater than twofold increase in osteoblast TUNEL staining and increased expression of pro-apoptotic factors. Osteoblast death was amplified in both pharmacologic and spontaneous diabetic mouse models. Given the known signaling and inter-relationships between marrow cells and osteoblasts, we examined the role of diabetic marrow in causing the osteoblast death. Co-culture studies demonstrate that compared to control marrow cells, diabetic bone marrow cells increase osteoblast (MC3T3 and bone marrow derived) caspase 3 activity and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression. Mouse blood glucose levels positively correlated with bone marrow induced osteoblast death and negatively correlated with osteocalcin expression in bone, suggesting a relationship between type I diabetes, bone marrow and osteoblast death. TNF expression was elevated in diabetic marrow (but not co-cultured osteoblasts); therefore, we treated co-cultures with TNFα neutralizing antibodies. The antibody protected osteoblasts from bone marrow induced death. Taken together, our findings implicate the bone marrow microenvironment and TNFα in mediating osteoblast death and contributing to type I diabetic bone loss.

  9. Restoration of the GM2 ganglioside metabolism in bone marrow-derived stromal cells from Tay-Sachs disease animal model.

    PubMed

    Martino, S; Cavalieri, C; Emiliani, C; Dolcetta, D; Cusella De Angelis, M G; Chigorno, V; Severini, G M; Sandhoff, K; Bordignon, C; Sonnino, S; Orlacchio, A

    2002-08-01

    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived stromal cells for the therapy of Tay-Sachs disease is primarily related to the restoration of their own GM2 ganglioside storage. With this aim, we produced bone marrow-derived stromal cells from the adult Tay-Sachs animal model and transduced them with a retroviral vector encoding for the alpha-subunit of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A (E.C. 3.2.1.52). Our results demonstrate that transduced Tay-Sachs bone marrow-derived stromal cells have beta-hexosaminidase A comparable to that of bone marrow-derived stromal cells from wild-type mice. Moreover, beta-hexosaminidase A in transduced Tay-Sachs bone marrow-derived stromal cells was able to hydrolyze the GM2 ganglioside in a feeding experiment, thus demonstrating the correction of the altered phenotype.

  10. Matrix-mediated retention of adipogenic differentiation potential by human adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during ex vivo expansion.

    PubMed

    Mauney, Joshua R; Volloch, Vladimir; Kaplan, David L

    2005-11-01

    Recently, cell-based approaches utilizing adipogenic progenitor cells for fat tissue engineering have been developed and reported to have success in promoting in vivo adipogenesis and the repair of defect sites. For autologous applications, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suggested as a potential cell source for adipose tissue engineering applications due to their ability to be isolated and ex vivo expanded from adult bone marrow aspirates and their versatility for pluripotent differentiation into various mesenchymal lineages including adipogenic. Due to the relatively low frequency of MSCs present within bone marrow, extensive ex vivo expansion of these cells is necessary to obtain therapeutic cell populations for tissue engineering strategies. Currently, utilization of MSCs for adipose tissue engineering is limited due to the attenuation of their adipogenic differentiation potential following extensive ex vivo expansion on conventional tissue culture plastic (TCP) substrates. In the present study, the ability of a denatured collagen type I (DC) matrix to preserve MSC adipogenic potential during ex vivo expansion was examined. Adipocyte-related markers and functions were examined in vitro in response to adipogenic culture conditions for 21 days in comparison to early passage MSCs and late passage MSCs ex vivo expanded on TCP. The results demonstrated significant preservation of the ability of late passage MSCs ex vivo expanded on the DC matrix to express adipogenic markers (fatty acid-binding protein-4, lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase, adipsin, facilitative glucose transporter-4, and accumulation of lipids) similar to the early passage cells and in contrast to late passage MSCs expanded on TCP. The ability of the DC matrix to preserve adipocyte-related markers and functions of MSCs following extensive ex vivo expansion represents a novel culture technique to expand functional adipogenic progenitors for tissue engineering

  11. Three-dimensional co-culture of mesenchymal stromal cells and differentiated osteoblasts on human bio-derived bone scaffolds supports active multi-lineage hematopoiesis in vitro: Functional implication of the biomimetic HSC niche

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaobing; Zhu, Biao; Wang, Xiaodong; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Chunsen

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche, consisting of two major crucial components, namely osteoblasts (OBs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is responsible for the fate of HSPCs. Thus, closely mimicking the HSPC niche ex vivo may be an efficient strategy with which to develop new culture strategies to specifically regulate the balance between HSPC self-renewal and proliferation. The aim of this study was to establish a novel HSPC three-dimensional culture system by co-culturing bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs without any cytokines as feeder cells and applying bio-derived bone from human femoral metaphyseal portion as the scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the excellent biocompatibility of bio-derived bone with bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that many cytokines, which play key roles in HSPC regulation, were comprehensively secreted, while ELISA revealed that extracellular matrix molecules were also highly expressed. Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide fluorescence staining proved that our system could be used to supply a long-term culture of HSPCs. Flow cytometric analysis and qPCR of p21 expression demonstrated that our system significantly promoted the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs. Colony-forming unit (CFU) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays confirmed that our system has the ability for both the expansion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HPCs) and the maintenance of a primitive cell subpopulation of HSCs. The severe-combined immunodeficient mouse repopulating cell assay revealed the promoting effects of our system on the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs. In conclusion, our system may be a more comprehensive and balanced system which not only promotes the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs, but also maintains primitive HPCs with superior phenotypic and

  12. Effect of Matrix Metallopeptidase 13 on the Function of Mouse Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xin-Rui; Li, Zhi-Hao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Duo; Zheng, Heng; Dong, Shu-Ying; Chen, Juan; Zeng, Xian-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dendritic cells are professional antigen-presenting cells found in an immature state in epithelia and interstitial space, where they capture antigens such as pathogens or damaged tissue. Matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP-13), a member of the collagenase subfamily, is involved in many different cellular processes and is expressed in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs). The function of MMP-13 in DCs is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of MMP-13 on DC maturation, apoptosis, and phagocytosis. Methods: Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were obtained from C57BL/6 mice. One short-interfering RNA specific for MMP-13 was used to transfect DCs. MMP-13-silenced DCs and control DCs were prepared, and apoptosis was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. MMP-13-silenced DCs and control DCs were analyzed for surface expression of CD80 and CD86 and phagocytosis capability using flow cytometry. Results: Compared to the control DCs, MMP-13-silenced DCs increased expression of anti-apoptosis-related genes, BAG1 (control group vs. MMP-13-silenced group: 4.08 ± 0.60 vs. 6.11 ± 0.87, P = 0.008), BCL-2 (control group vs. MMP-13-silenced group: 7.54 ± 0.76 vs. 9.54 ± 1.29, P = 0.036), and TP73 (control group vs. MMP-13-silenced group: 4.33 ± 0.29 vs. 5.60 ± 0.32, P = 0.001) and decreased apoptosis-related genes, CASP1 (control group vs. MMP-13-silenced group: 3.79 ± 0.67 vs. 2.54 ± 0.39, P = 0.019), LTBR (control group vs. MMP-13-silenced group: 9.23 ± 1.25 vs. 6.24 ± 1.15, P = 0.012), and CASP4 (control group vs. MMP-13-silenced group: 2.07 ± 0.56 vs. 0.35 ± 0.35, P = 0.002). Protein levels confirmed the same expression pattern. MMP-13-silenced groups decreased expression of CD86 on DCs; however, there was no statistical difference in CD80 surface expression. Furthermore, MMP-13-silenced groups exhibited weaker phagocytosis capability. Conclusion: These results indicate that MMP-13 inhibition

  13. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells display enhanced clonogenicity but impaired differentiation with hypoxic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Lisa B; Creasey, Olivia A; Guzik, Lynda; Lozito, Thomas; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-02-01

    Stem cells are promising candidate cells for regenerative applications because they possess high proliferative capacity and the potential to differentiate into other cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily sourced but do not retain their proliferative and multilineage differentiative capabilities after prolonged ex vivo propagation. We investigated the use of hypoxia as a preconditioning agent and in differentiating cultures to enhance MSC function. Culture in 5% ambient O(2) consistently enhanced clonogenic potential of primary MSCs from all donors tested. We determined that enhanced clonogenicity was attributable to increased proliferation, increased vascular endothelial growth factor secretion, and increased matrix turnover. Hypoxia did not impact the incidence of cell death. Application of hypoxia to osteogenic cultures resulted in enhanced total mineral deposition, although this effect was detected only in MSCs preconditioned in normoxic conditions. Osteogenesis-associated genes were upregulated in hypoxia, and alkaline phosphatase activity was enhanced. Adipogenic differentiation was inhibited by exposure to hypoxia during differentiation. Chondrogenesis in three-dimensional pellet cultures was inhibited by preconditioning with hypoxia. However, in cultures expanded under normoxia, hypoxia applied during subsequent pellet culture enhanced chondrogenesis. Whereas hypoxic preconditioning appears to be an excellent way to expand a highly clonogenic progenitor pool, our findings suggest that it may blunt the differentiation potential of MSCs, compromising their utility for regenerative tissue engineering. Exposure to hypoxia during differentiation (post-normoxic expansion), however, appears to result in a greater quantity of functional osteoblasts and chondrocytes and ultimately a larger quantity of high-quality differentiated tissue.

  14. Effect of Different Titanium Surfaces on Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaofei; Zhou, Fengjuan; Gu, Yifei; Duan, Xiaobo; Mo, Anchun

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the host response to implanted biomaterials. Osseointegration of titanium (Ti) implant is an immunological and inflammatory-driven process. However, the role of DCs in this complex process is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different Ti surfaces on DC maturation, and evaluate its subsequent potential on osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts. Murine bone marrow-derived DCs were seeded on Ti disks with different surface treatments, including pretreatment (PT), sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA) and modified SLA (modSLA) surface. Compared with DCs cultured on PT and SLA surfaces, the cells seeded on modSLA surface demonstrated a more round morphology with lower expression of CD86 and MHC-II, the DC maturation markers. Those cells also secreted high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and TGF-β. Notably, addition of conditioned medium (CM) from modSLA-induced DCs significantly increased the mRNA expression of Runx2 and ALP as well as ALP activity by murine preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Our data demonstrated that Ti disks with different surfaces lead to differential DCs responses. PT and SLA surfaces induce DCs mature, while DCs seeded on modSLA-Ti surface maintain an immature phenotype and exhibit a potential of promoting osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:28157196

  15. Bone Marrow Derivation of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Small Intestine Following Intestinal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dengqun; Wang, Fengchao; Zou, Zhongmin; Dong, Shiwu; Wang, Junping; Ran, Xinze; Li, Chunxue; Shi, Chunmeng; Su, Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in gastrointestinal tract are specialized cells serving as pacemaker cells. The origin of ICCs is currently not fully characterized. In this work, we aimed to study whether bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) could contribute to the origin of ICCs in the muscular plexus of small intestine using GFP-C57BL/6 chimeric mice.Engraftment of BMDCs in the intestine was investigated for GFP expression. GFP positive bone marrow mononuclear cells reached a proportion of 95.65% ± 3.72% at different times in chimerism. Donor-derived cells distributed widely in all the layers of the gastrointestinal tract. There were GFP positive BMDCs in the myenteric plexus, which resembled characteristics of ICCs, including myenteric location, c-Kit positive staining, and ramified morphology. Donor-derived ICCs in the myenteric plexus contributed to a percentage ranging 9.25% ± 4.9% of all the ICCs in the myenteric plexus. In conclusion, here we described that donor-derived BMDCs might differentiate into gastrointestinal ICCs after radiation injury, which provided an alternative source for the origin of the ICCs in the muscular plexus of adult intestine. These results further identified the plasticity of BMDCs and indicated therapeutic implications of BMDCs for the gastrointestinal dysmotility caused by ICCs disorders. PMID:20396598

  16. Effect of Different Titanium Surfaces on Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaofei; Zhou, Fengjuan; Gu, Yifei; Duan, Xiaobo; Mo, Anchun

    2017-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the host response to implanted biomaterials. Osseointegration of titanium (Ti) implant is an immunological and inflammatory-driven process. However, the role of DCs in this complex process is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different Ti surfaces on DC maturation, and evaluate its subsequent potential on osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts. Murine bone marrow-derived DCs were seeded on Ti disks with different surface treatments, including pretreatment (PT), sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA) and modified SLA (modSLA) surface. Compared with DCs cultured on PT and SLA surfaces, the cells seeded on modSLA surface demonstrated a more round morphology with lower expression of CD86 and MHC-II, the DC maturation markers. Those cells also secreted high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and TGF-β. Notably, addition of conditioned medium (CM) from modSLA-induced DCs significantly increased the mRNA expression of Runx2 and ALP as well as ALP activity by murine preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Our data demonstrated that Ti disks with different surfaces lead to differential DCs responses. PT and SLA surfaces induce DCs mature, while DCs seeded on modSLA-Ti surface maintain an immature phenotype and exhibit a potential of promoting osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  17. Deficiency of AXL in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Does Not Affect Advanced Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Manikandan; Proto, Jonathan D; Matsushima, Glenn K; Tabas, Ira

    2016-12-13

    AXL, a member of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, MerTK) family of receptors, plays important roles in cell survival, clearance of dead cells (efferocytosis), and suppression of inflammation, which are processes that critically influence atherosclerosis progression. Whereas MerTK deficiency promotes defective efferocytosis, inflammation, and plaque necrosis in advanced murine atherosclerosis, the role of Axl in advanced atherosclerosis progression is not known. Towards this end, bone marrow cells from Axl(-/-) or wild-type mice were transplanted into lethally irradiated Ldlr(-/-) mice. These chimeric mice were then fed the Western-type diet (WD) for 17 weeks. We demonstrate that lesional macrophages in WT mice express Axl but that Axl deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells does not affect lesion size, cellularity, necrosis, or inflammatory parameters in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, apoptosis of lesional cells was unaffected, and we found no evidence of defective lesional efferocytosis. In contrast to previously reported findings with MerTK deficiency, hematopoietic cell-Axl deficiency in WD-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice does not affect the progression of advanced atherosclerosis or lesional processes associated with TAM receptor signaling. These findings suggest a heretofore unappreciated TAM receptor hierarchy in advanced atherosclerosis.

  18. Retinal Electrophysiological Effects of Intravitreal Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akkoç, Tolga; Eraslan, Muhsin; Şahin, Özlem; Özkara, Selvinaz; Vardar Aker, Fugen; Subaşı, Cansu; Karaöz, Erdal; Akkoç, Tunç

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of legal blindness in developed countries at middle age adults. In this study diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Wistar albino rats. After 3 months of diabetes, rights eye were injected intravitreally with green fluorescein protein (GFP) labelled bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) and left eyes with balanced salt solution (Sham). Animals were grouped as Baseline (n = 51), Diabetic (n = 45), Diabetic+BMSC (n = 45 eyes), Diabetic+Sham (n = 45 eyes), Healthy+BMSC (n = 6 eyes), Healthy+Sham (n = 6 eyes). Immunohistology analysis showed an increased retinal gliosis in the Diabetic group, compared to Baseline group, which was assessed with GFAP and vimentin expression. In the immunofluorescence analysis BMSC were observed to integrate mostly into the inner retina and expressing GFP. Diabetic group had prominently lower oscillatory potential wave amplitudes than the Baseline group. Three weeks after intravitreal injection Diabetic+BMSC group had significantly better amplitudes than the Diabetic+Sham group. Taken together intravitreal BMSC were thought to improve visual function. PMID:27300133

  19. Recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells to periodontal tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Komaki, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Kengo; Sata, Masataka; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) are considered to be a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in adults and are known to be effective in periodontal tissue regeneration. However, whether endogenous BMCs are involved in periodontal tissue repair process is uncertain. We therefore created periodontal tissue defects in the buccal alveolar bone of mandibular first molars in bone marrow chimeric mice, and immunohistochemically examined the expression of stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and the mobilization of BMCs. We found that SDF-1 expression was increased around the defects at as early as 1 week after injury and that BMCs were mobilized to the defects, while GFP+/CD45+ were rarely observed. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the number of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (pdgfr) α+/Sca-1+ (PαS) cells in the bone marrow decreased after injury. Taken together, these results suggest that BMCs are mobilized to the periodontal tissue defects. Recruitment of BMCs, including a subset of MSCs could be a new target of periodontal treatment. PMID:25364726

  20. Comparison of immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Feiyue; Wang, Jiongkun; Hu, Mingqian; Yu, Yu; Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Jing

    2011-07-01

    A comparative study of immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was first performed through an atomic force microscope (AFM) to clarify differences of their nanostructure and adhesion force. AFM images revealed that the immature BMDCs treated by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor plus IL-4 mainly appeared round with smooth surface, whereas the mature BMDCs induced by lipopolysaccharide displayed an irregular shape with numerous pseudopodia or lamellapodia and ruffles on the cell membrane besides becoming larger, flatter, and longer. AFM quantitative analysis further showed that the surface roughness of the mature BMDCs greatly increased and that the adhesion force of them was fourfold more than that of the immature BMDCs. The nano-features of the mature BMDCs were supported by a high level of IL-12 produced from the mature BMDCs and high expression of MHC-II on the surface of them. These findings provide a new insight into the nanostructure of the immature and mature BMDCs.

  1. Engineering interaction between bone marrow derived endothelial cells and electrospun surfaces for artificial vascular graft applications.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Furqan; Dutta, Naba K; Zannettino, Andrew; Vandyke, Kate; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2014-04-14

    The aim of this investigation was to understand and engineer the interactions between endothelial cells and the electrospun (ES) polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) nanofiber surfaces and evaluate their potential for endothelialization. Elastomeric PVDF-HFP samples were electrospun to evaluate their potential use as small diameter artificial vascular graft scaffold (SDAVG) and compared with solvent cast (SC) PVDF-HFP films. We examined the consequences of fibrinogen adsorption onto the ES and SC samples for endothelialisation. Bone marrow derived endothelial cells (BMEC) of human origin were incubated with the test and control samples and their attachment, proliferation, and viability were examined. The nature of interaction of fibrinogen with SC and ES samples was investigated in detail using ELISA, XPS, and FTIR techniques. The pristine SC and ES PVDF-HFP samples displayed hydrophobic and ultrahydrophobic behavior and accordingly, exhibited minimal BMEC growth. Fibrinogen adsorbed SC samples did not significantly enhance endothelial cell binding or proliferation. In contrast, the fibrinogen adsorbed electrospun surfaces showed a clear ability to modulate endothelial cell behavior. This system also represents an ideal model system that enables us to understand the natural interaction between cells and their extracellular environment. The research reported shows potential of ES surfaces for artificial vascular graft applications.

  2. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

  3. PACAP38/PAC1 Signaling Induces Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Homing to Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Huan; Chiu, Lian; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Chiang, Chun-Wei; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsu, Chung Y; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding stem cell homing, which is governed by environmental signals from the surrounding niche, is important for developing effective stem cell-based repair strategies. The molecular mechanism by which the brain under ischemic stress recruits bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the vascular niche remains poorly characterized. Here we report that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation upregulates pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 38 (PACAP38), which in turn activates PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1) under hypoxia in vitro and cerebral ischemia in vivo. BMDCs homing to endothelial cells in the ischemic brain are mediated by HIF-1α activation of the PACAP38-PAC1 signaling cascade followed by upregulation of cellular prion protein and α6-integrin to enhance the ability of BMDCs to bind laminin in the vascular niche. Exogenous PACAP38 confers a similar effect in facilitating BMDCs homing into the ischemic brain, resulting in reduction of ischemic brain injury. These findings suggest a novel HIF-1α-activated PACAP38-PAC1 signaling process in initiating BMDCs homing into the ischemic brain for reducing brain injury and enhancing functional recovery after ischemic stroke. Stem Cells 2015;33:1153–1172 PMID:25523790

  4. Bioinspired superhydrophobic poly(L-lactic acid) surfaces control bone marrow derived cells adhesion and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Alves, Natália M; Shi, Jun; Oramas, Elena; Santos, José L; Tomás, Helena; Mano, João F

    2009-11-01

    The aptitude of a cell to adhere, migrate, and differentiate on a compact substrate or scaffold is important in the field of tissue engineering and biomaterials. It is well known that cell behavior can be controlled and guided through the change in micro- and nano-scale topographic features. In this work, we intend to demonstrate that special topographic features that control wettability may also have an important role in the biological performance of biodegradable substrates. Poly(L-lactic acid) surfaces with superhydrophobic characteristics were produced, based on the so-called Lotus effect, exhibiting dual micro- and nano-scale roughness. The water contact angle could be higher than 150 degrees and a value of that order could be kept even upon immersion in a simulated body fluid solution for more than 20 days. Such water repellent surfaces were found to prevent adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow derived cells previously isolated from the femurs of 6-week-old male Wistar rats, when compared with smoother surfaces prepared by simple solvent casting. Such results demonstrate that these superhydrophobic surfaces may be used to control cell behavior onto biodegradable substrates.

  5. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in cerebellar degeneration: a behavioral study.

    PubMed

    Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Hosseini, Ebrahim; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khatamsaz, Saeid

    2011-11-20

    In addition to its key role in complex motor function, the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to have a role in cognition. Thus, motor and cognitive deficits can be associated with cerebellar degeneration. After unilateral lesion in cerebellum (folia VI) was caused by Quinolinic acid, CM-DiI labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were isolated and purified from bone marrow, were transplanted into the damaged folium. Motor function was assessed using the cylinder test, rotarod, hanging wire and beam balance during 6 weeks after transplantation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze learning paradigm in 3 weeks after transplantation. Six weeks after transplantation surviving MSCs were detectable in QA-treated animals. The MSC-transplanted group showed markedly improved functional performance in spatial memory, motor learning, locomotor asymmetry, dysmetria, abnormality in neuromuscular strength and equilibrium 2-6 weeks compared with the controls. We found that cerebellar lesions produced deficits (folia VI) in motor and cognitive aspects of a spatial task. The results indicate that transplantation of MSCs can significantly reduce the behavioral abnormalities of these animals during six weeks after engraftment. According to results of this assay, cell therapy by means of bone marrow derived adult stem cells promises for treatment of cerebellar diseases.

  6. Characterization of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Akifumi; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Nobukiyo, Asako; Yamaoka, Emi; Hiyama, Eiso

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be useful for regenerative medicine because they can beharvested easily from the bone marrow of living donors and the cells can be differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. To apply MSCs for the medical treatment of human diseases as regenerative medicine, detailed experimental characterization of the cells is required. Recently, a New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), has been widely used as a new human disease model because of its ease of handling and breeding. Although common marmoset MSCs have been established and will be used in preclinical studies of regenerative medicine, the characteristics of these cells remain unclear. Aiming to characterize common marmoset MSCs further, we harvested common marmoset bone marrow-derived cells (cmBMDCs) from the femurs of newborn males. We revealed that the morphology of the cells was similar to common marmoset fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix components, such as gelatin and fibronectin, were effective for their proliferation and formation of colony-forming unit fibroblasts. Furthermore, we were able to differentiate cmBMDCs into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro, and they expressed the MSCmarkers CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105, but their expression decreased with increasing passage number. The data demonstrate that cmBMDCs exhibit characteristics of MSCs and thus it would be beneficial to use these cells in preclinical studies.

  7. Expression of complement components and regulators by different subtypes of bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chang; Chen, Mei; Madden, Angelina; Xu, Heping

    2012-08-01

    Under inflammatory conditions, macrophages can differentiate into different functional subtypes. We show that bone marrow-derived macrophages constitutively express different levels of various complement-related genes. The relative expression levels are C1qb > Crry > CFH > C3 > C1r > CFB > DAF1 > CD59a > C2 > C1INH > C1s > C4. Upon activation, the expression of C1r, C1s, C3, C2, CFB, and C1INH was up-regulated, and CFH, CD59a, and DAF1, down-regulated in M1 (induced by interferon-γ + lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) and M2b (induced by immune complex + LPS) macrophages. The expression of C4 and CFH was slightly up-regulated in interleukin (IL)-10-induced M2c macrophages. Complement gene expression in IL-4-induced M2a macrophages was weakly down-regulated as compared to resting M0 macrophages. Higher levels of C3, C1INH, and CFB but lower levels of CFH expression in M1 and M2b macrophage suggests that they may be involved in the alternative pathway of complement activation during inflammation.

  8. Deficiency of AXL in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Does Not Affect Advanced Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manikandan; Proto, Jonathan D.; Matsushima, Glenn K.; Tabas, Ira

    2016-01-01

    AXL, a member of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, MerTK) family of receptors, plays important roles in cell survival, clearance of dead cells (efferocytosis), and suppression of inflammation, which are processes that critically influence atherosclerosis progression. Whereas MerTK deficiency promotes defective efferocytosis, inflammation, and plaque necrosis in advanced murine atherosclerosis, the role of Axl in advanced atherosclerosis progression is not known. Towards this end, bone marrow cells from Axl−/− or wild-type mice were transplanted into lethally irradiated Ldlr−/− mice. These chimeric mice were then fed the Western-type diet (WD) for 17 weeks. We demonstrate that lesional macrophages in WT mice express Axl but that Axl deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells does not affect lesion size, cellularity, necrosis, or inflammatory parameters in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, apoptosis of lesional cells was unaffected, and we found no evidence of defective lesional efferocytosis. In contrast to previously reported findings with MerTK deficiency, hematopoietic cell-Axl deficiency in WD-fed Ldlr−/− mice does not affect the progression of advanced atherosclerosis or lesional processes associated with TAM receptor signaling. These findings suggest a heretofore unappreciated TAM receptor hierarchy in advanced atherosclerosis. PMID:27958361

  9. Preparation of cationized polysaccharides as gene transfection carrier for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jun-ichiro; Okazaki, Arimichi; Nagane, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare a non-viral carrier of gene transfection from various polysaccharides and evaluate the feasibility in gene expression for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Various amounts of spermine were chemically introduced into pullulan, dextran and mannan with a molecular weight of around 40 000 or pullulan with different molecular weights to prepare cationized polysaccharides with different extents of spermine introduced (spermine-polysaccharide). Each cationized polysaccharide was complexed with a plasmid DNA at various ratios and in vitro gene transfection was investigated for rat bone marrow-derived MSCs. The level of gene expression depended on the type of cationized polysaccharide. The highest level was observed for the complex of spermine-pullulan and plasmid DNA. Additionally, the level also depended on the molecular weight of pullulan and the extent of spermine introduced to pullulan. Suppression of gene expression with chlorpromazine and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin of endocytosis inhibitors demonstrated that the cellular uptake of spermine-pullulan-plasmid DNA complexes was mediated by clathrin- and raft/caveolae-dependent endocytic pathways. The cationized pullulan is a promising non-viral carrier of plasmid DNA for MSCs.

  10. Osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) seeded on irradiated allogenic bone.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Yasuaki; Dohi, Yoshiko; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tadokoro, Mika; Akahane, Manabu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-02-01

    Allogenic bone grafting, a technique used in orthopaedic surgery, has several problems, including low osteogenic activity. To overcome the problem, this study aimed to determine whether in vivo osteogenesis could be enhanced using allogenic irradiated bone grafts after seeding with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The allogenic bone cylinders were extracted from ACI rats and sterilized by irradiation. Donor BMSCs were obtained from fresh Fischer 344 (F344) rat bone marrow by cell culture. The allogenic bone with or without BMSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into syngeneic F344 rats. At 4 weeks after transplantation, high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, bone-specific osteocalcin mRNA expression and newly formed bone were detected in the allogenic bone with BMSCs. The origin of the newly formed bone was derived from cultured donor BMSCs. However, none of these identifiers of osteogenesis were detected in either the fresh or the irradiated allogenic bone without BMSCs. These results indicate the availability of autologous BMSCs to heighten the osteogenic response of allogenic bone. Our present tissue-engineering method might contribute to a wide variety of allogenic bone grafting techniques in clinical settings.

  11. The Healing Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Mojtahed Jaberi, Fereidoon; Zakerinia, Maryam; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad; Jalli, Reza; Tanideh, Nader; Zare, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic disease impacting on quality of life and has societal and economical burden increasing with age. Yet, no confirmed pharmacological, biological or surgical therapy could prevent the progressive destruction of OA joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with immunosuppressive activities emerged a potential therapy. We describe a magnetic resonance images (MRI) approved 47 years old nomad female suffering from a severe right knee OA. After intra-articular injection of 36×106 passage 2 of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), the patient’s functional status of the knee, the number of stairs she could climb, the pain on visual analog scale (VAS) and walking distance improved after two months post-transplantation. MRI revealed an extension of the repaired tissue over subchondral bone. So as MSC transplantation is a simple technique, resulted into pain relief, minimized donor-site morbidity, provided a better quality of life, significantly improved cartilage quality with no need to hospitalization or surgery, cell transplantation can be considered as a reliable alternative treatment for chronic knee OA. Therefore these findings can be added to the literature on using BMSCs for treatment of OA. PMID:27579273

  12. Adult bone marrow-derived stem cells for organ regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Tögel, Florian; Westenfelder, Christof

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells have been recognized as a potential tool for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. There are in general two types of stem cells, embryonic and adult stem cells. While embryonic stem cell therapy has been riddled with problems of allogeneic rejection and ethical concerns, adult stem cells have long been used in the treatment of hematological malignancies. With the recognition of additional, potentially therapeutic characteristics, bone marrow-derived stem cells have become a tool in regenerative medicine. The bone marrow is an ideal source of stem cells because it is easily accessible and harbors two types of stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all blood cell types and have been shown to exhibit plasticity, while multipotent marrow stromal cells are the source of osteocytes, chondrocytes, and fat cells and have been shown to support and generate a large number of different cell types. This review describes the general characteristics of these stem cell populations and their current and potential future applications in regenerative medicine.

  13. Direct and indirect contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to cancer.

    PubMed

    Guest, Ian; Ilic, Zoran; Ma, Jun; Grant, Denise; Glinsky, Gennadi; Sell, Stewart

    2010-05-15

    Stromal-epithelial interactions may control the growth and initiation of cancers. Here, we not only test the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cells may effect development of cancers arising from other tissue cells by forming tumor stroma but also that sarcomas may arise by transformation of stem cells from the bone marrow and epithelial cancers may arise by transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells to epithelial cancers. Lethally irradiated female FVB/N mice were restored with bone marrow (BM) transplants from a male transgenic mouse carrying the polyoma middle T-oncoprotein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (MMTV-PyMT) and followed for development of lesions. All of 8 lethally irradiated female FVB/N recipient mice, restored with BM transplants from a male MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse, developed Y-chromosome negative (Y-) cancers of various organs surrounded by Y+ stroma. One of the female FVB/N recipient mice also developed fibrosarcoma and 1, a diploid breast adenocarcinoma containing Y chromosomes. In contrast, only 1 of 12 control female mice restored with normal male BM developed a tumor (lymphoma) during the same time period. These results indicate not only that the transgenic BM-derived stromal cells may indirectly contribute to development of tumors in recipient mice but also that sarcomas may arise by transformation of BM stem cells and that breast cancers arise by transdifferentiation of BM stem cells, presumably by mesenchymal-epithelial transition.

  14. Bone marrow-derived cells serve as proangiogenic macrophages but not endothelial cells in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yuji; Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Kishi, Kazuo; Suda, Toshio; Kubota, Yoshiaki

    2011-05-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) contribute to postnatal vascular growth by differentiating into endothelial cells or secreting angiogenic factors. However, the extent of their endothelial differentiation highly varies according to the angiogenic models used. Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury. As a process also observed in cancer progression, neoangiogenesis into wound tissues is profoundly involved in this healing process, suggesting the contribution of BMDCs. However, the extent of the differentiation of BMDCs to endothelial cells in wound healing is unclear. In this study, using the green fluorescent protein-bone marrow chim-eric experiment and high resolution confocal microscopy at a single cell level, we observed no endothelial differentiation of BMDCs in 2 acute wound healing models (dorsal excisional wound and ear punch) and a chronic wound healing model (decubitus ulcer). Instead, a major proportion of BMDCs were macrophages. Indeed, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) inhibition depleted approximately 80% of the BMDCs at the wound healing site. CSF-1-mutant (CSF-1(op/op)) mice showed significantly reduced neoangiogenesis into the wound site, supporting the substantial role of BMDCs as macrophages. Our data show that the proangiogenic effects of macrophages, but not the endothelial differentiation, are the major contribution of BMDCs in wound healing.

  15. Treatment with bone marrow-derived stromal cells accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kwon, David S; Gao, Xiaohua; Liu, Yong Bo; Dulchavsky, Deborah S; Danyluk, Andrew L; Bansal, Mona; Chopp, Michael; McIntosh, Kevin; Arbab, Ali S; Dulchavsky, Scott A; Gautam, Subhash C

    2008-06-01

    Bone marrow stem cells participate in tissue repair processes and may have a role in wound healing. Diabetes is characterised by delayed and poor wound healing. We investigated the potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) to promote healing of fascial wounds in diabetic rats. After manifestation of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic state for 5 weeks in male adult Sprague-Dawley rats, healing of fascial wounds was severely compromised. Compromised wound healing in diabetic rats was characterised by excessive polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, lack of granulation tissue formation, deficit of collagen and growth factor [transforming growth factor (TGF-beta), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor PDGF-BB and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)] expression in the wound tissue and significant decrease in biomechanical strength of wounds. Treatment with BMSC systemically or locally at the wound site improved the wound-breaking strength (WBS) of fascial wounds. The improvement in WBS was associated with an immediate and significant increase in collagen levels (types I-V) in the wound bed. In addition, treatment with BMSCs increased the expression of growth factors critical to proper repair and regeneration of the damaged tissue moderately (TGF-beta, KGF) to markedly (EGF, VEGF, PDGF-BB). These data suggest that cell therapy with BMSCs has the potential to augment healing of the diabetic wounds.

  16. Therapeutic action of bone marrow-derived stem cells against acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Feng, Yetong; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Yulai

    2014-10-12

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent clinical disease with a high morbidity rate and mortality rate, while the treatment options for this intractable disease are limited currently. In recent years, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to hold an effect therapeutic action against AKI by scientists gradually, and the cells are capable to localize to renal compartments and contribute to kidney regeneration though differentiation or paracrine action. Especially, the advantages of BMSCs, such as low toxicity and side effect as well as autologous transplantation, endue the cell with a promising potential in clinical therapy against AKI. In this review, we mainly provide a concise overview of the application of BMSCs in the treatment of AKI, and summarize a series of published data regarding the mechanisms and optimizations of the BMSC-based therapy in renal repair after AKI. Even though some critical points about the BMSC-based therapy model still need clarification, we hope to develop more reliable pharmacological or biotechnical strategies utilizing the stem cell for the eventual treatment of humans with AKI, based on these studies and the understanding of mechanism of renal protection by BMSCs.

  17. Mechanism of insulin production in canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Zhao, Dongwei; Ishikawa, Shingo; Michishita, Masaki; Arai, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Insulin is a critical hormone in the regulation of blood glucose levels and is produced exclusively by pancreatic islet beta-cells. Insulin deficiency due to reduced pancreatic islet beta-cell number underlies the progression of diabetes mellitus, prompting efforts to develop beta-cell replacement therapies. However, precise information on beta-cell replacement and differentiation in canines is limited. In this study, we established insulin-producing cells from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells transiently expressing canine pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), beta cell transactivator 2 (Beta2) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (Mafa) using a gene transfer technique. Real-time PCR analysis revealed an increase in insulin mRNA expression of transfected cells. And ELISA revealed that insulin protein expressed was detected in cytoplasmic fraction. Insulin immunostaining analysis was performed and observed in cytoplasmic fraction. These results suggest that co-transfection of Pdx1, Beta2 and Mafa induce insulin production in canine BMSCs. Our findings provide a clue to basic research into the mechanisms underlying insulin production in the canines.

  18. Aldose reductase (AKR1B) deficiency promotes phagocytosis in bone marrow derived mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahavir; Kapoor, Aniruddh; McCracken, James; Hill, Bradford; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2017-03-01

    Macrophages are critical drivers of the immune response during infection and inflammation. The pathogenesis of several inflammatory conditions, such as diabetes, cancer and sepsis has been linked with aldose reductase (AR), a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, the role of AR in the early stages of innate immunity such as phagocytosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of AR in regulating the growth and the phagocytic activity of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMMs) from AR-null and wild-type (WT) mice. We found that macrophages derived from AR-null mice were larger in size and had a slower growth rate than those derived from WT mice. The AR-null macrophages also displayed higher basal, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated phagocytic activity than WT macrophages. Moreover, absence of AR led to a marked increase in cellular levels of both ATP and NADPH. These data suggest that metabolic pathways involving AR suppress macrophage energy production, and that inhibition of AR could induce a favorable metabolic state that promotes macrophage phagocytosis. Hence, modulation of macrophage metabolism by inhibition of AR might represent a novel strategy to modulate host defense responses and to modify metabolism to promote macrophage hypertrophy and phagocytosis under inflammatory conditions.

  19. Proliferation of canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on different nanomaterial based thin film scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Das, Kinsuk; Mili, Bhabesh; A P, Madhusoodan; Saxena, Abhishek Chandra; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Praveen; Verma, Med Ram; Sarkar, Mihir; Bag, Sadhan

    2017-04-01

    Stem cell niche research uses nanotechnologies to mimic the extra-cellular microenvironment to promote proliferation and differentiation. The aim of designing different scaffolds is to simulate the best structural and environmental pattern for extracellular matrix. This experiment was designed to study the proliferative behaviour of canine bone marrow deriver mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on different nanomaterial based thin film scaffolds of carbon nanotubes (CNT), chitosan and poly ε-caprolactone. Similar number of cells was seeded on the scaffolds and standard cell culture flask, taken as control. Cells were maintained on DMEM media and relative number of metabolically active cells was determined by MTT assay up to day six of culture. Cells proliferated on control and all the scaffolds as the days progressed. Although proliferation rate was slow but no decline of cell number was noticed on the scaffolds during the study period. Initially, the cell proliferation was lower on CNT but as time progressed no significant difference was observed compared to control. The result indicated that nanomaterial based scaffolds reduce the proliferation rate of canine MSCs. However, canine MSCs adapted and proliferated better on CNT substrate in vitro and may be used as a scaffold component in canine tissue engineering in future.

  20. Age-associated metabolic dysregulation in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Fan; Lee, Keith M.; McCarry, Brian E.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages are major contributors to age-associated inflammation. Metabolic processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and the urea cycle regulate inflammatory responses by macrophages. Metabolic profiles changes with age; therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of metabolic processes could contribute to macrophage hyporesponsiveness to LPS. We examined the intracellular metabolome of bone marrow-derived macrophages from young (6–8 wk) and old (18–22 mo) mice following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and tolerance. We discovered known and novel metabolites that were associated with the LPS response of macrophages from young mice, which were not inducible in macrophages from old mice. Macrophages from old mice were largely non-responsive towards LPS stimulation, and we did not observe a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The critical regulatory metabolites succinate, γ-aminobutyric acid, arginine, ornithine and adenosine were increased in LPS-stimulated macrophages from young mice, but not macrophages from old mice. A shift between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation was not observed during LPS tolerance in macrophages from either young or old mice. Metabolic bottlenecks may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the dysregulation of LPS responses with age.

  1. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells causes accumulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Kim, Hyojung; Kang, Jinku; Yang, Dongki; Kang, Yu-Hoi; Lee, Dae Ho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Park, Sang Chul; Oh, Byung-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of tissue macrophages is a significant characteristic of disease-associated chronic inflammation, and facilitates the progression of disease pathology. However, the functional roles of these bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in aging are unclear. Here, we identified age-dependent macrophage accumulation in the bone marrow, showing that aging significantly increases the number of M1 macrophages and impairs polarization of BMDMs. We found that age-related dysregulation of BMDMs is associated with abnormal overexpression of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. BMDM dysregulation in aging impairs the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in B-cell maturation and activation. Phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by BMDMs was reduced because of low expression of phagocytic receptor CD14, indicating that increased apoptotic cells may result from defective phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in the BM of aged mice. Therefore, CD14 may represent a promising target for preventing BMDM dysregulation, and macrophage accumulation may provide diagnostic and therapeutic clues. PMID:27866511

  2. Osteoblasts Protect AML Cells from SDF-1-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Kimberly N.; Dudakovic, Amel; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Philips, Rachael L.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Karp, Judith E.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Hedin, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow provides a protective environment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that often allows leukemic stem cells to survive standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Targeting these leukemic stem cells within the bone marrow is critical for preventing relapse. We recently demonstrated that SDF-1, a chemokine abundant in the bone marrow, induces apoptosis in AML cell lines and in patient samples expressing high levels of its receptor, CXCR4. Here we show that a subset of osteoblast lineage cells within the bone marrow can protect AML cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to the SDF-1 naturally present in that location. In co-culture systems, osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation protected AML cell lines and patient isolates from SDF-1-induced apoptosis. The differentiation of the osteoblast cell lines, MC3T3 and W-20-17, mediated this protection via a cell contact-independent mechanism. In contrast, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, the precursors of osteoblasts, induced apoptosis in AML cells via a CXCR4-dependent mechanism and failed to protect AML cells from exogenously added SDF-1. These results indicate that osteoblasts in the process of differentiation potently inhibit the SDF-1-driven apoptotic pathway of CXCR4-expressing AML cells residing in the bone marrow. Drugs targeting this protective mechanism could potentially provide a new approach to treating AML by enhancing the SDF-1-induced apoptosis of AML cells residing within the bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:24851270

  3. miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 Enhance Adipogenic Differentiation from Porcine Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Xinglan; Ma, Kuiying; Zhang, Zhiren; Zhao, Tianchuang; Zhang, Xueming; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have multilineage differentiation abilities toward adipocytes and osteoblasts. Recently, numerous studies have focused on the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the process of adipogenic differentiation of human and mouse cells. However, the role of miRNAs in adipogenic differentiation process of porcine BMSCs (pBMSCs) remains unclear. In this study, pBMSCs were induced to differentiate into adipocytes using a chemical approach, and the roles of miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 in this process were investigated. Our results showed that pBMSCs could be chemically induced to differentiate into adipocytes and that the expression of miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 increased during differentiation. Then, overexpression of mimics of miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 increased the number of oil red O-positive cells of adipocyte differentiation. The expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) mRNA showed increases of 1.8-, 1.5-, and 1.2-fold in the groups expressing mimics of miR-21, miR-17, and miR-143, respectively, at day 20. These results demonstrate that miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 are involved in and promote the adipogenic differentiation of pBMSCs. This study provides an experimental basis for establishing a stable and efficient adipogenic differentiation model for applications in cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  4. Impact of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on remodeling the lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharides in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohi El-Din, Mouchira M; Rashed, Laila A; Mahmoud Haridy, Mohi A; Khalil, Atef Mohamed; Mohamed Albadry, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the potential of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to regulate cytokines and remodel the lung induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; O-antigen). Materials & methods: A group of mice (n = 21) was inoculated intraperitoneally with one dose 0.1 ml containing 0.025 mg LPS/mouse, and another treated intravenously with one dose of labeling bone marrow derived MSCs at 7.5 × 105 cell/mouse 4 h after LPS injection. All animals were sacrificed on the 1st, 7th and 14th days post-injection. Results: MSCs increased the level of IL-10 with suppression of TNF-α, decrease of collagen fibers and renewal of alveolar type I cells, together with lung tissue remodeling. Conclusion: MSCs were shown to modulate inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-10) and to differentiate into alveolar type I cells, which prevented fibrosis in lung tissue from LPS-treated mice. PMID:28344826

  5. Transplanted bone marrow-derived circulating PDGFRα+ cells restore type VII collagen in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa mouse skin graft.

    PubMed

    Iinuma, Shin; Aikawa, Eriko; Tamai, Katsuto; Fujita, Ryo; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Chino, Takenao; Kikuta, Junichi; McGrath, John A; Uitto, Jouni; Ishii, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2015-02-15

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is an intractable genetic blistering skin disease in which the epithelial structure easily separates from the underlying dermis because of genetic loss of functional type VII collagen (Col7) in the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Recent studies have demonstrated that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) ameliorates the skin blistering phenotype of RDEB patients by restoring Col7. However, the exact therapeutic mechanism of BMT in RDEB remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the roles of transplanted bone marrow-derived circulating mesenchymal cells in RDEB (Col7-null) mice. In wild-type mice with prior GFP-BMT after lethal irradiation, lineage-negative/GFP-positive (Lin(-)/GFP(+)) cells, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-positive (PDGFRα(+)) mesenchymal cells, specifically migrated to skin grafts from RDEB mice and expressed Col7. Vascular endothelial cells and follicular keratinocytes in the deep dermis of the skin grafts expressed SDF-1α, and the bone marrow-derived PDGFRα(+) cells expressed CXCR4 on their surface. Systemic administration of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 markedly decreased the migration of bone marrow-derived PDGFRα(+) cells into the skin graft, resulting in persistent epidermal detachment with massive necrosis and inflammation in the skin graft of RDEB mice; without AMD3100 administration, Col7 was significantly supplemented to ameliorate the pathogenic blistering phenotype. Collectively, these data suggest that the SDF1α/CXCR4 signaling axis induces transplanted bone marrow-derived circulating PDGFRα(+) mesenchymal cells to migrate and supply functional Col7 to regenerate RDEB skin.

  6. Iron overload induced death of osteoblasts in vitro: involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhipeng; Yang, Jingjing; Zheng, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron overload is recognized as a new pathogenfor osteoporosis. Various studies demonstrated that iron overload could induce apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteoporosis in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the iron overload-mediated induction of apoptosis in osteoblasts has not been explored. Purpose In this study, we attempted to determine whether the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is involved in iron-induced osteoblastic cell death and to investigate the beneficial effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in iron-induced cytotoxicity. Methods The MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line was treated with various concentrations of ferric ion in the absence or presence of NAC, and intracellular iron, cell viability, reactive oxygen species, functionand morphology changes of mitochondria and mitochondrial apoptosis related key indicators were detected by commercial kits. In addition, to further explain potential mechanisms underlying iron overload-related osteoporosis, we also assessed cell viability, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation potential in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells(MSCs) by commercial kits. Results Ferric ion demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts. After incubation with iron, an elevation of intracelluar labile iron levels and a concomitant over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry in osteoblasts. Nox4 (NADPH oxidase 4), an important ROS producer, was also evaluated by western blot. Apoptosis, which was evaluated by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and the activation of caspase-3, was detected after exposure to iron. Iron contributed to the permeabilizatio of mitochondria, leading to the release of cytochrome C (cyto C), which, in turn, induced mitochondrial apoptosis in osteoblasts via activation of Caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC could reverse iron-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and

  7. Fibroblasts induce heparin synthesis in chondroitin sulfate E containing human bone marrow-derived mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gilead, L.; Bibi, O.; Razin, E. )

    1990-09-15

    Human bone marrow-derived mast cells (hBMMCs), differentiated in vitro in suspension culture and under the influence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells conditioned medium (hCM), were tested for their response to recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) and for their behavior in different microenvironments. The hBMMCs were incubated in the presence of rhIL-3 and the changes in their proliferation rate were determined. Recombinant hIL-3 induced a more than sixfold increase in 3H-thymidine uptake into the hBMMC DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Human CM used as a control for proliferation response induced a more than eightfold maximal proliferation rate increase. Rabbit anti-rhIL-3 completely inhibited hBMMC 3H-thymidine uptake induced by rhIL-3 and decreased the hCM-induced proliferation by approximately 50%. These hBMMCs were cocultured with four different mytomicin C-treated cell monolayers and assayed for phenotypic changes. After only 2 days in coculture with either embryonic mouse skin-derived fibroblasts (MESFs) or human skin-derived fibroblasts (HSFs), a marked increase in granule number and density was noted on staining with toluidine blue. Mast cells that initially stained alcian blue+/safranin- at day 0 of coculture became alcian blue+/safranin+ during the coculture period. Human BMMC proteoglycan synthesis shifted from approximately 85% chondroitin sulfate E to approximately 60% heparin within 14 to 19 days of coculture with the MESF monolayer and to approximately 50% heparin within 19 days of coculture with the HSF monolayer. None of the above-mentioned changes were noted in cocultures of hBMMCs with 3T3 cell line fibroblast monolayers or in cocultures with bovine vascular endothelium (BVE) cell monolayers.

