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Sample records for marsh wildlife area

  1. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area, 2004-2006 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul; Wagoner, Sara

    2006-05-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Management Area (LMWA) in May 2005. The 2005 HEP assessment resulted in a total of 647.44 HUs, or 0.76 HUs/acre. This is an increase of 420.34 HUs (0.49 HUs/acre) over 2001 HEP survey results. The most significant increase in HUs occurred on the Wallender and Simonis parcels which increased by 214.30 HUs and 177.49 HUs respectively. Transects were established at or near 2001 HEP analysis transect locations whenever possible. ODFW staff biologists assisted the RHT re-establish transect locations and/or suggested areas for new surveys. Since 2001, significant changes in cover type acreage and/or structural conditions have occurred due to conversion of agriculture cover types to emergent wetland and grassland cover types. Agricultural lands were seeded to reestablish grasslands and wetlands were restored through active management and manipulation of extant water sources including natural stream hydrology/flood regimes and available irrigation. Grasslands increased on the Wallender parcel by 21% (65 acres), 23% (71 acres) at the Simonis site, and 39% (62 acres) at Conley Lake. The emergent wetland cover type also changed significantly increasing 60% (184 acres) at Wallender and 59% (184 acres) on the Simonis tract. Today, agriculture lands (crop and grazed pasture) have been nearly eliminated from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation project lands located on the LMWA.

  2. Assessing the Wildlife Habitat Value of New England Salt Marshes: I. Model and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed an assessment model to quantify the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes based on marsh characteristics and the presence of habitat types that influence habitat use by terrestrial wildlife. Applying the model to12 salt marshes located in Narragansett B...

  3. Ecological effects of climate change on salt marsh wildlife: a case study from a highly urbanized estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal areas are high-risk zones subject to the impacts of global climate change, with significant increases in the frequencies of extreme weather and storm events, and sea-level rise forecast by 2100. These physical processes are expected to alter estuaries, resulting in loss of intertidal wetlands and their component wildlife species. In particular, impacts to salt marshes and their wildlife will vary both temporally and spatially and may be irreversible and severe. Synergistic effects caused by combining stressors with anthropogenic land-use patterns could create areas of significant biodiversity loss and extinction, especially in urbanized estuaries that are already heavily degraded. In this paper, we discuss current ideas, challenges, and concerns regarding the maintenance of salt marshes and their resident wildlife in light of future climate conditions. We suggest that many salt marsh habitats are already impaired and are located where upslope transgression is restricted, resulting in reduction and loss of these habitats in the future. In addition, we conclude that increased inundation frequency and water depth will have negative impacts on the demography of small or isolated wildlife meta-populations as well as their community interactions. We illustrate our points with a case study on the Pacific Coast of North America at San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge in California, an area that supports endangered wildlife species reliant on salt marshes for all aspects of their life histories.

  4. Assessing Wildlife Habitat Value of New England Salt Marshes: II. Model Testing and Validation

    EPA Science Inventory

    We test a previously described model to assess the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes by comparing modeled habitat values and scores with bird abundance and species richness at sixteen salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island USA. Assessment scores ranged f...

  5. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ..., Tillamook, and Lincoln Counties, OR; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay... with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our...

  6. Marsh canopy leaf area and orientation calculated for improved marsh structure mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2015-01-01

    An approach is presented for producing the spatiotemporal estimation of leaf area index (LAI) of a highly heterogeneous coastal marsh without reliance on user estimates of marsh leaf-stem orientation. The canopy LAI profile derivation used three years of field measured photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) vertical profiles at seven S. alterniflora marsh sites and iterative transform of those PAR attenuation profiles to best-fit light extinction coefficients (KM). KM sun zenith dependency was removed obtaining the leaf angle distribution (LAD) representing the average marsh orientation and the LAD used to calculate the LAI canopy profile. LAI and LAD reproduced measured PAR profiles with 99% accuracy and corresponded to field documented structures. LAI and LAD better reflect marsh structure and results substantiate the need to account for marsh orientation. The structure indexes are directly amenable to remote sensing spatiotemporal mapping and offer a more meaningful representation of wetland systems promoting biophysical function understanding.

  7. Assessing the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes: I. Model and application.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Richard A; Charpentier, Michael A; Wigand, Cathleen

    2009-07-01

    We developed an assessment model to quantify the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes based on marsh characteristics and the presence of habitat types that influence habitat use by terrestrial wildlife. Applying the model to 12 salt marshes located in Narragansett Bay, RI resulted in assessment scores that ranged over a factor of 1.5 from lowest to highest. Pre-classifying the results based on marsh size and morphology helped to compare assessment scores between marshes, and demonstrated that even the lower ranking marshes had substantial habitat value. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of assessment scores and model components demonstrated that salt marsh morphology, the degree of anthropogenic modification, and salt marsh vegetative heterogeneity were significant variables and accounted for 91.3% of the variability in component scores. Our results suggest that targeting these components for restoration may lead to improved assessment scores for our study marshes. We also examined the use of lower resolution remote sensing data in the assessment in order to minimize the time and effort required to complete the model. Scores obtained using smaller-scale, lower resolution data were significantly lower than those obtained using larger-scale, higher resolution data (df = 11; t = 2.2; p < 0.001). The difference was significantly positively correlated with the portion of the assessment score that could be attributed to trees, pools, and pannes and marsh size (r (2) =0.50, F = 4.6, p = 0.04), and could indicate a bias against smaller, more heterogeneous marshes. We conclude that potential differences need to be weighed against the time benefit of using this type of data, bearing in mind the marsh size and the goals of the assessment. Overall, our assessment can provide information to aid in prioritizing marshes for protection and restoration, identify marshes that may harbor significant biodiversity, or help monitor changes in habitat value over time.

  8. Effects on wildlife of aerial applications of strobane, DDT, and BHC to tidal marshes in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, J.L.; Darsie, R.F.; Springer, P.F.

    1957-01-01

    The principal purpose of this study was to ascertain what effect on wildlife, if any, would result from the use of the new insecticide, Strobane, for mosquito control on tideland areas. Comparisons were made with DDT and BHC (43 per cent gamma isomer) commonly used in control operations. The investigation was carried out on the tidal marshes of Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge near Smyrna, Delaware. Four areas, all similar in habitat, were chosen-three as test plots for Strobane, BHC, and DDT, respectively, and the fourth as an untreated check. The insecticides in oil solution were applied by airplane at the rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 pound per acre for gamma isomer of BHC, DDT, and Strobane, respectively. The first application was made on the morning of July 27; and the second, on the evening of August 23, 1955. To assay the results of spraying, 14 testing devices were set up in each area. They consisted of cages, traps, and microscope slides placed in the streams and ponds. The estuarine fishes, Fundulus heteroclitus, Cyprinodon variegatus, Leiostornus xanthurus, and Ailugil curemu; blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus; fiddler crabs, Uca pugnux, Uca minux, and Sesarma reticulaturn; and certain sessile organisms were included in the tests. Analyses of variance on fish and blue crabs showed no significant difference between deaths occurring in treated and control plots, nor among the three treatments. Differential mortalities were suffered by fish caged in streams and ponds. Greater numbers died in the BHC-treated streams and in the DDT-treated ponds. Local concentrations of insecticide appeared to be the cause, although the magnitude of kill was not significantly greater than in control areas. Field observations and crab-pot counts showed that both the fish and blue crabs avoided the sites of high insecticide concentration. Certainly the majority of the free-living individuals in the treated areas were able to survive the sprays, and at the level tested showed no

  9. Mean tidal range in salt marsh units of Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass production is positively correlated with mean tidal range in salt marshes along the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. Recent studies support the idea that enhanced stability of the marshes can be attributed to increased vegetative growth due to increased tidal range. This dataset displays the spatial variation mean tidal range (i.e. Mean Range of Tides, MN) in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay in New Jersey, USA. MN was based on the calculated difference in height between mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) using the VDatum (v3.5) software (http://vdatum.noaa.gov/). The input elevation was set to zero in VDatum to calculate the relative difference between the two datums. As part of the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started a Wetland Synthesis Project to expand National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study area.

  10. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  11. Conceptual salt marsh units for wetland synthesis: Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil Kamal

    2016-01-01

    The salt marsh complex of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay (New Jersey, USA), was delineated to smaller, conceptual marsh units by geoprocessing of surface elevation data. Flow accumulation based on the relative elevation of each location is used to determine the ridge lines that separate each marsh unit while the surface slope is used to automatically assign each unit a drainage point, where water is expected to drain through. Through scientific efforts associated with the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started to expand national assessment of coastal change hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study.Recent research shows that sediment budgets of microtidal marsh complexes on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States consistently scale with areal unvegetated/vegetated marsh ratio (UVVR) despite differences in sea-level rise, tidal range, elevation, vegetation, and stressors. This highlights UVVR as a broadly applicable indicator of microtidal marsh stability. It is also relatively quicker and less labor intensive compared to quantifying integrative sediment budgets and the associated transport mechanisms that requires extended tidal-timescale observations of sediment transport. UVVR indicates the link between open-water conversion processes and sediment transport, providing consistent results across a geomorphic and climatic spectrum of microtidal marshes, hence can be an independent measure of marsh health. Potentially, tracking future changes to UVVR may allow for widespread

  12. Assessing the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes: II. Model testing and validation.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Richard A; Charpentier, Michael A; Wigand, Cathleen

    2009-07-01

    We tested a previously described model to assess the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes by comparing modeled habitat values and scores with bird abundance and species richness at sixteen salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island USA. As a group, wildlife habitat value assessment scores for the marshes ranged from 307-509, or 31-67% of the maximum attainable score. We recorded 6 species of wading birds (Ardeidae; herons, egrets, and bitterns) at the sites during biweekly survey. Species richness (r (2)=0.24, F=4.53, p=0.05) and abundance (r (2)=0.26, F=5.00, p=0.04) of wading birds significantly increased with increasing assessment score. We optimized our assessment model for wading birds by using Akaike information criteria (AIC) to compare a series of models comprised of specific components and categories of our model that best reflect their habitat use. The model incorporating pre-classification, wading bird habitat categories, and natural land surrounding the sites was substantially supported by AIC analysis as the best model. The abundance of wading birds significantly increased with increasing assessment scores generated with the optimized model (r (2)=0.48, F=12.5, p=0.003), demonstrating that optimizing models can be helpful in improving the accuracy of the assessment for a given species or species assemblage. In addition to validating the assessment model, our results show that in spite of their urban setting our study marshes provide substantial wildlife habitat value. This suggests that even small wetlands in highly urbanized coastal settings can provide important wildlife habitat value if key habitat attributes (e.g., natural buffers, habitat heterogeneity) are present.

  13. Change in surficial water area, Quivera National Wildlife Refuge, Stafford County, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. MSS-7 images acquired in August, October, and December 1972 revealed changes in both the number of water pools and surficial water area of larger pools in Quivera National Wildlife Refuge (Big and Little Salt Marsh), Stafford County, Kansas.

  14. Simulation of Water Levels and Salinity in the Rivers and Tidal Marshes in the Vicinity of the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, Coastal South Carolina and Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2006-01-01

    The Savannah Harbor is one of the busiest ports on the East Coast of the United States and is located downstream from the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, which is one of the Nation?s largest freshwater tidal marshes. The Georgia Ports Authority and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers funded hydrodynamic and ecological studies to evaluate the potential effects of a proposed deepening of Savannah Harbor as part of the Environmental Impact Statement. These studies included a three-dimensional (3D) model of the Savannah River estuary system, which was developed to simulate changes in water levels and salinity in the system in response to geometry changes as a result of the deepening of Savannah Harbor, and a marsh-succession model that predicts plant distribution in the tidal marshes in response to changes in the water-level and salinity conditions in the marsh. Beginning in May 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into cooperative agreements with the Georgia Ports Authority to develop empirical models to simulate the water level and salinity of the rivers and tidal marshes in the vicinity of the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge and to link the 3D hydrodynamic river-estuary model and the marsh-succession model. For the development of these models, many different databases were created that describe the complexity and behaviors of the estuary. The U.S. Geological Survey has maintained a network of continuous streamflow, water-level, and specific-conductance (field measurement to compute salinity) river gages in the study area since the 1980s and a network of water-level and salinity marsh gages in the study area since 1999. The Georgia Ports Authority collected water-level and salinity data during summer 1997 and 1999 and collected continuous water-level and salinity data in the marsh and connecting tidal creeks from 1999 to 2002. Most of the databases comprise time series that differ by variable type, periods of record, measurement frequency, location, and

  15. 77 FR 57107 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... management and monitoring activities. The tsunami evacuation route through Neskowin Marsh would remain open... modification of the tsunami evacuation route through Neskowin Marsh to improve hydrology and accessibility....

  16. Sedimentation History of Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, Wisconsin, 1846-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Knox, James C.; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The history of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of Halfway Creek Marsh near La Crosse, Wis., was examined during 2005?06 by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Wisconsin?Madison as part of a broader study of sediment and nutrient loadings to the Upper Mississippi River bottomlands by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Geological Survey. Historical sedimentation patterns and rates were interpreted from field-scale topographic surveys and sediment cores collected from the marsh and upstream flood plains. Historical maps and aerial photographs were used to establish the timing of disturbances and to document changes in channel patterns after Euro-American settlement (post 1846). Episodic overbank sedimentation patterns and rates were linked to watershed agricultural activity, large floods, artificial levee construction, channel alterations, and dam failures over the past 160 years. These forces affected sedimentation on and between levees, the development of alluvial fans and flood-plain splays, and the general pattern of flood-plain sedimentation through the upper and lower marsh. Historical overbank deposits, episodically deposited after about 1860, are as much as 6 feet thick in the upper marsh and as much as 4 feet thick in the lower marsh, representing a total volume of approximately 1.8 million cubic yards. These stratified deposits consist of multiple layers of silt and clay, very fine to fine sand, and some medium to very coarse sand. Coarse-grained deposits are associated with flood-plain splays caused by breaches in artificial levees during large floods. Estimated sedimentation rates were highest from 1919 to 1936 [26,890 cubic yards per year (yd3/yr)] and exceeded by about 30 times the 1846?85 rate of 920 yd3/yr and exceeded by 7 times the 1994?2006 rate of 3,740 yd3/yr. The 1994?2006 sedimentation rate was the lowest since Euro-American settlement, but natural levees along the 1994?2006 channel

  17. Final report: Initial ecosystem response of salt marshes to ditch plugging and pool creation: Experiments at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the response of three salt marshes, associated with the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine), to the practice of ditch plugging. Drainage ditches, originally dug to drain the marsh for mosquito control or to facilitate salt hay farming, are plugged with marsh peat in an effort to impound water upstream of the plug, raise water table levels in the marsh, and increase surface water habitat. At two study sites, Moody Marsh and Granite Point Road Marsh, ditch plugs were installed in spring 2000. Monitoring of hydrology, vegetation, nekton and bird utilization, and marsh development processes was conducted in 1999, before ditch plugging, and then in 2000 and 2001 (all parameters except nekton), after ditch plugging. Each study site had a control marsh that was monitored simultaneously with the plugged marsh, and thus, we employed a BACI study design (before, after, control, impact). A third site, Marshall Point Road Marsh, was plugged in 1998. Monitoring of the plugged and control sites was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with limited monitoring in 2001, thus there was no ?before? plug monitoring. With ditch plugging, water table levels increased toward the marsh surface and the areal extent of standing water increased. Responding to a wetter substrate, a vegetation change from high marsh species (e.g., Spartina patens) to those more tolerant of flooded conditions (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) was noted at two of the three ditch plugged sites. Initial response of the nekton community (fishes and decapod crustaceans) was evaluated by monitoring utilization of salt marsh pools using a 1m2 enclosure trap. In general, nekton species richness, density, and community structure remained unchanged following ditch plugging at the Moody and Granite Point sites. At Marshall Point, species richness and density (number of individuals per m2) were significantly greater in the experimental plugged marsh than the control marsh (<2% of the control marsh was

  18. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search. [Dual use wildlife refuges

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the dual use of wetland areas as both water treatment systems and wildlife refuges. The ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, and bogs to absorb and filter natural and synthetic wastes is examined. Topics include the effects of individual pollutants; environmental factors; species diversity; the cleansing ability of wetland areas; and the handling of sewage, industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural runoff, accidental spills, and flooding. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Marsh soils as potential sinks for Bacteroides fecal indicator bacteria, Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown, SC, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Johnson, Heather E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    A soil core collected in a tidal freshwater marsh in the Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown, SC) exuded a particularly strong odor of cow manure upon extrusion. In order to test for manure and determine its provenance, we carried out microbial source tracking using DNA markers for Bacteroides, a noncoliform, anaerobic bacterial group that represents a broad group of the fecal population. Three core sections from 0-3 cm, 9-12 cm and 30-33 were analyzed for the presence of Bacteroides. The ages of core sediments were estimated using 210Pb and 137Cs dating. All three core sections tested positive for Bacteroides DNA markers related to cow or deer feces. Because cow manure is stockpiled, used as fertilizer, and a source of direct contamination in the Great Pee Dee River/Winyah Bay watershed, it is very likely the source of the Bacteroides that was deposited on the marsh. The mid-points of the core sections were dated as follows: 0-3 cm: 2009; 9-12 cm: 1999, and 30-33 cm: 1961. The presence of Bacteroides at different depths/ages in the soil profile indicates that soils in tidal freshwater marshes are, at the least, capable of being short-term sinks for Bacteroides and, may have the potential to be long-term sinks of stable, naturalized populations.

  20. Effects of invasive cordgrass on presence of Marsh Grassbird in an area where it is not native.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhijun; Gan, Xiaojing; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Li, Bo

    2014-02-01

    The threatened Marsh Grassbird (Locustella pryeri) first appeared in the salt marsh in east China after the salt marsh was invaded by cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a non-native invasive species. To understand the dependence of non-native Marsh Grassbird on the non-native cordgrass, we quantified habitat use, food source, and reproductive success of the Marsh Grassbird at the Chongming Dongtan (CMDT) salt marsh. In the breeding season, we used point counts and radio-tracking to determine habitat use by Marsh Grassbirds. We analyzed basal food sources of the Marsh Grassbirds by comparing the δ(13) C isotope signatures of feather and fecal samples of birds with those of local plants. We monitored the nests through the breeding season and determined the breeding success of the Marsh Grassbirds at CMDT. Density of Marsh Grassbirds was higher where cordgrass occurred than in areas of native reed (Phragmites australis) monoculture. The breeding territory of the Marsh Grassbird was composed mainly of cordgrass stands, and nests were built exclusively against cordgrass stems. Cordgrass was the major primary producer at the base of the Marsh Grassbird food chain. Breeding success of the Marsh Grassbird at CMDT was similar to breeding success within its native range. Our results suggest non-native cordgrass provides essential habitat and food for breeding Marsh Grassbirds at CMDT and that the increase in Marsh Grassbird abundance may reflect the rapid spread of cordgrass in the coastal regions of east China. Our study provides an example of how a primary invader (i.e., cordgrass) can alter an ecosystem and thus facilitate colonization by a second non-native species.

  1. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing... Preserve General Provisions § 13.918 Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. (a) Entry into the Sable Pass...) The Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area means the area within one mile of the shoulder of the Park...

  2. Copper and lead levels in crops and soils of the Holland Marsh Area-Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the soils and crops of the important horticultural area north of Toronto known as the Holland Marsh. The soils are deep organic mucks (> 85% organic matter), derived by the drainage of black marshland soils, which has been carried out over the past 40 years. A comparison is made between the Pb and Cu concentrations in undrained, uncultivated areas of the marsh and in the intensively used horticultural area. Analyses show a marked accumulation of Cu in surface layers of cultivated soils, with a mean surface concentration of 130 ppM, declining to 20 ppM at a 32-cm depth. Undrained (virgin) soils of the same marshes had < 20 ppM at all depths. Lead concentrations also declined through the profile, from concentrations of 22 to 10 ppM. In comparison, undrained areas had elevated Pb levels. Cultivation appeared to have increased Cu, but lowered Pb in the marsh. Copper and lead levels found in the crops were generally higher in the young spring vegetables than in the mature fall ones. Leafy crops, especially lettuce (Lactuca L.) and celery (Apium graveolens), accumulated higher Pb levels in their foliage compared with levels in root crops. Cultivation procedures, including past pesticide applications and fertilizer additions, appeared to be principal sources of Cu. Mobility from the soil and into the plant for these elements in the marsh muck soils is discussed.

  3. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  4. Wildlife Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an account of the making of a wildlife garden. Reviews the problems and outlines the plans and methods that succeeded in the project. Includes 21 illustrations of vegetation as well as descriptions of pond, marsh, meadow, and woodland areas. (ML)

  5. Seasonal Distribution and Abundance of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Hanks Marsh, Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greer O.; Wilkens, Alexander X.; Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, we undertook an assessment of larval and juvenile sucker use of Hanks Marsh in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. This 1,200-acre marsh on the southeastern shoreline of the lake represents part of the last remaining natural emergent wetland habitat in the lake. Because of the suspected importance of this type of habitat to larval and juvenile endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers, it was thought that sucker abundance in the marsh might be comparatively greater than in other non-vegetated areas of the lake. It also was hoped that Hanks Marsh would serve as a reference site for wetland restoration projects occurring in other areas of the lake. Our study had four objectives: to (1) examine seasonal distribution and relative abundance of larval suckers in and adjacent to Hanks Marsh in relation to habitat features such as depth, vegetation, water quality, and relative abundance of non-sucker species; (2) determine the presence or absence and describe the distribution of juvenile suckers [35 to 80 mm standard length (SL)] along the periphery of Hanks Marsh; (3) assess spatial and temporal overlap between larval suckers and their potential predators; and (4) assess suitability of water quality throughout the summer for young-of-the-year suckers. Due to the low number of suckers found in the marsh and our inability to thoroughly sample all marsh habitats due to declining lake levels during the summer, we were unable to completely address these objectives in this pilot study. The results, however, do give some indication of the relative use of Hanks Marsh by sucker and non-sucker species. Through sampling of larval and juvenile suckers in various habitat types within the marsh, we determined that sucker use of Hanks Marsh may be very low in comparison with other areas of the lake. We caught only 42 larval and 19 juvenile suckers during 12 weeks of sampling throughout the marsh. Sucker catches were rare in Hanks Marsh, and were lower than catch rates

  6. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations....

  7. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations....

  8. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations....

  9. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations....

  10. Impacts of marsh management on coastal-marsh bird habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, L.R.; Gabrey, S.; Marra, P.P.; Erwin, R.M.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The effects of habitat-management practices in coastal marshes have been poorly evaluated. We summarize the extant literature concerning whether these manipulations achieve their goals and the effects of these manipulations on target (i.e., waterfowl and waterfowl food plants) and non-target organisms (particularly coastal-marsh endemics). Although we focus on the effects of marsh management on birds, we also summarize the scant literature concerning the impacts of marsh manipulations on wildlife such as small mammals and invertebrates. We address three common forms of anthropogenic marsh disturbance: prescribed fire, structural marsh management, and open-marsh water management. We also address marsh perturbations by native and introduced vertebrates.

  11. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dan

    2008-11-03

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the

  12. The rationale for attempting to define salt marsh mosquito-breeding areas in Galveston County by remote sensing the associated vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arp, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The rationale for attempting to define salt marsh mosquito breeding areas in Galveston County was discussed, including a botanical survey of the marsh plant communities, their relationship to flooding, and their exposure to salt water. Particular emphasis is given to Distichlis spicata, a widespread marsh grass. Evidence suggests that breeding areas of Aedes sollicitans are associated with Distichlis and that both species respond to similar ecological conditions in the salt marsh. Aspects of the remote sensing of the Distichlis are considered.

  13. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan : Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Northwest Power Act directs the NPPC to develop a program to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance'' fish and wildlife of the Columbia River and its tributaries. The overarching goals include: A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlife; Mitigation across the basin for the adverse effects to fish and wildlife caused by the development and operation of the hydrosystem; Sufficient populations of fish and wildlife for abundant opportunities for tribal trust and treaty right harvest and for non-tribal harvest; and Recovery of the fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of the hydrosystem that are listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  14. Remote sensing for monitoring of wildlife habitat: Lesser snow geese and sub-Arctic coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadallah, Fawziah L.

    Human environmental impact has occurred on a global scale. Effective management of problems occurring over broad regions requires monitoring and intervention over large extents of space and time. Remote sensing provides an attractive data source, particularly as satellite data have been consistently collected over both space and time and present a readily available, inexpensive archive. At best, however, remote sensing provides proxy data for the underlying variables of interest. Here remotely sensed data are used to measure habitat degradation at a lesser snow goose colony. An increase in goose numbers has led to a loss of forage vegetation in the arctic and sub-arctic marshes where the geese nest and raise their young. In particular, isostatic rebound has generated extensive coastal marshes along the west coast of Hudson Bay, and lesser snow geese colonized such a marsh at La Perouse Bay in the late 1950's. This well-studied colony is used to assess the feasibility of mapping decadal change with Landsat imagery. A baseline map is developed using satellite data, aerial photography, and a knowledge of vegetation dynamics at the site. Calibration equations, relating the quantity of above-ground vegetation and its reflectance, are developed using cross-validation and goodness-of-prediction measures for field data collected on-site. To detect changes in vegetation state, tree-classification and cross-validation were applied to ground data. Using satellite imagery, changes in vegetation quantity and type could be detected against a background of mineral soil, but not against a background of mosses. Even in this site with low topographic variability, few species and few strong driving forces (i.e. isostatic rebound and herbivory), multiple change trajectories are possible. As different trajectories have different influences on both the reflectance of the surface and the expected behaviour and functioning of the system, each must be accounted for separately. Failure to

  15. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Land Loss and Marsh Creation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    Blacktip shark Silver perch Tiger shark Sand seatrout Lemon shark Spotted seatrout Atlantic sharpnose shark Spot Scalloped hammerhead Southern kingfish...list of common estuarine and marine fishes and shellfishes of commercial or recreational importance in the study area. Species Bull shark Sheepshead

  16. Structural Data for the Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area - GIS Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2011-12-31

    Shapefiles and spreadsheets of structural data, including attitudes of faults and strata and slip orientations of faults. - Detailed geologic mapping of ~30 km2 was completed in the vicinity of the Columbus Marsh geothermal field to obtain critical structural data that would elucidate the structural controls of this field. - Documenting E‐ to ENE‐striking left lateral faults and N‐ to NNE‐striking normal faults. - Some faults cut Quaternary basalts. - This field appears to occupy a displacement transfer zone near the eastern end of a system of left‐lateral faults. ENE‐striking sinistral faults diffuse into a system of N‐ to NNE‐striking normal faults within the displacement transfer zone. - Columbus Marsh therefore corresponds to an area of enhanced extension and contains a nexus of fault intersections, both conducive for geothermal activity.

  17. A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF WILDLIFE HABITAT VALUE OF NEW ENGLAND SALT MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource managers are frequently asked to make decisions that affect the protection and restoration of wetland habitats. The desire is often to base at least some part of this decision process on an assessment of wildlife habitat value, an acknowledged and important wetland func...

  18. Surface Sediments in the Marsh-Sandy Land Transitional Area: Sandification in the Western Songnen Plain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29±14 kg m−2 yr−1 and 0.6±0.3 kg m−2 yr−1 in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717

  19. Landsat-faciliated vegetation classification of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Shasby, M.B.; Bailey, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-based vegetation map was prepared for Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent lands, 2 million and 2.5 million acres respectively. The refuge lies within the middle boreal sub zone of south central Alaska. Seven major classes and sixteen subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed); deciduous scrub (lowland and montane, subalpine); dwarf scrub (dwarf shrub tundra, lichen tundra, dwarf shrub and lichen tundra, dwarf shrub peatland, string bog/wetlands); herbaceous (graminoid meadows and marshes); scarcely vegetated areas ; water (clear, moderately turbid, highly turbid); and glaciers. The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved: preprocessing (geometric connection), spectral class labeling of sample areas, derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, preliminary classification of the entree study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification through ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The vegetation map (scale 1:250,000) was a pioneering effort since there were no intermediate-sclae maps of the area. Representative of distinctive regional patterns, the map was suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning and wildlife management.

  20. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  1. An assessment of Idaho's wildlife management areas for the protection of wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, J.W.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2005-01-01

    Since 1940, Idaho Department of Fish and Game has developed a network of 31 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) across the state. This program has been focused mostly on conservation of game species and their habitats. We assessed the contribution of Idaho's WMAs to conservation of all Idaho's wildlife and other aspects of ecological diversity. Predicted occurrences of species' breeding habitats and other data were used to evaluate the representation of wildlife habitat and other ecological conditions. We found 33 of 39 natural land cover types were mapped as occurring in WMAs. WMAs occurred in 10 of 15 of Bailey's ecoregion sections, absent only from two sections that occupy greater than 1% of Idaho. Percent area of WMAs by elevation followed a pattern similar to percent area of Idaho; however, mean elevation for WMAs was lower than for the state and other protected areas in Idaho. We predicted breeding habitat for 98.4% of Idaho's wildlife and all federal and state listed threatened, endangered, or candidate terrestrial vertebrates to occur in at least one WMA. We predicted habitat for 39 species to occur on five or fewer WMAs, and predicted no habitat on WMAs for five species. We found that a system of WMAs established mainly to protect game species potentially conserves many other aspects of Idaho's ecological diversity, may provide habitat for more than 98% of Idaho's wildlife, and complements other protected areas in the state.

  2. Tidal marsh susceptibility to sea-level rise: importance of local-scale models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing concern over sea-level rise impacts to coastal tidal marsh ecosystems has led to modeling efforts to anticipate outcomes for resource management decision making. Few studies on the Pacific coast of North America have modeled sea-level rise marsh susceptibility at a scale relevant to local wildlife populations and plant communities. Here, we use a novel approach in developing an empirical sea-level rise ecological response model that can be applied to key management questions. Calculated elevation change over 13 y for a 324-ha portion of San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California, USA, was used to represent local accretion and subsidence processes. Next, we coupled detailed plant community and elevation surveys with measured rates of inundation frequency to model marsh state changes to 2100. By grouping plant communities into low, mid, and high marsh habitats, we were able to assess wildlife species vulnerability and to better understand outcomes for habitat resiliency. Starting study-site conditions were comprised of 78% (253-ha) high marsh, 7% (30-ha) mid marsh, and 4% (18-ha) low marsh habitats, dominated by pickleweed Sarcocornia pacifica and cordgrass Spartina spp. Only under the low sea-level rise scenario (44 cm by 2100) did our models show persistence of some marsh habitats to 2100, with the area dominated by low marsh habitats. Under mid (93 cm by 2100) and high sea-level rise scenarios (166 cm by 2100), most mid and high marsh habitat was lost by 2070, with only 15% (65 ha) remaining, and a complete loss of these habitats by 2080. Low marsh habitat increased temporarily under all three sea-level rise scenarios, with the peak (286 ha) in 2070, adding habitat for the endemic endangered California Ridgway’s rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus. Under mid and high sea-level rise scenarios, an almost complete conversion to mudflat occurred, with most of the area below mean sea level. Our modeling assumed no marsh migration upslope due to human

  3. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  4. 50 CFR 32.4 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing. 32.4 Section 32.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General...

  5. 50 CFR 32.4 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing. 32.4 Section 32.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General...

  6. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting. 32.1 Section 32.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General...

  7. 50 CFR 32.4 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing. 32.4 Section 32.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General...

  8. 50 CFR 32.4 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing. 32.4 Section 32.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General...

  9. 50 CFR 32.4 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to fishing. 32.4 Section 32.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General...

  10. Phenological Impacts of Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Gustav (2008) on Louisiana Coastal Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Y.; Kearney, M.; Riter, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marshes provide indispensable ecological functions, such as offering habitat for economic fish and wildlife, improving water quality, protecting inland areas from floods, and stabilizing the shoreline. Hurricanes—though helping to maintain the elevation of coastal wetlands by depositing large amounts of sediments—pose one of the largest threats for coastal marshes in terms of eroding shorelines, scouring marsh surfaces, and resuspending sediments. Coastal marshes phenologies can be important for understanding broad response of marshes to stressors, like hurricanes. We investigated the phenological impacts of Katrina and Gustav (Category 3 and 2 hurricanes at landfall in southeast Louisiana on 29 August, 2005, and 1 September, 2008, respectively) on freshwater, intermediate, brackish, and saline marshes in southeastern Louisiana. Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data were processed using ENVI 4.8. Phenological patterns of the marshes were modeled using a nonlinear mixed model using SAS 9.4. We created and compared marsh phenologies of 1994 and 2014, the reference years, to those of 2005 and 2008, the hurricane years. Preliminary results show that in normal years: (1) the NDVI of four marsh types peaked in July; (2) freshwater marshes had the highest peak NDVI, followed by intermediate, brackish, and saline marshes; and (3) the growth durations of the marshes are around three to six months. In 2005, the major phenological change was shortening of growth duration, which was most obvious for intermediate and brackish marshes. The peak NDVI values of the four marsh types were not affected because the hurricane occurred at the end of August, one month after the peak NDVI time. By comparison, there was no obvious phenological impact on the marshes by Gustav (2008) with respect to peak NDVI, peak NDVI day, and growth duration.

  11. Marshes to mudflats—Effects of sea-level rise on tidal marshes along a latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Freeman, Chase M.; Janousek, Christopher N.; Powelson, Katherine W.; Gutenspergen, Glenn R.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2015-11-17

    In the Pacific Northwest, coastal wetlands support a wealth of ecosystem services including habitat provision for wildlife and fisheries and flood protection. The tidal marshes, mudflats, and shallow bays of coastal estuaries link marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats, and provide economic and recreational benefits to local communities. Climate change effects such as sea-level rise are altering these habitats, but we know little about how these areas will change over the next 50–100 years. Our study examined the effects of sea-level rise on nine tidal marshes in Washington and Oregon between 2012 and 2015, with the goal of providing scientific data to support future coastal planning and conservation. We compiled physical and biological data, including coastal topography, tidal inundation, vegetation structure, as well as recent and historical sediment accretion rates, to assess and model how sea-level rise may alter these ecosystems in the future. Multiple factors, including initial elevation, marsh productivity, sediment availability, and rates of sea-level rise, affected marsh persistence. Under a low sea-level rise scenario, all marshes remained vegetated with little change in the present configuration of communities of marsh plants or gradually increased proportions of middle-, high-, or transition-elevation zones of marsh vegetation. However, at most sites, mid sea-level rise projections led to loss of habitat of middle and high marshes and a gain of low marshes. Under a high sea-level rise scenario, marshes at most sites eventually converted to intertidal mudflats. Two sites (Grays Harbor and Willapa) seemed to have the most resilience to a high rate of rise in sea-level, persisting as low marsh until at least 2110. Our main model finding is that most tidal marsh study sites are resilient to sea-level rise over the next 50–70 years, but that sea-level rise will eventually outpace marsh accretion and drown most habitats of high and middle marshes by

  12. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  13. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  14. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  15. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  16. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  17. Scotch Creek Wildlife Area 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jim

    2008-11-03

    The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife area is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.

  18. New England salt marsh pools: A quantitative analysis of geomorphic and geographic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    New England salt marsh pools provide important wildlife habitat and are the object of on-going salt marsh restoration projects; however, they have not been quantified in terms of their basic geomorphic and geographic traits. An examination of 32 ditched and unditched salt marshes from the Connecticut shore of Long Island Sound to southern Maine, USA, revealed that pools from ditched and unditched marshes had similar average sizes of about 200 m2, averaged 29 cm in depth, and were located about 11 m from the nearest tidal flow. Unditched marshes had 3 times the density (13 pools/ha), 2.5 times the pool coverage (83 m pool/km transect), and 4 times the total pool surface area per hectare (913 m2 pool/ha salt marsh) of ditched sites. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that an increasing density of ditches (m ditch/ha salt marsh) was negatively correlated with pool density and total pool surface area per hectare. Creek density was positively correlated with these variables. Thus, it was not the mere presence of drainage channels that were associated with low numbers of pools, but their type (ditch versus creek) and abundance. Tidal range was not correlated with pool density or total pool surface area, while marsh latitude had only a weak relationship to total pool surface area per hectare. Pools should be incorporated into salt marsh restoration planning, and the parameters quantified here may be used as initial design targets.

  19. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh, 2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2001-10-01

    to coordinate the planning, selection, and implementation of BPA-funded wildlife mitigation projects. In 1997, the Oregon wildlife managers developed a programmatic project for mitigation planning and implementation within Oregon. The Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area Additions project is one of many habitat acquisition and restoration projects proposed under the Oregon wildlife managers programmatic project that have been approved and recommended for funding by the NWPPC. The Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area Additions mitigation project will protect and restore wetland, riparian and other habitats on newly acquired parcels at ODFW's Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area (LMWA). Wildlife habitat values resulting from the acquisition and enhancement of Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area lands will contribute towards mitigating for habitat lost as a result of the development and operation of the Columbia Basin hydropower system. This report summarizes the HEP survey conducted in June 2001 to document the baseline habitat values on four parcels recently added to the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area: the 309.66-acre Wallender property, the 375.54-acre Simonis property, the 161.07-acre Conley Lake property, and the 74.55-acre Becker property. The 2001 HEP Team was comprised of the following members and agencies: Susan Barnes (ODFW), Allen Childs (CTUIR), Tracy Hames (Yakama Indian Nation), Dave Larson (ODFW), Cathy Nowak (Cat Tracks Wildlife Consulting), and Ken Rutherford (ODFW). Results of the HEP will be used to (1) determine the pre-restoration habitat values of the project sites, (2) the number of Habitat Units to be credited to BPA for protection of habitats within the project area, (3) determine the enhancement potential of the sites, and (4) develop a habitat management plan for the area.

  20. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  1. Identification of metrics to monitor salt marsh integrity on National Wildlife Refuges in relation to conservation and management objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. George; Danz, Nicholas P.; Wiest, Whitney A.; Nagel, Jessica L.; Olker, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of these metrics for quantitative assessment of NWRS salt marsh integrity in FWS Region 5 requires developing sampling designs for each refuge. Additionally, it is important to determine how the monitoring information will be used within a management context. SDM should be used to complete the analysis of salt marsh management decisions. The next steps would involve 1) prioritizing and weighting the management objectives; 2) predicting responses to individual management actions in terms of objectives and metrics; 3) using multiattribute utility theory to convert all measurable attributes to a common utility scale; 4) determining the total management benefit of each action by summing utilities across objectives; and 5) maximizing the total management benefits within cost constraints for each refuge. This process would allow the optimum management decisions for NWRS salt marshes to be selected and implemented based directly on monitoring data and current understanding of marsh responses to management actions. Monitoring the outcome of management actions would then allow new monitoring data to be incorporated into subsequent decisions. 

  2. 76 FR 55699 - Proposed Establishment of Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Conservation Area AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability: draft land... Service (Service), propose to establish a national wildlife refuge and conservation area in Polk, Osceola... wildlife refuge and conservation area in Polk, Osceola, Highlands, and Okeechobee Counties in central...

  3. Mercury bioaccumulation in Hayward Marsh, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlendorf, H.; Byron, E.; Taylor, L.; Cortes, R.

    1995-12-31

    Hayward Marsh was created in 1988 to provide wildlife habitat using treated wastewater from Union Sanitary District, which is located in the San Francisco Bay area. Mercury has been identified as one of the major contaminants of concern for San Francisco Bay sediment and biota. This study was conducted to determine whether mercury bioaccumulation in the Marsh occurred at ecologically significant levels. Sediment, benthic and free-swimming aquatic invertebrates, fish, bird eggs, and muskrat livers were analyzed. Mercury concentrations in the various media were compared to regional background levels and potential adverse effect levels. The findings indicated that mercury concentrations were generally similar to background levels and that there was a low probability of adverse effects to wildlife feeding in the Marsh. An important aspect of the study was inclusion of three bird species, along with their potential food organisms, in the sampling, one of the species had elevated mercury levels in its eggs but those birds probably were exposed outside the Marsh because the two other species and common food-chain organisms did not show elevated mercury levels.

  4. SRS facility impacts on Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-11

    Savannah River site (SRS) facilities that contain hazardous materials have completed the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) process in accordance with Emergency Management Program Procedure (EMPP) 6Q-001. The EPHA determines the consequences of releases from these facilities and identifies events that exceed Protective Action Criteria (PAC) at defined receptor locations for areas of interest. One such area of interest is the Crackerneck wildlife Management Area (WMA). As such, facilities with releases that have the potential to exceed PAC at the Crackerneck WMA have been identified.

  5. Estimates of evapotranspiration from the Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge area, Ruby Valley, northeastern Nevada, May 1999-October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Johnson, Michael J.; Tumbusch, Mary L.; Mackay, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    The Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Ruby Valley, Nevada, contains the largest area of perennial wetlands in northeastern Nevada and provides habitat to a large number of migratory and nesting waterfowl. The long-term preservation of the refuge depends on the availability of sufficient water to maintain optimal habitat conditions. In the Ruby Valley water budget, evapotranspiration (ET) from the refuge is one of the largest components of natural outflow. To help determine the amount of inflow needed to maintain wetland habitat, estimates of ET for May 1999 through October 2000 were made at major habitats throughout the refuge. The Bowen-ratio method was used to estimate daily ET at four sites: over open water, in a moderate-to-dense cover of bulrush marsh, in a moderate cover of mixed phreatophytic shrubs, and in a desert-shrub upland. The eddy-correlation method was used to estimate daily ET for periods of 2 to 12 weeks at a meadow site and at four sites in a sparse-to-moderate cover of phreatophytic shrubs. Daily ET rates ranged from less than 0.010 inch per day at all of the sites to a maximum of 0.464 inch per day at the open-water site. Average daily ET rates estimated for open water and a bulrush marsh were about four to five times greater than in areas of mixed phreatophytic shrubs, where the depth to ground water is less than 5 feet. Based on the seasonal distribution of major habitats in the refuge and on winter and summer ET rates, an estimated total of about 89,000 acre-feet of water was consumed by ET during October 1999-September 2000 (2000 water year). Of this total, about 49,800 acre-feet was consumed by ET in areas of open water and bulrush marsh.

  6. Can salt marsh plants influence levels and distribution of DDTs in estuarine areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Pedro N.; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno R.; Evangelista, Rafael; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2011-07-01

    Sediments are depositories of toxic substances such as organochlorine pesticides and there is a global need for their removal in contaminated environments. Studies that combine contaminated sediments and phytoremediation are relatively recent and their number has been increasing. This work aimed to investigate whether salt marsh plants (sea club-rush Scirpus maritimus, sea rush Juncus maritimus and sea purslane Halimione portulacoides) can favor DDT and metabolites remediation in estuarine environment. For this purpose the levels of DDT, DDE and DDD were compared in vegetated and non-vegetated sediments from an estuary in the North of Portugal ( in-situ study) and from another in the South of Portugal ( ex-situ study). Results obtained both in the in-situ study, involving S. maritimus and J. maritimus, and in the ex-situ study, involving H. portulacoides, indicated that these plants did not have a significant role in DDTs removal and/or degradation. Therefore, it seems that the tested plants cannot influence levels and distribution of DDTs in estuarine areas.