  8. CD44 promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward glioma

    PubMed Central

    YIN, QIANG; ZHOU, YANG-YANG; WANG, PENG; MA, LI; LI, PENG; WANG, XIAO-GUANG; SHE, CHUN-HUA; LI, WEN-LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit tropism for gliomas. However, the mechanism underlying this directed migration remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanism underlying platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced chemotactic migration of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) toward glioma. Rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium was utilized to evaluate the chemotactic response of BMSCs toward glioma using an in vitro migration assay. Recombinant rat PDGF-BB was added to C6 cell-conditioned medium to assess its effect on the tropism of BMSCs. The effect of PDGF-BB on the expression levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)44 in BMSCs was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assays. The results revealed that chemotactic migration was induced in BMSCs by rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium, which was enhanced by PDGF-BB treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays showed that CD44 expression was upregulated in BMSCs following treatment with 40 ng/ml PDGF-BB for 12 h. Additionally, 3-h pretreatment with the anti-CD44 neutralizing antibody OX-50 was observed to attenuate the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma in the presence or absence of PDGF-BB. The results of the present study indicate that CD44 mediates the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma, and PDGF-BB promotes the migration of BMSCs toward glioma via the upregulation of CD44 expression in BMSCs. These findings suggest CD44 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. PMID:27073479

  9. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D{sub 2} and leukotriene C{sub 4} in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-{alpha} expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on Fc{epsilon}RI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  10. Low level light promotes the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jin-Chul; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Dae Yu; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Low-level light irradiation (LLLI) reported to stimulate the proliferation or differentiation of a variety of cell types. However, very little is known about the effect of light therapy on stem cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI on the molecular physiological change of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) by wavelength (470, 630, 660, 740 and 850, 50mW). The laser diode was performed with different time interval (0, 7.5, 15, 30J/cm2, 50mW) on hBMSC. To determine the molecular physiological changes of cellular level of hBMSC, the clonogenic assay, ATP assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, mitochondria membrane potential (MMPΦ) staining and calcium efflux assay were assessed after irradiation. There was a difference between with and without irradiation on hBMSCs. An energy density up to 30 J/cm² improved the cell proliferation in comparison to the control group. Among these irradiated group, 630 and 660nm were significantly increased the cell proliferation. The cellular level of ATP and calcium influx was increased with energy dose-dependent in all LLLI groups. Meanwhile, ROS and MMPΦ were also increased after irradiation except 470nm. It can be concluded that LLLI using infrared light and an energy density up to 30 J/cm² has a positive stimulatory effect on the proliferation or differentiation of hBMSCs. Our results suggest that LLLI may influence to the mitochondrial membrane potential activity through ATP synthesis and increased cell metabolism which leads to cell proliferation and differentiation.

  11. Cultivation and spontaneous differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on polymeric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xun; Kratz, Karl; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Zhengdong; Roch, Toralf; Jung, Friedrich; Lendlein, Andreas; Ma, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrated many physical and chemical cues from the local microenvironment could influence mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) maintenance and differentiation. In this study, we systematically investigated the interaction of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and polymeric substrates. Adhesion, proliferative capacity, cytoskeleton alteration, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, senescence, and adipogenesis potential of rBMSCs were determined on these polymeric inserts prepared from polyetherurethane (PEU) and poly(ether imide) (PEI). Inserts for culture plates were applied to ensure that the rBMSCs were solely in contact to the tested material. The explored inserts exhibited advancing contact angles of 84° (PEU) and 93° (PEI). Finally, the micromechanical properties determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation varied in the range from 6 GPa (PEU) to 13 GPa (PEI). We found that both PEU and PEI showed a good cell compatibility to rBMSCs. rBMSCs could adherent on both polymeric surfaces with the similar adhesion ratio and subsequent division rate. However, cells cultured on PEU exhibited higher apoptosis level and senescence ratio, which resulted in lower cell density (22061 ± 3000/cm(2)) compared to that on PEI (68395 ± 8000/cm(2)) after 20 days cultivation. Morphological differences of rBMSCs were detected after 5 days cultivation. Cells on PEU exhibited flat and enlarged shape with rearranged filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton, while cells on PEI and tissue culture plate (TCP) had similar spindle-shape morphology and oriented F-actin. After 20 days, lipid droplets were spontaneously formed in rBMSCs on PEU and PEI but not on TCP. Both PEU and PEI might trigger rBMSCs towards spontaneous adipogenic commitment, whereas PEI provided better cell compatibility on rBMSCs apoptosis, senescence and proliferation.

  12. The signalling imprints of nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Tanya De L; Kong, Ying Ying; Hardy, Charles L; Xiang, Sue Dong; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) possess remarkable adjuvant and carrier capacity, therefore are used in the development of various vaccine formulations. Our previous studies demonstrated that inert non-toxic 40-50 nm polystyrene NP (PS-NP) can promote strong CD8 T cell and antibody responses to the antigen, in the absence of observable inflammatory responses. Furthermore, instillation of PS-NP inhibited the development of allergic airway inflammation by induction of an immunological imprint via modulation of dendritic cell (DC) function without inducing oxidative stress in the lungs in mice. This is in contrast to many studies which show that a variety of ambient and man-made NP promote lung immunopathology, raising concerns generally about the safe use of NPs in biomedicine. Most NPs are capable of inducing inflammatory pathways in DC largely mediated by signalling via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK). Herein, we investigate whether PS-NPs also activate ERK in DC in vitro. Our data show that PS-NP do not induce ERK activation in two different types of bone marrow derived (BM) DC cultures (expanded with GM-CSF or with GM-CSF together with IL-4). The absence of such signalling was not due to lack of PS-NP uptake by BM-DC as confirmed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The process of NP uptake by DC usually initiates ERK signalling, suggesting an unusual uptake pathway may be engaged by PS-NPs. Indeed, data herein showns that uptake of PS-NP by BM-DC was substantially inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) but not cytochalasin D (CCD), suggesting an uptake pathway utilising caveole for PS-NP. Together these data show that BM-DC take up PS-NP via a caveole-dependent pathway which does not trigger ERK signalling which may explain their efficient uptake by DC, without the concomitant activation of conventional inflammatory pathways.

  13. Effects of 810-nm Laser on Murine Bone-Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to Investigate the effect of 810-nm low level laser therapy (LLLT) on dendritic cells (DC) in vitro. Background data: LLLT can enhance wound healing and increase cell proliferation and survival, and is used to treat inflammatory conditions. However there are reports that LLLT can stimulate leukocytes and could therefore be pro-inflammatory. Recently, DC have been found to play an important role in inflammation and immune response. Methods: Murine bone-marrow-derived DC were isolated, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and treated with 810-nm laser, using fluences of 0.3, 3, and 30 J/cm2 delivered at irradiances of 1, 10, and 100 mW/cm2 respectively. Confocal microscopy, flow cytometry for DC markers, viability using propidium iodide, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for secreted interleukin-12 (IL-12), and bioluminescence measurements in cells transduced with a reporter for toll-like receptor (TLR)-9/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, were performed. Results: LLLT changed the morphology of LPS-stimulated DC, increased their viability, and altered the balance of DC activation markers (major histocompatibility complex [MHC] class 2 up and CD86 down). LLLT reduced IL-12 secretion from DC stimulated by either LPS or CpG. LLLT reduced NF-κB activation in reporter cells stimulated with CpG. There was no obvious light dose response observed. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that 810-nm LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated DC, possibly mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and reduced NF-κB signaling. PMID:21214383

  14. Molecular and cellular characterization of buffalo bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gade, N E; Pratheesh, M D; Nath, A; Dubey, P K; Amarpal; Sharma, B; Saikumar, G; Taru Sharma, G

    2013-06-01

    Immune privileged mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into multiple cell types and possess great potential for human and veterinary regenerative therapies. This study was designed with an objective to isolate, expand and characterize buffalo bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) at molecular and cellular level. Buffalo BM-MSCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient method and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). These cells were characterized through alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, mRNA expression analysis (CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, Oct4 and Nanog), immunolocalization along with flow cytometry (Stro 1, CD 73, CD 105, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) and in situ hybridization (Oct4 and Sox2). Multilineage differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) was induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. Buffalo BM-MSCs have the capacity to form plastic adherent clusters of fibroblast-like cells and were successfully maintained up to 16(th) passage. These cells were AP positive, and further CFU assay confirmed their clonogenic property. RT-PCR analysis and protein localization study showed that buffalo BM-MSCs are positive for various cell surface markers and pluripotency markers. Cytoplasmic distribution of mRNA for pluripotency markers in buffalo BM-MSCs and multilineage differentiation were induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of buffalo BM-MSCs, which suggests that MSCs can be derived and expanded from buffalo bone marrow and can be used after characterization as a novel agent for regenerative therapy.

  15. The function of CCR3 on mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Collington, Sarah J; Westwick, John; Williams, Timothy J; Weller, Charlotte L

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms governing the population of tissues by mast cells are not fully understood, but several studies using human mast cells have suggested that expression of the chemokine receptor CCR3 and migration to its ligands may be important. In CCR3-deficient mice, a change in mast cell tissue distribution in the airways following allergen challenge was reported compared with wild-type mice. In addition, there is evidence that CCR3 is important in mast cell maturation in mouse. In this study, bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were cultured and CCR3 expression and the migratory response to CCR3 ligands were characterized. In addition, BMMCs were cultured from wild-type and CCR3-deficient mice and their phenotype and migratory responses were compared. CCR3 messenger RNA was detectable in BMMCs, but this was not significantly increased after activation by immunoglobulin E (IgE). CCR3 protein was not detected on BMMCs during maturation and expression could not be enhanced after IgE activation. Resting and IgE-activated immature and mature BMMCs did not migrate in response to the CCR3 ligands eotaxin- 1 and eotaxin-2. Comparing wild-type and CCR3-deficient BMMCs, there were no differences in mast cell phenotype or ability to migrate to the mast cell chemoattractants leukotriene B4 and stem cell factor. The results of this study show that CCR3 may not mediate mast cell migration in mouse BMMCs in vitro. These observations need to be considered in relation to the findings of CCR3 deficiency on mast cells in vivo.

  16. Nitric Oxide Modulates Postnatal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Fuseler, John W.; Valarmathi, Mani T.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free-radical gas molecule, which is highly diffusible and can activate a wide range of downstream effectors, with rapid and widespread cellular effects. NO is a versatile signaling mediator with a plethora of cellular functions. For example, NO has been shown to regulate actin, the microfilament, dependent cellular functions, and also acts as a putative stem cell differentiation-inducing agent. In this study, using a wound-healing model of cellular migration, we have explored the effect of exogenous NO on the kinetics of movement and morphological changes in postnatal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Cellular migration kinetics and morphological changes of the migrating MSCs were measured in the presence of an NO donor (S-Nitroso-N-Acetyl-D,L-Penicillamine, SNAP), especially, to track the dynamics of single-cell responses. Two experimental conditions were assessed, in which SNAP (200 μM) was applied to the MSCs. In the first experimental group (SN-1), SNAP was applied immediately following wound formation, and migration kinetics were determined for 24 h. In the second experimental group (SN-2), MSCs were pretreated for 7 days with SNAP prior to wound formation and the determination of migration kinetics. The generated displacement curves were further analyzed by non-linear regression analysis. The migration displacement of the controls and NO treated MSCs (SN-1 and SN-2) was best described by a two parameter exponential functions expressing difference constant coefficients. Additionally, changes in the fractal dimension (D) of migrating MSCs were correlated with their displacement kinetics for all the three groups. Overall, these data suggest that NO may evidently function as a stop migration signal by disordering the cytoskeletal elements required for cell movement and proliferation of MSCs. PMID:27933292

  17. Functional characterisation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Helene; Zarcone, Maria C.; Taube, Christian; Stolk, Jan; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2016-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are evaluated for clinical use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but it is unclear whether COPD affects BM-MSCs. To investigate this, BM-MSCs from nine COPD patients and nine non-COPD age-matched controls were compared with regard to immunophenotype, growth and differentiation potential, and migration capacity. Other functional assays included the response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and inducers of the nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-like 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway, and effects on NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells. No significant differences were observed in terms of morphology, proliferation and migration, except for increased adipocyte differentiation potential in the COPD group. Both groups were comparable regarding mRNA expression of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and in their potential to induce mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells. MSCs from COPD patients secreted more interleukin-6 in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway resulted in a comparable induction of mRNA expression of four target genes, but the expression of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene NQO1 was lower in MSCs from COPD patients. The observation that MSCs from COPD patients are phenotypically and functionally comparable to those from non-COPD controls implies that autologous MSCs can be considered for use in the setting of clinical trials as a treatment for COPD. PMID:27730190

  18. Bone marrow-derived cells rescue salivary gland function in mice with head and neck irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Yoshinori; Liu, Younan; Khalili, Saeed; Maria, Ola M.; Xia, Dengsheng; Key, Sharon; Cotrim, Ana P.; Mezey, Eva; Tran, Simon D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands (SGs), which is accompanied by a loss of fluid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. While there are currently no adequate conventional treatments for this condition, cell-based therapies are receiving increasing attention to regenerate SGs. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can differentiate into salivary epithelial cells and restore SG function in head and neck irradiated mice. BMDCs from male mice were transplanted into the tail-vein of 18 Gy-irradiated female mice. Salivary output was increased in mice that received BMDCs transplantation at week 8 and 24 post-irradiation. At 24 weeks after irradiation (IR), harvested SGs (submandibular and parotid glands) of BMDC-treated mice had greater weights than those of non-treated mice. Histological analysis shows that SGs of treated mice demonstrated an increased level of tissue regenerative activity such as blood vessel formation and cell proliferation, while apoptotic activity was increased in non-transplanted mice. The expression of stem cell markers (Sca-1 or c-kit) was detected in BMDC-treated SGs. Finally, we detected an increased ratio of acinar-cell area and approximately 9% of Y-chromosome-positive (donor-derived) salivary epithelial cells in BMDC-treated mice. We propose here that cell therapy using BMDCs can rescue the functional damage of irradiated SGs by direct differentiation of donor BMDCs into salivary epithelial cells. PMID:20933096

  19. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gillian M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J; Nash, Anthony A; Dutia, Bernadette M

    2015-10-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α, and TNF-α expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-α was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection.

  20. Cloning of two adenosine receptor subtypes from mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, D L; Walker, L L; Heinemann, S

    1994-05-01

    Adenosine potentiates the stimulated release of mast cell mediators. Pharmacologic studies suggest the presence of two adenosine receptors, one positively coupled to adenylate cyclase and the other coupled to phospholipase C activation. To identify mast cell adenosine receptor subtypes, cDNAs for the A1 and A2a adenosine receptors were obtained by screening a mouse brain cDNA library with the use of PCR-derived probes. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell cDNA libraries were constructed and screened with the use of A1 and A2a cDNA probes, which revealed the presence of A2a, but not A1, receptor clones. A putative A2b receptor was identified by using low stringency mast cell library screening. Northern blotting of mast cell poly(A)+ RNA with the use of receptor subtype probes labeled single mRNA bands of 2.4 kb and 1.8 kb for the A2a and A2b receptors, respectively. In situ cells. An A2a receptor-specific agonist failed to enhance mast cell mediator release, which suggests that the secretory process is modulated through the A2b and/or another receptor subtype. By using RNase protection assays, we found that mast cells that had been cultured in the presence of N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine for 24 h exhibited a decrease in both A2a and A2b receptor RNA levels. Cells that had been cultured for 1 to 2 days in the presence of dexamethasone demonstrated increased amounts of A2a receptor mRNA, but no identifiable change in A2b receptor mRNA. Mast cells possess at least two adenosine receptor subtypes that may be differentially regulated.

  1. Mild cerebellar neurodegeneration of aged heterozygous PCD mice increases cell fusion of Purkinje and bone marrow-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz, David; Recio, Javier S; Weruaga, Eduardo; Alonso, José R

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells have different plastic properties, especially regarding cell fusion, which increases with time and is prompted by tissue injury. Several recessive mutations, including Purkinje Cell Degeneration, affect the number of Purkinje cells in homozygosis; heterozygous young animals have an apparently normal phenotype but they undergo Purkinje cell loss as they age. Our findings demonstrate that heterozygous pcd mice undergo Purkinje cell loss at postnatal day 300, this slow but steadily progressing cell death starting sooner than has been reported previously and without massive reactive gliosis or inflammation. Here, transplantation of bone marrow stem cells was performed to assess the arrival of bone marrow-derived cells in the cerebellum in these heterozygous mice. Our results reveal that a higher number of cell fusion events occurs in heterozygous animals than in the controls, on days 150 and 300 postnatally. In sum, this study indicates that mild cell death promotes the fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with surviving Purkinje neurons. This phenomenon suggests new therapies for long-lasting neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Injury mechanism dictates contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to murine hepatic vascular regeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem and progenitor cells derived from adult marrow have been shown to regenerate vascular cells in response to injury. However, it is unclear whether the type of injury dictates the contribution of such cells to neovascularization and which subpopulations of cells contribute to vascular regeneratio...

  3. Hydrocortisone differentially affects the ability of murine stromal cells and human marrow-derived adherent cells to promote the differentiation of CD34++/CD38- long-term culture-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Croisille, L; Auffray, I; Katz, A; Izac, B; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1994-12-15

    Very primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cells are identified indirectly by their ability to give rise to clonogenic progenitors in the presence of either human or murine stromal cells. These long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays are usually performed in the presence of hydrocortisone based on the initial observation that hydrocortisone was required for prolonged hematopoiesis in standard long-term bone marrow cultures. In this report, we investigated the role of hydrocortisone in LTC-IC assays initiated with CD34++/CD38- cells seeded onto either human bone marrow LTC-derived adherent cells or a murine marrow-derived stromal cell line, MS-5. It was found that weekly addition of hydrocortisone to the cultures reduced the frequency of LTC-IC (from 1/5 to 1/20) calculated from limiting dilution experiments and also reduced fivefold to 10-fold the number of their progeny clonogenic cells detected after 4 to 5 weeks. In contrast, the frequency and differentiative potential of CD34++/CD38- grown in the presence of human marrow feeders was unaltered by the addition of glucocorticoids. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that hydrocortisone inhibited LTC-IC differentiation by downregulating the expression of a synergistic factor produced by MS-5 cells. (1) In the absence of hydrocortisone, the number of clonogenic progenitors generated by LTC-IC was much higher in cultures seeded on MS-5 than in cultures seeded on human marrow adherent cells, which was also true when cytokines were added to the cocultures. However, based on the phenotype of the colonies, progenitors produced in MS-5 cocultures were more mature than those generated on human marrow adherent cells. (2) Hydrocortisone counteracted the stimulatory effect of recombinant human cytokines (interleukin-3, interleukin-6, and steel factor) in assays performed on MS-5 but not on human marrow feeders. (3) Hydrocortisone led to a 50% decrease in the numbers of colony-forming units

  4. Effect of autologous bone marrow-derived cells associated with guided bone regeneration or not in the treatment of peri-implant defects.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F V; Suaid, F F; Ruiz, K G S; Rodrigues, T L; Carvalho, M D; Nociti, F H; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bone marrow-derived cells associated with guided bone regeneration in the treatment of dehiscence bone defects around dental implants. Iliac-derived bone marrow cells were harvested from dogs and phenotypically characterized with regard to their osteogenic properties. After teeth extraction, three implant sites were drilled, dehiscences created and implants placed. Dehiscences were randomly assigned to: bone marrow-derived cells, bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration, and control (no treatment). After 3 months, implants with adjacent tissues were processed histologically, bone-to-implant contact, bone fill within the threads, new bone area in a zone lateral to the implant, new bone height, and new bone weight at the bottom of the defect were determined. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that bone marrow-derived cells presented osteogenic potential. Statistically higher bone fill within the threads was observed in both bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration bone marrow-derived cell groups compared with the control group (P<0.05), with no difference between the groups treated with cells (P>0.05). For the other parameters (new bone area, bone-to-implant contact, new bone height and new bone weight), only the bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration group presented higher values compared with the non-treated control (P<0.05). Bone marrow-derived cells provided promising results for peri-implantar bone regeneration, although the combined approach seems to be relevant, especially to bone formation out of the implant threads.

  5. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote growth and angiogenesis of breast and prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues. This behavior of MSCs has been exploited as a tumor-targeting strategy for cell-based cancer therapy. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor growth are controversial. This study was designed to determine the effect of MSCs on the growth of breast and prostate tumors. Methods Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were isolated and characterized. Effects of BM-MSCs on tumor cell proliferation were analyzed in a co-culture system with mouse breast cancer cell 4T1 or human prostate cancer cell DU145. Tumor cells were injected into nude mice subcutaneously either alone or coupled with BM-MSCs. The expression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis-related proteins in tumor tissues were immunofluorescence analyzed. The angiogenic effect of BM-MSCs was detected using a tube formation assay. The effects of the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs on expression of angiogenesis related markers were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Results Both co-culturing with mice BM-MSCs (mBM-MSCs) and treatment with mBM-MSC-conditioned medium enhanced the growth of 4T1 cells. Co-injection of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs into nude mice led to increased tumor size compared with injection of 4T1 cells alone. Similar experiments using DU145 cells and human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) instead of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs obtained consistent results. Compared with tumors induced by injection of tumor cells alone, the blood vessel area was greater in tumors from co-injection of tumor cells with BM-MSCs, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, both conditioned medium from hBM-MSCs alone and co-cultures of hBM-MSCs with DU145 cells were able to promote tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. When hBM-MSCs are exposed to the DU145 cell environment, the expression of markers associated with neovascularization (macrophage

  6. Paracrine Mechanisms of Intravenous Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Stem Cells in Chronic Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Ashu; Srivastava, M.V. Padma; Mohanty, Sujata; Vivekanandhan, Sivasubramaniam; Sharma, Sakshi; Kumaran, Senthil; Bhatia, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background The emerging role of stem cell technology and transplantation has helped scientists to study their potential role in neural repair and regeneration. The fate of stem cells is determined by their niche, consisting of surrounding cells and the secreted trophic growth factors. This interim report evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy (if any) of bone marrow-derived mononuclear stem cells (BM-MNC) in chronic ischemic stroke by studying the release of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF). Methods Twenty stroke patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recruited with the following inclusion criteria: 3 months to 1.5 years from the index event, Medical Research Council (MRC) grade of hand muscles of at least 2, Brunnstrom stage 2-5, conscious, and comprehendible. They were randomized to one group receiving autologous BM-MNC (mean 60-70 million) and to another group receiving saline infusion (placebo). All patients were administered a neuromotor rehabilitation regime for 8 weeks. Clinical assessments [Fugl Meyer scale (FM), modified Barthel index (mBI), MRC grade, Ashworth tone scale] were carried out and serum VEGF and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks. Results No serious adverse events were observed during the study. There was no statistically significant clinical improvement between the groups (FM: 95% CI 15.2-5.35, p = 0.25; mBI: 95% CI 14.3-4.5, p = 0.31). VEGF and BDNF expression was found to be greater in group 1 compared to group 2 (VEGF: 442.1 vs. 400.3 pg/ml, p = 0.67; BDNF: 21.3 vs. 19.5 ng/ml) without any statistically significant difference. Conclusion Autologous mononuclear stem cell infusion is safe and tolerable by chronic ischemic stroke patients. The released growth factors (VEGF and BDNF) in the microenvironment could be due to the paracrine hypothesis of stem cell niche and neurorehabilitation regime. PMID:27846623

  7. Beneficial Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Naturally Occurring Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E.; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X107 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  8. The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bayo, Juan; Marrodán, Mariano; Aquino, Jorge B; Silva, Marcelo; García, Mariana G; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-03-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are more often obtained from adult and extraembryonic tissues, with the latter sources being likely better from a therapeutic perspective. MSCs show tropism towards inflamed or tumourigenic sites. Mechanisms involved in MSC recruitment into tumours are comprehensively analysed, including chemoattractant signalling axes, endothelial adhesion and transmigration. In addition, signals derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumour microenvironment and their influence in MSC tropism and tumour recruitment are dissected, as well as the present controversy regarding their influence on tumour growth and/or metastasis. Finally, evidences available on the use of MSCs and other selected progenitor/stem cells as vehicles of antitumourigenic genes are discussed. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in progenitor/stem cell recruitment to HCC tumours is proposed in order to enhance their tumour targeting which may result in improvements in cell-based gene therapy strategies.

  9. Activation of Bone Marrow-Derived Microglia Promotes Photoreceptor Survival in Inherited Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sasahara, Manabu; Otani, Atsushi; Oishi, Akio; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Nakamura, Hajime; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2008-01-01

    The role of microglia in neurodegeneration is controversial, although microglial activation in the retina has been shown to provide an early response against infection, injury, ischemia, and degeneration. Here we show that endogenous bone marrow (BM)-derived microglia play a protective role in vascular and neural degeneration in the retinitis pigmentosa model of inherited retinal degeneration. BM-derived cells were recruited to the degenerating retina where they differentiated into microglia and subsequently localized to the degenerating vessels and neurons. Inhibition of stromal-derived factor-1 in the retina reduced the number of BM-derived microglia and accelerated the rate of neurovascular degeneration. Systemic depletion of myeloid progenitors also accelerated the degenerative process. Conversely, activation of BM-derived myeloid progenitors by systemic administration of both granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin resulted in the deceleration of retinal degeneration and the promotion of cone cell survival. These data indicate that BM-derived microglia may play a protective role in retinitis pigmentosa. Functional activation of BM-derived myeloid progenitors by cytokine therapy may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of inherited retinal degeneration and other neurodegenerative diseases, regardless of the underlying genetic defect. PMID:18483210

  10. Characterization and Immunomodulatory Effects of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Keith A.; Chow, Natalie H. C.; Dukoff, David; Gibson, Thomas W. G.; LaMarre, Jonathan; Betts, Dean H.; Koch, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies. Hypothesis and Objectives We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) MSC (derived from the same dogs) will have similar differentiation and immune modulatory profiles. Our objectives were to evaluate progenitor and non-progenitor functions as well as other characteristics of AT- and BM-MSC including 1) proliferation rate, 2) cell surface marker expression, 3) DNA methylation levels, 4) potential for trilineage differentiation towards osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cell fates, and 5) immunomodulatory potency in vitro. Results 1) AT-MSC proliferated at more than double the rate of BM-MSC (population doubling times in days) for passage (P) 2, AT: 1.69, BM: 3.81; P3, AT: 1.80, BM: 4.06; P4, AT: 2.37, BM: 5.34; P5, AT: 3.20, BM: 7.21). 2) Canine MSC, regardless of source, strongly expressed cell surface markers MHC I, CD29, CD44, and CD90, and were negative for MHC II and CD45. They also showed moderate expression of CD8 and CD73 and mild expression of CD14. Minor differences were found in expression of CD4 and CD34. 3) Global DNA methylation levels were significantly lower in BM-MSC compared to AT-MSC. 4) Little difference was found between AT- and BM-MSC in their potential for adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Chondrogenesis was poor to absent for both sources in spite of adding varying levels of bone-morphogenic protein to our standard transforming growth factor (TGF-β3)-based induction medium. 5) Immunomodulatory capacity was equal

  11. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of heart failure: is it all paracrine actions and immunomodulation?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar

    2008-02-01

    Despite significant advances in medical and surgical management of heart failure, mostly of ischaemic origin, the mortality and morbidity associated with it continue to be high. Pluripotent stem cells are being evaluated for treatment of heart failure. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied. Emerging evidence suggests that locally delivered MSCs can lead to an improvement in ventricular function, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Myocardial regeneration, as proposed by many researchers as the underlying mechanism, has failed to convince the scientific community. Recently some authors have ascribed improvement in ventricular function to paracrine actions of MSCs.A lot has been written about the host immune response triggered by embryonic stem cells and the consequent need for immunosuppression. Not enough work has been done on immune interactions involving allogeneic bone marrow cells. Full potential of stem cell therapy can be realised only when we are able to use allogeneic cells. The potential use of MSCs in cellular therapy has recently prompted researchers to look into their interaction with the host immune response. MSCs have immunomodulatory properties. They cause suppression of proliferation of alloreactive T cells in a dose-dependent manner.Tissue injury causes inflammation and release of several chemokines, cytokines and growth factors. They can cause recruitment of bone marrow-derived MSCs to the injured area. We review the literature on paracrine actions and immune interactions of allogeneic MSCs.

  12. Native and bone marrow-derived cell mosaicism in gastric carcinoma in H. pylori-infected p27-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Songhua; Kim, Woojin; Pham, Tu T.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Houghton, Jean Marie; Moss, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection promotes non-cardia gastric cancer. Some mouse models suggest that bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) contribute to Helicobacter-associated gastric carcinogenesis. We determined whether this increased susceptibility to Helicobacter-induced gastric carcinogenesis of p27-deficient mice is dependent upon their p27-null BMDC or their p27-null gastric epithelial cells. Design Female mice (recipients) were irradiated and transplanted with BMDC from male donors. Wild type (WT) mice in group 1 (control) received BMDC from male GFP-transgenic mice. Female WT and p27 KO mice were engrafted with male p27KO mice BMDC (Group 2) or GFP-transgenic WT BMDC (Group 3). Recipients were infected with H. pylori SS1 for one year. Results Mice lacking p27 in either the BM pool or gastric epithelium developed significantly more advanced gastric pathology, including high-grade dysplasia. Co-staining of donor BMDC in dysplastic gastric glands was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Gastric expression of IL-1 beta protein was reduced in groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05 vs control) whereas expression of IFN-γ and chemokines MIP-1 beta, MIG, IP-10 and RANTES in group 2 were significantly higher than group 3. Conclusions Both bone marrow-derived and gastric epithelial cells contribute to the increased gastric cancer susceptibility of p27-deficient H. pylori-infected mice. PMID:27655701

  13. Repeated Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Injections Improve Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Busson, Elodie; Holler, Valerie; Strup-Perrot, Carine; Lacave-Lapalun, Jean-Victor; Lhomme, Bruno; Prat, Marie; Devauchelle, Patrick; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Simon, Jean-Marc; Bonneau, Michel; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Benderitter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The management of proctitis in patients who have undergone very-high-dose conformal radiotherapy is extremely challenging. The fibrosis-necrosis, fistulae, and hemorrhage induced by pelvic overirradiation have an impact on morbidity. Augmenting tissue repair by the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be an important advance in treating radiation-induced toxicity. Using a preclinical pig model, we investigated the effect of autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs on high-dose radiation-induced proctitis. Irradiated pigs received repeated intravenous administrations of autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs. Immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to assess the MSCs' effect on inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis, in radiation-induced anorectal and colon damages. In humans, as in pigs, rectal overexposure induces mucosal damage (crypt depletion, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis). In a pig model, repeated administrations of MSCs controlled systemic inflammation, reduced in situ both expression of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage recruitment, and augmented interleukin-10 expression in rectal mucosa. MSC injections limited radiation-induced fibrosis by reducing collagen deposition and expression of col1a2/col3a1 and transforming growth factor-β/connective tissue growth factor, and by modifying the matrix metalloproteinase/TIMP balance. In a pig model of proctitis, repeated injections of MSCs effectively reduced inflammation and fibrosis. This treatment represents a promising therapy for radiation-induced severe rectal damage. PMID:24068742

  14. Bone marrow-derived monocytes give rise to self-renewing and fully differentiated Kupffer cells

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Charlotte L.; Zheng, Fang; De Baetselier, Patrick; Martens, Liesbet; Saeys, Yvan; De Prijck, Sofie; Lippens, Saskia; Abels, Chloé; Schoonooghe, Steve; Raes, Geert; Devoogdt, Nick; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Beschin, Alain; Guilliams, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Self-renewing tissue-resident macrophages are thought to be exclusively derived from embryonic progenitors. However, whether circulating monocytes can also give rise to such macrophages has not been formally investigated. Here we use a new model of diphtheria toxin-mediated depletion of liver-resident Kupffer cells to generate niche availability and show that circulating monocytes engraft in the liver, gradually adopt the transcriptional profile of their depleted counterparts and become long-lived self-renewing cells. Underlining the physiological relevance of our findings, circulating monocytes also contribute to the expanding pool of macrophages in the liver shortly after birth, when macrophage niches become available during normal organ growth. Thus, like embryonic precursors, monocytes can and do give rise to self-renewing tissue-resident macrophages if the niche is available to them. PMID:26813785

  15. Sertoli cell condition medium can induce germ like cells from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Monfared, Mahdieh Hajian; Minaee, Bagher; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Khrazinejad, Ebrahim; Barbarestani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Although many researchers have confirmed induction of germ cells from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), there are no reports that confirm spontaneous differentiation of germ cells from BMMSCs. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of adult Sertoli cell condition medium (SCCM) as a mutative factor in the induction of germ cells from BMMSCs. Materials and Methods: BMMSCs were collected from the bone marrow of 6-8-week old NMRI mice and their mesenchymal entities were proven using superficial markers (expression of CD44 and CD73 and non-expresion of CD45 and CD11b) by fow cytometry. Their multi-potential entities were proved with differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic cells for 21 days. Also isolated Sertoli cells were enriched using lectin coated plates and Sertoli cell condition medium (SCCM) was collected. Sertoli cells were identified by immunocytochemistry and Vimentin marker. The cells were then differentiated into germ cells with SCCM for 2 weeks. Finally induced cells were evaluated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Results: Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast and adipocyte showed their multi-potential property. Expression of CD44 and CD73 and non-expression of CD45 and CD11b confirmed mesenchyme cells. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR results showed expression of germ cells specific marker (Mvh). Conclusion: This study confirmed the effect of SCCM as a motivational factor that can used for differentiation of germ cells from BMMSCs. PMID:27917274

  16. Evaluation of the ability of bone marrow derived cells to engraft the kidney and promote renal tubular regeneration in mice following exposure to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Aurélien; Galichon, Pierre; Wetzstein, Morgane; Legouis, David; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Rondeau, Eric; Hertig, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that bone marrow derived stem cells have the ability to engraft the kidney and improve the outcome of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice exposed to high doses of cisplatin, providing hope for cancer patients in whom irreversible renal damage occasionally occurs following the use of this highly effective anti-tumor drug. We tested the therapeutic potential of bone marrow derived cells injected during the acute phase (day 3 after cisplatin administration) of experimentally-induced AKI in C57Bl6/J mice, characterized by massive tubular necrosis, apoptosis, and a low proliferation capacity. We failed to show any benefit of bone marrow derived cells versus a regular homogenate of intact renal cells, or normal saline. Using cell tracers and flow cytometry, we demonstrated that bone marrow derived cells did indeed home to the bone marrow of the recipients but failed to settle in the kidney. Conversely, renal cells homed to injured kidneys. However, neither cell therapy protected the animals against cisplatin-induced death. We therefore question the short-term efficacy of bone marrow derived cells used to repair established injuries of the tubular epithelium.

  17. Endothelial Progenitors as Vectors for Systemic Gene Therapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    EPCs can also be isolated from the peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, and fetal liver.7 The goal of this study was to evaluate the...vessels from bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells, or EPCs.4,5 EPCs, isolated from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood...isolated and enriched from fresh human blood, (2) blood-isolated EPCs can be efficiently “loaded” with therapeutic adenovirus (Ad) vectors, (4) the

  18. Induction of a program gene expression during osteoblast differentiation with strontium ranelate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Lingling; Zaidi, Samir; Peng Yuanzhen; Zhou Hang; Moonga, Baljit S.; Blesius, Alexia; Dupin-Roger, Isabelle; Zaidi, Mone . E-mail: mone.zaidi@mssm.edu; Sun Li

    2007-04-06

    Strontium ranelate, a new agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, has been shown stimulate bone formation in various experimental models. This study examines the effect of strontium ranelate on gene expression in osteoblasts, as well as the formation of mineralized (von Kossa-positive) colony-forming unit-osteoblasts (CFU-obs). Bone marrow-derived stromal cells cultured for 21 days under differentiating conditions, when exposed to strontium ranelate, displayed a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the expression of the master gene, Runx2, as well as bone sialoprotein (BSP), but interestingly without effects on osteocalcin. This was associated with a significant increase in the formation of CFU-obs at day 21 of culture. In U-33 pre-osteoblastic cells, strontium ranelate significantly enhanced the expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin, but not BSP. Late, more mature osteoblastic OB-6 cells showed significant elevations in BSP and osteocalcin, but with only minimal effects on Runx2. In conclusion, strontium ranelate stimulates osteoblast differentiation, but the induction of the program of gene expression appears to be cell type-specific. The increased osteoblastic differentiation is the likely basis underlying the therapeutic bone-forming actions of strontium ranelate.

  19. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into nerve-like cells in vitro after transfection with brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianxu; Cheng, Guangui; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhan, Shujie; Xiong, Binbin; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into a variety of adult cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is briefly active during differentiation and induces mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into nerve cells. In this study, we cloned human BDNF to generate a recombinant pcDNA3.1(-)-BDNF vector and transfected the vector into bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We selected these cells with Geneticin-418 to obtain BDNF-BMSCs, which were induced with retinoic acid to obtain induced BDNF-BMSCs. The transfected cells displayed the typical morphology and surface antigen profile of fibroblasts and were observed to express clusters of differentiation 29, 44, and 90 (observed in matrix and stromal cells), but not clusters of differentiation 31, 34, and 45 (observed in red blood cells and endothelial cells), via flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells secreted more BDNF than non-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Immunocytochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that non-induced BDNF-BMSCs maintained a higher proliferative capacity and expressed higher amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nestin, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acid protein than non-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. An additional increase was observed in the induced BDNF-BMSCs compared to the non-induced BDNF-BMSCs. This expression profile is characteristic of neurocytes. Our data demonstrate that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the BDNF gene can differentiate into nerve-like cells in vitro, which may enable the generation of sufficient quantities of nerve-like cells for treatment of neuronal diseases.

  20. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential.

  1. Bone-marrow-derived stem cells--our key to longevity?

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Machalinski, Boguslaw; Kucia, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) was for many years primarily regarded as the source of hematopoietic stem cells. In this review we discuss current views of the BM stem cell compartment and present data showing that BM contains not only hematopoietic but also heterogeneous non-hematopoietic stem cells. It is likely that similar or overlapping populations of primitive non-hematopoietic stem cells in BM were detected by different investigators using different experimental strategies and hence were assigned different names (e.g., mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells, or marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible cells). However, the search still continues for true pluripotent stem cells in adult BM, which would fulfill the required criteria (e.g. complementation of blastocyst development). Recently our group has identified in BM a population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), which express several markers characteristic for pluripotent stem cells and are found during early embryogenesis in the epiblast of the cylinder-stage embryo.

  2. Characterization of Nestin, a Selective Marker for Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liang; Zeng, Xin; Hu, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages and contributing to tissue repair and regeneration. Characterization of the physiological function of MSCs has been largely hampered by lack of unique markers. Nestin, originally found in neuroepithelial stem cells, is an intermediate filament protein expressed in the early stages of development. Increasing studies have shown a particular association between Nestin and MSCs. Nestin could characterize a subset of bone marrow perivascular MSCs which contributed to bone development and closely contacted with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Nestin expressing (Nes+) MSCs also play a role in the progression of various diseases. However, Nes+ cells were reported to participate in angiogenesis as MSCs or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in several tissues and be a heterogeneous population comprising mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells in the developing bone marrow. In this review article, we will summarize the progress of the research on Nestin, particularly the function of Nes+ cells in bone marrow, and discuss the feasibility of using Nestin as a specific marker for MSCs. PMID:26236348

  3. ECM microenvironment unlocks brown adipogenic potential of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle H.; Goralczyk, Anna G.; Kriszt, Rókus; Ang, Xiu Min; Badowski, Cedric; Li, Ying; Summers, Scott A.; Toh, Sue-Anne; Yassin, M. Shabeer; Shabbir, Asim; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Key to realizing the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of human brown/brite adipocytes is the identification of a renewable, easily accessible and safe tissue source of progenitor cells, and an efficacious in vitro differentiation protocol. We show that macromolecular crowding (MMC) facilitates brown adipocyte differentiation in adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), as evidenced by substantially upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and uncoupled respiration. Moreover, MMC also induced ‘browning’ in bmMSC-derived white adipocytes. Mechanistically, MMC creates a 3D extracellular matrix architecture enshrouding maturing adipocytes in a collagen IV cocoon that is engaged by paxillin-positive focal adhesions also at the apical side of cells, without contact to the stiff support structure. This leads to an enhanced matrix-cell signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a key transcription factor in UCP1 regulation. Thus, tuning the dimensionality of the microenvironment in vitro can unlock a strong brown potential dormant in bone marrow. PMID:26883894

  4. Angiotensin converting enzyme versus angiotensin converting enzyme-2 selectivity of MLN-4760 and DX600 in human and murine bone marrow-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shrinidh; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Vasam, Goutham; Jarajapu, Yagna PR

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzymes, ACE and ACE2, are key members of renin angiotensin system. Activation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) pathway enhances cardiovascular protective functions of bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells. The current study evaluated the selectivity of ACE2 inhibitors, MLN-4760 and DX-600, and ACE and ACE2 activities in human (hu) and murine (mu) bone marrow cells. Assays were carried out in hu and mu mononuclear cells (MNCs) and huCD34+ cells or mu-lineage-depleted (muLin-) cells, human-recombinant (rh) enzymes, and mu-heart with enzyme-specific substrates. ACE or ACE2 inhibition by racemic MLN-4760, its isomers MLN-4760-A and MLN-4760-B, DX600 and captopril were characterized. MLN-4760-B is relatively less efficacious and less-selective than the racemate or MLN-4760-A at hu-rhACE2, and all three of them inhibited 43% rhACE. In huMNCs, MLN-4760-B detected 63% ACE2 with 28-fold selectivity over ACE. In huCD34+ cells, MLN-4760-B detected 38% of ACE2 activity with 63-fold selectivity. In mu-heart and muMNCs, isomer B was 100- and 228-fold selective for ACE2, respectively. In muLin- cells, MLN-4760-B detected 25% ACE2 activity with a pIC50 of 6.3. The racemic mixture and MLN-4760-A showed lower efficacy and poor selectivity for ACE2 in MNCs and mu-heart. ACE activity detected by captopril was 32 and 19%, respectively, in huCD34+ and muLin- cells. DX600 was less efficacious, and more selective for ACE2 compared to MLN-4760-B in all samples tested. These results suggest that MLN-4760-B is a better antagonist of ACE2 than DX600 at 10μM concentration in human and murine bone marrow cells, and that these cells express more functional ACE2 than ACE. PMID:26851370

  5. Bone marrow-derived cell therapy in chagasic cardiac disease: a review of pre-clinical and clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Adriana Bastos; Mello, Debora Bastos; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by a protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects people through blood sucking insects. It is endemic in Latin America and the disease is being spread to developed countries as a result of the migration of infected individuals. In its chronic stage, Chagas disease can lead to a severe cardiomyopathy for which there is currently no cure. End-stage patients require heart transplantation, thus demanding new therapeutic modalities. Cell-based therapy has been proposed as an alternative for various forms of heart disease. Here we review the experimental evidence that led to the use of bone marrow-derived cells in putative therapy for chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy in animal models and in clinical trials, discussing the reasons for failure of the translation of results from mice to men. PMID:24282718

  6. Role of injured pancreatic extract promotes bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells efficiently differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect of Agaricus blazei extract in bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Chae, Hee-Sung; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Chin, Young-Won

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of the chloroform-soluble extract of Agaricus blazei in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were investigated. The chloroform-soluble extract inhibited IL-6 production in PMA plus A23187-stimulated BMMCs, and down-regulated the phosphorylation of Akt. In addition, this extract demonstrated inhibition of the degranulation of β-hexosaminidase and the production of IL-6, prostaglandin D(2) and leukotriene C(4) in PMA plus A23187-induced BMMCs. In conclusion, the chloroform-soluble extract of Agaricus blazei exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities mediated by influencing IL-6, prostaglandin D(2), leukotriene C(4), and the phosphorylation of Akt.

  8. [Present status of research in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shu-Juan; Jia, Chi-Yu

    2012-08-01

    The delayed healing of diabetic ulcer has been haunting the surgeons and researchers for a long time. Although we have been researching and exploring the effective therapies for many years, the progress has been limited. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have gradually won worldwide attention for their characteristics of differentiating into tissue repair cells and secreting multiple cytokines as well as growth factors. In recent years, the role of BMSCs in the treatment of diabetic ulcer has been drawing more and more attention. This article reviewed the advancement in the research of BMSCs in promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer. Through a discussion of the treatment of diabetic ulcer, the related research in BMSCs, as well as its role in diabetic ulcer treatment, the mechanism of BMSCs in promoting healing of diabetic ulcers is discussed. We expect through further research, unified criteria for the quality of BMSCs, application approach and dosage of BMSCs could be established.

  9. Hydroxyapatite/regenerated silk fibroin scaffold-enhanced osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia; Hao, Wei; Li, Yuzhuo; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianjun; Chen, Shiyi

    2013-04-01

    A novel hydroxyapatite/regenerated silk fibroin scaffold was prepared and investigated for its potential to enhance both osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. Approx. 12.4 ± 0.06 % (w/w) hydroxyapatite was deposited onto the scaffold, and cell viability and DNA content were significantly increased (18.5 ± 0.6 and 33 ± 1.2 %, respectively) compared with the hydroxyapatite scaffold after 14 days. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity in the novel scaffold increased 41 ± 2.5 % after 14 days compared with the hydroxyapatite scaffold. The data indicate that this novel hydroxyapatite/regenerated silk fibroin scaffold has a positive effect on osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity, and may be useful for bone tissue engineering.

  10. GM-CSF Grown Bone Marrow Derived Cells Are Composed of Phenotypically Different Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yi Rang; Jung, Daun; Gu, Gyo Jeong; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has a role in inducing emergency hematopoiesis upon exposure to inflammatory stimuli. Although GM-CSF generated murine bone marrow derived cells have been widely used as macrophages or dendritic cells in research, the exact characteristics of each cell population have not yet been defined. Here we discriminated GM-CSF grown bone marrow derived macrophages (GM-BMMs) from dendritic cells (GM-BMDCs) in several criteria. After C57BL/6J mice bone marrow cell culture for 7 days with GM-CSF supplementation, two main populations were observed in the attached cells based on MHCII and F4/80 marker expressions. GM-BMMs had MHCIIlowF4/80high as well as CD11c+CD11bhighCD80−CD64+MerTK+ phenotypes. In contrast, GM-BMDCs had MHCIIhighF4/80low and CD11chighCD8α− CD11b+CD80+CD64−MerTKlow phenotypes. Interestingly, the GM-BMM population increased but GM-BMDCs decreased in a GM-CSF dose-dependent manner. Functionally, GM-BMMs showed extremely high phagocytic abilities and produced higher IL-10 upon LPS stimulation. GM-BMDCs, however, could not phagocytose as well, but were efficient at producing TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12p70 and IL-6 as well as inducing T cell proliferation. Finally, whole transcriptome analysis revealed that GM-BMMs and GM-BMDCs are overlap with in vivo resident macrophages and dendritic cells, respectively. Taken together, our study shows the heterogeneicity of GM-CSF derived cell populations, and specifically characterizes GM-CSF derived macrophages compared to dendritic cells. PMID:27788572

  11. Systematic analysis of reportedly distinct populations of multipotent bone marrow-derived stem cells reveals a lack of distinction.

    PubMed

    Lodie, Tracey A; Blickarz, Courtney E; Devarakonda, Tara J; He, Chufa; Dash, Ajeeta B; Clarke, Jennifer; Gleneck, Kristen; Shihabuddin, Lamya; Tubo, Ross

    2002-10-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived stem cells, having the ability to differentiate into cells of multiple lineages, have been isolated and propagated by varied protocols, including positive (CD105(+))/negative (CD45(-)GlyA(-)) selection with immunomagnetic beads, or direct plating into selective culture media. Each substratum-adherent cell population was subjected to a systematic analysis of their cell surface markers and differentiation potential. In the initial stages of culture, each cell population proliferated slowly, reaching confluence in 10-14 days. Adherent cells proliferated at similar rates whether cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor, medium containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented with epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, or medium containing 10% FBS alone. Cell surface marker analysis revealed that more than 95% of the cells were positive for CD105/endoglin, a putative mesenchymal stem cell marker, and negative for CD34, CD31, and CD133, markers of hematopoietic, endothelial, and neural stem cells, respectively, regardless of cell isolation and propagation method. CD44 expression was variable, apparently dependent on serum concentration. Functional similarity of the stem cell populations was also observed, with each different cell population expressing the cell type-specific markers beta-tubulin, type II collagen, and desmin, and demonstrating endothelial tube formation when cultured under conditions favoring neural, cartilage, muscle, and endothelial cell differentiation, respectively. On the basis of these data, adult human bone marrow-derived stem cells cultured in adherent monolayer are virtually indistinguishable, both physically and functionally, regardless of the method of isolation or proliferative expansion.

  12. Effects of BMP2 and VEGF165 on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhaowei; Wang, Jiang-Sheng; Lin, Lijun; Zhang, Jingwen; Liu, Yunlong; Shuai, Ming; Li, Qi

    2014-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are dominant seed cell sources for bone regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) initiate cartilage and bone formation in a sequential cascade. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential coordinator of extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and bone formation. In the present study, the effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) genes on bone regeneration were investigated by the lentivirus-mediated cotransfection of the two genes into rat bone marrow-derived MSCs. The successful co-expression of the two genes in the MSCs was confirmed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. The results of alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining at 14 days subsequent to transfection showed that the area of staining in cells transfected with BMP2 alone was higher than that in cells transfected with BMP2 and VEGF165 or untransfected control cells, while the BMP2 + VEGF165 group showed significantly more staining than the untransfected control. This indicated that BMP2 alone exhibited a stronger effect in bone regeneration than BMP2 in combination with VEGF165. Similarly, in inducing culture medium, the ALP activity of the BMP2 + VEGF165 group was notably suppressed compared with that of the BMP2 group. The overexpression of VEGF165 inhibited BMP2-induced MSC differentiation and osteogenesis in vitro. Whether or not local VEGF gene therapy is likely to affect bone regeneration in vivo requires further investigation.

  13. Crosstalk between bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts and gastric cancer cells regulates cancer stemness and promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jindong; Jiacheng, Lin; Chen, Gang; Jin, Huanyu; Liu, Anna B.; Pyo, Hyunseung; Ye, Jing; Zhu, Yanbo; Wang, Hong; Chen, Haoyan; Fang, Jingyuan; Cai, Li; Wang, Timothy C.; Yang, Chung S.; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells play important roles in cancer development and progression. Our previous studies demonstrated that murine bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts (BMFs) enhanced tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of BMF actions. We found that co-injection of BMFs with gastric cancer cells markedly promoted tumorigenesis. Co-cultured BMFs or BMF-conditioned medium (BMF-CM) induced the formation of spheres, which expressed stem cell signatures and exhibited features of self-renewal, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor initiation. Furthermore, CD44+ fractions in spheres were able to initiate tumorigenesis and reestablish tumors in serially passaged xenografts. In co-culture systems, BMFs secreted high levels of murine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), while cancer cells produced high level of transformation growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). BMF-CM and IL-6 activated BMFs to produce mHGF, which activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and upregulated TGF-β1 in human cancer cells. In return, cancer cell-CM stimulated BMFs to produce IL-6, which was inhibited by anti-TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. Blockade of HGF/Met, JAK2/STAT3 and TGF-β1 signaling by specific inhibitors inhibited BMF-induced sphere formation. STAT3 knockdown in cancer cells also inhibited BMF-induced sphere formation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, TGF-β1 overexpression in cancer cells was co-related with IL-6 and HGF overexpression in stromal cells in human gastric cancer tissues. Our results demonstrate that BMF-derived IL-6/HGF and cancer cell-derived TGF-β1 mediate the interactions between BMFs and gastric cancer cells, which regulate cancer stemness and promote tumorigenesis. Targeting inhibition of the interactions between BMFs and cancer cells may be a new strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:27109105

  14. Cranial irradiation induces bone marrow-derived microglia in adult mouse brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Suto, Nana; Suzue, Kazutomo; Kaminuma, Takuya; Nakano, Takashi; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2014-07-01

    Postnatal hematopoietic progenitor cells do not contribute to microglial homeostasis in adult mice under normal conditions. However, previous studies using whole-body irradiation and bone marrow (BM) transplantation models have shown that adult BM cells migrate into the brain tissue and differentiate into microglia (BM-derived microglia; BMDM). Here, we investigated whether cranial irradiation alone was sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse brain. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter (MSCV-GFP mice) were used. MSCV-GFP mice express GFP in BM cells but not in the resident microglia in the brain. Therefore, these mice allowed us to detect BM-derived cells in the brain without BM reconstitution. MSCV-GFP mice, aged 8-12 weeks, received 13.0 Gy irradiation only to the cranium, and BM-derived cells in the brain were quantified at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation. No BM-derived cells were detected in control non-irradiated MSCV-GFP mouse brains, but numerous GFP-labeled BM-derived cells were present in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the irradiated MSCV-GFP mice. These BM-derived cells were positive for Iba1, a marker for microglia, indicating that GFP-positive BM-derived cells were microglial in nature. The population of BMDM was significantly greater at 8 weeks post-irradiation than at 3 weeks post-irradiation in all brain regions examined. Our results clearly show that cranial irradiation alone is sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse.

  15. The role of circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells, fibrocytes, in promoting pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Strieter, Robert M; Keeley, Ellen C; Burdick, Marie D; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-01-01

    The resident fibroblast has been traditionally viewed as the primary cell involved in promoting pulmonary fibrosis. However, contemporary findings now support the concept of a circulating cell (fibrocyte) that also contributes to pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of cell surface markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells and fibroblasts. Fibrocytes are unique in that they are capable of differentiating into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, as well as adipocytes. In this review, we present data supporting the critical role these cells play in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Role of Integrin in Mechanical Loading of Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Demsky, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical forces generated by gravity, weightbearing, and muscle contraction play a key role in the genesis and maintenance of skeletal structure. The molecular mechanisms that mediate changes in osteoblast activity in response to altered patterns of skeletal loading are not known, and a better understanding of these processes may be essential for developing effective treatment strategies to prevent disuse osteoporosis. We have elucidated specific integrin/ECM (extracellular matrix) interactions that are required for osteoblast differentiation and survival and have developed a useful loading system to further explore the molecular basis of mechano-sensitivity of osteoblasts. The long term goal of our collaborative research is to understand how the ECM and cell adhesion proteins and integrins interaction to mediate the response of osteoblasts and their progenitors to mechanical loading. We suggest that integrin/ECM interactions are crucial for basic cellular processes, including differentiation and survival, as well as to participate in detecting and mediating cellular responses to mechanical stimuli.

  17. Bone Formation by Sheep Stem Cells in an Ectopic Mouse Model: Comparison of Adipose and Bone Marrow Derived Cells and Identification of Donor-Derived Bone by Antibody Staining

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Chris H.; Ditzel, Nicholas; Andreasen, Christina M.; Chen, Li; Sheikh, Søren P.; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Background. Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE) can be loaded with stem and progenitor cells (SPC) from different sources to improve osteogenesis. SPC can be found in bone marrow, adipose tissue, and other tissues. Little is known about osteogenic potential of adipose-derived culture expanded, adherent cells (A-CEAC). This study compares in vivo osteogenic capacity between A-CEAC and bone marrow derived culture expanded, adherent cells (BM-CEAC). Method. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were isolated from five female sheep and seeded on hydroxyapatite granules prior to subcutaneous implantation in immunodeficient mice. The doses of cells in the implants were 0.5 × 106, 1.0 × 106, or 1.5 × 106 A-CEAC and 0.5 × 106 BM-CEAC, respectively. After eight weeks, bone volume versus total tissue volume (BV/TV) was quantified using histomorphometry. Origin of new bone was assessed using human vimentin (HVIM) antibody staining. Results. BM-CEAC yielded significantly higher BV/TV than any A-CEAC group, and differences between A-CEAC groups were not statistically significant. HVIM antibody stain was successfully used to identify sheep cells in this model. Conclusion. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were capable of forming bone, and BM-CEAC yielded significantly higher BV/TV than any A-CEAC group. In vitro treatment to enhance osteogenic capacity of A-CEAC is suggested for further research in ovine bone tissue engineering. PMID:27994622

  18. The Role of KV7.3 in Regulating Osteoblast Maturation and Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji Eun; Song, Min Seok; Shen, Yiming; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2016-01-01

    KCNQ (KV7) channels are voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, and the function of KV7 channels in muscles, neurons, and sensory cells is well established. We confirmed that overall blockade of KV channels with tetraethylammonium augmented the mineralization of bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic differentiation, and we determined that KV7.3 was expressed in MG-63 and Saos-2 cells at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, functional KV7 currents were detected in MG-63 cells. Inhibition of KV7.3 by linopirdine or XE991 increased the matrix mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. This was confirmed by alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osterix in MG-63 cells, whereas the expression of Runx2 showed no significant change. The extracellular glutamate secreted by osteoblasts was also measured to investigate its effect on MG-63 osteoblast differentiation. Blockade of KV7.3 promoted the release of glutamate via the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mediated upregulation of synapsin, and induced the deposition of type 1 collagen. However, activation of KV7.3 by flupirtine did not produce notable changes in matrix mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that KV7.3 could be a novel regulator in osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26999128

  19. Enhancing osteoblast-affinity of titanium scaffolds for bone engineering by use of ultraviolet light treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Manabu; Soltanzadeh, Pooya; Hirota, Makoto; Tsukimura, Naoki; Shigami, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) treatment immediately prior to use is attracting attention as an effective surface conditioning method for titanium to improve osteoblast-affinity. The affinity of titanium to osteoblasts in two-dimensional plate culture has been well studied, but that in three-dimensional cultures remains unclear. Here, we examined the effect of UV treatment on titanium scaffolds, comprising micro-thin titanium fibers, used in bone engineering. Titanium scaffolds, with and without UV treatment, were seeded with rat bone marrow derived osteoblasts, and the number of cells attached to scaffolds and osteoblastic phenotype in the cultures were examined. UV treatment improved the wettability of scaffolds and significantly reduced the percentage of surface carbon. Along with these physicochemical changes in the scaffolds, cell attachment increased by a factor of 1.3 as compared to that of the untreated control. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition significantly increased by a factor of 2.3 and 2.0, respectively. Robust formation of mineralized structures consisting of clear peaks of calcium and phosphorus was observed in the UV-treated scaffolds. The observed increase in osteoblast affinity and capability of mineralized matrix formation indicates the potential use of UV-treated titanium scaffolds for bone engineering.

  20. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Suna Zhou, Yifu; Andreyev, Oleg; Hoyt, Robert F.; Singh, Avneesh; Hunt, Timothy; Horvath, Keith A.

    2014-04-15

    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative {sup RT}PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  1. Mouse Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Expressing Adipogenic and Osteogenic Transcription Factors Suppress the Macrophage Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Natalie; Renna, Heather; McHugh, Lauren; Mazolkova, Katie; Crugnola, William; Evans, Jodi F

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal progenitor cell characteristics that can identify progenitor populations with specific functions in immunity are actively being investigated. Progenitors from bone marrow and adipose tissue regulate the macrophage (MΦ) inflammatory response by promoting the switch from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Conversely, mesenchymal progenitors from the mouse aorta (mAo) support and contribute to the MΦ response under inflammatory conditions. We used cell lines with purported opposing immune-regulatory function, a bone marrow derived mesenchymal progenitor cell line (D1) and a mouse aorta derived mesenchymal progenitor cell line (mAo). Their interaction and regulation of the MΦ cell response to the inflammatory mediator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was examined by coculture. As expected, D1 cells suppressed NO, TNF-α, and IL-12p70 production but MΦ phagocytic activity remained unchanged. The mAo cells enhanced NO and TNF-α production in coculture and enhanced MΦ phagocytic activity. Using flow cytometry and PCR array, we then sought to identify sets of MSC-associated genes and markers that are expressed by these progenitor populations. We have determined that immune-supportive mesenchymal progenitors highly express chondrogenic and tenogenic transcription factors while immunosuppressive mesenchymal progenitors highly express adipogenic and osteogenic transcription factors. These data will be useful for the isolation, purification, and modification of mesenchymal progenitors to be used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  2. Mouse Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Expressing Adipogenic and Osteogenic Transcription Factors Suppress the Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Natalie; Renna, Heather; McHugh, Lauren; Mazolkova, Katie; Crugnola, William

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal progenitor cell characteristics that can identify progenitor populations with specific functions in immunity are actively being investigated. Progenitors from bone marrow and adipose tissue regulate the macrophage (MΦ) inflammatory response by promoting the switch from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Conversely, mesenchymal progenitors from the mouse aorta (mAo) support and contribute to the MΦ response under inflammatory conditions. We used cell lines with purported opposing immune-regulatory function, a bone marrow derived mesenchymal progenitor cell line (D1) and a mouse aorta derived mesenchymal progenitor cell line (mAo). Their interaction and regulation of the MΦ cell response to the inflammatory mediator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was examined by coculture. As expected, D1 cells suppressed NO, TNF-α, and IL-12p70 production but MΦ phagocytic activity remained unchanged. The mAo cells enhanced NO and TNF-α production in coculture and enhanced MΦ phagocytic activity. Using flow cytometry and PCR array, we then sought to identify sets of MSC-associated genes and markers that are expressed by these progenitor populations. We have determined that immune-supportive mesenchymal progenitors highly express chondrogenic and tenogenic transcription factors while immunosuppressive mesenchymal progenitors highly express adipogenic and osteogenic transcription factors. These data will be useful for the isolation, purification, and modification of mesenchymal progenitors to be used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:28191017

  3. Three-dimensional co-culture of mesenchymal stromal cells and differentiated osteoblasts on human bio-derived bone scaffolds supports active multi-lineage hematopoiesis in vitro: Functional implication of the biomimetic HSC niche.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaobing; Zhu, Biao; Wang, Xiaodong; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Chunsen

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche, consisting of two major crucial components, namely osteoblasts (OBs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is responsible for the fate of HSPCs. Thus, closely mimicking the HSPC niche ex vivo may be an efficient strategy with which to develop new culture strategies to specifically regulate the balance between HSPC self-renewal and proliferation. The aim of this study was to establish a novel HSPC three-dimensional culture system by co-culturing bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs without any cytokines as feeder cells and applying bio-derived bone from human femoral metaphyseal portion as the scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the excellent biocompatibility of bio-derived bone with bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that many cytokines, which play key roles in HSPC regulation, were comprehensively secreted, while ELISA revealed that extracellular matrix molecules were also highly expressed. Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide fluorescence staining proved that our system could be used to supply a long-term culture of HSPCs. Flow cytometric analysis and qPCR of p21 expression demonstrated that our system significantly promoted the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs. Colony-forming unit (CFU) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays confirmed that our system has the ability for both the expansion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HPCs) and the maintenance of a primitive cell subpopulation of HSCs. The severe-combined immunodeficient mouse repopulating cell assay revealed the promoting effects of our system on the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs. In conclusion, our system may be a more comprehensive and balanced system which not only promotes the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs, but also maintains primitive HPCs with superior

  4. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-{beta}1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  5. The therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived stem cell implantation after epiphyseal plate injury is abrogated by chondrogenic predifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rhima M; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D; Guldberg, Robert E

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of chondrogenic predifferentiation on the ability of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) delivered to growth plate defects to restore growth function. Chondrogenesis was induced with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 treatment in high-density monolayer cultures of BMSCs in vitro. The predifferentiated or undifferentiated BMSCs were either seeded into agarose gels for continued in vitro culture, or injected into growth plate defects via an in situ gelling agarose. Predifferentiated BMSCs had higher Sox-9, type II collagen, and aggrecan mRNA levels compared to undifferentiated cells after high-density monolayer culture. After transfer to agarose gels, predifferentiated cells did not produce a cartilaginous matrix, even with continued TGF-β1 stimulation, whereas undifferentiated cells produced a cartilaginous matrix in this system. Three-dimensional images of the growth plate created from microcomputed tomography scans showed that delivery of either predifferentiated or undifferentiated cells to defects resulted in a decrease in mineralized tether formation (fusion) in the growth plate tissue surrounding the defect to normal levels. Limb length discrepancy between injured and control limbs was corrected after treatment with undifferentiated, but not predifferentiated, cells. These results indicate that cell therapy may be an effective treatment to reduce growth dysfunction after growth plate injury, perhaps by maintaining the health of the uninjured growth plate tissue, and that the cell differentiation state plays a role in restoring the growth potential of the injured limb.

  6. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce immune reaction in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Liu, Yanjuan; Liang, Hongfeng; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Object: To determine the potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for immunomodulatory mechanism in mice model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods: BMSCs were isolated and the surface markers and stemness were analyzed. The effect of BMSCs was evaluated in BALB/c mice that were randomly divided into three groups (control group, ovalbumin (OVA) group, OVA+BMSCs group). BMSCs were administered intravenously to OVA sensitized mice on days 1, 7, 14 and 21, and subsequent OVA challenge was conducted daily from days 22 to 35. Several parameters of allergic inflammation were assessed. Results: Mesenchymal stem cells can be successfully isolated from bone marrow of mice. Intravenous injection of BMSCs significantly reduced allergic symptoms, eosinophil infiltration, OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine profile (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10). In addition, level of Th1 (IFN-γ) was significantly increased. Conclusion: Administration of BMSCs effectively reduced allergic symptoms and inflammatory parameters in the mice model of AR. BMSCs treatment is potentially an alternative therapeutic modality in AR. PMID:28078033

  7. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): improvement in serpiginous choroidopathy following autologous bone marrow derived stem cell treatment

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Benes, Susan C.; Levy, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We report results in a 77-year-old male patient with visual loss from long-standing serpiginous choroidopathy treated with bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS). SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01920867). Eight months after treatment by a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal and intravenous injection of BMSC, the patient's best corrected Snellen acuity improved from 20/80– to 20/60+1 in the right eye and from 20/50– to 20/20–3 in the left eye. The Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity continued to improve over the succeeding 8 months and the optical coherence tomography macular volume increased. The increases in visual acuity and macular volume are encouraging and suggest that the use of BMSC as provided in SCOTS may be a viable approach to treating serpiginous choroidopathy. PMID:27857759

  8. Malignant Transformation in Glioma Steered by an Angiogenic Switch: Defining a Role for Bone Marrow-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pisapia, David; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas, such as pilocytic astrocytoma and subependymoma, are often characterized as benign tumors due to their relative circumscription radiologically and typically non-aggressive biologic behavior. In contrast, low-grades that are by their nature diffusely infiltrative, such as diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, have the potential to transform into malignant high-grade counterparts and, given sufficient time, invariably do so. These high-grade gliomas carry very poor prognoses and are largely incurable, warranting a closer look at what causes this adverse transition. A key characteristic that distinguishes low- and high-grade gliomas is neovascularization: it is absent in low-grade gliomas, but prolific in high-grade gliomas, providing the tumor with ample blood supply for exponential growth. It has been well described in the literature that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may contribute to the angiogenic switch that is responsible for malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas. In this review, we will summarize the current literature on BMDCs and their known contribution to angiogenesis-associated tumor growth in gliomas. PMID:26973806

  9. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Angiogenesis via their α6β1 Integrin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Bita; Kong, Yen P.; Kaigler, Darnell; Putnam, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) facilitate the angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs) within three-dimensional (3D) matrices in vivo and in engineered tissues in vitro in part through paracrine mediators and by acting as stabilizing pericytes. However, the molecular interactions between BMSCs and nascent tubules during the process of angiogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we have used a tractable 3D co-culture model to explore the functional role of the α6β1 integrin adhesion receptor on BMSCs in sprouting angiogenesis. We report that knockdown of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs significantly reduces capillary sprouting, and causes their failure to associate with the nascent vessels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the BMSCs with attenuated α6 integrin proliferate at a significantly lower rate relative to either control cells expressing non-targeting shRNA or wild type BMSCs; however, despite adding more cells to compensate for this deficit in proliferation, deficient sprouting persists. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs is important for their ability to stimulate vessel morphogenesis. This conclusion may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote angiogenesis. PMID:24056178

  10. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance angiogenesis via their α6β1 integrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Bita; Kong, Yen P; Kaigler, Darnell; Putnam, Andrew J

    2013-11-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) facilitate the angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs) within three-dimensional (3D) matrices in vivo and in engineered tissues in vitro in part through paracrine mediators and by acting as stabilizing pericytes. However, the molecular interactions between BMSCs and nascent tubules during the process of angiogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we have used a tractable 3D co-culture model to explore the functional role of the α6β1 integrin adhesion receptor on BMSCs in sprouting angiogenesis. We report that knockdown of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs significantly reduces capillary sprouting, and causes their failure to associate with the nascent vessels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the BMSCs with attenuated α6 integrin proliferate at a significantly lower rate relative to either control cells expressing non-targeting shRNA or wild type BMSCs; however, despite adding more cells to compensate for this deficit in proliferation, deficient sprouting persists. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs is important for their ability to stimulate vessel morphogenesis. This conclusion may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote angiogenesis.

  11. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote neuronal networks with functional synaptic transmission after transplantation into mice with neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae-Sung; Han, Hyung Soo; Youn, Dong-Ho; Carter, Janet E; Modo, Michel; Schuchman, Edward H; Jin, Hee Kyung

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) improve neurological deficits when transplanted into animal models of neurological disorders. However, the precise mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Herein we demonstrate that BM-MSCs are able to promote neuronal networks with functional synaptic transmission after transplantation into Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) mouse cerebellum. To address the mechanism by which this occurs, we used gene microarray, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate expression of neurotransmitter receptors on Purkinje neurons in the NP-C cerebellum. Gene microarray analysis revealed upregulation of genes involved in both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission encoding subunits of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA) GluR4 and GABA(A) receptor beta2. We also demonstrated that BM-MSCs, when originated by fusion-like events with existing Purkinje neurons, develop into electrically active Purkinje neurons with functional synaptic formation. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that upregulation of neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to synapse formation via cell fusion-like processes after BM-MSC transplantation into mice with neurodegenerative disease. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  12. Role of Injured Pancreatic Extract Promotes Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs. PMID:24058711

  13. Galectin-9 is Involved in Immunosuppression Mediated by Human Bone Marrow-derived Clonal Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-Na; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Jeon, Myung-Shin; Yi, TacGhee; Song, Sun U

    2015-10-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunomodulatory properties and can suppress exaggerated pro-inflammatory immune responses. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, a variety of soluble factors are known to contribute to MSC-mediated immunosuppression. However, functional redundancy in the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs indicates that other uncharacterized factors could be involved. Galectin-9, a member of the β-galactoside binding galectin family, has emerged as an important regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. We examined whether galectin-9 contributes to MSC-mediated immunosuppression. Galectin-9 was strongly induced and secreted from human MSCs upon stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. An in vitro immunosuppression assay using a knockdown approach revealed that galectin-9-deficient MSCs do not exert immunosuppressive activity. We also provided evidence that galectin-9 may contribute to MSC-mediated immunosuppression by binding to its receptor, TIM-3, expressed on activated lymphocytes, leading to apoptotic cell death of activated lymphocytes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that galectin-9 is involved in MSC-mediated immunosuppression and represents a potential therapeutic factor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  14. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments. Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. Visual field improvements were noted. Macular and optic nerve head nerve fiber layer typically thickened. No serious complications were seen. The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. PMID:27904503

  15. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid enhances osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cha, Byung-Hyun; Jung, Moon-Joo; Moon, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Su; Ma, Yoonji; Arai, Yoshie; Noh, Myungkyung; Shin, Jung-Youn; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2016-02-01

    It is known that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be promoted by suppression of adipogenesis of MSCs. We have recently found that the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) significantly reduces adipogenesis of MSCs. In the present study, we examined whether TUDCA can promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) by regulating Integrin 5 (ITGA5) associated with activation of ERK1/2 signal pathway and thereby enhance bone tissue regeneration by reducing apoptosis and the inflammatory response. TUDCA treatment promoted in vitro osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs and in vivo bone tissue regeneration in a calvarial defect model, as confirmed by micro-computed tomography, histological staining, and immunohistochemistry for osteocalcin. In addition, TUDCA treatment significantly decreased apoptosis and the inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro, which is important to enhance bone tissue regeneration. These results indicate that TUDCA plays a critical role in enhancing osteogenesis of BMMSCs, and is therefore a potential alternative drug for bone tissue regeneration.

  16. In Situ Recruitment of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Chemokines for Articular Cartilage Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Sung; Kim, Yun Hee; Jung, Youngmee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Park, Jong Chul; Yoon, Dong Suk; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a good cell source for regeneration of cartilage as they can migrate directly to the site of cartilage injury and differentiate into articular chondrocytes. Articular cartilage defects do not heal completely due to the lack of chondrocytes or BMSCs at the site of injury. In this study, the chemotaxis of BMSCs toward chemokines, which may give rise to a complete regeneration of the articular cartilage, was investigated. CCR2, CCR4, CCR6, CXCR1, and CXCR2 were expressed in normal BMSCs and were increased significantly upon treatment with proinflammatory cytokines. BMSC migration was increased by MIP-3α and IL-8 more than by MCP-1 or SDF-1α. IL-8 and MIP-3α significantly enhanced the chemotaxis of BMSCs compared with MCP-1, SDF-1α, or PBS. Human BMSC recruitment to transplanted scaffolds containing either IL-8 or MIP-3α significantly increased in vivo compared to scaffolds containing PBS. Furthermore, IL-8- and MIP-3α-containing scaffolds enhanced tissue regeneration of an osteochondral defect site in beagle knee articular cartilage. Therefore, this study suggests that IL-8 and MIP-3α are the candidates that induce the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage.

  17. Functional signature of human islet-derived precursor cells compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Limbert, Catarina; Ebert, Regina; Schilling, Tatjana; Path, Gunter; Benisch, Peggy; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Seufert, Jochen; Jakob, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Pancreatic islet beta-cell replenishment can be driven by epithelial cells from exocrine pancreas via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process MET, while specified pancreatic mesenchymal cells control islet cell development and maintenance. The role of human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs) in regeneration and support of endocrine islets is under investigation. Here, we analyzed hIPCs as to their immunophenotype, multilineage differentiation capacity, and gene profiling, in comparison to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). hIPCs and hBM-MSCs display a common mesenchymal character and express lineage-specific marker genes upon induction toward pancreatic endocrine and mesenchymal pathways of differentiation. hIPCs can go further along endocrine pathways while lacking some core mesenchymal differentiation attributes. Significance analysis of microarray (SAM) from 5 hBM-MSC and 3 hIPC donors mirrored such differences. Candidate gene cluster analysis disclosed differential expression of key lineage regulators, indicated a HoxA gene-associated positional memory in hIPCs and hBM-MSCs, and showed as well a clear transition state from mesenchyme to epithelium or vice versa in hIPCs. Our findings raise new research platforms to further clarify the potential of hIPCs to undergo complete MET thus contributing to islet cell replenishment, maintenance, and function.

  18. Three-dimensional differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, Layasadat; Nejad-Dehbashi, Fereshteh; Ahangarpour, Akram; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2015-02-01

    Fibrin glue (FG) is used in a variety of clinical applications and in the laboratory for localized and sustained release of factors potentially important for tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to evaluate FG scaffold effect on differentiation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this experimental study BM-MSCs were cultured and the cells characterized by analysis of cell surface markers using flow cytometry. BM-MSCs were seeded in FG scaffold (3D culture) and then treated with induction media. After induction, the presence of IPCs was demonstrated using gene expression profiles for pancreatic cell differentiation markers (PDX-1, GLUT-2 and insulin) and insulin detection in cytoplasm. Release of insulin by these cells was confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Expression of the islet-associated genes PDX-1, GLUT-2 and Insulin genes in 3D cultured cells was markedly higher than the 2D cultured cells exposure differentiation media. Compared to 2D culture of BM-MSCs-derived IPCs, the insulin release from 3D BM-MSCs-derived IPCs showed a nearly 3 fold (p<0.05) increase when exposed to a high glucose (25 mM) medium. Percentage of insulin positive cells in 3D experimental group showed an approximately 3.5-fold increase in compared to 2D experimental culture cells. The results of this study demonstrated that FG scaffold can enhance the differentiation of IPCs from rats BM-MSCs.

  19. Molecular targeting regulation of proliferation and differentiation of the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei-Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Liang-Wei; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-04-01

    The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), with pluripotent differentiation capacity, present an ideal source for cell transplantation or tissue engineering therapies, but exact understanding of regulating mechanism underling MSC proliferation and differentiation remains a critical issue in securing their safe and efficient clinical application. This review outlines current knowledge regarding MSC cell surface biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of MSC differentiation and proliferation with emphasis on Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Notch signaling pathway, bone morphogenesis proteins and various growth factors functioning in regulation of differentiation and proliferation of MSCs. Possible relation of oncogene and immunosuppressive activities of MSCs with tumorigenicity or tumor generation is also addressed for safe translational clinical application. Fast increase of MSC knowledge and techniques has led to some successful clinical trials and helped devising new tissue engineering therapies for bone and cartilage diseases that severely afflict human health. Production of adult MSC-derived functional neurons can further extend their therapeutic application in nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases. It is promising that MSCs shall overcome ethical and immunorejection problems appeared in human embryonic stem cells, and specific molecular targeting manipulation may result in practical MSC therapy for personalized treatment of various diseases in the regeneration medicine.

  20. An electromagnetic compressive force by cell exciter stimulates chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Sim, Woo Young; Park, Sin Wook; Yang, Sang Sik; Choi, Byung Hyune; Park, So Ra; Park, Kwideok; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we present a biological micro-electromechanical system and its application to the chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Actuated by an electromagnetic force, the micro cell exciter was designed to deliver a cyclic compressive load (CCL) with various magnitudes. Two major parts in the system are an actuator and a cartridge-type chamber. The former has a permanent magnet and coil, and the latter is equipped with 7 sample dishes and 7 metal caps. Mixed with a 2.4% alginate solution, the alginate/MSC layers were positioned in the sample dishes; the caps contained chondrogenic defined medium without transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Once powered, the actuator coil-derived electromagnetic force pulled the metal caps down, compressing the samples. The cyclic load was given at 1-Hz frequency for 10 min twice a day. Samples in the dishes without a cap served as a control. The samples were analyzed at 3, 5, and 7 days after stimulation for cell viability, biochemical assays, histologic features, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression of the chondrogenic markers. Applied to the alginate/MSC layer, the CCL system enhanced the synthesis of cartilage-specific matrix proteins and the chondrogenic markers, such as aggrecan, type II collagen, and Sox9. We found that the micromechanically exerted CCL by the cell exciter was very effective in enhancing the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, even without using exogenous TGF-beta.

  1. Comparison of autogenic and allogenic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells for repair of segmental bone defects in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Udehiya, Rahul Kumar; Amarpal; Aithal, H P; Kinjavdekar, P; Pawde, A M; Singh, Rajendra; Taru Sharma, G

    2013-06-01

    Autogenic and allogenic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were compared for repair of bone gap defect in rabbits. BM-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates and cultured in vitro for allogenic and autogenic transplantation. A 5mm segmental defect was created in mid-diaphysis of the radius bone. The defect was filled with hydroxyapatite alone, hydroxyapatite with autogeneic BM-MSCs and hydroxyapatite with allogenic BM-MSCs in groups A, B and C, respectively. On an average 3.45×10(6) cells were implanted at each defect site. Complete bridging of bone gap with newly formed bone was faster in both treatment groups as compared to control group. Histologically, increased osteogenesis, early and better reorganization of cancellous bone and more bone marrow formation were discernible in treatment groups as compared to control group. It was concluded that in vitro culture expanded allogenic and autogenic BM-MSCs induce similar, but faster and better healing as compared to control.

  2. Genetic control of eosinophilia in mice: gene(s) expressed in bone marrow-derived cells control high responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Vadas, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A heterogeneity in the capacity of strains of mice to mount eosinophilia is described. BALB/c and C3H are eosinophil high responder strains (EO-HR) and CBA and A/J are eosinophil low responder strains (EO-LR), judged by the response of blood eosinophils to Ascaris suum, and the response of blood, bone marrow, and spleen eosinophils to keyhole limpet hemocyanin given 2 days after 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Some of the gene(s) for high responsiveness appear to be dominant because (EO-HR x EO-LR)F/sub 1/ mice were intermediate to high responders. This gene is expressed in bone marrow-derived cells because radiation chimeras of the type EO-HR..-->..F/sub 1/ were high responders and EO-LR..-->..F/sub 1/ were low responders. This description of a genetic control of eosinophilia in mice may be useful in understanding the role of this cell in parasite immunity and allergy.

  3. Activation of the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells by a chemical carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfang; Ma, Zhan; Xu, Songtao; Hou, Jun; Hu, Yao; Yu, Yinglu; Liu, Ruilai; Chen, Zhihong; Lu, Yuan

    2014-07-07

    Embryonic/germ cell traits are common in malignant tumors and are thought to be involved in malignant tumor behaviors. The reasons why tumors show strong embryonic/germline traits (displaced germ cells or gametogenic programming reactivation) are controversial. Here, we show that a chemical carcinogen, 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MCA), can trigger the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells (hBMDCs). 3-MCA promoted the generation of germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs that had undergone malignant transformation, whereas similar results were not observed in the parallel hBMDC culture at the same time point. The malignant transformed hBMDCs spontaneously and more efficiently generated into germ cell-like cells even at the single-cell level. The germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs were similar to natural germ cells in many aspects, including morphology, gene expression, proliferation, migration, further development, and teratocarcinoma formation. Therefore, our results demonstrate that a chemical carcinogen can reactivate the germline phenotypes of human somatic tissue-derived cells, which might provide a novel idea to tumor biology and therapy.

  4. Marrow-derived stromal cell delivery on fibrin microbeads can correct radiation-induced wound-healing deficits.

    PubMed

    Xie, Michael W; Gorodetsky, Raphael; Micewicz, Ewa D; Micevicz, Ewa D; Mackenzie, Natalia C; Gaberman, Elena; Levdansky, Lilia; McBride, William H

    2013-02-01

    Skin that is exposed to radiation has an impaired ability to heal wounds. This is especially true for whole-body irradiation, where even moderate nonlethal doses can result in wound-healing deficits. Our previous attempts to administer dermal cells locally to wounds to correct radiation-induced deficits were hampered by poor cell retention. Here we improve the outcome by using biodegradable fibrin microbeads (FMBs) to isolate a population of mesenchymal marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs) from murine bone marrow by their specific binding to the fibrin matrix, culture them to high density in vitro, and deliver them as MSCs on FMBs at the wound site. MSCs are retained locally, proliferate in site, and assist wounds in gaining tensile strength in whole-body irradiated mice with or without additional skin-only exposure. MSC-FMBs were effective in two different mouse strains but were ineffective across a major histocompatability barrier. Remarkably, irradiated mice whose wounds were treated with MSC-FMBs showed enhanced hair regrowth, suggesting indirect effect on the correction of radiation-induced follicular damage. Further studies showed that additional wound-healing benefit could be gained by administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and AMD3100. Collagen strips coated with haptides and MSCs were also highly effective in correcting radiation-induced wound-healing deficits.

  5. Emergence of signs of neural cells after exposure of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to fetal brain extract

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Iman Razeghian; Mehrabani, Davood; Mohammadi, Ali; Seno, Mohammad Mahdi Ghahramani; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Zare, Shahrokh; Tamadon, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Nowadays much effort is being invested in order to diagnose the mechanisms involved in neural differentiation. By clarifying this, making desired neural cells in vitro and applying them into diverse neurological disorders suffered from neural cell malfunctions could be a feasible choice. Thus, the present study assessed the capability of fetal brain extract (FBE) to induce rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) toward neural cells. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, BM-MSCs were collected from rats and cultured and their mesenchymal properties were confirmed. After exposure of the BM-MSCs to fetal brain extract, the cells were evaluated and harvested at days 3 and 7 after treatment. Results: The BM-MSCs that were exposed to FBE changed their appearance dramatically from spindle shape to cells with dendrite-like processes. Those neural like processes were absent in the control group. In addition, a neural specific marker, vimentin, was expressed significantly in the treatment group but not in the negative control group. Conclusion: This study presented the FBE as a natural neural differentiation agent, which probably has required factors for making neurons. In addition, vimentin overexpression was observed in the treated group which confirms neuron-like cell differentiation of BM-MSCs after induction. PMID:28392903

  6. Dissection of the biphasic nature of hypoxia-induced motogenic action in bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Busletta, Chiara; Novo, Erica; Valfrè Di Bonzo, Lorenzo; Povero, Davide; Paternostro, Claudia; Ievolella, Monica; Mareschi, Katia; Ferrero, Ivana; Cannito, Stefania; Compagnone, Alessandra; Bandino, Andrea; Colombatto, Sebastiano; Fagioli, Franca; Parola, Maurizio

    2011-06-01

    Hypoxic conditions have been reported to facilitate preservation of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype and positively affect their colony-forming potential, proliferation, and migration/mobilization. In this study, designed to dissect mechanisms underlying hypoxia-dependent migration of bone marrow-derived human MSC (hMSC), signal transduction, and molecular mechanisms were evaluated by integrating morphological, molecular, and cell biology techniques, including the wound healing assay (WHA) and modified Boyden's chamber assay (BCA) to monitor migration. Exposure of hMSCs to moderate hypoxia resulted in a significant increase of migration of hMSCs in both WHA (from 6 to 20 hours) and BCA (within 6 hours). Mechanistic experiments outlined the following sequence of hypoxia-dependent events: (a) very early (15 minutes) increased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which (b) was sufficient to switch on activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2, found to be relevant for the early phase of hMSC migration; (c) hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (facilitated by ROS) and its progressive release that was responsible for (d) a delayed and sustained migration of hMSCs. These results suggest that hypoxia-dependent migration relies on a previously unrecognized biphasic scenario involving an early phase, requiring generation of ROS, and a delayed phase sustained by HIF-1-dependent expression and release of VEGF.

  7. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase-1 on the myogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhenyang; Leng, Yan; Zhou, Chen; Ma, Zhenyu; Zhong, Zhigang; Shi, Xing-Ming; Zhang, Weixi

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 is a member of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 has no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 can promote the myogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MyoD and desmin were chosen as myogenic markers in this study. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is a member of the family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading extracellular matrix (ECM) and certain non-matrix proteins. It has been shown that MMP-1 can enhance muscle regeneration by improving the differentiation and migration of myoblasts. However, it is still not known whether MMP-1 can promote the myogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To address this question, we isolated BMSCs from C57BL/6J mice and investigated the effects of MMP-1 on their proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Our results showed that MMP-1 treatment, which had no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs, increased the mRNA and protein levels of MyoD and desmin in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that MMP-1 promoted myogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. These results suggest that BMSCs may have a therapeutic potential for treating muscular disorders.

  8. The Role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in Maintenance of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Lin Lin, Winnie Hii; Abdalla, Basma Jibril; Bee Yuen, Ong; Latif, Elda Surhaida; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Paik Wah, Chow; Budin, Siti Balkis

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0–1000 ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P < 0.05) of BMCs at 500 and 1000 ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1+ cells (HSCs) at 500 ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P < 0.05) the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs. PMID:25405216

  9. Characterization of a subset of bone marrow-derived natural killer cells that regulates T cell activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, Taba; Trivedi, Prachi P; Wolf, Norbert A; Roberts, Paul C; Swanborg, Robert H

    2008-05-01

    We report that bone marrow-derived natural killer (BMNK) cells from DA or F344 rats inhibit PMA/ionomycin-induced T cell proliferation. These NK-regulatory cells are NKR-P1A(dim), whereas a minor subpopulation is NKR-P1A(bright). Only the NKR-P1A(dim) BMNK cells inhibit T cell proliferation. If activated with rat Con A supernatant, the NKR-P1A(dim) cells become NKR-P1A(bright) and lose the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. In contrast to BMNK cells, all DA and F344 rat NK cells isolated from the blood, spleen, cervical, or mesenteric lymph nodes or Peyer's patches are NKR-P1A(bright) and lack the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. Inhibition of T cell proliferation correlates with significant down-regulation of CD3, suggesting that this may be the mechanism through which the NKR-P1A(dim) cells mediate suppression. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-arginine acetate-abrogated NKR-P1A(dim) cell inhibition of T cell proliferation. We conclude that rat bone marrow NKR-P1A(dim) cells represent a unique population that may play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis by regulating the clonal expansion of activated T cells.

  10. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells prevents memory impairment in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Takuya; Kamimura, Naomi; Yokota, Takashi; Nishimaki, Kiyomi; Iuchi, Katsuya; Lee, Hyunjin; Takami, Shinya; Akashiba, Hiroki; Shitaka, Yoshitsugu; Ueda, Masayuki; Katsura, Ken-Ichiro; Kimura, Kazumi; Ohta, Shigeo

    2015-04-24

    Stem cell transplantation therapy is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of ischemic stroke, and several beneficial aspects have been reported. Similarly, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), stem cell therapy is expected to provide an efficient therapeutic approach. Indeed, the intracerebral transplantation of stem cells reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and rescued memory deficits in AD model mice. Here, we show that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) improves cognitive function in two different AD mouse models, DAL and APP mice, and prevents neurodegeneration. GFP-positive BMMCs were isolated from tibiae and femurs of 4-week-old mice and then transplanted intravenously into DAL and APP mice. Transplantation of BMMCs suppressed neuronal loss and restored memory impairment of DAL mice to almost the same level as in wild-type mice. Transplantation of BMMCs to APP mice reduced Aβ deposition in the brain. APP mice treated with BMMCs performed significantly better on behavioral tests than vehicle-injected mice. Moreover, the effects were observed even with transplantation after the onset of cognitive impairment in DAL mice. Together, our results indicate that intravenous transplantation of BMMCs has preventive effects against the cognitive decline in AD model mice and suggest a potential therapeutic effect of BMMC transplantation therapy.

  11. The temporal expression of estrogen receptor alpha-36 and runx2 in human bone marrow derived stromal cells during osteogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, W.R.; Owens, S.E.; Wilde, C.; Pallister, I.; Kanamarlapudi, V.; Zou, W.; Xia, Z.

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • ERα36 is the predominant ERα isoform involved in bone regulation in human BMSC. • ERα36 mRNA is significantly upregulated during the process of osteogenesis. • The pattern of ERα36 and runx2 mRNA expression is similar during osteogenesis. • ERα36 appears to be co-localised with runx2 during osteogenesis. - Abstract: During bone maintenance in vivo, estrogen signals through estrogen receptor (ER)-α. The objectives of this study were to investigate the temporal expression of ERα36 and ascertain its functional relevance during osteogenesis in human bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSC). This was assessed in relation to runt-related transcription factor-2 (runx2), a main modulatory protein involved in bone formation. ERα36 and runx2 subcellular localisation was assessed using immunocytochemistry, and their mRNA expression levels by real time PCR throughout the process of osteogenesis. The osteogenically induced BMSCs demonstrated a rise in ERα36 mRNA during proliferation followed by a decline in expression at day 10, which represents a change in dynamics within the culture between the proliferative stage and the differentiative stage. The mRNA expression profile of runx2 mirrored that of ERα36 and showed a degree subcellular co-localisation with ERα36. This study suggests that ERα36 is involved in the process of osteogenesis in BMSCs, which has implications in estrogen deficient environments.

  12. Application of Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to an Ovine Model of Growth Plate Cartilage Injury

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Rosa C; Xian, Cory J; Gronthos, Stan; Zannettino, Andrew C.W; Foster, Bruce K

    2010-01-01

    Injury to growth plate cartilage in children can lead to bone bridge formation and result in bone growth deformities, a significant clinical problem currently lacking biological treatment. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) offer a promising therapeutic option for regeneration of damaged cartilage, due to their self renewing and multi-lineage differentiation attributes. Although some small animal model studies highlight the therapeutic potential of MSC for growth plate repair, translational research in large animal models, which more closely resemble the human condition, are lacking. Our laboratory has recently characterised MSCs derived from ovine bone marrow, and demonstrated these cells form cartilage-like tissue when transplanted within the gelatin sponge, Gelfoam, in vivo. In the current study, autologous bone marrow MSC were seeded into Gelfoam scaffold containing TGF-β1, and transplanted into a surgically created defect of the proximal ovine tibial growth plate. Examination of implants at 5 week post-operatively revealed transplanted autologous MSC failed to form new cartilage structure at the defect site, but contributed to an increase in formation of a dense fibrous tissue. Importantly, the extent of osteogenesis was diminished, and bone bridge formation was not accelerated due to transplantation of MSCs or the gelatin scaffold. The current study represents the first work that has utilised this ovine large animal model to investigate whether autologous bone marrow derived MSC can be used to initiate regeneration at the injured growth plate. PMID:20721323

  13. Magnetic Nanocomposite Hydrogel for Potential Cartilage Tissue Engineering: Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytocompatibility with Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naiyin; Lock, Jaclyn; Sallee, Amy; Liu, Huinan

    2015-09-23

    Hydrogels possess high water content and closely mimic the microenvironment of extracellular matrix. In this study, we created a hybrid hydrogel containing type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) and incorporated magnetic nanoparticles into the hybrid hydrogels of type II collagen-HA-PEG to produce a magnetic nanocomposite hydrogel (MagGel) for cartilage tissue engineering. The results showed that both the MagGel and hybrid gel (Gel) were successfully cross-linked and the MagGel responded to an external magnet while maintaining structural integrity. That is, the MagGel could travel to the tissue defect sites in physiological fluids under remote magnetic guidance. The adhesion density of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the MagGel group in vitro was similar to the control group and greater than the Gel group. The morphology of BMSCs was normal and consistent in all groups. We also found that BMSCs engulfed magnetic nanoparticles in culture and the presence of magnetic nanoparticles did not affect BMSC adhesion and morphology. We hypothesized that the ingested nanoparticles may be eventually broken down by lysosome and excreted through exocytosis; further studies are necessary to confirm this. This study reports a promising magnetic responsive nanocomposite hydrogel for potential cartilage tissue engineering applications, which should be further studied for its effects on cell functions when combined with electromagnetic stimulation.