  7. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 07 contract period October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was significant positive changes in the vegetative community in several wetland basins throughout the wildlife area. This major goal is being achieved in part by new equipment and operation capability funded under the BPA contract, state capital and migratory bird stamp funds, and the past or ongoing investment of other partners including Ducks Unlimited, The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Clark Public Utilities and others. We continue to be challenged by requirements under the archaeological and historic preservation act necessary to protect many sensitive sites known to occur within the wildlife area. The problems encountered to date have been largely administrative in nature and those experienced this year were unforeseen and probably unavoidable. Early in the contract period, WDFW and BPA had agreed to have a BPA staff archaeologist perform the survey and reporting work. Unexpectedly, just prior to the expected start date for the surveys, the employee resigned leaving BPA's staff short handed and necessitated contracting the work with an archaeological consultant. This delay caused us to forego work on several projects that are now deferred until the next contract period. The most notable projects impacted by this unfortunate circumstance are those involving the construction or repair of fences.

  8. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  9. Shillapoo Wildlife Area 2007 Follow-up HEP Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-03-01

    In April and May 2007 the Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted a follow-up HEP analysis on the Egger (612 acres) and Herzog (210 acres) parcels located at the north end of the Shillapoo Wildlife Area. The Egger and Herzog parcels have been managed with Bonneville Power Administration funds since acquired in 1998 and 2001 respectively. Slightly more than 936 habitat units (936.47) or 1.14 HUs per acre was generated as an outcome of the 2007 follow-up HEP surveys. Results included 1.65 black-capped chickadee HUs, 280.57 great blue heron HUs, 581.45 Canada goose HUs, 40 mallard HUs, and 32.80 mink HUs. Introduction A follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980) analysis was conducted by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) during April and May 2007 to document changes in habitat quality and to determine the number of habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing operation and maintenance (O&M) funds since WDFW acquired the parcels. The 2007 follow-up HEP evaluation was limited to Shillapoo Wildlife Area (SWA) parcels purchased with Bonneville Power Administration funds. D. Budd (pers. comm.) reported WDFW purchased the 612 acre Egger Farms parcel on November 2, 1998 for $1,737,0001 and the 210 acre Herzog acquisition on June 21, 2001 for $500,000 with Memorandum of Agreement funds (BPA and WDFW 1996) as partial fulfillment of BPA's wildlife mitigation obligation for construction of Bonneville and John Day Dams (Rasmussen and Wright 1989). Anticipating the eventual acquisition of the Egger and Herzog properties, WDFW conducted HEP surveys on these lands in 1994 to determine the potential number of habitat units to be credited to BPA. As a result, HEP surveys and habitat unit calculations were completed as much as seven years prior to acquiring the sites. The term 'Shillapoo Wildlife Area' will be used to describe only the Herzog and Egger parcels in this document. Details and

  10. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure potential of salt marsh units in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge to environmental health stressors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Jones, Daniel K.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Aquino, Kimberly C.; Carbo, Chelsea L.; Kaufhold, Erika E.; Benzel, William M.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Griffin, Dale W.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic contaminants, pathogens, and viruses are found in soils and sediments throughout the United States. Enhanced dispersion and concentration of these environmental health stressors in coastal regions can result from sea level rise and storm-derived disturbances. The combination of existing environmental health stressors and those mobilized by natural or anthropogenic disasters could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems. This dataset displays the exposure potential to environmental health stressors in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay in New Jersey, USA. Exposure potential is calculated with the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) ranking system (Reilly and others, 2015) designed to define baseline and post-event sediment-bound environmental health stressors. Facilities obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and Facility Registry Service (FRS) databases were ranked based on their potential contaminant hazard. Ranks were based in part on previous work by Olsen and others (2013), literature reviews, and an expert review panel. A 2000 meter search radius was used to identify nearby ranked facility locations. As part of the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started a Wetland Synthesis Project to expand National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study area.

  12. 75 FR 35829 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge), 7 miles south of... ``Bear Lake CCP EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Annette de Knijf, 208-847-1319....

  13. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 05 contract period October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was completion of the water system that will provide water to wetland basins within the Vancouver Lake Unit and three independent basins on adjoining Clark County owned lands. The water system paid for by Clark Public Utilities was designed and built under the direction of Ducks Unlimited. Having a reliable water supply for these areas has allowed us for the first time to begin making significant progress toward our wetland vegetation management goals on this unit. A reduction in the density of reed canary grass has already been noted and increased levels of native plant occurrence have been observed. Our most notable setback was an increase in the infestation of purple loosestrife within a portion of the Shillapoo Lakebed including parts of the North and South Units. A great deal of effort and time was spent on addressing the problem including hand cutting and spraying individual plants.

  14. 50 CFR 32.5 - What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.5 Section 32.5 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE...

  15. 50 CFR 32.2 - What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.2 Section 32.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE...

  16. 50 CFR 32.5 - What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.5 Section 32.5 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE...

  17. 50 CFR 32.5 - What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.5 Section 32.5 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE...

  18. 50 CFR 32.5 - What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.5 Section 32.5 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE...

  19. 50 CFR 32.2 - What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.2 Section 32.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE...

  20. 50 CFR 32.2 - What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.2 Section 32.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE...

  1. 50 CFR 32.2 - What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.2 Section 32.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE...

  2. 50 CFR 32.5 - What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.5 Section 32.5 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE...

  3. 50 CFR 32.2 - What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System? 32.2 Section 32.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE...

  4. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a

  5. Secrets of the Marsh. An Activity Resource Book For and By Children. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Aline, Ed.

    This publication contains a collection of student-produced activities about wildlife. Children's views of the varying life forms that they encountered in field walks to a marsh are expressed through the games, puzzles, stories, and pictures that they created. Samples of the students' work are organized into separate topic areas. These include: (1)…

  6. Effects of weir management on marsh loss, Marsh Island, Louisiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, John A.; Chabreck, Robert H.; Linscombe, R. G.

    1990-11-01

    Weirs are low-level dams traditionally used in Louisiana's coastal marshes to improve habitat for ducks and furbearers. Currently, some workers hope that weirs may reduce marsh loss, whereas others fear that weirs may accelerate marsh loss. Parts of Marsh Island, Louisiana, have been weir-managed since 1958 to improve duck and furbearer habitat. Using aerial photographs, marsh loss that occurred between 1957 and 1983 in a 2922-ha weir-managed area was compared to that in a 2365-ha unmanaged area. Marsh loss was 0.38%/yr in the weir-managed area, and 0.35%/yr in the unmanaged area. Because marsh loss in the two areas differed less than 0.19%/yr, it was concluded that weirs did not affect marsh loss. The increase in open water between 1957 and 1983 did not result from the expansion of lakes or bayous. Rather, solid marsh converted to broken marsh, and the amount of vegetation within previously existing broken marsh decreased. Solid marsh farthest from large lakes and bayous, and adjacent to existing broken marsh, seemed more likely to break up. Marsh Island has few canals; therefore, marsh loss resulted primarily from natural processes. Weirs may have different effects under different hydrological conditions; additional studies are needed before generalizations regarding weirs and marsh loss can be made.

  7. Changes in lagoonal marsh morphology at selected northeastern Atlantic coast sites of significance to migratory waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Sanders, G.M.; Prosser, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Five lagoonal salt marsh areas, ranging from 220 ha to 3,670 ha, were selected from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to the southern DelMarVa peninsula, Virginia, USA to examine the degree to which Spartina marsh area and microhabitats had changed from the early or mid- 1900s to recent periods. We chose areas based on their importance to migratory bird populations, agency concerns about marsh loss and sea-level rise, and availability of historic imagery. We georeferenced and processed aerial photographs from a variety of sources ranging from 1932 to 1994. Of particular interest were changes in total salt marsh area, tidal creeks, tidal flats, tidal and non-tidal ponds, and open water habitats. Nauset Marsh, within Cape Cod National Seashore, experienced an annual marsh loss of 0.40% (19% from 1947 to 1994) with most loss attributed to sand overwash and conversion to open water. At Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge in southern New Jersey, annual loss was 0.27% (17% from 1932 to 1995), with nearly equal attribution of loss to open water and tidal pond expansion. At Curlew Bay, Virginia, annual loss was 0.20% (9% from 1949 to 1994) and almost entirely due to perimeter erosion to open water. At Gull Marsh, Virginia, a site chosen because of known erosional losses, we recorded the highest annual loss rate, 0.67% per annum, again almost entirely due to erosional, perimeter loss. In contrast, at the southernmost site, Mockhorn Island Wildlife Management Area, Virginia, there was a net gain of 0.09% per annum (4% from 1949 to 1994), with tidal flats becoming increasingly vegetated. Habitat. implications for waterbirds are considerable; salt marsh specialists such as laughing gulls (Larus atricilla), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), black rail, (Laterallus jamaicensis), seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus), and saltmarsh sharp-tailed sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) are particularly at risk if these trends continue, and all but the laughing gull are species of concern to state

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) currently manages a 15,325 acre parcel of land known as the Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area that was purchased as mitigation for losses incurred by construction of the four lower Snake River dams. The Management Area is located in northern Wallowa County, Oregon and southern Asotin County, Washington (Figure 1). It is divided into three management parcels--the Buford parcel is located on Buford Creek and straddles the WA-OR state line, and the Tamarack and Basin parcels are contiguous to each other and located between the Joseph Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages in Wallowa County, OR. The project was developed under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The acreage protected under this contract will be credited to BPA as habitat permanently dedicated to wildlife and wildlife mitigation. A modeling strategy known as Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by BPA as a habitat equivalency accounting system. Nine wildlife species models were used to evaluate distinct cover type features and provide a measure of habitat quality. Models measure a wide range of life requisite variables for each species and monitor overall trends in vegetation community health and diversity. One product of HEP is an evaluation of habitat quality expressed in Habitat Units (HUs). This HU accounting system is used to determine the amount of credit BPA receives for mitigation lands. After construction of the four lower Snake River dams, a HEP loss assessment was conducted to determine how many Habitat Units were inundated behind the dams. Twelve target species were used in that evaluation: Canada goose, mallard, river otter, downy woodpecker, song sparrow, yellow warbler, marsh wren, western meadowlark, chukar, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, and mule deer. The U.S. Army Corp of

  9. DEVELOPING INDICATORS OF SALT MARSH HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    We relate plant zonation in salt marshes to key ecosystem services such as erosion control and wildlife habitat. Ten salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, with similar geological bedrock and sea exchange, were identified to examine plant zonation. Sub-watersheds adjacent to the salt ...

  10. TOWARDS DEVELOPING INDICATORS OF SALT MARSH CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five ecosystem services: water quality maintenance, erosion and flood control, recreation and cultural use, wildlife habitat, and food production were identified from the literature as key services to characterize salt marshes of high integrity. We describe a systems approach to ...

  11. Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations.

  12. The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Western, David; Russell, Samantha; Cuthill, Innes

    2009-07-08

    We compile over 270 wildlife counts of Kenya's wildlife populations conducted over the last 30 years to compare trends in national parks and reserves with adjacent ecosystems and country-wide trends. The study shows the importance of discriminating human-induced changes from natural population oscillations related to rainfall and ecological factors. National park and reserve populations have declined sharply over the last 30 years, at a rate similar to non-protected areas and country-wide trends. The protected area losses reflect in part their poor coverage of seasonal ungulate migrations. The losses vary among parks. The largest parks, Tsavo East, Tsavo West and Meru, account for a disproportionate share of the losses due to habitat change and the difficulty of protecting large remote parks. The losses in Kenya's parks add to growing evidence for wildlife declines inside as well as outside African parks. The losses point to the need to quantify the performance of conservation policies and promote integrated landscape practices that combine parks with private and community-based measures.

  13. Wildlife Displacement and Dispersal Area Reduction by Human Activities within Kimana Group Ranch Corridor Near Amboseli, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The Tsavo/Amboseli Ecosystem represents one of the major remaining wildlife conservation blocks in Kenya. This ecosystem consists of four protected areas which are safe havens for wildlife: Amboseli National Park, Kimana Wildlife Sanctuary, Tsavo West National Park, and Chyulu Hills. This research focused on the wildlife displacement and dispersal…

  14. Evaluating landscape and wildlife changes over time in Tanzania's protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtui, Devolent Tomas

    Declines in wildlife and their habitats associated with land cover changes are documented worldwide. Wildlife protected areas are established as a strategy to maintain and protect viable wildlife populations. International and national policies and regulations are set-forth in countries across the globe to emphasize wildlife species protection. Tanzania has allocated 26.5% (250,425 km2) of its total land area for wildlife protection, and its government established in 1998 a National Wildlife Policy to ensure the maintenance of viable protected areas and survival of important species, habitat and ecosystems. After more than a decade of its implementation, the level and rate of anthropogenic activities experienced in and around protected areas, and the consequent declines of wildlife species, was expected to be reduced to a minimum. Yet, recent studies show that degradation and isolation of wildlife habitats and declines in species populations continue to occur in Tanzanian protected areas. I evaluated changes in landscape and wildlife in three protected areas in Tanzania from the 1980s to the 2010s. Specifically, we investigated changes in land cover and species abundance over time, inside and outside the protected areas, and determined the effects of changes in the types of land cover on wildlife abundance. First, I used Maximum Likelihood classification procedure to derive land cover classes from Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of the 1980s, 1990s and 2010s, and to detect changes using post-classification comparison technique and landscape metrics approach. Second, I analysed animal density data for six species or groups of large herbivores, from 1991 to 2012. Thirdly, I evaluated the effect of land cover change on three species of large herbivores. The results show evidence of loss and degradation of types of land covers utilized by large herbivores. Habitats for large herbivores species have shrunken, inside and outside protected areas, resulting in

  15. The persistence of endangered Florida Salt Marsh Voles in salt marshes of the central Florida Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotaling, A.S.; Percival, H.F.; Kitchens, W.M.; Kasbohm, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Two endangered Microtus pennsylvanicus dukecampbelli (Florida Salt Marsh Vole) were captured at a new location, in February of 2009, at Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge. Since the species discovery in 1979, only 43 Florida Salt Marsh Voles (hereafter FSM Vole) have been captured. Outside of the type locality, this is only the second documented location for the FSM Vole. Given the difficulty in trapping this species and the lack of information about its life history, its discovery in a new location lends itself to the possibility that it is more widespread in the Central Florida Gulf Coast than previously thought. Although much of the salt marsh in the area is in public ownership, a good deal of it has already been altered by logging or development and is threatened by global climate change. More research is needed to adequately protect and manage the habitat for the FSM Vole. A study of FSM Vole coastal salt marsh habitat could also serve as a valuable monitoring tool for subtle changes in salt marsh habitats as global climate change progresses.

  16. Relations between clay mineralogy and depositional environment in the Atchafalaya basin and Terrebonne Marsh areas, south-central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.D. ); Patrick, D.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The analyses of nearly 200 vibracore samples taken from Holocene sediments in south-central Louisiana revealed strong statistical relations between clay mineral composition and depositional environment and lithology The samples selected for study were representative of the major depositional environments, which are: backswamp, channel fill, crevasse channel, inland swamp, interdistributary bay, lacustrine or lacustrine delta, marsh, and natural levee. The dominant clay minerals from most to least abundant in both the Atchafalaya basin and Terrebonne Marsh areas were: smectite (70%), illite (18%), kaolinite (10%), and chlorite (1%). The higher concentrations of smectite occurred in the inland swamp (86%) and backswamp (83%), and the lower concentrations were found in the crevasse channel (44%) and lacustrine delta (58%). Generally, the percent smectite was inversely proportional to the relative depositional energy of the environment. The percent illite ranged from a low of 8 in the inland swamp to a high of 37 in the crevasse channel. Kaolinite was most abundant in the lacustrine delta (14%), and least abundant in the inland swamp (5%). Chlorite was 2% or less in most environments; however, the crevasse channel exhibited a concentration of 8%. In terms of lithology, the highest concentration of smectite (78%) occurred in deposits classed as clay, and the lowest (46%) occurred in organic-rich clay. Clay and organic-rich clay, respectively, also exhibited the lowest and highest concentrations of both illite and kaolinite. The high smectite content is attributable to the low energy of the clay deposits, while the low concentrations of smectite in both organic-rich and peat material are due to instability of smectite in low pH environments.

  17. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  18. Deriving spatial and temporal patterns of coastal marsh aggradation from hurricane storm surge marker beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Joshua; Williams, Harry

    2016-12-01

    This study uses storm surge sediment beds deposited by Hurricanes Audrey (1957), Carla (1961), Rita (2005) and Ike (2008) to investigate spatial and temporal changes in marsh sedimentation on the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge in Southeastern Texas. Fourteen sediment cores were collected along a transect extending 1230 m inland from the Gulf coast. Storm-surge-deposited sediment beds were identified by texture, organic content, carbonate content, the presence of marine microfossils and 137Cs dating. The hurricane-derived sediment beds facilitate assessment of changes in marsh sedimentation from nearshore to inland locations and over decadal to annual timescales. Spatial variation along the transect reflects varying contributions from three prevailing sediment sources: flooding, overwash and organic sedimentation from marsh plants. Over about the last decade, hurricane overwash has been the predominant sediment source for nearshore locations because of large sediment inputs from Hurricanes Rita and Ike. Farther inland, hurricane inputs diminish and sedimentation is dominated by deposition from flood waters and a larger organic component. Temporal variations in sedimentation reflect hurricane activity, changes in marsh surface elevation and degree of compaction of marsh sediments, which is time-dependent. There was little to no marsh sedimentation in the period 2008-2014, firstly because no hurricanes impacted the study area and secondly because overwash sedimentation prior to 2008 had increased nearshore marsh surface elevations by up to 0.68 m, reducing subsequent inputs from flooding. Marsh sedimentation rates were relatively high in the period 2005-2008, averaging 2.13 cm/year and possibly reflecting sediment contributions from Hurricanes Humberto and Gustav. However, these marsh sediments are highly organic and largely uncompacted. Older, deeper marsh deposits formed between 1961 and 2005 are less organic-rich, more compacted and have an average annual

  19. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, includin...

  20. Methane Emissions from a Hydrologically Altered Region of the Sprague River Salt Marsh, Phippsburg, ME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Kaplan, Dana; Johnson, Beverly; Dostie, Phil; Carey, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Humans have been altering salt marshes for 200 years, by ditching, or excavating channels to drain pools to reduce mosquito habitat and to make the marsh platform suitable for agriculture. The presence of these ditches has had a negative impact on the marsh hydrology. The Sprague River Salt Marsh, located in Phippsburg, ME, has been ditched for centuries. In 2002, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service installed several ditch-plugs in the marsh in and attempt to restore pool habitat and marsh hydrology. This study seeks to examine the effects of one ditch-plug in particular, and the impact it has had on methane emissions, soil salinity, and soil carbon densities. Three sites above and three sites below the ditch-plug were analyzed in these three areas. Methane emissions were slightly elevated above the ditch-plug relative to below the ditch-plug, with average fluxes of 12.9 +/- 4.83 umol/hr/m2 and 3.5 +/- 0.66 umol/hr/m^2, respectively. Soil salinities were higher above the ditch-plug, and soil carbon densities were higher below the ditch-plug. These results suggest that the hydrologic regime of the study area has been degraded, resulting in methane emissions, interrupted accretion, decreased marsh self-maintenance processes, stagnation and saturation of seawater in the pores of the sediment. Though salt marshes are generally considered effective carbon sinks, methane emissions may play a role on hydrologically altered marshes in terms of their net contribution to greenhouse gas sequestration.

  1. Biosphere 2's Marsh Biome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Jennifer; Goodridge, Kelven

    1997-01-01

    The Marsh Biome, which was modeled after the mangroves and marshes of southwest Florida, has an area of 441.2 sq m separated into three hydrologically independent sections: the Freshwater, Oligohaline and Salt Marshes. The divisions are made based on their salinity (approximately 0, 4, and 34 ppt. respectively), but they also contain different biological communities. The Freshwater and Oligohaline Marshes are mostly filled with various grasses and several trees, while the Salt Marsh houses regions of red, black, and white mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Languncularia racemosa respectively). Overall, there are an estimated 80 species of plants within the biome. Water in the Salt Marsh follows a meandering stream from the algal turf scrubbers (apparatuses that clean the water of its nutrients and heavy metals while increasing dissolved oxygen levels) which have an outlet in the Salt Marsh section near sites 4 and 5 to the Fringing Red Mangrove section. The sections of the Salt Marsh are separated by walls of concrete with openings to allow the stream to flow through. Throughout this study, conducted through the months of June and July, many conditions within the biome remained fairly constant. The temperature was within a degree or two of 25 C, mostly depending on whether the sample site was in direct sunlight or shaded. The pH throughout the Salt Marsh was 8.0 +/- 0.2, and the lower salinity waters only dropped below this soon after rains. The water rdepth and dissolved oxygen varied, however, between sites.

  2. Effects of climate change on tidal marshes along a latitudinal gradient in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Ambrose, Rich F.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Freeman, Chase M.; Janousek, Christopher N.; Brown, Lauren N.; Holmquist, James R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Powelson, Katherine W.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-08-05

    Public SummaryThe coastal region of California supports a wealth of ecosystem services including habitat provision for wildlife and fisheries. Tidal marshes, mudflats, and shallow bays within coastal estuaries link marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats, and provide economic and recreational benefits to local communities. Climate change effects such as sea-level rise (SLR) are altering these habitats, but we know little about how these areas will change over the next 50–100 years. Our study examined the projected effects of three recent SLR scenarios produced for the West Coast of North America on tidal marshes in California. We compiled physical and biological data, including coastal topography, tidal inundation, plant composition, and sediment accretion to project how SLR may alter these ecosystems in the future. The goal of our research was to provide results that support coastal management and conservation efforts across California. Under a low SLR scenario, all study sites remained vegetated tidal wetlands, with most sites showing little elevation and vegetation change relative to sea level. At most sites, mid SLR projections led to increases in low marsh habitat at the expense of middle and high marsh habitat. Marshes at Morro Bay and Tijuana River Estuary were the most vulnerable to mid SLR with many areas becoming intertidal mudflat. Under a high SLR scenario, most sites were projected to lose vegetated habitat, eventually converting to intertidal mudflats. Our results suggest that California marshes are vulnerable to major habitat shifts under mid or high rates of SLR, especially in the latter part of the century. Loss of vegetated tidal marshes in California due to SLR is expected to impact ecosystem services that are dependent on coastal wetlands such as wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, improved water quality, and coastal protection from storms.

  3. Delineation of marsh types of the Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River in 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Brasher, Michael G.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mitchell, Michael K.; Ballard, Bart M.; Parr, Mark W.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Wilson, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh-reliant wildlife (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation zones throughout the Texas coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation and collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, and Ducks Unlimited, Inc., has produced a classification of marsh vegetation types along the middle and upper Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River. This study incorporates approximately 1,000 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal marsh areas and about 2,000 supplemental locations from fresh marsh, water, and “other” (that is, nonmarsh) areas. About two-thirds of these data were used for training, and about one-third were used for assessing accuracy. Decision-tree analyses using Rulequest See5 were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using these data, multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, a bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables believed to be important for delineating the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation communities. Image objects were generated from segmentation of high-resolution airborne imagery acquired in 2010 and were used to refine the classification. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) classified and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. Overall accuracy corrected for bias (accuracy

  4. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  5. [Distribution characteristics and seasonal dynamics of Cu and Zn in shrub-marsh plants in mountainous areas of northeast China].

    PubMed

    Man, Xiu-ling; Cai, Ti-jiu

    2008-01-01

    The study on the distribution, accumulation, and seasonal dynamics of Cu and Zn in shrub-marsh plants Salix rosmarinifolia, Salix pentandra, Carex caespitosa and Carex schmidtii in mountainous areas of Northeast China showed that the Cu concentration in test plants varied from 6 to 12 mg x kg(-1), and its distribution was in the sequence of root > stem > leaf in S. rosmarinifolia and S. pentandra, and of stem > leaf > root in C. caespitosa and C. schmidtii, suggesting that Cu was mainly accumulated in the root of shrubs and the stem or leaf of Carex. Shrubs and Carex had less difference in their Cu concentration. The Zn concentration in test plants was 30-250 mg x kg(-1), and its distribution was in the sequence of leaf > stem > root in S. rosmarinifolia and S. pentandra, and of root > stem > leaf in C. caespitosa and C. schmidtii, indicating that Zn was mainly accumulated in the leaf of shrubs and the root of Carex. Shrubs had a higher Zn concentration than Carex. The accumulation coefficient of Zn in the organs of S. rosmarinifolia and S. pentandra was higher than 1.45, suggesting a good Zn-accumulation ability of these plants. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the aboveground parts of the four plants were higher during the initial growth period and then fluctuated to decrease with season, while those in roots were all higher both in the initial and in the late growth periods.

  6. Marsh nesting by mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Talent, L.G.; Dwyer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Nest-site selection by mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) hens was studied on a 52-km2, privately owned area in the Missouri Coteau of south-central North Dakota during 1974-77. Sixty-six percent of 53 nests initiated by radio-marked and unmarked hens were in wetlands in dense stands of emergent vegetation and usually within 50 m of the wetland edge. These findings and other sources of information suggest that significant numbers of mallards breeding in the Prairie Pothole Region nest in marsh habitat. Potential factors contributing to mallard use of marsh habitat for nesting purposes are discussed. Management considerations associated with marsh nesting by mallards are described and research needs are identified.

  7. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such as vegetation

  8. Summary of oceanographic and water-quality measurements near the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Brennand, Patrick; Derby, R. Kyle; Brooks, Thomas W.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Martini, Marinna A.; Borden, Jonathan; Baldwin, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element governing the geomorphology of tidal marshes. Marshes rely on both organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea level. In wetlands near the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, portions of the salt marsh have been subsiding relative to sea level since the early 20th century. Other portions of the marsh have been successful at maintaining elevation. The U.S. Geological Survey performed observational deployments to measure suspended-sediment concentration in the tidal channels in order to understand the magnitude of suspended-sediment concentrations, the sediment-transport mechanisms, and differences between two marsh areas, one that subsided and one that maintained elevation. We deployed optical turbidity sensors and acoustic velocity meters at multiple sites over two periods in 2011. This report presents the time-series of oceanographic data collected during those field studies, including velocity, depth, turbidity, salinity, water temperature, and pH.

  9. Coordinating across scales: Building a regional marsh bird monitoring program from national and state Initiatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shriver, G.W.; Sauer, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Salt marsh breeding bird populations (rails, bitterns, sparrows, etc.) in eastern North America are high conservation priorities in need of site specific and regional monitoring designed to detect population changes over time. The present status and trends of these species are unknown but anecdotal evidence of declines in many of the species has raised conservation concerns. Most of these species are listed as conservation priorities on comprehensive wildlife plans throughout the eastern U.S. National Wildlife Refuges, National Park Service units, and other wildlife conservation areas provide important salt marsh habitat. To meet management needs for these areas, and to assist regional conservation planning, survey designs are being developed to estimate abundance and population trends for these breeding bird species. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a hierarchical sampling frame for salt marsh birds in Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 30 that will provide the ability to estimate species population abundances on 1) specific sites (i.e. National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges), 2) within states or regions, and 3) within BCR 30. The entire breeding range of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed and Coastal Plain Swamp sparrows are within BCR 30, providing an opportunity to detect population trends within the entire breeding ranges of two priority species.

  10. Sedimentation History Of Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife And Fish Refuge, Wisconsin, 1846-2006. Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5209

    EPA Science Inventory

    The history of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of Halfway Creek Marsh near La Crosse, Wisconsin, was examined during 2005-06 by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Wisconsin-Madison as part of a broader study of sediment and nutrient loadings to the Upper Mississi...

  11. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas; Day, Richard H; Doyle, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970-2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh-mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services.

  12. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations. PMID:27582180

  13. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations.

  14. Effects on fish and wildlife of chemical treatments of large areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, J.L.

    1959-01-01

    Summary: The history of field investigations of the effects of DDT on wildlife is reviewed briefly, from the initial studies in 1945 through the more recent studies of the effects of the large-scale programs for spruce-budworm control and gypsy-moth eradication. DDT dosages and procedures that are recommended for protection of wildlife are reviewed. Effects of aldrin, heptachlor, and toxaphene are discussed in connection with the grasshopper and Mormon cricket control programs. Delayed and indirect effects of chemical treatments are emphasized as an important current problem. Cited in this connection are fish losses in the Yellowstone and Miramichi rivers and losses of wildlife from eating earthworms a year after treatment of the area with DDT. Currently recommended procedures to safeguard wildlife in pesticidal programs are listed.

  15. Survey of oil and gas activities on federal wildlife refuges and waterfowl production areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ethridge, M.; Guerrieri, U.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of survey data provides empirical evidence of the effects of oil and gas activities on federal wildlife refuges. The paper reports the results of a systematic survey of units of the National Wildlife Refuge System by the American Petroleum Institute in the form of questionnaires sent to refuge managers. The data suggest that oil and gas operations have had little or no adverse effect on wildlife on most refuges and Waterfowl Protection Areas, that oil and gas activities have detracted little from and have often enhanced other economic and recreational uses which occur on the refuges, and that appropriate regulations, stipulations, and restrictions are a key government management tool for protecting wildlife and other refuge resources. 3 figures, 44 tables.

  16. Nutrient Cycling in Piermont Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, K.; Reyes, N.; Gribbin, S.; Newton, R.; Laporte, N.; Trivino, G.; Ortega, J.; McKee, K.; Sambrotto, R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the cycling of nutrients through a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan in the Hudson River estuary. As part of a long-term ecological study of Piermont Marsh, a NOAA reference wetland managed by the NY State DEC, we are measuring dissolved inorganic nutrients on the Marsh surface and its drainage channels. The marsh occupies 400 acres along the southwest corner of Haverstraw Bay with approximately 2 km frontage to the estuary. It is supplied with nutrient-rich water and drained primarily along several tidal creeks and the hundreds of rivulets that feed them. During most tidal cycles the silty berm bounding the marsh is not topped. Human influence in the marsh's surrounding area has had profound effects, one of the most fundamental of which has been the shift from native grass species, predominantly Spartina alterniflora, to an invasive genotype of common reed, Phragmites australis. Along with this shift there have been changes in the root bed, the effective marsh interior and berm heights, the hydroperiod and, as a result, the ability of the marsh to be utilized by various types of Hudson estuary fish. The vegetative shift is believed to be anthropogenic, but the connection is not well understood, and it is not known what role biogeochemical perturbations are playing. We present two field seasons of nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements from Sparkill Creek, a freshwater stream draining the surrounding highlands constitutes the northern boundary, two tidally driven creeks transect the Marsh from West to East: the Crumkill and an unnamed creek we have dubbed the "Tidal", Ludlow Ditch, a no-longer-maintained drainage channel grading gently from the northern part of the marsh to the South terminates in a wide tidal outlet that is its southern boundary. Net tidal cycle fluxes and fluxes resulting from runoff events are presented. Deviations from Redfield ratios and limiting nutrients are analyzed. Piermont Marsh data is compared

  17. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10... areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of mining claims in such areas...

  18. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10... areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of mining claims in such areas...

  19. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10... areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of mining claims in such areas...

  20. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10... areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of mining claims in such areas...

  1. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10... areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of mining claims in such areas...

  2. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M.; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline “cleanup” treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We

  3. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  4. Surface elevation dynamics in vegetated Spartina marshes versus unvegetated tidal ponds along the mid-Atlantic coast, USA, with implications to waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R. Michael; Cahoon, Donald R.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sanders, Geoffrey; Hensel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    -dependent seaside sparrows Ammodramus maritimus, saltmarsh sharp-tailed sparrows A. caudacutus, black rails Laterallus jamaicensis, clapper rails Rallus longirostris, Forster's terns Sterna forsteri, common terns Sterna hirundo, and gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica. Although short-term inundation of many lagoonal marshes may benefit some open-water feeding ducks, geese, and swans during winter, the long-term ecosystem effects may be detrimental, as wildlife resources will be lost or displaced. With the reduction in area of emergent marsh, estuarine secondary productivity and biotic diversity will also be reduced.

  5. Sediments in marsh ponds of the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain: Effects of structural marsh management and salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Physical characteristics of sediments in coastal marsh ponds (flooded zones of marsh associated with little vegetation) have important ecological consequences because they determine compositions of benthic invertebrate communities, which in turn influence compositions of waterbird communities. Sediments in marsh ponds of the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain potentially are affected by (1) structural marsh management (levees, water control structures and impoundments; SMM), and (2) variation in salinity. Based on available literature concerning effects of SMM on sediments in emergent plant zones (zones of marsh occasionally flooded and associated with dense vegetation) of coastal marshes, we predicted that SMM would increase sediment carbon content and sediment hardness, and decrease oxygen penetration (O2 depth) and the silt-clay fraction in marsh pond sediments. Assuming that freshwater marshes are more productive than are saline marshes, we also predicted that sediments of impounded freshwater marsh ponds would contain more carbon than those of impounded oligohaline and mesohaline marsh ponds, whereas C:N ratio, sediment hardness, silt-clay fraction, and O2 depth would be similar among pond types. Accordingly, we measured sediment variables within ponds of impounded and unimpounded marshes on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, near Grand Chenier, Louisiana. To test the above predictions, we compared sediment variables (1) between ponds of impounded (IM) and unimpounded mesohaline marshes (UM), and (2) among ponds of impounded freshwater (IF), oligohaline (IO), and mesohaline (IM) marshes. An a priori multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) contrast indicated that sediments differed between IM and UM marsh ponds. As predicted, the silt-clay fraction and O2 depth were lower and carbon content, C:N ratio, and sediment hardness were higher in IM than in UM marsh ponds. An a priori MANOVA contrast also indicated that sediments differed among IF, IO, and IM marsh ponds. As

  6. Direction and magnitude of change in soil use for a wetland area in Chile: Puren marshes, a priority site for biodiversity conservation (stage 1).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Alejandra

    2014-05-01

    Land managers and policymakers need information about soil change caused by anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors to predict the effects of management on soil function, compare alternatives, and make decisions. This is particularly relevant in highly fragile ecosystems such as wetlands or humid systems. The wetlands require the presence of three key components: hydric soils, hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology. Therefore, the presence of hydric soils in humid systems is essential for the existence of a wetland. In Chile, one of the geographic zones with the greatest diversity of humid systems is the coast of the Araucanía Region, which contains one of the largest and most threatened humid systems of the region, Puren Marshes, whose soils are only generically described as alluvial terraces and miscellaneous swamp. In this area, studies have reported a high intensity of anthropogenic activity, generating soil erosion, loss of wetland coverage and landscape alteration. For this first stage of a main investigation about the vulnerability of hydric soils to changes in patterns of soil use, the objective was to characterize the variables of soil use in the Puren Marshes and determinate the direction and magnitude of change in soil use in the study area for the period between 1994 and 2007 (the official reports indicate that until 1994, the total area of Puren Marshes was 1147 ha). For the analyses, were used official reports of soil use, the coverages were obtained from the project map databases "Catastro y Evaluación de los Recursos Vegetacionales Nativos de Chile" 1993 and its update for La Araucanía, Regional Government of La Araucanía 2011, DMF CONAF 2010 and IGM 2007. The map information was processed in ARCGIS 9.3.1 software under UTM coordinates, datum WGS 84 and 18 South Time extended. Was developed a multitemporal analysis by construction of transition matrix and confusion matrix. The results obtained show that for the period analysed, the

  7. Recommended design for more accurate duplication of natural conditions in salt marsh creation.

    PubMed

    Darnell, T M; Smith, E H

    2002-06-01

    Construction of 653 ha of salt marsh habitat from dredged material near the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, has been proposed, with the goal of increasing the area of habitat available to endangered whooping cranes ( Grus americana). We assessed prototype created wetlands, and their similarity to natural reference sites, in terms of topography, vegetation, and hydrology. The created sites were steeply sloped relative to natural sites and were dominated by monotypic stands of Spartina alterniflora. Natural sites were dominated by vegetation more tolerant of desiccation and hypersalinity and by unvegetated salt pans. Differences in vegetation communities and distributions of habitat types resulted from efforts to enhance habitat diversity in created marsh cells through manipulation of marsh topography. However, the scale at which this diversity occurred in natural marsh of the study area was not considered. When constructing wetlands in cellular configurations, we recommend creation of large complexes of adjoining, hydrologically linked, cells wherein the desired habitat diversity is created at the scale of the entire complex, rather than within a single cell. Suggested design modifications would increase the similarity of created marshes to natural reference sites, potentially improving habitat function.

  8. 15 CFR Appendix III to Subpart P... - Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions III Appendix III to Subpart P of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. P, App. III Appendix III to Subpart P of Part...

  9. 15 CFR Appendix III to Subpart P... - Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions III Appendix III to Subpart P of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. P, App. III Appendix III to Subpart P of Part...

  10. 15 CFR Appendix III to Subpart P... - Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions III Appendix III to Subpart P of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. P, App. III Appendix III to Subpart P of Part...

  11. 77 FR 43115 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Betty's Kitchen Wildlife and Interpretive Area, Yuma County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closure of Betty's Kitchen Wildlife and Interpretive Area... given that the Betty's Kitchen Wildlife and Interpretive Area (Betty's Kitchen) located on Federal lands... Federal lands at Betty's Kitchen in Yuma County, Arizona. The legal description of the affected...

  12. Wildlife-livestock interactions and risk areas for cross-species spread of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Natascha V; Sebulime, Peregrine; White, Richard G; Kock, Richard

    2017-01-23

    The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) rangers in a wildlife crime database. Secondly, we aimed to quantify wildlife-livestock interactions and cattle movements, on the border of QENP, using a longitudinal questionnaire completed by 30 livestock owners. From this database, 426 cattle sightings were recorded within QENP in 8 years. Thirteen (3.1%) of these came within a 300 m-4 week space-time window of a buffalo herd, using the recorded GPS data. Livestock owners reported an average of 1.04 (95% CI 0.97-1.11) sightings of Uganda kob, waterbuck, buffalo or warthog per day over a 3-month period, with a rate of 0.22 (95% CI 0.20-0.25) sightings of buffalo per farmer per day. Reports placed 85.3% of the ungulate sightings and 88.0% of the buffalo sightings as further than 50 m away. Ungulate sightings were more likely to be closer to cattle at the homestead (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6) compared with the grazing area. Each cattle herd mixed with an average of five other cattle herds at both the communal grazing and watering points on a daily basis. Although wildlife and cattle regularly shared grazing and watering areas, they seldom came into contact close enough for aerosol transmission. Between species infection transmission is therefore likely to be by indirect or non-respiratory routes, which is suspected to be an infrequent mechanism of transmission of BTB. Occasional cross

  13. Trace element geochemistry of soils and plants in Kenyan conservation areas and implications for wildlife nutrition.

    PubMed

    Maskall, J; Thornton, I

    1991-06-01

    Trace element concentrations in soils, plants and animals in National Parks and Wildlife Reserves in Kenya are assessed using geochemical mapping techniques. Soil trace element concentrations are shown to be related to soil parent material and possibly to pedological and hydrological factors. At Lake Nakuru National Park, plant trace element concentrations vary with plant species and the geochemical conditions that influence uptake are discussed. Impala at Lake Nakuru National Park and black rhino at Solio Wildlife Reserve are shown to have a lower blood copper status than animals from other areas. The trace element status of wildlife is assessed also with respect to critical concentrations used for domestic ruminants. It is suggested that at Lake Nakuru National Park, the low soil copper content and high molybdenum content of some plants contributes to the low copper status of impala and may also influence the nutrition of other species.

  14. Habitat restoration across large areas: Assessing wildlife responses in the Clearwater basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanvara, L.K.; Servheen, G.; Melquist, W.; Davis, D.; Scott, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past century, fire suppression and prevention have altered disturbance regimes across the Pacific Northwest, resulting in a significant divergence of historical and current conditions in forested habitats. To address this continuing trend in habitat changes and begin restoring historical patterns of disturbance, the Clearwater Basin Elk Habitat Initiative (CEI) proposes relatively extensive management actions in the Clearwater basin of north-central Idaho. We attempted to evaluate potential effects of such management actions on selected wildlife species using extant data sets and suggest ways to improve such projects with respect to a multispecies and adaptive management approach. Although there is increased interest in ecosystem management over large areas, the increased scale of analysis and implementation require a substantial increase in the level of species information beyond what currently exists. We conclude that baseline information required for an effective multispecies land-management policy in the Clearwater basin does not exist for many terrestrial wildlife species. To implement a true multispecies or ecosystem approach, wildlife and land managers should cooperate to increase existing population data and modeling efforts for wildlife species in the basin and develop a sustainable monitoring program to evaluate habitat management changes and their influence on wildlife populations within the context of adaptive management theory. Management actions to restore disturbance patterns should attempt spatial and temporal scales that are biologically relevant to the population ecology of species being affected. ?? 2004 by the Society of American Foresters.

  15. Living with Wildlife and Mitigating Conflicts Around Three Indian Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanth, Krithi K.; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; DeFries, Ruth; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.

    2013-12-01

    Crop and livestock losses to wildlife are a concern for people neighboring many protected areas (PAs) and can generate opposition to conservation. Examining patterns of conflict and associated tolerance is important to devise policies to reduce conflict impacts on people and wildlife. We surveyed 398 households from 178 villages within 10 km of Ranthambore, Kanha, and Nagarahole parks in India. We compared different attitudes toward wildlife, and presented hypothetical response scenarios, including killing the problem animal(s). Eighty percent of households reported crop losses to wildlife and 13 % livestock losses. Higher crop loss was associated with more cropping months per year, greater crop variety, and more harvest seasons per year but did not vary with proximity to the PA, suggesting that PAs are not necessarily "sources" for crop raiders. By contrast, complaints of "depredating carnivores" were associated with people-grazing animals and collecting resources from PAs. Many households (83 %) engaged in mitigation efforts. We found that only fencing and guard animals reduce crop losses, and no efforts to lower livestock losses. Contrary to our expectations, carnivores were not viewed with more hostility than crop-raiding wildlife. Households reported greater inclination to kill herbivores destroying crops or carnivores harming people, but not carnivores preying on livestock. Our model estimated crop loss was 82 % across surveyed households (highest in Kanha), while the livestock loss experienced was 27 % (highest in Ranthambore). Our comparative study provides insights into factors associated with conflict loss and tolerance, and aids in improving ongoing conservation and compensation efforts.