  14. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition attenuates mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell degranulation induced by beta-1,3-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Cuong, Dang Van; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Marquez, Jubert; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are primary mediators of allergic inflammation. Beta-1,3-glucan (BG) protects against infection and shock by activating immune cells. Activation of the BG receptor induces an increase in intracellular Ca2+, which may induce exocytosis. However, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying BG activation of immune cells and the possible role of mitochondria in this process. The present study examined whether BG induced mast cell degranulation, and evaluated the role of calcium transients during mast cell activation. Our investigation focused on the role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in BG-induced degranulation. Black mouse (C57) bone marrow-derived mast cells were stimulated with 0.5 µg/ml BG, 100 µg/ml peptidoglycan (PGN), or 10 µM A23187 (calcium ionophore), and dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium and membrane potential were monitored. BG-induced mast cell degranulation occurred in a time-dependent manner, and was significantly reduced under calcium-free conditions. Ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter blocker, significantly reduced mast cell degranulation induced by BG, PGN, and A23187. These results suggest that the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter has an important regulatory role in BG-induced mast cell degranulation. PMID:26937218

  15. Identification of Rorβ targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone

    SciTech Connect

    Roforth, Matthew M. Khosla, Sundeep Monroe, David G.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Rorβ in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Rorβ mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Rorβ may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor β (Rorβ) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Rorβ is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Rorβ are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Rorβ in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Rorβ-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP model system, suggesting that Rorβ may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both RORβ and a subset of RORβ-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for RORβ in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rorβ regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

  16. Human serine protease HTRA1 positively regulates osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and mineralization of differentiating bone-forming cells through the modulation of extracellular matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Tiaden, André N; Breiden, Maike; Mirsaidi, Ali; Weber, Fabienne A; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Glanz, Stephan; Cinelli, Paolo; Ehrmann, Michael; Richards, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    Mammalian high-temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HTRA1) is a secreted member of the trypsin family of serine proteases which can degrade a variety of bone matrix proteins and as such has been implicated in musculoskeletal development. In this study, we have investigated the role of HTRA1 in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis and suggest a potential mechanism through which it controls matrix mineralization by differentiating bone-forming cells. Osteogenic induction resulted in a significant elevation in the expression and secretion of HTRA1 in MSCs isolated from human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBMSCs), mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (mASCs), and mouse embryonic stem cells. Recombinant HTRA1 enhanced the osteogenesis of hBMSCs as evidenced by significant changes in several osteogenic markers including integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5), and sclerostin, and promoted matrix mineralization in differentiating bone-forming osteoblasts. These stimulatory effects were not observed with proteolytically inactive HTRA1 and were abolished by small interfering RNA against HTRA1. Moreover, loss of HTRA1 function resulted in enhanced adipogenesis of hBMSCs. HTRA1 Immunofluorescence studies showed colocalization of HTRA1 with IBSP protein in osteogenic mASC spheroid cultures and was confirmed as being a newly identified HTRA1 substrate in cell cultures and in proteolytic enzyme assays. A role for HTRA1 in bone regeneration in vivo was also alluded to in bone fracture repair studies where HTRA1 was found localized predominantly to areas of new bone formation in association with IBSP. These data therefore implicate HTRA1 as having a central role in osteogenesis through modification of proteins within the extracellular matrix.

  17. Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis: inducing the growth of new blood vessels and wound healing by stimulation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cell mobilization and homing.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Omaida C

    2007-06-01

    During embryonic development, the vasculature is among the first organs to form and is in charge of maintaining metabolic homeostasis by supplying oxygen and nutrients and removing waste products. As one would expect, blood vessels are critical not only for organ growth in the embryo but also for repair of wounded tissue in the adult. An imbalance in angiogenesis (a time-honored term that globally refers to the growth of new blood vessels) contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous malignant, inflammatory, ischemic, infectious, immune, and wound-healing disorders. This review focuses on the central role of the growth of new blood vessels in ischemic and diabetic wound healing and defines the most current nomenclature that describes the neovascularization process in wounds. There are now two well-defined, distinct, yet interrelated processes for the formation of postnatal new blood vessels, angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis. Reviewed are recent new data on vasculogenesis that promise to advance the field of wound healing.

  18. Angiogenesis & Vasculogenesis: Inducing the growth of new blood vessels and wound healing by stimulation of Bone Marrow Derived Progenitor Cell Mobilization and Homing

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, Omaida C.

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, the vasculature is among the first organs to form and is in charge of maintaining metabolic homeostasis by supplying oxygen and nutrients and removing waste products. As one would expect, blood vessels are critical not only for organ growth in the embryo, but also for repair of wounded tissue in the adult. An imbalance in ‘Angiogenesis’ (a time-honored term that globally refers to the growth of new blood vessels) contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous malignant, inflammatory, ischemic, infectious, immune, and wound healing disorders. In this review, we will focus on the central role of the growth of new blood vessels in ischemic and diabetic wound healing. We define the most current nomenclature that describes the neovascularization process in wounds. There are now two well defined, distinct, yet interrelated processes for the formation of post-natal new blood vessels, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We review recent new data on vasculogenesis that promises to advance the field of wound healing. PMID:17544023

  19. Id4, a New Candidate Gene for Senile Osteoporosis, Acts as a Molecular Switch Promoting Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nikaido, Itoshi; Bono, Hidemasa; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Akita, Masumi; Motegi, Hiromi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Noda, Tetsuo; Sablitzky, Fred; Arai, Shigeki; Kurokawa, Riki; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu; Schönbach, Christian; Suda, Tatsuo; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of bone marrow adipocytes observed in senile osteoporosis or age-related osteopenia is caused by the unbalanced differentiation of MSCs into bone marrow adipocytes or osteoblasts. Several transcription factors are known to regulate the balance between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the balance between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation in the bone marrow have yet to be elucidated. To identify candidate genes associated with senile osteoporosis, we performed genome-wide expression analyses of differentiating osteoblasts and adipocytes. Among transcription factors that were enriched in the early phase of differentiation, Id4 was identified as a key molecule affecting the differentiation of both cell types. Experiments using bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2 and Id4-deficient mice showed that lack of Id4 drastically reduces osteoblast differentiation and drives differentiation toward adipocytes. On the other hand knockdown of Id4 in adipogenic-induced ST2 cells increased the expression of Pparγ2, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Similar results were observed in bone marrow cells of femur and tibia of Id4-deficient mice. However the effect of Id4 on Pparγ2 and adipocyte differentiation is unlikely to be of direct nature. The mechanism of Id4 promoting osteoblast differentiation is associated with the Id4-mediated release of Hes1 from Hes1-Hey2 complexes. Hes1 increases the stability and transcriptional activity of Runx2, a key molecule of osteoblast differentiation, which results in an enhanced osteoblast-specific gene expression. The new role of Id4 in promoting osteoblast differentiation renders it a target for preventing the onset of senile osteoporosis. PMID:20628571

  20. Transplantation of umbilical cord and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zong-liu; Liu, Ying; Mao, Xi-Hong; Wei, Chuan-yu; Meng, Ming-yao; Liu, Yun-hong; Zhuyun Yang, Zara; Zhu, Hongmei; Short, Martin; Bernard, Claude; Xiao, Zhi-cheng

    2013-01-01

    There is currently great interest in the use of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapy for multiple sclerosis with potential to both ameliorate inflammatory processes as well as improve regeneration and repair. Although most clinical studies have used autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, other sources such as allogeneic umbilical cord-derived cells may provide a more accessible and practical supply of cells for transplantation. In this case report we present the treatment of aggressive multiple sclerosis with multiple allogenic human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell and autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells over a 4 y period. The treatments were tolerated well with no significant adverse events. Clinical and radiological disease appeared to be suppressed following the treatments and support the expansion of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into clinical trials as a potential novel therapy for patients with aggressive multiple sclerosis. PMID:24192520

  1. Increased recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells into the brain associated with altered brain cytokine profile in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae; Inaba, Muneo; Li, Ming; Shi, Ming; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Ikehara, Susumu; Shimada, Atsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells enter the brain in a non-inflammatory condition through the attachments of choroid plexus and differentiate into ramified myeloid cells. Neurodegenerative conditions may be associated with altered immune-brain interaction. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) undergoes earlier onset neurodegeneration than C57BL/6 (B6) strain. We hypothesized that the dynamics of immune cells migrating from the bone marrow to the brain is perturbed in SAMP10 mice. We created 4 groups of radiation chimeras by intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation using 2-month-old (2 mo) and 10 mo SAMP10 and B6 mice as recipients with GFP transgenic B6 mice as donors, and analyzed histologically 4 months later. In the [B6 → 10 mo SAMP10] chimeras, more ramified marrow-derived cells populated a larger number of discrete brain regions than the other chimeras, especially in the diencephalon. Multiplex cytokine assays of the diencephalon prepared from non-treated 3 mo and 12 mo SAMP10 and B6 mice revealed that 12 mo SAMP10 mice exhibited higher tissue concentrations of CXCL1, CCL11, G-CSF, CXCL10 and IL-6 than the other groups. Immunohistologically, choroid plexus epithelium and ependyma produced CXCL1, while astrocytic processes in the attachments of choroid plexus expressed CCL11 and G-CSF. The median eminence produced CXCL10, hypothalamic neurons G-CSF and tanycytes CCL11 and G-CSF. These brain cytokine profile changes in 12 mo SAMP10 mice were likely to contribute to acceleration of the dynamics of marrow-derived cells to the diencephalon. Further studies on the functions of ramified marrow-derived myeloid cells would enhance our understanding of the brain-bone marrow interaction.

  2. Enhanced intracellular signaling pathway in osteoblasts on ultraviolet lighttreated hydrophilic titanium.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Fuminori; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment of titanium immediately prior to use, or photofunctionalization, reactivates the time-dependent degradation of bioactivity of titanium (biological aging of titanium) and increases its osseointegration capacity beyond the inherent maximal level. Although the initial osteoblast attachment is reportedly enhanced on UV-treated titanium surfaces, the detailed mechanism behind the increase in osseointegration is unknown. This study examined the potential modulation of intracellular signaling pathway in osteoblasts on UV-treated titanium surfaces. Rat bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured on 4-week-old, new, and UV-treated titanium surfaces. The new and UV-treated surfaces were superhydrophilic, whereas the 4-week-old surface was hydrophobic. Although the rate of protein adsorption was similarly increased on the new and UV-treated surfaces compared with the 4-week-old surface, the number of attached cells and their spreading behavior were further enhanced on the UV-treated surface. This additional enhancement was associated with the remarkably upregulated expression of paxillin and phospho-paxillin and exclusive upregulation of Rho GTPase family genes. This study provides with the first molecular evidence of the enhanced initial behavior of osteoblasts on UV-treated titanium surfaces. The enhancement was accentuated and distinct from the new titanium surface with similar hydrophilicity, suggesting that surface properties other than the level of hydrophilicity are responsible.

  3. Cytokine response in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages after infection with pathogenic and non-pathogenic Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kimberly K; Hill, Terence E; Davis, Melissa N; Holbrook, Michael R; Freiberg, Alexander N

    2015-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is the most pathogenic member of the genus Phlebovirus within the family Bunyaviridae, and can cause severe disease in humans and livestock. Until recently, limited information has been published on the cellular host response elicited by RVFV, particularly in macrophages and dendritic cells, which play critical roles in stimulating adaptive and innate immune responses to viral infection. In an effort to define the initial response of host immunomodulatory cells to infection, primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were infected with the pathogenic RVFV strain ZH501, or attenuated strains MP-12 or MP-12 based Clone13 type (rMP12-C13 type), and cytokine secretion profiles examined. The secretion of T helper (Th)1-associated antiviral cytokines, chemokines and various interleukins increased rapidly after infection with the attenuated rMP12-C13 type RVFV, which lacks a functional NSs virulence gene. In comparison, infection with live-attenuated MP-12 encoding a functional NSs gene appeared to cause a delayed immune response, while pathogenic ZH501 ablates the immune response almost entirely. These data demonstrate that NSs can inhibit components of the BMDM antiviral response and supports previous work indicating that NSs can specifically regulate the type I interferon response in macrophages. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that genetic differences between ZH501 and MP-12 reduce the ability of MP-12 to inhibit antiviral signalling and subsequently reduce virulence in BMDM, demonstrating that viral components other than NSs play a critical role in regulating the host response to RVFV infection.

  4. Cytokine response in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages after infection with pathogenic and non-pathogenic Rift Valley fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kimberly K.; Hill, Terence E.; Davis, Melissa N.; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is the most pathogenic member of the genus Phlebovirus within the family Bunyaviridae, and can cause severe disease in humans and livestock. Until recently, limited information has been published on the cellular host response elicited by RVFV, particularly in macrophages and dendritic cells, which play critical roles in stimulating adaptive and innate immune responses to viral infection. In an effort to define the initial response of host immunomodulatory cells to infection, primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were infected with the pathogenic RVFV strain ZH501, or attenuated strains MP-12 or MP-12 based Clone13 type (rMP12-C13 type), and cytokine secretion profiles examined. The secretion of T helper (Th)1-associated antiviral cytokines, chemokines and various interleukins increased rapidly after infection with the attenuated rMP12-C13 type RVFV, which lacks a functional NSs virulence gene. In comparison, infection with live-attenuated MP-12 encoding a functional NSs gene appeared to cause a delayed immune response, while pathogenic ZH501 ablates the immune response almost entirely. These data demonstrate that NSs can inhibit components of the BMDM antiviral response and supports previous work indicating that NSs can specifically regulate the type I interferon response in macrophages. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that genetic differences between ZH501 and MP-12 reduce the ability of MP-12 to inhibit antiviral signalling and subsequently reduce virulence in BMDM, demonstrating that viral components other than NSs play a critical role in regulating the host response to RVFV infection. PMID:25759029

  5. An in vitro expansion score for tissue-engineering applications with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Alessandro; Mehr, Marco; Janner-Jametti, Tiziana; Graumann, Ursula; Aebli, Niklaus; Baur, Martin; Ferguson, Stephen J; Stoyanov, Jivko V

    2016-02-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have limited growth potential in vitro and cease to divide due to replicative senescence, which from a tissue-engineering perspective has practical implications, such as defining the correct starting points for differentiation and transplantation. Time spent in culture before the loss of required differentiation potential is different and reflects patient variability, which is a problem for cell expansion. This study aimed to develop a score set which can be used to quantify the senescent state of MSCs and predict whether cells preserve their ability to differentiate to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic phenotypes, based on colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, population doubling time (PDT), senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity, cell size, telomere length and gene expression of MSCs cultured in vitro over 11 passages. This set of morphological, physiological and genetic senescence markers was correlated to the ability of MSCs to differentiate. Differentiation efficiency was assessed by marker genes and protein expression. CFUs decreased with increasing passage number, whereas SA-β-Gal activity and PDT increased; however, the correlation with MSCs' differentiation potential was sometimes unexpected. The expression of genes related to senescence was higher in late-passage cells than in early-passage cells. Early-passage cells underwent efficient osteogenic differentiation, with mid-passage cells performing best in chondrogenic differentiation. Late-passage cells preserve only adipogenic differentiation potential. Based on this marker set, we propose a senescence score in which combined markers give a reliable quality control of MSCs, not depending only on mechanistic passage number.

  6. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Khanabdali, Ramin; Saadat, Anbarieh; Fazilah, Maizatul; Bazli, Khairul Fidaa’ Khairul; Qazi, Rida-e-Maria; Khalid, Ramla Sana; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Naeem, Nadia; Khan, Irfan; Salim, Asmat; Shamsuddin, ShamsulAzlin Ahmad; Mohan, Gokula

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 μM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the cell body toward the neighboring cells were observed in the culture. The mRNA expression of neuronal-specific markers, Map2, Nefl, Tau, and Nestin, was significantly higher, indicating that the treated cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells. Immunostaining showed that differentiated cells were positive for the neuronal markers Flk, Nef, Nestin, and β-tubulin. PMID:26766903

  7. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Khanabdali, Ramin; Saadat, Anbarieh; Fazilah, Maizatul; Bazli, Khairul Fidaa' Khairul; Qazi, Rida-e-Maria; Khalid, Ramla Sana; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Naeem, Nadia; Khan, Irfan; Salim, Asmat; Shamsuddin, ShamsulAzlin Ahmad; Mohan, Gokula

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 μM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the cell body toward the neighboring cells were observed in the culture. The mRNA expression of neuronal-specific markers, Map2, Nefl, Tau, and Nestin, was significantly higher, indicating that the treated cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells. Immunostaining showed that differentiated cells were positive for the neuronal markers Flk, Nef, Nestin, and β-tubulin.

  8. Response of human bone marrow-derived MSCs on triphasic Ca-P substrate with various HA/TCP ratio.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Indu; Kim, Duk Yeon; Kyong-Jin, Jung; Song, In-Hwan; Kim, Sukyoung

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (Ca-P) are used commonly as artificial bone substitutes to control the biodegradation rate of an implant in the body fluid. This study examined the in vitro proliferation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) on triphasic Ca-P samples. For this aspect, hydroxyapatite (HA), dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) were mixed at various ratios, cold compacted, and sintered at 1250°C in air. X-ray diffraction showed that the β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) to α-TCP phase transformation increased with increasing DCPD/HA ratio. The micro-hardness deceased with increasing TCP content, whereas the mean grain size and porosity increased with increasing TCP concentration. To evaluate the in vitro degree of adhesion and proliferation on the HA/TCP samples, human BMSCs were incubated on the HA/TCP samples and analyzed by a cells proliferation assay, expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin (FN), and FITC-phalloidin fluorescent staining. In terms of the interactions of human BMSCs with the triphasic Ca-P samples, H50T50 (Ca/P = 1.59) markedly enhanced cell spreading, proliferation, FN, and α-SMA compared with H100T0 (Ca/P = 1.67). Interestingly, these results show that among the five HA/TCP samples, H50T50 is the optimal Ca-P composition for in vitro cell proliferation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 72-80, 2017.

  9. Synergistic and Superimposed Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with Fasudil in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Wen; Li, Yan-Hua; Song, Guo-Bin; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Yun; Liu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Hai-Fei; Yang, Wan-Fang; Wang, Qing; Yan, Ya-Ping; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2016-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the ideal transplanted cells of cellular therapy for promoting neuroprotection and neurorestoration. However, the optimization of transplanted cells and the improvement of microenvironment around implanted cells are still two critical challenges for enhancing therapeutic effect. In the current study, we observed the therapeutic potential of MSCs combined with Fasudil in mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and explored possible mechanisms of action. The results clearly show that combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil further reduced the severity of EAE compared with MSCs or Fasudil alone, indicating a synergistic and superimposed effect in treating EAE. The addition of Fasudil inhibited MSC-induced inflammatory signaling TLR-4/MyD88 and inflammatory molecule IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α but did not convert M1 microglia to M2 phenotype. The delivery of MSCs enhanced the expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) compared with that of Fasudil. Importantly, combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil further increased the expression of BDNF and GDNF compared with the delivery of MSCs alone, indicating that combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil synergistically contributes to the expression of neurotrophic factors which should be related to the expression of increased galactocerebroside (GalC) compared with mice treated with Fasudil and MSCs alone. However, a lot of investigation is warranted to further elucidate the cross talk of MSCs and Fasudil in the therapeutic potential of EAE/multiple sclerosis.

  10. The Effect of EPO Gene Overexpression on Proliferation and Migration of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haihong; Luo, Xinping; Jin, Bo; Shi, Haiming; Gong, Hui

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) gene overexpression on proliferation and migration of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and to determine the underlying signaling pathway. Mouse MSCs were cultured in vitro and EPO gene was transfected into the 6th generation of MSCs via lentivirus vector. The transfected cells were identified by flow cytometry and the EPO levels in supernatant were measured with ELISA. In addition, cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay and cell migration was evaluated by Transwell assay. The activation of Akt, ERK1/2, and p38MAPK signaling was detected by western blotting. The lentivirus vector containing EPO was successfully constructed and transfected into MSCs. No remarkable change was found in the cell surface markers after transfection while a significant increase of EPO level in supernatant was noticed in transfected MSCs compared to controls (P < 0.01). In addition, transfected MSCs showed a significantly enhanced proliferation (P < 0.01) as well as a notable increase in migration (P < 0.01) compared to controls. Furthermore, we also found that EPO modification enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathway, and suppressed the phosphorylation of p38MAPK without affecting the levels of total Akt, ERK1/2, and p38MAPK in MSCs. After transfection, MSCs secreted more EPO which enhanced the capability of proliferation and migration. Moreover, our results suggested that the enhanced proliferation and migration might be associated with activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK or inhibition of P38MAPK signaling pathway.

  11. Protective effect of berberine against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wangyang; Liu, Yamei; Wang, Bin; Luo, Yiwen; Hu, Nianhong; Chen, Dongfeng; Zhang, Xunchao; Xiong, Yunpu

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential to be used for the treatment of delayed union, nonunion or persistent bone defects in MSC-based cell therapy. However, implantation of BMSCs into the fracture site is confronted with apoptosis on account of harsh conditions and oxidative stress. In the present study, the anti-apoptotic effects of berberine (BBR) on BMSCs subjected to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are investigated, and the potential underlying mechanisms are explored. Oxidative injury was induced by exposure to H2O2, and cell viability was assessed using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The apoptosis of BMSCs was measured by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. Reactive oxygen species staining and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay were applied to assess the anti-oxidative effect of BBR. Finally, western blot was performed to measure the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved caspase-3. In the present study, it was identified that BBR remarkably attenuated H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death via quenching ROS production and increasing SOD activity. Further studies indicated that BBR can reduce apoptosis by upregulating the expression level of p-Akt and Bcl-2, and downregulating the expression levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that pretreatment with BBR could alleviate H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat BMSCs in vitro. PMID:28101183

  12. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells May Not Be the Original Cells for Carcinogen-Induced Mouse Gastrointestinal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen; Gu, Liankun; Deng, Dajun

    2013-01-01

    Aim It has been reported that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) can be original cells of mouse gastric cancers induced by Helicobacter felis (H. felis) infection. However, it is unknown whether BMDCs are also the original cells of mouse gastrointestinal cancers induced by gastric carcinogens N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) and H. felis infection. Methods C57BL/6 recipient mice were initially irradiated with 10Gy X-ray, reconstituted with bone marrow cells from the C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) donor mice to label BMDCs with green fluorescence protein (GFP). After 4 weeks of recovery, the bone marrow-transplanted mice were given NMU in drinking water (240 ppm) and subsequently infected with H. felis by gavage. Eighty weeks later, all mice were euthanized for pathological examination. The BMDCs expressing GFP were detected in tissues using direct GFP fluorescence confocal microscopy analysis and immunohistochemistry staining (IHC) assays. Results Neoplastic lesions were induced by NMU treatment and/or H. felis infection at the antrum of the glandular stomach and small intestine. In the direct GFP fluorescence confocal assay, GFP(+) epithelial cell cluster or glands were not observed in these gastrointestinal tumors, however, most GFP(+) BMDCs sporadically located in the tumor stromal tissues. Some of these GFP(+) stromal BMDCs co-expressed the hematopoietic marker CD45 or myofibroblasts markers αSMA and SRF. In the indirect GFP IHC assay, similar results were observed among 11 gastric intraepithelial neoplasia lesions and 2 small intestine tumors. Conclusion These results demonstrated that BMDCs might not be the source of gastrointestinal tumor cells induced by NMU and/or H. felis infection. PMID:24260263

  13. Intervertebral disc regeneration using platelet-rich plasma-containing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: A preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHAN-ZHENG; JIN, JI-YANG; GUO, YU-DONG; MA, LIANG-YU; CHANG, QING; PENG, XIN-GUI; GUO, FANG-FANG; ZHANG, HAI-XIANG; HU, XIN-FENG; WANG, CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising strategy for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, the short half-life of growth factors released from PRP cannot continuously stimulate the degenerated discs. Thus, the present study hypothesized that the combined use of PRP and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may repair the early degenerated discs in the long term for their synergistic reparative effect. In the present study, following the induction of early IDD by annular puncture in rabbits, PRP was prepared and mixed with BMSCs (PRP-BMSC group) for injection into the early degenerated discs. As controls, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; PBS group) and PRP (PRP group) were similarly injected. Rabbits without any intervention served as a control group. At 8 weeks following treatment, histological changes of the injected discs were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to detect the T2-weighted signal intensity of the targeted discs at weeks 1, 2 and 8 following treatment. Annular puncture resulted in disc narrowing and decreased T2-weighted signal intensity. At weeks 1 and 3, MRI examinations showed regenerative changes in the PRP-BMSC group and PRP group, whereas the PBS group exhibited a continuous degenerative process of the discs. At 8 weeks post-injection, the PRP-BMSCs induced a statistically significant restoration of discs, as shown by MRI (PRP-BMSCs, vs.PRP and PBS; P<0.05), which was also confirmed by histological evaluations. Thus, compared with PRP, the administration of PRP-containing BMSCs resulted in a superior regenerative effect on the early degenerated discs, which may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the restoration of early degenerated discs. PMID:26956080

  14. Investigation of magnesium-zinc-calcium alloys and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell response in direct culture.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Aaron F; Sallee, Amy; Guan, Ren-Guo; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Tayoba, Myla; Sanchez, Jorge; Liu, Huinan

    2015-01-01

    Crystalline Mg-Zn-Ca ternary alloys have recently attracted significant interest for biomedical implant applications due to their promising biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to characterize as-cast Mg-xZn-0.5Ca (x=0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0wt.%) alloys, and determine the adhesion and morphology of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) at the interface with the Mg-xZn-0.5Ca alloys. The direct culture method (i.e. seeding cells directly onto the surface of the sample) was established in this study to probe the highly dynamic cell-substrate interface and thus to elucidate the mechanisms of BMSC responses to dynamic alloy degradation. The results showed that the BMSC adhesion density on these alloys was similar to the cell-only positive control and the BMSC morphology appeared more anisotropic on the rapidly degrading alloy surfaces in comparison with the cell-only positive control. Importantly, neither culture media supplemented with up to 27.6mM Mg(2+) ions nor media intentionally adjusted up to alkaline pH 9 induced any detectable adverse effects on BMSC responses. We speculated that degradation-induced dynamic surface topography played an important role in modulating cell morphology at the interface. This study presents a clinically relevant in vitro model for screening bioresorbable alloys, and provides useful design guidelines for determining the degradation rate of implants made of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

  15. Isolation, expansion and characterization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Gottipamula, Sanjay; Ashwin, K M; Muttigi, Manjunatha S; Kannan, Suresh; Kolkundkar, Udaykumar; Seetharam, Raviraja N

    2014-04-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) heralded a new beginning for regenerative medicine and generated tremendous interest as the most promising source for therapeutic application. Most cell therapies require stringent regulatory compliance and prefer the use of serum-free media (SFM) or xeno-free media (XFM) for the MSC production process, starting from the isolation onwards. Here, we report on serum-free isolation and expansion of MSCs and compare them with cells grown in conventional fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing media as a control. The isolation, proliferation and morphology analysis demonstrated significant differences between MSCs cultured in various SFM/XFM in addition to their difference with FBS controls. BD Mosaic™ Mesenchymal Stem Cell Serum-Free media (BD-SFM) and Mesencult-XF (MSX) supported the isolation, sequential passaging, tri-lineage differentiation potential and acceptable surface marker expression profile of BM-MSCs. Further, MSCs cultured in SFM showed higher immune suppression and hypo-immunogenicity properties, making them an ideal candidate for allogeneic cell therapy. Although cells cultured in control media have a significantly higher proliferation rate, BM-MSCs cultured in BD-SFM or MSX media are the preferred choice to meet regulatory requirements as they do not contain bovine serum. While BM-MSCs cultured in BD-SFM and MSX media adhered to all MSC characteristics, in the case of few parameters, the performance of cells cultured in BD-SFM was superior to that of MSX media. Pre-clinical safety and efficiency studies are required before qualifying SFM or XFM media-derived MSCs for therapeutic applications.

  16. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived) Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived) Mast Cell Precursors from Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, Steffen K.; Neß, Melanie; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Kim, Philipp; Tag, Carmen G.; Kauffmann, Marlies; Huber, Michael; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC) or mucosal (MMC) type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT) and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs) and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM). The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC). These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research. PMID:27337047

  17. Effects of Tricalcium Silicate Cements on Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Ashraf A.; Hussein, Khalid A.; Niu, Li-na; Li, Guo-hua; Watanabe, Ikuya; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate cements have been successfully employed in the biomedical field as bioactive bone and dentin substitutes, with widely acclaimed osteoactive properties. This research analyzed the effects of different tricalcium silicate cement formulations on the temporal osteoactivity profile of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMW-MSCs). These cells were exposed to 4 commercially-available tricalcium silicate cement formulations in osteogenic differentiation medium. After 1, 3, 7 and 10 days, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to detect the expression of target osteogenic markers ALP, RUNX2, OSX, OPN, MSX2, and OCN. After 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, alkaline phosphatase assay was performed to detect changes in intracellular enzyme level. Alizarin Red S assay was performed after 28 days to detect extracellular matrix mineralization. In the presence of tricalcium silicate cements, target osteogenic markers were downregulated at the mRNA and protein levels at all time-points. Intracellular alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels and extracellular mineralization of the experimental groups were not significantly different from the untreated control. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed increases in downregulation of RUNX2, OSX, MSX2 and OCN with increase in time of exposure to the tricalcium silicate cements, while ALP showed peak downregulation at day 7. For Western blotting, OSX, OPN, MSX2 and OCN showed increased downregulation with increased exposure time to the tested cements. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels generally declined after day 7. Based on these results, it is concluded that tricalcium silicate cements do not induce osteogenic differentiation of hBM-MSCs in vitro. PMID:24726977

  18. Infection of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages by porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus impairs phagosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Sibapriya; McKenna, Neil; Balce, Dale R; Yates, Robin M

    2016-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a positive-sense, ssRNA virus of the genus Arterivirus, is a devastating disease of swine worldwide. Key early targets of PRRSV infection in pigs include professional phagocytes in the lung, such as alveolar and interstitial macrophages and dendritic cells, the dysfunction of which is believed to be responsible for much of the associated mortality. In order to study the effect of virus infection on phagocyte function, the development of a robust, reproducible model would be advantageous. Given the limitations of current models, we set out to develop a porcine bone marrow-derived macrophage (PBMMΦ) cell model to study phagosomal maturation and function during PRRSV infection. Derivation of PBMMΦs from marrow using cultured L929 fibroblast supernatant produced a homogeneous population of cells that exhibited macrophage-like morphology and proficiency in Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis and phagosomal maturation. PBMMΦs were permissive to PRRSV infection, resulting in a productive infection that peaked at 24 h. Assessment of the effect of PRRSV infection on the properties of phagosomal maturation in PBMMΦs revealed a significant decrease in phagosomal proteolysis and lowered production of reactive oxygen species, but no change in PBMMΦ viability, phagocytosis or the ability of phagosomes to acidify. In this study, we present a new model to investigate PRRSV infection of phagocytes, which demonstrates a significant effect on phagosomal maturation with the associated implications on proper macrophage function. This model can also be used to study the effect on the phagosomal microenvironment of infection by other viruses targeting porcine macrophages.

  19. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance angiogenesis via their α6β1 integrin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Carrion, Bita; Kong, Yen P.; Kaigler, Darnell; Putnam, Andrew J.

    2013-11-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) facilitate the angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs) within three-dimensional (3D) matrices in vivo and in engineered tissues in vitro in part through paracrine mediators and by acting as stabilizing pericytes. However, the molecular interactions between BMSCs and nascent tubules during the process of angiogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we have used a tractable 3D co-culture model to explore the functional role of the α6β1 integrin adhesion receptor on BMSCs in sprouting angiogenesis. We report that knockdown of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs significantly reduces capillary sprouting, and causes their failure to associate with the nascent vessels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the BMSCs with attenuated α6 integrin proliferate at a significantly lower rate relative to either control cells expressing non-targeting shRNA or wild type BMSCs; however, despite adding more cells to compensate for this deficit in proliferation, deficient sprouting persists. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs is important for their ability to stimulate vessel morphogenesis. This conclusion may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote angiogenesis. Highlights: • BMSCs stimulate angiogenesis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. • We silenced the expression of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs. • Silencing this receptor subunit significantly inhibited angiogenic sprouting. • Knocking down α6 integrin affected laminin and αSMA expression. • Silencing α6 integrin expression also reduced BMSC proliferation.

  20. Continuous AMD3100 Treatment Worsens Renal Fibrosis through Regulation of Bone Marrow Derived Pro-Angiogenic Cells Homing and T-Cell-Related Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Zhu, Fengming; Wang, Xiaohui; Yao, Weiqi; Wang, Meng; Pei, Guangchang; Hu, Zhizhi; Guo, Yujiao; Zhao, Zhi; Wang, Pengge; Mou, Jingyi; Sun, Jie; Zeng, Rui; Xu, Gang; Liao, Wenhui; Yao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    AMD3100 is a small molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is located in the cell membranes of CD34+ cells and a variety of inflammatory cells and has been reported to reduce organ fibrosis in the lung, liver and myocardium. However, the effect of AMD3100 on renal fibrosis is unknown. This study investigated the impact of AMD3100 on renal fibrosis. C57bl/6 mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery with or without AMD3100 administration. Tubular injury, collagen deposition and fibrosis were detected and analyzed by histological staining, immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells (CD45+, CD34+ and CD309+ cells) and capillary density (CD31+) were measured by flow cytometry (FACS) and immunofluorescence (IF). Inflammatory cells, chemotactic factors and T cell proliferation were characterized. We found that AMD3100 treatment did not alleviate renal fibrosis but, rather, increased tissue damage and renal fibrosis. Continuous AMD3100 administration did not improve bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells mobilization but, rather, inhibited the migration of bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells into the fibrotic kidney. Additionally, T cell infiltration was significantly increased in AMD3100-treated kidneys compared to un-treated kidneys. Thus, treatment of UUO mice with AMD3100 led to an increase in T cell infiltration, suggesting that AMD3100 aggravated renal fibrosis.

  1. Pre-degenerated peripheral nerves co-cultured with bone marrow-derived cells: a new technique for harvesting high-purity Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-pan; Wu, Min; Guan, Jian-zhong; Wang, Zhao-dong; Gao, Xu-bin; Liu, Yang-yang

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells play an important role in the peripheral nervous system, especially in nerve repair following injury, so artificial nerve regeneration requires an effective technique for obtaining purified Schwann cells. In vivo and in vitro pre-degeneration of peripheral nerves have been shown to obtain high-purity Schwann cells. We believed that in vitro pre-degeneration was simple and controllable, and available for the clinic. Thus, we co-cultured the crushed sciatic nerves with bone marrow-derived cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that, 3 hours after injury, a large number of mononuclear cells moved to the crushed nerves and a large number of bone marrow-derived cells infiltrated the nerve segments. These changes promoted the degradation of the nerve segments, and the dedifferentiation and proliferation of Schwann cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression were detected in the crushed nerves. Schwann cell yield was 9.08 ± 2.01 × 104/mg. The purity of primary cultured Schwann cells was 88.4 ± 5.79%. These indicate a successful new method for obtaining Schwann cells of high purity and yield from adult crushed sciatic nerve using bone marrow-derived cells. PMID:27904498

  2. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 affects endothelial progenitor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Colleselli, Daniela; Bijuklic, Klaudija; Mosheimer, Birgit A.; Kaehler, Christian M. . E-mail: C.M.Kaehler@uibk.ac.at

    2006-09-10

    Growing evidence indicates that inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders and various types of cancer. Endothelial progenitor cells recruited from the bone marrow have been shown to be involved in the formation of new vessels in malignancies and discussed for being a key point in tumour progression and metastasis. However, until now, nothing is known about an interaction between COX and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 was detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Proliferation kinetics, cell cycle distribution and rate of apoptosis were analysed by MTT test and FACS analysis. Further analyses revealed an implication of Akt phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Both COX-1 and COX-2 expression can be found in bone-marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. COX-2 inhibition leads to a significant reduction in proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells by an increase in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. COX-2 inhibition leads further to an increased cleavage of caspase-3 protein and inversely to inhibition of Akt activation. Highly proliferating endothelial progenitor cells can be targeted by selective COX-2 inhibition in vitro. These results indicate that upcoming therapy strategies in cancer patients targeting COX-2 may be effective in inhibiting tumour vasculogenesis as well as angiogenic processes.

  3. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells differentiate to osteoblast and chondroblast lineages upon incubation with conditioned media from dental pulp stem cell-derived osteoblasts and auricle cartilage chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Carbone, A; Valente, M; Annacontini, L; Castellani, S; Di Gioia, S; Parisi, D; Rucci, M; Belgiovine, G; Colombo, C; Di Benedetto, A; Mori, G; Lo Muzio, L; Maiorella, A; Portincasa, A; Conese, M

    2016-01-01

    The potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (ADSCs) to differentiate into either osteoblasts or chondrocytes is controversial. In this study we investigated the multicapacity potential of ADSCs to differentiate towards adipocyte, osteoblast, and chondrocyte lineages when cells are seeded onto plastic in comparison with incubation with conditioned media (CM) obtained from differentiated cell types.ADSCs, obtained from liposuctions, were characterized for mesenchymal and hematopoietic markers by cytofluorimetry. Their differentiation capacity towards adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes was investigated by histochemistry methods (Oil-Red-O staining, Safranin O and Alizarin Red staining, respectively). Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and dedifferentiated auricle derived-chondrocytes were differentiated towards osteoblastic and chondrocytic lineages respectively, and the CM obtained from these cultures was used to induce differentiation of ADSCs. ADSCs were positive for mesenchymal markers (CD29, CD105, CD73, CD44), but not for hematopoietic lineage markers (CD14, CD34, CD45) and this behavior was conserved from the isolation up to the fifth passage. While ADSCs were readily differentiated in adipocytes, they were not towards chondrocytes and osteoblastic lineages, a behavior different from that of bone marrow-derived MSCs that differentiated into the three lineages at two weeks post-induction. Only ADSCs treated with CM from cultured chondrocytes and DPSCs, produced glycosaminoglycans and mineralized matrix. These results indicate that ADSCs need growth/morphogenic factor supplementation from the tissue environment to be appropriately differentiated to mesodermic lineages.

  4. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron . E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G.

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  5. Nuclear size as a cell-kinetic marker for osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. E.; Mozsary, P. G.; Klingler, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear morphometric assay for preosteoblasts is introduced as a cell-kinetic technique, applicable to routine histological preparations of mineralized tissue. Because this method is a morphological marker for osteoblast precursor cell differentiation, it provides a new dimension for determining the mechanism of osteoblast histogenesis. Osteoblast precursors of the periodontal ligament are a mixed population of progenitors, kinetically separable into two distinct groups according to nuclear size. Preosteoblasts, the immediate proliferating precursors of osteoblasts, have large nuclei (greater than 170 micrometers3) and are derived from relatively undifferentiated fibroblastlike cells, which have smaller nuclei (less than 80 micrometers3). Increase in nuclear volume, during G1 phase of the cell cycle, is apparently a morphological manifestation of change in genomic expression. This key event in preosteoblast differentiation is related to mechanical stress/strain and may be an important rate-limiting step in osteoblast histogenesis.

  6. Model acupuncture point: Bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells are moved by a weak electromagnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Emelyanov, Artem N; Borisova, Marina V; Kiryanova, Vera V

    2016-01-01

    AIM To show the existence of a structural formative role of magnetic fields (MFs) with respect to biological objects by using our proposed model of an acupoint. METHODS We introduced a magnetised 10-100 μT metal rod (needle) into culture dishes with a negatively charged working surface and observed during 24 h how cells were arranged by MFs and by electrical fields (EFs) when attached. Rat and human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (rBMSCs and hBMSCs), human nonadherent mononuclear blood cells, NCTCs and A172 cells, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were evaluated. The dish containing BMSCs was defined as the model of an acupoint. rBMSCs proliferative activity affected by the needle was investigated. For investigating electromagnetic field structures, we used the gas discharge visualisation (GDV) method. RESULTS During 24 h of incubation in 50-mm culture dishes, BMSCs or the nonadherent cells accumulated into a central heap in each dish. BMSCs formed a torus (central ring) with an inner diameter of approximately 10 mm only upon the introduction of the needle in the centre of the dish. The cells did not show these effects in 35- or 90-mm culture dishes or hydrophobic dishes or rectangular cuvettes. NCTCs and A172 cells showed unstable the effects and only up to two weeks after thawing. Moreover, we observed that the appearance of these effects depended on the season. In winter, BMSCs showed no the effects. GDV experiments revealed that the resonant annular illumination gradually formed from 10 to 18-20 s in polar solutions with and without cell suspension of BMSCs, NCTCs and E. coli when using circular 50-mm dishes, stimulation at 115 V and switching of the electrode poles at 1 kHz. All these data demonstrate the resonant nature of the central ring. Significant influence of MFs on the rBMSC proliferation rate was not observed. CONCLUSION BMSCs can be moved by MFs when in the presence of a constant EF and MF, when the cells are in the responsive functional state

  7. Characterization of the cytokine pattern of porcine bone marrow-derived cells treated with 1alpha,25(OH)D.

    PubMed

    Sipos, W; Duvigneau, J C; Schmoll, F; Exel, B; Hofbauer, G; Baravalle, G; Hartl, R T; Dobretsberger, M; Pietschmann, P

    2005-10-01

    The biologically active form of vitamine D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] has recently been described not only to influence bone metabolism but also to exert immunomodulating activities, which may have an impact on bone formation/resorption as well. In this study, we analysed the effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the cytokine pattern of porcine bone marrow-derived cells from piglets aged 1-3 weeks. After culture for 1 week, the number of osteoclasts was determined, with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive, multinucleated cells being considered osteoclasts. Cultured bone marrow cell-derived mRNA was subjected to semiquantitative RT-PCR specific for a panel of porcine cytokines (IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha). In addition, an immunofluorescence analysis using anti-porcine mAbs specific for IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma was performed. In order to prove the existence of a porcine homologue of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) bone marrow cell- as well as porcine white blood cell-derived mRNA was investigated by RT-PCR using primer pairs specific for murine RANKL. Cell culture supernatant was analysed for soluble RANKL by means of an ELISA designed for quantification of human RANKL. By means of RT-PCR, expression of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-alpha mRNA could be found in cells cultured with and without 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were produced by both stromal cells and osteoclasts. Besides its known osteoclastogenic effects, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) tended to downregulate the respective cytokines, but significantly upregulated RANKL expression. The homology between the porcine RANKL-specific sequence and the corresponding human RANKL sequence was 79%. The data found support the idea that porcine bone marrow cell cultures may provide a suitable alternative to murine systems in human osteological research.

  8. LIGHT (TNFSF14) Increases the Survival and Proliferation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Sook-Kyoung; Noh, Eui-Kyu; Gwon, Gi-Dong; Kim, Jeong Yi; Jo, Jae-Cheol; Choi, Yunsuk; Koh, SuJin; Baek, Jin Ho; Min, Young Joo; Kim, Hawk

    2016-01-01

    LIGHT (HVEM-L, TNFSF14, or CD258), an entity homologous to lymphotoxins, with inducible nature and the ability to compete with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM)/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related 2, is a member of the TNF superfamily. It is expressed as a homotrimer on activated T cells and dendritic cells (DCs), and has three receptors: HVEM, LT-β receptor (LTβR), and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3). So far, three receptors with distinct cellular expression patterns are known to interact with LIGHT. Follicular DCs and stromal cells bind LIGHT through LTβR. We monitored the effects of LIGHT on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). At first, we checked the negative and positive differentiation markers of BM-MSCs. And we confirmed the quality of MSCs by staining cells undergoing adipogenesis (Oil Red O staining), chondrogenesis (Alcian blue staining), and osteogenesis (Alizarin red staining). After rhLIGHT treatment, we monitored the count, viability, and proliferation of cells and cell cycle distribution. PDGF and TGFβ production by rhLIGHT was examined by ELISA, and the underlying biological mechanisms were studied by immunoblotting by rhLIGHT treatment. LTβR was constitutively expressed on the surface of human BM-MSCs. Cell number and viability increased after rhLIGHT treatment. BM-MSC proliferation was induced by an increase in the S/G2/M phase. The expression of not only diverse cyclins such as cyclin B1, D1, D3, and E, but also CDK1 and CDK2, increased, while that of p27 decreased, after rhLIGHT treatment. RhLIGHT-induced PDGF and TGFβ production mediated by STAT3 and Smad3 activation accelerated BM-MSC proliferation. Thus, LIGHT and LTβR interaction increases the survival and proliferation of human BM-MSCs, and therefore, LIGHT might play an important role in stem cell therapy. PMID:27835685

  9. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Peter; Hans, Eric C.; Racette, Molly; Volstad, Nicola; Sample, Susannah J.; Heaton, Caitlin; Holzman, Gerianne; Schaefer, Susan L.; Bloom, Debra D.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Hao, Zhengling; Amene, Ermias; Suresh, M.; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA) is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks) and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks) were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint inflammatory response

  10. The role of growth factors in maintenance of stemness in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Young Woo; Oh, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jong In; Baik, Soon Koo; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Shin, Ha Cheol; Kim, Yong Man; Ahn, Chan Mug; Kong, Jee Hyun; Kim, Hyun Soo; Shim, Kwang Yong

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Expression of FGF-2, FGF-4, EGF, and HGF decreased during long-term culture of BMSCs. • Loss of growth factors induced autophagy, senescence and decrease of stemness. • FGF-2 increased proliferation potential via AKT and ERK activation in BMSCs. • FGF-2 suppressed LC3-II expression and down-regulated senescence of BMSCs. • HGF was important in maintenance of the differentiation potential of BMSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an active topic of research in regenerative medicine due to their ability to secrete a variety of growth factors and cytokines that promote healing of damaged tissues and organs. In addition, these secreted growth factors and cytokines have been shown to exert an autocrine effect by regulating MSC proliferation and differentiation. We found that expression of EGF, FGF-4 and HGF were down-regulated during serial passage of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Proliferation and differentiation potentials of BMSCs treated with these growth factors for 2 months were evaluated and compared to BMSCs treated with FGF-2, which increased proliferation of BMSCs. FGF-2 and -4 increased proliferation potentials at high levels, about 76- and 26-fold, respectively, for 2 months, while EGF and HGF increased proliferation of BMSCs by less than 2.8-fold. Interestingly, differentiation potential, especially adipogenesis, was maintained only by HGF treatment. Treatment with FGF-2 rapidly induced activation of AKT and later induced ERK activation. The basal level of phosphorylated ERK increased during serial passage of BMSCs treated with FGF-2. The expression of LC3-II, an autophagy marker, was gradually increased and the population of senescent cells was increased dramatically at passage 7 in non-treated controls. But FGF-2 and FGF-4 suppressed LC3-II expression and down-regulated senescent cells during long-term (i.e. 2 month) cultures. Taken together, depletion of growth factors during serial passage

  11. Expression of OCT-4 and SOX-2 in Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Matic, Igor; Antunovic, Maja; Brkic, Sime; Josipovic, Pavle; Mihalic, Katarina Caput; Karlak, Ivan; Ivkovic, Alan; Marijanovic, Inga

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Determine the levels of expression of pluripotency genes OCT-4 and SOX-2 before and after osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). METHODS: Human MSCs were derived from the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts. The analyses were performed on days 0 and 14 of the cell culture. In vitro differentiation was evaluated due to bone markers – alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of AP and bone sialoprotein (BSP). The OCT-4 and SOX-2 expression was evaluated at mRNA level by real-time qPCR and at protein level by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro cultures on day 14 showed an increase in AP activity and upregulation of AP and BSP gene expression. OCT-4 and SOX-2 in undifferentiated hMSCs on day 0 is detectable and very low compared to tumor cell lines as a positive control. Immunocytochemistry detected OCT-4 in the cell nuclei prior (day 0) and post differentiation (day 14). On the same time points, cultures were negative for SOX-2 protein. CONCLUSION: Messenger RNA for pluripotency markers OCT-4 and SOX-2 isolated from hMSCs was less present, while OCT-4 protein was detected in cell nuclei prior and post differentiation into osteoblast lineage. PMID:27275321

  12. Quiescent Bone Lining Cells Are a Major Source of Osteoblasts During Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Matic, Igor; Matthews, Brya G; Wang, Xi; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Worthley, Daniel L; Rowe, David W; Grcevic, Danka; Kalajzic, Ivo

    2016-12-01

    The in vivo origin of bone-producing osteoblasts is not fully defined. Skeletal stem cells, a population of mesenchymal stem cells resident in the bone marrow compartment, are thought to act as osteoprogenitors during growth and adulthood. Quiescent bone lining cells (BLCs) have been suggested as a population capable of activation into mature osteoblasts. These cells were defined by location and their morphology and studies addressing their significance have been hampered by their inaccessibility, and lack of markers that would allow for their identification and tracing. Using lineage tracing models, we have observed labeled osteoblasts at time points extending beyond the reported lifespan for this cell type, suggesting continuous reactivation of BLCs. BLCs also make a major contribution to bone formation after osteoblast ablation, which includes the ability to proliferate. In contrast, mesenchymal progenitors labeled by Gremlin1 or alpha smooth muscle actin do not contribute to bone formation in this setting. BLC activation is inhibited by glucocorticoids, which represent a well-established cause of osteoporosis. BLCs express cell surface markers characteristic of mesenchymal stem/progenitors that are largely absent in osteoblasts including Sca1 and Leptin Receptor. BLCs also show different gene expression profiles to osteoblasts, including elevated expression of Mmp13, and osteoclast regulators RANKL and macrophage colony stimulating factor, and retain osteogenic potential upon transplantation. Our findings provide evidence that bone lining cells represent a major source of osteoblasts during adulthood. Stem Cells 2016;34:2930-2942.

  13. Characterization of hematopoietic progenitors from human yolk sacs and embryos.

    PubMed

    Huyhn, A; Dommergues, M; Izac, B; Croisille, L; Katz, A; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1995-12-15

    Hematopoiesis first arises in the extraembryonic yolk sac, and it is generally believed that yolk sac-derived stem cells migrate and seed the fetal liver at approximately week 6 of development in humans. Recently, the identification at day 8.5 to 9 of multipotential stem cells in intraembryonic sites different from the liver suggests that the establishment of hematopoiesis might be more complex than initially believed. In an attempt to understand initial steps of hematopoiesis during human ontogeny, we characterized clonogenic myeloid progenitor cells in human yolk sacs and corresponding embryos at 25 to 50 days of development. Most erythroid colonies derived from the yolk sacs differed from adult marrow-derived progenitors in that they also contained cells of the granulomacrophagic lineage, suggesting that they were pluripotent and exhibited a different response to cytokines. Furthermore, a subclass of nonerythroid progenitors generated very large granulomacrophagic colonies, some of which generated secondary erythroid colonies on replating. Analysis of the distribution of progenitors revealed that in contrast to erythroid progenitors, whose numbers were equally distributed between the yolk sac and the embryo, 80% of the nonerythroid progenitors were found in the embryo at stages II and III. Interestingly, a high proportion of nonerythroid progenitors (including high proliferative potential cells) was present in colony assays initiated with cells remaining after the liver has been removed. These findings were validated in colony assays established with CD34+ cells purified from extraembryonic yolk sacs and intraembryonic tissues. Increased knowledge about the biology of hematopoietic stem cells early in life may help to further understanding of the mechanisms associated with the restriction in proliferative and differentiative potential observed in the adult hematopoietic stem cell compartment.

  14. Role of bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) dendritic cells in systolic overload-induced left ventricular inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Kwak, Dongmin; Fassett, John; Liu, Xiaohong; Yao, Wu; Weng, Xinyu; Xu, Xin; Xu, Yawei; Bache, Robert J; Mueller, Daniel L; Chen, Yingjie

    2017-05-01

    Inflammatory responses play an important role in the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction. Recent studies demonstrated that increased T-cell infiltration and T-cell activation contribute to LV hypertrophy and dysfunction. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate immune responses, especially by modulating T-cell function. In this study, we investigated the role of bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) DCs in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced LV fibrosis and hypertrophy in mice. We observed that TAC increased the number of CD11c(+) cells and the percentage of CD11c(+) MHCII(+) (major histocompatibility complex class II molecule positive) DCs in the LV, spleen and peripheral blood in mice. Using bone marrow chimeras and an inducible CD11c(+) DC ablation model, we found that depletion of bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) DCs significantly attenuated LV fibrosis and hypertrophy in mice exposed to 24 weeks of moderate TAC. CD11c(+) DC ablation significantly reduced TAC-induced myocardial inflammation as indicated by reduced myocardial CD45(+) cells, CD11b(+) cells, CD8(+) T cells and activated effector CD8(+)CD44(+) T cells in LV tissues. Moreover, pulsing of autologous DCs with LV homogenates from TAC mice promoted T-cell proliferation. These data indicate that bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) DCs play a maladaptive role in hemodynamic overload-induced cardiac inflammation, hypertrophy and fibrosis through the presentation of cardiac self-antigens to T cells.

  15. Toxicological effects of pet food ingredients on canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and enterocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M T; Jeffery, B; Riviere, J E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A

    2016-02-01

    We developed an in vitro method to assess pet food ingredients safety. Canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) were differentiated into enterocyte-like cells (ELC) to assess toxicity in cells representing similar patterns of exposure in vivo. The toxicological profile of clove leave oil, eugenol, guanosine monophosphate (GMP), GMP + inosine monophosphate, sorbose, ginger root extract, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamaldehyde, thyme oil, thymol and citric acid was assessed in BMSC and ELC. The LC50 for GMP + inosine monophosphate was 59.42 ± 0.90 and 56.7 ± 3.5 mg ml(-1) for BMSC and ELC; 56.84 ± 0.95 and 53.66 ± 1.36 mg ml(-1) for GMP; 0.02 ± 0.001 and 1.25 ± 0.47 mg ml(-1) for citric acid; 0.077 ± 0.002 and 0.037 ± 0.01 mg ml(-1) for cinnamaldehyde; 0.002 ± 0.0001 and 0.002 ± 0.0008 mg ml(-1) for thymol; 0.080 ± 0.003 and 0.059 ± 0.001 mg ml(-1) for thyme oil; 0.111 ± 0.002 and 0.054 ± 0.01 mg ml(-1) for cinnamon bark oil; 0.119 ± 0.0004 and 0.099 ± 0.011 mg ml(-1) for clove leave oil; 0.04 ± 0.001 and 0.028 ± 0.002 mg ml(-1) for eugenol; 2.80 ± 0.11 and 1.75 ± 0.51 mg ml(-1) for ginger root extract; > 200 and 116.78 ± 7.35 mg ml(-1) for sorbose. Lemon grass oil was evaluated at 0.003-0.9 in BMSC and .03-0.9 mg ml(-1) in ELC and its mechanistic effect was investigated. The gene toxicology studies showed regulation of 61% genes in CYP450 pathway, 37% in cholestasis and 33% in immunotoxicity pathways for BMSC. For ELC, 80% for heat shock response, 69% for beta-oxidation and 65% for mitochondrial energy metabolism. In conclusion, these studies provide a baseline against which differential toxicity of dietary feed ingredients can be assessed in vitro for direct effects on canine cells and demonstrate differential toxicity in differentiated cells that represent gastrointestinal epithelial cells.

  16. Thymus-autonomous T cell development in the absence of progenitor import.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vera C; Ruggiero, Eliana; Schlenner, Susan M; Madan, Vikas; Schmidt, Manfred; Fink, Pamela J; von Kalle, Christof; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2012-07-30

    Thymus function is thought to depend on a steady supply of T cell progenitors from the bone marrow. The notion that the thymus lacks progenitors with self-renewal capacity is based on thymus transplantation experiments in which host-derived thymocytes replaced thymus-resident cells within 4 wk. Thymus grafting into T cell-deficient mice resulted in a wave of T cell export from the thymus, followed by colonization of the thymus by host-derived progenitors, and cessation of T cell development. Compound Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-)Kit(W/Wv) mutants lack competitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and are devoid of T cell progenitors. In this study, using this strain as recipients for wild-type thymus grafts, we noticed thymus-autonomous T cell development lasting several months. However, we found no evidence for export of donor HSCs from thymus to bone marrow. A diverse T cell antigen receptor repertoire in progenitor-deprived thymus grafts implied that many thymocytes were capable of self-renewal. Although the process was most efficient in Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-)Kit(W/Wv) hosts, γ(c)-mediated signals alone played a key role in the competition between thymus-resident and bone marrow-derived progenitors. Hence, the turnover of each generation of thymocytes is not only based on short life span but is also driven via expulsion of resident thymocytes by fresh progenitors entering the thymus.

  17. Origin of osteoclasts: Mature monocytes and macrophages are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts under a suitable microenvironment prepared by bone marrow-derived stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Akatsu, Takuhiko; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takahisa; Suda, Tatsuo ); Nishihara, Tatsuji; Koga, Toshihiko ); Martin, T.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors previously reported that osteoclast-like cells were formed in cocultures of a mouse marrow-derived stromal cell line (ST2) with mouse spleen cells in the presence of 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and dexamethasone. In this study, they developed a new coculture system to determine the origin of osteoclasts. When relatively small numbers of mononuclear cells obtained from mouse bone marrow, spleen, thymus, or peripheral blood were cultured for 12 days on the ST2 cell layers, they formed colonies with a linear relationship between the number of colonies formed and the number of hemopoietic cells inoculated. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAPase)-positive monoculear and multinucleated cells appeared in the colonies (TRAPase-positive colonies) in response to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and dexamethasone. When hemopoietic cells suspended in a collagen-gel solution were cultured on the ST2 cell layers to prevent their movement, TRAPase-positive colonies were similarly formed, indicating that each colony originated from a single cell. Salmon {sup 125}I-labeled calcitonin specifically bound to the TRAPase-positive cells. Resorption lacunae were formed on dentine slices on which cocultures were performed. These results indicate that osteoclasts are also derived from the mature monocytes and macrophages when a suitable microenvironment is provided by bone marrow-derived stromal cells.

  18. Human Induced Pluripotent Cell-Derived Sensory Neurons for Fate Commitment of Bone Marrow-Derived Schwann Cells: Implications for Remyelination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sa; Han, Lei; Ao, Qiang; Chan, Ying-Shing; Shum, Daisy Kwok-Yan

    2016-09-14

    : Strategies that exploit induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to derive neurons have relied on cocktails of cytokines and growth factors to bias cell-signaling events in the course of fate choice. These are often costly and inefficient, involving multiple steps. In this study, we took an alternative approach and selected 5 small-molecule inhibitors of key signaling pathways in an 8-day program to induce differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, reaching ≥80% yield in terms of marker proteins. Continuing culture in maintenance medium resulted in neuronal networks immunopositive for synaptic vesicle markers and vesicular glutamate transporters suggestive of excitatory neurotransmission. Subpopulations of the derived neurons were electrically excitable, showing tetrodotoxin-sensitive action potentials in patch-clamp experiments. Coculture of the derived neurons with rat Schwann cells under myelinating conditions resulted in upregulated levels of neuronal neuregulin 1 type III in conjunction with the phosphorylated receptors ErbB2 and ErbB3, consistent with amenability of the neuritic network to myelination. As surrogates of embryonic dorsal root ganglia neurons, the derived sensory neurons provided contact-dependent cues to commit bone marrow-derived Schwann cell-like cells to the Schwann cell fate. Our rapid and efficient induction protocol promises not only controlled differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, but also utility in the translation to a protocol whereby human bone marrow-derived Schwann cells become available for autologous transplantation and remyelination therapy.

  19. Epidermis–dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2015-06-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP{sup +}) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP{sup +} cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. - Highlights: • Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) migrate in the epidermis due to ionizing radiation (IR). • BMDCs dissociate from the epidermis-dermis junction in preparing epidermal sheets. • The doses of IR determine the location and the number of migrating BMDCs in the skin.

  20. Osteoblast-derived WNT16 represses osteoclastogenesis and prevents cortical bone fragility fractures

    PubMed Central

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Henning, Petra; Liu, Xianwen; Nagano, Kenichi; Saito, Hiroaki; Börjesson, Anna E; Sjögren, Klara; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen; Kindlund, Bert; Engdahl, Cecilia; Koskela, Antti; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Eriksson, Emma E; Zaman, Farasat; Hammarstedt, Ann; Isaksson, Hanna; Bally, Marta; Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Sandberg, Olof; Aspenberg, Per; Sävendahl, Lars; Feng, Jian Q; Tuckermann, Jan; Tuukkanen, Juha; Poutanen, Matti; Baron, Roland; Lerner, Ulf H; Gori, Francesca; Ohlsson, Claes

    2015-01-01

    The WNT16 locus is a major determinant of cortical bone thickness and nonvertebral fracture risk in humans. The disability, mortality and costs caused by osteoporosis-induced nonvertebral fractures are enormous. We demonstrate here that Wnt16-deficient mice develop spontaneous fractures as a result of low cortical thickness and high cortical porosity. In contrast, trabecular bone volume is not altered in these mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that WNT16 is osteoblast derived and inhibits human and mouse osteoclastogenesis both directly by acting on osteoclast progenitors and indirectly by increasing expression of osteoprotegerin (Opg) in osteoblasts. The signaling pathway activated by WNT16 in osteoclast progenitors is noncanonical, whereas the pathway activated in osteoblasts is both canonical and noncanonical. Conditional Wnt16 inactivation revealed that osteoblast-lineage cells are the principal source of WNT16, and its targeted deletion in osteoblasts increases fracture susceptibility. Thus, osteoblast-derived WNT16 is a previously unreported key regulator of osteoclastogenesis and fracture susceptibility. These findings open new avenues for the specific prevention or treatment of nonvertebral fractures, a substantial unmet medical need. PMID:25306233

  1. FoxO1-dependent induction of acute myeloid leukemia by osteoblasts in mice.

    PubMed

    Kode, A; Mosialou, I; Manavalan, S J; Rathinam, C V; Friedman, R A; Teruya-Feldstein, J; Bhagat, G; Berman, E; Kousteni, S

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, affect self-renewal and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), as well as homing of healthy hematopoietic cells and tumor cells into the bone marrow. Constitutive activation of β-catenin in osteoblasts is sufficient to alter the differentiation potential of myeloid and lymphoid progenitors and to initiate the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mice. We show here that Notch1 is the receptor mediating the leukemogenic properties of osteoblast-activated β-catenin in HSCs. Moreover, using cell-specific gene inactivation mouse models, we show that FoxO1 expression in osteoblasts is required for and mediates the leukemogenic properties of β-catenin. At the molecular level, FoxO1 interacts with β-catenin in osteoblasts to induce expression of the Notch ligand, Jagged-1. Subsequent activation of Notch signaling in long-term repopulating HSC progenitors induces the leukemogenic transformation of HSCs and ultimately leads to the development of AML. These findings identify FoxO1 expressed in osteoblasts as a factor affecting hematopoiesis and provide a molecular mechanism whereby the FoxO1/activated β-catenin interaction results in AML. These observations support the notion that the bone marrow niche is an instigator of leukemia and raise the prospect that FoxO1 oncogenic properties may occur in other tissues.

  2. The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro . E-mail: s3061@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei; Migita, Makoto; Hanawa, Hideki; Ito, Hiromoto; Orimo, Hideo

    2005-05-27

    We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses.

  3. DNA aneuploidy in porcine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenic and adipogenic in vitro differentiation.

    PubMed

    Opiela, Jolanta; Samiec, Marcin; Bochenek, Michał; Lipiński, Daniel; Romanek, Joanna; Wilczek, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we estimated the distribution of DNA diploidy and aneuploidy in porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) that were subjected to osteoblast/osteocyte and adipocyte differentiation to determine the impact of long-term in vitro culture and differentiation on the cell cycle distribution and nuclear DNA profile. This determination could be helpful to confirm or exclude the suitability of physico-chemical culture conditions for the purposes of both the maintenance of an undifferentiated state and to promote differentiation in pMSCs. Flow cytometry was applied to analyze the cell cycle and occurrence of aneuploidy/diploidy, and real-time PCR was used to quantify aP2 and osteocalcin, markers of adipocytes and osteocytes, respectively. The chi-squared test was used to compare the total rates of G0/G1-, S-, and G2/M-phase cell fractions with diploid and aneuploid DNA and the DNA index ratios between three experimental groups of pMSCs. Five weeks of in vitro culture under differentiating conditions resulted in a considerable reduction of DNA stability and a remarkable increase in the rate of cells exhibiting an aneuploid DNA stem line; however, a similar dependence was not found in the nondifferentiated MSCs. Furthermore, the cell fraction rates in each phase of the mitotic cycle and the DNA index (DI) were calculated. The results of real-time PCR for aP2 and osteocalcin proved positive MSC differentiation toward adipocytes and osteocytes. In terms of the possible use of differentiated MSC lines in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, we propose cytokinetic diagnostics using flow cytometry as an objective and useful method for screening the tumor-forming capacity and malignancy potential of both in vitro long-term cultured MSCs and MSCs subjected to ectopic differentiation.

  4. Perspective on liver regeneration by bone marrow-derived stem cells-a scientific realization or a paradox.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Asok

    2013-08-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells are reported to have cellular plasticity, which provoked many investigators to use of these cells in the regeneration of nonhematopoietic tissues. However, adult stem cell plasticity contradicts our classic understanding on progressive restriction of the developmental potential of a cell type. Many alternate mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon; the working hypotheses for elucidating the cellular plasticity of BM-derived stem cells are on the basis of direct differentiation and/or fusion between donor and recipient cells. This review dissects the different outcomes of the investigations on liver regeneration, which were performed with the use of BM-derived stem cells in experimental animals, and reveals some critical factors to explain cellular plasticity. It has been hypothesized that the competent BM-derived stem/progenitor cells, under the influence of liver-regenerating cues, can directly differentiate into hepatic cells. This differentiation takes place as a result of genetic reprogramming, which may be possible in the chemically induced acute liver injury model or at the stage of fetal liver development. Cellular plasticity emerges as an important phenomenon in cell-based therapies for the treatment of many liver diseases in which tissue regeneration is necessary.

  5. Status and prospects of liver cirrhosis treatment by using bone marrow-derived cells and mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Terai, Shuji; Takami, Taro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Urata, Yohei; Tanimoto, Haruko; Iwamoto, Takuya; Mizunaga, Yuko; Matsuda, Takashi; Oono, Takashi; Marumoto, Miho; Burganova, Guzel; Fernando Quintanilha, Luiz; Hidaka, Isao; Marumoto, Yoshio; Saeki, Issei; Uchida, Koichi; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Tani, Kenji; Taura, Yasuho; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Nishina, Hiroshi; Okita, Kiwamu; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-06-01

    In 2003, we started autologous bone marrow cell infusion (ABMi) therapy for treating liver cirrhosis. ABMi therapy uses 400 mL of autologous bone marrow obtained under general anesthesia and infused mononuclear cells from the peripheral vein. The clinical study expanded and we treated liver cirrhosis induced by HCV and HBV infection and alcohol consumption. We found that the ABMi therapy was effective for cirrhosis patients and now we are treating patients with combined HIV and HCV infection and with metabolic syndrome-induced liver cirrhosis. Currently, to substantiate our findings that liver cirrhosis can be successfully treated by the ABMi therapy, we are conducting randomized multicenter clinical studies designated "Advanced medical technology B" for HCV-related liver cirrhosis in Japan. On the basis of our clinical study, we developed a proof-of-concept showing that infusion of bone marrow cells (BMCs) improved liver fibrosis and sequentially activated proliferation of hepatic progenitor cells and hepatocytes, further promoting restoration of liver functions. To treat patients with severe forms of liver cirrhosis, we continued translational research to develop less invasive therapies by using mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow. We obtained a small quantity of BMCs under local anesthesia and expanded them into mesenchymal stem cells that will then be used for treating cirrhosis. In this review, we present our strategy to apply the results of our laboratory research to clinical studies.

  6. New strategy to rescue the inhibition of osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells under oxidative stress: combination of vitamin C and graphene foams

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Ye; Yin, Peipei; Jiang, Chaolai; Liu, Yingjie; Li, Hua; Yu, Xiaowei; Sun, Yuqiang

    2016-01-01

    To rescue the oxidative stress induced inhibition of osteogenesis, vitamin C (VC) was chemically modified onto three-dimensional graphene foams (3D GFs), then their regulation on osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was studied. Combined action of VC + GF significantly decreased H2O2-induced oxidative stress, and rescued H2O2-inhibited cell viability, differentiation and osteogenesis of BM-MSCs in vitro. Further studies revealed that Wnt pathway may be involved in this protection of osteogenesis. Furthermore, an in vivo mouse model of BM-MSCs transplantation showed that VC + GF remarkably rescued oxidative stress inhibited calcium content and bone formation. The combination of VC and GF exhibited more pronounced protective effects against oxidative stress induced inhibition of osteogenesis, compared to monotherapy of VC or GF. Our study proposed a new strategy in stem cell-based therapies for treating bone diseases. PMID:27713129

  7. Infection of mouse bone marrow-derived immature dendritic cells with classical swine fever virus C-strain promotes cells maturation and lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fu-Ying; Qiu, Chang-Qing; Jia, Huai-Jie; Chen, Guo-Hua; Zeng, Shuang; He, Xiao-Bing; Fang, Yong-Xiang; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Jing, Zhi-Zhong

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the interactions of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) C-strain and the virulent GSLZ strain with mouse bone marrow-derived immature dendritic cells (BM-imDCs) were investigated for the first time. Both the C-strain and the virulent GSLZ strain could effectively infect and replicate in mouse BM-imDCs. C-strain-infected BM-imDCs showed a greatly enhanced degree of maturation, and could effectively promote the expansion and proliferation of allogeneic naive T cells. The C-strain induced a stronger Th1 response. Infection with the virulent GSLZ strain had no obvious influence on cell maturation or lymphocyte proliferation, and failed to induce any obvious immune response. The results of this study provided initial information for research of the immunologic mechanisms of CSFV using mouse DCs as the model cells.

  8. Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) as a Selective Delivery Vehicle for a PSA-Activated Protoxin for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    markers, alpha-smooth muscle actin ( aSMA ) (green, E and G) and vimentin (Vim) (green, F and H), but not epithelial markers, cytokeratin 5 (I and K) or...Marrow-derived Mesenchymal stem cells (hbM-Mscs)A b c d E F G H I J K L asMA cK5 cK8 Vim asMA cK5 cK8 Vim Oncotarget 2013; 4: 106...like prostate-derived epithelial cells (PrECs) were obtained [25-28]. Both hBM-MSCs and PrCSCs stained positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin ( aSMA

  9. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  10. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  11. Percutaneous Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Implantation Is Safe for Reconstruction of Human Lower Limb Long Bone Atrophic Nonunion

    PubMed Central

    Emadedin, Mohsen; Labibzadeh, Narges; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Moghadasali, Reza; Mardpour, Soura; Azimian, Vajiheh; Goodarzi, Alireza; Ghorbani Liastani, Maede; Mirazimi Bafghi, Ali; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Aghdami, Nasser

    2017-01-01

    Objective Nonunion is defined as a minimum of a 9-month period of time since an injury with no visibly progressive signs of healing for 3 months. Recent studies show that application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the laboratory setting is effective for bone regeneration. Animal studies have shown that MSCs can be used to treat nonunions. For the first time in an Iranian population, the present study investigated the safety of MSC implantation to treat human lower limb long bone nonunion. Materials and Methods It is a prospective clinical trial for evaluating the safety of using autologus bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells for treating nonunion. Orthopedic surgeons evaluated 12 patients with lower limb long bone nonunion for participation in this study. From these, 5 complied with the eligibility criteria and received MSCs. Under fluoroscopic guidance, patients received a one-time implantation of 20-50×106 MSCs into the nonunion site. All patients were followed by anterior-posterior and lateral X-rays from the affected limb, in addition to hematological, biochemical, and serological laboratory tests obtained before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation. Possible adverse effects that included local or systemic, serious or non-serious, and related or unrelated effects were recorded during this time period. Results From a safety perspective, all patients tolerated the MSCs implantation during the 12 months of the trial. Three patients had evidence of bony union based on the after implantation Xrays. Conclusion The results have suggested that implantation of bone marrow-derived MSCs is a safe treatment for nonunion. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial is required to assess the efficacy of this treatment (Registration Number: NCT01206179). PMID:28367426

  12. Intermittent Hypoxia Mobilizes Bone Marrow-Derived Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells and Activates Developmental Transcriptional Programs in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Dayyat, Ehab A.; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Kim, Jinkwan; Clair, Heather B.; Kucia, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent disorder associated with cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and is characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoxia during sleep. Bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like (VSEL) pluripotent stem cells represent a recruitable pool that may play an important role in organ repair after injury. We hypothesized that exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) can mobilize VSELs from the bone marrow (BM) to peripheral blood (PB) in mice and can activate distinct transcriptional programs. Methods: Adult mice were exposed to IH or normoxia for 48 hours. VSELs were sorted from BM and PB using flow cytometry. Plasma levels of stem cell chemokines, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were measured. Transcriptional profiling of VSELs was performed, and differentially expressed genes were mapped to enriched functional categories and genetic networks. Results: Exposure to IH elicited migration of VSELs from BM to PB and elevations in plasma levels of chemokines. More than 1100 unique genes were differentially expressed in VSELs in response to IH. Gene Ontology and network analysis revealed the activation of organ-specific developmental programs among these genes. Conclusions: Exposure to IH mobilizes VSELs from the BM to PB and activates distinct transcriptional programs in VSELs that are enriched in developmental pathways, including central nervous system development and angiogenesis. Thus, VSELs may serve as a reserve mobile pool of pluripotent stem cells that can be recruited into PB and may play an important role in promoting end-organ repair during IH. Citation: Gharib SA; Dayyat EA; Khalyfa A; Kim J; Clair HB; Kucia M; Gozal D. Intermittent hypoxia mobilizes bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells and activates developmental transcriptional programs in mice. SLEEP 2010;33(11):1439-1446. PMID:21102985

  13. Bone marrow-derived microglia-based neurturin delivery protects against dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Biju, K.C.; Santacruz, Rene A.; Chen, Cang; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Jiemin; Rohrabaugh, Sara L.; Clark, Robert A.; Roberts, James L.; Phillips, Kimberley A.; Imam, Syed Z.; Li, Senlin

    2013-01-01

    Although neurotrophic factors have long been recognized as potent agents for protecting against neuronal degeneration, clinical success in treating Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders has been hindered by difficulties in delivery of trophic factors across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy is emerging as a promising tool for overcoming drug delivery problems, as myeloid cells can cross the BBB and are recruited in large numbers to sites of neurodegeneration, where they become activated microglia that can secrete trophic factors. We tested the efficacy of bone marrow-derived microglial delivery of neurturin (NTN) in protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin-induced death in mice. Bone marrow cells were transduced ex vivo with lentivirus expressing the NTN gene driven by a synthetic macrophage-specific promoter. Infected bone marrow cells were then collected and transplanted into recipient animals. Eight weeks after transplantation, the mice were injected with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropuridine (MPTP) for seven days to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Microglia-mediated NTN delivery dramatically ameliorated MPTP-induced degeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons of the substantia nigra and their terminals in the striatum. Microglia-mediated NTN delivery also induced significant recovery of synaptic marker staining in the striatum of MPTP-treated animals. Functionally, NTN treatment restored MPTP-induced decline in general activity, rearing behavior, and food intake. Thus, bone marrow-derived microglia can serve as cellular vehicles for sustained delivery of neurotrophic factors capable of mitigating dopaminergic injury. PMID:23295906

  14. Human Induced Pluripotent Cell-Derived Sensory Neurons for Fate Commitment of Bone Marrow-Derived Schwann Cells: Implications for Remyelination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sa; Han, Lei; Ao, Qiang; Chan, Ying-Shing; Shum, Daisy Kwok-Yan

    2017-02-01

    Strategies that exploit induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to derive neurons have relied on cocktails of cytokines and growth factors to bias cell-signaling events in the course of fate choice. These are often costly and inefficient, involving multiple steps. In this study, we took an alternative approach and selected 5 small-molecule inhibitors of key signaling pathways in an 8-day program to induce differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, reaching ≥80% yield in terms of marker proteins. Continuing culture in maintenance medium resulted in neuronal networks immunopositive for synaptic vesicle markers and vesicular glutamate transporters suggestive of excitatory neurotransmission. Subpopulations of the derived neurons were electrically excitable, showing tetrodotoxin-sensitive action potentials in patch-clamp experiments. Coculture of the derived neurons with rat Schwann cells under myelinating conditions resulted in upregulated levels of neuronal neuregulin 1 type III in conjunction with the phosphorylated receptors ErbB2 and ErbB3, consistent with amenability of the neuritic network to myelination. As surrogates of embryonic dorsal root ganglia neurons, the derived sensory neurons provided contact-dependent cues to commit bone marrow-derived Schwann cell-like cells to the Schwann cell fate. Our rapid and efficient induction protocol promises not only controlled differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, but also utility in the translation to a protocol whereby human bone marrow-derived Schwann cells become available for autologous transplantation and remyelination therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:369-381.

  15. Stroma-directed imatinib therapy impairs the tumor-promoting effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an orthotopic transplantation model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Kei; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Miwako; Sumida, Tomonori; Onoyama, Mieko; Ohnishi, Mayu; Ohara, Eiji; Higashi, Yukihito; Tanaka, Shinji; Yasui, Wataru; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2013-02-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are reported to contribute to formation of tumor-promoting stromal cells. We reported recently that, in an orthotopic nude mice model of colon cancer, MSCs traveled to tumor stroma, where they differentiated into carcinoma-associated fibroblast (CAF)-like cells. We also found that CAFs express platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) at a high level and that imatinib therapy targeting PDGFR in CAFs inhibits growth and metastasis of human colon cancer. These findings led us to examine whether the tumor-promoting effect of MSCs is impaired by blockade of PDGFR signaling achieved with imatinib. Orthotopic transplantation and splenic injection of human MSCs along with KM12SM human colon cancer cells, in comparison with transplantation of KM12SM cells alone, resulted in significantly greater promotion of tumor growth and liver metastasis. The KM12SM + MSC xenograft enhanced cell proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibited tumor cell apoptosis. When tumor-bearing animals were treated with imatinib, there was no significant increase in primary tumor volume or total volume of liver metastases, despite the KM12SM+MSC xenograft, and survival in the mixed-cell group was prolonged by imatinib treatment. Moreover, the ability of MSCs to migrate to tumor stroma was impaired, and the number of MSCs surviving in the tumor microenvironment was significantly decreased. In in vitro experiments, treatment with imatinib inhibited migration of MSCs. Our data suggest that blockade of PDGF signaling pathways influences the interaction between bone marrow-derived MSCs and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment and, hence, inhibits the progressive growth of colon cancer.

  16. The role of circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells (fibrocytes) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Strieter, Robert M; Keeley, Ellen C; Hughes, Molly A; Burdick, Marie D; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-11-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is associated with a number of disorders that affect the lung. Although there are several cellular types that are involved in the pathogenesis pulmonary fibrosis, the resident lung fibroblast has been viewed traditionally as the primary cell involved in promoting the deposition of ECM that culminates in pulmonary fibrosis. However, recent findings demonstrate that a circulating cell (i.e., the fibrocyte) can contribute to the evolution of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of cell-surface markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and fibroblasts. Fibrocytes are unique in that they are capable of differentiating into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, as well as adipocytes. In this review, we present data supporting the critical role these cells play in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Harshini; Beli, Eleni; Navitskaya, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Sandra; Wang, Qi; Kady, Nermin; Huang, Chao; Grant, Maria B; Busik, Julia V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM) pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Navitskaya, Svetlana; O’Reilly, Sandra; Wang, Qi; Kady, Nermin; Huang, Chao; Grant, Maria B.; Busik, Julia V.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM) pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26760976

  19. Intra-operative preparation of autologous bone marrow-derived CD34-enriched cellular products for cardiac therapy

    PubMed Central

    DONNENBERG, ALBERT D.; DONNENBERG, VERA S.; GRIFFIN, DEBORAH L.; MOORE, LINDA R.; TEKINTURHAN, FERDA; KORMOS, ROBERT L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims With the advent of regenerative therapy, there is renewed interest in the use of bone marrow as a source of adult stem and progenitor cells, including cell subsets prepared by immunomagnetic selection. Cell selection must be rapid, efficient and performed according to current good manufacturing practices. In this report we present a methodology for intra-operative preparation of CD34+ selected autologous bone marrow for autologous use in patients receiving coronary artery bypass grafts or left ventricular assist devices. Methods and Results We developed a rapid erythrocyte depletion method using hydroxyethyl starch and low-speed centrifugation to prepare large-scale (mean 359 mL) bone marrow aspirates for separation on a Baxter Isolex 300i immunomagnetic cell separation device. CD34 recovery after erythrocyte depletion was 68.3 ± 20.2%, with an average depletion of 91.2 ± 2.8% and an average CD34 content of 0.58 ± 0.27%. After separation, CD34 purity was 64.1 ± 17.2%, with 44.3 ± 26.1% recovery and an average dose of 5.0 ± 2.7 × 10 6 CD34+ cells/product. In uncomplicated cases CD34-enriched cellular products could be accessioned, prepared, tested for release and administered within 6 h. Further analysis of CD34+ bone marrow cells revealed a significant proportion of CD45– CD34+ cells. Conclusions Intra-operative immunomagnetic separation of CD34-enriched bone marrow is feasible using rapid low-speed Hetastarch sedimentation for erythrocyte depletion. The resulting CD34-enriched product contains CD45– cells that may represent non-hematopoietic or very early hematopoietic stem cells that participate in tissue regeneration. PMID:21062114

  20. Novel daidzein analogs enhance osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stromal/stem cells through estrogen receptor dependent and independent mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures. Studies have demonstrated the use of phytoestrogens, or plant-derived estrogens, such as genistein anddaidzein, to effectively increase osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal s...

  1. Microtopography of titanium suppresses osteoblastic differentiation but enhances chondroblastic differentiation of rat femoral periosteum-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Katsutoshi; Att, Wael; Yamada, Masahiro; Ohmi, Kuzuhiro; Tsukimura, Naoki; Suzuki, Takeo; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2008-11-01

    Despite the clinical fact that endosseous titanium implants directly contacts periosteum, the behavior and response of the periosteum-derived cells to surface topography of titanium have rarely been studied. This study examines the effect of titanium surface microtopography on osteoblastic and possibly-modulated chondroblastic phenotypes of femoral periosteum-derived cells. Rat femoral periosteum-derived cells were cultured on either relatively smooth, machined titanium surface or acid-etched, micro-roughened titanium surface. The osteoblastic gene expressions, including collagen I, osteopontin and osteocalcin, were downregulated on the acid-etched surface, compared with the machined surface. Alkaline phosphatase and mineralization activities on the acid-etched surface were approximately 20% of those on the machined surface. Instead, chondroblastic specific genes, including collagen II and IX, and sox 9, were exclusively expressed or highly upregulated on the acid-etched surface. Alcian blue stain revealed an extensive deposition of glycosaminoglycan on the acid-etched surface. The cultured matrix on the acid-etched surface lacked the submicron globular structures that were extensively seen on the machined surface, and contained a remarkably increased percentage of sulfur relative to calcium compared with the culture on the machined surface. These results indicated that titanium microroughness suppresses the osteoblastic phenotype and induces or at least considerably enhances the chondroblastic phenotype of the periosteal cells, suggesting the unique role of titanium surface topography in regulating the periosteal cell differentiation. The suppressive effect of titanium microroughness on the periosteal cells toward the osteoblastic linage was contrasted to the known promotive effect on the bone marrow-derived osteoblasts.

  2. WHI-131 Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation and Prevents Osteoclast Formation and Resorption in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Jun, Hong Young; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kim, Min Seuk; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-02-01

    The small molecule WHI-131 is a potent therapeutic agent with anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and antileukemic potential. However, the regulatory effects of WHI-131 on osteoblast and osteoclast activity are unclear. We examined the effects of WHI-131 on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation with respect to bone remodeling. The production of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) by osteoblasts in response to interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 stimulation decreased by 56.8% or 50.58%, respectively, in the presence of WHI-131. WHI-131 also abrogated the formation of mature osteoclasts induced by IL-1 or IL-6 stimulation. Moreover, WHI-131 treatment decreased RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages, and reduced the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. WHI-131 further decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) by almost twofold, and significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of the following genes: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, ATP6v0d2, and cathepsin K (CtsK) compared with the control group. WHI-131 further suppressed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and degradation of inhibitor of kappa B (IκB); Ca(2+) oscillation was also affected, and phosphorylation of the C-terminal Src kinase (c-Src)-Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (Btk)-phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLCγ2) (c-Src-Btk-PLCg2 calcium signaling pathway) was inhibited following WHI-131 treatment. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway was activated by WHI-131, accompanied by phosphorylation of STAT3 Ser727 and dephosphorylation of STAT6. In osteoblasts, WHI-131 caused an approximately fourfold increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and Alizarin Red staining intensity. Treatment with WHI-131 increased the mRNA expression

  3. Alterations in Fc[epsilon]RI induced by protoporphyrin plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, A.; Barrett, K.E.; Gigli, I. ); Liu, F.T. )

    1993-07-15

    As previously reported, protoporphyrin plus long-wavelength UV light (PP/UVA) inhibits IgE-mediated degranulation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells, as assessed by measurement of the release of [beta]-hexosaminidase. This inhibitory effect was seen with cells sensitized with IgE either before or after PP/UVA treatment (57.8 and 55.35 inhibition, respectively). PP/UVA did not dissociate IgE already bound to cells as assessed either by measure of release of bound [sup 125]I-IgE or by flow cytometric analysis. Results from immunoadsorption followed by SDS-PAGE analysis suggested that PP/UVA treatment may cause stable conjugation of IgE to its receptor. In unsensitized cells, PP/UVA did not cause conjugation of the unoccupied Fc[epsilon]RI to other proteins in the plasma membrane. Nevertheless, Scatchard analysis revealed that PP/UVA decreased the number of Fc[epsilon]Ri per cell by 37% (0.95 [times] 10[sup 5] vs 1.51 [times] 10[sup 5] cell), whereas affinity of the receptor for IgE was comparable between PP/UVA-treated and untreated cells (3.40 nM vs 3.27 nM). Flow cytometric analysis also confirmed the decrease in Fc[epsilon]RI number in PP/UVA-treated unsensitized mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Although 84% of PP/UVA-treated and 82% of untreated cells expressed positive fluorescence when stained with FITC-conjugated IgE, fluorescence intensity was reduced by 40% after PP/UVA treatment. The authors conclude that PP/UVA alters the conformational structure and/or number of Fc[epsilon]RI expressed on the mast cell surface. This effect could potentially explain the ability of PP/UVA to inhibit mast cell secretory function and may be related to an ability of PP/UVA to alter the properties of the plasma membrane. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Low Molecular Weight Fraction of Commercial Human Serum Albumin Induces Morphologic and Transcriptional Changes of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Gregory W.; Rael, Leonard T.; Gersch, Elizabeth D.; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brody, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of the joint; however, the therapeutic options for severe OA are limited. The low molecular weight fraction of commercial 5% human serum albumin (LMWF5A) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties that are mediated, in part, by a diketopiperazine that is present in the albumin preparation and that was demonstrated to be safe and effective in reducing pain and improving function when administered intra-articularly in a phase III clinical trial. In the present study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) exposed to LMWF5A exhibited an elongated phenotype with diffuse intracellular F-actin, pronounced migratory leading edges, and filopodia-like projections. In addition, LMWF5A promoted chondrogenic condensation in “micromass” culture, concurrent with the upregulation of collagen 2α1 mRNA. Furthermore, the transcription of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis was significantly regulated in a manner conducive to migration and homing. Several transcription factors involved in stem cell differentiation were also found to bind oligonucleotide response element probes following exposure to LMWF5A. Finally, a rapid increase in PRAS40 phosphorylation was observed following treatment, potentially resulting in the activation mTORC1. Proteomic analysis of synovial fluid taken from a preliminary set of patients indicated that at 12 weeks following administration of LMWF5A, a microenvironment exists in the knee conducive to stem cell infiltration, self-renewal, and differentiation, in addition to indications of remodeling with a reduction in inflammation. Taken together, these findings imply that LMWF5A treatment may prime stem cells for both mobilization and chondrogenic differentiation, potentially explaining some of the beneficial effects achieved in clinical trials. Significance This study describes the effect of a biologic currently under development for the treatment of osteoarthritis to induce both

  5. WISP-1 Is an Osteoblastic Regulator Expressed During Skeletal Development and Fracture Repair

    PubMed Central

    French, Dorothy M.; Kaul, Raji J.; D’Souza, Aloma L.; Crowley, Craig W.; Bao, Min; Frantz, Gretchen D.; Filvaroff, Ellen H.; Desnoyers, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP-1) is a member of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor, Cyr61, NOV) family of growth factors. Experimental evidence suggests that CCN family members are involved in skeletogenesis and bone healing. To investigate the role of WISP-1 in osteogenic processes, we characterized its tissue and cellular expression and evaluated its activity in osteoblastic and chondrocytic cell culture models. During embryonic development, WISP-1 expression was restricted to osteoblasts and to osteoblastic progenitor cells of the perichondral mesenchyme. In vitro, we showed that WISP-1 expression in differentiating osteoblasts promotes BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Using in situ and cell binding analysis, we demonstrated WISP-1 interaction with perichondral mesenchyme and undifferentiated chondrocytes. We evaluated the effect of WISP-1 on chondrocytes by generating stably transfected mouse chondrocytic cell lines. In these cells, WISP-1 increased proliferation and saturation density but repressed chondrocytic differentiation. Because of the similarity between skeletogenesis and bone healing, we also analyzed WISP-1 spatiotemporal expression in a fracture repair model. We found that WISP-1 expression recapitulates the pattern observed during skeletal development. Our data demonstrate that WISP-1 is an osteogenic potentiating factor promoting mesenchymal cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation while repressing chondrocytic differentiation. Therefore, we propose that WISP-1 plays an important regulatory role during bone development and fracture repair. PMID:15331410

  6. Prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins regulate bone mass through their expression in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ke; Song, Pingping; Lai, Yumei; Liu, Chuanju; Xiao, Guozhi

    2016-12-05

    The roles of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) in bone are incompletely understood. Here we deleted the expression of genes encoding PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3 in osteoblasts in mice by breeding the floxed Phd1-3 mice with Col1a1-Cre transgenic mice. Results showed that mice lacking PHD1-3 in osteoblasts (Phd1-3ob-/-) had increased bone mass. Bone parameters such as bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were increased, while trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) was decreased in Phd1-3ob-/- relative to wild-type (WT) femurs. In contrast, loss of PHD1-3 in osteoblasts did not alter cortical thickness (Cort.Th). The mineralization apposition rate (MAR) was increased in Phd1-3ob-/- bone compared to that of wild-type (WT) bone, demonstrating an enhancement of osteoblast function. Loss of PHD1-3 increased the number of osteoblast progenitors (CFU-OBs) in bone marrow cultures. Interestingly, deleting Phd1-3 genes in osteoblasts increased osteoclast formation in vitro and in bone.

  7. CXCL12 in early mesenchymal progenitors is required for haematopoietic stem-cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Adam; Hsu, Yen-Michael S; Day, Ryan B; Schuettpelz, Laura G; Christopher, Matthew J; Borgerding, Joshua N; Nagasawa, Takashi; Link, Daniel C

    2013-03-14

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) primarily reside in the bone marrow where signals generated by stromal cells regulate their self-renewal, proliferation and trafficking. Endosteal osteoblasts and perivascular stromal cells including endothelial cells, CXCL12-abundant reticular cells, leptin-receptor-positive stromal cells, and nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive mesenchymal progenitors have all been implicated in HSC maintenance. However, it is unclear whether specific haematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) subsets reside in distinct niches defined by the surrounding stromal cells and the regulatory molecules they produce. CXCL12 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12) regulates both HSCs and lymphoid progenitors and is expressed by all of these stromal cell populations. Here we selectively deleted Cxcl12 from candidate niche stromal cell populations and characterized the effect on HPCs. Deletion of Cxcl12 from mineralizing osteoblasts has no effect on HSCs or lymphoid progenitors. Deletion of Cxcl12 from osterix-expressing stromal cells, which include CXCL12-abundant reticular cells and osteoblasts, results in constitutive HPC mobilization and a loss of B-lymphoid progenitors, but HSC function is normal. Cxcl12 deletion from endothelial cells results in a modest loss of long-term repopulating activity. Strikingly, deletion of Cxcl12 from nestin-negative mesenchymal progenitors using Prx1-cre (Prx1 also known as Prrx1) is associated with a marked loss of HSCs, long-term repopulating activity, HSC quiescence and common lymphoid progenitors. These data suggest that osterix-expressing stromal cells comprise a distinct niche that supports B-lymphoid progenitors and retains HPCs in the bone marrow, and that expression of CXCL12 from stromal cells in the perivascular region, including endothelial cells and mesenchymal progenitors, supports HSCs.