  16. Sedimentation processes in tidal marshes of the Delaware Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Fonjweng, G.T. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    A study of sedimentation processes in the tidal marshes of the Delaware Bay was done in order to enhance out understanding of the effects of storms, tidal fluctuations, microtopography and distance from channel on the accumulation of sediments. Sedimentation plates were placed along transects perpendicular to tidal channels in the Woodland Beach and Bombay Hook wildlife areas, Bowers and South Bowers marshes. The thickness of sediments on the plates was measured approximately two days after every lunar phase, first and last quarters, full and new moons. Thus far, the results of this study show that the largest single act of deposition occurred during the tropical storm Danielle. Danielle deposited an average of 7.3 mm of sediments as compared to an average of only 1.8 mm deposited during the six weeks prior to the storm. Pre- and post-storm sedimentation showed a pattern that corresponded with the different lunar phases. Highest sedimentation rates coincided with the new moon, whereas the lowest sedimentation and highest erosion rates coincided with the last quarter of the moon. Sedimentation rates were lowest close to the banks of channels and highest away from the channels. On humocky marsh surfaces, sedimentation was greatest in the depressions and lowest on the tops of mounds. It appears that sedimentation in Delaware Bay tidal marshes is episodic and varies laterally. Different parts of the marsh undergo sedimentation and erosion simultaneously. Any meaningful long-term sedimentation rate measurement has to take into account storm intensity, frequency, microtopography and distance from the channel.

  17. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    PubMed

    Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Slaats, M Jan; Olimb, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP) is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  18. Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development

    PubMed Central

    Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Slaats, M. Jan; Olimb, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP) is home both to some of the world’s best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas. PMID:22848505

  19. Remote sensing as an aid for marsh management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, J. G.; Green, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA aerial photography, primarily color infrared and color positive transparencies, is used in a study of marsh management practices and in comparing managed and unmanaged marsh areas. Weir locations for tidal control are recommended.

  20. Area-wide biological control of disease vectors and agents affecting wildlife.

    PubMed

    Reichard, R E

    2002-04-01

    Two examples of area-wide programmes, employing the sterile insect technique (SIT), which have eradicated a parasite and a disease vector common to domestic and wild animals are described. New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, caused significant morbidity and mortality of livestock and wild mammals in tropical and subtropical areas of America before eradication was achieved in North America using the SIT and other components of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme. Movement of wild as well as domestic animals from an area which is infested with screwworm to a free area requires prophylactic treatment. Tsetse fly-borne trypanosomosis has an immense influence on the distribution of people and livestock in Africa. The immunotolerance of wildlife to the parasites is an important factor in maintaining some areas livestock free as wildlife refuges. Slaughter has ceased of wild hoofstock species considered to be disease reservoirs for control purposes. The SIT, combined with other IPM measures, has resulted in the eradication of the tsetse fly and trypanosomosis from Zanzibar. Other programmes in Africa are underway. Microbial 'biopesticides' have also been employed successfully against plant insect pests and some vectors of human disease. It seems likely that for the immediate future, wildlife may benefit from area-wide biological control programmes, intended mainly to protect humans and/or domestic animals.

  1. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Enwright, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970–2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh–mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services.

  2. Wildlife in some areas of New Mexico and Texas accumulate elevated DDE residues, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last decade, data gathered by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program have identified an area of elevated DDE contamination in portions of New Mexico and Texas. Extensive wildlife sampling in 1983 confirmed that DDE, the major metabolite of the insecticide DDT, was present at high concentrations in wildlife at selected sites in the Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages. DDE in carcasses ranged up to 47 ppm (wet weight) in western kingbirds (Tyrannus verticalis), 35 ppm in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), 46 ppm in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), and 104 ppm in whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus spp.) DDE was also detected in gut contents from western kingbirds at some of the highest concentrations ever reported, ranging up to 21 ppm in proventricular samples. An average of 40% of the eggs of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from two sites along the Pecos River in New Mexico had DDE levels ( gtoreq 8 ppm) that have been associated in other studies with impaired reproduction. In contrast, wintering mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and American coots (Fulica americana) from the study area did not accumulate elevated DDE levels. DDE in wildlife samples at control sites (non-agricultural areas) was either absent or averaged less than 0.35 ppm. Collectively, these data provide evidence that there is major DDE contamination of several vertebrate species in portions of the Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages, but whether the contamination is recent or residual was not determined. Apparently, the source was not DDE contamination present in dicofol (4-chloro-a-(4-chlorophenyl)-a- (trichloromethyl) benzenemethanol); neither dicofol nor its metabolite, p,p'-dichlorobenzophenone, were detected in wildlife carcasses (0.1 ppm detection limit) or proventricular contents (0.01 ppm detection limit) of western kingbirds.

  3. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a use? 25.21 Section 25.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  4. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a use? 25.21 Section 25.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  5. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a use? 25.21 Section 25.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  6. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a use? 25.21 Section 25.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  7. Threatened and endangered wildlife survey: Vacherie Dome area, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Review of the available literature concerning the previous distribution of animals now considered to be threatened or endangered suggests that the following species may once have occupied the project area in Webster and Bienville Parishes, Louisiana: Florida panther, bald eagle, Arctic peregrine falcon, red-cockaded woodpecker, ivory-billed woodpecker, red wolf, and Eskimo curlew. The Louisiana pine snake is not officially listed at this time although it is considered to be a candidate for inclusion on the federal list pending further research on its population and distribution. Based on previous experience within northwestern Louisiana and other recent evidence, it is concluded that the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is the only animal listed or proposed as threatened or endangered which may actually now be found there.

  8. 43 CFR 5.1 - Areas administered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Park Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wildlife Service or National Park Service. 5.1 Section 5.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary... National Park Service. (a) Permit required. No picture may be filmed, and no television production or sound track made on any area administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the National Park...

  9. 43 CFR 5.1 - Areas administered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Park Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife Service or National Park Service. 5.1 Section 5.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary... National Park Service. (a) Permit required. No picture may be filmed, and no television production or sound track made on any area administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the National Park...

  10. 43 CFR 5.1 - Areas administered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Park Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Wildlife Service or National Park Service. 5.1 Section 5.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary... National Park Service. (a) Permit required. No picture may be filmed, and no television production or sound track made on any area administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the National Park...

  11. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  12. Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L.; Curtis, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown. PMID:23409117

  13. Blue-winged teals in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two male blue-winged teals are joined by a female in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The teals inhabit marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, wintering as far south as South America. The 92,000- acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  14. Spatially explicit modeling of conflict zones between wildlife and snow sports: prioritizing areas for winter refuges.

    PubMed

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2011-04-01

    Outdoor winter recreation exerts an increasing pressure upon mountain ecosystems, with unpredictable, free-ranging activities (e.g., ski mountaineering, snowboarding, and snowshoeing) representing a major source of stress for wildlife. Mitigating anthropogenic disturbance requires the spatially explicit prediction of the interference between the activities of humans and wildlife. We applied spatial modeling to localize conflict zones between wintering Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a declining species of Alpine timberline ecosystems, and two free-ranging winter sports (off-piste skiing [including snow-boarding] and snowshoeing). Track data (snow-sports and birds' traces) obtained from aerial photographs taken over a 585-km transect running along the timberline, implemented within a maximum entropy model, were used to predict the occurrence of snow sports and Black Grouse as a function of landscape characteristics. By modeling Black Grouse presence in the theoretical absence of free-ranging activities and ski infrastructure, we first estimated the amount of habitat reduction caused by these two factors. The models were then extrapolated to the altitudinal range occupied by Black Grouse, while the spatial extent and intensity of potential conflict were assessed by calculating the probability of human-wildlife co-occurrence. The two snow-sports showed different distribution patterns. Skiers' occurrence was mainly determined by ski-lift presence and a smooth terrain, while snowshoers' occurrence was linked to hiking or skiing routes and moderate slopes. Wintering Black Grouse avoided ski lifts and areas frequented by free-ranging snow sports. According to the models, Black Grouse have faced a substantial reduction of suitable wintering habitat along the timberline transect: 12% due to ski infrastructure and another 16% when adding free-ranging activities. Extrapolating the models over the whole study area results in an overall habitat loss due to ski infrastructure of

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  16. Vulnerability of Northeastern U.S. Salt Marshes to Climatic and Anthropogenic Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Northeastern U.S., salt marsh area is in decline. Habitat change analysis has revealed fragmentation, displacement of high marsh by low marsh species, and marsh drowning, while development of adjacent uplands limits upslope migration. Using inundation experiments, field s...

  17. Cost benefit analysis of tuberculosis control in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Southern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwacalimba, K K; Mumba, C; Munyeme, M

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an economic simulation model evaluating the costs and benefits of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control in a wildlife-livestock interface area of Southern Zambia over a 10 year period, using test and slaughter in livestock and promotion of milk pasteurization amongst livestock keeping communities to reduce the zoonotic transmission of bTB through milk. Expected benefits included increased productivity and health in village resident and transhumant cattle, and averted human bTB treatment costs after the fourth year of the project. In monetary terms, at different bTB prevalence estimates in cattle, the simulation outcome showed that the costs of control never exceeded the few benefits considered over the simulated period. However, the benefits are likely to outweigh the costs if wider implications of bTB in humans (infirmity-related productivity losses), livestock and wildlife (reduced productivity and herd value in cattle and diminished tourism potential from bTB-related wildlife mortalities) are taken into account.

  18. Transportation impacts to wildlife on state route 37 in northern San Pablo Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, Bryan R.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2002-01-01

    State Route 37 bisects conservation lands managed by San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service) and Napa-Sonoma Marshes Wildlife Area (California Department of Fish and Game) in Solano and Sonoma Counties. The 2-lane highway connects Interstates 101 and 80 in northern San Francisco Bay and experiences ~26,000 vehicles per day. Road-killed wildlife between Napa River and Tolay Creek bridges (14.7 km) were counted in 2000 to ascertain species composition, relative abundance, and relative occurence (animal fatality interval). The primary objectives of the study were to determine if endangered salt marsh harvest mice (Reithrodontomys raviventris), California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris), or other species of concern were represented, and to collect baseline data on transportation impacts to wildlife in the area. During 51 surveys, 291 dead birds (54.6%) and mammals (45.4%) were observed. Endangered species were not positively identified dead on the highway. In total, 28 bird, 10 mammal and 1 reptile species were positively identified along this section of highway that traverses tidal marsh and diked baylands (i.e., salt ponds, seasonal wetlands, and oat-hay agriculture fields). The mean animal fatality interval for both lanes was one road-kill every 2.1km (2.1 km SD).

  19. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Yakama Nation Wildlife Management Areas, Technical Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Raedeke, Kenneth; Raedeke, Dorothy

    2000-06-01

    Construction of the Dalles, Bonneville, McNary, and John Day Dams on the Columbia River by the federal government resulted in a substantial loss of riparian bottomland along the Columbia River. Impacts associated with the Mid-Columbia Projects were assessed for several wildlife species using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USDI-FWS 1980). The studies documented the loss of riparian habitat and established a baseline against which mitigation measures could be developed (USDI-FWS 1990 and USDE-BPA 1990). The impact assessments established a mitigation goal, a portion of which would be satisfied by the creation, restoration, and enhancement of riparian lands on tributaries to the Columbia River, including the Yakima Valley. The Yakama Nation (YN), the Northwest Power Planning Council, and the Bonneville Power Administration have agreed that the Yakama Nation would be funded to implement habitat restoration on lands within and adjacent to their reservation. Some of the targeted lands are owned by the Yakama Nation, some are trust lands, and some lands have been in private ownership. Since the early 1990s, the Yakama Nation has been in the process of assembling riparian lands into Wildlife Management Areas, and restoring natural hydrology and natural cover-types on these lands. The Northwest Power Planning Council, through the Bonneville Power Administration, has supported the program. HEP studies were performed by the Yakama Nation in 1990 (Bich et al. 1991) to establish baseline conditions and inventory wildlife habitat at the initiation of the restoration project. The 1990 HEP used a simplified version of the HEP to quantify baseline conditions. The present assessment is designed to evaluate the progress of the mitigation plan in meeting its stated goals. The 1999 HEP assessment has two distinct tasks: (1) Evaluation of the mitigation plan as currently implemented using the simplified YN HEP methodologies for

  20. Two roseate spoonbills in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two roseate spoonbills wade in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  1. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1002 area, petroleum assessment, 1998, including economic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (1980) established the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). In section 1002 of that act, Congress deferred a decision regarding future management of the 1.5-million-acre coastal plain ("1002 area") in recognition of the area’s potentially enormous oil and gas resources and its importance as wildlife habitat. A report on the resources (including petroleum) of the 1002 area was submitted in 1987 to Congress by the Department of the Interior (DOI). Since completion of that report, numerous wells have been drilled and oil fields discovered near ANWR, new geologic and geophysical data have become available, seismic processing and interpretation capabilities have improved, and the economics of North Slope oil development have changed significantly.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) commonly is asked to provide the Federal Government with timely scientific information in support of decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic and strategic policy. To do so, the USGS must anticipate issues most likely to be the focus of policymakers in the future. Anticipating the need for scientific information and considering the decade-old perspective of the petroleum resource estimates included in the 1987 Report to Congress, the USGS has reexamined the geology of the ANWR 1002 area and has prepared a new petroleum resource assessment.

  2. Coexisting with wildlife in transfrontier conservation areas in Zimbabwe: cattle owners' awareness of disease risks and perceptions of the role played by wildlife.

    PubMed

    de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Miguel, E; Mukamuri, B; Garine-Wichatitsky, E; Wencelius, J; Pfukenyi, D M; Caron, A

    2013-05-01

    Diseases transmitted between wildlife and livestock may have significant impacts on local farmers' health, livestock health and productivity, overall national economies, and conservation initiatives, such as Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa. However, little is known on local farmers' awareness of the potential risks, and how they perceive the role played by wildlife in the epidemiology of these diseases. We investigated the knowledge base regarding livestock diseases of local cattle owners living at the periphery of conservation areas within the Great Limpopo TFCA and the Kavango-Zambezi TFCA in Zimbabwe, using free-listing and semi-structured questionnaires during dipping sessions. The results suggest that information related to cattle diseases circulates widely between cattle farmers, including between different socio-cultural groups, using English and vernacular languages. Most respondents had an accurate perception of the epidemiology of diseases affecting their livestock, and their perception of the potential role played by wildlife species was usually in agreement with current state of veterinary knowledge. However, we found significant variations in the cultural importance of livestock diseases between sites, and owners' perceptions were not directly related with the local abundance of wildlife. As the establishment of TFCAs will potentially increase the risk of Transboundary Animal Diseases, we recommend an increased participation of communities at a local level in the prioritisation of livestock diseases control and surveillance, including zoonoses.

  3. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was

  4. Detection of Theileria parva antibodies in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Mulumba, Misheck; Nambota, Andrew; Munyeme, Musso; Mutoloki, Stephen; Nonga, Hezron

    2009-12-03

    A serolocigical survey was conducted for the detection of Theileria parva antibodies in 176 African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) sampled between 1996 and 2005 in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus species, and Amblyomma variegatum were the most abundant tick species identified on buffaloes. T. parva sero-positives were reported in buffaloes sampled from game management areas at Mlanga and Nanzhila bordering the Kafue National Parks and in the Lochnivar National Park while buffaloes sampled from Lower Zambezi National Park were sero-negative. Given that Game Management Areas serve as interface areas that permit the co-existence of livestock and wildlife in similar ecological habitats our findings suggest that buffaloes could play a significant role in the epidemiology of theileriosis in livestock-wildlife interface areas. Thus far, the disease has only been reported in livestock and is herein being reported in the African buffalo for the first time in Zambia.

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Vancouver Lowlands Shillapoo Wildlife Area, 1994-1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian; Anderson, Eric; Ashley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This project was conducted as part of a comprehensive planning effort for the Vancouver Lowlands project area. The study was funded by The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and carried out by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The Vancouver Lowlands is considered an area of high priority by WDFW and is being considered as a potential site for wildlife mitigation activities by BPA. The objectives of this study were to collect baseline information and determine current habitat values for the study area. A brief discussion of potential future management and a proposed listing of priorities for habitat protection are found near the end of this report. This report is a companion to a programmatic management plan being drafted for the area which will outline specific, management programs to improve habitat conditions based, in part, on this study. The following narratives, describing limiting habitat variables, carry recurring themes for each indicator species and habitat type. These recurring variables that limited habitat value include: Waterbodies that lack emergent and submerged vegetation; forest areas that lack natural shrub layers; a predominance of non-hydrophytic and less desirable non-native plants where shrubs are present; a general lack of cover for ground nesting and secure waterfowl nest sites (island type). Human disturbance was the variable that varied more than any other from site to site in the study area. One issue that the models we used do not truly deal with is the quantity and connectivity of habitat. The mallard and heron models deal with spatial relationships but for other species this may be as critical. Observation of habitat maps easily show that forested habitats are in short supply. Their continuity along Lake river and the Columbia has been broken by past development. Wetland distribution has also been affected by past development.

  6. The environmental history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area in Myanmar (Burma).

    PubMed

    Aung, Myint; Khaing Swe, Khaing; Oo, Thida; Kyaw Moe, Kyaw; Leimgruber, Peter; Allendorf, Teri; Duncan, Chris; Wemmer, Chris

    2004-09-01

    We reconstructed the history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) to understand how social and economic events, and policy changes affected the sanctuary's condition. We surveyed 25 villages surrounding CWS to evaluate past and present ecological conditions, compare the results with historical accounts and identify causal relationships. During the first half of the 20th century, the primary threat was the government's reduction of old growth forest to supply fuel wood for the British-built railway. The railroad opened the area to colonization, but the villagers' impact on timber and wildlife was low. From 1945 to 1988, villagers became the primary force of landscape degradation. The post-war windfall of firearms increased hunting pressure, and populations of large mammal started to decline. With the economic decline of the 1970s and 1980s, the community's demand for game and forest products intensified, and the large mammal fauna was reduced from eleven to four species. From 1988-2003, the forests surrounding the sanctuary were fragmented and degraded. The absence of large predators rendered the park safe for livestock, and the combined effects of grazing and removal of forest products seriously degraded habitat within CWS. Major threats to CWS during the past two decades have resulted from land use decisions in which government-planned economic enterprises caused encroachment by villagers. Stabilization and recovery of this sanctuary will require management compatible with human needs, including expanded buffer zones, better core area protection, community forestry projects, and probably relocation of villages within the park.

  7. 75 FR 6696 - Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability for review and comment. SUMMARY: We, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of...

  8. Wildlife Conservation and Private Protected Areas: The Discrepancy Between Land Trust Mission Statements and Their Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayer, Ashley A.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Stedman, Richard C.; Cosbar, Emily A.; Wood, Eric M.

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, land trusts in the U.S. had protected nearly 50 million acres of land, with much of it providing habitat for wildlife. However, the extent to which land trusts explicitly focus on wildlife conservation remains largely unknown. We used content analysis to assess land trust involvement in wildlife and habitat conservation, as reflected in their mission statements, and compared these findings with an organizational survey of land trusts. In our sample of 1358 mission statements, we found that only 17 % of land trusts mentioned "wildlife," "animal," or types of wildlife, and 35 % mentioned "habitat" or types. Mission statements contrasted sharply with results from a land trust survey, in which land trusts cited wildlife habitat as the most common and significant outcome of their protection efforts. Moreover, 77 % of land trusts reported that at least half of their acreage protected wildlife habitat, though these benefits are likely assumed. Importantly, mission statement content was not associated with the percentage of land reported to benefit wildlife. These inconsistencies suggest that benefits to wildlife habitat of protected land are recognized but may not be purposeful and strategic and, thus, potentially less useful in contributing toward regional wildlife conservation goals. We outline the implications of this disconnect, notably the potential omission of wildlife habitat in prioritization schema for land acquisition and potential missed opportunities to build community support for land trusts among wildlife enthusiasts and to develop partnerships with wildlife conservation organizations.

  9. Wildlife Conservation and Private Protected Areas: The Discrepancy Between Land Trust Mission Statements and Their Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Dayer, Ashley A; Rodewald, Amanda D; Stedman, Richard C; Cosbar, Emily A; Wood, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, land trusts in the U.S. had protected nearly 50 million acres of land, with much of it providing habitat for wildlife. However, the extent to which land trusts explicitly focus on wildlife conservation remains largely unknown. We used content analysis to assess land trust involvement in wildlife and habitat conservation, as reflected in their mission statements, and compared these findings with an organizational survey of land trusts. In our sample of 1358 mission statements, we found that only 17 % of land trusts mentioned "wildlife," "animal," or types of wildlife, and 35 % mentioned "habitat" or types. Mission statements contrasted sharply with results from a land trust survey, in which land trusts cited wildlife habitat as the most common and significant outcome of their protection efforts. Moreover, 77 % of land trusts reported that at least half of their acreage protected wildlife habitat, though these benefits are likely assumed. Importantly, mission statement content was not associated with the percentage of land reported to benefit wildlife. These inconsistencies suggest that benefits to wildlife habitat of protected land are recognized but may not be purposeful and strategic and, thus, potentially less useful in contributing toward regional wildlife conservation goals. We outline the implications of this disconnect, notably the potential omission of wildlife habitat in prioritization schema for land acquisition and potential missed opportunities to build community support for land trusts among wildlife enthusiasts and to develop partnerships with wildlife conservation organizations.

  10. Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi river delta plain wetlands, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasser, C.E.; Gosselink, J.G.; Swenson, E.M.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Leibowitz, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1940s extensive floating marshes (locally called 'flotant') were reported and mapped in coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta Plain. These floating marshes included large areas of Panicum hemitomon-dominated freshwater marshes, and Spartina patens/Scirpus olneyi brackish marshes. Today these marshes appear to be quite different in extent and type. We describe five floating habitats and one non-floating, quaking habitat based on differences in buoyancy dynamics (timing and degree of floating), substrate characteristics, and dominant vegetation. All floating marshes have low bulk density, organic substrates. Nearly all are fresh marshes. Panicum hemitomon floating marshes presently occur within the general regions that were reported in the 1940's by O'Neil, but are reduced in extent. Some of the former Panicum hemitomon marshes have been replaced by seasonally or variably floating marshes dominated, or co-dominated by Sagittaria lancifolia or Eleocharis baldwinii. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  11. Ecotoxicological evaluation of area 9 landfill at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Biological impact and residues

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead were investigated in soil and biota at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) and related to biological effects. PCBs were rapidly mobilized from the soil into the terrestrial food chain as evidenced by high residue levels in adult beetles, caged house crickets, and white-footed mice. Bioaccumulation of lead was not observed in invertebrates, but was observed in white-footed mice. Invertebrate abundance and biomarkers were evaluated for signs of toxic response to soil contaminants. The control site and the Area 9 Landfill did not differ in abundance of five common terrestrial invertebrate families. The absence of detectable biological effects in invertebrates shows that these animals can tolerate relatively high environmental concentrations of these contaminants. The intensive use of Area 9 Landfill by invertebrates and their apparent tolerance of soil contaminants eludes to the importance of chemical transfer to higher trophic levels, especially for PCBs.

  12. Hydrologic aspects of marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA: Effects of structural marsh management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrology of marsh ponds influences aquatic invertebrate and waterbird communities. Hydrologic variables in marsh ponds of the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain are potentially affected by structural marsh management (SMM: levees, water control structures and impoundments) that has been implemented since the 1950s. Assuming that SMM restricts tidal flows and drainage of rainwater, we predicted that SMM would increase water depth, and concomitantly decrease salinity and transparency in impounded marsh ponds. We also predicted that SMM would increase seasonal variability in water depth in impounded marsh ponds because of the potential incapacity of water control structures to cope with large flooding events. In addition, we predicted that SMM would decrease spatial variability in water depth. Finally, we predicted that ponds of impounded freshwater (IF), oligohaline (IO), and mesohaline (IM) marshes would be similar in water depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen (O2), and transparency. Using a priori multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) contrast, we tested these predictions by comparing hydrologic variables within ponds of impounded and unimpounded marshes during winters 1997-1998 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, near Grand Chenier, Louisiana. Specifically, we compared hydrologic variables (1) between IM and unimpounded mesohaline marsh ponds (UM); and (2) among IF, IO, and IM marshes ponds. As predicted, water depth was higher and salinity and O2 were lower in IM than in UM marsh ponds. However, temperature and transparency did not differ between IM and UM marsh ponds. Water depth varied more among months in IM marsh ponds than within those of UM marshes, and variances among and within ponds were lower in IM than UM marshes. Finally, all hydrologic variables, except salinity, were similar among IF, IO, and IM marsh ponds. Hydrologic changes within marsh ponds due to SMM should (1) promote benthic invertebrate taxa that tolerate low levels of O2 and

  13. Vegetation change on a northeast tidal marsh: Interaction of sea-level rise and marsh accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.S.; Niering, W.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Increasing rates of relative sea-level rise (RSL) have been linked to coastal wetland losses along the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere. Rapidly rising RSL may be affecting New England tidal marshes. Studies of the Wequetequock-Pawcatuck tidal marshes over four decades have documented dramatic changes in vegetation apparently related primarily to differential rates of marsh accretion and sea-level rise though sediment supply and anthropogenic modifications of the system may also be involved. When initially studied in 1947-1948 the high marsh supported a Juncus gerardi-Spartina patens belting pattern typical of many New England salt marshes. On most of the marsh complex the former Juncus belt has now been replaced by forbs, primarily Triglochin maritima, while the former S. patens high marsh is now a complex of vegetation types-stunted Spartina alterniflora, Distichlis spicata, forbs, and relic stands of S. patens. The mean surface elevation of areas where the vegetation has changed is significantly lower than that of areas still supporting the earlier pattern (4.6 vs. 13.9 cm above mean tide level). The differences in surface elevation reflect differences in accretion of marsh peat. Stable areas have been accreting at the rate of local sea-level rise, 2.0-2.5 mm/yr at least since 1938; changed areas have accreted at about one half that rate. Lower surface elevations result in greater frequency and duration of tidal flooding, and thus in increased peat saturation, salinity, and sulfide concentrations, and in decreased redox potential, as directly measured over the growing season at both changed and stable sites. These edaphic changes may have combined to favor establishment of a wetter, more open vegetation type. Similar changes have been observed on other Long Island Sound marshes and may be a model for the potential effects of sea-level rise on New England tidal salt marshes. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effects of open marsh water management on numbers of larval salt marsh mosquitoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Erwin, R. Michael; Taylor, Janith

    2009-01-01

    Open marsh water management (OMWM) is a commonly used approach to manage salt marsh mosquitoes than can obviate the need for pesticide application and at the same time, partially restore natural functions of grid-ditched marshes. OMWM includes a variety of hydrologic manipulations, often tailored to the specific conditions on individual marshes, so the overall effectiveness of this approach is difficult to assess. Here, we report the results of controlled field trials to assess the effects of two approaches to OMWM on larval mosquito production at National Wildlife Refuges (NWR). A traditional OMWM approach, using pond construction and radial ditches was used at Edwin B. Forsythe NWR in New Jersey, and a ditch-plugging approach was used at Parker River NWR in Massachusetts. Mosquito larvae were sampled from randomly placed stations on paired treatment and control marshes at each refuge. The proportion of sampling stations that were wet declined after OMWM at the Forsythe site, but not at the Parker River site. The proportion of samples with larvae present and mean larval densities, declined significantly at the treatment sites on both refuges relative to the control marshes. Percentage of control for the 2 yr posttreatment, compared with the 2 yr pretreatment, was >90% at both treatment sites.

  15. Effects of open marsh water management on numbers of larval salt marsh mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Ginsberg, Howard S; Erwin, R Michael; Taylor, Janith

    2009-11-01

    Open marsh water management (OMWM) is a commonly used approach to manage salt marsh mosquitoes than can obviate the need for pesticide application and at the same time, partially restore natural functions of grid-ditched marshes. OMWM includes a variety of hydrologic manipulations, often tailored to the specific conditions on individual marshes, so the overall effectiveness of this approach is difficult to assess. Here, we report the results of controlled field trials to assess the effects of two approaches to OMWM on larval mosquito production at National Wildlife Refuges (NWR). A traditional OMWM approach, using pond construction and radial ditches was used at Edwin B. Forsythe NWR in New Jersey, and a ditch-plugging approach was used at Parker River NWR in Massachusetts. Mosquito larvae were sampled from randomly placed stations on paired treatment and control marshes at each refuge. The proportion of sampling stations that were wet declined after OMWM at the Forsythe site, but not at the Parker River site. The proportion of samples with larvae present and mean larval densities, declined significantly at the treatment sites on both refuges relative to the control marshes. Percentage of control for the 2 yr posttreatment, compared with the 2 yr pretreatment, was >90% at both treatment sites.

  16. Factors controlling emissions of dimethylsulphide from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; King, Gary M.

    1987-01-01

    Salt marshes are presently identified as systems exhibiting high area-specific sulfur emission in the form of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and H2S, with the former predominating in vegetated areas of the marshes. Attention is presently given to the distribution of DMS in salt marshes; it is found that this compound primarily arises from physiological processes in the leaves of higher plants, especially the grass species Spartina alterniflora. Uncertainties associated with DMS emission measurements are considered.

  17. 14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. 12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. Standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, Courtney J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the population status of many marsh-dependent birds in North America but recent efforts have focused on collecting more reliable information and estimates of population trends. As part of that effort, a standardized survey protocol was developed in 1999 that provided guidance for conducting marsh bird surveys throughout North America such that data would be consistent among locations. The original survey protocol has been revised to provide greater clarification on many issues as the number of individuals using the protocol has grown. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol instructs surveyors to conduct an initial 5-minute passive point-count survey followed by a series of 1-minute segments during which marsh bird calls are broadcast into the marsh following a standardized approach. Surveyors are instructed to record each individual bird from the suite of 26 focal species that are present in their local area on separate lines of a datasheet and estimate the distance to each bird. Also, surveyors are required to record whether each individual bird was detected within each 1-minute subsegment of the survey. These data allow analysts to use several different approaches for estimating detection probability. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol provides detailed instructions that explain the field methods used to monitor marsh birds in North America.

  20. Sea-level rise and landscape change influence mangrove encroachment onto marsh in the Ten Thousand Islands region of Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; From, Andrew S.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Doyle, Terry J.; Barry, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The Ten Thousand Islands region of southwestern Florida, USA is a major feeding and resting destination for breeding, migrating, and wintering birds. Many species of waterbirds rely specifically on marshes as foraging habitat, making mangrove encroachment a concern for wildlife managers. With the alteration of freshwater flow and sea-level rise trends for the region, mangroves have migrated upstream into traditionally salt and brackish marshes, mirroring similar descriptions around the world. Aside from localized freezes in some years, very little seems to be preventing mangrove encroachment. We mapped changes in mangrove stand boundaries from the Gulf of Mexico inland to the northern boundary of Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge (TTINWR) from 1927 to 2005, and determined the area of mangroves to be approximately 7,281 hectares in 2005, representing an 1,878 hectare increase since 1927. Overall change represents an approximately 35% increase in mangrove coverage on TTINWR over 78 years. Sea-level rise is likely the primary driver of this change; however, the construction of new waterways facilitates the dispersal of mangrove propagules into new areas by extending tidal influence, exacerbating encroachment. Reduced volume of freshwater delivery to TTINWR via overland flow and localized rainfall may influence the balance between marsh and mangrove as well, potentially offering some options to managers interested in conserving marsh over mangrove.

  1. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a... closed to public access until and unless we open the area for a use or uses in accordance with the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When and how do we open and close areas...

  2. Wildlife Interactions on Baited Places and Waterholes in a French Area Infected by Bovine Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Payne, Ariane; Philipon, Sixtine; Hars, Jean; Dufour, Barbara; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as Mycobacterium bovis, which also affect livestock. Although France is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. We aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. We described the visits in terms of frequency, duration, and number of individuals and studied the influence of the season. Then, we estimated the frequency of intraspecies and interspecies interactions occurring at baited places and waterholes which may lead to bTB transmission, including direct and indirect contacts through the soil or water. We used camera traps placed on baited places and waterholes on 13 locations monitored during 21 months. The number of visits, their duration, and the number of individuals per visit were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models for each targeted species. The frequency of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions was also analyzed separately. The season, the type of site (baited place or waterhole), and the location were the explanatory variables. Badgers' visits and interactions were more frequent than for other species (mean: 0.60 visit/day and 5.42 interactions/day) especially on baited places. Red deer only visited waterholes. Wild boars visited most often baited places in spring-summer and waterholes in autumn-winter. They came in higher number than other species, especially on baited places. Direct interactions were uncommon. The most frequent interspecies interactions occurred between red deer and wild boar (mean: 4.02 interactions/day). Baited places and waterholes are important interfaces between the different wild species involved in the bTB multi-host system in this area. They can thus promote intraspecies and interspecies bTB transmission

  3. Wildlife Interactions on Baited Places and Waterholes in a French Area Infected by Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ariane; Philipon, Sixtine; Hars, Jean; Dufour, Barbara; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as Mycobacterium bovis, which also affect livestock. Although France is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. We aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. We described the visits in terms of frequency, duration, and number of individuals and studied the influence of the season. Then, we estimated the frequency of intraspecies and interspecies interactions occurring at baited places and waterholes which may lead to bTB transmission, including direct and indirect contacts through the soil or water. We used camera traps placed on baited places and waterholes on 13 locations monitored during 21 months. The number of visits, their duration, and the number of individuals per visit were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models for each targeted species. The frequency of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions was also analyzed separately. The season, the type of site (baited place or waterhole), and the location were the explanatory variables. Badgers’ visits and interactions were more frequent than for other species (mean: 0.60 visit/day and 5.42 interactions/day) especially on baited places. Red deer only visited waterholes. Wild boars visited most often baited places in spring–summer and waterholes in autumn–winter. They came in higher number than other species, especially on baited places. Direct interactions were uncommon. The most frequent interspecies interactions occurred between red deer and wild boar (mean: 4.02 interactions/day). Baited places and waterholes are important interfaces between the different wild species involved in the bTB multi-host system in this area. They can thus promote intraspecies and interspecies b

  4. Conservation of tidal marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Daiber, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

  5. Nekton assemblage structure in natural and created marsh-edge habitats of the Guadalupe Estuary, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeug, Steven C.; Shervette, Virginia R.; Hoeinghaus, David J.; Davis, Stephen E., III

    2007-02-01

    Natural and created Spartina brackish marsh habitats in the Guadalupe Estuary, adjacent to the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, USA were surveyed during spring, summer, and fall 2004 to evaluate the equivalence of nekton assemblages in an old (>30 years) created marsh. During each season, six replicate samples were collected in each marsh type using a 1-m 2 drop sampler. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in nekton assemblage structure among marsh type, both within and across seasons. Species richness was significantly higher in the natural marsh in spring and summer but not in fall. Several species that were dominant in the natural marsh but rare or absent in the created marsh had strong correlations with the presence of oyster substrate that was only encountered in natural marsh samples. Although cumulative richness was greater in the natural marsh, eight species were collected only from the created marsh. Shrimp and fish biomass was significantly higher in natural marsh. Analysis of the density, biomass and size structure of three commercially important crustaceans indicated that the created marsh supported similar biomass of some species (white shrimp, blue crab); however, the size structure of some populations was variable among marshes (blue crab, brown shrimp). We conclude that lower substrate complexity (specifically oyster) and soil organic content in the created marsh reduced measures of nekton similarity and recommend that these features be addressed in future restoration efforts.

  6. Modeling tidal marsh distribution with sea-level rise: evaluating the role of vegetation, sediment, and upland habitat in marsh resiliency.

    PubMed

    Schile, Lisa M; Callaway, John C; Morris, James T; Stralberg, Diana; Parker, V Thomas; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    -level rise. These results also emphasize the importance of adjacent uplands for long-term marsh survival and incorporating such areas in conservation planning efforts.

  7. Mercury concentrations in tidal marsh sparrows and their use as bioindicators in Delaware Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Pepper, Margaret A; Taylor, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial sources is pervasive throughout North America and is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a health hazard for wildlife and humans. Avian species are commonly used as bioindicators of Hg because they are sensitive to contaminants in the environment and are relatively easy to sample. However, it is important to select the appropriate avian species to use as a bioindicator, which should be directly related to the project objectives. In this study, we tested the utility of two tidal marsh sparrows, Seaside (Ammodramus maritimus) and Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) sparrows, as bioindicator species of the extent of Hg contamination in tidal marshes along the Delaware Bay. To determine the possibility of using one or both of these species, we estimated sparrow blood Hg burden in five Delaware watersheds. We found no difference in Hg concentrations between species (F (1,133) < 0.01, P=0.99), but Saltmarsh Sparrows had limited sample size from each site and were, therefore, not appropriate for a Delaware Bay-wide Hg indicator. Seaside Sparrows, however, were abundant and relatively easy to sample in the five watersheds. Seaside Sparrow blood Hg levels ranged from 0.15 to 2.12 ppm, differed among drainages, and were greatest in two drainages distant from the Delaware Bay shoreline (F (4,95) =2.51, P=0.05). Based on a power analysis for Seaside Sparrow blood Hg, we estimated that 16 samples would be necessary to detect differences among sites. Based on these data, we propose that Seaside Sparrows may be used as a tidal marsh Hg bioindicator species given their habitat specificity, relative abundance, widespread distribution in marsh habitats, ease of sampling, and limited variation in blood Hg estimates within a sampling area. In Delaware Bay, Saltmarsh Sparrows may be too rare (making them difficult to sample) to be a viable tidal marsh Hg bioindicator.

  8. Spatial heterogeneity in statistical power to detect changes in lake area in Alaskan National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicol, Samuel; Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the number and size of high-latitude lakes have decreased throughout many regions; however, individual lake trends have been variable in direction and magnitude. This spatial heterogeneity in lake change makes statistical detection of temporal trends challenging, particularly in small analysis areas where weak trends are difficult to separate from inter- and intra-annual variability. Factors affecting trend detection include inherent variability, trend magnitude, and sample size. In this paper, we investigated how the statistical power to detect average linear trends in lake size of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 %/year was affected by the size of the analysis area and the number of years of monitoring in National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. We estimated power for large (930–4,560 sq km) study areas within refuges and for 2.6, 12.9, and 25.9 sq km cells nested within study areas over temporal extents of 4–50 years. We found that: (1) trends in study areas could be detected within 5–15 years, (2) trends smaller than 2.0 %/year would take >50 years to detect in cells within study areas, and (3) there was substantial spatial variation in the time required to detect change among cells. Power was particularly low in the smallest cells which typically had the fewest lakes. Because small but ecologically meaningful trends may take decades to detect, early establishment of long-term monitoring will enhance power to detect change. Our results have broad applicability and our method is useful for any study involving change detection among variable spatial and temporal extents.

  9. Remote sensing as an aid for marsh management: Lafouche parish, Louisiana. [aerial photography of Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, J. G.; Green, J. H.; Whitehurst, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    NASA aerial photography, primarily color infrared and color positive transparencies, was used in a study of marsh management practices and in comparing managed and unmanaged marsh areas. Weir locations for tidal control are recommended.

  10. 78 FR 35639 - Establishment of the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Rio Mora Conservation Area, Colfax...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...-acre Wind River Ranch in Mora County, New Mexico. ADDRESSES: A map depicting the approved boundary and... Mexico, and the Rio Mora Conservation Area, including portions of Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico. The Service may pursue protection and management of wildlife resources in the...

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report Wanaket Wildlife Area, Techical Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2006-02-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Wildlife Program staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Wanaket Wildlife Management Area in June 2005. The 2005 HEP investigation generated 3,084.48 habitat units (HUs) for a net increase of 752.18 HUs above 1990/1995 baseline survey results. The HU to acre ratio also increased from 0.84:1.0 to 1.16:1.0. The largest increase in habitat units occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type (California quail and western meadowlark models), which increased from 1,544 HUs to 2,777 HUs (+43%), while agriculture cover type HUs were eliminated because agricultural lands (managed pasture) were converted to shrubsteppe/grassland. In addition to the agriculture cover type, major changes in habitat structure occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type due to the 2001 wildfire which removed the shrub component from well over 95% of its former range. The number of acres of all other cover types remained relatively stable; however, habitat quality improved in the riparian herb and riparian shrub cover types. The number and type of HEP species models used during the 2005 HEP analysis were identical to those used in the 1990/1995 baseline HEP surveys. The number of species models employed to evaluate the shrubsteppe/grassland, sand/gravel/mud/cobble, and riparian herb cover types, however, were fewer than reported in the McNary Dam Loss Assessment (Rassmussen and Wright 1989) for the same cover types.

  12. Nonlinear responses in salt marsh functioning to increased nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Vivanco, Lucía; Irvine, Irina C; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-04-01

    Salt marshes provide storm protection to shorelines, sequester carbon (C), and mitigate coastal eutrophication. These valuable coastal ecosystems are confronted with increasing nitrogen (N) inputs from anthropogenic sources, such as agricultural runoff, wastewater, and atmospheric deposition. To inform predictions of salt marsh functioning and sustainability in the future, we characterized the response of a variety of plant, microbial, and sediment responses to a seven-level gradient of N addition in three Californian salt marshes after 7 and 14 months of N addition. The marshes showed variable responses to the experimental N gradient that can be grouped as neutral (root biomass, sediment respiration, potential carbon mineralization, and potential net nitrification), linear (increasing methane flux, decreasing potential net N mineralization, and increasing sediment inorganic N), and nonlinear (saturating aboveground plant biomass and leaf N content, and exponentially increasing sediment inorganic and organic N). The three salt marshes showed quantitative differences in most ecosystem properties and processes rates; however, the form of the response curves to N addition were generally consistent across the three marshes, indicating that the responses observed may be applicable to other marshes in the region. Only for sediment properties (inorganic and organic N pool) did the shape of the response differ significantly between marshes. Overall, the study suggests salt marshes are limited in their ability to sequester C and N with future increases in N, even without further losses in marsh area.

  13. Patterns of sediment accumulation in the tidal marshes of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, M.E.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    One year's measurements of surficial sedimentation rates (1986-1987) for 26 Maine marsh sites were made over marker horizons of brick dust. Observed sediment accumulation rates, from 0 to 13 mm yr-1, were compared with marsh morphology, local relative sea-level rise rate, mean tidal range, and ice rafting activity. Marshes with four different morphologies (back-barrier, fluvial, bluff-toe, and transitional) showed distinctly different sediment accumulation rates. In general, back-barrier marshes had the highest accumulation rates and blufftoe marshes had the lowest rates, with intermediate values for transitional and fluvial marshes. No causal relationship between modern marsh sediment accumulation rate and relative sea-level rise rate (from tide gauge records) was observed. Marsh accretionary balance (sediment accumulation rate minus relative sea-level rise rate) did not correlate with mean tidal range for this meso- to macro-tidal area. Estimates of ice-rafted debris on marsh sites ranged from 0% to >100% of measured surficial sedimentation rates, indicating that ice transport of sediment may make a significant contribution to surficial sedimentation on Maine salt marshes. ?? 1989 Estuarine Research Federation.

  14. Freshwater Marsh. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans and student data sheets, and a poster. The overview describes how the freshwater marsh is an important natural resource for plant, animal, and human populations and how the destruction of marshes causes…

  15. A loggerhead shrike in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A loggerhead shrike perches on a branch in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The loggerhead shrike prefers grasslands, orchards and open areas with scattered trees throughout a range extending from southern Canada to southern Florida and the Gulf Coast. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  16. Applying downscaled climate data to wildlife areas in Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.; Helbrecht, L.; Pelltier, R.; Thompson, B.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation and natural resource managers require information about potential climate change effects for the species and ecosystems they manage. We evaluated potential future climate and bioclimate changes for wildlife areas in Washington State (USA) using five climate simulations for the 21st century from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) dataset run under the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. These data were downscaled to a 30-arc-second (~1-km) grid encompassing the state of Washington by calculating and interpolating future climate anomalies, and then applying the interpolated data to observed historical climate data. This climate data downscaling technique (also referred to as the 'delta' method) is relatively simple and makes a number of assumptions that affect how the downscaled data can be used and interpreted. We used the downscaled climate data to calculate bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) that represent important physiological and environmental limits for Washington species and habitats of management concern. Multivariate descriptive plots and maps were used to evaluate the direction, magnitude, and spatial patterns of projected future climate and bioclimatic changes. The results indicate which managed areas experience the largest climate and bioclimatic changes under each of the potential future climate simulations. We discuss these changes while accounting for some of the limitations of our downscaling technique and the uncertainties associated with using these downscaled data for conservation and natural resource management applications.

  17. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Shirima, Gabriel M; Kunda, John S

    2016-05-24

    Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic-wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA) were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288) and small ruminants (125) were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively). Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7), ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4-10). Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals.

  18. Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagherazzi, Sergio; Torres, Raymond; Hopkinson, Charles; Van Proosdij, Danika

    Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems on the planet, producing more organic matter per unit area than forests, grasslands, and cultivated fields. Marsh landscapes typically fringe low-energy coastal environments, but in places they may extend inland tens to hundreds of kilometers.As a consequence of their high productivity and interactions with the coastal ocean, salt marshes provide numerous benefits to society. For example, salt marshes are critical habitats for commercially harvested marine and estuarine biota; they filter nutrients and sediment from the water column; and they provide recreational opportunities. In addition, salt marshes help dissipate erosive tide and wave energy and they have intrinsic aesthetic values. All of these societal benefits have a quantifiable economic value, and salt marsh impairment and degradation have associated costs.

  19. Marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) reintroduction in the Jataí Ecological Station (Luís Antônio, SP): spatial preferences.

    PubMed

    Figueira, C J M; Pires, J S R; Andriolo, A; Costa, M J R P; Duarte, J M B

    2005-05-01

    Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, wildlife habitat destruction and species extinctions have greatly increased. As the number of endangered species grows, the use of reintroduction as a conservation tool against species extinction increases. This study focuses on a 16-month study on marsh deer reintroduced in the Jataí Ecological Station. The animals were radio tagged and tracked daily between December 1998 and April 2000. Displacement activity and spatial preferences were monitored by triangulation. The animals wandered the floodplains inside the protected area and also a floodplain that is part of privately owned property on the western edge of the Jataí Ecological Station. During the study, most of the reintroduced marsh deer preferred the private floodplain area more than the floodplains inside the protected area. This preference revealed the ecological importance of the area and the necessity of its incorporation into the Jataí Ecological Station.

  20. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Charles H; Able, Kenneth W; Dejong, Christin Frieswyk; Piehler, Michael F; Simenstad, Charles A; Zedler, Joy B

    2008-01-01

    Tidal marshes are valued, protected and restored in recognition of their ecosystem services: (1) high productivity and habitat provision supporting the food web leading to fish and wildlife, (2) buffer against storm wave damage, (3) shoreline stabilization, (4) flood water storage, (5) water quality maintenance, (6) biodiversity preservation, (7) carbon storage and (8) socio-economic benefits. Under US law, federal and state governments have joint responsibility for facilitating restoration to compensate quantitatively for ecosystem services lost because of oil spills and other contaminant releases on tidal marshes. This responsibility is now met by choosing and employing metrics (proxies) for the suite of ecosystem services to quantify injury and scale restoration accordingly. Most injury assessments in tidal marshes are triggered by oil spills and are limited to: (1) documenting areas covered by heavy, moderate and light oiling; (2) estimating immediate above-ground production loss (based on stem density and height) of the dominant vascular plants within each oiling intensity category and (3) sampling sediments for chemical analyses and depth of contamination, followed by sediment toxicity assays if sediment contamination is high and likely to persist. The percentage of immediate loss of ecosystem services is then estimated along with the recovery trajectory. Here, we review potential metrics that might refine or replace present metrics for marsh injury assessment. Stratifying plant sampling by the more productive marsh edge versus the less accessible interior would improve resolution of injury and provide greater confidence that restoration is truly compensatory. Using microphytobenthos abundance, cotton-strip decomposition bioassays and other biogeochemical indicators, or sum of production across consumer trophic levels fails as a stand-alone substitute metric. Below-ground plant biomass holds promise as a potential proxy for resiliency but requires further

  1. Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Salt Marshes of the Northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Drake, Katherine; Halifax, Holly; Adamowicz, Susan C; Craft, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Tidal salt marshes provide important ecological services, habitat, disturbance regulation, water quality improvement, and biodiversity, as well as accumulation and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in vegetation and soil organic matter. Different management practices may alter their capacity to provide these ecosystem services. We examined soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N), C and N pools, C sequestration and N accumulation at four marshes managed with open marsh water management (OMWM) and four marshes that were not at U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) on the East Coast of the United States. Soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N) exhibited no consistent differences among managed and non-OMWM marshes. Soil organic carbon pools (0-60-cm depth) also did not differ. Managed marshes contained 15.9 kg C/m(2) compared to 16.2 kg C/m(2) in non-OMWM marshes. Proportionately, more C (per unit volume) was stored in surface than in subsurface soils. The rate of C sequestration, based on (137)Cs and (210)Pb dating of soil cores, ranged from 41 to 152 g/m(2)/year. Because of the low emissions of CH4 from salt marshes relative to freshwater wetlands and the ability to sequester C in soil, protection and restoration of salt marshes can be a vital tool for delivering key ecosystem services, while at the same time, reducing the C footprint associated with managing these wetlands.

  2. Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Salt Marshes of the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Katherine; Halifax, Holly; Adamowicz, Susan C.; Craft, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Tidal salt marshes provide important ecological services, habitat, disturbance regulation, water quality improvement, and biodiversity, as well as accumulation and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in vegetation and soil organic matter. Different management practices may alter their capacity to provide these ecosystem services. We examined soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N), C and N pools, C sequestration and N accumulation at four marshes managed with open marsh water management (OMWM) and four marshes that were not at U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) on the East Coast of the United States. Soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N) exhibited no consistent differences among managed and non-OMWM marshes. Soil organic carbon pools (0-60-cm depth) also did not differ. Managed marshes contained 15.9 kg C/m2 compared to 16.2 kg C/m2 in non-OMWM marshes. Proportionately, more C (per unit volume) was stored in surface than in subsurface soils. The rate of C sequestration, based on 137Cs and 210Pb dating of soil cores, ranged from 41 to 152 g/m2/year. Because of the low emissions of CH4 from salt marshes relative to freshwater wetlands and the ability to sequester C in soil, protection and restoration of salt marshes can be a vital tool for delivering key ecosystem services, while at the same time, reducing the C footprint associated with managing these wetlands.

  3. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Undersood, Lauren W.; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB(R) that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to

  4. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Underwood, L. W.; Fletcher, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB® that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to

  5. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  6. Sea-Level Rise Impacts on Hudson River Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooks, A.; Nitsche, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    The response of tidal marshes to increasing sea-level rise is uncertain. Tidal marshes can adapt to rising sea levels through vertical accretion and inland migration. Yet tidal marshes are vulnerable to submergence if the rate of sea-level rise exceeds the rate of accretion and if inland migration is limited by natural features or development. We studied how Piermont and Iona Island Marsh, two tidal marshes on the Hudson River, New York, would be affected by sea-level rise of 0.5m, 1m, and 1.5m by 2100. This study was based on the 2011-2012 Coastal New York LiDAR survey. Using GIS we mapped sea-level rise projections accounting for accretion rates and calculated the submerged area of the marsh. Based on the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Vegetation 2005 dataset, we studied how elevation zones based on vegetation distributions would change. To evaluate the potential for inland migration, we assessed land cover around each marsh using the National Land Cover Database 2011 Land Cover dataset and examined the slope beyond the marsh boundaries. With an accretion rate of 0.29cm/year and 0.5m of sea-level rise by 2100, Piermont Marsh would be mostly unchanged. With 1.5m of sea-level rise, 86% of Piermont Marsh would be flooded. For Iona Island Marsh with an accretion rate of 0.78cm/year, sea-level rise of 0.5m by 2100 would result in a 4% expansion while 1.5m sea-level rise would cause inundation of 17% of the marsh. The results indicate that Piermont and Iona Island Marsh may be able to survive rates of sea-level rise such as 0.5m by 2100 through vertical accretion. At rates of sea-level rise like 1.5m by 2100, vertical accretion cannot match sea-level rise, submerging parts of the marshes. High elevations and steep slopes limit Piermont and Iona Island Marsh's ability to migrate inland. Understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on Piermont and Iona Island Marsh allows for long-term planning and could motivate marsh conservation programs.

  7. Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Southern New England Salt Marshes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Northeastern U.S., salt marsh area is in decline. Low sediment supply combined with regionally high rates of sea level rise mean that future salt marsh survival depends primarily on biomass production and organic matter accumulation, which are impacted by high nutrient lo...

  8. Wetlands: water, wildlife, plants, & people

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are part of all our lives. They can generally be described as transitional areas between land and deepwater habitats. There are many different kinds of wetlands, and they can be found in many different habitat types, from forests to deserts; some are maintained by saltwater, others by freshwater. This poster shows general types of diverse wetlands and demonstrates how people and wetlands can benefit by living together. The diversity of plants and animals is shown in cartooned pictures. As with plants and animals, there are many different common names for the various wetland types. The common names used on this poster were used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the publication "Wetlands-Status and Trends in the Conterminous United States, Mid-1970's to Mid-1980's." Estuarine wetland types--salt marshes and mangrove swamps--are labeled in red letters. The estuary is where ocean saltwater and river freshwater mix. The estuary is labeled in orange letters. The inland wetland types-inland marshes and wet meadows, forested wetlands, and shrub wetlands-are labeled in yellow. Other wetlands are present in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The water bodies associated with these wetlands are labeled in black. The poster is folded into 8.5" x 11" panels; front and back panels can easily be photocopied.

  9. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. January 1970-May 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1970-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, bogs, and other wetland areas to degrade, absorb, filter, consume, or mitigate natural and man-made pollution and wastes, while still providing refuge and breeding grounds for wildlife. The ecology, biochemistry, and viability of naturally occuring and artificially established wetlands as water-treatment systems and wildlife areas is considered. The effects of individual pollutants, environmental factors, species diversity, and cleansing ability of wetland areas on the potential for wildlife refuge, sewage treatment, treatment of industrial and municipal wastes, handling agricultural runoff, mitigating accidental spills, and flooding are discussed. (Contains 271 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  10. Vulnerability of Northeastern U.S. Salt Marshes to Climatic and Anthropogenic Stressors (AGU)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Northeastern U.S., salt marsh area is in decline. Habitat change analysis has revealed fragmentation, displacement of high marsh by low marsh species, and ecological drowning, while development of adjacent uplands limits upslope migration. Using inundation experiments, fi...

  11. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and the Gateway National Recreation Area of the National Park Service, serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate flooding, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes and extra-tropical storms have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of hurricane effects on sediment dynamics and associated coastal wetland morphology in the northeastern United States are poorly understood. In this study, the depth-averaged version of the Delft3D modeling suite, integrated with field measurements, was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy and future potential hurricanes on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Hurricane Sandy-induced wind, waves, storm surge, water circulation, sediment transport, deposition, and erosion were simulated by using the modeling system in which vegetation effects on flow resistance, surge reduction, wave attenuation, and sedimentation were also incorporated. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from a rod surface elevation table and feldspar marker horizons and cesium-137- and lead-210-derived long-term accretion rates were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model.The model results (storm surge, waves, and marsh deposition and erosion) agreed well with field measurements. The validated modeling system was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Hurricane Sandy across the entire Jamaica Bay over the short-term (for example, 4 days and 1 year) and long-term (for example, 5 and 10 years). Because Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Irene (2011) were two large and destructive tropical cyclones which hit the northeast coast, the validated coupled

  12. Can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? Using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kevin A; Stillman, Richard A; Daunt, Francis; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems.

  13. Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  14. Willets gather in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Willets gather around a plant in the shallow waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Willets are best identified in flight by their black-and-white wing pattern; on the ground by their thick black bills and gray legs. They breed in southern Canada, the United States and the West Indies, wintering from the southern U.S. to central South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  15. Roseate Spoonbills preen in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, two roseate spoonbills mirror each other as they preen their lipstick-colored feathers. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center, is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  16. Roseate Spoonbill feeds in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a roseate spoonbill searches the water for food. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center, is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  17. A roseate spoonbill in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A roseate spoonbill balancing on one leg is reflected in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000- acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  18. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A black-necked stilt waits near its nesting mate nest in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  19. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Black-necked Stilt sits on its nest in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. They usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  20. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A pair of black-necked stilts protect their grass-lined nest in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  1. Breuner Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Breuner Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. Ground-water hydrology of the Mormon Island Crane Meadows Wildlife Area near Grand Island, Hall County, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, T.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Platte River in south-central Nebraska flows generally eastward in a broad, flat valley. The river banks and many areas adjacent to the river support thick stands of cottonwood and willow trees. Brush, grass, pasture land, and cultivated fields occupy most of the remaining area. This is the habitat for many types of wildlife that live in the area or stop over in the area during annual migrations. Both sandhill cranes and whooping cranes are part of the annual migration. There is concern that water-management changes, such as surface-water diversions or ground-water withdrawals for irrigation, may alter the hydrologic environment of the wetland areas and be harmful to the wildlife habitat. In order to determine what affect changes in water management might have on ground-water levels in the wetland areas, detailed data were collected from Crane Meadows Wildlife Area, which is on an island in the Platte River near Grand Island, Nebr. Ground-water levels beneath the island respond to changes in river stage, to recharge from snowmelt and precipitation, and to evapotranspiration by riparian vegetation and from areas where the water table is close to the land surface. The data show that ground-water levels respond rapidly to changes in river stage--usually within 24 hours for distances up to 2,500 feet from the edge of the river. Thus changes in river stage due to changes in surface-water diversions will not have a long-term effect on ground-water levels. Changes in ground-water withdrawals will have the double effect of changing ground-water levels due to changes in drawdown and due to changes in river stage caused by the effects of pumping on river flow. These effects will develop slowly and be long lasting. (USGS)

  3. Supplemental Environmental Assessment & Finding of No Significant Impact: Louisville Bend State Wildlife Area Fish and Wildlife Habitat Rehabilitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    action is to restore hydraulic connectivity to a backwater wetland complex, referred to in this document as the Louisville Oxbow Lake ( oxbow ) from...Mitigation Project). Historically, the Missouri River was 2,000 to 4,000 feet wide in this area, and the oxbow lake was part of the active channel...related deposition left the Louisville Oxbow Lake ( oxbow ) disconnected and virtually dry for the majority of the year. This Supplemental

  4. Habitat-based adaptive management at Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Fager, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The 22,743-hectare Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area was purchased in 1976, in part for moose (Alces alces) winter range. Observed moose populations climbed from a low of 7 in 1976 to a high of 56 in 2000. A 4-step management program was initiated in 2000 consisting of definition of management objective, monitoring to determine if the objective was attained, developing a management strategy, and implementing the strategy. The management objective for browse was defined to be: browsing will not preventyoung plants from attaining their potential stature, their growth being primarily limited by local environmental conditions. Asurvey of Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana) in critical moose habitat indicated that browse plants were 100% intensely browsed, suggesting that browsing could prevent willowheightgrowth. Beginning in 2000, willow trend was monitored annually at 4 sites using an index based on the height of the tallest live stem and the height of the tallest, dead intensely browsed stem (LD Index). Low LD Index values indicated that browsing did prevent height growth. In 2000 moose harvest quotas were increased by 40%; in 2002 harvest quotas were increased an additional 7%. From 2000 to 2002, willow growth increased at all 4 locations. From 2002 to 2004, growth indicators changed relatively little at Sullivan Creek, Deep Creek, and French Creek; at these sites willow condition in 2004 had improved compared to willow condition in 2000. From 2002 to 2004, growth indicators declined markedly at American Creek; in 2004, growth indicators at American Creek were lower compared to measurements made in 2000. The improvement of willow condition at 3 sites was likely due to a combination of reduced moose numbers (due to an increase in harvest) and increased dispersal (due to low snow-cover conditions). Over the study period, the sporting public complained of reduced moose sightability; harvest quotas were lowered substantially in 2003.

  5. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions.

  6. Computerized map of risk to manage wildlife species in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Le Lay, G; Clergeau, P; Hubert-Moy, L

    2001-03-01

    For the last 20 years, human-wildlife conflicts have been rapidly increasing in towns. Although people want "greener" cities, the expansion of disliked species causes problems that are difficult to manage and to reduce. The complexity of the numerous factors involved in these human-wildlife relations needs the development of a comprehensive tool for urban planners. Today, with the development of computers and geographical information systems, it is easier to analyze and combine different spatial data as methods used for the management of risks in studies of natural hazards. Here we present a method for assessing and mapping the risk in cases of human-wildlife conflict. An application to starling management in a town in western France will show the efficiency of our methods to combine information given by a network of experts and to highlight higher risk sites. The map of risk provides a spatial result useful for comprehension, communication between people and agencies, and public education.

  7. Sedimentation, accretion, and subsidence in marshes of Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, R.S.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr/sup -1/ in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area.

  8. A survey for Echinococcus spp. of carnivores in six wildlife conservation areas in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kagendo, D; Magambo, J; Agola, E L; Njenga, S M; Zeyhle, E; Mulinge, E; Gitonga, P; Mbae, C; Muchiri, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the presence of Echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of Kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of Kenya (Meru, Nairobi, Tsavo West and Tsavo East National Parks, Samburu and Maasai Mara National Reserves). Taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). In total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using RFLP-PCR of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 38 of these samples contained eggs of Echinococcus spp., which were identified as either Echinococcus felidis (n=27) or Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n=12); one sample contained eggs from both taxa. E. felidis was found in faeces from lions (n=20) and hyenas (n=5) while E. granulosus in faeces from lions (n=8), leopards (n=1) and hyenas (n=3). The host species for two samples containing E. felidis could not be identified with certainty. As the majority of isolated eggs could not be analysed with the methods used (no amplification), we do not attempt to give estimates of faecal prevalences. Both taxa of Echinococcus were found in all conservation areas except Meru (only E. felidis) and Tsavo West (only E. granulosus). Host species identification for environmental faecal samples, based on field signs, was found to be unreliable. All samples with taeniid eggs were subjected to a confirmatory host species RLFP-PCR of the cytochrome B gene. 60% had been correctly identified in the field. Frequently, hyena faeces were mistaken for lion and vice versa, and none of the samples from jackals and wild dogs could be confirmed in the tested sub-sample. This is the first molecular study on the distribution of Echinococcus spp. in Kenyan wildlife. The presence of E. felidis is confirmed for lions and newly reported for spotted hyenas. Lions and hyenas are newly recognized hosts for E. granulosus s.s., while the role of leopards remains uncertain. These data provide the basis for

  9. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions.

  10. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions. PMID:25830108

  11. Breeding ecology and nesting habitat associations of five marsh bird species in western New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lor, S.; Malecki, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nesting habitats and nest success of five species of marsh birds were studied during 1997 and 1998 at the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and the adjacent Oak Orchard and Tonawanda State Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) located in western New York. Nest searches located 18 American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), 117 Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), 189 Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), 23 Sora (Porzana carolina), and 72 Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) nests. Average nest densities in 1998, our best nest searching year, ranged from 0.01/ha for Soras (N = 8) to 0.28/ha for Pied-billed Grebes (N = 160). Mayfield nest success estimates for Least Bittern were 80% (N = 16) in 1997 and 46% (N = 37) in 1998. Nest success estimates were 72% (N = 55) for Pied-billed Grebe, 43% (N = 6) for Sora, and 38% (N = 20) for Virginia Rail. Nests of all five species were located in ???70% emergent vegetation with a mean water depth of 24-56 cm and an average vegetation height that ranged from 69-133 cm. Logistic regression models were developed for each species using habitat variables at nest and random site locations. Each model was ranked with Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample size (AICc). In general, our best models indicated that increased emergent vegetation and horizontal cover with shallow water depths improved the odds of encountering marsh bird nests in the wetlands of western New York. We suggest that managing wetlands as a complex, at different stages of succession, would best benefit marsh bird species.

  12. Structural classification of marshes with Polarimetric SAR highlighting the temporal mapping of marshes exposed to oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical relationships between field-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Leaf Angle Distribution (LAD) and polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) based biophysical indicators were created and applied to map S. alterniflora marsh canopy structure. PolSAR and field data were collected near concurrently in the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in coastal marshes, and PolSAR data alone were acquired in 2009. Regression analyses showed that LAI correspondence with the PolSAR biophysical indicator variables equaled or exceeded those of vegetation water content (VWC) correspondences. In the final six regressor model, the ratio HV/VV explained 49% of the total 77% explained LAI variance, and the HH-VV coherence and phase information accounted for the remainder. HV/HH dominated the two regressor LAD relationship, and spatial heterogeneity and backscatter mechanism followed by coherence information dominated the final three regressor model that explained 74% of the LAD variance. Regression results applied to 2009 through 2012 PolSAR images showed substantial changes in marsh LAI and LAD. Although the direct cause was not substantiated, following a release of freshwater in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the fairly uniform interior marsh structure of 2009 was more vertical and dense shortly after the oil spill cessation. After 2010, marsh structure generally progressed back toward the 2009 uniformity; however, the trend was more disjointed in oil impact marshes.             

  13. Coastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Linda A; Johnson, David Samuel; Warren, R Scott; Peterson, Bruce J; Fleeger, John W; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Wollheim, Wilfred M

    2012-10-18

    Salt marshes are highly productive coastal wetlands that provide important ecosystem services such as storm protection for coastal cities, nutrient removal and carbon sequestration. Despite protective measures, however, worldwide losses of these ecosystems have accelerated in recent decades. Here we present data from a nine-year whole-ecosystem nutrient-enrichment experiment. Our study demonstrates that nutrient enrichment, a global problem for coastal ecosystems, can be a driver of salt marsh loss. We show that nutrient levels commonly associated with coastal eutrophication increased above-ground leaf biomass, decreased the dense, below-ground biomass of bank-stabilizing roots, and increased microbial decomposition of organic matter. Alterations in these key ecosystem properties reduced geomorphic stability, resulting in creek-bank collapse with significant areas of creek-bank marsh converted to unvegetated mud. This pattern of marsh loss parallels observations for anthropogenically nutrient-enriched marshes worldwide, with creek-edge and bay-edge marsh evolving into mudflats and wider creeks. Our work suggests that current nutrient loading rates to many coastal ecosystems have overwhelmed the capacity of marshes to remove nitrogen without deleterious effects. Projected increases in nitrogen flux to the coast, related to increased fertilizer use required to feed an expanding human population, may rapidly result in a coastal landscape with less marsh, which would reduce the capacity of coastal regions to provide important ecological and economic services.

  14. Comparison of wetland structural characteristics between created and natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, K.R.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of dredge material is a well-known technique for creating or restoring salt marshes that is expected to become more common along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the future. However, the effectiveness of this restoration method is still questioned. Wetland structural characteristics were compared between four created and three natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA. The created marshes, formed by the pumping of dredge material into formerly open water areas, represent a chronosequence, ranging in age from 3 to 19 years. Vegetation and soil structural factors were compared to determine whether the created marshes become more similar over time to the natural salt marshes. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1997, 2000, and 2002 using the line-intercept technique. Site elevations were measured in 2000. Organic matter (OM) was measured in 1996 and 2002, while bulk density and soil particle-size distribution were determined in 2002 only. The natural marshes were dominated by Spartina alterniflora, as were the oldest created marshes; these marshes had the lowest mean site elevations ( 35 cm NGVD) and became dominated by high marsh (S. patens, Distichlis spicata) and shrub (Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens) species. The higher elevation marsh seems to be following a different plant successional trajectory than the other marshes, indicating a relationship between marsh elevation and species composition. The soils in both the created and natural marshes contain high levels of clays (30-65 %), with sand comprising < 1 % of the soil distribution. OM was significantly greater and bulk density significantly lower in two of the natural marshes when compared to the created marshes. The oldest created marsh had significantly greater OM than the younger created marshes, but it may still take several decades before equivalency is reached with the natural marshes. Vegetation structural characteristics in the created marshes take only a few years to become similar

  15. Impacts of adjacent land use and isolation on marsh bird communities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lyndsay A; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity.

  16. Impacts of Adjacent Land Use and Isolation on Marsh Bird Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lyndsay A.; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity.

  17. Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part B, Effect on biota in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and other nearby wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallock, Robert J.; Hallock, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance study during 1986-87 found high concentrations of several potentially toxic elements in water, bottom sediment, and biota in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). This study prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior to initiate a more detailed study to determine the hydrogeochemical processes that control water quality in the Stillwater WMA, and other nearby wetlands, and the resulting effects on biota, especially migratory birds. Present wetland size is about 10% of historical size; the dissolved- solids load in the water in these now-isolated wetlands has increased only moderately, but the dissolved-solids concentration has increased more than seven-fold. Wetland vegetation has diminished and species composition in flow water has shifted to predominant salt-tolerant species in many areas. Decreased vegetative cover for nesting is implicated in declining waterfowl production. Decreases in numbers or virtual absence of several wildlife species are attributed to degraded water quality. Results of toxicity tests indicate that water in some drains and wetland areas is acutely toxic to some fish and invertebrates. Toxicity is attributed to the combined presence of arsenic, boron, lithium, and molybdenum. Biological pathways are involved in the transport of mercury and selenium from agricultural drains to wetlands. Hatch success of both artificially incubated and field-reared duck eggs was greater than/= 90 percent; no teratogenesis was observed. Mercury in muscle tissue of waterfowl harvested from Carson Lake in October 1987 exceeded the human health criterion six-fold.

  18. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  19. Assessment of community awareness and risk perceptions of zoonotic causes of abortion in cattle at three selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndengu, M; DE Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Pfukenyi, D M; Tivapasi, M; Mukamuri, B; Matope, G

    2017-02-06

    A study was conducted to assess the awareness of cattle abortions due to brucellosis, Rift Valley fever (RVF) and leptospirosis, and to compare frequencies of reported abortions in communities living at the periphery of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in southeastern Zimbabwe. Three study sites were selected based on the type of livestock-wildlife interface: porous livestock-wildlife interface (unrestricted); non-porous livestock-wildlife interface (restricted by fencing); and livestock-wildlife non-interface (totally absent or control). Respondents randomly selected from a list of potential cattle farmers (N = 379) distributed at porous (40·1%), non-interface (35·5%) and non-porous (26·4%), were interviewed using a combined close- and open-ended questionnaire. Focus group discussions were conducted with 10-12 members of each community. More abortions in the last 5 years were reported from the porous interface (52%) and a significantly higher per cent of respondents from the porous interface (P < 0·05) perceived wildlife as playing a role in livestock abortions compared with the other interface types. The odds of reporting abortions in cattle were higher in large herd sizes (odds ratio (OR) = 2·6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·5-4·3), porous (OR = 1·9; 95% CI 1·0-3·5) and non-porous interface (OR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·1-4·3) compared with livestock-wildlife non-interface areas. About 21·6% of the respondents knew brucellosis as a cause of abortion, compared with RVF (9·8%) and leptospirosis (3·7%). These results explain to some extent, the existence of human/wildlife conflict in the studied livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zimbabwe, which militates against biodiversity conservation efforts. The low awareness of zoonoses means the public is at risk of contracting some of these infections. Thus, further studies should focus on livestock-wildlife interface areas to assess if the increased rates of abortions reported in cattle may be

  20. Restoring Ecological Function to a Submerged Salt Marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, C.L.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise and severe drought, have altered the hydrology of coastal salt marshes resulting in submergence and subsequent degradation of ecosystem function. A potential method of rehabilitating these systems is the addition of sediment-slurries to increase marsh surface elevation, thus ameliorating effects of excessive inundation. Although this technique is growing in popularity, the restoration of ecological function after sediment addition has received little attention. To determine if sediment subsidized salt marshes are functionally equivalent to natural marshes, we examined above- and belowground primary production in replicated restored marshes receiving four levels of sediment addition (29-42 cm North American Vertical Datum of 1988 [NAVD 88]) and in degraded and natural ambient marshes (4-22 cm NAVD 88). Moderate intensities of sediment-slurry addition, resulting in elevations at the mid to high intertidal zone (29-36 cm NAVD 88), restored ecological function to degraded salt marshes. Sediment additions significantly decreased flood duration and frequency and increased bulk density, resulting in greater soil drainage and redox potential and significantly lower phytotoxic sulfide concentrations. However, ecological function in the restored salt marsh showed a sediment addition threshold that was characterized by a decline in primary productivity in areas of excessive sediment addition and high elevation (>36 cm NAVD 88). Hence, the addition of intermediate levels of sediment to submerging salt marshes increased marsh surface elevation, ameliorated impacts of prolonged inundation, and increased primary productivity. However, too much sediment resulted in diminished ecological function that was equivalent to the submerged or degraded system. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  1. Use of structured decision making to identify monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marsh ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Lyons, James E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. Gregory; Adamowicz, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Most salt marshes in the USA have been degraded by human activities, and coastal managers are faced with complex choices among possible actions to restore or enhance ecosystem integrity. We applied structured decision making (SDM) to guide selection of monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System in the northeastern USA. In general, SDM is a systematic process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. We first engaged stakeholders in clarifying regional salt marsh decision problems, defining objectives and attributes to evaluate whether objectives are achieved, and developing a pool of alternative management actions for achieving objectives. Through this process, we identified salt marsh attributes that were applicable to monitoring National Wildlife Refuges on a regional scale and that targeted management needs. We then analyzed management decisions within three salt marsh units at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, coastal Delaware, as a case example of prioritizing management alternatives. Values for salt marsh attributes were estimated from 2 years of baseline monitoring data and expert opinion. We used linear value modeling to aggregate multiple attributes into a single performance score for each alternative, constrained optimization to identify alternatives that maximized total management benefits subject to refuge-wide cost constraints, and used graphical analysis to identify the optimal set of alternatives for the refuge. SDM offers an efficient, transparent approach for integrating monitoring into management practice and improving the quality of management decisions.

  2. Projected changes in wildlife habitats in Arctic natural areas of northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Lawler, James P.; Handel, Colleen M.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    We project the effects of transitional changes among 60 vegetation and other land cover types (“ecotypes”) in northwest Alaska over the 21st century on habitats of 162 bird and 39 mammal species known or expected to occur regularly in the region. This analysis, encompassing a broad suite of arctic and boreal wildlife species, entailed building wildlife-habitat matrices denoting levels of use of each ecotype by each species, and projecting habitat changes under historic and expected accelerated future rates of change from increasing mean annual air temperature based on the average of 5 global climate models under the A1B emissions scenario, and from potential influence of a set of 23 biophysical drivers. Under historic rates of change, we project that 52 % of the 201 species will experience an increase in medium- and high-use habitats, 3 % no change, and 45 % a decrease, and that a greater proportion of mammal species (62 %) will experience habitat declines than will bird species (50 %). Outcomes become more dire (more species showing habitat loss) under projections made from effects of biophysical drivers and especially from increasing temperature, although species generally associated with increasing shrub and tree ecotypes will likely increase in distribution. Changes in wildlife habitats likely will also affect trophic cascades, ecosystem function, and ecosystem services; of particular significance are the projected declines in habitats of most small mammals that form the prey base for mesocarnivores and raptors, and habitat declines in 25 of the 50 bird and mammal species used for subsistence hunting and trapping.

  3. Potential oil and gas resources of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska: 1002 area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A geologist with extensive experience in the study of northern Alaska's petroleum resources provides an overview of the first comprehensive reassessment of the petroleum potential of section 1002 of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge since the original study of 1987. The paper surveys the region's geology, and provides a description of the methods employed and assessment results. The current resource is compared with that estimated in the original study, and is considerably larger, given the availability of new geologic and geophysical data, improved seismic processing and interpretation capabilities, and changes in the economics of North Slope oil development.

  4. Hurricane-induced sediment deposition in a gulf coast marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejmánek, Marcel; Sasser, Charles E.; Peterson, Gary W.

    1988-08-01

    Rates of sediment accumulation in four coastal marsh communities in the Mississippi River deltaic plain, Louisiana, were studied using feldspar clay marker horizons. The results indicate that normal riverine flooding contributes relatively little (<0·1 cm year -1) to marsh accretion in the studied area. In contrast, even a minor hurricane can resuspend sediments from shallow bays and deposit more than 2·2 cm of sediments in Phragmites australis dominated communities adjacent to the bayous as far as 7 km inland from the bay shore. Hurricane-induced sedimentation represents at least a partial compensation to prevailing subsidence of marshes in abandoned delta lobes.

  5. Assessment of factors enabling halite formation in a marsh in a humid temperate climate (Ajó Marsh, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Carol, Eleonora S; Alvarez, María Del Pilar; Borzi, Guido E

    2016-05-15

    The formation of evaporites associated with the final stages of the precipitation sequence, such as the case of halite, is frequent in marshes in arid areas, but it is not to be expected in those humid climates. This work, by means of the study of the hydrological, climatic and land use conditions, identifies the factors that allow the formation of saline precipitations in a marsh located in a humid climate area. The results obtained show that the exclusion of the marsh as a result of the embankment is the main reason for the presence of halite. It is to be expected that in the future the growth of the embanked marsh areas, together with the climatic and tidal condition tendencies recorded, will favour a higher rate of formation of evaporite salts. The identification of these factors makes it possible to set basic sustainable management guidelines to avoid soil salinisation.

  6. AmeriFlux US-WPT Winous Point North Marsh

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo / Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WPT Winous Point North Marsh. Site Description - The marsh site has been owned by the Winous Point Shooting Club since 1856 and has been managed by wildlife biologists since 1946. The hydrology of the marsh is relatively isolated by the surrounding dikes and drainages and only receives drainage from nearby croplands through three connecting ditches. Since 2001, the marsh has been managed to maintain year-round inundation with the lowest water levels in September. Within the 0–250 m fetch of the tower, the marsh comprises 42.9% of floating-leaved vegetation, 52.7% of emergent vegetation, and 4.4% of dike and upland during the growing season. Dominant emergent plants include narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia), rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos), and bur reed (Sparganium americanum). Common floating-leaved species are water lily (Nymphaea odorata) and American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) with foliage usually covering the water surface from late May to early October.

  7. Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Lambing, J.H.; Palawski, D.U.; Malloy, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Selenium and other constituents are adversely affecting water quality and creating a potential hazard to wildlife in several areas of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Montana. Selenium derived from Cretaceous shale and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits containing shale detritus is transported in the oxic shallow ground-water systems. At Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, drainage from irrigated glacial deposits is the primary source of selenium; drainage from non-irrigated farmland is a significant source locally. Benton Lake generally receives more selenium from natural runoff from its non-irrigated basin than from the trans-basin diversion of irrigation return flow. Selenium has accumulated in aquatic plants and invertebrates, fish, and water birds, particularly in wetlands that receive the largest selenium loads. Although selenium residues in biological tissue from some wetland units exceeded biological risk levels, water-bird reproduction generally has not been impaired. The highest selenium residues in biota commonly occurred in samples from Priest Butte Lakes, which also had the highest selenium concentration in wetland water. Selenium concentrations in all invertebrate samples from Priest Butte Lakes and the south end of Freezeout Lake exceeded the critical dietary threshold for water birds. Selenium delivered to wetlands accumulates in bottom sediment, predominantly in near-shore areas. Potential impacts to water quality, and presumably biota, may be greatest near the mouths of inflows. Most selenium delivered to wetlands will continue to accumulate in bottom sediment and biota.

  8. Environmental conditions in the Namskaket Marsh Area, Orleans, Massachusetts: A summary of studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1989–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, Peter K.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2016-09-23

    The tidal creek sampling stations established in the 1990s were resampled in 2003–4 and 2010–11 to evaluate potential effects of the treated wastewater plume on creek water quality. The annual medians of the 2011 biweekly nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations were determined for each station and compared to the annual medians of biweekly samples for the baseline years 1994, 1995, and 1996. At all stations, the 2011 median nitrate concentrations were within the range of medians for the 3 baseline years. A similar result was obtained for total dissolved nitrogen. We conclude that the 2011 creek samples, collected approximately 8 years after the shallow plume segment was first detected beneath the marsh, do not show evidence of elevated nitrate or total dissolved nitrogen concentrations attributable to discharge of either the shallow or deep segments of the treated wastewater plume.

  9. A rescued pelican flies to freedom at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge near KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A white pelican named 'Fisheater' by its rescuers, beats its wings as it flies to freedom at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The pelican was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Refuge in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. It is being released today to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge. Before its release, however, Kat Royer, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, placed on it a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  10. Assessment of injury to fish and wildlife resources in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Smorong, D.E.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Sparks, D.W.; Smith, J.R.; Simon, T.P.; Hanacek, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of three that describes the results of a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) conducted in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern (IHAOC). The assessment area is located in northwest Indiana and was divided into nine reaches to facilitate the assessment. This component of the NRDA was undertaken to determine if fish and wildlife resources have been injured due to exposure to contaminants that are associated with discharges of oil or releases of other hazardous substances. To support this assessment, information was compiled on the chemical composition of sediment and tissues; on the toxicity of whole sediments, pore water, and elutriates to fish; on the status of fish communities; and on fish health. The data on each of these indicators were compared to regionally relevant benchmarks to assess the presence and extent of injury to fish and wildlife resources. The results of this assessment indicate that injury to fish and wildlife resources has occurred throughout the assessment area, with up to five distinct lines of evidence demonstrating injury within the various reaches. Based on the frequency of exceedance of the benchmarks for assessing sediment and tissue chemistry data, total polychlorinated biphenyls is the primary bioaccumulative contaminant of concern in the assessment area. It is important to note, however, that this assessment was restricted by the availability of published bioaccumulation-based sediment quality guidelines, tissue residue guidelines, and other benchmarks of sediment quality conditions. The availability of chemistry data for tissues also restricted this assessment in certain reaches of the assessment area. Furthermore, insufficient information was located to facilitate identification of the substances that are causing or substantially contributing to effects on fish (i.e., sediment toxicity, impaired fish health, or impaired fish community structure). Therefore, substances

  11. Landsat Detection of the Effects of Hurricane Sandy on New Jersey Coastal Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riter, A.; Kearney, M.; Mo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy, an extremely large (1611 km in diameter) and destructive extratropical storm, made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey on October 29, 2012. We used twenty Landsat Thematic Mapper data sets collected between 1984 and 2011 and four Landsat Operational Land Imager data sets collected between 2013 and 2015 to examine the effect of Sandy on the New Jersey Atlantic coastal marshes between Sandy Hook and Cape May. Landsat data was unavailable between the 2011 failure of Landsat TM and the launch of Landsat OLI in April of 2013. Preliminary results suggest that most of the New Jersey marshes were relatively stable with some interannual variation between 1984 and 2005. Between 2006 and 2015, marsh area generally declined, with the greatest decline occurring in the small discontinuous marshes north of Barnegat Light. The marshes which were closest to where Sandy made landfall seem to have sustained less damage than the marshes north of Barnegat Light. The marshes west of the lagoon bar systems between Seaside Heights and Sandy Hook, that bore the brunt of Sandy's storm surge (from 1.5 to 2.6 meters) and the greatest wave action (Blake et al, 2013), display an increase in pond area within the marshes. As stated above, recent increases in pond size and area as well as the overall decline in marsh coverage began before Hurricane Sandy. This suggests that the even the most at-risk marshes were not as affected by Sandy's storm surge and waves as the barrier islands.

  12. Study the spatial variability of organic soil layer thickness within Barataria Bay marshes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Hudnall, W.H.; Dharmasri, L.C.; Holladay, K.W.; Pelletier, R.

    1997-08-01

    Marshes convert to open water at a high rate in Louisiana. Organic layers degrade in eroding marshes. Organic accretion results in thick organic layers that help to maintain healthy marshes. Thin organic layers may be characteristic of erodible marshes that convert into open water. Thickness of the surface organic layer is a significant soil morphological feature that may indicate the status of the marsh. Soil morphology can show a significant spatial variability within marshes. Accretion rates and the landscape may be disturbed by hurricane activity, presence of channels, open water areas, and man made changes. Understanding spatial variability of organic layer thickness will enable one to delineate critical marsh areas and plan marsh management strategies. Study of multi-dimensional variability may help to understand the spatial variability of soil morphological characteristics and prominent pedogenic processes that can be related to a landscape-soil model. Thickness of surface organic layer (or depth to mineral horizon) was measured using grids at 200 m intervals established within one square mile area in saline and brackish marsh. The soils had a variable organic layer thickness over sandy or clayey alluvium. Data were used to generate thickness contour maps. Soil morphology indicated a considerable spatial variability within the saline and brackish marshes.

  13. Accumulation of As, Cd and selected trace elements in tubers of Scirpus aritimus L. from Doñana marshes (South Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madejon, P.; Murillo, J.M.; Maranon, T.; Espinar, J.L.; Cabrera, F.

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of a pyrite-mining, tailing dam on 1998 contaminated an area of 4286 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar river valleys in southern Spain. Over 2700 ha of the Doñana marshes, an important wintering area for wetland European birds, were contaminated. This study reports analyses of the tubers of Scirpus maritimus (an important food for greylag geese, Anser anser) collected in 2000 in the “Entremuros” (spill-affected area) and in nearby unaffected Doñana marshes (control areas). In the spill-affected area mean tuber tissue concentrations of Cd (0.25 mg kg−1) and Zn (61 mg kg−1) were greater than in those tubers from the control area (0.02 mg kg−1 for Cd, and 22 mg kg−1 for Zn); values of Cd and Zn in “Entremuros” (samples collected two years after the mine spill) were much smaller than those reported only a few months after the accident. Trace elements (As, Fe, Mn and Tl, and to a lesser extent Cd and Pb) showed a preferential accumulation in the outer skin of tubers. Surprisingly, concentrations of As and Fe were greater in tubers from some marsh sites not affected by the mine-spill than in tubers from the “Entremuros”. We suggest that relic river channels within the Doñana marshes may be contaminated by trace elements from historic mining activities. An exhaustive study of macrophytes and other plant species in this area is recommended to identify potential risks to wildlife.

  14. Vegetation community response to tidal marsh restoration of a large river estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belleveau, Lisa J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Woo, Isa; Turner, Kelley L.; Barham, Jesse B.; Takekawa, Jean E.; Ellings, Christopher S.; Chin-Leo, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries are biologically productive and diverse ecosystems that provide ecosystem services including protection of inland areas from flooding, filtering freshwater outflows, and providing habitats for fish and wildlife. Alteration of historic habitats, including diking for agriculture, has decreased the function of many estuarine systems, and recent conservation efforts have been directed at restoring these degraded areas to reestablish their natural resource function. The Nisqually Delta in southern Puget Sound is an estuary that has been highly modified by restricting tidal flow, and recent restoration of the delta contributed to one of the largest tidal salt marsh restorations in the Pacific Northwest. We correlated the response of nine major tidal marsh species to salinities at different elevation zones. Our results indicated that wetland species richness was not related to soil pore-water salinity (R2 = 0.03), but were stratified into different elevation zones (R2 = 0.47). Thus, restoration that fosters a wide range of elevations will provide the most diverse plant habitat, and potentially, the greatest resilience to environmental change.