  8. The involvement of multipotential progenitor cells in Mooren's ulcer.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Gul; Ye, Juan; Kim, Jae Chan

    2005-06-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of multipotential progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of Mooren's ulcer using immunohistochemical staining techniques. Tissue specimens were collected from 3 Mooren's ulcer patients who underwent lamellar keratectomy. Immunohistochemical staining patterns were analyzed using antibodies: CD34, c-kit, STRO-1, CD45RO, VEGF and a-SMA. Strong positive CD34, c-kit and STRO-1 cells were revealed in Mooren's ulcer specimens, especially in the superficial stroma. A few weakly expressed CD34 stroma cells were seen in normal limbal cornea but no immunoreactivity for c-kit and STRO-1 could be found. CD45RO positive T cells were found to have infiltrated in Mooren's ulcer. The immunostaining pattern of VEGF and a- SMA was closely correlated with the degree of expression and the number of CD34 positive cells. Bone marrow-derived multipotential progenitor cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of Mooren's ulcer by synergizing with other factors to amplify autoimmune destructive reactions and to contribute to the regeneration process. Specific therapeutic strategies that target the role of these cells in the disease are warranted.

  9. Stretching and movement of fibroblasts and osteoblasts cultured in microchannel and micropit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Hiroko E.; Kikuchi, Yuji; Kuboki, Yoshinori

    1999-06-01

    Tissue cells bind to extracellular matrix (ECM), and this attachment to ECM plays an essential role in their growth, function, and even survival. Furthermore, the geometry of ECM is known to play an additional role in regulation for these cells to proliferate and differentiate so that tissues with normal morphologies can be formed or maintained. We attempted to culture fibroblast, osteoblast, and bone marrow derived cells in previously described microchannel arrays and newly created micropit arrays, both coated with ECM protein collagen, to examine usefulness of microfabricated structures for elucidating 'what is geometry?' for cells. Cells were inseminated in the well in front of a microchannel array and their movement and stretching behavior against the microchannel array including the entrance and exit terraces were observed using a microscope-TV camera-time lapse video recorder system for 24 hours. Cells entered into the entrance terrace and showed active motions including extending pseudopodia into the channels and whole cell passage through the channels, and fully stretched in the entrance terrace in 8 hours or so. Those cells, however, voluntarily detached themselves from the area in another 8 hours or so probably because of worsening condition of nutrient supply there. Micropit arrays used in the present study consist of a regular arrangement of circular or square pits of diameter or side length of 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 micrometer and depth of 10 micrometer with one size per array or chip. The total area of the pits was designed to be equal to the rest surface area. After four days of incubation of bone marrow derived cells, the total number of cells and the number of cells in the pits were counted. The former and the ratio of the latter to the former appeared to become maximal when the pits of diameter or side length of 100 and 50 micrometer were used, respectively.

  10. A dynamic niche provides Kit ligand in a stage-specific manner to the earliest thymocyte progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Mario; Facchini, Raffaella; Matsuoka, Sahoko; Thongjuea, Supat; Waithe, Dominique; Luis, Tiago C.; Giustacchini, Alice; Besmer, Peter; Mead, Adam J.; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Thymic T-cell development is initiated from bone marrow-derived multi-potent thymus seeding progenitors (TSPs). During the early stages of thymocyte differentiation progenitors become T-cell restricted. However, the cellular environments supporting these critical initial stages of T-cell development within the thymic cortex are not known. We here use the dependence of early, c-Kit–expressing thymic progenitors on Kit ligand (KitL) to show that CD4–CD8–c-Kit+CD25– DN1-stage progenitors associate with, and depend on the membrane-bound form of KitL (mKitL) provided by, a cortex-specific KitL-expressing vascular endothelial cell (VEC) population. In contrast, the subsequent CD4–CD8–c-Kit+CD25+ DN2 stage progenitors associate selectively with cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs) and depend on cTEC-presented mKitL. These results show that the dynamic process of early thymic progenitor differentiation is paralleled by migration-dependent changes to the supporting niche, and identify VECs as a thymic niche cell, with mKitL as a critical ligand. PMID:26780297

  11. Decreased nuclear stiffness via FAK-ERK1/2 signaling is necessary for osteopontin-promoted migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Aoli; Shi, Yisong; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Song, Guanbin

    2017-04-06

    Migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, including wound healing. During the migration of BMSCs through interstitial tissues, the movement of the nucleus must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics, which in turn affects the cell migration efficiency. Our previous study indicated that osteopontin (OPN) significantly promotes the migration of rat BMSCs. However, the nuclear behaviors and involved molecular mechanisms in OPN-mediated BMSC migration are largely unclear. In the present study, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that OPN could decrease the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs and reduce the expression of lamin A/C, which is the main determinant of nuclear stiffness. Increased lamin A/C expression attenuates BMSC migration by increasing nuclear stiffness. Decreased lamin A/C expression promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. Furthermore, OPN promotes BMSC migration by diminishing lamin A/C expression and decreasing nuclear stiffness via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence for the role of nuclear mechanics in BMSC migration as well as new insight into the molecular mechanisms of OPN-promoted BMSC migration.

  12. Lack of galectin-3 increases Jagged1/Notch activation in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and promotes dysregulation of T helper cell polarization.

    PubMed

    Fermino, Marise L; Dylon, L Sebastian D; Cecílio, Nerry T; Santos, Sofia N; Toscano, Marta A; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Roque-Barreira, Maria C; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Bernardes, Emerson S

    2016-08-01

    Galectin-3, an endogenous glycan-binding protein, is abundantly expressed at sites of inflammation and immune cell activation. Although this lectin has been implicated in the control of T helper (Th) polarization, the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-3 during the course of experimental Leishmania major infection using galectin-3-deficient (Lgals3(-/-)) mice in a BALB/c background and the involvement of Notch signaling pathway in this process. Lgals3(-/-) mice displayed an augmented, although mixed Th1/Th2 responses compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Concomitantly, lymph node and footpad lesion cells from infected Lgals3(-/-) mice showed enhanced levels of Notch signaling components (Notch-1, Jagged1, Jagged2 and Notch target gene Hes-1). Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from uninfected Lgals3(-/-) mice also displayed increased expression of the Notch ligands Delta-like-4 and Jagged1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, activation of Notch signaling in BMDCs upon stimulation with Jagged1 was more pronounced in Lgals3(-/-) BMDCs compared to WT BMDCs; this condition resulted in increased production of IL-6 by Lgals3(-/-) BMDCs. Finally, addition of exogenous galectin-3 to Lgals3(-/-) BMDCs partially reverted the increased sensitivity to Jagged1 stimulation. Our results suggest that endogenous galectin-3 regulates Notch signaling activation in BMDCs and influences polarization of T helper responses, thus increasing susceptibility to L. major infection.

  13. Differential Clearance of Rat and Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells From the Brain After Intra-arterial Infusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khabbal, Joonas; Kerkelä, Erja; Mitkari, Bhimashankar; Raki, Mari; Nystedt, Johanna; Mikkonen, Ville; Bergström, Kim; Laitinen, Saara; Korhonen, Matti; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Intra-arterial (IA) delivery of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has shown potential as a minimally invasive therapeutic approach for stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the whole-body biodistribution and clearance of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled rat and human BM-MSCs after IA delivery in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our hypothesis was that xenotransplantation has a major impact on the behavior of cells. Male RccHan:Wistar rats were subjected to sham operation or MCAO. Twenty-four hours after surgery, BM-MSCs (2 × 10(6) cells/animal) labeled with (99m)Tc were infused into the external carotid artery. Whole-body SPECT images were acquired 20 min, 3 h, and 6 h postinjection, after which rats were sacrificed, and organs were collected and weighed for measurement of radioactivity. The results showed that the majority of the cells were located in the brain and especially in the ipsilateral hemisphere immediately after cell infusion both in sham-operated and MCAO rats. This was followed by fast disappearance, particularly in the case of human cells. At the same time, the radioactivity signal increased in the spleen, kidney, and liver, the organs responsible for destroying cells. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether differential cell behavior has any functional impact.

  14. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes Promote Survival of Retinal Ganglion Cells Through miRNA-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mead, Ben; Tomarev, Stanislav

    2017-04-01

    The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons is one of the leading causes of blindness and includes traumatic (optic neuropathy) and degenerative (glaucoma) eye diseases. Although no clinical therapies are in use, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated significant neuroprotective and axogenic effects on RGC in both of the aforementioned models. Recent evidence has shown that MSC secrete exosomes, membrane enclosed vesicles (30-100 nm) containing proteins, mRNA and miRNA which can be delivered to nearby cells. The present study aimed to isolate exosomes from bone marrow-derived MSC (BMSC) and test them in a rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model. Treatment of primary retinal cultures with BMSC-exosomes demonstrated significant neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects. Twenty-one days after ONC and weekly intravitreal exosome injections; optical coherence tomography, electroretinography, and immunohistochemistry was performed. BMSC-derived exosomes promoted statistically significant survival of RGC and regeneration of their axons while partially preventing RGC axonal loss and RGC dysfunction. Exosomes successfully delivered their cargo into inner retinal layers and the effects were reliant on miRNA, demonstrated by the diminished therapeutic effects of exosomes derived from BMSC after knockdown of Argonaute-2, a key miRNA effector molecule. This study supports the use of BMSC-derived exosomes as a cell-free therapy for traumatic and degenerative ocular disease. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1273-1285.

  15. Novel biomimetic tripolymer scaffolds consisting of chitosan, collagen type 1, and hyaluronic acid for bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells-based bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Smitha; Bhonde, Ramesh; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Totey, Satish

    2014-11-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an ideal osteogenic cell source for bone tissue engineering (BTE). A scaffold, in the context of BTE, is the extracellular matrix (ECM) that provides the unique microenvironment and play significant role in regulating cell behavior, differentiation, and development in an in vitro culture system. In this study, we have developed novel biomimetic tripolymer scaffolds for BTE using an ECM protein, collagen type 1; an ECM glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronic acid; and a natural osteoconductive polymer, chitosan. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and swelling ratio. The scaffolds were seeded with hMSCs and tested for cytocompatibility and osteogenic potential. The scaffolds supported cell adhesion, enhanced cell proliferation, promoted cell migration, showed good cell viability, and osteogenic potential. The cells were able to migrate out from the scaffolds in favorable conditions. SEM, alkaline phosphatase assay, and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the differentiation of hMSCs to osteogenic lineage in the scaffolds. In conclusion, we have successfully developed biomimetic scaffolds that supported the proliferation and differentiation of hMSCs. These scaffolds hold great promise as a cell-delivery vehicle for regenerative therapies and as a support system for enhancing bone regeneration.

  16. SMAD3 and SMAD4 have a more dominant role than SMAD2 in TGFβ-induced chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    de Kroon, Laurie M. G.; Narcisi, Roberto; van den Akker, Guus G. H.; Vitters, Elly L.; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N.; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; van der Kraan, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    To improve cartilage formation by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), the signaling mechanism governing chondrogenic differentiation requires better understanding. We previously showed that the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) receptor ALK5 is crucial for chondrogenesis induced by TGFβ. ALK5 phosphorylates SMAD2 and SMAD3 proteins, which then form complexes with SMAD4 to regulate gene transcription. By modulating the expression of SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4 in human BMSCs, we investigated their role in TGFβ-induced chondrogenesis. Activation of TGFβ signaling, represented by SMAD2 phosphorylation, was decreased by SMAD2 knockdown and highly increased by SMAD2 overexpression. Moreover, TGFβ signaling via the alternative SMAD1/5/9 pathway was strongly decreased by SMAD4 knockdown. TGFβ-induced chondrogenesis of human BMSCs was strongly inhibited by SMAD4 knockdown and only mildly inhibited by SMAD2 knockdown. Remarkably, both knockdown and overexpression of SMAD3 blocked chondrogenic differentiation. Chondrogenesis appears to rely on a delicate balance in the amount of SMAD3 and SMAD4 as it was not enhanced by SMAD4 overexpression and was inhibited by SMAD3 overexpression. Furthermore, this study reveals that TGFβ-activated phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD1/5/9 depends on the abundance of SMAD4. Overall, our findings suggest a more dominant role for SMAD3 and SMAD4 than SMAD2 in TGFβ-induced chondrogenesis of human BMSCs. PMID:28240243

  17. Use of small interfering ribonucleic acids to inhibit the adipogenic effect of alcohol on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Pei, Fu-xing; Chen, Zhi-yu; Wang, Guang-lin; Shen, Bin; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zong-ke; Kong, Qing-quan

    2010-10-01

    This study tested the potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to repress the adipogenic effect of alcohol on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (hBMSCs). hBMSCs were cultured from hip replacement surgery patients (n = 10). PPARγ-siRNA was transiently transfected into hBMSCs cultured in ostogenic media containing 50 mM alcohol by using a liposome-based strategy. Oil red O staining was used to test the development of differentiated adipocytes, and Alizarin red staining was used to test mineral deposition. Marker genes of adipogenesis (PPARγ2 and aP2) and osteogenesis (Osf2/Cbfa1) were examined through real time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin protein synthesis of cultures were also assayed. Data were presented as mean ± SD. Differences between the means of the treatment groups were determined with ANOVA. PPARγ-siRNA transfection resulted in significantly lower adipocyte number, increased matrix mineralisation, repressed adipogenic gene markers, up-regulated osteogenic gene marker and bone matrix protein synthesis in the PPARγ-siRNA group compared to controls (P < 0.05). PPARγ-siRNA is a useful strategy to inhibit the adipogenic effect and the osteogenic repression of alcohol on hBMSCs. This may be a novel therapeutic intervention for osteopenic disorders in alcoholism and other conditions.

  18. Suppression of Evi1 promotes the osteogenic differentiation and inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    An, Qijun; Wu, Dou; Ma, Yuehong; Zhou, Biao; Liu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is considered a complex disease with a strong genetic impact, mainly affecting post-menopausal women and is also a common cause of fracture. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is crucial to developing treatment strategies to combat OP. In the present study, we found that ectopic viral integration site‑1 (Evi1) was highly expressed during the process of adipogenesis of rat BMSCs. Notably, Evi1 levels markedly increased on day 3 of adipogenic differentiation following the addition of adipogenic induction supplements. In addition, we interfered with the expression of the Evi1 gene in the adipogenesis of BMSCs by supplementing adenoviral plasmids and measured the expression levels of bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The mRNA and protein levels of osteogenic and adipogenic markers in the BMSCs were up‑ and downregulated, respectively following the silencing of siEvi1. Our experimental results substantiate that the suppression of Evi1 in BMSCs by RNA interference inhibits adipogenic differentiation, while it promotes osteogenic differentiation. The results from our study demonstrated that the Evi1 gene may be targeted as a therapeutic strategy for promoting bone formation.

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Protects against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Inhibition of Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dawei; Wang, Yonghui; Xu, Shihong; Wang, Fu; Wang, Bomin; Han, Ke; Sun, Daqing; Li, Lianxin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress induces bone loss and osteoporosis, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may be used to combat these diseases due to its antioxidative property. Herein, oxidative stress in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was induced by H2O2, resulting in an adverse effect on their osteogenic differentiation. However, this H2O2-induced adverse effect was nullified when the cells were treated with EGCG. In addition, treatment of BM-MSCs with EGCG alone also resulted in the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. After EGCG treatment, expressions of β-catenin and cyclin D1 were upregulated, suggesting that the Wnt pathway was involved in the effects of EGCG on the osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. This was also confirmed by the fact that the Wnt pathway inhibitor, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), can nullify the EGCG-induced enhancement effect on BM-MSC's osteogenic differentiation. Hence, our results suggested that EGCG can reduce the effects of oxidative stress on Wnt pathway in osteogenic cells, which supported a potentially promising therapy of bone disorders induced by oxidative stress. Considering its positive effects on BM-MSCs, EGCG may also be beneficial for stem cell-based bone repair. PMID:26977159

  20. Up-regulation of immunomodulatory effects of mouse bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells by tetrahydrocannabinol pre-treatment involving cannabinoid receptor CB2

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Junran; Xiao, Dongju; Xu, Yun; Zhao, Jinning; Jiang, Li; Hu, Xuming; Zhang, Yaping; Yu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly and closely correlated with inflammation. Both cannabinoid signaling and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to reduce inflammatory pain. Although cannabinoid signaling is essential for mesenchymal stem cell survival and differentiation, little is known about its role in modulatory effect of MSCs on inflammation and pain sensitivity. Here we showed that mouse bone-marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) expressed both cannabinoid receptor type 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). CB2 expression level in BM-MSCs increased with their maturation. In addition, we found that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) activated CB2 receptor and ERK signaling, consequently enhancing the modulation of MSCs on inflammation-associated cytokine release from lipopolysaccharides-stimulated microglia. Consistent with in vitro data, THC pretreatment enhanced the immunomodulatory effects of BM-MSC on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in chronic constriction injury model, by decreasing the release of pro-inflammation cytokines. Our study revealed the crucial role of THC in promoting the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs and proposed a new strategy to alleviate pain based on stem cells therapy. PMID:26824325

  1. Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: Evidence for Further Maturation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Ismail, Amani M; El-Halawani, Sawsan M; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence for further in vivo maturation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) derived from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBM-MSCs). HBM-MSCs were obtained from three insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic volunteers. Following expansion, cells were differentiated according to a trichostatin-A/GLP protocol. One million cells were transplanted under the renal capsule of 29 diabetic nude mice. Blood glucose, serum human insulin and c-peptide levels, and glucose tolerance curves were determined. Mice were euthanized 1, 2, 4, or 12 weeks after transplantation. IPC-bearing kidneys were immunolabeled, number of IPCs was counted, and expression of relevant genes was determined. At the end of in vitro differentiation, all pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed, albeit at very low values. The percentage of IPCs among transplanted cells was small (≤3%). Diabetic animals became euglycemic 8 ± 3 days after transplantation. Thereafter, the percentage of IPCs reached a mean of ~18% at 4 weeks. Relative gene expression of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin showed a parallel increase. The ability of the transplanted cells to induce euglycemia was due to their further maturation in the favorable in vivo microenvironment. Elucidation of the exact mechanism(s) involved requires further investigation.

  2. A hot water extract of Aralia cordata activates bone marrow-derived macrophages via a myeloid differentiation protein 88-dependent pathway and protects mice from bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Won; Cho, Yong-Il; Gu, Suna; Kim, Da-Hee; Park, Jung-Hee; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Sang-Myeong

    2016-05-01

    In traditional Asian medicine, Aralia cordata (AC) is a known as a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory drug. Although several of its biological activities have been reported, the immunomodulatory effects of a hot water extract of AC (HAC) have not yet been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HAC modulates the activation of macrophages, which play important roles in innate immune responses against microbial pathogens, and if so, to determine the molecular mechanisms by which HAC mediates this process. It was found that HAC activates bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and increases amounts of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, HAC was found to induce phosphorylation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun N-terminal kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38. Interestingly, these effects were absent in BMDM prepared from myeloid differentiation protein 88-knockout mice. Polysaccharides from HAC exerted stronger immunostimulatory effects than HAC itself. Furthermore, orally administered HAC clearly enhanced clearance of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by boosting innate immune responses. These results demonstrate that HAC exerts immunostimulatory effects through the TLR/MyD88 and NF-κB/MAPK signal transduction pathways.

  3. Conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves recovery after spinal cord injury in rats: an original strategy to avoid cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cantinieaux, Dorothée; Quertainmont, Renaud; Blacher, Silvia; Rossi, Loïc; Wanet, Thomas; Noël, Agnès; Brook, Gary; Schoenen, Jean; Franzen, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury triggers irreversible loss of motor and sensory functions. Numerous strategies aiming at repairing the injured spinal cord have been studied. Among them, the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is promising. Indeed, these cells possess interesting properties to modulate CNS environment and allow axon regeneration and functional recovery. Unfortunately, BMSC survival and differentiation within the host spinal cord remain poor, and these cells have been found to have various adverse effects when grafted in other pathological contexts. Moreover, paracrine-mediated actions have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of BMSC transplantation after spinal cord injury. We thus decided to deliver BMSC-released factors to spinal cord injured rats and to study, in parallel, their properties in vitro. We show that, in vitro, BMSC-conditioned medium (BMSC-CM) protects neurons from apoptosis, activates macrophages and is pro-angiogenic. In vivo, BMSC-CM administered after spinal cord contusion improves motor recovery. Histological analysis confirms the pro-angiogenic action of BMSC-CM, as well as a tissue protection effect. Finally, the characterization of BMSC-CM by cytokine array and ELISA identified trophic factors as well as cytokines likely involved in the beneficial observed effects. In conclusion, our results support the paracrine-mediated mode of action of BMSCs and raise the possibility to develop a cell-free therapeutic approach.

  4. Glycyrrhizic Acid Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Associated with the Activation of JNK and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yulong; Wang, Baikui; Xu, Xin; Du, Wei; Li, Weifen; Wang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) have been widely used as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice on macrophage polarization. Both phenotypic and functional activities of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated by GA were assessed. Our results showed that GA obviously increased the cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, GA upregulated the expression of CCR7 and the production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and NO (the markers of classically activated (M1) macrophages), whereas it downregulated the expression of MR, Ym1, and Arg1 (the markers of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage). The functional tests showed that GA dramatically enhanced the uptake of FITC-dextran and E. coli K88 by BMDMs and decreased the intracellular survival of E. coli K88 and S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB activation are required for GA-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production, while ERK1/2 pathway exhibits a regulatory effect via induction of IL-10. Together, these findings indicated that GA promoted polarization of M1 macrophages and enhanced its phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity. The results expanded our knowledge about the role of GA in macrophage polarization. PMID:26664149

  5. Slowly Delivered Icariin/Allogeneic Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote the Healing of Calvarial Critical-Size Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianlin; Luo, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering technique is a promising strategy to repair large-volume bone defects. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional construct by combining icariin (a small-molecule Chinese medicine), allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and a siliceous mesostructured cellular foams-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (SMC-PHBHHx) composite scaffold. We hypothesized that the slowly released icariin could significantly promote the efficacy of SMC-PHBHHx/allogeneic BMSCs for repairing critical-size bone defects in rats. In in vitro cellular experiments, icariin at optimal concentration (10−6 mol/L) could significantly upregulate the osteogenesis- and angiogenesis-related genes and proteins, such as Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin, vascular endothelial growth factors, and fibroblast growth factors, as well as the mineralization of BMSCs. Icariin that was adsorbed onto the SMC-PHBHHx scaffold showed a slow release profile within a 2-week monitoring span. Eight weeks after implantation in calvarial critical-size bone defects, the constructs with icariin were associated with significantly higher bone volume density, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and significantly lower trabecular separation than the constructs without icariin. Histomorphometric analysis showed that icariin was also associated with a significantly higher density of newly formed blood vessels. These data suggested a promising application potential of the icariin/SMC-PHBHHx/allogeneic BMSCs constructs for repairing large-volume bone defects in clinic. PMID:27721833

  6. After injection into the striatum, in vitro-differentiated microglia- and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can leave the central nervous system via the blood stream.

    PubMed

    Hochmeister, Sonja; Zeitelhofer, Manuel; Bauer, Jan; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Fischer, Marie-Therese; Heinke, Bernhard; Selzer, Edgar; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2008-12-01

    The prototypic migratory trail of tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs) is via lymphatic drainage. Since the central nervous system (CNS) lacks classical lymphatic vessels, and antigens and cells injected into both the CNS and cerebrospinal fluid have been found in deep cervical lymph nodes, it was thought that CNS-derived DCs exclusively used the cerebrospinal fluid pathway to exit from tissues. It has become evident, however, that DCs found in peripheral organs can also leave tissues via the blood stream. To study whether DCs derived from microglia and bone marrow can also use this route of emigration from the CNS, we performed a series of experiments in which we injected genetically labeled DCs into the striata of rats. We show here that these cells migrated from the injection site to the perivascular space, integrated into the endothelial lining of the CNS vasculature, and were then present in the lumen of CNS blood vessels days after the injection. Moreover, we also found these cells in both mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens. Hence, microglia- and bone marrow-derived DCs can leave the CNS via the blood stream.

  7. Involvement of PI3K and ROCK signaling pathways in migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells through human brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Na; Shang, De-Shu; Sun, Wei; Li, Bo; Xu, Xin; Fang, Wen-Gang; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Cao, Liu; Chen, Yu-Hua

    2013-06-04

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent an important and easily available source of stem cells for potential therapeutic use in neurological diseases. The entry of circulating cells into the central nervous system by intravenous administration requires, firstly, the passage of the cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, little is known of the details of MSC transmigration across the BBB. In the present study, we employed an in vitro BBB model constructed using a human brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayer to study the mechanism underlying MSC transendothelial migration. Transmigration assays, transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) flux assays showed that MSC could transmigrate through human brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers by a paracellular pathway. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence assays confirmed the disruption of tight junctions. Inhibition assays showed that a Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y27632) effectively promoted MSC transendothelial migration; conversely, a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) blocked MSC transendothelial migration. Interestingly, adenovirus-mediated interference with ROCK in MSC significantly increased MSC transendothelial migration, and overexpression of a PI3K dominant negative mutant in MSC cells could block transendothelial migration. Our findings provide clear evidence that the PI3K and ROCK pathways are involved in MSC migration through human brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. The information yielded by this study may be helpful in constructing gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells that are able to penetrate the BBB effectively for cell therapy.

  8. Dual transcriptome sequencing reveals resistance of TLR4 ligand-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages to inflammation mediated by the BET inhibitor JQ1

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amitabh; Chai, Jin Choul; Yang, Chul-su; Lee, Young Seek; Das, Nando Dulal; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Persistent macrophage activation is associated with the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, cytokines and chemokines, which may initiate or amplify inflammatory disorders. A novel synthetic BET inhibitor, JQ1, was proven to exert immunosuppressive activities in macrophages. However, a genome-wide search for JQ1 molecular targets has not been undertaken. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes that are targeted by JQ1 in LPS-stimulated primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) using global transcriptomic RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Among the annotated genes, transcriptional sequencing of BMDMs that were treated with JQ1 revealed a selective effect on LPS-induced gene expression in which the induction of cytokines/chemokines, interferon-stimulated genes, and prominent (transcription factors) TFs was suppressed. Additionally, we found that JQ1 reduced the expression of previously unidentified genes that are important in inflammation. Importantly, these inflammatory genes were not affected by JQ1 treatment alone. Furthermore, we confirmed that JQ1 reduced cytokines/chemokines in the supernatants of LPS treated BMDMs. Moreover, the biological pathways and gene ontology of the differentially expressed genes were determined in the JQ1 treatment of BMDMs. These unprecedented results suggest that the BET inhibitor JQ1 is a candidate for the prevention or therapeutic treatment of inflammatory disorders. PMID:26582142

  9. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells are more beneficial cell sources for tooth regeneration compared with adipose-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lanfeng; Chen, Lin; Feng, Fan; Cui, Junhui; Li, Kaide; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Tooth loss is presently a global epidemic and tooth regeneration is thought to be a feasible and ideal treatment approach. Choice of cell source is a primary concern in tooth regeneration. In this study, the odontogenic differentiation potential of two non-dental-derived stem cells, adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs), were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. ADSCs and BMSCs were induced in vitro in the presence of tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (TGC-CM) prior to implantation into the omentum majus of rats, in combination with inactivated dentin matrix (IDM). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of odontogenic-related genes. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical assays were used to detect the protein levels of odontogenic-specific genes, such as DSP and DMP-1 both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that both ADSCs and BMSCs have odontogenic differentiation potential. However, the odontogenic potential of BMSCs was greater compared with ADSCs, showing that BMSCs are a more appropriate cell source for tooth regeneration.

  10. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells become antiangiogenic when chondrogenically or osteogenically differentiated: implications for bone and cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bara, Jennifer J; McCarthy, Helen E; Humphrey, Emma; Johnson, William E B; Roberts, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondral tissue repair requires formation of vascularized bone and avascular cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells stimulate angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo but it is not known if these proangiogenic properties change as a result of chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the angiogenic/antiangiogenic properties of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eBMSCs) before and after differentiation in vitro. Conditioned media from chondrogenic and osteogenic cell pellets and undifferentiated cells was applied to endothelial tube formation assays using Matrigel™. Additionally, the cell secretome was analysed using LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and screened for angiogenesis and neurogenesis-related factors using protein arrays. Endothelial tube-like formation was supported by conditioned media from undifferentiated eBMSCs. Conversely, chondrogenic and osteogenic conditioned media was antiangiogenic as shown by significantly decreased length of endothelial tube-like structures and degree of branching compared to controls. Undifferentiated cells produced higher levels of angiogenesis-related proteins compared to chondrogenic and osteogenic pellets. In summary, eBMSCs produce an array of angiogenesis-related proteins and support angiogenesis in vitro via a paracrine mechanism. However, when these cells are differentiated chondrogenically or osteogenically, they produce a soluble factor(s) that inhibits angiogenesis. With respect to osteochondral tissue engineering, this may be beneficial for avascular articular cartilage formation but unfavourable for bone formation where a vascularized tissue is desired.

  11. Bone regeneration in calvarial defects in a rat model by implantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Suzuki, Yukako; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ushida, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) condensation contributes to membrane ossification by enhancing their osteodifferentiation. We investigated bone regeneration in rats using the human bone marrow-derived MSC-spheroids prepared by rotation culture, without synthetic or exogenous biomaterials. Bilateral calvarial defects (8 mm) were created in nude male rats; the left-sided defects were implanted with MSC-spheroids, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules, or β-TCP granules + MSC-spheroids, while the right-sided defects served as internal controls. Micro-computed tomography and immunohistochemical staining for osteocalcin/osteopontin indicated formation of new, full-thickness bones at the implantation sites, but not at the control sites in the MSC-spheroid group. Raman spectroscopy revealed similarity in the spectral properties of the repaired bone and native calvarial bone. Mechanical performance of the bones in the MSC-implanted group was good (50 and 60% those of native bones, respectively). All tests showed poor bone regeneration in the β-TCP and β-TCP + MSC-spheroid groups. Thus, significant bone regeneration was achieved with MSC-spheroid implantation into bone defects, justifying further investigation.

  12. Gene expression profiling suggests a pathological role of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in aging-related skeletal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shih Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Tseng, Kuo-Yun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Wang, Ming Jen; Chang, I-Shou; Lin, Jiunn-Liang; Lin, Shankung

    2011-07-01

    Aging is associated with bone loss and degenerative joint diseases, in which the aging of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (bmMSC)[1] may play an important role. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of bmMSC from 14 donors between 36 and 74 years old, and obtained age-associated genes (in the background of osteoarthritis) and osteoarthritis-associated genes (in the background of old age). Pathway analysis of these genes suggests that alterations in glycobiology might play an important role in the aging of human bmMSC. On the other hand, antigen presentation and signaling of immune cells were the top pathways enriched by osteoarthritis-associated genes, suggesting that alteration in immunology of bmMSC might be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Most intriguingly, we found significant age-associated differential expression of HEXA, HEXB, CTSK, SULF1, ADAMTS5, SPP1, COL8A2, GPNMB, TNFAIP6, and RPL29; those genes have been implicated in the bone loss and the pathology of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis in aging. Collectively, our results suggest a pathological role of bmMSC in aging-related skeletal diseases, and suggest the possibility that alteration in the immunology of bmMSC might also play an important role in the etiology of adult-onset osteoarthritis.

  13. The Effects of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection on GM-CSF- and M-CSF-Induced Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophage from Resistant and Susceptible Mice Strains

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Silva, Calliandra; Tavares, Aldo Henrique; Sousa Jeronimo, Marcio; Soares de Lima, Yasmin; da Silveira Derengowski, Lorena; Lorenzetti Bocca, Anamélia; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2015-01-01

    Considering the importance of macrophages as the first line of defense against fungal infection and the different roles played by the two M1- and M2-like polarized macrophages, we decided to evaluate the effects of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection on GM-CSF- and M-CSF-induced bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) from the A/J and B10.A mouse strains, an established model of resistance/susceptibility to PCM, respectively. Upon differentiation, the generated GM- or M-BMMs were characterized by morphological analyses, gene expression profiles, and cytokines production. Our main results demonstrate that GM-BMMs derived from A/J and B.10 produced high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that may contribute to generate an unbalanced early immune response. In accordance with the literature, the B10.A susceptible mice lineage has an innate tendency to polarize into M1-like phenotype, whereas the opposite phenotype occurs in A/J resistance mice. In this context, our data support that susceptibility and resistance are strongly correlated with M1 and M2 polarization, respectively. PMID:26543326

  14. Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Th2-Polarized Immune Response and Promote Endogenous Repair in Animal Models of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, L; Lennon, DP; Eaton, V; Maier, K; Caplan, AI; Miller, SD; Miller, RH

    2009-01-01

    Cell based therapies are attractive approaches to promote myelin repair. Recent studies demonstrated a reduction in disease burden in mice with EAE treated with mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we demonstrated human bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-hMSCs) promote functional recovery in both chronic and relapsing-remitting models of mouse EAE, traced their migration into the injured CNS and assayed their ability to modulate disease progression and the host immune response. Injected BM-hMSCs accumulated in the CNS, reduced the extent of damage and increased oligodendrocyte lineage cells in lesion areas. The increase in oligodendrocytes in lesions may reflect BM-hMSC induced changes in neural fate determination since neurospheres from treated animals gave rise to more oligodendrocytes and less astrocytes than non-treated neurospheres. Host immune responses were also influenced by BM-hMSCs. Inflammatory T-cells including interferon gamma (IFN-γ) producing Th1 cells and IL-17 producing Th17 inflammatory cells and their associated cytokines were reduced along with concomitant increases in IL-4 producing Th2 cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Together these data suggest the BM-hMSCs represent a viable option for therapeutic approaches. PMID:19191336

  15. The effects of PHBV electrospun fibers with different diameters and orientations on growth behavior of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lü, Lan-Xin; Wang, Yan-Yan; Mao, Xi; Xiao, Zhong-Dang; Huang, Ning-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Microenvironments in which cells live play an important role in the attachment, growth and interactions of cells. To mimic the natural structure of extracellular matrices, electrospinning was applied to fabricate biomaterials into ultrafine fibers. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a biocompatible and biodegradable polyester, has been shown to be an excellent biomaterial candidate for tissue engineering. In this study, five types of PHBV fibrous scaffolds with different diameters and orientations were obtained by changing solvents, concentration of electrospun solution and collector. Three kinds of scaffolds with good continuity and suitable mechanical properties, selected according to the morphology and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, were used for studying the influence of fiber diameter and orientation on growth behavior of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The results indicated that the random-oriented nanofibrous scaffold is most favorable for cell growth compared to other scaffolds, while the microfibrous scaffold resulted in the lowest viability of MSCs. The orientation of nanofibers showed a distinct effect on cell morphology by guiding cell skeleton extension. Both the random-oriented and aligned PHBV nanofibrous scaffolds showed to be good candidates for applications in tissue engineering.

  16. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress NK cell recruitment and activation in PolyI:C-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mengmeng; Cui, Jun; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Yuhong; Yuan, Xu; Shi, Jinming; Guo, Deyin; Li, Changyong

    2015-10-16

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to have an immunomodulatory capability and clinical potential in immune diseases. However, it is unknown how MSCs may affect immunity in liver injury. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C)-induced liver injury. Unlike in controls, adoptive transfer of BM-MSCs in mice ameliorated PolyI:C-induced liver injury, as shown by lower alanine aminotransferase levels and decreased lymphocyte infiltration in the liver. Importantly, BM-MSCs suppress NK cell accumulation and activation in the liver, which plays an important role in PolyI:C-induced liver injury. Furthermore, NK cells co-cultured with BM-MSCs reduced expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 5 (S1PR5), an important receptor required for NK cell trafficking in vivo. BM-MSC administration suppressed the elevation of expression of S1PR5 in the liver induced by PolyI:C injection. Accordingly, BM-MSCs inhibited the chemotactic activity of NK cells induced by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, the ligand of S1PR5). Our results provide an additional mechanism for the immunosuppressive effect of BM-MSCs on NK cells, which further supports the therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs in immune-mediated disorders, including those in which NK cells play a major role.

  17. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Diabetic Neuropathy by Direct Modulation of Both Angiogenesis and Myelination in Peripheral Nerves.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Dabin; Lee, Min Young; Huh, Yang Hoon; Yoon, Young-sup

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that diabetic neuropathy (DN) is pathophysiologically related to both impaired angiogenesis and a deficiency of neurotrophic factors in the nerves. It is widely known that vascular and neural growths are intimately associated. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote angiogenesis in ischemic diseases and have neuroprotective effects, particularly on Schwann cells. Accordingly, we investigated whether DN could be improved by local transplantation of MSCs by augmenting angiogenesis and neural regeneration such as remyelination. In sciatic nerves of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) and capillary density were reduced, and axonal atrophy and demyelination were observed. After injection of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) into hindlimb muscles, NCVs were restored to near-normal levels. Histological examination demonstrated that injected MSCs were preferentially and durably engrafted in the sciatic nerves, and a portion of the engrafted MSCs were distinctively localized close to vasa nervora of sciatic nerves. Furthermore, vasa nervora increased in density, and the ultrastructure of myelinated fibers in nerves was observed to be restored. Real-time RT-PCR experiments showed that gene expression of multiple factors involved in angiogenesis, neural function, and myelination were increased in the MSC-injected nerves. These findings suggest that MSC transplantation improved DN through direct peripheral nerve angiogenesis, neurotrophic effects, and restoration of myelination.

  18. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells remain host-derived despite successful hematopoietic engraftment after allogeneic transplantation in patients with lysosomal and peroxisomal storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Koç, O N; Peters, C; Aubourg, P; Raghavan, S; Dyhouse, S; DeGasperi, R; Kolodny, E H; Yoseph, Y B; Gerson, S L; Lazarus, H M; Caplan, A I; Watkins, P A; Krivit, W

    1999-11-01

    Human bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can differentiate into various cells of mesenchymal origin. We developed an efficient method of isolating and culture expanding a homogenous population of MSCs from bone marrow and determined that MSCs express alpha-L-iduronidase, arylsulfatase-A and B, glucocerebrosidase, and adrenoleukodystrophy protein. These findings raised the possibility that MSCs may be useful in the treatment of storage disorders. To determine if donor derived MSCs are transferred to the recipients with lysosomal or peroxisomal storage diseases by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, we investigated bone marrow derived MSCs of 13 patients 1-14 years after allogeneic transplantation. Highly purified MSCs were genotyped either by fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes for X and Y-chromosomes in gender mis-matched recipients or by radiolabeled PCR amplification of polymorphic simple sequence repeats. Phenotype was determined by the measurement of disease specific protein/enzyme activity in purified MSCs. We found that MSCs isolated from recipients of allogeneic HSC transplantation are not of donor genotype and have persistent phenotypic defects despite successful donor type hematopoietic engraftment. Whether culture expanded normal MSCs can be successfully transplanted into patients with storage diseases and provide therapeutic benefit needs to be determined.

  19. Isolated allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells engraft and stimulate growth in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: Implications for cell therapy of bone

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Edwin M.; Gordon, Patricia L.; Koo, Winston K. K.; Marx, Jeffrey C.; Neel, Michael D.; McNall, Rene Y.; Muul, Linda; Hofmann, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Treatment with isolated allogeneic mesenchymal cells has the potential to enhance the therapeutic effects of conventional bone marrow transplantation in patients with genetic disorders affecting mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, and muscle. To demonstrate the feasibility of mesenchymal cell therapy and to gain insight into the transplant biology of these cells, we used gene-marked, donor marrow-derived mesenchymal cells to treat six children who had undergone standard bone marrow transplantation for severe osteogenesis imperfecta. Each child received two infusions of the allogeneic cells. Five of six patients showed engraftment in one or more sites, including bone, skin, and marrow stroma, and had an acceleration of growth velocity during the first 6 mo postinfusion. This improvement ranged from 60% to 94% (median, 70%) of the predicted median values for age- and sex-matched unaffected children, compared with 0% to 40% (median, 20%) over the 6 mo immediately preceding the infusions. There was no clinically significant toxicity except for an urticarial rash in one patient just after the second infusion. Failure to detect engraftment of cells expressing the neomycin phosphotransferase marker gene suggested the potential for immune attack against therapeutic cells expressing a foreign protein. Thus, allogeneic mesenchymal cells offer feasible posttransplantation therapy for osteogenesis imperfecta and likely other disorders originating in mesenchymal precursors. PMID:12084934

  20. Physical Activity Increases the Total Number of Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Enhances Their Osteogenic Potential, and Inhibits Their Adipogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Marędziak, Monika; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Basinska, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Aging and sedentary lifestyle are common nowadays and are associated with the increasing number of chronic diseases. Thus, physical activity is recommended as one of three healthy behavior factors that play a crucial role in health prophylaxis. In the present study, we were interested whether physical activity influences the number and potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells BMMSCs. In this study, four-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were trained on a treadmill at progressive speeds over a 5-week period. Comparisons made between exercised (EX) and sedentary animal groups revealed (i) significantly higher number of MSCs in EX animals, (ii) elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, (iii) increased level of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCL), and (iv) reduced marrow cavity fat. The results obtained support the thesis that EX may play a substantial role in the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues. Therefore, EX may represent a novel, nonpharmacological strategy of slowing down age-related decline of the musculoskeletal functions. PMID:26167185

  1. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-Yu; Nestvold, Janne; Rekdal, Øystein; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Fodstad, Øystein

    2017-02-09

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo.

  2. Effect of Transplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimental Model of Radiation Induced Oral Mucosal Injury in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    El Kholy, Samar; El Rouby, Dalia; Rashed, Laila; Shouman, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of systemically injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and/or locally injected platelet rich plasma (PRP) in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the rat's tongue. Twelve rats served as control group (N) and 48 rats received a single radiation dose of 13 Gy to the head and neck region; then, they were equally divided into 4 experimental groups: irradiated only (C), irradiated + MSCs (S), irradiated + (PRP) (P), and combined group (PS). Animal scarification occurred in 3 and 7 days after radiation. Then, tongues were dissected and examined histologically and for expression of bcl-2 by RT-PCR. Histological examination of the treated groups (S), (P), and (PS) revealed an obvious improvement in the histological structure of the tongue, compared to group (C), in addition to upregulated expression of bcl-2, indicating decreased apoptotic activity. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and PRP have shown positive effect in minimizing the epithelial atrophy of normal oral mucosa after regional radiotherapy, which was emphasized by decreasing apoptotic activity in these tissues. Nevertheless, combined use of BM-MSCs and PRP did not reveal the assumed synergetic effect in oral tissue protection. PMID:28337218

  3. Salvianolic acid B improves bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into alveolar epithelial cells type I via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yang, Jingxian; Gao, Xi; Xu, Dan; Niu, Dongge; Li, Jinglin; Wen, Qingping

    2015-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is among the most common causes of mortality in intensive care units. Previous studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may attenuate pulmonary edema. In addition, alveolar epithelial cells type I (ATI) are involved in reducing the alveolar edema in response to ALI. However, the mechanism involved in improving the efficiency of differentiation of MSCs into ATI remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI and the activities of the Wnt signaling pathways were investigated. The BMSCs were supplemented with conditioned medium (CM). The groups were as follows: i) CM group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM; ii) lithium chloride (LiCl) group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 5 mM LiCl; iii) Sal B group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 10 mM Sal B. The samples were collected and assessed on days 7 and 14. It was revealed that aquaporin (AQP)-5 and T1α were expressed in BMSCs, and induction with LiCl or Sal B increased the expression of AQP-5 and T1α. Furthermore, the Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a signaling pathways were activated during the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI. In conclusion, it was suggested that the promotive effects of Sal B on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI occurred through the activation of Wnt signaling pathways.

  4. The Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Conditioned Media Topically Delivered in Fibrin Glue on Chronic Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Radwa A; Nabil, Iman; Attia, Noha; Bary, Amany A; Razek, Khalid A; Ahmed, Tamer A E; Elsayed, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) represent a modern approach for management of chronic skin injuries. In this work, we describe BM-MSCs application versus their conditioned media (CM) when delivered topically admixed with fibrin glue to enhance the healing of chronic excisional wounds in rats. Fifty-two adult male rats were classified into four groups after induction of large-sized full-thickness skin wound: control group (CG), fibrin only group (FG), fibrin + MSCs group (FG + SCs), and fibrin + CM group (FG + CM). Healing wounds were evaluated functionally and microscopically. Eight days after injury, number of CD68+ macrophages infiltrating granulation tissue was considerably higher in the latter two groups. Although--later--none of the groups depicted a substantially different healing rate, the quality of regenerated skin was significantly boosted by the application of either BM-MSCs or their CM both (1) structurally as demonstrated by the obviously increased mean area percent of collagen fibers in Masson's trichrome-stained skin biopsies and (2) functionally as supported by the interestingly improved epidermal barrier as well as dermal tensile strength. Thus, we conclude that topically applied BM-MSCs and their CM-via fibrin vehicle--could effectively improve the quality of healed skin in chronic excisional wounds in rats, albeit without true acceleration of wound closure.

  5. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    PubMed

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-08-31

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity.

  6. A novel strontium(II)-modified calcium phosphate bone cement stimulates human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, M; Lode, A; Helth, A; Gelinsky, M

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the in vitro effects of novel strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs), prepared using two different approaches on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), were evaluated. Strontium ions, known to stimulate bone formation and therefore already used in systemic osteoporosis therapy, were incorporated into a hydroxyapatite-forming calcium phosphate bone cement via two simple approaches: incorporation of strontium carbonate crystals and substitution of Ca(2+) by Sr(2+) ions during cement setting. All modified cements released 0.03-0.07 mM Sr(2+) under in vitro conditions, concentrations that were shown not to impair the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, strontium modification led to a reduced medium acidification and Ca(2+) depletion in comparison to the standard calcium phosphate cement. In indirect and direct cell culture experiments with the novel SrCPCs significantly enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation were observed. In conclusion, the SrCPCs described here could be beneficial for the local treatment of defects, especially in the osteoporotic bone.