  15. Assessment of hydraulic restoration of San Pablo Marsh, California.

    PubMed

    Grismer, Mark E; Kollar, J; Syder, J

    2004-11-01

    tidal prism volumes differing by a factor of two. Following channel excavation, main channel tidal flows and sediment loads as well as marsh sediment accretion rates were monitored to assess the relative success of the excavation in restoring tidal circulation and vegetation (Salicornia spp.) to the marsh. Annual aerial surveys corroborated with ground-truthing indicated that marsh vegetation rapidly expanded, from 40 to 85% coverage several years following excavation. The 'east' channel intake was nearly completely silted in within three years. However, channel surveys and flow measurements indicated that the 'east' channel system tidal prism was only about 1200 m3, more than an order of magnitude less than that of the stable 'west' channel system. Marsh sediment accretion rates were on the order of 7-8 mm yr(-1), a rate common to the Pacific coast region that exceeds estimated sea level rise rates of approximately 2 mm yr(-1). East channel network siltation resulted in storm and spring tidal flood ponding such that marsh vegetation coverage decreased to 51% of the marsh area and related habitat expansion decreased. These results are considered in terms of the primary inter-tidal marsh factors affecting possible restoration/creation strategies.

  16. Wastewater effects on a waterhyacinth marsh and adjacent impoundment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Alberto; Ewel, Katherine Carter

    1981-11-01

    A waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) marsh occupying two-thirds of the basin of a small Florida impoundment has received sewage effluent for nearly 20 years. Water from the marsh flows into an area that is maintained free of waterhyacinths, and is discharged through wells at the far end of the impoundment. A water budget for the basin was estimated, and phosphorus concentrations were measured monthly at three stations in the marsh and at the discharge wells in the lake. Productivity levels were measured monthly where the marsh joins the lake and at the discharge wells. Only 16% of the phosphorus that enters the basin is stored. Gross primary productivity levels in the open-water areas are very high (22 gO2m2day), but high respiration rates appear to keep the lake in steady-state.

  17. Habitat characteristics and eggshell distribution of the salt marsh mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in marshes in subtropical Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Dale, Pat E R; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A; Brown, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as significantly higher in eggshells than any other vegetation. There were also high numbers in the mix of S. virginicus with the arrowgrass, Triglochin striata Ruiz & Pavón (Alismatales: Juncaginaceae). Both mixed types are found in relatively wetter areas, despite very few eggshells being found generally in the low marsh. Most sites contained S. virginicus and eggshell locations were variable for this species alone. This was probably related to its life form variability in response to salinity and location on the marsh. Location on the marsh was important for eggshell distribution with most eggshells around the edges of pools and depressions, followed by, but to a significantly lesser extent, the marsh surface. Eggshells were fewest in the low marsh. Partition analysis resulted in a tree that simplified and summarised the factors important for eggshell distribution confirming the individual analyses. The potential effects of climate, sea level and other change are also briefly discussed in the context of likely changes to land cover and relative location on the marsh. For example, increased sea level may lead to low marsh conditions extending into higher marsh area with implications for oviposition and numbers of eggshells.

  18. Summary of data from onsite and laboratory analyses of surface water and marsh porewater from South Florida Water Management District Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, South Florida, March 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of chemical analysis for samples collected during March, 1995, as part of a study to quantify the interaction of aquatic organic material (referred to here as dissolved organic carbon with dissolved metal ions). The work was done in conjunction with the South Florida Water Management District, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Ecosystems Initiative, and the South Florida National Water Quality Assessment Study Unit. Samples were collected from surface canals and from marsh sites. Results are based on onsite and laboratory measurements for 27 samples collected at 10 locations. The data file contains sample description, dissolved organic carbon concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance, and additional analytical data for samples collected at several sites in the Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, south Florida.

  19. American avocets in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A flock of American avocets take time to feed in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Avocets are not commonly seen in the East, but range from Washington and Manitoba south to Texas and California. However, avocets may stray eastward to the Atlantic coast during their southward migration in the fall. Their common habitat is freshwater marshes and shallow marshy lakes. Much like spoonbills, they sweep their bills from side to side along the surface of the water to pick up crustaceans, aquatic insects and floating seeds. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  20. Willets and avocets in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center, willets (left) and American avocets (right) attack the water below in a feeding frenzy. Willets inhabit coastal beaches, freshwater and salt marches, lakeshores and wet prairies, ranging from southern Canada and United States to the West Indies. Avocets are not commonly seen in the East, but range from Washington and Manitoba south to Texas and California. However, avocets may stray eastward to the Atlantic coast during their southward migration in the fall. Their common habitat is freshwater marshes and shallow marshy lakes. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  1. Larviciding offshore islands reduces adulticidal treatment of populated areas adjacent to national wildlife refuges.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Lawrence J; Fussell, Edsel M; Leal, Andrea L

    2011-12-01

    The Florida Keys Mosquito Control District has conducted larvicide missions on uninhabited offshore islands of the Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge and the National Key Deer Refuge since 2003. The objective of these missions is to reduce the need to apply adulticides on nearby populated islands where private lands are interspersed with refuge lands that support a diverse assemblage of native butterflies and insect-pollinated plants on Big Pine Key, No Name Key, Little Torch Key, Middle Torch Key, and Big Torch Key (the Torch Keys). More than 800 visits were made to refuge islands by Florida Keys Mosquito Control District personnel; 334 aerial larvicide missions were flown. From 2003 to 2010, a marked reduction in adult mosquito numbers was seen on Big Pine Key, and to a lesser extent on No Name Key. Seasonal distribution of mosquitoes was not different, however. Number of aerial adulticide missions flown on Big Pine Key, No Name Key, and the Torch Keys was 2, 1, and 2 in 2003; 9, 10, and 7 in 2004; 4, 4, and 2 in 2005; 6, 6, and 7 in 2006; 1, 0, and 0 in 2007; 3, 2, and 4 in 2008; 4, 3, and 4 in 2009; and 1, 1, and 3 in 2010, respectively. This is a dramatic reduction from prior years; from 1998 to 2002, 57 aerial adulticide missions were flown on Big Pine Key, 45 missions were flown on No Name Key, and 38 on the Torch Keys. Larviciding is an important component of an integrated approach to mosquito management that seeks to reduce environmental impacts on the national wildlife refuges.

  2. Comparison of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from disturbed and adjacent undisturbed regions of a coastal salt marsh in Clinton, Connecticut, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, John C.; Lefor, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of salt marsh plant species Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Distichlis spicata, and others were examined for the presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Samples were taken from introduced planted material in a salt marsh restoration project and from native material in adjacent marsh areas along the Indian River, Clinton, Connecticut, USA. After ten years the replanted area still has sites devoid of vegetation. The salt marsh plants introduced there were devoid of VAM fungi, while high marsh species from the adjacent undisturbed region showed consistent infection, leading the authors to suggest that VAM fungal infection of planting stocks may be a factor in the success of marsh restoration.

  3. Marsh canopy structure changes and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Marsh canopy structure was mapped yearly from 2009 to 2012 in the Barataria Bay, Louisiana coastal region that was impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Based on the previously demonstrated capability of NASA's UAVSAR polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image data to map Spartina alterniflora marsh canopy structure, structure maps combining the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD, orientation) were constructed for yearly intervals that were directly relatable to the 2010 LAI-LAD classification. The yearly LAI-LAD and LAI difference maps were used to investigate causes for the previously revealed dramatic change in marsh structure from prespill (2009) to postspill (2010, spill cessation), and the occurrence of structure features that exhibited abnormal spatial and temporal patterns. Water level and salinity records showed that freshwater releases used to keep the oil offshore did not cause the rapid growth from 2009 to 2010 in marsh surrounding the inner Bay. Photointerpretation of optical image data determined that interior marsh patches exhibiting rapid change were caused by burns and burn recovery, and that the pattern of 2010 to 2011 LAI decreases in backshore marsh and extending along some tidal channels into the interior marsh were not associated with burns. Instead, the majority of 2010 to 2011 shoreline features aligned with vectors displaying the severity of 2010 shoreline oiling from the DWH spill. Although the association is not conclusive of a causal oil impact, the coexistent pattern is a significant discovery. PolSAR marsh structure mapping provided a unique perspective of marsh biophysical status that enhanced detection of change and monitoring of trends important to management effectiveness.

  4. Tidal salt marsh sediment in California, USA. Part 2: occurrence and anthropogenic input of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Green, Peter G; Higashi, Richard M; Young, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    Surface sediment samples (0-5 cm) from 5 tidal salt marshes along the coast in California, USA were analyzed to investigate the occurrence and anthropogenic input of trace metals. Among study areas, Stege Marsh located in the central San Francisco Bay was the most contaminated marsh. Concentrations of metals in Stege Marsh sediments were higher than San Francisco Bay ambient levels. Zinc (55.3-744 microg g(-1)) was the most abundant trace metal and was followed by lead (26.6-273 microg g(-1)). Aluminum normalized enrichment factors revealed that lead was the most anthropogenically impacted metal in all marshes. Enrichment factors of lead in Stege Marsh ranged from 8 to 49 (median=16). Sediments from reference marshes also had high enrichment factors (2-8) for lead, indicating that lead contamination is ubiquitous, possibly due to continuous input from atmospherically transported lead that was previously used as a gasoline additive. Copper, silver, and zinc in Stege Marsh were also enriched by anthropogenic input. Though nickel concentrations in Stege Marsh and reference marshes exceeded sediment quality guidelines, enrichment factors indicated nickel from anthropogenic input was negligible. Presence of nickel-rich source rock such as serpentinite in the San Francisco Bay watershed can explain high levels of nickel in this area. Coefficients of variation were significantly different between anthropogenically impacted and non-impacted metals and might be used as a less conservative indicator for anthropogenic input of metals when enrichment factors are not available.

  5. Gallinules in the waters of KSC-Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A mother gallinule (right) calls her two chicks to enter the algae-covered water in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Gallinules, called Moorhens in the Old World, are duck-like swimming birds that constantly bob their heads while moving. They are identified by the prominent red bill with yellow tip and red frontal shield as well as white feathers under the tail, as shown here on the mother. Gallinules range throughout the Americas, from southern Canada to southern South America, inhabiting freshwater marshes and ponds with cattails and other aquatic vegetation. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  6. Roseate Spoonbill displays wings in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A female roseate spoonbill (left) displays her colorful wings to the male at right in a mating ritual in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center, is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  7. Roseate Spoonbill squawks at intruder in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the shallow waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a roseate spoonbill squawks at nearby intruders. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center, is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  8. Roseate Spoonbill displays wings in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A female roseate spoonbill displays her colorful wings in a mating ritual in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center, is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  9. Effects of winter burning and structural marsh management on vegetation and winter bird abundance in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.; Wilson, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    Marshes in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain provide important winter habitats for many species of birds. Many of these marshes are managed intensively through a combination of fall/winter burning and construction of impoundments to improve wintering waterfowl habitat, reduce wetland loss, and create emergent wetlands. Little information is available on effects of this management on wintering birds, particularly passerines. We conducted experimental burns in impounded and unimpounded marshes on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge in southwest Louisiana and recorded species composition and abundance of birds during the 1996 and 1997 winters. We found that burning and impoundment influenced vegetation structure, which in turn influenced bird abundance and species composition. Blackbirds (Icteridae) preferred recently burned plots. Sparrows (Emberizidae) and wrens (Troglodytidae) avoided recently burned plots but recolonized these plots after one year of vegetation recovery. Sparrows and wrens present in burned plots during the first winter following burning generally were observed in scattered patches of unburned vegetation. Suitability of Chenier Plain marshes as winter habitat for several bird species was reduced during the winter in which burning was conducted, particularly if a high proportion of the plot was burned. We recommend that patchy burns be used, at both the landscape level and within specific burned areas, to achieve management objectives and still provide suitable winter habitat for non-target species. Although many groups of birds depend on Chenier Plain marshes for winter habitat, these groups differ in their specific habitat requirements. We recommend that a diverse wetland complex (e.g., impoundments managed for waterfowl foraging habitat interpersed with those managed for passerine winter cover) be maintained.

  10. Role of salt-marsh erosion in barrier island evolution and deterioration in coastal Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Barrier shoreline erosion in Louisiana reaches over 10 m/year, and island area decreased by 40% between 1880 and 1979. Salt-marsh erosion is an important factor in evolutionary barrier shoreline development and is presently contributing, both directly and indirectly, to the deterioration of Louisiana's barrier islands. The marshes originally developed as fresh marshes associated with regression of Mississippi River delta lobes. After abandonment, salinity gradually increased and natural habitat change occurred as subsidence of deltaic sediments and transgression of the coastline by marine processes proceeded. The marsh surface is subjected to relative sea level rise and unless there is sufficient sedimentation to maintain marsh elevation, erosional processes become dominant. Increased inundation of marsh vegetation stresses even halophytic vegetation and leads to plant death. Examination of variations in marsh topography over an area of approximately 1 ha. revealed marked variations in the frequency and duration of tidal inundation. Increased flooding of lower areas can be sufficient to cause plant death and the opening of marsh ponds. As small ponds expand and coalesce to form larger areas of open water, wave action becomes important in eroding pond banks and mobilizing sediment from the bed causing pond deepening. Fragmentation of the marsh by these subsidence-induced processes is part of the evolution of morphostratigraphic forms in the Mississippi deltaic plain from erosional headland with flanking barriers to barrier island arc.

  11. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92, with selected data for 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.; Nimick, D.A.; Knapton, J.R.; Palawski, D.U.

    1994-01-01

    Physical chemical, and biological data were collected in the lower Sun River area of west-central Montana during 1990-92 as part of a U.S. Department of the Interior detailed study of the extent, magnitude, sources, and potential biological impacts of contaminants associated with irrigation drainage. Physical and chemical data were collected from areas within and near the Sun River Irrigation Project and from wetland areas receiving irrigation drainage. Biological data were collected from areas in and near Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Additional biological data were collected previously during 1987-89 as part of a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service program. This report presents data for selenium and other potentially toxic constituents in solid-phase, water, and biological media. Data consist of concentrations of major and trace elements in soil and drill cores; concen- trations of major ions, nutrients, and trace elements in ground water and surface water; and trace-element concentrations in bottom sediment and biological tissue. Hydrogeologic data for domestic and test wells and daily streamflow data for selected sites also are included.

  12. Ecology of delta marshes of coastal Louisiana: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Gosselink, J.G.

    1984-05-01

    This report reviews and synthesizes ecological information and data on the extensive marshes of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Over the past 6000 years the river has built a delta onto the Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico covering about 23,900 km/sup 2/. This low land is primarily marshes and represents about 22% of the total coastal wetland area of the 48 conterminous United States. The delta is notable for its high primary productivity, its valuable fishery and fur industry, and the recreational fishing and hunting it supports. The Mississippi River delta marshes are subject to the unique problem of extremely rapid marsh degradation due to a complex mixture of natural processes and human activities that include worldwide sea-level rise; subsidence; navigation and extractive industry canal dredging; flood control measures that channel the river; and pollution from domestic sewage, exotic organic chemicals, and heavy metals. 262 references, 75 figures, 34 tables.

  13. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A.; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Strynar, Mark; Denslow, Nancy D.; Toor, Gurpal S.

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other) of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas. PMID:26909512

  14. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Strynar, Mark; Denslow, Nancy D; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other) of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas.

  15. Substrate mediates consumer control of salt marsh cordgrass on Cape Cod, New England.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Holdredge, Christine; Altieri, Andrew H

    2009-08-01

    Cordgrass die-offs in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, salt marshes have challenged the view that the primary production of New England salt marshes is controlled by physical factors. These die-offs have increased dramatically over the last decade and are caused by the common herbivorous marsh crab Sesarma reticulatum, but other factors that control crab impacts remain unclear. We examined the influence of plant nutrient supply and disturbances on Sesarma herbivory by fertilizing plots and creating experimental disturbances, since previous studies have revealed that they mediate the intensity of herbivory in other Western Atlantic marshes. Neither nutrient enrichment nor experimental disturbances affected crab grazing intensity despite their strong effects in other marsh systems. Within and among Cape Cod salt marshes, however, Sesarma burrows are concentrated on peat substrate. Surveys of 10 Cape Cod marshes revealed that burrow density, depth, and complexity are all much higher on peat than on sand or mud substrate, and paralleling these patterns, crab abundance, herbivore pressure, and the expansion of die-off areas are markedly higher on peat than on other substrates. Complementing work hypothesizing that predator release is triggering increased crab herbivory in Cape Cod marshes, these results suggest that cordgrass die-offs are constrained to the peat substrate commonly found on the leading edge of marshes and that the vulnerability of New England salt marshes to crab herbivory and future die-offs may be predictable.

  16. Groundwater-Mediated Feedbacks between Sea Level Rise and Marsh Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. M.; Morris, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Data from salt marshes in the U.S. Southeast show that long-term variations in salt marsh productivity and porewater salinity correlate strongly with mean water level (MWL). To understand how tidally-influenced groundwater flow might control these correlations, we developed process-based numerical models to assess the effect of variations in MWL on groundwater flushing in salt marshes. We modeled homogeneous and layered marsh stratigraphy and compared flat and sloped topography for the marsh surface. Model results show that increases in MWL cause groundwater flushing to increase if greater areas of the marsh become inundated at high tide. Once the marsh was fully inundated at high tide, further increases in MWL caused groundwater flushing to decrease. We also investigated a range of tidal amplitudes, finding that increases in tidal amplitude increased groundwater flushing, particularly when increasing the tidal amplitude caused the marsh platform to be inundated at high tide. Results suggest that small increases in MWL associated with sea level rise could increase increase productivity in marshes that are equilibrated near mean high water, but rising sea level could decrease productivity, and thus accretion rates, in marshes that are equilibrated lower in the tidal frame. We speculate that the early stages of rising relative sea level may also significantly impact water quality in bar-built estuaries (not river-dominated) by increasing groundwater flushing and thus raising the discharge of nutrients from coastal wetlands.

  17. Mosquitoes associated with ditch-plugged and control tidal salt marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Leisnham, Paul T; Sandoval-Mohapatra, Sarah

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two ('experimental') marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4-5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study suggest

  18. Planning applications in east central Florida. [St. Johns National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W.; Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F. (Principal Investigator); Millard, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. St. Johns National Wildlife Refuge, a 4000 acre marsh, was established primarily to protect the Dusky Seaside Sparrow. A vegetation map of the refuge based on ground observations and color infrared photography was made. The preferred habitat of this sparrow is high-to-medium density spartina (a marsh grass) with no trees nearby. An increase in spartina density corresponds to an increase in marsh wetness. A thematic map shows the birds habitat preferences.

  19. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  20. Coastal marsh degradation: modeling the influence of vegetation die-off patterns on flow and sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, Lennert; Wang, Chen; Kirwan, Matthew; Belluco, Enrica; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Temmerman, Stijn

    2014-05-01

    Coastal marshes are vulnerable ecosystems that provide ecosystem functions such as storm protection and carbon sequestration. However, degradation of vegetated marshes into bare tidal flats or open water has been reported as a worldwide phenomenon, threatening their valuable wetland functions. Moreover, tidal marshes and bare flats are considered as alternative stable ecosystem states, which implies that, once vegetated marshes have degraded to bare flats, the (re)conversion from bare flats to marsh vegetation may be very difficult. Recent aerial photo analysis has demonstrated that the degradation or die-off of a marsh area is a spatial process, whereby vegetation is typically replaced by non-vegetated areas in the form of interior marsh pools, also known as ponds or marsh basins. On a small scale, these pools have similar characteristics among different marshes worldwide: pools that are located further away from tidal channels and with broad channel connections to the tidal channel system appear to have low surface elevations and a low probability for marsh recovery (this is re-establishment of vegetation on the surface). Interior pools located closer to, but that are not connected to channels on the other hand, are positioned on higher elevations and are more likely to recover. These findings may have important implications for the restoration potential of degraded marshes and their functions. We hypothesize that bio-geomorphologic interactions are the main mechanisms causing these differences in elevation and recovery potential of interior marsh pools: pools that are not connected to the channel system, are separated from the channel by vegetation, which reduces the flow velocity, increases sedimentation and may explain our observation of higher surface elevation of this type of pools. In contrast, pools that are connected with the channel system are not protected by vegetation and will experience higher flow velocities and lower sedimentation rates or even

  1. Past and predicted future effects of housing growth on open space conservation opportunity areas and habitat connectivity around National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with <6.17 houses/km2), both nationally and by USFWS administrative region. Additionally, we quantified number and area of habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.

  2. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  3. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  4. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  5. Evaluation of nekton use and habitat characteristics of restored Louisiana marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thom, C.S.B.; Peyre, M.K.G.L.; Nyman, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh terracing and coconut fiber mats are two wetland restoration techniques implemented at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana, USA. Using nekton as an indicator of habitat quality, nekton community assemblages were compared between terraced, coconut-matted, unmanaged marsh (restoration goal), and open water (pre-restoration) habitats. Using a throw trap and a 3 m ?? 2 m straight seine, 192 nekton samples were collected over four dates in 2001 and 2002 at all habitats. Nekton abundance was similar at unmanaged marsh (restoration goal), coconut mat, and terrace edge, and significantly higher than at open water (pre-restoration) sites (P < 0.05). Coconut-matted habitat and unmanaged marsh edges had significantly higher numbers of benthic dependent species than terrace edges (P < 0.05), potentially because of differences in substrate. Terraced sites had lower organic matter and siltier substrate as compared to unmanaged marsh sites. At Sabine NWR, terracing increased nekton use as compared to pre-restoration conditions (open water samples) by providing marsh edge habitat, but failed to support a nekton community similar to unmanaged marsh (restoration goals) or coconut-matted sites. Future restoration projects may evaluate the combined use of coconut mats with terracing projects in order to enhance habitat for benthic dependent nekton.

  6. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service get ready to release a rescued pelican at the Merritt Island National

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Under a rain-filled sky, Mark Epstein holds a rescued white pelican while Kat Royer fixes a leg band on it before releasing it at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Epstein and Royer are with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The bird was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Refuge in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. The pelican, dubbed 'Fisheater' by its rescuers, will be let go to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  7. 76 FR 54247 - Supawna Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Salem County, NJ; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...). Supawna Meadows NWR currently includes 3,016 acres of marsh, grassland, shrubland, and forest habitats... habitats, CCPs identify wildlife-dependent recreational opportunities available to the public, including... would continue to focus efforts on providing native tidal marsh habitat for Federal trust resources,...

  8. OUTLINE OF A NEW APPROACH TO EVALUATE ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF SALT MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integrity of coastal salt marshes can be determined from the extent to which they provide key ecosystem services: food and habitat for fish and wildlife, good water quality, erosion and flood control, and recreation and cultural use. An outline of a new approach for linking e...

  9. Nursery function of an estuarine tidal marsh for the brown shrimp Crangon crangon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattrijsse, André; Dankwa, Hederick R.; Mees, Jan

    1997-12-01

    The brown shrimp Crangon crangon migrates into the brackish part of the Westerschelde estuary (southwest Netherlands) shortly after metamorphosis and uses the tidal marsh habitat as a nursery until reaching a total length of about 15 mm. The importance of the marsh as a nursery was evaluated by estimating foraging activity, predation mortality and residence time. In early postlarval stages, C. crangon utilised the intertidal creeks of an estuarine tidal marsh from early spring (March-April) until late autumn (October-November). Postlarval shrimp leaving the marsh with the ebb tide always had significantly more food in their stomachs than shrimp entering the marsh with the incoming flood water. Predation upon the shrimp population was relatively low during most months, but in increased between August and October when common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps, were present in high densities. There was also predation by the small seabass Dicentrarchus labrax. The marsh creeks function both as foraging areas and as predation refuge. Depending on temperature, postlarval shrimp stayed in the marsh for a period of two to three weeks. Quantitatively, the value of the marsh as a nursery area had changed drastically during a second year of sampling, illustrating high natural year-to-year variability. However, the seasonal pattern remained. Recruitment to the subtidal adult population represents an export of animals from the marsh to the estuary. This export is negligible in terms of biomass (as compared to the total biomass of the estuarine population) but it may be important in terms of numbers of individuals.

  10. The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the need for scientific support for policy decisions and in light of the decade-old perspective of a previous assessment, the USGS has completed a reassessment of the petroleum potential of the ANWR 1002 area. This was a comprehensive study by a team of USGS scientists in collaboration on technical issues (but not the assessment) with colleagues in other agencies and universities. The study incorporated all available public data and included new field and analytic work as well as the reevaluation of all previous work.Using a methodology similar to that used in previous USGS assessments in the ANWR and the NPRA, this study estimates that the total quantity of technically recoverable oil in the 1002 area is 7.7 BBO (mean value), which is distributed among 10 plays. Using a conservative estimate of 512 million barrels as a minimum commercially developable field size, then about 2.6 BBO of oil distributed in about three fields is expected to be economically recoverable in the undeformed part of the 1002 area. Using a similar estimated minimum field size, which may not be conservative considering the increased distance from infrastructure, the deformed area would be expected to have about 600 MMBO in one field.The amounts of in-place oil estimated for the 1002 area are larger than previous USGS estimates. The increase results in large part from improved resolution of reprocessed seismic data and geologic analogs provided by recent nearby oil discoveries.

  11. Denitrification rates in marsh soils and hydrologic and water quality data for Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh watersheds, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Duff, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the park's Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but minimal degradation is observed in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, and have identified shallow groundwater as an additional potential nutrient source. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have assumed that a certain fraction of the nitrogen input was removed through microbial denitrification, but rates of denitrification (natural or maximum potential) in marsh soils have not been determined. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Acadia National Park, measured in situ denitrification rates in marsh soils in Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh watersheds during the summer seasons of 2008 and 2009. Denitrification was measured under ambient conditions and following inorganic nitrogen and glucose additions. Laboratory incubations of marsh soils with and without acetylene were conducted to determine average ratios of nitrous oxide (N2O) to nitrogen (N2) produced during denitrification. Surface water and groundwater samples were analyzed for nutrients, specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Water level was recorded continuously during the growing season in Fresh Meadow Marsh in the Northeast Creek Watershed.

  12. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will... rulemaking requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553). Lands acquired pursuant to the...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  13. 78 FR 23949 - Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area, Penobscot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... environment. Sunkhaze Meadows NWR includes more than 3,450 acres of freshwater wetland-peatland that provides breeding and migrating habitat for waterfowl and other wetland species. Carlton Pond WPA is a 1,068-acre artificial impoundment located in the town of Troy in Waldo County. The area was acquired by the Service...

  14. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Wildlife.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    bases. -atopnq. hiking, Some spacia bnbcan) Egneoe Data i-nsuffIcient to siIea ffect. nn- may avoid a,.-o of 1962. prod ict effents. enxpented. h...become elte d to thepoint of threatening the carrying rpacity of the area or d-nLopnnental trends which ’ haveA/ V already beer in mxotion for some

  15. Anthropogenic Impacts on the Evolution of Estuarine Fringe-marsh Shorelines: Implications of Coastal Setting on Marsh Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattheus, C. R.; Rodriguez, A. B.; McKee, B. A.; Currin, C.

    2009-12-01

    Fringe marshes, which are common to estuarine shorelines, provide essential ecosystem services to coastal regions, including carbon sequestration, provision of shelter and nursery grounds for aquatic and terrestrial animals, and buffering of lowland areas from marine flooding. Thousands of acres of intertidal wetlands are lost each year in the U.S., in part due to a recent acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise. The ability of a marsh to sustain itself by vertical accretion is generally limited by inorganic sediment supply. Despite a continuing global population boom, models attempting to forecast marsh response to future sea-level rise do not take land-use changes into account, which have the potential to alter sediment sources and modify or disrupt established sediment pathways. This study investigates how landscape modifications can alter nearshore sedimentation regimes and influence marsh-edge evolution. Marshes in this study are located in similar hydrologic and geographic settings within coastal North Carolina and have comparable vegetation densities; however, their respective coastal environments are affected by different land-use modifications. Site A is situated within an upper bay environment, whereas Site B is located along the estuarine shoreline of a barrier island. Both sites are part of the same estuarine system. Marsh-shoreline positions and surface elevations were monitored at the sites over a two-year period using high-resolution terrestrial LIDAR. This data set was supplemented with accretion rates obtained from radioisotope analysis, precipitation records, and information on land-use changes in an effort to develop an understanding of their effect on marsh evolution. The study region has undergone significant land-use changes, including the introduction of tree farming in the lower reaches of a tributary creek to the upper bay. Widespread deforestation in this watershed led to increased upland erosion and higher sediment-supply rates to the

  16. Variations in clay mineralogy and sediment texture of salt marsh soils on the Eastern Shore of Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.E.; Furman, T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    On the Eastern Shore of VA, relative sea level rise has resulted in encroachment of marsh onto upland areas. The amount and type of sediment determines the morphologic environment of the system: lagoon, mudflat, low marsh, high marsh or upland. This research is part of a study to examine the relationship between marsh soil characteristics and the production of Spartina alterniflora. The productivity of marsh vegetation depends on the import and entrapment of sediments that maintain marsh elevation and control water and nutrient availability. This work focused on distribution patterns of sediment texture and mineralogy. One meter deep cores were taken at marsh sites with 10 cm intervals homogenized for analysis. In order to distinguish potential sediment sources, samples were also taken from upland soil pits on the mainland and dredged one-half mile seaward of the barrier islands. Samples have undergone size analysis with a hydrometer and the clay fraction has been analyzed by XRD. Results from the marsh surface indicate large variations in sediment texture, but only slight differences in clay mineralogy between marshes. Barrier island marshes contain a higher average sand content than mainland marshes because of their closer proximity to barrier island beaches and inputs from overwash deposits. The clay minerals found in all marsh surface deposits are illite and chlorite, indicative of oceanic clays. The clay mineralogy of upland soils (kaolinite, chlorite, illite, vermiculite mixed-layer clay) differs from marsh surface clays, indicating that recent sediment deposited on the marsh surface is no upland soil but rather material brought in through tidal inlets. The sediment texture and clay mineralogy at different depths varies as a function of the past geomorphic and depositional history of the site. These data will be used to determine the timing of marsh development on flooded upland sites and to determine the pre-Holocene source of inorganic sediment inputs.

  17. In situ burning restores the ecological function and structure of an oil-impacted coastal marsh.

    PubMed

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  18. In Situ Burning Restores the Ecological Function and Structure of an Oil-Impacted Coastal Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  19. Contribution of Cultural Eutrophication to Marsh Loss in Jamaica Bay (NY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loss of salt marsh area in the Jamaica Bay Estuary (NY) has accelerated in recent years, with loss rates as high as 45 acres per year. A contributing factor to this acceleration is likely cultural eutrophication due to over 6 decades of sewage effluent inputs. We examined marsh...

  20. Elevation dynamics in a restored versus a submerging salt marsh in Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Hill, Troy D.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2016-03-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) poses the threat of salt marsh submergence, especially in marshes that are relatively low-lying. At the same time, restoration efforts are producing new low-lying marshes, many of which are thriving and avoiding submergence. To understand the causes of these different fates, we studied two Long Island Sound marshes: one that is experiencing submergence and mudflat expansion, and one that is undergoing successful restoration. We examined sedimentation using a variety of methods, each of which captures different time periods and different aspects of marsh elevation change: surface-elevation tables, marker horizons, sediment cores, and sediment traps. We also studied marsh hydrology, productivity, respiration, nutrient content, and suspended sediment. We found that, despite the expansion of mudflat in the submerging marsh, the areas that remain vegetated have been gaining elevation at roughly the rate of SLR over the last 10 years. However, this elevation gain was only possible thanks to an increase in belowground volume, which may be a temporary response to waterlogging. In addition, accretion rates in the first half of the twentieth century were much lower than current rates, so century-scale accretion in the submerging marsh was lower than SLR. In contrast, at the restored marsh, accretion rates are now averaging about 10 mm yr-1 (several times the rate of SLR), much higher than before restoration. The main cause of the different trajectories at the two marshes appeared to be the availability of suspended sediment, which was much higher in the restored marsh. We considered and rejected alternative hypotheses, including differences in tidal flooding, plant productivity, and nutrient loading. In the submerging marsh, suspended and deposited sediment had relatively high organic content, which may be a useful indicator of sediment starvation.

  1. The Protective Role of Coastal Marshes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Christine C.; Crain, Caitlin M.; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt marshes lie between many human communities and the coast and have been presumed to protect these communities from coastal hazards by providing important ecosystem services. However, previous characterizations of these ecosystem services have typically been based on a small number of historical studies, and the consistency and extent to which marshes provide these services has not been investigated. Here, we review the current evidence for the specific processes of wave attenuation, shoreline stabilization and floodwater attenuation to determine if and under what conditions salt marshes offer these coastal protection services. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a thorough search and synthesis of the literature with reference to these processes. Seventy-five publications met our selection criteria, and we conducted meta-analyses for publications with sufficient data available for quantitative analysis. We found that combined across all studies (n = 7), salt marsh vegetation had a significant positive effect on wave attenuation as measured by reductions in wave height per unit distance across marsh vegetation. Salt marsh vegetation also had a significant positive effect on shoreline stabilization as measured by accretion, lateral erosion reduction, and marsh surface elevation change (n = 30). Salt marsh characteristics that were positively correlated to both wave attenuation and shoreline stabilization were vegetation density, biomass production, and marsh size. Although we could not find studies quantitatively evaluating floodwater attenuation within salt marshes, there are several studies noting the negative effects of wetland alteration on water quantity regulation within coastal areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that salt marshes have value for coastal hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation. Because we do not yet fully understand the magnitude of this value, we propose that decision makers employ natural

  2. Controls on resilience and stability in a sediment-subsidized salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Camille L; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2011-07-01

    Although the concept of self-design is frequently employed in restoration, reestablishment of primary physical drivers does not always result in a restored ecosystem having the desired ecological functions that support system resilience and stability. We investigated the use of a primary environmental driver in coastal salt marshes, sediment availability, as a means of promoting the resilience and stability of submerging deltaic salt marshes, which are rapidly subsiding due to natural and human-induced processes. We conducted a disturbance-recovery experiment across a gradient of sediment slurry addition to assess the roles of sediment elevation and soil physico-chemical characteristics on vegetation resilience and stability in two restored salt marshes of differing age (a 15-year-old site and a 5-year-old site). Salt marshes that received moderate intensities of sediment slurry addition with elevations at the mid to high intertidal zone (2-11 cm above local mean sea level; MSL) were more resilient than natural marshes. The primary regulator of enhanced resilience and stability in the restored marshes was the alleviation of flooding stress observed in the natural, unsubsidized marsh. However, stability reached a sediment addition threshold, at an elevation of 11 cm above MSL, with decreasing stability in marshes above this elevation. Declines in resilience and stability above the sediment addition threshold were principally influenced by relatively dry conditions that resulted from insufficient and infrequent flooding at high elevations. Although the older restored marsh has subsided over time, areas receiving too much sediment still had limited stability 15 years later, emphasizing the importance of applying the appropriate amount of sediment to the marsh. In contrast, treated marshes with elevations 2-11 cm above MSL were still more resilient than the natural marsh 15 years after restoration, illustrating that when performed correctly, sediment slurry addition

  3. Elevation dynamics in a restored versus a submerging salt marsh in Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Hill, Troy D.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) poses the threat of salt marsh submergence, especially in marshes that are relatively low-lying. At the same time, restoration efforts are producing new low-lying marshes, many of which are thriving and avoiding submergence. To understand the causes of these different fates, we studied two Long Island Sound marshes: one that is experiencing submergence and mudflat expansion, and one that is undergoing successful restoration. We examined sedimentation using a variety of methods, each of which captures different time periods and different aspects of marsh elevation change: surface-elevation tables, marker horizons, sediment cores, and sediment traps. We also studied marsh hydrology, productivity, respiration, nutrient content, and suspended sediment. We found that, despite the expansion of mudflat in the submerging marsh, the areas that remain vegetated have been gaining elevation at roughly the rate of SLR over the last 10 years. However, this elevation gain was only possible thanks to an increase in belowground volume, which may be a temporary response to waterlogging. In addition, accretion rates in the first half of the twentieth century were much lower than current rates, so century-scale accretion in the submerging marsh was lower than SLR. In contrast, at the restored marsh, accretion rates are now averaging about 10 mm yr−1 (several times the rate of SLR), much higher than before restoration. The main cause of the different trajectories at the two marshes appeared to be the availability of suspended sediment, which was much higher in the restored marsh. We considered and rejected alternative hypotheses, including differences in tidal flooding, plant productivity, and nutrient loading. In the submerging marsh, suspended and deposited sediment had relatively high organic content, which may be a useful indicator of sediment starvation.

  4. Assessing tidal marsh vulnerability to sea-level rise in the Skagit Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, W. Gregory; Grossman, Eric; Curt Veldhuisen,

    2016-01-01

    Historical aerial photographs, from 1937 to the present, show Skagit Delta tidal marshes prograding into Skagit Bay for most of the record, but the progradation rates have been steadily declining and the marshes have begun to erode in recent decades despite the large suspended sediment load provided by the Skagit River. In an area of the delta isolated from direct riverine sediment supply by anthropogenic blockage of historical distributaries, 0.5-m tall marsh cliffs along with concave marsh profiles indicate wave erosion is contributing to marsh retreat. This is further supported by a “natural experiment” provided by rocky outcrops that shelter high marsh in their lee, while being bounded by 0.5-m lower eroded marsh to windward and on either side. Coastal wetlands with high sediment supply are thought to be resilient to sea level rise, but the case of the Skagit Delta shows this is not necessarily true. A combination of sea level rise and wave-generated erosion may overwhelm sediment supply. Additionally, anthropogenic obstruction of historical distributaries and levee construction along the remaining distributaries likely increase the jet momentum of river discharge, forcing much suspended sediment to bypass the tidal marshes and be exported from Skagit Bay. Adaptive response to the threat of climate change related sea level rise and increased wave frequency or intensity should consider the efficacy of restoring historical distributaries and managed retreat of constrictive river levees to maximize sediment delivery to delta marshes.

  5. 75 FR 66779 - Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Elko and White Pine Counties, NV; Comprehensive Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...,926-acre refuge. The marsh is surrounded by 22,926 acres of meadows, grasslands, alkali playa, and... areas for waterfowl and other marsh bird species. Vegetation in the meadows and grasslands is managed...

  6. Temporal patterns of domestic and wildlife rabies in central Namibia stock-ranching area, 1986-1996.

    PubMed

    Courtin, F; Carpenter, T E; Paskin, R D; Chomel, B B

    2000-01-05

    Eleven years (1986-1996) of wildlife- and domestic-rabies data from the agriculture stock-ranching area of central Namibia were studied using time-series analysis. Nine hundred and sixty three rabies cases were observed in domestic ruminants (5.4 cases/mo), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas, 1.3 cases/mo), domestic dogs (0.5 case/mo), and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis, 0.1 case/mo). The incidence of rabies for all species did not change significantly over the whole study period. However, seasonal variations with an increase in the number of cases between June and November of each year, as well as 34 yr cyclical fluctuations were identified in domestic ruminants and black-backed jackals. The black-backed jackal time-series variable was a significant predictor of the domestic-ruminant and dog time-series variables. The rainfall seasonality combined with the seasonal reproductive pattern of the black-backed jackal appeared to be plausible explanations for the seasonal variations of rabies. However, there was no overall significant correlation between the cyclical weather fluctuations and the 3-4 yr cyclical rabies variations.

  7. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted.

  8. The role of Phragmites australis in mediating inland salt marsh migration in a Mid-Atlantic estuary.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joseph A M

    2013-01-01

    Many sea level rise adaptation plans emphasize the protection of adjacent uplands to allow for inland salt marsh migration, but little empirical information exists on this process. Using aerial photos from 1930 and 2006 of Delaware Estuary coastal habitats in New Jersey, I documented the rate of coastal forest retreat and the rate of inland salt marsh migration across 101.1 km of undeveloped salt marsh and forest ecotone. Over this time, the amount of forest edge at this ecotone nearly doubled. In addition, the average amount of forest retreat was 141.2 m while the amount of salt marsh inland migration was 41.9 m. Variation in forest retreat within the study area was influenced by variation in slope. The lag between the amount of forest retreat and salt marsh migration is accounted for by the presence of Phragmites australis which occupies the forest and salt marsh ecotone. Phragmites expands from this edge into forest dieback areas, and the ability of salt marsh to move inland and displace Phragmites is likely influenced by salinity at both an estuary-wide scale and at the scale of local subwatersheds. Inland movement of salt marsh is lowest at lower salinity areas further away from the mouth of the estuary and closer to local heads of tide. These results allow for better prediction of salt marsh migration in estuarine landscapes and provide guidance for adaptation planners seeking to prioritize those places with the highest likelihood of inland salt marsh migration in the near-term.

  9. A rescued pelican is released at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge near KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A rescued white pelican, dubbed 'Fisheater' by his rescuers, takes a tentative step and stretches its wings after being let go at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Looking on is Mark Epstein, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, who had held the bird while Kat Royer, also with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, placed on it a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory. The pelican was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Refuge in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. It is being released to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  10. Rising seas and sinking coastal marshes: Implications to Atlantic waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Prosser, D.J.; Sanders, G.

    2000-01-01

    Along the mid-Atlantic U.S. coast, relative sea level rise (RSLR) is higher than the global average of 1.5-2.0 mm/yr, ranging from about 2.5 in parts of Virginia and Delaware to about 4.0 in New Jersey (Atlantic City and Sandy Hook) and near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Very few data exist on marsh elevation changes, but information from some areas in Virginia, New Jersey and New York suggest that marsh islands are not 'keeping pace' with this RSLR. We began a study in 1999 that addresses changes in sea level and marsh elevation at sites from Cape Cod to s. Virginia known to be important areas for migratory waterbirds, including waterfowl, shorebirds, wading birds, and seabirds. Marsh monitoring sites have been established and data on microhabitat use by birds during all 4 seasons is being collected at these sites. Species expected to be most vulnerable to RSLR in these marshes are breeding species such as Laughing Gulls, Common, Gull-billed and Forster's terns, Clapper Rails, and American Black Ducks. Most of these species are of special concern at state, regional, or national levels. We show how important this region to these species from a flyway perspective, with> 70% of all Atlantic coast Laughing Gulls and Forster's Terns nesting from New Jersey to Virginia.