  7. Combination of HIF-1α gene transfection and HIF-1-activated bone marrow-derived angiogenic cell infusion improves burn wound healing in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Du, J; Liu, L; Lay, F; Wang, Q; Dou, C; Zhang, X; Hosseini, S M; Simon, A; Rees, D J; Ahmed, A K; Sebastian, R; Sarkar, K; Milner, S; Marti, G P; Semenza, G L; Harmon, J W

    2013-11-01

    Impaired burn wound healing in the elderly represents a major clinical problem. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator that orchestrates the cellular response to hypoxia. Its actions in dermal wounds promote angiogenesis and improve healing. In a murine burn wound model, aged mice had impaired wound healing associated with reduced levels of HIF-1. When gene therapy with HIF-1 alone did not correct these deficits, we explored the potential benefit of HIF-1 gene therapy combined with the intravenous infusion of bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells (BMDACs) cultured with dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). DMOG is known to reduce oxidative degradation of HIF-1. The mice treated with a plasmid DNA construct expressing a stabilized mutant form of HIF-1α (CA5-HIF-1α)+BMDACs had more rapid wound closure. By day 17, there were more mice with completely closed wounds in the treated group (χ(2), P=0.05). The dermal blood flow measured by laser Doppler showed significantly increased wound perfusion on day 11. Homing of BMDACs to the burn wound was dramatically enhanced by CA5-HIF-1α gene therapy. HIF-1α mRNA expression in the burn wound was increased after transfection with CA5-HIF-1α plasmid. Our findings offer insight into the pathophysiology of burns in the elderly and point to potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Bioimaging assessment and effect of skin wound healing using bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells with the artificial dermis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hirokazu; Murakami, Takashi; Ajiki, Takashi; Hara, Mayumi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the fate and healing effect of transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in a rat diabetic skin wound model. Rats are treated with streptozotocin to induce diabetic conditions. A full-thickness skin defect is surgically made on the head of diabetic rats, and covered with an artificial dermis impregnated with either bone marrow cells (BMCs) or bone-marrow-derived MSCs from firefly luciferase (luc) transgenic (Tg) rats. Wound healing is evaluated using planimetry and immunohistochemistry, and the fate of transplanted MSCs is determined using in-vivo luminescent imaging. The diabetic wound treated with MSCs-impregnated artificial dermis is significantly smaller than that treated with artificial dermis alone at 1 week postoperation. Photons of luc+ MSCs are detected at the transplanted site during healing (3 weeks), whereas those of luc+ MSCs are depleted only after 1 week postimplantation. Immunohistochemistry at the healing site treated with MSCs demonstrates that CD31+ vessels increase with expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, suggesting that MSCs accelerate angiogenesis. These findings suggest that transplanted MSCs could be retained at wound sites during the healing process in a diabetic rat model, and subsequently promote wound healing through angiogenesis.

  9. The Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Conditioned Media Topically Delivered in Fibrin Glue on Chronic Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehanna, Radwa A.; Nabil, Iman; Attia, Noha; Bary, Amany A.; Razek, Khalid A.; Ahmed, Tamer A. E.; Elsayed, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) represent a modern approach for management of chronic skin injuries. In this work, we describe BM-MSCs application versus their conditioned media (CM) when delivered topically admixed with fibrin glue to enhance the healing of chronic excisional wounds in rats. Fifty-two adult male rats were classified into four groups after induction of large-sized full-thickness skin wound: control group (CG), fibrin only group (FG), fibrin + MSCs group (FG + SCs), and fibrin + CM group (FG + CM). Healing wounds were evaluated functionally and microscopically. Eight days after injury, number of CD68+ macrophages infiltrating granulation tissue was considerably higher in the latter two groups. Although—later—none of the groups depicted a substantially different healing rate, the quality of regenerated skin was significantly boosted by the application of either BM-MSCs or their CM both (1) structurally as demonstrated by the obviously increased mean area percent of collagen fibers in Masson's trichrome-stained skin biopsies and (2) functionally as supported by the interestingly improved epidermal barrier as well as dermal tensile strength. Thus, we conclude that topically applied BM-MSCs and their CM—via fibrin vehicle—could effectively improve the quality of healed skin in chronic excisional wounds in rats, albeit without true acceleration of wound closure. PMID:26236740

  10. Evaluation of Cross-presentation in Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells in vitro and Splenic Dendritic Cells ex vivo Using Antigen-coated Beads

    PubMed Central

    Alloatti, Andrés; Kotsias, Fiorella; Hoffmann, Eik; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules, also referred to as cross-presentation, elicits cytotoxic immune responses. In particular, dendritic cells (DC) are the most proficient cross-presenting cells, since they have developed unique means to control phagocytic and degradative pathways. This protocol allows the evaluation of antigen cross-presentation both in vitro (by using bone marrow-derived DC) and ex vivo (by purifying CD8+ DC from spleen after incorporation of particulate antigen) using ovalbumin (OVA)-coupled particles. Cross-presentation efficiency is measured by three different readouts: the B3Z hybridoma T cell line (Karttunen et al., 1992) and stimulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells (OT-I) (Kurts et al., 1996), either analyzing OT-I activation by CD69 expression or OT-I proliferation after labeling them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). By using this approach, we could show recently that DCs are able to increase cross-presentation efficiency transiently upon engagement of TLR4 (Alloatti et al., 2015). PMID:28239619

  11. Biological Response of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Commercial Tantalum Coatings with Microscale and Nanoscale Surface Topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, Shelby A.; Kumar, Girish; Goering, Peter L.; Williams, Brian; Stiglich, Jack; Narayan, Roger J.

    2016-06-01

    Tantalum is a promising orthopaedic implant coating material due to its robust mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility. Previous studies have demonstrated improved biocompatibility and tissue integration of surface-treated tantalum coatings compared to untreated tantalum. Surface modification of tantalum coatings with biologically inspired microscale and nanoscale features may be used to evoke optimal tissue responses. The goal of this study was to evaluate commercial tantalum coatings with nanoscale, sub-microscale, and microscale surface topographies for orthopaedic and dental applications using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Tantalum coatings with different microscale and nanoscale surface topographies were fabricated using a diffusion process or chemical vapor deposition. Biological evaluation of the tantalum coatings using hBMSCs showed that tantalum coatings promote cellular adhesion and growth. Furthermore, hBMSC adhesion to the tantalum coatings was dependent on surface feature characteristics, with enhanced cell adhesion on sub-micrometer- and micrometer-sized surface topographies compared to hybrid nano-/microstructures. Nanostructured and microstructured tantalum coatings should be further evaluated to optimize the surface coating features to promote osteogenesis and enhance osseointegration of tantalum-based orthopaedic implants.

  12. Cellular behaviour of hepatocyte-like cells from nude mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on galactosylated poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyun; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Chun, Heung Jae; Khang, Gilson

    2015-07-01

    Previously, the galactosylation of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) surface was accomplished by grafting allylamine (AA), using inductively coupled plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) and conjugating lactobionic acid (LA) with AA via 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) activation for hepatic tissue-engineering purposes. As a continuation study, the cellular behaviour of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) on the surface of the galactosylated PLGA were investigated. Nude mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured under hepatogenic conditions and the differentiated cells were characterized by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Galactosylated PLGA enhanced the proliferation rate of HLCs compared to the control; HLCs on the surface of the sample became aggregated and formed spheroids after 3 days of culture. A large number of cells on the surface of the sample exhibited increased liver-specific functional activities, such as albumin and urea secretions. In addition, multicellular spheroids in the sample strongly expressed phospholyated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) (cell-matrix interactions), E-cadherin (cell-cell interactions) and connexin 32 (Cox32; gap junction).

  13. Human platelet lysate is an alternative to fetal bovine serum for large-scale expansion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Gottipamula, Sanjay; Sharma, Archana; Krishnamurthy, Sagar; Majumdar, Anish Sen; Seetharam, Raviraja N

    2012-07-01

    Human platelet lysate (HPL) was evaluated as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in large-scale culturing of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) for therapeutic applications. Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM)of low glucose (LG) and Knock Out (KO) were used with human platelet lysate (HPL) as LG-HPL and KO-HPL, and with FBS as LG-FBS and KO-FBS to culture the BM-MSCs. HPL at 10 % (v/v) supported BM-MSCs growth and subsequent isolation efficiency generated >90 × 10(6) MSCs in LG-HPL. Population doublings (PDs) and population doubling times of LG-HPL and KO-HPL (PDT) were not significantly different but LG-HPL showed a significant clonogenic potential and HPL cultures had an average PDT of 36.5 ± 6.5 h and an average PDs of 5 ± 0.7/passage. BM-MSCs cultured with LG-HPL had significantly higher immunosuppression compared to LG-FBS, but KO-HPL and KO-FBS-grown cultures were not significantly different. HPL is therefore alternative to FBS for large-scale production of BM-MSCs for therapeutic applications.

  14. Microarray expression profiles of genes in lung tissues of rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Piao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores. We demonstrated that the transplantation of BMSCs (passage 3) via the tail vein into the lung tissues attenuated lung injury. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in lung tissues from the rats with focal cerebral ischemia and transplanted with BMSCs using a Gene microarray. Moreover, the Gene Ontology database was employed to determine gene function. We found that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were downregulated in the BMSC transplantation groups, compared with the control group. These results suggested that BMSC transplantation may attenuate lung injury following focal cerebral ischemia and that this effect is associated with the downregulation of TGF-β, PDGF and the PI3K-AKT pathway. PMID:27922691

  15. Enhanced hepatic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in spheroidal aggregate culture on a decellularized liver scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ji; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Yujia; Li, Yi; Li, Li; Chen, Fei; Wu, Xiujuan; Xie, Mingjun; Bu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the combination of aggregate culture and decellularized liver scaffolds (DLSs) promoted the hepatic differentiation of murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) into high yields of mature hepatocytes in vitro. Four culturing methods for differentiation [single cell (2D), spheroids (3D), 2D + DLS and 3D + DLS] were studied. To determine the differentiation stages of the MSCs, RT-qPCR of the hepatocyte genes, immunostaining of hepatocyte markers, and functional analyses were all performed. Compared with the other groups, hepatocyte-like cells which differentiated from BM-MSC spheroids on extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibited more intensive staining of stored glycogen, an elevated level of urea biosynthesis and albumin secretion as well as the higher expression of hepatocyte-specific genes. Our results indicated that DLSs combined with spheroidal aggregate culture may be used as an effective method to facilitate the hepatic maturation of BM-MSCs and may have future applications in stem cell-based liver regenerative medicine. PMID:27314916

  16. Inhibitory effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus strain on immunoglobulin E-mediated degranulation and late-phase immune reactions of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the in vitro effect of Lactobacillus strains, a major group of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, on immunoglobulin E (IgE)- and antigen-induced mast cell degranulation and subsequent gene expression. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from DBA/2 mice were cultured with heat-killed Lactobacillus strains for 24 h. Some strains significantly inhibited IgE- and antigen-induced β-hexosaminidase release from BMMCs. Furthermore, Lactobacillus reuteri NBRC 15892, which exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity, significantly reduced the elevated interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels that was induced by 1-2 h of stimulation with IgE and antigens. The suppressive effect of NBRC 15892 strain on BMMC degranulation was significantly reduced in the presence of a toll-like receptor (TLR)2-neutralizing antibody. In addition, downregulation of cell surface FcεRIα expression was observed after 6 h of NBRC 15892 treatment. These results suggest that some Lactobacillus strains inhibited IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and subsequent late-phase reactions involving mast cells via a TLR2-dependent mechanism with FcεRIα downregulation.

  17. Microarray expression profiles of genes in lung tissues of rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Piao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores. We demonstrated that the transplantation of BMSCs (passage 3) via the tail vein into the lung tissues attenuated lung injury. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in lung tissues from the rats with focal cerebral ischemia and transplanted with BMSCs using a Gene microarray. Moreover, the Gene Ontology database was employed to determine gene function. We found that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were downregulated in the BMSC transplantation groups, compared with the control group. These results suggested that BMSC transplantation may attenuate lung injury following focal cerebral ischemia and that this effect is associated with the downregulation of TGF-β, PDGF and the PI3K-AKT pathway.

  18. Delivery of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Tear Production in a Mouse Model of Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aluri, Hema S.; Samizadeh, Mahta; Edman, Maria C.; Armaos, Helene L.; Janga, Srikanth R.; Meng, Zhen; Sendra, Victor G.; Hamrah, Pedram; Kublin, Claire L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the potential of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BD-MSCs) in improving tear production in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye and to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved. NOD mice (n = 20) were randomized to receive i.p. injection of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control) or murine BD-MSCs (1 × 106 cells). Tears production was measured at baseline and once a week after treatment using phenol red impregnated threads. Cathepsin S activity in the tears was measured at the end of treatment. After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed and the lacrimal glands were excised and processed for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and RNA analysis. Following BD-MSC injection, tears production increased over time when compared to both baseline and PBS injected mice. Although the number of lymphocytic foci in the lacrimal glands of treated animals did not change, the size of the foci decreased by 40.5% when compared to control animals. The mRNA level of the water channel aquaporin 5 was significantly increased following delivery of BD-MSCs. We conclude that treatment with BD-MSCs increases tear production in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. This is likely due to decreased inflammation and increased expression of aquaporin 5. PMID:28348600

  19. The Effects of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection on GM-CSF- and M-CSF-Induced Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophage from Resistant and Susceptible Mice Strains.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silva, Calliandra; Tavares, Aldo Henrique; Sousa Jeronimo, Marcio; Soares de Lima, Yasmin; da Silveira Derengowski, Lorena; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2015-01-01

    Considering the importance of macrophages as the first line of defense against fungal infection and the different roles played by the two M1- and M2-like polarized macrophages, we decided to evaluate the effects of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection on GM-CSF- and M-CSF-induced bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) from the A/J and B10.A mouse strains, an established model of resistance/susceptibility to PCM, respectively. Upon differentiation, the generated GM- or M-BMMs were characterized by morphological analyses, gene expression profiles, and cytokines production. Our main results demonstrate that GM-BMMs derived from A/J and B.10 produced high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that may contribute to generate an unbalanced early immune response. In accordance with the literature, the B10.A susceptible mice lineage has an innate tendency to polarize into M1-like phenotype, whereas the opposite phenotype occurs in A/J resistance mice. In this context, our data support that susceptibility and resistance are strongly correlated with M1 and M2 polarization, respectively.

  20. A silk fibroin/chitosan scaffold in combination with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to repair cartilage defects in the rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiang; She, Rongfeng; Huang, Wenliang; Dong, Zhijun; Mo, Gang; Liu, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded in a three-dimensional scaffold of silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS) to repair cartilage defects in the rabbit knee. Totally 54 rabbits were randomly assigned to BMSCs + SF/CS scaffold, SF/CS scaffold and control groups. A cylindrical defect was created at the patellofemoral facet of the right knee of each rabbit and repaired by scaffold respectively. Samples were prepared at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-surgery for gross observation, hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining, type II collagen immunohistochemistry, Wakitani histology. The results showed that differentiated BMSCs proliferated well in the scaffold. In the BMSCs + SF/CS scaffold group, the bone defect was nearly repaired, the scaffold was absorbed and immunohistochemistry was positive. In the SF/CS scaffold alone group, fiber-like tissues were observed, the scaffold was nearly degraded and immunohistochemistry was weakly positive. In the control group, the defect was not well repaired and positive immunoreactions were not detected. Modified Wakitani scores were superior in the BMSCs + SF/CS scaffold group compared with those in other groups at 4, 8 and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). A SF/CS scaffold can serve as carrier for stem cells to repair cartilage defects and may be used for cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. Coexpression of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers in selected subpopulations of primary human mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ponce, M L; Koelling, S; Kluever, A; Heinemann, D E H; Miosge, N; Wulf, G; Frosch, K-H; Schütze, N; Hufner, M; Siggelkow, H

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge of the basic mechanisms controlling osteogenesis and adipogenesis might provide new insights into the prevention of osteoporosis and age-related osteopenia. With the help of magnetic cell sorting and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), osteoblastic subpopulations of mesenchymal progenitor cells were characterized. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) negative cells expressed low levels of osteoblastic and adipocytic markers. AP positive cells expressed adipocytic markers more strongly than the AP negative cell populations, thus suggesting that committed osteoblasts exhibit a greater adipogenic potential. AP negative cells differentiated to the mature osteoblastic phenotype, as demonstrated by increased AP-activity and osteocalcin secretion under standard osteogenic culture conditions. Surprisingly, this was accompanied by increased expression of adipocytic gene markers such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2, lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid binding protein. The induction of adipogenic markers was suppressed by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and promoted by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). Osteogenic culture conditions including BMP-2 induced both the formation of mineralized nodules and cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles. Upon immunogold electron microscopic analysis, osteoblastic and adipogenic marker proteins were detectable in the same cell. Our results suggest that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal progenitor cells might not be exclusively reciprocal, but rather, a parallel event until late during osteoblast development.

  2. Mediator MED23 cooperates with RUNX2 to drive osteoblast differentiation and bone development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Xiao; Yan, Guang; Xu, YiChi; Yan, Jun; Zou, Weiguo; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    How lineage specifiers are regulated during development is an outstanding question, and the molecular regulation of osteogenic factor RUNX2 remains to be fully understood. Here we report that the Mediator subunit MED23 cooperates with RUNX2 to regulate osteoblast differentiation and bone development. Med23 deletion in mesenchymal stem cells or osteoblast precursors results in multiple bone defects similar to those observed in Runx2+/− mice. In vitro, Med23-deficient progenitor cells are refractory to osteoblast differentiation, and Med23 deficiency reduces Runx2-target gene activity without changing Runx2 expression. Mechanistically, MED23 binds to RUNX2 and modulates its transcriptional activity. Moreover, Med23 deficiency in osteoprogenitor cells exacerbates the skeletal abnormalities observed in Runx2+/− mice. Collectively, our results establish a genetic and physical interaction between RUNX2 and MED23, suggesting that MED23 constitutes a molecular node in the regulatory network of anabolic bone formation and related diseases. PMID:27033977

  3. Fucoidan promotes osteoblast differentiation via JNK- and ERK-dependent BMP2-Smad 1/5/8 signaling in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Su; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Park, Ji-Yun; Lee, Jun

    2015-01-09

    Fucoidan has attracted attention as a potential drug because of its biological activities, which include osteogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the osteogenic activity of fucoidan in human alveolar bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABM-MSCs) remain largely unknown. We investigated the action of fucoidan on osteoblast differentiation in hABM-MSCs and its impact on signaling pathways. Its effect on proliferation was determined using the crystal violet staining assay. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated based on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the mRNA expression of multiple osteoblast markers. Calcium accumulation was determined by Alizarin red S staining. We found that fucoidan induced hABM-MSC proliferation. It also significantly increased ALP activity, calcium accumulation and the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, such as ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, type I collagen-α 1 and osteocalcin. Moreover, fucoidan induced the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and stimulated the activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by increasing phosphorylation. However, the effect of fucoidan on osteogenic differentiation was inhibited by specific inhibitors of ERK (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) but not p38 (SB203580). Fucoidan enhanced BMP2 expression and Smad 1/5/8, ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, the effect of fucoidan on osteoblast differentiation was diminished by BMP2 knockdown. These results indicate that fucoidan induces osteoblast differentiation through BMP2-Smad 1/5/8 signaling by activating ERK and JNK, elucidating the molecular basis of the osteogenic effects of fucoidan in hABM-MSCs.

  4. Up-regulation of BMP2/4 signaling increases both osteoblast-specific marker expression and bone marrow adipogenesis in Gja1Jrt/+ stromal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Zappitelli, Tanya; Chen, Frieda; Aubin, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice carry a mutation in one allele of the gap junction protein α1 gene (Gja1), resulting in a G60S connexin 43 (Cx43) mutant protein that is dominant negative for Cx43 protein production of <50% of wild-type (WT) levels and significantly reduced gap junction formation and function in osteoblasts and other Cx43-expressing cells. Previously we reported that Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice exhibited early-onset osteopenia caused by activation of osteoclasts secondary to activation of osteoblast lineage cells, which expressed increased RANKL and produced an abnormal resorption-stimulating bone matrix high in BSP content. Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice also displayed early and progressive bone marrow atrophy, with a significant increase in bone marrow adiposity versus WT littermates but no increase in adipose tissues elsewhere in the body. BMP2/4 production and signaling were increased in Gja1(Jrt)/+ trabecular bone and osteogenic stromal cell cultures, which contributed to the up-regulated expression of osteoblast-specific markers (e.g., Bsp and Ocn) in Gja1(Jrt)/+ osteoblasts and increased Pparg2 expression in bone marrow-derived adipoprogenitors in vitro. The elevated levels of BMP2/4 signaling in G60S Cx43-containing cells resulted at least in part from elevated levels of cAMP. We conclude that up-regulation of BMP2/4 signaling in trabecular bone and/or stromal cells increases osteoblast-specific marker expression in hyperactive Gja1(Jrt)/+ osteoblasts and may also increase bone marrow adipogenesis by up-regulation of Pparg2 in the Cx43-deficient Gja1(Jrt)/+ mouse model.

  5. Mesenchymal stromal-cell transplants induce oligodendrocyte progenitor migration and remyelination in a chronic demyelination model.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Merchán, J; Jones, J; Ivorra, J L; Pastor, D; Viso-León, M C; Armengól, J A; Moltó, M D; Geijo-Barrientos, E; Martínez, S

    2013-08-29

    Demyelinating disorders such as leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of myelin that may lead toward a chronic demyelination of the brain's white matter, impairing normal axonal conduction velocity and ultimately causing neurodegeneration. Current treatments modifying the pathological mechanisms are capable of ameliorating the disease; however, frequently, these therapies are not sufficient to repress the progressive demyelination into a chronic condition and permanent loss of function. To this end, we analyzed the effect that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) grafts exert in a chronically demyelinated mouse brain. As a result, oligodendrocyte progenitors were recruited surrounding the graft due to the expression of various trophic signals by the grafted MSCs. Although there was no significant reaction in the non-grafted side, in the grafted regions oligodendrocyte progenitors were detected. These progenitors were derived from the nearby tissue as well as from the neurogenic niches, including the subependymal zone and dentate gyrus. Once near the graft site, the cells matured to myelinating oligodendrocytes. Finally, electrophysiological studies demonstrated that axonal conduction velocity was significantly increased in the grafted side of the fimbria. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that in chronic demyelinated white matter, BM-MSC transplantation activates oligodendrocyte progenitors and induces remyelination in the tissue surrounding the stem cell graft.

  6. Concise review: Kidney stem/progenitor cells: differentiate, sort out, or reprogram?

    PubMed

    Pleniceanu, Oren; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Dekel, Benjamin

    2010-09-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is defined as the inability of the kidneys to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood. ESRD progresses from earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and occurs when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is below 15 ml/minute/1.73 m(2). CKD and ESRD are dramatically rising due to increasing aging population, population demographics, and the growing rate of diabetes and hypertension. Identification of multipotential stem/progenitor populations in mammalian tissues is important for therapeutic applications and for understanding developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Progenitor populations are ideal targets for gene therapy, cell transplantation, and tissue engineering. The demand for kidney progenitors is increasing due to severe shortage of donor organs. Because dialysis and transplantation are currently the only successful therapies for ESRD, cell therapy offers an alternative approach for kidney diseases. However, this approach may be relevant only in earlier stages of CKD, when kidney function and histology are still preserved, allowing for the integration of cells and/or for their paracrine effects, but not when small and fibrotic end-stage kidneys develop. Although blood- and bone marrow-derived stem cells hold a therapeutic promise, they are devoid of nephrogenic potential, emphasizing the need to seek kidney stem cells beyond known extrarenal sources. Moreover, controversies regarding the existence of a true adult kidney stem cell highlight the importance of studying cell-based therapies using pluripotent cells, progenitor cells from fetal kidney, or dedifferentiated/reprogrammed adult kidney cells.

  7. Mesenchymal stromal-cell transplants induce oligodendrocyte progenitor migration and remyelination in a chronic demyelination model

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Merchán, J; Jones, J; Ivorra, J L; Pastor, D; Viso-León, M C; Armengól, J A; Moltó, M D; Geijo-Barrientos, E; Martínez, S

    2013-01-01

    Demyelinating disorders such as leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of myelin that may lead toward a chronic demyelination of the brain's white matter, impairing normal axonal conduction velocity and ultimately causing neurodegeneration. Current treatments modifying the pathological mechanisms are capable of ameliorating the disease; however, frequently, these therapies are not sufficient to repress the progressive demyelination into a chronic condition and permanent loss of function. To this end, we analyzed the effect that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) grafts exert in a chronically demyelinated mouse brain. As a result, oligodendrocyte progenitors were recruited surrounding the graft due to the expression of various trophic signals by the grafted MSCs. Although there was no significant reaction in the non-grafted side, in the grafted regions oligodendrocyte progenitors were detected. These progenitors were derived from the nearby tissue as well as from the neurogenic niches, including the subependymal zone and dentate gyrus. Once near the graft site, the cells matured to myelinating oligodendrocytes. Finally, electrophysiological studies demonstrated that axonal conduction velocity was significantly increased in the grafted side of the fimbria. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that in chronic demyelinated white matter, BM-MSC transplantation activates oligodendrocyte progenitors and induces remyelination in the tissue surrounding the stem cell graft. PMID:23990019

  8. Role of the renin angiotensin system on bone marrow-derived stem cell function and its impact on skeletal muscle angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Resende, Micheline M; Stodola, Timothy J; Greene, Andrew S

    2010-08-01

    Autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation has been shown as a potential approach to treat various ischemic diseases. However, under many conditions BMC dysfunction has been reported, leading to poor cell engraftment and a failure of tissue revascularization. We have previously shown that skeletal muscle angiogenesis induced by electrical stimulation (ES) is impaired in the SS/Mcwi rats and that this effect is related to a dysregulation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) that is normalized by the replacement of chromosome 13 derived from the Brown Norway rat (SS-13(BN)/Mcwi consomic rats). The present study explored bone marrow-derived endothelial cell (BM-EC) function in the SS/Mcwi rat and its impact on skeletal muscle angiogenesis induced by ES. SS/Mcwi rats were randomized to receive BMC from: SS/Mcwi; SS-13(BN)/Mcwi; SS/Mcwi rats infused with saline or ANG II (3 ng kg(-1) min(-1)). BMC were injected in the stimulated tibialis anterior muscle of SS/Mcwi rats. Vessel density was evaluated in unstimulated and stimulated muscles after 7 days of ES. BMC isolated from SS/Mcwi or SS/Mcwi rats infused with saline failed to restore angiogenesis induced by ES. However, BMC isolated from SS-13(BN)/Mcwi and SS/Mcwi rats infused with ANG II effectively restored the angiogenesis response in the SS/Mcwi recipient. Furthermore, ANG II infusion increased the capacity of BM-EC to induce endothelial cell tube formation in vitro and slightly increased VEGF protein expression. This study suggests that dysregulation of the RAS in the SS/Mcwi rat contributes to impaired BM-EC function and could impact the angiogenic therapeutic potential of BMC.

  9. NKT cells act through third party bone marrow-derived cells to suppress NK cell activity in the liver and exacerbate hepatic melanoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Leila; Chen, Peter W; Brown, Joseph R; Han, Zhiqiang; Niederkorn, Jerry Y

    2015-09-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumor in adults and liver metastasis is the leading cause of death in UM patients. We have previously shown that NKT cell-deficient mice develop significantly fewer liver metastases from intraocular melanomas than do wild-type (WT) mice. Here, we examine the interplay between liver NKT cells and NK cells in resistance to liver metastases from intraocular melanomas. NKT cell-deficient CD1d(-/-) mice and WT C57BL/6 mice treated with anti-CD1d antibody developed significantly fewer liver metastases than WT mice following either intraocular or intrasplenic injection of B16LS9 melanoma cells. The increased number of metastases in WT mice was associated with reduced liver NK cytotoxicity and decreased production of IFN-γ. However, liver NK cell-mediated cytotoxic activity was identical in non-tumor bearing NKT cell-deficient mice and WT mice, indicating that liver metastases were crucial for the suppression of liver NK cells. Depressed liver NK cytotoxicity in WT mice was associated with production of IL-10 by bone marrow-derived liver cells that were neither Kupffer cells nor myeloid-derived suppressor cells and by increased IL-10 receptor expression on liver NK cells. IL-10(-/-) mice had significantly fewer liver metastases than WT mice, but were not significantly different from NKT cell-deficient mice. Thus, development of melanoma liver metastases is associated with upregulation of IL-10 in the liver and an elevated expression of IL-10 receptor on liver NK cells. This impairment of liver NK activity is NKT cell-dependent and only occurs in hosts with melanoma liver metastases.

  10. Probable impact of age and hypoxia on proliferation and microRNA expression profile of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Boo, Lily; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ky, Huynh; Satharasinghe, Dilan A.; Liew, Woan Charn; Cheong, Soon Keng; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-01-01

    Decline in the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is often seen with older donors as compared to young. Although hypoxia is known as an approach to improve the therapeutic potential of MSC in term of cell proliferation and differentiation capacity, its effects on MSC from aged donors have not been well studied. To evaluate the influence of hypoxia on different age groups, MSC from young (<30 years) and aged (>60 years) donors were expanded under hypoxic (5% O2) and normal (20% O2) culture conditions. MSC from old donors exhibited a reduction in proliferation rate and differentiation potential together with the accumulation of senescence features compared to that of young donors. However, MSC cultured under hypoxic condition showed enhanced self-renewing and proliferation capacity in both age groups as compared to normal condition. Bioinformatic analysis of the gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway under hypoxic culture condition identified hypoxia-inducible miRNAs that were found to target transcriptional activity leading to enhanced cell proliferation, migration as well as decrease in growth arrest and apoptosis through the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Overall, differentially expressed miRNA provided additional information to describe the biological changes of young and aged MSCs expansion under hypoxic culture condition at the molecular level. Based on our findings, the therapeutic potential hierarchy of MSC according to donor’s age group and culture conditions can be categorized in the following order: young (hypoxia) > young (normoxia) > old aged (hypoxia) > old aged (normoxia). PMID:26788424

  11. GR-independent down-modulation on GM-CSF bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by the selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator Compound A

    PubMed Central

    Barcala Tabarrozzi, Andres E.; Andreone, Luz; Deckers, Julie; Castro, Carla N.; Gimeno, María L.; Ariolfo, Laura; Berguer, Paula M.; Antunica-Noguerol, María; Liberman, Ana C.; Vettorazzi, Sabine; Tuckermann, Jan P.; De Bosscher, Karolien; Perone, Marcelo J.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) initiate the adaptive immune response. Glucocorticoids (GCs) down-modulate the function of DC. Compound A (CpdA, (2-(4-acetoxyphenyl)-2-chloro-N-methyl-ethylammonium chloride) is a plant-derived GR-ligand with marked dissociative properties. We investigated the effects of CpdA on in vitro generated GM-CSF-conditioned bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). CpdA-exposed BMDC exhibited low expression of cell-surface molecules and diminution of the release of proinflammatory cytokines upon LPS stimulation; processes associated with BMDC maturation and activation. CpdA-treated BMDC were inefficient at Ag capture via mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis and displayed reduced T-cell priming. CpdA prevented the LPS-induced rise in pErk1/2 and pP38, kinases involved in TLR4 signaling. CpdA fully inhibited LPS-induced pAktSer473, a marker associated with the generation of tolerogenic DC. We used pharmacological blockade and selective genetic loss-of-function tools and demonstrated GR-independent inhibitory effects of CpdA in BMDC. Mechanistically, CpdA-mediated inactivation of the NF-κB intracellular signaling pathway was associated with a short-circuiting of pErk1/2 and pP38 upstream signaling. Assessment of the in vivo function of CpdA-treated BMDC pulsed with the hapten trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid showed impaired cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity. Collectively, we provide evidence that CpdA is an effective BMDC modulator that might have a benefit for immune disorders, even when GR is not directly targeted. PMID:27857212

  12. MiR-101 Targets the EZH2/Wnt/β-Catenin the Pathway to Promote the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongrui; Meng, Yake; Cui, Quanjun; Qin, Fujun; Yang, Haisong; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Yajun; Shi, Jiangang; Guo, Yongfei

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in multiple processes of osteogenic differentiation. MicroRNA-101 (miR-101), identified as a tumor suppressor, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of cancer. However, the expression of miR-101 and its roles in the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) remain unclear. We found that the miR-101 expression level was significantly increased during the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. MiR-101 depletion suppressed osteogenic differentiation, whereas the overexpression of miR-101 was sufficient to promote this process. We further demonstrated that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) was a target gene of miR-101. EZH2 overexpression and depletion reversed the promoting or suppressing effect of osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, respectively, caused by miR-101. In addition, we showed that miR-101 overexpression promoted the expression of Wnt genes, resulting in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting EZH2, while the activity of β-catenin and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was inhibited by ICG-001, a β-Catenin inhibitor, which reversed the promoting effect of miR-101. Finally, miR-101 also promotes in vivo bone formation by hBMSCs. Collectively, these data suggest that miR-101 is induced by osteogenic stimuli and promotes osteogenic differentiation at least partly by targeting the EZH2/Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27845386

  13. Fluocinolone Acetonide Is a Potent Synergistic Factor of TGF-β3-Associated Chondrogenesis of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Articular Surface Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Ono, Mitsuaki; Pham, Hai Thanh; Sonoyama, Wataru; Kubota, Satoshi; Takigawa, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Takuya; Young, Marian F; Olsen, Bjorn R; Kuboki, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    Articular cartilage repair remains a challenging problem. Based on a high-throughput screening and functional analysis, we found that fluocinolone acetonide (FA) in combination with transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) strongly potentiated chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). In an in vivo cartilage defect model in knee joints of immunocompromised mice, transplantation of FA/TGF-β3-treated hBMSCs could completely repair the articular surface. Analysis of the intracellular pathways revealed that FA enhanced TGF-β3-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. Additionally, we performed a pathway array and found that FA activates the mTORC1/AKT pathway. Chemical inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin substantially suppressed FA effect, and inhibition of AKT completely repressed chondrogenesis of hBMSCs. Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor with mifepristone also suppressed FA effect, suggesting that FA involves binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Comparative analysis with other glucocorticoids (triamcinolone acetonide [TA] and dexamethasone [DEX]) revealed the unique ability of FA to repair articular cartilage surgical defects. Analysis of intracellular pathways showed that the mTORC1/AKT pathway and the glucocorticoid receptor was highly activated with FA and TA, but to a lesser extent with DEX. Collectively, these results show a unique ability of FA to enhance TGF-β3-associated chondrogenesis, and suggest that the FA/TGF-β3 combination may be used as major inducer of chondrogenesis in vitro. Additionally, FA/TGF-β3 could be potentially applied in a clinical setting to increase the efficiency of regenerative approaches based on chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells.

  14. Effect of Chromatin-Remodeling Agents in Hepatic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Danna; Li, Tong; Heraud, Philip; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic events, including covalent histone modifications and DNA methylation, play fundamental roles in the determination of lineage-specific gene expression and cell fates. The aim of this study was to determine whether the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi) 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) promote the hepatic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBM-MSCs) and their therapeutic effect on liver damage. 1 μM TSA and 20 μM 5-aza-dC were added to standard hepatogenic medium especially at differentiation and maturation steps and their potential function on hepatic differentiation in vitro and in vivo was determined. Exposure of rBM-MSCs to 1 μM TSA at both the differentiation and maturation steps considerably improved hepatic differentiation. TSA enhanced the development of the hepatocyte shape, promoted the chronological expression of hepatocyte-specific markers, and improved hepatic functions. In contrast, treatment of rBM-MSCs with 20 μM 5-aza-dC alone or in combination with TSA was ineffective in improving hepatic differentiation in vitro. TSA and/or 5-aza-dC derived hepatocytes-like cells failed to improve the therapeutic potential in liver damage. We conclude that HDACis enhance hepatic differentiation in a time-dependent manner, while DNMTis do not induce the hepatic differentiation of rBM-MSCs in vitro. Their in vivo function needs further investigation. PMID:27242905

  15. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y. )

    1991-03-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity.

  16. TNF-α Inhibits FoxO1 by Upregulating miR-705 to Aggravate Oxidative Damage in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Li; Su, Xiaoxia; Yang, Xiaohong; Hu, Chenghu; Li, Bei; Lv, Yajie; Shuai, Yi; Jing, Huan; Deng, Zhihong; Jin, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Decline of antioxidant defense after estrogen deficiency leads to oxidative damage in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), resulting a defect of bone formation in osteoporosis. Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) protein is crucial for defending physiological oxidative damage in bone. But whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative damage during osteoporosis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that FoxO1 protein accumulation was decreased in BMMSCs of ovariectomized mice. The decrease of FoxO1 resulted in the suppression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) and catalase (Cat) expression and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting the osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs. The decline of FoxO1 protein was caused by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) accumulated after estrogen deficiency. Mechanistically, TNF-α activated NF-κB pathway to promote microRNA-705 expression, which function as a repressor of FoxO1 through post-transcriptional regulation. Inhibition of NF-κB pathway or knockdown of miR-705 largely prevented the decline of FoxO1-mediated antioxidant defense caused by TNF-α and ameliorated the oxidative damage in osteoporotic BMMSCs. Moreover, the accumulated ROS further activated NF-κB pathway with TNF-α, which formed a feed-forward loop to persistently inhibiting FoxO1 protein accumulation in BMMSCs. In conclusion, our study revealed that the decline of FoxO1 is an important etiology factor of osteoporosis and unclosed a novel mechanism of FoxO1 regulation by TNF-α. These findings suggested a close correlation between inflammation and oxidative stress in stem cell dysfunction during degenerative bone diseases.

  17. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance autophagy via PI3K/AKT signalling to reduce the severity of ischaemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Dan; Song, Yuanlin; She, Jun; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-10-01

    Autophagy, a type II programmed cell death, is essential for cell survival under stress, e.g. lung injury, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have great potential for cell therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying the BM-MSC activation of autophagy to provide a therapeutic effect in ischaemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury (IRI) remain unclear. Thus, we investigate the activation of autophagy in IRI following transplantation with BM-MSCs. Seventy mice were pre-treated with BM-MSCs before they underwent lung IRI surgery in vivo. Human pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) were pre-conditioned with BM-MSCs by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD) in vitro. Expression markers for autophagy and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signalling pathway were analysed. In IRI-treated mice, administration of BM-MSCs significantly attenuated lung injury and inflammation, and increased the level of autophagy. In OGD-treated HPMVECs, co-culture with BM-MSCs attenuated endothelial permeability by decreasing the level of cell death and enhanced autophagic activation. Moreover, administration of BM-MSCs decreased the level of PI3K class I and p-Akt while the expression of PI3K class III was increased. Finally, BM-MSCs-induced autophagic activity was prevented using the inhibitor LY294002. Administration of BM-MSCs attenuated lung injury by improving the autophagy level via the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. These findings provide further understanding of the mechanisms related to BM-MSCs and will help to develop new cell-based therapeutic strategies in lung injury.

  18. The effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 and bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Perečko, T; Kassab, R B; Vašíček, O; Pekarová, M; Jančinová, V; Lojek, A

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine, an antimalarial drug, can also be used in the regulation of the immune system, e.g. it is used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we investigated the effects of chloroquine and its hydroxy-derivative on nitric oxide (NO) production in two different cell types: (i) immortalized mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and (ii) mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). The cells were treated with different concentrations (1-100 μM) of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 24 h to induce NO production. Measurement of nitrites by the Griess reaction was used to evaluate the production of NO. Expression of inducible NO synthase was evaluated with Western blot and ATPcytotoxicity test was used to measure the viability of the cells. Our results showed that both chloroquine and its hydroxy-derivative inhibited NO production in both cell types. However, based on the results of LD50 these inhibitory effects of both derivatives were due to their cytotoxicity. The LD50 values for chloroquine were 24.77 μM (RAW 264.7) and 24.86 μM (BMDM), the LD50 for hydroxychloroquine were 13.28 μM (RAW 264.7) and 13.98 μM (BMDM). In conclusion, hydroxychloroquine was more cytotoxic than its parent molecule. Comparing the two cell types tested, our data suggest that there are no differences in cytotoxicity of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for primary cells (BMDM) or immortalized cell line (RAW 264.7).

  19. Endometriosis impairs bone marrow-derived stem cell recruitment to the uterus whereas bazedoxifene treatment leads to endometriosis regression and improved uterine stem cell engraftment.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Sharif; Naqvi, Hanyia; Komm, Barry; Taylor, Hugh S

    2014-04-01

    Endometriosis is a disease defined by the ectopic growth of uterine endometrium. Stem cells contribute to the generation of endometriosis as well as to repair and regeneration of normal endometrium. Here we demonstrate that the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA), administered with conjugated estrogens (CEs), leads to regression of endometriosis lesions as well as reduction in stem cell recruitment to the lesions. Female mice underwent transplantation of male bone marrow. Endometrium was transplanted in the peritoneal cavity of half to create experimental endometriosis. Mice with or without experimental endometriosis were randomized to BZA/CE or vehicle treatment. Endometriosis lesions, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell engraftment of the lesions, and eutopic endometrium as well as ovarian stimulation were assessed. BZA treatment significantly reduced lesion size, gland number, and expression of proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Ovarian weight was not affected. Stem cells were recruited to the endometriosis lesions, and this recruitment was dramatically reduced by BZA/CE treatment. Stem cell engraftment was reduced in the uterus of animals with endometriosis; however the number of stem cells engrafting the uterus was completely restored by treatment with BZA/CE. Competition between endometriosis and the eutopic endometrium for a limited supply of stem cells and depletion of normal stem cells flux to the uterus is a novel mechanism by which endometriosis interferes with endometrial function and fertility. BZA/CE not only treats lesions of endometriosis, it also dramatically reduces stem cell recruitment to the lesions and restores stem cell engraftment of the uterine endometrium.

  20. Bone-Forming Capacity and Biodistribution of Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells Directly Loaded Into Scaffolds: A Novel and Easy Approach for Clinical Application of Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Léotot, Julie; Lebouvier, Angélique; Hernigou, Philippe; Bierling, Philippe; Rouard, Hélène; Chevallier, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    In the context of clinical applications of bone regeneration, cell seeding into scaffolds needs to be safe and easy. Moreover, cell density also plays a crucial role in the development of efficient bone tissue engineering constructs. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a simple and rapid cell seeding procedure on hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/βTCP), as well as define optimal cell density and control the biodistribution of grafted cells. To this end, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) were seeded on HA/βTCP scaffolds, and we have compared bone formation using an ectopic model. Our results demonstrated a significantly higher bone-forming capacity of hBMSCs directly loaded on HA/βTCP during surgery compared to hBMSCs preseeded for 7 days in vitro on HA/βTCP before ectopic implantation. The extent of new bone formation increases with increasing hBMSC densities quantitatively, qualitatively, and in frequency. Also, this study showed that grafted hBMSCs remained confined to the implantation site and did not spread toward other tissues, such as liver, spleen, lungs, heart, and kidneys. In conclusion, direct cell loading into a scaffold during surgery is more efficient for bone regeneration, as well as quick and safe. Therefore direct cell loading is suitable for clinical requirements and cell production control, making it a promising approach for orthopedic applications. Moreover, our results have provided evidence that the formation of a mature bone organ containing hematopoietic islets needs a sufficiently high local density of grafted hBMSCs, which should guide the optimal dose of cells for clinical use.

  1. Toll-Like Receptor 3 and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins Regulate CXCR4 and CXCR7 Expression in Bone Marrow-Derived Human Multipotent Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tomchuck, Suzanne L.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Coffelt, Seth B.; Betancourt, Aline M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of bone marrow-derived human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC) in cell-based therapies has dramatically increased in recent years, as researchers have exploited the ability of these cells to migrate to sites of tissue injury, inflammation, and tumors. Our group established that hMSC respond to “danger” signals – by-products of damaged, infected or inflamed tissues – via activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, little is known regarding downstream signaling mediated by TLRs in hMSC. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that TLR3 stimulation activates a Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 pathway, and increases expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3 in hMSC. Our studies suggest that each of these SOCS plays a distinct role in negatively regulating TLR3 and JAK/STAT signaling. TLR3-mediated interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) expression was inhibited by SOCS3 overexpression in hMSC while SOCS1 overexpression reduced STAT1 activation. Furthermore, our study is the first to demonstrate that when TLR3 is activated in hMSC, expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 is downregulated. SOCS3 overexpression inhibited internalization of both CXCR4 and CXCR7 following TLR3 stimulation. In contrast, SOCS1 overexpression only inhibited CXCR7 internalization. Conclusion/Significance These results demonstrate that SOCS1 and SOCS3 each play a functionally distinct role in modulating TLR3, JAK/STAT, and CXCR4/CXCR7 signaling in hMSC and shed further light on the way hMSC respond to danger signals. PMID:22745793

  2. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells rescues partially rachitic phenotypes induced by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D deficiency in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zengli; Yin, Shaomeng; Xue, Xian; Ji, Ji; Tong, Jian; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can improve the 1,25(OH)2D deficiency-induced rachitic phenotype, 2×106 BM-MSCs from wild-type mice or vehicle were transplanted by tail vein injection into mice deficient in 1,25(OH)2D due to targeted deletion of 1α(OH)ase (1α(OH)ase-/-). Our results show that 1α(OH)ase mRNA was expressed in the BM-MSCs derived from wild-type mice, and was detected in long bone, kidney and intestine from BM-MSC-transplanted 1α(OH)ase-/- recipients. Serum calcium, 1,25(OH)2D3 levels and body weight were significantly increased in BM-MSC-transplanted 1α(OH)ase-/- recipients compared to vehicle-treated 1α(OH)ase-/- mice. Skeletal mineralization improved in 1α(OH)ase-/- recipients as demonstrated by BMD measurement, micro-CT analysis and von Kossa staining of undecalcified sections. Expression levels of type I collagen, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and vitronectin and the size of calcified nodules were decreased in BM-MSC cultures from 1α(OH)ase-/- mice compared with those from wild-type mice, however, these parameters were increased in those from BM-MSCs-transplanted 1α(OH)ase-/- recipients compared with those from vehicle-treated 1α(OH)ase-/- mice. This study indicates that donor BM-MSCs cells can relocate to multiple tissues where they synthesize 1α(OH)ase and produce 1,25(OH)2D that contributes to the improvement of serum calcium and skeletal mineralization. Results from this study suggest that BM-MSC transplantation may provide a therapeutic approach to treatment of pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets. PMID:27830022

  3. Melatonin Pretreatment Enhances the Homing of Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Transplantation in a Rat Model of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mortezaee, Keywan; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Sabbaghziarani, Fatemeh; Omidi, Ameneh; Zendedel, Adib; Ghasemi, Soudabeh; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) transplantation has been considered as a promising milestone in liver fibrosis treatment. However, low amounts of homing are a major obstacle. We aimed to investigate the role of melatonin pretreatment in BMMSC homing into experimental liver fibrosis. Methods: BMMSCs were obtained, grown, propagated and preconditioned with 5 µM melatonin and analyzed for multipotency and immunophenotypic features at passage three. The cells were labelled with CM-Dil and infused into the rats received the i.p. injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for five weeks to induce liver fibrosis. Animals were divided into two groups: One group received BMMSCs, whereas the other group received melatonin-pretreated BMMSCs (MT-BMMSCs). After cell injection at 72 h, animals were sacrificed, and the liver tissues were assessed for further evaluations: fibrosis using Masson’s trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin staining and homing using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Results: BMMSCs and MT-BMMSCs expressed a high level of CD44 but low levels of CD11b, CD45 and CD34 (for all P≤0.05) and were able to differentiate into adipocytes and Schwann cells. CCl4 induction resulted in extensive collagen deposition, tissue disruption and fatty accumulation with no obvious difference between the two groups. There was a significant increase in homing of MT-BMMSCs in both florescent microscopy (P≤0.001) and flow cytometry (P≤0.01) assays, as compared with non-treated BMMSCs. Conclusion: This study indicates the improved homing potential of BMMSCs in pretreatment with melatonin. Therefore, this strategy may represent an applied approach for improving the stem cell therapy of liver fibrosis. PMID:27130910

  4. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor BB Enhances Osteogenesis of Adipose-Derived But Not Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ben P; Hutton, Daphne L; Kozielski, Kristen L; Bishop, Corey J; Naved, Bilal; Green, Jordan J; Caplan, Arnold I; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Dorafshar, Amir H; Grayson, Warren L

    2015-09-01

    Tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) holds great promise for regenerating critically sized bone defects. While the bone marrow-derived MSC is the most widely studied stromal/stem cell type for this application, its rarity within bone marrow and painful isolation procedure have motivated investigation of alternative cell sources. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are more abundant and more easily procured; furthermore, they also possess robust osteogenic potency. While these two cell types are widely considered very similar, there is a growing appreciation of possible innate differences in their biology and response to growth factors. In particular, reports indicate that their osteogenic response to platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) is markedly different: MSCs responded negatively or not at all to PDGF-BB while ASCs exhibited enhanced mineralization in response to physiological concentrations of PDGF-BB. In this study, we directly tested whether a fundamental difference existed between the osteogenic responses of MSCs and ASCs to PDGF-BB. MSCs and ASCs cultured under identical osteogenic conditions responded disparately to 20 ng/ml of PDGF-BB: MSCs exhibited no difference in mineralization while ASCs produced more calcium per cell. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PDGFRβ within ASCs abolished their ability to respond to PDGF-BB. Gene expression was also different; MSCs generally downregulated and ASCs generally upregulated osteogenic genes in response to PDGF-BB. ASCs transduced to produce PDGF-BB resulted in more regenerated bone within a critically sized murine calvarial defect compared to control ASCs, indicating PDGF-BB used specifically in conjunction with ASCs might enhance tissue engineering approaches for bone regeneration.