  11. Partitioning of Pb, Cd, and Cu in natural and disturbed salt marshes of eastern San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Alai, M.; Fegan, N. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Sediment from different marsh systems along eastern San Francisco Bay was analyzed to determine how metals are partitioned in different environments influenced by human activity. Human influences in the marshes may have altered the geochemical processes controlling the metal partitioning. The three marsh systems analyzed include a natural marsh (San Francisco Wildlife Refuge), a natural marsh influenced by landfill leachate (Triangle Marsh), and a disturbed marsh constructed of artificial fill (Hayward Landing). The trace metal concentrations were compared in: easily exchangeable, weakly acid soluble, reducible, and oxidizable fractions representing the sediment phases of: clays, carbonates, Mn or Fe oxyhydroxides, and sulfides or organic material, respectively. The sediment fractions were analyzed for Pb, Cd, and Cu. In all three marshes, the pattern of metal partitioning with depth is similar; however, there are some inconsistencies. The Pb, Cd, and Cu in the reducible fraction typically decrease with depth while the metals in the oxidizable fraction generally increase or remain approximately constant with depth. This data suggests that the partitioning of metals in all three environments is initially controlled by sorption of metals onto Mn or Fe oxyhydroxides at the surface and shifts to organic or sulfides as the sediments is buried and the environment becomes more reducing.

  12. Balancing livestock production and wildlife conservation in and around southern Africa's transfrontier conservation areas.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Atkinson, S J; Cassidy, D; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation, of which the transfrontier conservation area movement is an integral part, and more effective livestock production/trade are pivotal to future rural development in southern Africa. For that reason, it is imperative to effectively ameliorate the obstacles that have impeded progress towards the coexistence of these two sectors for more than half a century. Transboundary animal diseases, foot and mouth disease in particular, have been and continue to be the most important of these obstacles. Fortunately, new developments in international sanitary standards applicable to trade in commodities and products derived from animals are beginning to make a solution possible. However, while progress in principle has been achieved, practical implementation remains problematic for technical reasons, exacerbated by inconsistent attitudes towards acceptance of non-traditional international trade standards. This paper describes the background to this situation, progress that has been achieved in the recent past and remaining difficulties that need to be overcome to advance towards achievement of balanced rural development in southern Africa.

  13. Coastal marsh response to rising sea levels in the Grand Bay, MS estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Medeiros, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Passeri, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    level rise scenario. However, lower productivity and an increase in inundated area or marsh migration was projected under the higher sea level rise scenarios. The maps and projections of hydrodynamics and marsh productivity can be used to improve restoration and management purposes for this estuary.

  14. Tidal salt marsh sediment in California, USA. Part 1: occurrence and sources of organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Green, Peter G; Young, Thomas M

    2006-08-01

    Surface sediment samples (0-5 cm) from five tidal marshes along the coast of California, USA were analyzed for organic pollutants to investigate their relationship to land use, current distribution within marshes, and possible sources. Among the study areas, Stege Marsh, located in San Francisco Bay, was the most contaminated. Compared to San Francisco Bay, Stege Marsh had much higher levels of organic contaminants such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDTs, and chlordanes. At reference marshes (Tom's Point and Walker Creek in Tomales Bay), organic contaminants in sediments were very low. While PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were found at all of the study areas (22-13,600 ng g(-1)), measurable concentrations of PCBs were found only in the sediments from Stege Marsh (80-9,940 ng g(-1)). Combustion related (pyrogenic) high molecular weight PAHs were dominant in sediments from Stege and Carpinteria Marshes, while in sediments from Tom's Point and Walker Creek petroleum related (petrogenic) low molecular weight PAHs and alkyl-substituted PAHs were much more abundant than pyrogenic PAHs. PCB congener patterns in all of the Stege Marsh samples were the same and revealed that Aroclor 1248 was a predominant source. In all marshes, the sum of DDE and DDD accounted for more than 90% of total DDTs, indicating that DDT has degraded significantly. The ratios of p,p'-DDE to p,p'-DDD in sediments from Stege Marsh provide evidence of possible previous use of technical DDD. Chlordane ratios indicated that chlordanes have degraded slightly. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (280-32,000 ng g(-1)) was the most abundant phthalate. The data indicates that Stege Marsh may be a source of contaminants that continue to be discharged into San Francisco Bay.

  15. Upslope development of a tidal marsh as a function of upland land use.

    PubMed

    Anisfeld, Shimon C; Cooper, Katharine R; Kemp, Andrew C

    2017-02-01

    To thrive in a time of rapid sea-level rise, tidal marshes will need to migrate upslope into adjacent uplands. Yet little is known about the mechanics of this process, especially in urbanized estuaries, where the adjacent upland is likely to be a mowed lawn rather than a wooded natural area. We studied marsh migration in a Long Island Sound salt marsh using detailed hydrologic, edaphic, and biotic sampling along marsh-to-upland transects in both wooded and lawn environments. We found that the overall pace of marsh development was largely unaffected by whether the upland being invaded was lawn or wooded, but the marsh-edge plant communities that developed in these two environments were quite different, and some indicators (soil salinity, foraminifera) appeared to migrate more easily into lawns. In addition, we found that different aspects of marsh structure and function migrated at different rates: Wetland vegetation appeared to be a leading indicator of marsh migration, while soil characteristics such as redox potential and surface salinity developed later in the process. We defined a 'hydrologic migration zone', consisting of elevations that experience tidal inundation with frequencies ranging from 20% to 0.5% of high tides. This hydrologically defined zone - which extended to an elevation higher than the highest astronomical tide datum - captured the biotic and edaphic marsh-upland ecotone. Tidal inundation at the upper border of this migration zone is highly variable over time and may be rising more rapidly than mean sea level. Our results indicate that land management practices at the upland periphery of tidal marshes can facilitate or impede ecosystem migration in response to rising sea level. These findings are applicable to large areas of tidal marsh along the U.S. Atlantic coast and in other urbanized coastal settings.

  16. Loss of 'blue carbon' from coastal salt marshes following habitat disturbance.

    PubMed

    Macreadie, Peter I; Hughes, A Randall; Kimbro, David L

    2013-01-01

    Increased recognition of the global importance of salt marshes as 'blue carbon' (C) sinks has led to concern that salt marshes could release large amounts of stored C into the atmosphere (as CO2) if they continue undergoing disturbance, thereby accelerating climate change. Empirical evidence of C release following salt marsh habitat loss due to disturbance is rare, yet such information is essential for inclusion of salt marshes in greenhouse gas emission reduction and offset schemes. Here we investigated the stability of salt marsh (Spartinaalterniflora) sediment C levels following seagrass (Thallasiatestudinum) wrack accumulation; a form of disturbance common throughout the world that removes large areas of plant biomass in salt marshes. At our study site (St Joseph Bay, Florida, USA), we recorded 296 patches (7.5 ± 2.3 m(2) mean area ± SE) of vegetation loss (aged 3-12 months) in a salt marsh meadow the size of a soccer field (7 275 m(2)). Within these disturbed patches, levels of organic C in the subsurface zone (1-5 cm depth) were ~30% lower than the surrounding undisturbed meadow. Subsequent analyses showed that the decline in subsurface C levels in disturbed patches was due to loss of below-ground plant (salt marsh) biomass, which otherwise forms the main component of the long-term 'refractory' C stock. We conclude that disturbance to salt marsh habitat due to wrack accumulation can cause significant release of below-ground C; which could shift salt marshes from C sinks to C sources, depending on the intensity and scale of disturbance. This mechanism of C release is likely to increase in the future due to sea level rise; which could increase wrack production due to increasing storminess, and will facilitate delivery of wrack into salt marsh zones due to higher and more frequent inundation.

  17. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  18. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  19. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  20. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  1. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  2. Estimating Sustainable Live-Coral Harvest at Kamiali Wildlife Management Area, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Longenecker, Ken; Bolick, Holly; Langston, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Live coral is harvested throughout the Indo-West Pacific to make lime, used in the consumption of the world’s fourth-most consumed drug, betel nut. Coral harvesting is an environmental concern; however, because lime-making is one of the few sources of income in some areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG), the practice is unlikely to stop. To better manage coral harvest, we used standard fishery-yield methods to generate sustainable-harvest guidelines for corymbose Acropora species found on the reef flat and crest at Lababia, PNG. We constructed a yield curve (weight-specific net annual-dry-weight production) by: 1) describing the allometric relationship between colony size and dry weight, and using that relationship to estimate the dry weight of Acropora colonies in situ; 2) estimating annual growth of Acropora colonies by estimating in situ, and describing the relationship between, colony dry weight at the beginning and end of one year; and 3) conducting belt-transect surveys to describe weight-frequencies and ultimately to predict annual weight change per square meter for each weight class. Reef habitat covers a total 2,467,550 m2 at Lababia and produces an estimated 248,397 kg/y (dry weight) of corymbose Acropora, of which 203,897 kg is produced on the reef flat/crest. We conservatively estimate that 30,706.6 kg of whole, dry, corymbose, Acropora can be sustainably harvested from the reef flat/crest habitat each year provided each culled colony weighs at least 1805 g when dry (or is at least 46 cm along its major axis). Artisanal lime-makers convert 24.8% of whole-colony weight into marketable lime, thus we estimate 7615.2 g of lime can be sustainably produced annually from corymbose Acropora. This value incorporates several safety margins, and should lead to proper management of live coral harvest. Importantly, the guideline recognizes village rights to exploit its marine resources, is consistent with village needs for income, and balances an equally strong village

  3. Remote Sensing Survey for the Grand Isle Re-Evaluation Study and the Dredging of the Bayou Rigaud and Marsh Creation Areas, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    objectives were met with a research de- of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, sign that combined background archival investi- as amended...1 Research Objectives and Design...the Currently Proposed Project Area ....................................................................... 87 VI. RESEARCH M ETHODS

  4. Predator-prey spatial game as a tool to understand the effects of protected areas on harvester-wildlife interactions.

    PubMed

    Tolon, Vincent; Martin, Jodie; Dray, Stéphane; Loison, Anne; Fischer, Claude; Baubet, Eric

    2012-03-01

    No-take reserves are sometimes implemented for sustainable population harvesting because they offer opportunities for animals to spatially avoid harvesters, whereas harvesters can benefit in return from the reserve spillover. Here, we used the framework of predator-prey spatial games to understand how protected areas shape spatial interactions between harvesters and target species and determine animal mortality. In these spatial games, the "predator" searches for "prey" and matches their habitat use, unless it meets spatial constraints offering the opportunity for prey to avoid the mortality source. However, such prey refuges could attract predators in the surroundings, which questions the potential benefits for prey. We located, in the Geneva Basin (France), hunting dogs and wild boar Sus scrofa L. during hunting seasons with global positioning systems and very-high-frequency collars. We quantified how the proximity of the reserve shaped the matching between both habitat uses using multivariate analyses and linked these patterns to animals' mortality with a Cox regression analysis. Results showed that habitat uses by both protagonists disassociated only when hunters were spatially constrained by the reserve. In response, hunters increased hunting efforts near the reserve boundary, which induced a higher risk exposure for animals settled over the reserve. The mortality of adult wild boar decreased near the reserve as the mismatch between both habitat uses increased. However the opposite pattern was determined for younger individuals that suffered from the high level of hunting close to the reserve. The predator-prey analogy was an accurate prediction of how the protected area modified spatial relationships between harvesters and target species. Prey-searching strategies adopted by hunters around reserves strongly impacted animal mortality and the efficiency of the protected area for this harvested species. Increasing reserve sizes and/or implementing buffer areas

  5. Ecogeomorphic Heterogeneity Sculpts Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, N.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present cellular automata simulations and high-resolution field measurements of five sites along the United States Atlantic Coast, to investigate the erosion of marsh boundaries by wave action. For several years, we tracked marsh contours of three sites in Plum Island Sound and two sites in the Virginia Coastal Reserve using a Real-Time-Kinematic GPS, and measurements were collected up to 20 cm apart. The cellular automata model consists of a 2D square lattice, whose elements have randomly distributed resistance. Randomly distributed resistance values are meant to take into account the variety of biological and geomorphologic processes affecting each portion of the marsh. Among others, seepage erosion, crab burrowing, vegetation and sediment cohesion make difficult to predict which portion of the marsh will collapse first. In case of high wave power, erosion proceeds uniformly because each marsh portion has similar resistance if compared to the main external driver. On the contrary, when wind waves are weak and the local marsh resistance is strong, jagged marsh boundaries form. From a statistical viewpoint, the system behaves differently for the two extreme conditions of very low and very high wave power. The frequency magnitude distribution of erosion events approaches a Gaussian distribution in case of high wave power. In case of low wave power, the frequency magnitude distribution is characterized by a long-tailed power-law distribution. For the low wave power case, a long time is required to erode very resistant cells. However, once the most resistant cells are eliminated, several weak sites remain exposed and can be rapidly removed, with consequent generation of large-scale failures. Field data confirm model results, and show the passage from a logarithmic frequency magnitude distribution of erosion events to a Gaussian distribution for increasing wave power exposure. The logarithmic frequency magnitude distribution suggests the emergence of a critical

  6. Middle to Late Holocene Fluctuations of C3 and C4 Vegetation in a Northern New England Salt Marsh, Sprague Marsh, Phippsburg Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B J; Moore, K A; Lehmann, C; Bohlen, C; Brown, T A

    2006-05-26

    A 3.1 meter sediment core was analyzed for stable carbon isotope composition of organic matter and higher plant leaf wax (HPLW) lipid biomarkers to determine Holocene shifts in C{sub 3} (higher high marsh) and C{sub 4} (low and/or high marsh) plant deposition at the Sprague River Salt Marsh, Phippsburg, Maine. The carbon isotope composition of the bulk sediment and the HPLW parallel each other throughout most of the core, suggesting that terrestrial plants are an important source of organic matter to the sediments, and diagenetic alteration of the bulk sediments is minimal. The current salt marsh began to form 2500 cal yr BP. Low and/or high C{sub 4} marsh plants dominated deposition at 2000 cal yr BP, 700 cal yr BP, and for the last 200 cal yr BP. Expansion of higher high marsh C{sub 3} plants occurred at 1300 and 600 cal yr BP. These major vegetation shifts result from a combination of changes in relative sea-level rise and sediment accumulation rates. Average annual carbon sequestration rates for the last 2500 years approximate 40 g C yr{sup -1} m{sup -2}, and are in strong agreement with other values published for the Gulf of Maine. Given that Maine salt marshes cover an area of {approx}79 km{sup 2}, they represent an important component of the terrestrial carbon sink. More detailed isotopic and age records from a network of sediment cores at Sprague Marsh are needed to truly evaluate the long term changes in salt marsh plant communities and the impact of more recent human activity, including global warming, on salt marsh vegetation.

  7. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  8. Ambient and potential denitrification rates in marsh soils of Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh watersheds, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Duff, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, Maine, because of the potential problems of degradation of water quality and eutrophication in estuaries. Degradation of water quality has been observed at Bass Harbor Marsh estuary in the park but only minimally in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, and have identified shallow groundwater as an additional potential source of nutrients. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have assumed that a certain fraction of the nitrogen input was removed through microbial denitrification, but rates of denitrification (natural or maximum potential) in marsh soils have not been determined. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Acadia National Park, measured in-place denitrification rates in marsh soils in Northeast Creek and in Bass Harbor Marsh watersheds during summer 2008 and summer 2009. Denitrification was measured under ambient conditions as well as after additions of inorganic nitrogen and glucose. In-place denitrification rates under ambient conditions were similar to those reported for other coastal wetlands, although they were generally lower than those reported for salt marshes having high ambient concentrations of nitrate (NO3). Denitrification rates generally increased by at least an order of magnitude following NO3 additions, with or without glucose (as the carbohydrate) additions, compared with the ambient treatments that received no nutrient additions. The treatment that added both glucose and NO3 resulted in a variety of denitrification responses when compared with the addition of NO3 alone. In most cases, the addition of glucose to a given rate of NO3 addition resulted in higher rates of denitrification. These variable responses indicate that the amount of

  9. How do salt-marsh ecosystems respond to changes in the environmental forcings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Mudd, S. M.; Carniello, L.

    2012-04-01

    How do salt-marsh ecosystems respond to changes in the environmental forcings? This is a question of paramount importance due to the critical role exerted by salt-marsh ecosystems within the tidal landscape. Salt marshes in fact buffer coastlines against, filter nutrients and pollutants from tidal waters, provide nursery areas for coastal biota, and serve as a sink for organic carbon. Observations of marsh degradation worldwide and the acceleration in the rate of global sea level rise highlight the importance of improving our understanding of the chief processes controlling salt-marsh response to current natural climate changes and to the effects of changes in sediment supply. To address this important issue, we have applied a analytical model of biomorphodynamic evolution of salt-marsh ecosystems in the vertical plane, accounting for two-way interactions between ecological and geomorphological processes. Our results show that marshes are more resilient to a step decrease in the rate of relative sea level rise (RRSLR) rather than to a step increase of the same magnitude. However, marshes respond more rapidly to an increase in sediment load or vegetation productivity, rather than to a decrease (of the same amount) in sediment load or vegetation productivity. We also observe that marsh stability is therefore positively correlated with tidal range: marshes with high tidal ranges respond more slowly to changes in the environmental forcings and therefore are less likely to be affected by perturbations. Finally, the model suggests that, in the case of a oscillating RRSLR, marsh stratigraphy will be unable to fully record short-term fluctuations in relative mean sea level, whereas it will be able to capture long-term fluctuations particularly in sediment rich, microtidal settings.

  10. Expansive Tidal Marshes on the North American Eastern Seaboard: Relics of Colonial Deforestation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A.; Kirwan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments using a numerical model of tidal marsh ecomorphodynamic evolution suggest that changes in sediment supply (suspended sediment concentrations) reaching tidal marshes can play a role as strong as sea-level-rise rate in determining the extent and elevation of coastal wetlands. Testing a model-generated hypothesis, sediment coring and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary marshes, Massachusetts, USA, suggested that marshes prograded rapidly and substantially following colonial deforestation (Kirwan et al., Geology, 2011). This controversial claim has been questioned, in part because historical maps from 1780 and 1830 show that the marsh had already attained most of its modern extent by that time--which is earlier than some of the of the radiocarbon mid-point dates (Priestas et al., Geology Forum, Dec. 2012). However, given the uncertainties in the radiocarbon dates, and in identifying the earliest marsh-derived layers in sediment cores, the maps and the dating are broadly consistent (Kirwan and Murray, Geology Forum, Dec. 2012). In addition, previous studies have shown that considerable land-use change had already occurred in this small coastal watershed by the late 17th Century, with local laws against tree cutting in place by 1660, and evidence for regional deforestation by 1700. Our field evidence, combined with the historical maps, indicates that this early colonial development lead to an expansion of marshes by approximately 50 percent within the studied area. Given the widespread and pervasive nature of subsequent land-use changes on the Eastern Seaboard from colonial through civil war periods, many of the currently expansive marshes on the East Coast may be relict. Numerical modeling suggests that when sediment concentrations fall below the values required to form a marsh, the marsh will be metastable, with vegetation feedbacks able to maintain the relict morphology and ecology, but susceptible to irreversible loss in response to disturbances

  11. Geographic variation in salt marsh structure and function.

    PubMed

    McCall, Brittany D; Pennings, Steven C

    2012-11-01

    We examined geographic variation in the structure and function of salt marsh communities along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Focusing on the arthropod community in the dominant salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora, we tested two hypotheses: first, that marsh community structure varies geographically, and second, that two aspects of marsh function (response to eutrophication and addition of dead plant material) also vary geographically. We worked at eleven sites on the Gulf Coast and eleven sites on the Atlantic Coast, dividing each coast up into two geographic areas. Abiotic conditions (tidal range, soil organic content, and water content, but not soil salinity), plant variables (Spartina nitrogen content, height, cover of dead plant material, but not live Spartina percent cover or light interception), and arthropod variables (proportional abundances of predators, sucking herbivores, stem-boring herbivores, parasitoids, and detritivores, but not total arthropod numbers) varied among the four geographic regions. Latitude and mean tidal range explained much of this geographic variation. Nutrient enrichment increased all arthropod functional groups in the community, consistent with previous experimental results, and had similar effects in all geographic regions, contrary to our hypothesis, suggesting widespread consistency in this aspect of ecosystem function. The addition of dead plant material had surprisingly little effect on the arthropod community. Our results caution against the uncritical extrapolation of work done in one geographic region to another, but indicate that some aspects of marsh function may operate in similar ways in different geographic regions, despite spatial variation in community structure.

  12. Heat budget for a shallow, sinuous salt marsh estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Paul; Iorio, Daniela Di

    2008-08-01

    An experimental study of temperature cycles and the heat budget in the Duplin River, a tidal creek bordered by extensive intertidal salt marshes, was carried out in late summer of 2003 and spring of 2004 near Sapelo Island on the central Georgia coast in the southeastern US. Three water masses are identified with differing temperature and salinity regimes, the characteristics of which are dictated by channel morphology, tidal communication with the neighboring sound, ground water hydrology, the extent of local intertidal salt marshes and side channels and the spring-neap tidal cycle (which controls both energetic mixing and, presumably, ground water input). For the first experiment, heat budgets are constructed for the upper (warmer) and lower (cooler) areas of the Duplin River showing the diminishing importance of tidal advection away from the mouth of the creek along with the concomitant increase in the importance of both direct atmospheric fluxes and of interactions with the marsh and side creeks. The second experiment, in the spring of 2004, reexamines the heat budget on seasonal and daily averaged scales revealing the decreased importance of advective fluxes relative to direct atmospheric fluxes on this scale but the constant importance of marsh/creek interactions regardless of time scale or season. Short period temperature fluctuations which affect larval development are examined and analogies are drawn to use heat to understand the marsh as a source of sediment, carbon and other nutrients.

  13. Coatal salt marshes and mangrove swamps in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Lun; Chen, Ji-Yu

    1995-12-01

    Based on plant specimen data, sediment samples, photos, and sketches from 45 coastal crosssections, and materials from two recent countrywide comprehensive investigations on Chinese coasts and islands, this paper deals with China’s vegetative tidal-flats: salt marshes and mangrove swamps. There are now 141700 acres of salt marshes and 51000 acres of mangrove swamps which together cover about 30% of the mud-coast area of the country and distribute between 18°N (Southern Hainan Island) and 41 °N (Liaodong Bay). Over the past 45 years, about 1750000 acres of salt marshes and 49400 acres of mangrove swamps have been reclaimed. The 2.0×109 tons of fine sediments input by rivers into the Chinese seas form extensive tidal flats, the soil basis of coastal helophytes. Different climates result in the diversity of vegetation. The 3˜8 m tidal range favors intertidal zone development. Of over 20 plant species in the salt marshes, native Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, Aeluropus littoralis, Zoysia maerostachys, Imperata cylindrica and introduced Spartina anglica are the most extensive in distribution. Of the 41 mangrove swamps species, Kandelia candel, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia marina are much wider in latitudinal distribution than the others. Developing stages of marshes originally relevant to the evolution of tidal flats are given out. The roles of pioneer plants in decreasing flood water energy and increasing accretion rate in the Changjiang River delta are discussed.

  14. Threats to Marsh Resources and Mitigation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes inhabit low-energy, intertidal shorelines worldwide and are among the most abundant and productive coastal ecosystems. Salt-marsh ecosystems provide a wide array of benefits to coastal populations, including shoreline protection, fishery support, water quality impr...

  15. Impact of land-use change and hard structures on the evolution of fringing marsh shorelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattheus, Christopher R.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; McKee, Brent A.; Currin, Carolyn A.

    2010-07-01

    Estuarine fringe marshes provide essential ecosystem services to coastal regions, including carbon sequestration and provision of shelter and nursery grounds for aquatic and terrestrial animals. The ability of a marsh to sustain itself by vertical accretion in response to sea-level rise is, in part, limited by inorganic sediment supply. Models attempting to forecast salt-marsh response to future sea-level rise commonly ignore land-use changes, despite the recent coastal population boom and the potential of land-use changes to alter sediment sources and modify established sediment-transport pathways. This study investigates the impacts of landscape modifications, which are typical of coastal areas, on the nearshore sedimentation and edge evolution of two fringing marshes. The sites examined include a marsh fringing the upper bay and a marsh fringing a beach ridge on the estuarine shoreline of a barrier island. Both sites are located in the same estuarine system, have similar hydrologic settings and comparable vegetation densities. Previous work, marsh cores, and a historical record from aerial photos indicate that although the fringe marshes are in different geomorphic locations, prior to anthropogenic modifications they were similar in terms of nearshore-sediment composition, scarp-shoreline morphology, and shoreline trajectory. The upper-bay marsh was impacted by the introduction of tree farming in the watershed of a tributary creek to the upper bay, which increased upland erosion and caused higher sedimentation rates in the estuary. The back-barrier marsh, which received no contribution from the tree farm because it is distal with respect to river input, was modified by the installation of a pier and rock sill. Terrestrial LIDAR, surface elevation tables, and accretion rates obtained from radioisotope analyses show that the deforestation induced high rates of nearshore and marsh accretion at the upper-bay site, which is promoting marsh colonization and expansion

  16. From macroplastic to microplastic: Degradation of high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene in a salt marsh habitat.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John E; Crocker, Brittany K; Gray, Austin D

    2016-07-01

    As part of the degradation process, it is believed that most plastic debris becomes brittle over time, fragmenting into progressively smaller particles. The smallest of these particles, known as microplastics, have been receiving increased attention because of the hazards they present to wildlife. To understand the process of plastic degradation in an intertidal salt marsh habitat, strips (15.2 cm × 2.5 cm) of high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and extruded polystyrene were field-deployed in June 2014 and monitored for biological succession, weight, surface area, ultraviolet (UV) transmittance, and fragmentation. Subsets of strips were collected after 4 wk, 8 wk, 16 wk, and 32 wk. After 4 wk, biofilm had developed on all 3 polymers with evidence of grazing periwinkles (Littoraria irrorata). The accreting biofilm resulted in an increased weight of the polypropylene and polystyrene strips at 32 wk by 33.5% and 167.0%, respectively, with a concomitant decrease in UV transmittance by approximately 99%. Beginning at 8 wk, microplastic fragments and fibers were produced from strips of all 3 polymers, and scanning electron microscopy revealed surface erosion of the strips characterized by extensive cracking and pitting. The results suggest that the degradation of plastic debris proceeds relatively quickly in salt marshes and that surface delamination is the primary mechanism by which microplastic particles are produced in the early stages of degradation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1632-1640. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-20) - Camas Prairie Acquisition, Anderson Ranch Dam Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2002-03-07

    BPA proposes to purchase approximately 1,370 acres of riparian and wetland habitat along Camas Creek near Hill City, Idaho as partial mitigation for impacts associated with the construction and operation of Anderson Ranch Dam. Title to the land will be held by IDFG. The land proposed for acquisition adjoins IDFG’s existing Camas Prairie Centennial Marsh Wildlife Management Area and will be managed as part of the management area. The goal of this project is to protect and enhance riparian, wetland, and upland habitats associated with the Camas Creek and Camas Prairie systems.

  18. Final report for sea-level rise response modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The International Panel on Climate Change has identified coastal ecosystems as areas that will be disproportionally affected by climate change. Current sea-level rise projections range widely with 0.57 to 1.9 meters increase in mea sea level by 2100. The expected accelerated rate of sea-level rise through the 21st century will put many coastal ecosystems at risk, especially those in topographically low-gradient areas. We assessed marsh accretion and plant community state changes through 2100 at 12 tidal salt marshes around San Francisco Bay estuary with a sea-level rise response model. Detailed ground elevation, vegetation, and water level data were collected at all sites between 2008 and 2011 and used as model inputs. Sediment cores (taken by Callaway and others, 2012) at four sites around San Francisco Bay estuary were used to estimate accretion rates. A modification of the Callaway and others (1996) model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), was utilized to run sea-level rise response models for all sites. With a mean sea level rise of 1.24 m by 2100, WARMER projected that the vast majority, 95.8 percent (1,942 hectares), of marsh area in our study will lose marsh plant communities by 2100 and to transition to a relative elevation range consistent with mudflat habitat. Three marshes were projected to maintain marsh vegetation to 2100, but they only composed 4.2 percent (85 hectares) of the total marsh area surveyed.

  19. Seed dispersal and seedling emergence in a created and a natural salt marsh on the Gulf of Mexico coast in Southwest Louisiana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Early regeneration dynamics related to seed dispersal and seedling emergence can contribute to differences in species composition among a created and a natural salt marsh. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether aquatic and aerial seed dispersal differed in low and high elevations within a created marsh and a natural marsh and (2) whether seedling emergence was influenced by marsh, the presence of openings in the vegetation, and seed availability along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. Aerial seed traps captured a greater quantity of seeds than aquatic traps. Several factors influenced aquatic and aerial seed dispersal in a created and a natural salt marsh, including distance from the marsh edge, cover of existing vegetation, and water depth. The natural marsh had a high seed density of Spartina alterniflora and Distichlis spicata, the low-elevation created marsh had a high seed density of S. alterniflora, and the high-elevation created marsh had a high seed density of Aster subulatus and Iva frutescens. The presence of adult plants and water depth above the marsh surface influenced seed density. In the natural marsh, openings in vegetation increased seedling emergence for all species, whereas in the low-elevation created marsh, S. alterniflora had higher seedling density under a canopy of vegetation. According to the early regeneration dynamics, the future vegetation in areas of the low-elevation created marsh may become similar to that in the natural marsh. In the high-elevation created marsh, vegetation may be upland fringe habitat dominated by high-elevation marsh shrubs and annual herbaceous species. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  20. Regional ontogeny of New England salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    Coastal areas are among the world's most productive and highly affected ecosystems. Centuries of human activity on coastlines have led to overexploitation of marine predators, which in turn has led to cascading ecosystem-level effects. Human effects and approaches to mediating them, however, differ regionally due to gradients in biotic and abiotic factors. Salt marsh die-off on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), triggered by a recreational-fishing-induced trophic cascade that has released herbivorous crabs from predator control, has been ongoing since 1976. Similar salt marsh die-offs have been reported in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.), but the driving mechanism of these die-offs has not been examined. We used field experiments to assess trophic interactions and historical reconstructions of 24 New England marshes to test the hypotheses that recreational fishing and predator depletion are a regional trigger of salt marsh die-off in New England and that die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are more recent than those on Cape Cod. Predator depletion was the general trigger of marsh die-off and explained differences in herbivorous crab abundance and the severity of die-off across regions. Die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are following a trajectory similar to die-off on Cape Cod, but are approximately 20 years behind those on Cape Cod. As a result, die-off currently affects 31.2% (SE 2.2) of low-marsh areas in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay, less than half the severity of die-off on Cape Cod. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that recreational fishing is an increasing threat to coastal ecosystems and that studying the effects of human activity at regional scales can provide insight into local effects and aid in early detection and potential remediation.

  1. Vulnerability of Northeastern U.S. Salt Marshes to Climatic and Anthropogenic Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. B.; Oczkowski, A. J.; Hanson, A.; Davey, E. W.; Crosby, S. C.; Johnson, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the Northeastern U.S., salt marsh area is in decline. Habitat change analysis has revealed fragmentation, displacement of high marsh by low marsh species, and ecological drowning, while development of adjacent uplands limits upslope migration. Using inundation experiments, field surveys, and LiDAR datasets, we developed an elevation-productivity relationship for Spartina alterniflora specific to the U.S. Northeast states of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, southern Massachusetts and located current salt marsh orthometric heights on this curve. We determined that 89% of salt marshes in these Northeastern states are located at elevations where growth is limited by inundation, suggesting links between current salt marsh loss patterns and sea level rise. By manipulating water column nutrients, precipitation, and elevation, we further found that altered precipitation receipt was associated with significant reductions in biomass, and that nutrient enrichment adversely impacts organic matter accumulation and peat formation. These results provide evidence that Northeastern U.S. marshes are vulnerable to the effects of accelerated sea level rise, and that neither precipitation changes, nor cultural eutrophication, will contribute positively to long-term salt marsh survival.

  2. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Salt Marsh Periwinkles (Littoraria irrorata).

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Montague, Clay L; Pennings, Steven C; Powers, Sean P; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Schlemme, Claire; Zhang, Mengni; Oehrig, Jacob; Nixon, Zachary; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-19

    Deepwater Horizon was the largest marine oil spill in U.S. waters, oiling large expanses of coastal wetland shorelines. We compared marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) density and shell length at salt marsh sites with heavy oiling to reference conditions ∼16 months after oiling. We also compared periwinkle density and size among oiled sites with and without shoreline cleanup treatments. Densities of periwinkles were reduced by 80-90% at the oiled marsh edge and by 50% in the oiled marsh interior (∼9 m inland) compared to reference, with greatest numerical losses of periwinkles in the marsh interior, where densities were naturally higher. Shoreline cleanup further reduced adult snail density as well as snail size. Based on the size of adult periwinkles observed coupled with age and growth information, population recovery is projected to take several years once oiling and habitat conditions in affected areas are suitable to support normal periwinkle life-history functions. Where heavily oiled marshes have experienced accelerated erosion as a result of the spill, these habitat impacts would represent additional losses of periwinkles. Losses of marsh periwinkles would likely affect other ecosystem processes and attributes, including organic matter and nutrient cycling, marsh-estuarine food chains, and multiple species that prey on periwinkles.

  3. Long-term recovery of a Louisiana brackish marsh plant community from oil-spill impact: vegetation response and mitigating effects of marsh surface elevation.

    PubMed

    Hester, M W; Mendelssohn, I A

    2000-04-01

    Oil spills can have significant, short-term, negative impacts on coastal marshes, but the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented, particularly in brackish marshes. The goals of this investigation were to: (1) document the long-term recovery of a Louisiana brackish marsh plant community impacted by a 1985 oil spill; (2) separate the effect of the oil spill on marsh deterioration from ambient rates of marsh deterioration; and (3) assess the relative importance of residual oil in the sediment and decreased marsh surface elevation in the failure of certain areas to recover. A total of 68 permanent plots previously established in 1985 were re-surveyed for plant and soil recovery in the fall of 1989. Although substantial (and near total) vegetative recovery was evident by significant increases in live and total vegetative cover, many of the plots that were initially heavily impacted by oil still displayed elevated levels of total saturated hydrocarbons in the soil. August 1990 measurements of plant photosynthetic response and edaphic variables revealed no significant differences between control plots and plots heavily impacted by oil that displayed vegetative regrowth. Rates of wetland land loss in the oiled marsh during an 8-year period that bracketed the time of the spill were within the historical range measured for this site and similar to the land loss rates of adjacent reference marshes. Results from a manipulative field transplant experiment indicated that the long-term failure of certain small areas to revegetate was primarily due to a decrease of marsh surface elevation (increased flooding stress), not a residual oil effect.

  4. Marsh loss from 1984 - 2011 in the Breton Sound, Barataria and Terrebonne Basins, Louisiana, U.S.A.: Impacts of hurricanes and excess nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riter, J. C.; Kearney, M. S.; Turner, R.

    2012-12-01

    Twenty-four Landsat data sets (1984-2011), collected as close to peak vegetation growth as possible, were used to evaluate marsh vegetation health and marsh loss in Terrebonne, Barataria, and Breton Sound Basins. Marsh loss varies spatially and temporally in the basins: freshwater and most intermediate marshes located west of the Mississippi River and more than 40 km from the coast were determined to be more stable than marshes closer to the coast. In most areas of the three basins, vegetation health and marsh area from 1984-1992 were relatively stable with minor inter-annual fluctuations throughout each basin and only a few areas of localized marsh loss. By 1994, shoreline erosion, tidal creek erosion, and erosion of soil banks adjacent to canals had increased in marshes located <40 km from the Gulf of Mexico, although some sites suffered substantially greater erosion than most coastal areas. Wave erosion also increased around the shores of Lakes Salvador, Cataouatche, Levy and other large lakes by 1994. Marsh loss also occurred in marshes immediately west of the Mississippi River, especially in areas close to diversion inlets. Hurricane Ivan in 2004 produced little sustained widespread damage in the basin marshes. However, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 and Gustav and Ike in 2008 caused extensive erosion of vegetation and the marsh substrate, especially near the inlet to Caernarvon diversion, but also near the Naomi and West Point a La Hache diversions inlets. We attribute the significant marsh damage from hurricanes to greater flooding, and greater wave and storm surge impacts due to diminished marsh soil strength from the effects of excess nutrients causing lower rhizome and root biomass and increased substrate decomposition rates.

  5. Degradation and resilience in Louisiana salt marshes after the BP–Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; van de Koppel, Johan; McCoy, Michael W.; Diller, Jessica; Kasozi, Gabriel N.; Earl, Kamala; Adams, Peter N.; Zimmerman, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    More than 2 y have passed since the BP–Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, yet we still have little understanding of its ecological impacts. Examining effects of this oil spill will generate much-needed insight into how shoreline habitats and the valuable ecological services they provide (e.g., shoreline protection) are affected by and recover from large-scale disturbance. Here we report on not only rapid salt-marsh recovery (high resilience) but also permanent marsh area loss after the BP–Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Field observations, experimental manipulations, and wave-propagation modeling reveal that (i) oil coverage was primarily concentrated on the seaward edge of marshes; (ii) there were thresholds of oil coverage that were associated with severity of salt-marsh damage, with heavy oiling leading to plant mortality; (iii) oil-driven plant death on the edges of these marshes more than doubled rates of shoreline erosion, further driving marsh platform loss that is likely to be permanent; and (iv) after 18 mo, marsh grasses have largely recovered into previously oiled, noneroded areas, and the elevated shoreline retreat rates observed at oiled sites have decreased to levels at reference marsh sites. This paper highlights that heavy oil coverage on the shorelines of Louisiana marshes, already experiencing elevated retreat because of intense human activities, induced a geomorphic feedback that amplified this erosion and thereby set limits to the recovery of otherwise resilient vegetation. It thus warns of the enhanced vulnerability of already degraded marshes to heavy oil coverage and provides a clear example of how multiple human-induced stressors can interact to hasten ecosystem decline. PMID:22733752

  6. Degradation and resilience in Louisiana salt marshes after the BP-Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Silliman, Brian R; van de Koppel, Johan; McCoy, Michael W; Diller, Jessica; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Earl, Kamala; Adams, Peter N; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2012-07-10

    More than 2 y have passed since the BP-Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, yet we still have little understanding of its ecological impacts. Examining effects of this oil spill will generate much-needed insight into how shoreline habitats and the valuable ecological services they provide (e.g., shoreline protection) are affected by and recover from large-scale disturbance. Here we report on not only rapid salt-marsh recovery (high resilience) but also permanent marsh area loss after the BP-Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Field observations, experimental manipulations, and wave-propagation modeling reveal that (i) oil coverage was primarily concentrated on the seaward edge of marshes; (ii) there were thresholds of oil coverage that were associated with severity of salt-marsh damage, with heavy oiling leading to plant mortality; (iii) oil-driven plant death on the edges of these marshes more than doubled rates of shoreline erosion, further driving marsh platform loss that is likely to be permanent; and (iv) after 18 mo, marsh grasses have largely recovered into previously oiled, noneroded areas, and the elevated shoreline retreat rates observed at oiled sites have decreased to levels at reference marsh sites. This paper highlights that heavy oil coverage on the shorelines of Louisiana marshes, already experiencing elevated retreat because of intense human activities, induced a geomorphic feedback that amplified this erosion and thereby set limits to the recovery of otherwise resilient vegetation. It thus warns of the enhanced vulnerability of already degraded marshes to heavy oil coverage and provides a clear example of how multiple human-induced stressors can interact to hasten ecosystem decline.

  7. Inventory and protection of salt marshes from risks of sea-level rise at Acadia National Park, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Nielsen, Martha G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) climate studies in the northeastern United States have shown substantial evidence of climate-related changes during the last 100 years, including earlier snowmelt runoff, decreasing occurrence of river ice, and decreasing winter snowpack. These studies related to climate change are being expanded to include investigation of coastal wetlands that might be at risk from sealevel rise. Coastal wetlands, particularly salt marshes, are important ecosystems that provide wildlife nursery and breeding habitat, migratory bird habitat, water quality enhancement, and shoreline erosion control. The USGS is investigating salt marshes in Acadia National Park with the goal of determining which salt marshes may be threatened by sea-level rise and which salt marshes may be able to adapt to sea-level rise by migrating into adjacent low-lying lands.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V M; Oloya, J; Matop, G; Omer, M K; Munyeme, M; Mubita, C; Skjerve, E

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were tested sequentially for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive ELISA. In cattle, individual seroprevalence ranged from 14.1% to 28.1%, while herd sero-prevalence ranged from 46.2% to 74.0% in the three study areas. No goat or sheep tested positive for Brucella antibodies. Three types of cattle grazing strategies were encountered: locally grazed herds (LGH), transhumantly grazed herds (TGH) and river flood plain grazed herds (FGH). Brucella seroprevalence was seen to vary according to area and grazing strategy: Lochinvar and transhumant grazed herds recorded the highest figures, respectively. Age, sex and history of abortion were found to have independent effects on individual seroprevalence. This study establishes that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar national parks and the disease is also present in Kazungula. We observed that type of grazing strategy had significant impact on cattle Brucella seroprevalence and that transhumant herds were at high risk of being infected.

  9. Relationships between wintering waterbirds and invertebrates, sediments and hydrology of coastal marsh ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    We studied relationships among sediment variables (carbon content, C:N, hardness, oxygen penetration, silt-clay fraction), hydrologic variables (dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, transparency, water depth), sizes and biomass of common invertebrate classes, and densities of 15 common waterbird species in ponds of impounded freshwater, oligohaline, mesohaline, and unimpounded mesohaline marshes during winters 1997-98 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana, USA. Canonical correspondence analysis and forward selection was used to analyze the above variables. Water depth and oxygen penetration were the variables that best segregated habitat characteristics that resulted in maximum densities of common waterbird species. Most common waterbird species were associated with specific marsh types, except Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata). We concluded that hydrologic manipulation of marsh ponds is the best way to manage habitats for these birds, if the hydrology can be controlled adequately.

  10. A rescued pelican flies to freedom at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge near KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A white pelican named 'Fisheater' by its rescuers soars to open water in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge as it flies to freedom. The pelican was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Refuge in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. It is being released today to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge, some of which are nearby. Before its release, however, Kat Royer, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, placed on it a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  11. The ecology of the coastal marshes of western Lake Erie: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Herdendorf, C.E.

    1987-02-01

    Lake Erie, the southernmost of the Laurentian Great Lakes, is narrow and relatively shallow in comparison to other Great Lakes. The lake experiences extreme water level fluctuations and storm energy restricts the development of wetlands to protected areas within embayments, lagoons, or behind barriers. However, coastal marshes of western Lake Erie fringe the shorelines of Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario and encompass an area of 268 km/sup 2/. This publication reviews the ecological data and information on the wetlands of Lake Erie, which are some of the more productive areas in the Great Lakes ecosystem. The geologic history of the Lake Erie leading to the development of wetlands, the present environment, and present wetland distribution are presented as background in the opening chapters. Biological information available for the Lake Erie wetlands is discussed in detail, and ecological processes contributing to the evolution of wetlands, biological production, and community organization in the wetlands are examined. A chapter on applied ecology addressing issues, such as wetland loss, values of wetlands to fish and wildlife, management, and future prospects for Lake Erie wetlands, completes the publication.