  5. In Vitro Conditioned Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote De Novo Functional Enteric Nerve Regeneration, but Not Through Direct-Transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong; Ding, Zhen; Ma, Huan; Shi, Huiying; Gao, Yuanjun; Qian, Wei; Shi, Weina; Sun, Zhaoli; Hou, Xiaohua; Li, Xuhang

    2015-12-01

    Injury or neurodegenerative disorders of the enteric nervous system (ENS) cause gastrointestinal dysfunctions for which there is no effective therapy. This study, using the benzalkonium chloride-induced rat gastric denervation model, aimed to determine whether transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) could promote ENS neuron regeneration and if so, to elucidate the mechanism. Fluorescently labeled BMSC, isolated from either WT (BMSC labeled with bis-benzimide [BBM]) or green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic rats, were preconditioned in vitro using fetal gut culture media containing glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and transplanted subserosally into the denervated area of rat pylorus. In the nerve-ablated pylorus, grafted BMSC survived and migrated from the subserosa to the submucosa 28 days after transplantation, without apparent dedifferentiation. A massive number of PGP9.5/NSE/HuC/D/Tuj1-positive (but GFP- and BBM-negative) neurons were effectively regenerated in denervated pylorus grafted with preconditioned BMSC, suggesting that they were regenerated de novo, not originating from trans-differentiation of the transplanted BMSC. BMSC transplantation restored both basal pyloric contractility and electric field stimulation-induced relaxation. High levels of GDNF were induced in both in vitro-preconditioned BMSC as well as the previously denervated pylorus after transplantation of preconditioned BMSC. Thus, a BMSC-initiated GDNF-positive feedback mechanism is suggested to promote neuron regeneration and growth. In summary, we have demonstrated that allogeneically transplanted preconditioned BMSC initiate de novo regeneration of gastric neuronal cells/structures that in turn restore gastric contractility in pylorus-denervated rats. These neuronal structures did not originate from the grafted BMSC. Our data suggest that preconditioned allogeneic BMSC may have therapeutic value in treating enteric nerve disorders.

  6. Low Molecular Weight Fraction of Commercial Human Serum Albumin Induces Morphologic and Transcriptional Changes of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, David; Thomas, Gregory W; Rael, Leonard T; Gersch, Elizabeth D; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brody, Edward

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of the joint; however, the therapeutic options for severe OA are limited. The low molecular weight fraction of commercial 5% human serum albumin (LMWF5A) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties that are mediated, in part, by a diketopiperazine that is present in the albumin preparation and that was demonstrated to be safe and effective in reducing pain and improving function when administered intra-articularly in a phase III clinical trial. In the present study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) exposed to LMWF5A exhibited an elongated phenotype with diffuse intracellular F-actin, pronounced migratory leading edges, and filopodia-like projections. In addition, LMWF5A promoted chondrogenic condensation in "micromass" culture, concurrent with the upregulation of collagen 2α1 mRNA. Furthermore, the transcription of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis was significantly regulated in a manner conducive to migration and homing. Several transcription factors involved in stem cell differentiation were also found to bind oligonucleotide response element probes following exposure to LMWF5A. Finally, a rapid increase in PRAS40 phosphorylation was observed following treatment, potentially resulting in the activation mTORC1. Proteomic analysis of synovial fluid taken from a preliminary set of patients indicated that at 12 weeks following administration of LMWF5A, a microenvironment exists in the knee conducive to stem cell infiltration, self-renewal, and differentiation, in addition to indications of remodeling with a reduction in inflammation. Taken together, these findings imply that LMWF5A treatment may prime stem cells for both mobilization and chondrogenic differentiation, potentially explaining some of the beneficial effects achieved in clinical trials.

  7. Effect of zinc ions on differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to male germ cells and some germ cell-specific gene expression in rams.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolai, Mohammad; Batavani, Roozali; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Sedighi-Gilani, Mohammadali

    2012-12-01

    This is the first report to describe the effects of zinc (Zn) ions on the expression of germ cell (GC) genes from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Zn plays an important role in germinal epithelium maintenance, testosterone secretion, differentiation of GCs, and spermatogenesis. In addition, several studies have suggested that MSCs have the potential for differentiation into numerous cells types, including male GCs. In this study, we have treated passage-3 ram BM-MSCs with 0.14 μg/ml Zn sulfate (ZnSO₄) for a period of 21 days with the intent to determine whether Zn treatment can stimulate MSCs to differentiate into male GCs in vitro. We also sought to determine the type of changes seen in MSCs by Zn treatment. Differentiation into male GCs was evaluated by the assessment of expressions of the following GC-specific markers: VASA, PIWIL2, OCT4, beta1 INTEGRIN (ITG b1), DAZL (by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR), and PGP 9.5 (by immunocytochemistry). Also studied were morphological characteristics and changes in alkaline phosphatase activity. Interestingly, Zn upregulated the expressions of VASA and ITG b1 but downregulated PIWIL2 and OCT4. DAZL and PGP 9.5 were not expressed in the treatment group. According to our results, Zn ions did not stimulate BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into male GCs; however, it changed the expression of GC genes in BM-MSCs. It can be concluded that a possible mechanism by which Zn ions can increase male fertility is by regulation of the expression of testis GC-specific genes in the differentiation process and spermatogenesis.

  8. Quantitative approaches to detect donor and passage differences in adipogenic potential and clonogenicity in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lo Surdo, Jessica; Bauer, Steven R

    2012-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stem cells, have great promise due to their capacity for tri-lineage differentiation and immunosuppressive properties, which allows for their allogeneic use and ultimately may allow for treatment of many diseases. MSCs will require extensive expansion and passaging to obtain cells in sufficient numbers necessary for cell therapies. MSCs from many donors could potentially be used. Because of this, there is a need to understand the role of passaging and donor differences on differentiation capacity using quantitative approaches. Here, we evaluated MSCs from two donors (noted as PCBM1632 and PCBM1641 by the manufacturer) at tissue culture passages 3, 5, and 7. We used a colony forming unit (CFU) assay and limiting dilution to quantify clonogenicity and precursor frequency during adipogenesis, and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction for adipogenic markers to evaluate changes on a gene expression level. Further, we observed changes in cell size, and we sorted small and large populations to evaluate size-related adipogenic potential. While the adipogenic precursor frequency of ∼1 in 76 cells remained similar through passages for cells from PCBM1641, we found a large decrease in the adipogenic potential of MSCs from PCBM1632, with 1 in 2035 cells being capable of differentiating into an adipocyte at passage 7. MSCs from both donors showed an increase in cell diameter with increasing passage, which correlates with a decrease in clonogenicity by CFU analysis. We also measured adipose lineage gene expression following induction of adipocyte differentiation. Expression of these genes decreased with passage number for MSCs from PCBM1632 and correlated with the decrease in adipogenic potential by passage 7. In contrast, MSCs from PCBM1641 showed increased expression of these genes with increasing passage. We have shown that several quantitative assays can detect differences in MSC

  9. Shikonin inhibits maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and suppresses allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Wang, Chien-Neng; Lai, Yu-Ting; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Chen, Hui-Chen; Cheng, Yu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Shikonin exhibits a wide range of anti-inflammatory actions. Here, we assessed its effects on maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) and on allergic reactions in a murine model of asthma. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cultured murine BM-DCs were used to investigate the effects of shikonin on expression of cell surface markers and their stimulation of T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. The therapeutic potential of shikonin was evaluated in a model of allergic airway disease. KEY RESULTS Shikonin dose-dependently inhibited expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD80, CD86, CCR7 and OX40L on BM-DCs, induced by a mixture of ovalbumin (OVA; 100 µg·mL−1) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP; 20 ng·mL−1). Shikonin-treated BM-DCs were poor stimulators of CD4+ T lymphocyte and induced lower levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release by responding T-cells. After intratracheal instillation of shikonin in OVA-immunized mice, OVA challenge induced lower IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α and eotaxin release in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, lower IL-4 and IL-5 production in lung cells and mediastinal lymph node cells and attenuated OVA-induced lung eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Shikonin effectively suppressed OVA + TSLP-induced BM-DC maturation in vitro and inhibited allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma, showing good potential as a treatment for allergic asthma. Also, our model provides a novel platform for screening drugs for allergic diseases. PMID:20735407

  10. Sphingosine-1-phosphate/S1P receptors signaling modulates cell migration in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yaxian; Wang, Hong; Lin, Tao; Wang, Shuling

    2014-01-01

    The recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to damaged tissues and sites of inflammation is an essential step for clinical therapy. However, the signals regulating the motility of these cells are still not fully understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, is known to have a variety of biological effects on various cells. Here, we investigated the roles of S1P and S1P receptors (S1PRs) in migration of human BMSCs. We found that S1P exerted a powerful migratory action on human BMSCs. Moreover, by employing RNA interference technology and pharmacological tools, we demonstrated that S1PR1 and S1PR3 are responsible for S1P-induced migration of human BMSCs. In contrast, S1PR2 mediates the inhibition of migration. Additionally, we explored the downstream signaling pathway of the S1P/S1PRs axis and found that activation of S1PR1 or S1PR3 increased migration of human BMSCs through a G i /extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2- (ERK1/2-) dependent pathway, whereas activation of S1PR2 decreased migration through the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway. In conclusion, we reveal that the S1P/S1PRs signaling axis regulates the migration of human BMSCs via a dual-directional mechanism. Thus, selective modulation of S1PR's activity on human BMSCs may provide an effective approach to immunotherapy or tissue regeneration.

  11. Lithium stimulates human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation through GSK-3β-dependent β-catenin/Wnt pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenzhong; Yin, Junhui; Guan, Junjie; Hu, Bin; Niu, Xin; Jin, Dongxu; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have been widely used in cell based transplantation therapy. The use of MSCs requires in vitro expansion in order to fulfill their regenerative capacity. Therefore the proliferative ability of MSCs is one of the key factors which determine MSC therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we showed for the first time that lithium, a well-known antidepressant, reversibly promoted the proliferation of human bone marrow derived MSCs in vitro. MSCs treated with 5 mm lithium proliferated more rapidly than untreated cells without undergoing apoptosis. Lithium increased the proportion of cells in S phase as well as cyclin D1 expression. Mechanistic studies revealed that these effects were dependent upon the activation of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) mediated canonical Wnt pathway. Lithium induced Ser9 phosphorylation, which results in the inhibition of GSK-3β activity, β-catenin accumulation and Wnt pathway activation. Utilizing a specific GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 or siRNA-mediated inhibition of GSK-3β produced effects similar to those induced by lithium. In contrast, either quercetin, an inhibitor of the β-catenin/TCF pathway, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of β-catenin abolished the proliferative effect of lithium, suggesting that lithium stimulates MSC proliferation via the GSK-3β-dependent β-catenin/Wnt pathway. Collectively, these studies elucidate a novel role of lithium, which may not only provide a simple and effective way to strengthen MSC transplantation therapy efficacy but also shed light on lithium's clinical application for the treatment of certain disorders resulting from β-catenin/Wnt pathway suppression.

  12. Determining the minimum number of detectable cardiac-transplanted 111In-tropolone-labelled bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by SPECT.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuan; Kong, Huafu; Stodilka, Rob Z; Wells, R Glenn; Zabel, Pamela; Merrifield, Peter A; Sykes, Jane; Prato, Frank S

    2005-10-07

    In this work, we determined the minimum number of detectable 111In-tropolone-labelled bone-marrow-derived stem cells from the maximum activity per cell which did not affect viability, proliferation and differentiation, and the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of 111In by SPECT. Canine bone marrow mesenchymal cells were isolated, cultured and expanded. A number of samples, each containing 5x10(6) cells, were labelled with 111In-tropolone from 0.1 to 18 MBq, and cell viability was measured afterwards for each sample for 2 weeks. To determine the MDA, the anthropomorphic torso phantom (DataSpectrum Corporation, Hillsborough, NC) was used. A point source of 202 kBq 111In was placed on the surface of the heart compartment, and the phantom and all compartments were then filled with water. Three 111In SPECT scans (duration: 16, 32 and 64 min; parameters: 128x128 matrix with 128 projections over 360 degrees) were acquired every three days until the 111In radioactivity decayed to undetectable quantities. 111In SPECT images were reconstructed using OSEM with and without background, scatter or attenuation corrections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the reconstructed image was calculated, and MDA was set equal to the 111In activity corresponding to a CNR of 4. The cells had 100% viability when incubated with no more than 0.9 MBq of 111In (80% labelling efficiency), which corresponded to 0.14 Bq per cell. Background correction improved the detection limits for 111In-tropolone-labelled cells. The MDAs for 16, 32 and 64 min scans with background correction were observed to be 1.4 kBq, 700 Bq and 400 Bq, which implies that, in the case where the location of the transplantation is known and fixed, as few as 10,000, 5000 and 2900 cells respectively can be detected.

  13. Determining the minimum number of detectable cardiac-transplanted 111In-tropolone-labelled bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuan; Kong, Huafu; Stodilka, Rob Z.; Wells, R. Glenn; Zabel, Pamela; Merrifield, Peter A.; Sykes, Jane; Prato, Frank S.

    2005-10-01

    In this work, we determined the minimum number of detectable 111In-tropolone-labelled bone-marrow-derived stem cells from the maximum activity per cell which did not affect viability, proliferation and differentiation, and the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of 111In by SPECT. Canine bone marrow mesenchymal cells were isolated, cultured and expanded. A number of samples, each containing 5 × 106 cells, were labelled with 111In-tropolone from 0.1 to 18 MBq, and cell viability was measured afterwards for each sample for 2 weeks. To determine the MDA, the anthropomorphic torso phantom (DataSpectrum Corporation, Hillsborough, NC) was used. A point source of 202 kBq 111In was placed on the surface of the heart compartment, and the phantom and all compartments were then filled with water. Three 111In SPECT scans (duration: 16, 32 and 64 min; parameters: 128 × 128 matrix with 128 projections over 360°) were acquired every three days until the 111In radioactivity decayed to undetectable quantities. 111In SPECT images were reconstructed using OSEM with and without background, scatter or attenuation corrections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the reconstructed image was calculated, and MDA was set equal to the 111In activity corresponding to a CNR of 4. The cells had 100% viability when incubated with no more than 0.9 MBq of 111In (80% labelling efficiency), which corresponded to 0.14 Bq per cell. Background correction improved the detection limits for 111In-tropolone-labelled cells. The MDAs for 16, 32 and 64 min scans with background correction were observed to be 1.4 kBq, 700 Bq and 400 Bq, which implies that, in the case where the location of the transplantation is known and fixed, as few as 10 000, 5000 and 2900 cells respectively can be detected.

  14. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance autophagy via PI3K/AKT signalling to reduce the severity of ischaemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Dan; Song, Yuanlin; She, Jun; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a type II programmed cell death, is essential for cell survival under stress, e.g. lung injury, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have great potential for cell therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying the BM-MSC activation of autophagy to provide a therapeutic effect in ischaemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury (IRI) remain unclear. Thus, we investigate the activation of autophagy in IRI following transplantation with BM-MSCs. Seventy mice were pre-treated with BM-MSCs before they underwent lung IRI surgery in vivo. Human pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) were pre-conditioned with BM-MSCs by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD) in vitro. Expression markers for autophagy and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signalling pathway were analysed. In IRI-treated mice, administration of BM-MSCs significantly attenuated lung injury and inflammation, and increased the level of autophagy. In OGD-treated HPMVECs, co-culture with BM-MSCs attenuated endothelial permeability by decreasing the level of cell death and enhanced autophagic activation. Moreover, administration of BM-MSCs decreased the level of PI3K class I and p-Akt while the expression of PI3K class III was increased. Finally, BM-MSCs-induced autophagic activity was prevented using the inhibitor LY294002. Administration of BM-MSCs attenuated lung injury by improving the autophagy level via the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. These findings provide further understanding of the mechanisms related to BM-MSCs and will help to develop new cell-based therapeutic strategies in lung injury. PMID:26177266

  15. Priming Equine Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Proinflammatory Cytokines: Implications in Immunomodulation-Immunogenicity Balance, Cell Viability, and Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, Laura; Remacha, Ana Rosa; Romero, Antonio; Vázquez, Francisco José; Albareda, Jorge; Prades, Marta; Gosálvez, Jaime; Roy, Rosa; Zaragoza, Pilar; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Rodellar, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a great potential for treating equine musculoskeletal injuries. Although their mechanisms of action are not completely known, their immunomodulatory properties appear to be key in their functions. The expression of immunoregulatory molecules by MSCs is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines; so inflammatory priming of MSCs might improve their therapeutic potential. However, inflammatory environment could also increase MSC immunogenicity and decrease MSC viability and differentiation capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cytokine priming on equine bone marrow-derived MSC (eBM-MSC) immunoregulation, immunogenicity, viability, and differentiation potential, to enhance MSC immunoregulatory properties, without impairing their immune-evasive status, viability, and plasticity. Equine BM-MSCs (n = 4) were exposed to 5 ng/mL of TNFα and IFNγ for 12 h (CK5-priming). Subsequently, expression of genes coding for immunomodulatory, immunogenic, and apoptosis-related molecules was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chromatin integrity and proliferation assays were assessed to evaluate cell viability. Trilineage differentiation was evaluated by specific staining and gene expression. Cells were reseeded in a basal medium for additional 7 days post-CK5 to elucidate if priming-induced changes were maintained along the time. CK5-priming led to an upregulation of immunoregulatory genes IDO, iNOS, IL-6, COX-2, and VCAM-1. MHC-II and CD40 were also upregulated, but no change in other costimulatory molecules was observed. These changes were not maintained 7 days after CK5-priming. Viability and differentiation potential were maintained after CK5-priming. These findings suggest that CK5-priming of eBM-MSCs could improve their in vivo effectiveness without affecting other eBM-MSC properties.

  16. Effect of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway on hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Lingling; Mao, Xiyuan; Yu, Qingxiong; Yu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation has been demonstrated to be an effective way of augmenting angiogenesis of ischemic tissue. The low oxygen conditions in ischemic tissue directly affect the biological behavior of engrafted cells. However, to date, the mechanism through which hypoxia regulates self-renewal, differentiation and paracrine function of BM-MSCs remains unclear. Clarification of this mechanism would be beneficial to the use of stem cell-based therapy. The PI3K/AKT pathway has been extensively investigated for its role in cell proliferation, cell transformation, paracrine function and angiogenesis. The present study aimed to analyze the role of PI3K/AKT pathway in hypoxia-induced proliferation of BM-MSCs and their differentiation into endothelial cells in vitro by the application of LY294002, a PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor, with cells cultured in normoxia serving as a control. The results showed that rat BM-MSCs at passage 3 and 4 displayed only few phenotypical differences in the expression of surface antigens as detected by flow cytometry. When compared with the cells treated in normoxia, the proliferation of BM-MSCs in hypoxia was promoted, a greater number of cells expressed CD31 and a higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was observed after culture in hypoxic conditions. However, by inhibiting with LY294002, these changes induced by hypoxia were partly inhibited. In conclusion, the present study showed that the PI3K/AKT pathway served an important role in hypoxia-enhanced in vitro proliferation of BM-MSCs and their differentiation into endothelial cells and paracrine vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:28123468

  17. The use of autologous neurogenically-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of paraplegic dogs without nociception due to spinal trauma

    PubMed Central

    BESALTI, Omer; AKTAS, Zeynep; CAN, Pinar; AKPINAR, Eylul; ELCIN, Ayse Eser; ELCIN, Yasar Murat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of percutaneous transplanted autologous neurogenically-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (NIBM-MSCs) in paraplegic dogs without deep pain perception (DPP) secondary to external spinal trauma. Thirteen client owned dogs that had failed in improvement neurologically at least 42 days after conservative management, decompression and decompression-stabilization were included in the study. Each dog received two doses of autologous 5.0 × 106 NIBM-MSCs suspension, which were positive to 2′,3′-Cyclic-nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), as well as to Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and beta III tubulin. The cells were injected into the spinal cord through the hemilaminectomy or laminectomy defects percutaneously with 21 days interval for 2 times. The results were evaluated using Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale (TSCIS), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) at the admission time, cell transplantation procedures and during 2, 5, 7 and 12th months after the second cell transplantation. Improvement after cell transplantation in gait, nociception, proprioception, SEP and MEP results was observed in just 2 cases, and only gait score improvement was seen in 6 cases, and no improvement was recorded in 5 cases. All progresses were observed until 2nd month after the second cell transplantation, however, there was no improvement after this period. In conclusion, percutaneous transplantation of autologous NIBM-MSCs is a promising candidate modality for cases with spinal cord injury after spinal trauma and poor prognosis. PMID:27301583

  18. Preferential magnetic nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages sub-populations: effect of surface coating on polarization, toxicity, and in vivo MRI detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Faraj, Achraf

    2013-07-01

    Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of different diseases, which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents or drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their further surface modification with carboxylic groups on bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages phenotype, labeling efficiency, uptake mechanism, biocompatibility, and their in vivo MR detection was assessed. An enhanced labeling efficiency was observed for carboxylic surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) compared to PEGylated SPIO and to a higher extent to plain SPIO along with a higher uptake by M2 subsets. Magnetic nanoparticles were found located in the periphery of the vesicles dispersed in the cytoplasm in TEM. Investigation of the labeling mechanism by inhibiting different uptake pathways revealed that endocytosis via scavenger receptor A, a process known to be clathrin mediated, plays a central role in the cellular uptake kinetics of both macrophages subpopulations. Biocompatibility evaluation showed no variation in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with a low release of ROS. Flow cytometry and measurement of iNOS and Arginase 1 activity as marker of M1 and M2 macrophages polarization confirmed that magnetic labeling of macrophages subsets did not affect their polarization. In addition, no variation was observed in the biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide-labeled M1 and M2 macrophages subsets when monitored using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging with a better detection for the enhanced SPIO-PEG-COOH-labeled cells.

  19. Therapeutic Potential of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Experimental Liver Injury Induced by Schistosoma mansoni: A Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Fikry, Heba; Gawad, Sara Abdel; Baher, Walaa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been proposed as effective treatment of many diseases owing to their unique ability to differentiate into other cell types in vivo. Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection is characterized by hepatic granuloma formation around schistosome eggs at acute stage of infection, followed by hepatic fibrosis at chronic and advanced stages. Whether BM-MSCs have an ameliorative effect on hepatic tissue injury caused by S. mansoni infection or not, was inspected in the current study. Materials and Results Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into a control group and an experimental group. Half of control animals served as donors for bone marrow stem cells, and the other half was used to collect liver samples. Experimental group was injected with circariae of S. mansoni, and then subdivided into three subgroups; Subgroup B1, sacrificed after eight weeks of infection without treatment, subgroup B2, received BM-MSCs at the eighth week and sacrificed four weeks later, and subgroup B3, was untreated till the twelfth week of infection. Histological examination of liver samples showed the formation of granulomas and liver fibrosis which were extensive in subgroup B3. However, treated subgroup illustrated improvement of liver histology, signs of hepatocytes regeneration, and possible contribution of oval cell in the process of hepatic and biliary regeneration. Conclusion BM-MSCs decreased liver fibrosis and contributed to an increase in oval cells, generation of new hepatocytes and/or to the improvement of resident hepatocytes in S. mansoni infected mice. PMID:27426091

  20. Pharmacologically active microcarriers delivering BDNF within a hydrogel: Novel strategy for human bone marrow-derived stem cells neural/neuronal differentiation guidance and therapeutic secretome enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kandalam, Saikrishna; Sindji, Laurence; Delcroix, Gaëtan J-R; Violet, Fabien; Garric, Xavier; André, Emilie M; Schiller, Paul C; Venier-Julienne, Marie-Claire; des Rieux, Anne; Guicheux, Jérôme; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2017-02-01

    Stem cells combined with biodegradable injectable scaffolds releasing growth factors hold great promises in regenerative medicine, particularly in the treatment of neurological disorders. We here integrated human marrow-isolated adult multilineage-inducible (MIAMI) stem cells and pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) into an injectable non-toxic silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel. The goal is to obtain an injectable non-toxic cell and growth factor delivery device. It should direct the survival and/or neuronal differentiation of the grafted cells, to safely transplant them in the central nervous system, and enhance their tissue repair properties. A model protein was used to optimize the nanoprecipitation conditions of the neuroprotective brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF nanoprecipitate was encapsulated in fibronectin-coated (FN) PAMs and the in vitro release profile evaluated. It showed a prolonged, bi-phasic, release of bioactive BDNF, without burst effect. We demonstrated that PAMs and the Si-HPMC hydrogel increased the expression of neural/neuronal differentiation markers of MIAMI cells after 1week. Moreover, the 3D environment (PAMs or hydrogel) increased MIAMI cells secretion of growth factors (b-NGF, SCF, HGF, LIF, PlGF-1, SDF-1α, VEGF-A & D) and chemokines (MIP-1α & β, RANTES, IL-8). These results show that PAMs delivering BDNF combined with Si-HPMC hydrogel represent a useful novel local delivery tool in the context of neurological disorders. It not only provides neuroprotective BDNF but also bone marrow-derived stem cells that benefit from that environment by displaying neural commitment and an improved neuroprotective/reparative secretome. It provides preliminary evidence of a promising pro-angiogenic, neuroprotective and axonal growth-promoting device for the nervous system.

  1. Heparin improves BMSC cell therapy: Anticoagulant treatment by heparin improves the safety and therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell cytotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Li; Shi, Bingzheng; Chang, Heran; Su, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Lichao; Bi, Chunsheng; Shuai, Yi; Du, Xiaoyan; Deng, Zhihong; Jin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Systemic infusion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has become a promising strategy for disease treatment and tissue regeneration. Strategies to enhance the efficiency of BMSC cell therapy are crucial to promote its clinical application. Here, we aimed to improve BMSC cell therapy by inhibiting the BMSC-induced coagulation reaction. Intravenous injection of gradient BMSCs into mice showed that BMSCs were not fully compatible with blood. Large doses of BMSCs induced a series of symptoms of respiratory failure and heart failure. Histological and homeostasis analysis confirmed that large doses of BMSCs induced disseminated intravascular thrombosis, exhaustion of platelets and coagulation factors, and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Similar to mouse BMSCs, goat and human BMSCs also induced coagulation reactions in vitro and in vivo. The coagulation was induced mostly by tissue factor, the overexpression of which enhanced the procoagulant activity of BMSCs during in vitro culture. Notably, clinical doses of BMSCs in cell therapy also induced mild and reversible coagulation, which increased BMSC lung embolism and clearance. Anticoagulation treatment by heparin (400 U/kg) prevented BMSC-induced coagulation and the acute adverse effects of large-dose BMSCs infusion efficiently. Importantly, heparin treatment led to decreased BMSC lung embolism and enhanced migration and maintenance of BMSCs to target organs in cell therapy. Based on an experimental colitis model, we confirmed that heparin treatment enhanced the effect of BMSC therapy efficiently to reduce mortality, prevent weight loss, suppress inflammation reaction and alleviate tissue injury. In conclusion, BMSCs possess procoagulant activity that could induce disseminated coagulation and thrombosis in recipients. Anticoagulation treatment by heparin is a practical strategy to improve both the safety and therapeutic effect of BMSC therapy. PMID

  2. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Repaired but Did Not Prevent Gentamicin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury through Paracrine Effects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Luciana A.; Borges, Fernanda T.; Simões, Manuel J.; Borges, Andrea A.; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Schor, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) or their conditioned medium (CM) on the repair and prevention of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin (G). Animals received daily injections of G up to 20 days. On the 10th day, injections of BMSCs, CM, CM+trypsin, CM+RNase or exosome-like microvesicles extracted from the CM were administered. In the prevention groups, the animals received the BMSCs 24 h before or on the 5th day of G treatment. Creatinine (Cr), urea (U), FENa and cytokines were quantified. The kidneys were evaluated using hematoxylin/eosin staining and immunohystochemistry. The levels of Cr, U and FENa increased during all the periods of G treatment. The BMSC transplantation, its CM or exosome injections inhibited the increase in Cr, U, FENa, necrosis, apoptosis and also increased cell proliferation. The pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased while the anti-inflammatory cytokines increased compared to G. When the CM or its exosomes were incubated with RNase (but not trypsin), these effects were blunted. The Y chromosome was not observed in the 24-h prevention group, but it persisted in the kidney for all of the periods analyzed, suggesting that the injury is necessary for the docking and maintenance of BMSCs in the kidney. In conclusion, the BMSCs and CM minimized the G-induced renal damage through paracrine effects, most likely through the RNA carried by the exosome-like microvesicles. The use of the CM from BMSCs can be a potential therapeutic tool for this type of nephrotoxicity, allowing for the avoidance of cell transplantations. PMID:22970165

  3. Mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA) stimulates interleukin 6 production in a mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell line and a malignant subline.

    PubMed

    Hültner, L; Moeller, J

    1990-09-01

    A novel mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA/P40/interleukin 9 [IL-9]) purified from the conditioned medium of a murine interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent Mlsa-specific T-cell line (MLS4.2) was tested for its capacity to induce interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in a mouse bone marrow-derived factor-dependent mast cell line (L138.8A). This interleukin 3 (IL-3)/interleukin 4 (IL-4)/MEA-responsive cell line was demonstrated recently to express IL-6 mRNA and to secrete IL-6 when cultured with IL-3/IL-4. Now we were able to show that conditioned medium from L138.8A mast cells stimulated with MEA alone contained growth factor activity for the IL-6-dependent mouse hybridoma cell line 7TD1 that was completely blocked by the monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody 6B4. A dose-response study including IL-3, IL-4, and MEA tested either alone or in different combinations revealed that among these growth factors MEA was the most potent inducer of IL-6 in L138.8A cells. Moreover, IL-4 but not IL-3 had a strong synergistic effect on MEA-induced IL-6 production. The autonomous malignant mast cell subline L138Cauto also showed enhanced IL-6 production when stimulated with MEA. Our findings indicate that MEA (IL-9) not only provides a proliferation signal, but also leads to a marked functional activation of responsive mast cells.

  4. Bone marrow-derived conventional, but not cloned, mesenchymal stem cells suppress lymphocyte proliferation and prevent graft-versus-host disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Yusuke; Li, Xiao-Kang; Xie, Lin; Zhu, Ping; Kimura, Hiromitsu; Takahara, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could exert a potent immunosuppressive effect, and therefore may have a therapeutic potential in T-cell-dependent pathologies. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether MSCs could be used to control graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). MSCs were isolated from Lewis rat bone morrow and then cultured in 10% FBS DMEM at 37°C for 4 weeks. The enriched conventional MSCs and macrophages were purified by auto-MACS. Cloned MSCs were obtained by cloning using the limiting dilution method and expanded up to more than 6 months. The identity of MSCs was confirmed by their typical spindle-shaped morphology and immunophenotypic criteria, based on the absence of expression of CD45 and CD11b/c molecules. Both types of MSCs were also tested for their ability to differentiate into adipocytes. We showed that MSCs, like macrophages, exhibit immunomodulatory properties capable of inhibiting T-cell proliferation stimulated by alloantigens, anti-CD3e/CD28 mAbs, and ConA in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. After performing adoptive transfer, MSCs suppressed systemic Lewis to (Lewis × DA)F1 rat GvHD. In contrast to the immunosuppressive activities of conventional MSCs, the cloned MSCs enhanced T-cell proliferation in vitro and yielded no clinical benefit in regard to the incidence or severity of GvHD. Therefore, these rat models have shown intriguing differences in the suppression effects of lymphocyte proliferation and GvHD prevention between short-term cultured conventional MSCs and cloned MSCs.

  5. Intracoronary autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell transplantation improves coronary collateral vessel formation and recruitment capacity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a combined hemodynamic and scintigraphic approach.

    PubMed

    Tayyareci, Yelda; Sezer, Murat; Umman, Berrin; Besisik, Sevgi; Mudun, Ayse; Sanli, Yasemin; Oncul, Aytac; Gurses, Nuray; Sargin, Deniz; Meric, Mehmet; Nisanci, Yilmaz

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intracoronary autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMC) transplantation on coronary microcirculation. Fifteen patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy were treated by intracoronary infusion of BMCs via the patent infarct-related artery. The thermodilution-derived coronary flow reserve, index of microvascular resistance, pressure-derived collateral flow index, and coronary wedge pressure were measured at baseline and at 6 months. Successive balloon inflations during BMC transplantation were performed to observe the recruitment in pressure-derived collateral flow index and coronary wedge pressure, and the percentage changes between baseline and 6 months were calculated. The mean (SD) coronary flow reserve increased from 1.3 (0.4) to 2.1 (0.5), and the mean (SD) index of microvascular resistance decreased from 44.9 (24.4) to 21.2 (14.1) (P = .001 for both). The mean (SD) improvement in pressure-derived collateral flow index (from 0.14 [0.05] to 0.22 [0.08]) was also statistically significant (P = .001). Similarly, the percentage improvements in pressure-derived collateral flow index and coronary wedge pressure were statistically significant (P = .01 for both). The percentage improvement in perfusion assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography strongly correlated with the percentage changes in pressure-derived collateral flow index (r = 0.88, P = .001) and coronary wedge pressure (r = 0.69, P = .01). These results demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) that intracoronary autologous BMC transplantation improves coronary collateral vessel formation and recruitment capacity in human subjects.

  6. Bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages have different inflammatory response to oxLDL and M1/M2 marker expression – implications for atherosclerosis research

    PubMed Central

    Bisgaard, Line S.; Mogensen, Christina K.; Rosendahl, Alexander; Cucak, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Pedersen, Tanja X.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are heterogeneous and can polarize into specific subsets, e.g. pro-inflammatory M1-like and re-modelling M2-like macrophages. To determine if peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) or bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) resembled aortic macrophages from ApoE−/− mice, their M1/M2 phenotype, inflammatory status, and lipid metabolism signatures were compared. oxLDL accumulation was similar in PEMs and BMDMs. On protein expression level, BMDMs showed an M2-like CD206highCD11clow profile, while cholesterol loading led to enhanced CD11c expression and reduced MCP-1 secretion. In contrast, PEMs expressed low levels of CD206 and CD11c, and responded to cholesterol loading by increasing CD11c expression and MCP-1 secretion. mRNA expression of M1/M2 markers was higher in PEMS than BMDMs, while lipid metabolism genes were similarly expressed. Whole aorta flow cytometry showed an accumulation of M2-like CD206highCD11clow macrophages in advanced versus early atherosclerotic disease in ApoE−/− mice. In isolated lesions, mRNA levels of the M2 markers Socs2, CD206, Retnla, and IL4 were downregulated with increasing disease severity. Likewise, mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes (SREBP2, ACSL1, SRB1, DGAT1, and cpt1a) was decreased in advanced versus early lesions. In conclusion, PEMs and BMDMs are phenotypically distinct and differ from macrophages in lesions with respect to expression of M1/M2 markers and lipid metabolism genes. PMID:27734926

  7. Combined Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy and One-Way Endobronchial Valve Placement in Patients with Pulmonary Emphysema: A Phase I Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Hugo Goulart; Cruz, Fernanda Ferreira; Antunes, Mariana Alves; de Macedo Neto, Amarilio Vieira; Oliveira, Guilherme Augusto; Svartman, Fabio Munhoz; Borgonovo, Tamara; Rebelatto, Carmen Lucia Kuniyoshi; Weiss, Daniel J; Brofman, Paulo Roberto Slud; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Lapa E Silva, José Roberto; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-03-01

    One-way endobronchial valves (EBV) insertion to reduce pulmonary air trapping has been used as therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, local inflammation may result and can contribute to worsening of clinical status in these patients. We hypothesized that combined EBV insertion and intrabronchial administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) would decrease the inflammatory process, thus mitigating EBV complications in severe COPD patients. This initial study sought to investigate the safety of this approach. For this purpose, a phase I, prospective, patient-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled design was used. Heterogeneous advanced emphysema (Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease [GOLD] III or IV) patients randomly received either allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSCs (10(8) cells, EBV+MSC) or 0.9% saline solution (EBV) (n = 5 per group), bronchoscopically, just before insertion of one-way EBVs. Patients were evaluated 1, 7, 30, and 90 days after therapy. All patients completed the study protocol and 90-day follow-up. MSC delivery did not result in acute administration-related toxicity, serious adverse events, or death. No significant between-group differences were observed in overall number of adverse events, frequency of COPD exacerbations, or worsening of disease. Additionally, there were no significant differences in blood tests, lung function, or radiological outcomes. However, quality-of-life indicators were higher in EBV + MSC compared with EBV. EBV + MSC patients presented decreased levels of circulating C-reactive protein at 30 and 90 days, as well as BODE (Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index) and MMRC (Modified Medical Research Council) scores. Thus, combined use of EBV and MSCs appears to be safe in patients with severe COPD, providing a basis for subsequent investigations using MSCs as concomitant therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:962-969.

  8. Feline bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show similar phenotype and functions with regards to neuronal differentiation as human MSCs.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Jessian L; Greco, Steven J; Patel, Shyam A; Sherman, Lauren S; Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha S; Shrensel, Jeffrey A; Guan, Yan-Zhong; Xie, Guiqin; Ye, Jiang-Hong; Rameshwar, Pranela; Siegel, Allan

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show promise for treatment of a variety of neurological and other disorders. Cat has a high degree of linkage with the human genome and has been used as a model for analysis of neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and motor disorders. The present study was designed to characterize bone marrow-derived MSCs from cats and to investigate the capacity to generate functional peptidergic neurons. MSCs were expanded with cells from the femurs of cats and then characterized by phenotype and function. Phenotypically, feline and human MSCs shared surface markers, and lacked hematopoietic markers, with similar morphology. As compared to a subset of human MSCs, feline MSCs showed no evidence of the major histocompatibility class II. Since the literature suggested Stro-1 as an indicator of pluripotency, we compared early and late passages feline MSCs and found its expression in >90% of the cells. However, the early passage cells showed two distinct populations of Stro-1-expressing cells. At passage 5, the MSCs were more homogeneous with regards to Stro-1 expression. The passage 5 MSCs differentiated to osteogenic and adipogenic cells, and generated neurons with electrophysiological properties. This correlated with the expression of mature neuronal markers with concomitant decrease in stem cell-associated genes. At day 12 induction, the cells were positive for MAP2, Neuronal Nuclei, tubulin βIII, Tau and synaptophysin. This correlated with electrophysiological maturity as presented by excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). The findings indicate that the cat may constitute a promising biomedical model for evaluation of novel therapies such as stem cell therapy in such neurological disorders as Alzheimer's disease and stroke.

  9. Fibronectin regulates calvarial osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moursi, A. M.; Damsky, C. H.; Lull, J.; Zimmerman, D.; Doty, S. B.; Aota, S.; Globus, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    The secretion of fibronectin by differentiating osteoblasts and its accumulation at sites of osteogenesis suggest that fibronectin participates in bone formation. To test this directly, we determined whether fibronectin-cell interactions regulate progressive differentiation of cultured fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts. Spatial distributions of alpha 5 integrin subunit, fibronectin, osteopontin (bone sialoprotein I) and osteocalcin (bone Gla-protein) were similar in fetal rat calvaria and mineralized, bone-like nodules formed by cultured osteoblasts. Addition of anti-fibronectin antibodies to cultures at confluence reduced subsequent formation of nodules to less than 10% of control values, showing that fibronectin is required for normal nodule morphogenesis. Anti-fibronectin antibodies selectively inhibited steady-state expression of mRNA for genes associated with osteoblast differentiation; mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were suppressed, whereas fibronectin, type I collagen and osteopontin were unaffected. To identify functionally relevant domains of fibronectin, we treated cells with soluble fibronectin fragments and peptides. Cell-binding fibronectin fragments (type III repeats 6-10) containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence blocked both nodule initiation and maturation, whether or not they contained a functional synergy site. In contrast, addition of the RGD-containing peptide GRGDSPK alone did not inhibit nodule initiation, although it did block nodule maturation. Thus, in addition to the RGD sequence, other features of the large cell-binding fragments contribute to the full osteogenic effects of fibronectin. Nodule formation and osteoblast differentiation resumed after anti-fibronectin antibodies or GRGDSPK peptides were omitted from the media, showing that the inhibition was reversible and the treatments were not cytotoxic. Outside the central cell-binding domain, peptides from the IIICS region and antibodies to the N terminus did not

  10. Genetic response and morphologic characterization of chicken bone-marrow derived dendritic cells during infection with high and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system that function to initiate primary immune responses. Progenitors of DCs are derived from haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) that migrate in non-lymphoid tissues to develop into immature DCs. Here, they ...

  11. Osteoblastic Wnts differentially regulate bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Cao, Jingjing; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Yiyun; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Haixia; Li, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianzhi; Zhu, Xuming; He, Lin; Liu, Yongzhong; Yao, Zhengju; Yang, Xiao; Guo, Xizhi

    2013-07-01

    Wnt signaling has important roles in embryonic bone development and postnatal bone remodeling, but inconsistent impact on bone property is observed in different genetic alterations of Lrp5 and β-catenin. More importantly, it is still controversial whether Lrp5 regulate bone formation locally or globally through gut-derived serotonin. Here we explored the function of Wnt proteins in osteoblastic niche through inactivation of the Wntless (Wls) gene, which abrogates the secretion of Wnts. The depletion of Wls in osteoblast progenitor cells resulted in severe osteopenia with more profound defects in osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and maintenance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) compared to that observed in Lrp5 and β-catenin mutants. These findings support the point of view that Wnt/Lrp5 signaling locally regulates bone mass accrual through multiple effects of osteoblastic Wnts on osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Moreover, osteoblastic Wnts confer a niche role for maintenance of BMSCs, providing novel cues for the definition of BMSCs niche in bone marrow.

  12. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells from Bone Marrow Differentiate into Chondrocyte-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lele; Weng, Yimin; Shui, Xiaolong; Fang, Wenlai; Zhang, Erge; Pan, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering has great potential for treating chondral and osteochondral injuries. Efficient seed cells are the key to cartilage tissue engineering. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) have greater differentiation ability than other bone-marrow stem cells, and thus may be candidate seed cells. We attempted to differentiate MAPCs into chondrocyte-like cells to evaluate their suitability as seed cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Toluidine blue and Alcian blue staining suggested that glycosaminoglycan was expressed in differentiated cells. Immunofluorostaining indicated that differentiated human MAPCs (hMAPCs) expressed collagen II. Based on these results, we concluded that bone-marrow-derived hMAPCs could differentiate into chondrocyte-like cells in vitro.

  13. NOTCH signaling in skeletal progenitors is critical for fracture repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuicui; Inzana, Jason A.; Mirando, Anthony J.; Liu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Jie; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Awad, Hani A.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture nonunions develop in 10%–20% of patients with fractures, resulting in prolonged disability. Current data suggest that bone union during fracture repair is achieved via proliferation and differentiation of skeletal progenitors within periosteal and soft tissues surrounding bone, while bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) and other skeletal progenitors may also contribute. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a critical maintenance factor for BMSCs during skeletal development, although the precise role for NOTCH and the requisite nature of BMSCs following fracture is unknown. Here, we evaluated whether NOTCH and/or BMSCs are required for fracture repair by performing nonstabilized and stabilized fractures on NOTCH-deficient mice with targeted deletion of RBPjk in skeletal progenitors, maturing osteoblasts, and committed chondrocytes. We determined that removal of NOTCH signaling in BMSCs and subsequent depletion of this population result in fracture nonunion, as the fracture repair process was normal in animals harboring either osteoblast- or chondrocyte-specific deletion of RBPjk. Together, this work provides a genetic model of a fracture nonunion and demonstrates the requirement for NOTCH and BMSCs in fracture repair, irrespective of fracture stability and vascularity. PMID:26950423

  14. New titanium and titanium/hydroxyapatite coatings on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene-in vitro osteoblastic performance.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Gomes, P S; Vila, M; Lopes, M A; Santos, J D; Silva, R F; Fernandes, M H

    2010-06-01

    The development of optimized hip joint materials is one of the most challenging opportunities in prosthetic technologies. In current approaches, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene(UHMWPE) has been a favorite material for the acetabular component and, regarding the cementless technique, several coating options may be considered to contain and stabilize bearing surfaces and establish an improved interface with bone. In this work, newly developed constructs of UHMWPE coated with either commercially pure titanium (cpTi-UHMWPE), by DC magnetron sputtering, or with commercially pure titanium and hydroxyapatite(cpTi/HA-UHMWPE), by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering, have been prepared and biologically characterized with human bone marrow-derived osteoblastic cultures. The cpTi-UHMWPE samples allowed a high cell growth and the expression of the complete osteoblastic phenotype, with high alkaline phosphatase activity, expression of osteogenic-associated genes and evident cell-mediated mineralization of the extracellular matrix. In comparison, the cpTi/HA-UHMWPE samples reported lower cell proliferation but earlier cell-mediated matrix mineralization. Accordingly, these newly developed systems maybe suitable candidates to improve the osteointegration process in arthroplastic devices;nevertheless, further biological evaluation should be conducted.

  15. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell isolation from tooth extraction sockets.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, R; Ono, M; Hara, E S; Oida, Y; Shinkawa, S; Pham, H T; Akiyama, K; Sonoyama, W; Maekawa, K; Kuboki, T

    2014-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs) are commonly used in regeneration therapy. The current primary source of BMSCs is the iliac crest; however, the procedure is associated with various burdens on the patient, including the risk of pain and infection. Hence, the possibility to collect BMSCs fro