  12. Aeration for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Ling; Lockington, David

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the tidal effects on aeration conditions for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh. We extend the work of Ursino et al. (2004) by using a two-phase model for air and water flows in the marsh. Simulations have been conducted to examine directly the link between the airflow dynamics and the aeration condition in the marsh soil. The results show that the effects of entrapped air on water movement in the vadose zone are significant in certain circumstances. Single-phase models based on Richards' equation, which neglect such effects, may not be adequate for quantifying the aeration condition in tidal marsh. The optimal aeration condition, represented by the maximum of the integral magnitude of tidally advected air mass (TAAM) flux, is found to occur near the tidal creek for the four soil textures simulated. This may explain the observation that some salt marsh plant species grow better near tidal creeks than in the inner marsh areas. Our analyses, based on the two-phase model and predicted TAAM flux magnitude, provide further insight into the "positive feedback" mechanism proposed by Ursino et al. (2004). That is, pioneer plants may grow successfully near the creek where the root aeration condition is optimal. The roots of the pioneer plants can soften and loosen the rhizosphere soil, which increases the evapotranspiration rate, the soil porosity, and absolute permeability and weakens the capillary effects. These, in turn, improve further the root aeration conditions and may lead to colonization by plants less resistant to anaerobic conditions.

  13. Aeration for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Ling; Lockington, David

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the tidal effects on aeration conditions for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh. We extend the work of Ursino et al. (2004) by using a two-phase model for air and water flows in the marsh. Simulations have been conducted to examine directly the link between the airflow dynamics and the aeration condition in the marsh soil. The results show that the effects of entrapped air on water movement in the vadose zone are significant in certain circumstances. Single-phase models based on Richards' equation, which neglect such effects, may not be adequate for quantifying the aeration condition in tidal marsh. The optimal aeration condition, represented by the maximum of the integral magnitude of tidally advected air mass (TAAM) flux, is found to occur near the tidal creek for the four soil textures simulated. This may explain the observation that some salt marsh plant species grow better near tidal creeks than in the inner marsh areas. Our analyses, based on the two-phase model and predicted TAAM flux magnitude, provide further insight into the ``positive feedback'' mechanism proposed by Ursino et al. (2004). That is, pioneer plants may grow successfully near the creek where the root aeration condition is optimal. The roots of the pioneer plants can soften and loosen the rhizosphere soil, which increases the evapotranspiration rate, the soil porosity, and absolute permeability and weakens the capillary effects. These, in turn, improve further the root aeration conditions and may lead to colonization by plants less resistant to anaerobic conditions.

  14. Analysis of the erosion of marsh boundaries produced by wind-wave impact in a shallow tidal basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzoni, S.; Santalucia, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Marani, M.

    2010-12-01

    Salt-marsh ecosystems play a crucial role in the eco-geomorphological evolution of intertidal areas acting as a fundamental buffer against the impacts of coastal storms, filtering nutrients and pollutants from tidal waters, and providing critical habitats for rare vegetation species and essential nursery areas for fishes and crustaceans. Recent observations of marsh degradation worldwide highlight the importance to improve our understanding of the chief processes responsible for their deterioration. The erosion of marsh boundaries produced by wind-wave impact on the marsh edge is generally agreed to be the most important process driving marsh degradation and disappearance. We have studied long-term changes of salt-marsh boundaries in the Venice Lagoon based on the analysis of sequential aerial photographs, dating from 1955, 1970, and 2002, coupled with modelling of local wind-wave dynamics by way of a point wave model. We have observed that a positive correlation exists between rates of marsh-boundary retreat, established by the analysis of sequential aerial photographs, and the averaged power of the impacting wind waves, computed through the wave model. We have also carried out a dimensional analysis which suggests the existence of a linear relationship between the eroded volume of marsh sediment and the averaged wave power. Annually eroded volumes of marsh sediment, determined on the basis of remote sensed data and bathymetric survey, plotted versus the computed averaged power of the impacting wind waves support the existence of such a relationship.

  15. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service get ready to release a rescued pelican at the Merritt Island National

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Under a rain-filled sky, Mark Epstein, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, gets ready to release a rescued white pelican. At right is Kat Royer, also with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, who has fixed on it a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory. In the background is Christine Wise who is involved with rescue and rehabilitation of Florida wild animals. Wise brought the pelican to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge for its release. The bird was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Refuge in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. The pelican, dubbed 'Fisheater' by its rescuers, is being let go to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  16. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service get ready to release a rescued pelican at the Merritt Island National

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mark Epstein, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, holds a white pelican that will be released under a rain-filled sky at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The bird was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Center in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. After Kat Royer, who is with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, fits the bird with a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory, the pelican will be let go to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  17. The Great Newbury Marsh Hike.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Heidi; And Others

    Designed to acquaint students at Triton Regional High School (Massachusetts) with the importance of the salt marshes and marine environment around Triton, this outdoor education curriculum guide includes three sections emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach to physics, ecology, and history. The unit is designed for 50 students and 5 teachers…

  18. Dynamics of mangrove-marsh ecotones in subtropical coastal wetlands: fire, sea-level rise, and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Foster, Ann M.; Tiling-Range, Ginger; Jones, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Ecotones are areas of sharp environmental gradients between two or more homogeneous vegetation types. They are a dynamic aspect of all landscapes and are also responsive to climate change. Shifts in the position of an ecotone across a landscape can be an indication of a changing environment. In the coastal Everglades of Florida, USA, a dominant ecotone type is that of mangrove forest and marsh. However, there is a variety of plants that can form the marsh component, including sawgrass (Cladium mariscus [L.] Pohl), needlegrass rush (Juncus roemerianus Scheele), and spikerush (Eleocharis spp.). Environmental factors including water depth, soil type, and occurrence of fires vary across these ecotones, influencing their dynamics. Altered freshwater inflows from upstream and increasing sea level over the past 100 years may have also had an impact. We analyzed a time series of historical aerial photographs for a number of sites in the coastal Everglades and measured change in position of mangrove–marsh ecotones. For three sites, detailed maps were produced and the area of marsh, mangrove, and other habitats was determined for five periods spanning the years 1928 to 2004. Contrary to our initial hypothesis on fire, we found that fire did not prevent mangrove expansion into marsh areas but may in fact assist mangroves to invade some marsh habitats, especially sawgrass. Disparate patterns in mangrove–marsh change were measured at two downstream sites, both of which had multiple fires over from 1948 to 2004. No change in mangrove or marsh area was measured at one site. Mangrove area increased and marsh area decreased at the second of these fire-impacted sites. We measured a significant increase in mangrove area and a decline in marsh area at an upstream site that had little occurrence of fire. At this site, water levels have increased significantly as sea level has risen, and this has probably been a factor in the mangrove expansion.

  19. Relationship between anthropogenic sewage discharge, marsh structure and bird assemblages in an SW Atlantic saltmarsh.

    PubMed

    Cardoni, D A; Isacch, J P; Fanjul, M E; Escapa, M; Iribarne, O O

    2011-03-01

    One of the main effects of urbanization on coastal areas is through the discharge of sewage, which increases nutrient concentrations in the receiving environment. Salt marshes, like other coastal marine environments, are limited by nutrients, mainly nitrogen, and thus increasing nutrient loadings to a marsh may have consequences on marsh characteristics. We evaluated how the effects of nutrient enrichment in the form of sewage input, affected the vegetation structure and bird assemblages in a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh system near Bahía Blanca, Argentina (39° 01' S - 56° 25' W). Surveys of nutrient concentration, vegetation and birds were made at three different distances from the sewage discharge source. The concentration of ammonium, phosphate, and nitrate and the percent organic matter was higher in marshes nearest to the sewage discharge source. Bird composition and abundance, and vegetation physiognomy changed along a gradient of nutrient concentration. The increased habitat complexity found near the areas of higher nutrient concentration was exploited by birds that use neighboring interior and coastal habitats, including Spartina densiflora marshes, freshwater marshes and upland shrubby habitats. Our results show that local increases of nutrient inputs directly changed the vegetation physiognomy, and indirectly the composition and abundance of bird assemblages.

  20. Variability of fresh- and salt-water marshes characteristics on the west coast of France: a spatio-temporal assessment.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Sébastien; David, Valérie; Brahmia, Amel; Dupuy, Christine; Laniesse, Thomas; Parinet, Bernard; Pouget, Frederic; Rousseau, Frederic; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Robin, François-Xavier

    2011-08-01

    The degradation of water quality and the multiple conflicts of interest between users make marsh restoration very important. A Water Quality Evaluation System (WQES) was developed for river systems by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Some form of biologically-based, habitat-specific reference standard seems absolutely essential for wise management and stewardship of marsh ecosystems. The goal of this study was to develop a statistical method to define and to characterize a water body typology for drained marshes of the Charente-Maritime wetlands on the French Atlantic coast, placing particular emphasis on environmental factors as hydraulic functioning, human activities and pedological substratum. The Charente-Maritime marshes represent a good field study because of his high diversity of types of marshes and of anthropogenic activities in a restrictive area thus erasing spatial climatic effect (latitude effect). The statistical method developed here had permitted to define and characterize 12 different water bodies, 7 in freshwater (F1 to F7) and 5 in salt water marshes for the Charente-Maritime area. This typology demonstrated an important link between the size catchment area, nitrate concentrations, and leaching of precipitation from cultured soils. Even though the Charente-Maritime marshes are strongly impacted by humans, they may still retain the ability to remove nitrate. The increasing gradient of water renewal in the freshwater marshes from F1 to F7 explained the decreasing gradient of eutrophication. A better management of the hydrodynamic of the marshes can avoid eutrophication risk on the coastal sea area. Reliance on the WFD parameter set necessarily placed limits on the kinds of interpretations that could be made and on the study's potential contribution to the basic science of marshes. Ecologically-based insights regarding both external flows (links between ecosystems, meta-ecosystem theory) and internal flows (structure of the planktonic

  1. The Contribution of Mangrove Expansion to Salt Marsh Loss on the Texas Gulf Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Samuel D.; Louchouarn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Landscape-level shifts in plant species distribution and abundance can fundamentally change the ecology of an ecosystem. Such shifts are occurring within mangrove-marsh ecotones, where over the last few decades, relatively mild winters have led to mangrove expansion into areas previously occupied by salt marsh plants. On the Texas (USA) coast of the western Gulf of Mexico, most cases of mangrove expansion have been documented within specific bays or watersheds. Based on this body of relatively small-scale work and broader global patterns of mangrove expansion, we hypothesized that there has been a recent regional-level displacement of salt marshes by mangroves. We classified Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images using artificial neural networks to quantify black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) expansion and salt marsh (Spartina alterniflora and other grass and forb species) loss over 20 years across the entire Texas coast. Between 1990 and 2010, mangrove area grew by 16.1 km2, a 74% increase. Concurrently, salt marsh area decreased by 77.8 km2, a 24% net loss. Only 6% of that loss was attributable to mangrove expansion; most salt marsh was lost due to conversion to tidal flats or water, likely a result of relative sea level rise. Our research confirmed that mangroves are expanding and, in some instances, displacing salt marshes at certain locations. However, this shift is not widespread when analyzed at a larger, regional level. Rather, local, relative sea level rise was indirectly implicated as another important driver causing regional-level salt marsh loss. Climate change is expected to accelerate both sea level rise and mangrove expansion; these mechanisms are likely to interact synergistically and contribute to salt marsh loss. PMID:25946132

  2. The contribution of mangrove expansion to salt marsh loss on the Texas Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Anna R; Highfield, Wesley E; Brody, Samuel D; Louchouarn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Landscape-level shifts in plant species distribution and abundance can fundamentally change the ecology of an ecosystem. Such shifts are occurring within mangrove-marsh ecotones, where over the last few decades, relatively mild winters have led to mangrove expansion into areas previously occupied by salt marsh plants. On the Texas (USA) coast of the western Gulf of Mexico, most cases of mangrove expansion have been documented within specific bays or watersheds. Based on this body of relatively small-scale work and broader global patterns of mangrove expansion, we hypothesized that there has been a recent regional-level displacement of salt marshes by mangroves. We classified Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images using artificial neural networks to quantify black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) expansion and salt marsh (Spartina alterniflora and other grass and forb species) loss over 20 years across the entire Texas coast. Between 1990 and 2010, mangrove area grew by 16.1 km(2), a 74% increase. Concurrently, salt marsh area decreased by 77.8 km(2), a 24% net loss. Only 6% of that loss was attributable to mangrove expansion; most salt marsh was lost due to conversion to tidal flats or water, likely a result of relative sea level rise. Our research confirmed that mangroves are expanding and, in some instances, displacing salt marshes at certain locations. However, this shift is not widespread when analyzed at a larger, regional level. Rather, local, relative sea level rise was indirectly implicated as another important driver causing regional-level salt marsh loss. Climate change is expected to accelerate both sea level rise and mangrove expansion; these mechanisms are likely to interact synergistically and contribute to salt marsh loss.

  3. Groundwater controls ecological zonation of salt marsh macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alicia M; Evans, Tyler; Moore, Willard; Schutte, Charles A; Joye, Samantha B; Hughes, Andrea H; Anderson, Joseph L

    2015-03-01

    Ecological zonation of salt marsh macrophytes is strongly influenced by hydrologic factors, but these factors are poorly understood. We examined groundwater flow patterns through surficial sediments in two saltmarshes in the southeastern United States to quantify hydrologic differences between distinct ecological zones. Both sites included tall- or medium-form Spartina alterniflora near the creek bank; short-form Spartina alterniflora in the mid-marsh; salt flats and Salicornia virginica in the high marsh; and Juncus roemarianus in brackish-to-fresh areas adjacent to uplands. Both sites had relatively small, sandy uplands and similar stratigraphy consisting of marsh muds overlying a deeper sand layer. We found significant hydrologic differences between the four ecological zones. In the zones colonized by S. alterniflora, the vertical flow direction oscillated with semi-diurnal tides. Net flow (14-day average) through the tall S. alterniflora zones was downward, whereas the short S. alterniflora zones included significant periods of net upward groundwater flow. An examination of tidal efficiency at these sites suggested that the net flow patterns rather than tidal damping controlled the width of the tall S. alterniflora zone. In contrast to the S. alterniflora zones, hypersaline zones populated by S. virginica were characterized by sustained periods (days) of continuous upward flow of saline water during neap tides. The fresher zone populated by J. roemarianus showed physical flow patterns that were similar to the hypersaline zones, but the upwelling porewaters were fresh rather than saline. These flow patterns were influenced by the hydrogeologic framework of the marshes, particularly differences in hydraulic head between the upland water table and the tidal creeks. We observed increases in hydraulic head of approximately 40 cm from the creek to the upland in the sand layers below both marshes, which is consistent with previous observations that sandy aquifers

  4. Wildlife Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Beth; And Others

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youths aged 9 to 12 to the nature and needs of wildlife and to give children the opportunity to search for wildlife and their signs. The document includes a member's guide, a leader's guide, field record forms, and wildlife project materials. The illustrated 4-H member's guide…

  5. Phase 1 Cultural Resources Inventory of Public Access Lands in the Atchafalaya Basin, Vicinity of the Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, Pointe Coupee, St. Martin and Iberville Parishes, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-16

    philoxeroides), water hyssop ( Bacopa monnieri), Frogbit (Limnobium spongia), swamp lily (Crinum americanum), whisk fern (Psilotum nudom), and lizard’s tail...Additional fresh water marsh species include Carolina bacopa ( Bacopa caroliniana), ammania (Ammania coccinea), pink hibiscus (Rasteletzkya virginica

  6. SALT MARSH HABITAT FROM A FISH EYE VIEW: A TEST OF THE DIMENSIONLESS INDEX OF HABITAT COMPLEXITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes are considered important foraging and predator refuge areas for fish, but these functions are rarely measured. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the structural complexity of the habitat and fish size in marshes subjected to different wat...

  7. The mapping of marsh vegetation using aircraft multispectral scanner data. [in Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A test was conducted to determine if salinity regimes in coastal marshland could be mapped and monitored by the identification and classification of marsh vegetative species from aircraft multispectral scanner data. The data was acquired at 6.1 km (20,000 ft.) on October 2, 1974, over a test area in the coastal marshland of southern Louisiana including fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline zones. The data was classified by vegetational species using a supervised, spectral pattern recognition procedure. Accuracies of training sites ranged from 67% to 96%. Marsh zones based on free soil water salinity were determined from the species classification to demonstrate a practical use for mapping marsh vegetation.

  8. 'Blue Carbon' and Nutrient Stocks of Salt Marshes at a Temperate Coastal Lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana I; Santos, Danielle B; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da; Sousa, Lisa P; Cleary, Daniel F R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Lillebø, Ana I

    2017-01-25

    Ria de Aveiro is a mesotidal coastal lagoon with one of the largest continuous salt marshes in Europe. The objective of this work was to assess C, N and P stocks of Spartina maritima (low marsh pioneer halophyte) and Juncus maritimus (representative of mid-high marsh halophytes) combined with the contribution of Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia perennis, and Bolbochenous maritimus to the lagoon ≈4400 ha marsh area. A multivariate analysis (PCO), taking into account environmental variables and the annual biomass and nutrient dynamics, showed that there are no clear seasonal or spatial differences within low or mid-high marshes, but clearly separates J. maritimus and S. maritima marshes. Calculations of C, N and P stocks in the biomass of the five most representative halophytes plus the respective rhizosediment (25 cm depth), and taking into account their relative coverage, represents 252053 Mg C, 38100 Mg N and 7563 Mg P. Over 90% of the stocks are found within mid-high marshes. This work shows the importance of this lagoon's salt marshes on climate and nutrients regulation, and defines the current condition concerning the 'blue carbon' and nutrient stocks, as a basis for prospective future scenarios of salt marsh degradation or loss, namely under SLR context.

  9. ‘Blue Carbon’ and Nutrient Stocks of Salt Marshes at a Temperate Coastal Lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ana I.; Santos, Danielle B.; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira Da; Sousa, Lisa P.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2017-01-01

    Ria de Aveiro is a mesotidal coastal lagoon with one of the largest continuous salt marshes in Europe. The objective of this work was to assess C, N and P stocks of Spartina maritima (low marsh pioneer halophyte) and Juncus maritimus (representative of mid-high marsh halophytes) combined with the contribution of Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia perennis, and Bolbochenous maritimus to the lagoon ≈4400 ha marsh area. A multivariate analysis (PCO), taking into account environmental variables and the annual biomass and nutrient dynamics, showed that there are no clear seasonal or spatial differences within low or mid-high marshes, but clearly separates J. maritimus and S. maritima marshes. Calculations of C, N and P stocks in the biomass of the five most representative halophytes plus the respective rhizosediment (25 cm depth), and taking into account their relative coverage, represents 252053 Mg C, 38100 Mg N and 7563 Mg P. Over 90% of the stocks are found within mid-high marshes. This work shows the importance of this lagoon’s salt marshes on climate and nutrients regulation, and defines the current condition concerning the ‘blue carbon’ and nutrient stocks, as a basis for prospective future scenarios of salt marsh degradation or loss, namely under SLR context.

  10. ‘Blue Carbon’ and Nutrient Stocks of Salt Marshes at a Temperate Coastal Lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana I.; Santos, Danielle B.; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da; Sousa, Lisa P.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2017-01-01

    Ria de Aveiro is a mesotidal coastal lagoon with one of the largest continuous salt marshes in Europe. The objective of this work was to assess C, N and P stocks of Spartina maritima (low marsh pioneer halophyte) and Juncus maritimus (representative of mid-high marsh halophytes) combined with the contribution of Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia perennis, and Bolbochenous maritimus to the lagoon ≈4400 ha marsh area. A multivariate analysis (PCO), taking into account environmental variables and the annual biomass and nutrient dynamics, showed that there are no clear seasonal or spatial differences within low or mid-high marshes, but clearly separates J. maritimus and S. maritima marshes. Calculations of C, N and P stocks in the biomass of the five most representative halophytes plus the respective rhizosediment (25 cm depth), and taking into account their relative coverage, represents 252053 Mg C, 38100 Mg N and 7563 Mg P. Over 90% of the stocks are found within mid-high marshes. This work shows the importance of this lagoon’s salt marshes on climate and nutrients regulation, and defines the current condition concerning the ‘blue carbon’ and nutrient stocks, as a basis for prospective future scenarios of salt marsh degradation or loss, namely under SLR context. PMID:28120885

  11. Vegetation death and rapid loss of surface elevation in two contrasting Mississippi delta salt marshes: The role of sedimentation, autocompaction and sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, J.W.; Kemp, G.P.; Reed, D.J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Boumans, R.M.; Suhayda, J.M.; Gambrell, R.

    2011-01-01

    From 1990 to 2004, we carried out a study on accretionary dynamics and wetland loss in salt marshes surrounding two small ponds in the Mississippi delta; Old Oyster Bayou (OB), a sediment-rich area near the mouth of the Atchafalaya River and Bayou Chitigue (BC), a sediment-poor area about 70. km to the east. The OB site was stable, while most of the marsh at BC disappeared within a few years. Measurements were made of short-term sedimentation, vertical accretion, change in marsh surface elevation, pond wave activity, and marsh soil characteristics. The OB marsh was about 10. cm higher than BC; the extremes of the elevation range for Spartina alterniflora in Louisiana. Vertical accretion and short-term sedimentation were about twice as high at BC than at OB, but the OB marsh captured nearly all sediments deposited, while the BC marsh captured <30%. The OB and BC sites flooded about 15% and 85% of the time, respectively. Marsh loss at BC was not due to wave erosion. The mineral content of deposited sediments was higher at OB. Exposure and desiccation of the marsh surface at OB increased the efficiency that deposited sediments were incorporated into the marsh soil, and displaced the marsh surface upward by biological processes like root growth, while also reducing shallow compaction. Once vegetation dies, there is a loss of soil volume due to loss of root turgor and oxidation of root organic matter, which leads to elevation collapse. Revegetation cannot occur because of the low elevation and weak soil strength. The changes in elevation at both marsh sites are punctuated, occurring in steps that can either increase or decrease elevation. When a marsh is low as at BC, a step down can result in an irreversible change. At this point, the option is not restoration but creating a new marsh with massive sediment input either from the river or via dredging. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. 50 CFR 70.9 - Wildlife species management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wildlife species management. 70.9 Section 70.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.9 Wildlife...

  13. 50 CFR 70.9 - Wildlife species management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wildlife species management. 70.9 Section 70.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.9 Wildlife...

  14. 50 CFR 70.9 - Wildlife species management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wildlife species management. 70.9 Section 70.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.9 Wildlife...

  15. 50 CFR 70.9 - Wildlife species management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wildlife species management. 70.9 Section 70.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.9 Wildlife...

  16. 50 CFR 70.9 - Wildlife species management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wildlife species management. 70.9 Section 70.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.9 Wildlife...

  17. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health.

    PubMed

    Curi, N H A; Paschoal, A M O; Massara, R L; Santos, H A; Guimarães, M P; Passamani, M; Chiarello, A G

    2016-08-15

    Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation), 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans) were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47%) followed by Toxocara (18%) and Trichuris (8%). Other less prevalent (<2%) parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  18. Carbon Stocks and Accretion in Shallow Marsh Soils of the Mississippi Delta Plain, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarzenski, C.; Tweel, A.

    2012-12-01

    Within limits, soil elevations track long-term water level trends in coastal marshes, primarily through organic contributions. Soil organic matter (carbon) provides vertical elasticity. By virtue of their extent and because of generally rapid subsidence rates, Delta Plain marshes in coastal Louisiana accrete and store large amounts of organic carbon in short time periods. Local subsidence rates are highly variable but average around 1 cm per year or even more in some places. To avoid submergence, marshes must fill the void space, through direct deposition of mineral and organic matter, and/or through changes in pore size. We have profiled shallow soils (< 1 m) in different Delta Plain marsh types and in a variety of settings to understand how soil organic matter contributes to soil volume and accretion and ultimately, how these marshes respond to water level trends. Salt and freshwater marshes accreted similar amounts of carbon (170-260 g C m2 y-1). Carbon stocks in the upper 50 cm of soil were greater by about 15-20% in salt marshes with low rates of vertical accretion as measured by Cs-137 compared with salt marshes with faster rates of accretion and with the almost exclusively organic freshwater marshes. Density of organic carbon increased as dry bulk density increased both in salt and fresh marshes. In fresh marshes with high nutrient inputs, carbon stocks in the shallow soils were 5-10% greater than in comparable marshes with rain as their source of water. Loss of soil organic matter over time also was greater in high nutrient areas, indicating greater carbon turnover in nutrient- enriched waters. The organic matter was more sapric in nutrient-enriched waters. The long-term storage and burial rates of carbon in these coastal wetlands differ from the short-term dynamics of carbon cycling in shallow soils. The short-term carbon dynamics however are crucial to understanding how coastal wetlands may respond to predicted accelerated rates of sea-level rise. In this

  19. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  20. Environmental threats to tidal-marsh vertebrates of the San Francisco Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Woo, I.; Spautz, H.; Nur, N.; Letitia, Grenier J.; Malamud-Roam, K.; Cully, Nordby J.; Cohen, A.N.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Wainwright-De La Cruz, S.E.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay and delta system comprises the largest estuary along the Pacific Coast of the Americas and the largest remaining area for tidal-marsh vertebrates, yet tidal marshes have been dramatically altered since the middle of the 19th century. Although recent efforts to restore ecological functions are notable, numerous threats to both endemic and widespread marsh organisms, including habitat loss, are still present. The historic extent of wetlands in the estuary included 2,200 km2 of tidal marshes, of which only 21% remain, but these tidal marshes comprise >90% of all remaining tidal marshes in California. In this paper, we present the most prominent environmental threats to tidal-marsh vertebrates including habitat loss (fragmentation, reductions in available sediment, and sea-level rise), habitat deterioration (contaminants, water quality, and human disturbance), and competitive interactions (invasive species, predation, mosquito and other vector control, and disease). We discuss these threats in light of the hundreds of proposed and ongoing projects to restore wetlands in the estuary and suggest research needs to support future decisions on restoration planning.

  1. Paleoenvironmental History of JoCo Marsh, Jamaica Bay, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Louisa; Peteet, Dorothy; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Sediment cores from JoCo Marsh, located in Jamaica Bay, NY were analyzed for plant macrofossil and foraminifera records. These records reflect changes in vegetation, sea level, climate and human intervention. Better understanding of past environmental changes provides information for future preservation and protection of the estuary. A 2.81 m core was retrieved from JoCo, a high marsh area located on the eastern side of Jamaica Bay. The lithology of the core differs from high levels of sand, with small amounts of clay, in the bottom 0.8 meters, to salt marsh peat in the upper 2 meters of the core. Basal wood in the sand was dated to about 2060 yr BP. Elphidium foraminifera dominate the basal sands, along with Scirpus seeds, wood, and charcoal. These sands include fish scales which are tentatively identified as killifish, suggesting shallow pools. The transition to marsh peat is dominated by sedge seeds, and declines in charcoal. The peat appears to be dominated by salt marsh grasses. At 2 m the foraminifera change to include mainly Trochammina species and other undifferentiated agglutinates. The upper portion of the core is dominated by Salicornia seeds along with Trochammina and Miliammina or Quinqueloculia. The history of this marsh will be integrated with other records of marsh environmental change along the US eastern seaboard.

  2. Paleoenvironmental History of JoCo Marsh, Jamaica Bay, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, L.; Peteet, D. M.

    2001-05-01

    Sediment cores from JoCo Marsh, located in Jamaica Bay, NY were analyzed for plant macrofossil and foraminifera records. These records reflect changes in vegetation, sea level, climate and human intervention. Better understanding of past environmental changes provides information for future preservation and protection of the estuary. A 2.81 m core was retrieved from JoCo, a high marsh area located on the eastern side of Jamaica Bay. The lithology of the core differs from high levels of sand, with small amounts of clay, in the bottom 0.8 meters, to salt marsh peat in the upper 2 meters of the core. Basal wood in the sand was dated to about 2060 yr BP. Elphidium foraminifera dominate the basal sands, along with Scirpus seeds, wood, and charcoal. These sands include fish scales which are tentatively identified as killifish, suggesting shallow pools. The transition to marsh peat is dominated by sedge seeds, and declines in charcoal. The peat appears to be dominated by salt marsh grasses. At 2 m depth the foraminifera change to include mainly Trochammina species and other undifferentiated agglutinates. The upper portion of the core is dominated by Salicornia seeds along with Trochammina and Miliammina or Quinqueloculia. The history of this marsh will be integrated with other records of marsh environmental change along the US eastern seaboard.

  3. Intermediate-scale vegetation mapping of Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska using Landsat MSS digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Markon, Carl J.

    1988-01-01

    A Landsat-derived vegetation map was prepared for lnnoko National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge lies within the northern boreal subzone of northwestern central Alaska. Six major vegetation classes and 21 subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, open needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed, and broadleaf); broadleaf scrub (lowland, upland burn regeneration, subalpine); dwarf scrub (prostrate dwarf shrub tundra, erect dwarf shrub heath, dwarf shrub-graminoid peatland, dwarf shrub-graminoid tussock peatland, dwarf shrub raised bog with scattered trees, dwarf shrub-graminoid marsh); herbaceous (graminoid bog, graminoid marsh, graminoid tussock-dwarf shrub peatland); scarcely vegetated areas (scarcely vegetated scree and floodplain); and water (clear, sedimented). The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo-interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved preprocessing (geometric correction), derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, spectral class labeling of sample areas, preliminary classification of the entire study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification utilizing ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The final product is 1:250,000-scale vegetation map representative of distinctive regional patterns and suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning.

  4. High site fidelity and low site connectivity in temperate salt marsh fish populations: a stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin C; Smith, David J; Grey, Jonathan; Underwood, Graham J C

    2012-01-01

    Adult and juvenile fish utilise salt marshes for food and shelter at high tide, moving into adjacent sublittoral regions during low tide. Understanding whether there are high levels of site fidelity for different species of coastal fish has important implications for habitat conservation and the design of marine protected areas. We hypothesised that common salt marsh fish species would demonstrate a high site fidelity, resulting in minimal inter-marsh connectivity. Carbon ((13)C) and nitrogen ((15)N) stable isotope ratios of larvae and juveniles of five common salt marsh fish (Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Clupea harengus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Pomatoschistus microps), seven types of primary producer and seven secondary consumer food sources were sampled in five salt marshes within two estuary complexes along the coast of south-east England. Significant differences in (13)C and (15)N signatures between salt marshes indicated distinct sub-populations utilising the area of estuary around each salt marsh, and limited connectivity, even within the same estuary complex. (15)N ratios were responsible for the majority of inter-marsh differences for each species and showed similar site-specific patterns in ratios in primary producers, secondary consumers and fish. Fish diets (derived from isotope mixing models) varied between species but were mostly consistent between marsh sites, indicating that dietary shifts were not the source of variability of the inter-marsh isotopic signatures within species. These results demonstrate that for some common coastal fish species, high levels of site fidelity result in individual salt marshes operating as discrete habitats for fish assemblages.

  5. Effects of structural marsh management and salinity on invertebrate prey of waterbirds in marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrates are important food resources for wintering waterbirds, and prey selection generally is limited by prey size. Aquatic invertebrate communities are influenced by sediments and hydrologic characteristics of wetlands, which were affected by structural marsh management (levees, water-control structures and impoundments; SMM) and salinity on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain of North America. Based on previous research, we tested general predictions that SMM reduces biomass of infaunal invertebrates and increases that of epifaunal invertebrates and those that tolerate low levels of dissolved oxygen (O2) and salinity. We also tested the general prediction that invertebrate biomass in freshwater, oligohaline, and mesohaline marshes are similar, except for taxa adapted to specific ranges of salinity. Finally, we investigated relationships among invertebrate biomass and sizes, sediment and hydrologic variables, and marsh types. Accordingly, we measured biomass of common invertebrate by three size classes (63 to 199 ??m, 200 to 999 ??m, and ???1000 ??m), sediment variables (carbon content, C:N ratio, hardness, particle size, and O, penetration), and hydrologic variables (salinity, water depth,temperature, 02, and turbidity) in ponds of impounded freshwater (IF), oligohaline (IO), mesohaline (IM), and unimpounded mesohaline (UM) marshes during winters 1997-1998 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, near Grand Chenier, Louisiana, USA. As predicted, an a priori multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) contrast indicated that biomass of an infaunal class of invertebrates (Nematoda, 63 to 199 ??m) was greater in UM marsh ponds than in those of IM marshes, and biomass of an epifaunal class of invertebrates (Ostracoda, 200 to 999 ??m) was greater in IM marsh ponds than in those of UM marshes. The observed reduction in Nematoda due to SMM also was consistent with the prediction that SMM reduces invertebrates that do not tolerate low salinity

  6. 8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the berm with the marsh to the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house in the background and marsh in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the marsh in the background and the berm in the foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. January 1978-August 1989 (a Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, bogs, and other wetland areas to degrade, absorb, filter, consume, or mitigate natural and man-made pollution and wastes, while maintaining their ability to provide refuge and breeding grounds for wildlife. The ecology, biochemistry, and viability of naturally occurring and artificially established wetlands as water-treatment systems and wildlife areas are considered. The effects of individual pollutants, environmental factors, species diversity, and cleansing ability of wetland areas on the potential for wildlife refuge, sewage treatment, treatment of industrial and municipal wastes, handling agricultural runoff, mitigating accidental spills, and flooding are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 243 citations, 21 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. On the Lateral Retreat of Salt Marshes: Field Monitoring in the Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, L.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are geomorphic structures located in ecotone environments such as lagoon and estuaries, providing lot of ecosystem services to local population. In the last decades they are disappearing due to several factors such as sea level rise, subsidence and edge erosion due to surface waves. The latter is likely the chief mechanism modeling marsh boundaries and leading to the loss of wide marsh areas. In the case of the Venice Lagoon, from the beginning of the last century, the whole salt marsh surface has more than halved and trends indicate that the salt marshes might completely disappear over the next 50 years. Here, we present a field monitoring activity on a retreating salt marsh located in the north part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). The marsh is subject to North-East (Bora) wind. Marsh area loss during the last decades has been documented through the comparison of georeferenced aerial photographs showing a retreat rate of the order of 1 m/year. Field measurements started by the end of November 2013 and consist of: salt marsh bank geometry at different cross-sections and wave climate in the lagoon about 30 m in front of the salt marsh. Erosion data are obtained by means of erosion pins located horizontally on the marsh scarp; at higher banks (about 0.9 m), two pins are located along the same vertical direction, for lower banks (about 0.4 m), only one pin is employed. Significant wave height has been measured during three storm surges by means of pressure transducers. The measured wave climate in front of the bank was then put into relationship with the offshore wave climate estimated using wind data (intensity and direction) and bathymetric data. Wind intensity and direction is measured hourly by several measurement stations located in the Lagoon of Venice. In this way, it is possible to extrapolate wave climate hourly at the monitored marsh and calculate the wave power that acted on the bank in a given time interval. Field survey revealed that the

  11. On the Lateral Retreat of Salt Marshes: Field Monitoring in the Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, L.; Bendoni, M.; Mel, R.; Oumeraci, H.; Francalanci, S.; Lanzoni, S.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are geomorphic structures located in ecotone environments such as lagoon and estuaries, providing lot of ecosystem services to local population. In the last decades they are disappearing due to several factors such as sea level rise, subsidence and edge erosion due to surface waves. The latter is likely the chief mechanism modeling marsh boundaries and leading to the loss of wide marsh areas. In the case of the Venice Lagoon, from the beginning of the last century, the whole salt marsh surface has more than halved and trends indicate that the salt marshes might completely disappear over the next 50 years. Here, we present a field monitoring activity that we are currently carrying out on a retreating salt marsh located in the north part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). The marsh is subject to North-East (Bora) wind. Marsh area loss during the last decades has been documented through the comparison of georeferenced aerial photographs showing a retreat rate of the order of 1 m/year. Field measurements started by the end of November 2013 and consist of: salt marsh bank geometry at different cross-sections and wave climate in the lagoon about 30 m in front of the salt marsh. Erosion data are obtained by means of erosion pins located horizontally on the marsh scarp; at higher banks (about 0.9 m), two pins are located along the same vertical direction, for lower banks (about 0.4m), only one pin is employed. Significant wave height has been measured during three storm surges by means of pressure transducers (Pts). The measured wave climate in front of the bank was then put into relationship with the offshore wave climate estimated using wind data (intensity and direction) and bathymetric data. Wind intensity and direction is measured hourly by several measurement stations located in the Lagoon of Venice. In this way, it is possible to extrapolate wave climate hourly at the monitored marsh and calculate the wave power that acted on the bank in a given time

  12. Spoil banks: Effects on a coastal marsh water-level regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Erick M.; Turner, R. E.

    1987-05-01

    Above- and below-ground water-level fluctuations were measured in the marshes south of New Orleans, Louisiana, between November 1982 and December 1983. The purpose of the program was to define the basic marsh water-level regime and to investigate how canal spoil banks may influence the water-level regime. Two study areas were used: (1) a control area, defined as a section of marsh with unrestricted hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou; and, (2) a partially-impounded area, defined as an area with limited hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou due to the presence of dredged canal spoil banks. Data sources included marsh water levels from gages deployed at three sites within the study areas and water levels from the adjacent bayous obtained from the tide gages of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Data from all marsh gage sites showed a similar pattern with a distinct surface and subsurface diurnal tidal signal superimposed upon other, larger scale events. These larger scale events correspond to the passage of weather fronts. The data also indicated that a significant amount of water-level fluctuation in the marshes occurs below ground. A comparison of the control area and the partially-impounded site indicated that the spoil banks changed the response of the marsh water levels to the forcing from the bayou, with the result that the partially-impounded area: (1) was flooded 141 hours more per month than the control area; (2) had fewer, but longer flooding events; (3) had fewer but longer drying events; and (4) reduced water exchange, both above and below ground.

  13. Hydrology of Fritchie Marsh, coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fritchie Marsh, near Slidell, Louisiana, is being considered as a disposal site for sewage effluent. A two-dimensional, finite element, surface water modeling systems was used to solve the shallow water equations for flow. Factors affecting flow patterns are channel locations, inlets, outlets, islands, marsh vegetation, marsh geometry, stage of the West Pearl River, flooding over the lower Pearl River basin, gravity tides, wind-induced currents, and sewage discharge to the marsh. Four steady-state simulations were performed for two hydrologic events at two rates of sewage discharge. The events, near tide with no wind or rain and neap tide with a tide differential across the marsh, were selected as worst-case events for sewage effluent dispersion and were assumed as steady state events. Because inflows and outflows to the marsh are tidally affected, steady state simulations cannot fully define the hydraulic characteristics of the marsh for all hydrologic events. Model results and field data indicate that, during near tide with little or no rain, large parts of the marsh are stagnant; and sewage effluent, at existing and projected flows, has minimal effect on marsh flows. (USGS)

  14. Methane flux from coastal salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, K. B.; Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.

    1985-01-01

    It is thought that biological methanogenesis in natural and agricultural wetlands and enteric fermentation in animals are the dominant sources of global tropospheric methane. It is pointed out that the anaerobic soils and sediments, where methanogenesis occurs, predominate in coastal marine wetlands. Coastal marine wetlands are generally believed to be approximately equal in area to freshwater wetlands. For this reason, coastal marine wetlands may be a globally significant source of atmospheric methane. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of direct measurements of methane fluxes to the atmosphere from salt marsh soils and of indirect determinations of fluxes from tidal creek waters. In addition, measurements of methane distributions in coastal marine wetland sediments and water are presented. The results of the investigation suggest that marine wetlands provide only a minor contribution to atmospheric methane on a global scale.

  15. Methane flux from coastal salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, K. B.; Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.

    1985-06-01

    It is thought that biological methanogenesis in natural and agricultural wetlands and enteric fermentation in animals are the dominant sources of global tropospheric methane. It is pointed out that the anaerobic soils and sediments, where methanogenesis occurs, predominate in coastal marine wetlands. Coastal marine wetlands are generally believed to be approximately equal in area to freshwater wetlands. For this reason, coastal marine wetlands may be a globally significant source of atmospheric methane. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of direct measurements of methane fluxes to the atmosphere from salt marsh soils and of indirect determinations of fluxes from tidal creek waters. In addition, measurements of methane distributions in coastal marine wetland sediments and water are presented. The results of the investigation suggest that marine wetlands provide only a minor contribution to atmospheric methane on a global scale.

  16. Salt marsh equilibrium states and transient dynamics in response to changing rates of sea level rise and sediment supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Mudd, S. M.; Carniello, L.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and predicting the response of salt-marsh bio-geomorphic systems to changes in the rate of sea level rise and sediment supply is an issue of paramount importance due to the crucial role exerted by salt marshes within the tidal landscape. Salt-marsh platforms, in fact, buffer coastlines against storms, filter nutrients and pollutants from tidal waters, provide nursery areas for coastal biota, and serve as a sink for organic carbon. Observations of marsh degradation worldwide and the acceleration in the rate of global sea level rise highlight the importance of improving our understanding of the chief processes which control salt-marsh response to current natural climate changes and to the effects of variations in sediment supply. The results of our analytical model of salt-marsh bio-morphodynamic evolution in the vertical plane, accounting for two-way interactions between ecological and geomorphological processes, show that marshes are more resilient to a step decrease in the rate of relative sea level rise rather than to a step increase of the same magnitude. Interestingly, marshes respond more rapidly to an increase in sediment load or vegetation productivity, rather than to a decrease (of the same amount) in sediment load or vegetation productivity. Model results also suggest that marsh stability is positively correlated with tidal range: marshes with high tidal ranges respond more slowly to changes in the environmental forcings and therefore are less likely to be affected by perturbations than their counterparts in low tidal ranges. Finally, the model suggests that, in the case of a oscillating rate of sea level rise, marsh stratigraphy will be unable to fully record short term fluctuations in relative mean sea level, whereas it will be able to capture long term fluctuations particularly in sediment rich, microtidal settings.

  17. Reading the signatures of biologic-geomorphic feedbacks in salt-marsh landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, Andrea; Marani, Marco

    2016-07-01

    How do interacting physical and biological processes control the form and evolution of salt-marsh landscapes? Salt marshes are shaped by the erosion, transport and deposition of sediment, all of which are mediated by vegetation. In addition, vegetation plays a key role in deposition of organic material within marsh sediments. The influence of biota on salt-marsh landscapes is indeed well established. However, a fascinating and relevant question is whether one can identify the signatures of the underlying and intertwined physical and biological processes in marsh landscapes, and indeed infer from them the dynamic behavior of these coupled physical and biological systems. Can one detect landscape features that would not have emerged in the absence of interactions and feedbacks between physical and biological processes? Here we use field evidence and a two-dimensional biomorphodynamic model to show that the interplay between physical and biological processes generates striking biological and morphological patterns. One such pattern, vegetation zonation, consists of a mosaic of vegetation patches, of approximately uniform composition, displaying sharp transitions in the presence of extremely small topographic gradients. The model describes the mutual interaction and adjustment between tidal flows, sediment transport, morphology, and vegetation distribution, thus allowing us to study the biomorphodynamic evolution of salt-marsh platforms. A number of different scenarios were modelled to analyze the changes induced in bio-geomorphic patterns by varying environmental forcings, such as the rate of relative sea level rise (RSLR) andsediment supply (SS), and by plant species with different characteristics. Model results show how marsh responses to changes in forcings are highly spatially dependent: while changes in SS most directly affect marsh areas closest to the channels, changes in the rate of RSLR affect the marsh platform as a whole. Organic sediment accretion is very

  18. The Role of Phragmites australis in Mediating Inland Salt Marsh Migration in a Mid-Atlantic Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many sea level rise adaptation plans emphasize the protection of adjacent uplands to allow for inland salt marsh migration, but little empirical information exists on this process. Using aerial photos from 1930 and 2006 of Delaware Estuary coastal habitats in New Jersey, I documented the rate of coastal forest retreat and the rate of inland salt marsh migration across 101.1 km of undeveloped salt marsh and forest ecotone. Over this time, the amount of forest edge at this ecotone nearly doubled. In addition, the average amount of forest retreat was 141.2 m while the amount of salt marsh inland migration was 41.9 m. Variation in forest retreat within the study area was influenced by variation in slope. The lag between the amount of forest retreat and salt marsh migration is accounted for by the presence of Phragmites australis which occupies the forest and salt marsh ecotone. Phragmites expands from this edge into forest dieback areas, and the ability of salt marsh to move inland and displace Phragmites is likely influenced by salinity at both an estuary-wide scale and at the scale of local subwatersheds. Inland movement of salt marsh is lowest at lower salinity areas further away from the mouth of the estuary and closer to local heads of tide. These results allow for better prediction of salt marsh migration in estuarine landscapes and provide guidance for adaptation planners seeking to prioritize those places with the highest likelihood of inland salt marsh migration in the near-term. PMID:23705031

  19. Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and

  20. Effects of temephos (Abate? 4E) on fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax and Uca minax) on a Delaware salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; McGowan, P.C.; Murphy, D.R.; Lowe, T.P.; Sparling, D.W.; Meredith, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    The non-target effects of temephos (as Abate 4E, 44.6% active ingredient) on fiddler crabs were examined on the salt marsh at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), near Dover, DE. Six 170 x 170 m plots were established; 3 were sprayed on 4 occasions at a rate of 1.5 fl oz/acre (0.054 kg active ingredient/ha) and 3 were controls. On each plot, marsh fiddler crab (Uca pugnax) populations were monitored by repeatedly counting the number of burrow holes in 2 counting areas marked out along tidal guts. One half of each counting area was covered with bird netting to evaluate sublethal toxic effects, which, if present, could result in increased susceptibility to bird predation. A statistically significant linear association was established between the number of holes and the number of crabs. No significant differences were found in the numbers of holes (or crabs) in the sprayed vs. control plots and in the covered vs. uncovered sections. However, survival of juvenile crabs in in situ bioassays was significantly reduced (16% lower) by the spraying. Median acetylcholinesterase activity in claw muscle of red-jointed fiddler crabs (U. minax) collected 2 days after an operational spray with Abate 4E was significantly reduced (28% lower) compared to unsprayed crabs. In view of the toxicity to juvenile crabs and the cholinesterase inhibition, we recommend continued monitoring and research for non-target impacts of Abate 4E on fiddler crabs to establish whether the reported level of cholinesterase inhibition results in acute or chronic toxicity.

  1. Productivity and nutrient cycling in salt marshes: Contribution to ecosystem health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ana I.; Lillebø, Ana I.; Pardal, Miguel A.; Caçador, Isabel

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the contribution of different salt marsh halophytes ( Spartina maritima, Scirpus maritimus, Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa, and Sarcocornia perennis) to nutrient cycling and sequestration in warm-temperate salt marshes. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in plant organs and rhizosediment, as well as plant biomass were monitored every two months during one year. Results show that the C retained in the rhizosediment does not seem to be species or site specific. However, some halophytes seem to have a higher contribution to retain C from external sources, namely S. perennis and S. maritima. Regarding N, halophytes colonizing the upper and middle marsh areas had the highest NBPP (net belowground primary production) as well as the retention of N in the rhizosediment. Yet, excluding S. maritimus, all halophytes seem to contribute to the retention of N from external sources. The P retained in the rhizosediment does not seem to be species or site specific. Still, only S. maritima colonizing the lower marsh areas, which also had comparatively lower NBPP, seem to have a higher contribution to retain P from external sources. Additionally, it seems that there is no relation between plants sequestration capacity for nutrients and plant photosynthetic pathway. This work shows that nutrient cycling and accumulation processes by salt marsh halophytes contribute to reduce eutrophication (N and P retention) and also to reduce atmospheric CO 2 (C retention), highlighting salt marsh ecosystems services and the crucial role of halophytes in maintaining ecosystem functions and health.

  2. Ecogeomorphic Properties of Flood-ebb Flows on a Coastal North Carolina Salt-marsh Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S.; Furbish, D.; Mudd, S.

    2006-12-01

    Salt marsh ecosystems play a vital role in nutrient processing, shoreline defense, and as habitats for commercially important species. Along the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, North Carolina, where the tidal amplitude ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 m, salt marsh communities are expected to undergo a transition from intertidal marshes to subtidal habitats in response to sea-level rise and associated increases in inundation and possibly tidal range. Intertidal areas along the back-barrier sound of Bogue Banks feature well developed networks of tidal channels and exhibit classic macrophyte zonation, with Spartina spp. residing along lower elevations and Juncus roemerianus at higher elevations. As part of a long-term study of macrophyte dynamics, sedimentation and geomorphology in the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds area, here we describe the pattern of flood-ebb flow on a marsh platform. Continuous measurements from a set of pressure transducers arranged along a marsh transect are used to describe spatial variations in the frequency, duration and depth of inundation as a function of platform elevation, macrophyte biomass, and proximity to the tidal creek. Stem density and diameter of Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus affect the magnitude of drag forces on the marsh platform during flooding; our field measurements are used to constrain the relationship between macrophyte stand characteristics and these drag forces.

  3. The role of tidal marsh restoration in fish management in the San Francisco Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbold, Bruce; Baltz, Donald; Brown, Larry R.; Grossinger, Robin; Kimmerer, Wim J.; Lehman, Peggy W.; Moyle, Peter B.; Nobriga, Matthew L.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011). Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha) and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha). In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012). In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta), one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013). The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010). This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium.

  4. Reducing the effects of dredged material levees on coastal marsh function: sediment deposition and nekton utilization.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J

    2006-05-01

    Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater.

  5. Wetlands & Wildlife: Alaska Wildlife Curriculum Primary Teacher's Guide K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marilyn; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed to give students at the primary level an awareness of Alaska's wetlands and the fish and wildlife that live there. This guide is divided into 13 sections consisting of learning activities covering the following topics: (1) wetland areas in Alaska; (2) water cycles; (3) plants and wildlife found in wetlands; (4)…

  6. Estuaries and Tidal Marshes. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This educational packet consists of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview examines estuaries and tidal or salt marshes by discussing the plants and animals in these habitats, marsh productivity, benefits and management of the habitats, historical aspects, and development and pollution. A glossary and list…

  7. Improving Water Quality in Suisun Marsh

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Suisun Marsh, the largest contiguous brackish marsh remaining on the west coast of North America, is a critical part of the SF Bay-Delta estuary ecosystem, but is impaired by mercury, nutrients, and organic enrichment/low dissolved oxygen (DO).

  8. Food habits of redheads at the Horicon marsh, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Rusch, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Food habits of Redheads (Aythya americana) investigated at the Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin, during 1983-1985. Prelaying females consumed plant material almost exclusively, primarily seeds of moist-soil plant species. The diet of laying and incubating females was dominated by seeds but also contained 16-17% animal matter. Consumption of animal matter during egg production was substantially lower than reported in other studies of food habits of Redheads. The diet of Juvenile Redheads changed with age. Animal foods were nearly half of the diet of ducklings <4 wk of age, whereas older ducklings consumed primarily plant material. A diversity of flooding regimes may promote plant communities that produce importance food resources for Redheads on the Horicon Marsh.

  9. Avian comparisons between Kingman and Kenilworth Marshes: Final report 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, M.; Krafft, C.; Hammerschlag, D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001 avi-fauna was added as a parameter to be monitored as an indicator of the status and relative success of the two reconstructed freshwater tidal wetlands residing in the Anacostia River estuary in Washington, D.C. at that time. They were Kenilworth Marsh which was reconstructed in 1993 and Kingman Marsh seven years later in 2000. Other studies were already underway looking at vegetation, seeds, soils and contaminants. Even though these new wetlands were relatively small, together about 70 acres, it was felt this might be sufficient area to sustain and attract birds to the habitat. Birds have been used elsewhere as wetland indicators and we hoped they could prove useful here especially in terms of numbers and species richness. The study was conducted for almost four years (2001-2004) and was designed to ascertain if the recently reconstructed Kingman Marsh evolved similarly with respect to the avi fauna as Kenilworth which had the seven year head start. Twelve observation points were established, six at each marsh, which were to be used weekly so as to alternate the high and low tidal regimes and the observation start times. Additional notations were recorded for species while walking between observation points. The course of the study became interrupted with the incursion of resident Canada geese particularly upon the Kingman Marsh site. Goose herbivory coupled with lowered sediment elevations reduced vegetation cover at Kingman Marsh to less than one-third its intended scope while Kenilworth was barely affected. The result was actually much less impact on the bird populations than on the vegetation. In fact the additional mudflat area at Kingman may have actually helped attract some birds. Together 177 species were identified at the marshes comprising 14 taxonomic orders and 16 families, 137 species at Kingman and 164 at Kenilworth. However, Kingman actually attracted more birds than Kenilworth, whether or not Canada Geese were included. At both wetlands

  10. Wildlife food habits and habitat use on revegetated strip mine land in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Food habits and habitat utilization of wildlife species on revegetated strip mine spoils in interior Alaska were studied from 1980 through 1982. Current reclamation techniques were beneficial for tundra voles, short-eared owls and marsh hawks. Caribou, Dall sheep, red fox, coyote, wolf, arctic ground squirrel, waterfoul, and various raptorial birds derived partial benefit from the reclaimed areas. The seeded grasses functioned as minor items in the diets of herbivores while reclaimed sites served as hunting areas for the various carnivores and raptors. Moose, showshoe hare, red-backed voles, willow ptarmigan and most nongame birds were adversely impacted by the reclaimed areas. Woody vegetation and its associated attributes such as cover and food were the essential habitat component missing from the reclaimed areas. Strip mining and reclamation procedures currently practiced in interior Alaska result in grassland interspersed throughout the natural habitat. The availability of undisturbed habitat adjacent to small sized, seeded areas, has made it possible for wildlife to take advantage of the reclaimed sites and still have sufficient amount of natural food and cover available with which to meet the nutritional and habitat needs of the animal. The detrimental effects of current reclamation procedures increase as the amounts of land disturbed by mining become very large.

  11. Geomorphic and ecological effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on coastal Louisiana marsh communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, Sarai C.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari F.; Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Holm, Guerry O.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Evers, D. Elaine; Meriwether, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in 2005, subjecting the coastal marsh communities of Louisiana to various degrees of exposure. We collected data after the storms at 30 sites within fresh (12), brackish/intermediate (12), and saline (6) marshes to document the effects of saltwater storm surge and sedimentation on marsh community dynamics. The 30 sites were comprised of 15 pairs. Most pairs contained one site where data collection occurred historically (that is, prestorms) and one Coastwide Reference Monitoring System site. Data were collected from spring 2006 to fall 2007 on vegetative species composition, percentage of vegetation cover, aboveground and belowground biomass, and canopy reflectance, along with discrete porewater salinity, hourly surface-water salinity, and water level. Where available, historical data acquired before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were used to compare conditions and changes in ecological trajectories before and after the hurricanes. Sites experiencing direct and indirect hurricane influences (referred to in this report as levels of influence) were also identified, and the effects of hurricane influence were tested on vegetation and porewater data. Within fresh marshes, porewater salinity was greater in directly impacted areas, and this heightened salinity was reflected in decreased aboveground and belowground biomass and increased cover of disturbance species in the directly impacted sites. At the brackish/intermediate marsh sites, vegetation variables and porewater salinity were similar in directly and indirectly impacted areas, but porewater salinity was higher than expected throughout the study. Interestingly, directly impacted saline marsh sites had lower porewater salinity than indirectly impacted sites, but aboveground biomass was greater at the directly impacted sites. Because of the variable and site-specific nature of hurricane influences, we present case studies to help define postdisturbance baseline conditions in

  12. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-06-23

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4-16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6-25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3-6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary.

  13. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-06-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary.

  14. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27334452

  15. Mangrove expansion into salt marshes alters associated faunal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smee, Delbert L.; Sanchez, James A.; Diskin, Meredith; Trettin, Carl

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is altering the distribution of foundation species, with potential effects on organisms that inhabit these environments and changes to valuable ecosystem functions. In the Gulf of Mexico, black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) are expanding northward into salt marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora (hereafter Spartina). Salt marshes are essential habitats for many organisms, including ecologically and economically important species such as blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Penaeid shrimp (e.g., Penaeus aztecus), which may be affected by vegetation changes. Black mangroves occupied higher tidal elevations than Spartina, and Spartina was present only at its lowest tidal elevations in sites when mangroves were established. We compared nekton and infaunal communities within monoculture stands of Spartina that were bordered by mangroves to nearby areas where mangroves had not yet become established. Nekton and infaunal communities were significantly different in Spartina stands bordered by mangroves, even though salinity and temperature were not different. Overall abundance and biomass of nekton and infauna was significantly higher in marshes without mangroves, although crabs and fish were more abundant in mangrove areas. Black mangrove expansion as well as other ongoing vegetation shifts will continue in a warming climate. Understanding how these changes affect associated species is necessary for management, mitigation, and conservation.

  16. Relating salt marsh pore water geochemistry patterns to vegetation zones and hydrologic influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Kevan B.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-03-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological factors influence vegetation zonation in salt marshes and other wetlands, but connections among these factors could be better understood. If salt marsh vegetation and marsh pore water geochemistry coorganize, e.g., via continuous plant water uptake and persistently unsaturated sediments controlling vegetation zone-specific pore water geochemistry, this could complement known physical mechanisms of marsh self-organization. A high-resolution survey of pore water geochemistry was conducted among five salt marsh vegetation zones at the same intertidal elevation. Sampling transects were arrayed both parallel and perpendicular to tidal channels. Pore water geochemistry patterns were both horizontally differentiated, corresponding to vegetation zonation, and vertically differentiated, relating to root influences. The geochemical patterns across the site were less broadly related to marsh hydrology than to vegetation zonation. Mechanisms contributing to geochemical differentiation included: root-induced oxidation and nutrient (P) depletion, surface and creek-bank sediment flushing by rainfall or tides, evapotranspiration creating aerated pore space for partial sediment flushing in some areas while persistently saturated conditions hindered pore water renewal in others, and evapoconcentration of pore water solutes overall. The concentrated pore waters draining to the tidal creeks accounted for 41% of ebb tide solutes (median of 14 elements), including being a potentially toxic source of Ni but a slight sink for Zn, at least during the short, winter study period in southern San Francisco Bay. Heterogeneous vegetation effects on pore water geochemistry are not only significant locally within the marsh but may broadly influence marsh-estuary solute exchange and ecology.

  17. Suitability of Coastal Marshes as Whooping Crane Foraging Habitat in Southwest Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Sammy L.; Kang, Sung-Ryong

    2014-01-01

    Foraging habitat conditions (i.e., water depth, prey biomass, digestible energy density) can be a significant predictor of foraging habitat selection by wading birds. Potential foraging habitats of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) using marshes include ponds and emergent marsh, but the potential prey and energy availability in these habitat types have rarely been studied. In this study, we estimated daily digestible energy density for Whooping Cranes in different marsh and microhabitat types (i.e., pond, flooded emergent marsh). Also, indicator metrics of foraging habitat suitability for Whooping Cranes were developed based on seasonal water depth, prey biomass, and digestible energy density. Seasonal water depth (cm), prey biomass (g wet weight m-2), and digestible energy density (kcal g-1m-2) ranged from 0.0 to 50.2 ± 2.8, 0.0 to 44.8 ± 22.3, and 0.0 to 31.0 ± 15.3, respectively. With the exception of freshwater emergent marsh in summer, all available habitats were capable of supporting one Whooping Crane per 0.1 ha per day. All habitat types in the marshes had relatively higher suitability in spring and summer than in fall and winter. Our study indicates that based on general energy availability, freshwater marshes in the region can support Whooping Cranes in a relatively small area, particularly in spring and summer. In actuality, the spatial density of ponds, the flood depth of the emergent marsh, and the habitat conditions (e.g., vegetation density) between adjacent suitable habitats will constrain suitable habitat and Whooping Crane numbers.

  18. Erosion and deposition in tidal marshes revisited by accounting for soil creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.

    2015-12-01

    Channels regulate the sediment dynamics of tidal marshes, affect the capacity of marsh platforms to keep pace with sea level rise and can contribute to the loss of the low marsh, a critical area for nutrient cycling and ecosystem services. A puzzling aspect of marsh dynamics is the occurrence of slumping on the channel banks despite the absence of channel widening and migration. An apparently unrelated conundrum is why vertical accretion rates on the low marsh adjacent to channels are often higher than the rate of relative sea level rise: this sedimentation excess should not occur in a regime of equilibrium or in a regime of accelerated sea level rise. Here I suggest that bank erosion and sedimentation surplus are linked and can be explained by soil creep, the process by which soil is moved downslope by gravity. A novel model for a channel-platform cross section predicts an equilibrium state where the sedimentation surplus on the channel banks is transferred by creep toward the channel, where an erosional surplus and a suspend load transport toward the bank close the sediment budget. This model predicts that bank slumping can occur even if marshes are in equilibrium with sea level rise. As a consequence slumping is not an unequivocal indicator of ongoing marsh loss. The model also predicts that, at equilibrium, sedimentation rates adjacent to channels are higher than the rate of sea level rise. This implies that a sedimentation surplus is not a sign of resilience to sea level rise acceleration. The framework proposed by the model will affect how erosion and deposition measurements adjacent to marsh channels are interpreted.

  19. Hydrologic modeling as a predictive basis for ecological restoration of salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, C.T.; Garvine, R.W.; Portnoy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Roads, bridges, causeways, impoundments, and dikes in the coastal zone often restrict tidal flow to salt marsh ecosystems. A dike with tide control structures, located at the mouth of the Herring River salt marsh estuarine system (Wellfleet, Massachusetts) since 1908, has effectively restricted tidal exchange, causing changes in marsh vegetation composition, degraded water quality, and reduced abundance of fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Restoration of this estuary by reintroduction of tidal exchange is a feasible management alternative. However, restoration efforts must proceed with caution as residential dwellings and a golf course are located immediately adjacent to and in places within the tidal wetland. A numerical model was developed to predict tide height levels for numerous alternative openings through the Herring River dike. Given these model predictions and knowledge of elevations of flood-prone areas, it becomes possible to make responsible decisions regarding restoration. Moreover, tidal flooding elevations relative to the wetland surface must be known to predict optimum conditions for ecological recovery. The tide height model has a universal role, as demonstrated by successful application at a nearby salt marsh restoration site in Provincetown, Massachusetts. Salt marsh restoration is a valuable management tool toward maintaining and enhancing coastal zone habitat diversity. The tide height model presented in this paper will enable both scientists and resource professionals to assign a degree of predictability when designing salt marsh restoration programs.

  20. Salt marsh and seagrass communities of Bakkhali Estuary, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hena, M. K. Abu; Short, F. T.; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Hasan, M.; Rezowan, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-10-01

    The species identification, distribution pattern, density and biomass of salt marsh and seagrass plants with some of the ecological parameters were studied in the Bakkhali river estuary, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh during the first half of 2006. Two salt marsh species ( Spartina sp. and Imperata cylindrica) and one seagrass species ( Halophila beccarii) were identified during this investigation, providing the first reports of Spartina sp. and H. beccarii in coastal Bangladesh. Seagrass H. beccarii was found in an accreted area and co-existing with salt marsh, and scattered sparsely in the salt marsh habitat and macroalgae Ulva intestinalis. Flowering and fruiting were recorded from the seagrass H. beccarri during January and February. No flowers and fruits were observed for the salt marsh Spartina sp. during the study period. Results showed that the shoot density of Spartina ranged from 400 to 2875 shoots m -2 with the highest total biomass (165.80 g dry weight (DW) m -2) in March. Shoot density of H. beccarii ranged from 2716 to 14320 shoots m -2 in this estuarine coastal environment. The total biomass of seagrass was higher (17.56 g DW m -2) in March compared to the other months. The highest H. beccarii above ground (AG) biomass and below ground (BG) biomass were 9.59 g DW m -2 and 9.42 g DW m -2, respectively. These parameters are comparable with those generally observed for the salt marsh and seagrass species in the other places of the world.

  1. Precision Monitoring of Water Level in a Salt Marsh with Low Cost Tilt Loggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, Vitalii A.; Mora, Jordan W.

    2016-04-01

    Several salt pannes and pools in the Sage Lot tidal marsh of Waquoit Bay system, MA were instrumented with newly developed Arm-and-Float water level gauges (utilizing accelerometer tilt logger) permitting to record water level fluctuations with accuracy of 1 mm and submillimeter resolution. The methodology of the instrument calibration, deployment, and elevation control are described. The instrument performance was evaluated. Several month long deployments allowed us to analyze the marsh flooding and draining processes, study differences among the salt pannes. The open channel flow flooding-draining mechanism and slower seepage were distinguished. From the drain curve the seepage rate can be quantified. The seepage rate remains approximately constant for all flooding draining episodes, but varies from panne to panne depending on bottom type and location. Seasonal differences due to the growth of vegetation are also recorded. The analysis of rain events allows us to estimate the catch area of subbasins in the marsh. The implication for marsh ecology and marsh accretion are discussed. The gradual sea level rise coupled with monthly tidal datum variability and storm surges result in migration and development of a salt marsh. The newly developed low cost instrumentation allows us to record and analyze these changes and may provide guidance for the ecological management.

  2. Success of artificial bird nests in burned Gulf Coast Chenier Plain marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrey, S.W.; Wilson, B.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Wildlife managers in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain of Louisiana and Texas frequently burn marshes during winter to improve habitat for wintering waterfowl and furbearers. Such fires dramatically alter vegetation structure and cover, although such changes are generally temporary. However, if vegetation cover does not recover sufficiently by the start of the subsequent breeding season, nests of marsh birds could be exposed to increased predation rates. We examined effects of burning on 2 measures of vegetation structure and on 2 types of artificial bird nests during breeding seasons (May and June) before and after experimental winter burns (December and January). We found that vegetation structure did not differ between burned and non-burned marshes at 5 months post-burn. Similarly, depredation rates of artificial sparrow and duck nests did not differ between burned and non-burned marshes during the post-burn breeding season. We recommend that managers complete burning programs by the end of January so that sufficient nesting cover develops before the start of the breeding season.

  3. Changing tidal hydrodynamics during different stages of eco-geomorphological development of a tidal marsh: A numerical modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, J.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.

    2017-03-01

    cross-sectional area relationships keep the marsh channels from filling in completely by enhancing ebb-dominance as long as the tidal volume and flow velocities remain sufficiently high. Overall, this study increases insight into the hydro-morphodynamic interactions between tidal flow and marsh geomorphology during various stages of eco-geomorphological development of marshes and marsh channels in particular.

  4. Candidate Tsunami Deposits at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, R.; Jaffe, B. E.; Buckley, M.; Watt, S. G.

    2008-12-01

    Carpinteria Salt Marsh, 15 km southeast of Santa Barbara, California preserves geologic evidence of possible past tsunami inundation along the southern California coast. The proximity of the Santa Barbara coastline to the Goleta slide complex and to numerous offshore faults in the Santa Barbara basin suggests a potential for moderate to large tsunamis. A field investigation in February 2008 collected more than 60 cores and examined 8 cutbank exposures throughout the marsh. Sand layers consistent with tsunami deposition were found at depths from 35 to 96 cm in cores from four areas within the marsh. The sand layers, which range from 1 cm to 35 cm thick and extend up to 630 m inland, had sharp lower contacts and were often normally graded. In addition, in some cores there were one or more intervening mud layers within the sand layer. Composition and angularity of the sand is similar to sands found in the surrounding beach, dune, and nearshore environments. While the sand layers occur at similar depths in the cores, they were concentrated in four areas that were isolated by regions with no evidence of tsunami deposition. The deposits may represent spatially discontinuous deposition from one event, spatially continuous deposition from one event with poor preservation of the deposits, or deposition from more than one event. Discontinuous deposition from one event is in contrast to spatially continuous sheet deposition characteristic of moderate to large tsunamis, but may represent isolated deposition by a smaller tsunami along channel banks. The deposit is more consistent with tsunami deposition than deposition by other event-driven processes such as storms or floods. However, marsh processes that may create normally graded sand layers such as channel migration must also be considered before accepting a tsunami origin for the deposits.

  5. Assessment of ecosystem response to a temporary water level drawdown and subsequent refilling at Topock Marsh, Arizona—July 2011–October 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Joan S.; Haegele, Jeanette C.

    2017-01-20

    Topock Marsh is a 1,637-hectare (4,045-acre) wetland adjacent to the Colorado River near Needles, California, and a main feature of Havasu National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began construction of an infrastructure improvement project in 2010 to increase the efficiency of water use and to help protect the habitats and species found within the Havasu NWR. During construction, normal water delivery from the Colorado River into Topock Marsh through the Inlet Canal was restricted, which resulted in unusually low water elevations  in 2011. The U.S. Geological Survey, commissioned by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, undertook the investigation of the water quality and aquatic flora and fauna during the low water conditions. Subsequently, water elevations in the marsh returned to more normal elevations after the new concrete-lined Fire Break Canal became fully operational in January 2012.The U.S. Geological Survey made 11 field trips to the Havasu NWR between July 2011 and October 2014 to assess the effects of the temporary low water conditions and the change of inflow location (from the Inlet Canal to the Fire Break Canal) on water quality and aquatic habitat. The following conditions were monitored: water quality, sediment and plant chemistry, phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, and emergent and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Water-quality and biota data collected during 2013–14 were then compared with data collected during the 2011–12 low water period.Once the new Fire Break Canal became operational and Colorado River water flowed regularly into the marsh, concentrations of several water quality parameters decreased (for example, specific conductance, total dissolved solids, turbidity, chlorophyll a, and total and organic nitrogen), and phytoplankton abundance was reduced at the upstream sampling stations (TP-3, TP-2, and TP-6); the water flow pushed water

  6. A Hydro-marsh equilibrium model for marsh system response to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Bacopoulos, P.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an integrated model to assess the effect of sea level rise on salt marsh systems is presented. It is based on a coupled two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and a parametric marsh model. The model shows marsh productivity as a function of mean high water (MHW), mean low water (MLW), and the elevation of the marsh platform. MHW and MLW are the mean high and low water levels over a tidal record and the marsh platform elevation is the elevation of the thick and smooth piled up sediments and biomass that support the productivity of the marsh. MHW and MLW throughout a river and tidal creeks are determined by time varying tides resulting from the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. In order to calculate accurate biomass productivity, and MHW and MLW elevations, a digital elevation model (DEM) representing the marsh table elevation and tidal creeks with high accuracy is necessary (Hagen et al., 2013). There are optimum ranges for relative sea level rise (RSLR), mean sea level (MSL), and depth of inundation for salt marshes to increase productivity. Because of the constantly changing MSL, the marsh always adjusts itself to a new equilibrium (Morris, et al., 2002). In the marsh model, the sediment accretion rate, which is a function of the marsh productivity, is considered. The tidal record is calculated by the hydrodynamic model and the DEM is adjusted by incorporating the accretion rate over a period of time, provided by the marsh model. Then, the new tidal record is assessed by running the hydrodynamic model, considering sea level rise with the new marsh table elevations. Using the new tidal record, the marsh productivity is simulated. This process can be divided into short time steps to capture changes in the rate of sea level rise. For example, a 68 cm sea level rise over 63 years can be split into five- or ten- year periods to have a linear trend for sea level rise in each period. The model is examined for the lower St. Johns River and Apalachicola River

  7. Radionuclides transfer into halophytes growing in tidal salt marshes from the Southwest of Spain.

    PubMed

    Luque, Carlos J; Vaca, Federico; García-Trapote, Ana; Hierro, Almudena; Bolívar, Juan P; Castellanos, Eloy M

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries are sinks of materials and substances which are released directly into them or transported from rivers that drain the basin. It is usual to find high organic matter loads and fine particles in the sediments. We analyzed radionuclide concentrations ((210)Po, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (40)K) in sediments and three different organs (roots, stems and leaves) of three species of halophytes plants (Spartina maritima, Spartina densiflora and Sarcocornia perennis). The study was carried out in two tidal salt marshes, one polluted by U-series radionuclides and another nearby that was unpolluted and was used as a control (or reference) area. The Tinto River salt marsh shows high levels of U-series radionuclides coming from mining and industrial discharges. On the contrary, the unperturbed Piedras River salt marsh is located about 25 km from the Tinto marsh, and shows little presence of contaminants and radionuclides. The results of this work have shown that natural radionuclide concentrations (specially the U-isotopes) in the Tinto salt marsh sediments are one order of magnitude higher than those in the Piedras marsh. These radionuclide enhancements are reflected in the different organs of the plants, which have similar concentration increases as the sediments where they have grown. Finally, the transfer factor (TF) of the most polluted radionuclides (U-isotopes and (210)Po) in the Tinto area are one order of magnitude higher than in the Piedras area, indicating that the fraction of each radionuclide in the sediment originating from the pollution is more available for the plants than the indigenous fraction. This means that the plants of the salt marshes are unhelpful as bioindicators or for the phytoremediation of radionuclides.

  8. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Tavasci Marsh is a large freshwater marsh within the Tuzigoot National Monument in central Arizona. It is the largest freshwater marsh in Arizona that is unconnected to the Colorado River and is designated as an Important Bird Area by the Audubon Society. The marsh has been altered significantly by previous land use and the monument’s managers are evaluating the restoration of the marsh. In light of historical mining activities located near the marsh from the first half of the 20th century, evaluations of water, sediment, plant, and aquatic biota in the marsh were conducted. The evaluations were focused on nine metals and trace elements commonly associated with mining and other anthropogenic activities (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) together with isotopic analyses to understand the presence, sources and timing of water and sediment contaminants to the marsh and the occurrence in aquatic plants, dragonfly larvae, and fish. Results of water analyses indicate that there were two distinct sources of water contributing to the marsh during the study: one from older high elevation recharge entering the marsh at Shea Spring (as well as a number of unnamed seeps and springs on the northeastern edge of the marsh) and the other from younger low elevation recharge or from Pecks Lake. Water concentrations for arsenic exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standard of 10 μg/L at all sampling sites. Surface waters at Tavasci Marsh may contain conditions favorable for methylmercury production. All surficial and core sediment samples exceeded or were within sample concentration variability of at least one threshold sediment quality guideline for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Several sediment sites were also above or were within sample concentration variability of severe or probable effect sediment quality guidelines for As, Cd, and Cu. Three sediment cores collected in the marsh have greater metal and trace element concentrations

  9. Transcriptional and physiological response of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to urban waters entering into wildlife protected areas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Kroll, Kevin J; Toor, Gurpal S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2015-04-01

    The mission of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and improve human welfare. To assess the effect of urban waters entering into protected areas, we performed 48-h whole-effluent exposures with fathead minnows, analyzing changes in steady state levels of mRNAs in the livers of exposed fish. Raw wastewater, treated city wastewater, and treated wastewater from a university were collected for exposures. All exposed fish showed altered mRNA levels of DNA damage-repair genes. Fish exposed to raw and treated wastewaters showed down-regulation of transcripts for key intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis and elevated plasma cholesterol. The type of wastewater treatment influenced the response of gene transcription. Because of the relevance of some of the altered cellular pathways, we suggest that these effluents may cause deleterious effects on fish inside protected areas that receive these waters. Inclusion of research and mitigation efforts for this type of threat in protected areas management is advised.

  10. Chemicals and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Springer, P.F.

    1958-01-01

    Short paper that reviews some of the facts about effects of insecticides on wildlife and states principles that should be followed for maximum safety in treatment. These principles include minimal doses, good ground-to-plane control to avoid overdoses, and least possible pollution of water areas.

  11. Chemicals and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Springer, P.F.

    1957-01-01

    Short paper that reviews some of the facts about effects of insecticides on wildlife and states principles that should be followed for maximum safety in treatment. These principles include minimal doses, good ground-to-plane control to avoid overdoses, and least possible pollution of water areas.

  12. Microhabitat and vegetation selection by giant gartersnakes associated with a restored marsh in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Valcarcel, Patricia; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Rosenberg, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    These data describe coarse habitat use, activity information, and differences between used and available microhabitats and vegetation types to provide information about the behavior and habitat relationships of adult female giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) associated with a restored marsh in the Sacramento Valley of California.These data support the following publication:Brian J. Halstead, Patricia Valcarcel, Glenn D. Wylie, Peter S. Coates, Michael L. Casazza, and Daniel K. Rosenberg (2016) Active Season Microhabitat and Vegetation Selection by Giant Gartersnakes Associated with a Restored Marsh in California. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management: December 2016, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 397-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.3996/042016-JFWM-029

  13. Source reduction in Florida's salt marshes: management to reduce pesticide use and enhance the resource.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Douglas B

    2006-09-01

    Source reduction as part of an integrated pest management program is a cornerstone of the American Mosquito Control Association's Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program Strategy Document to reduce pesticide risk. Since the early 1980s, Florida has made important strides in implementing environmentally sound source reduction strategies in salt marshes while managing them for both mosquito control and natural resource enhancement. The political mechanism for this progress has been interagency cooperation through the Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control and its Subcommittee on Managed Marshes. Challenges in accomplishing source reduction continue because both public and private lands are involved. Public lands include those owned by federal (e.g., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service), state (Florida Department of Environmental Protection), and local governments, and they have a diversity of management objectives. This diversity adds to the challenge facing mosquito control agencies in providing mosquito control services while protecting and enhancing the environment.

  14. Response of a salt marsh microbial community to antibiotic contamination.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Basto, M Clara P; Mucha, Ana P

    2015-11-01

    Salt marsh plants and associated microorganisms can have an important role in contaminant removal from estuaries, through bioremediation processes. Nevertheless, the interaction between emerging contaminants, namely antibiotics, and plant-microorganism associations in estuarine environment are still scarcely known. In this vein, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, in controlled conditions, the response of a salt marsh plant-microorganism association to a contamination with a veterinary antibiotic. For that a salt marsh plant (Phragmites australis) and its respective rhizosediment were collected in a temperate estuary (Lima estuary, NW Portugal) and exposed for 7 days to enrofloxacin (ENR) under different nutritional conditions in sediment elutriates. Response was evaluated in terms of ENR removal and changes in microbial community structure (evaluated by ARISA) and abundance (estimated by DAPI). In general, no significant changes were observed in microbial abundance. Changes in bacterial richness and diversity were observed but only in unplanted systems. However, multivariate analysis of ARISA profiles showed significant effect of both the presence of plant and type of treatment on the microbial community structure, with significant differences among all treatment groups. In addition, plants and associated microorganisms presented a potential for antibiotic removal that, although highly dependent on their nutritional status, can be a valuable asset to recover impacted areas such as estuarine ones.

  15. Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks: Lithofacies, extent, and reservoir quality: Chapter CC in The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1999-01-01

    Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks are potential hydrocarbon reservoir facies for four plays in the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. These rocks include several units in the pre-Carboniferous basement and the Carboniferous Lisburne Group. Data from exploratory wells west of the 1002 area, outcrops south of the 1002 area, seismic lines, and well logs are synthesized herein to infer carbonate lithofacies, extent, and reservoir character beneath the northeastern Arctic coastal plain.A chiefly shallow-water basement carbonate succession of Late Proterozoic through Early Devonian age (Katakturuk Dolomite, Nanook Limestone, and Mount Copleston Limestone) is interpreted to be present beneath much of the south-central 1002 area; it reaches 3,700 m thick in outcrop and is the primary reservoir for the Deformed Franklinian Play. A more heterogeneous lithologic assemblage of uncertain age forms basement in the northwestern part of the 1002 area; well data define three subunits that contain carbonate intervals 5- 50 m thick. These strata are prospective reservoirs for the Undeformed Franklinian Play and could also be reservoirs for the Niguanak- Aurora Play. Regional lithologic correlations suggest a Cambrian-Late Proterozoic(?) age for subunits one and two, and a slightly younger, later Cambrian-Silurian age for subunit three. Seismic and well data indicate that subunit one overlies subunit two and is overlain by subunit three. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Lisburne Group, a predominantly carbonate platform succession as much as 1 km thick, is projected beneath the southernmost part of the 1002 area and is a potential reservoir for the Ellesmerian Thrust-belt and Niguanak-Aurora Plays.Carbonate rocks in the 1002 area probably retain little primary porosity but may have locally well developed secondary porosity. Measured reservoir parameters in basement carbonate strata are low (porosity generally ≤ 5%; permeability ≤ 0.2 md) but drill

  16. Some aspects of resource uncertainty and their economic consequences in assessment of the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration ventures in frontier areas have high risks. Before committing to them, firms prepare regional resource assessments to evaluate the potential payoffs. With no historical basis for directly estimating size distribution of undiscovered accumulations, reservoir attribute probability distributions can be assessed subjectively and used to project undiscovered accumulation sizes. Three questions considered here are: (1) what distributions should be used to characterize the subjective assessments of reservoir attributes, (2) how parsimonious can the analyst be when eliciting subjective information from the assessment geologist, and (3) what are consequences of ignoring dependencies among reservoir attributes? The standard or norm used for comparing outcomes is the computed cost function describing costs of finding, developing, and producing undiscovered oil accumulations. These questions are examined in the context of the US Geological Survey's recently published regional assessment of the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. We study effects of using the various common distributions to characterize the geologist's subjective distributions representing reservoir attributes. Specific findings show that triangular distributions result in substantial bias in economic forecasts when used to characterize skewed distributions. Moreover, some forms of the lognormal distribution also result in biased economic inferences. Alternatively, we generally determined four fractiles (100, 50, 5, 0) to be sufficient to capture essential economic characteristics of the underlying attribute distributions. Ignoring actual dependencies among reservoir attributes biases the economic evaluation. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. The ebb and flood of Silica: Quantifying dissolved and biogenic silica fluxes from a temperate salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieillard, Amanda M.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Carey, Joanna C.

    2011-12-01

    Salt marshes are widely studied due to the broad range of ecosystem services they provide including serving as crucial wildlife habitat and as hotspots for biogeochemical cycling. Nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C) are well studied in these systems. However, salt marshes may also be important environments for the cycling of another key nutrient, silica (Si). Found at the land-sea interface, these systems are silica replete with large stocks in plant biomass, sediments, and porewater, and therefore, have the potential to play a substantial role in the transformation and export of silica to coastal waters. In an effort to better understand this role, we measured the fluxes of dissolved (DSi) and biogenic (BSi) silica into and out of two tidal creeks in a temperate, North American (Rowley, Massachusetts, USA) salt marsh. One of the creeks has been fertilized from May to September for six years allowing us to examine the impacts of nutrient addition on silica dynamics within the marsh. High-resolution sampling in July 2010 showed no significant differences in Si concentrations between the fertilized and reference creeks with dissolved silica ranging from 0.5 to 108 μM and biogenic from 2.0 to 56 μM. Net fluxes indicated that the marsh is a point source of dissolved silica to the estuary in the summer with a net flux of approximately 169 mol h -1, demonstrating that this system exports DSi on the same magnitude as some nearby, mid-sized rivers. If these findings hold true for all salt marshes, then these already valuable regions are contributing yet another ecosystem service that has been previously overlooked; by exporting DSi to coastal receiving waters, salt marshes are actively providing this important nutrient for coastal primary productivity.

  18. Relationships between watershed emergy flow and coastal New England salt marsh structure, function, and condition.

    PubMed

    Brandt-Williams, Sherry; Wigand, Cathleen; Campbell, Daniel E

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the link between watershed activities and salt marsh structure, function, and condition using spatial emergy flow density (areal empower density) in the watershed and field data from 10 tidal salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, RI, USA. The field-collected data were obtained during several years of vegetation, invertebrate, soil, and water quality sampling. The use of emergy as an accounting mechanism allowed disparate factors (e.g., the amount of building construction and the consumption of electricity) to be combined into a single landscape index while retaining a uniform quantitative definition of the intensity of landscape development. It expanded upon typical land use percentage studies by weighting each category for the intensity of development. At the RI salt marsh sites, an impact index (watershed emergy flow normalized for marsh area) showed significant correlations with mudflat infauna species richness, mussel density, plant species richness, the extent and density of dominant plant species, and denitrification potential within the high salt marsh. Over the 4-year period examined, a loading index (watershed emergy flow normalized for watershed area) showed significant correlations with nitrite and nitrate concentrations, as well as with the nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in stream discharge into the marshes. Both the emergy impact and loading indices were significantly correlated with a salt marsh condition index derived from intensive field-based assessments. Comparison of the emergy indices to calculated nitrogen loading estimates for each watershed also produced significant positive correlations. These results suggest that watershed emergy flow is a robust index of human disturbance and a potential tool for rapid assessment of coastal wetland condition.

  19. Implications of Vegetation Shifts on Greenhouse Gas Production in a Coastal Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Corbett, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Methane production in salt marshes is understudied, although these anaerobic environments store vast amounts of carbon and may release large quantities as climate shifts. Studies show ranges of salt marsh methane emissions that vary widely from 0.4-160 g CH4 m-2 y-1. CH4 production in salt marshes is governed by several variables. Due to high sulfate concentrations in these environments, less CH4 is expected to form and escape from the subsurface. However, vascular plants allow greater amounts of CH4 escape from subsurface porewater and produce more labile organic carbon substrates, which support higher rates of microbial decomposition. Coastal salt marshes are also dominated by various vascular plant species both native and invasive which may allow for greater amounts of CH4 formation and escape than previously thought. To better understand CH4 dynamics in coastal salt marshes, pore water samples were collected from various depths in Piermont salt marsh, NY (40 ̊00' N, 73 ̊55'W), a tidal wetland that has been invaded in the last century by Phragmites australis. Dissolved organic carbon lability was measured, previously developed isotope-mass balance equations were utilized, and root depth and density were analyzed from several vegetation zones. Areas dominated by invasive Phragmites australis vegetation contain deeper and denser root zones and are expected to produce more subsurface methane and release more methane than areas dominated by native vegetation types. This study will allow us to identify zones more likely to contribute greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and increase knowledge of CH4 production and release in coastal salt marshes.

  20. The Macquarie Marshes in Arid Australia and their waterbirds: A 50-year history of decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsford, Richard T.; Thomas, Rachael F.

    1995-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between total annual flow of water in the Macquarie River and the extent of flooding in the northern part of the Macquarie Marshes and trends in waterbird populations from 1983 to 1993. The amount of water in the Macquarie River measured each year within the Macquarie Marshes explained about 86% of the variation in area flooded in the northern part of this wetland. This allowed use of long-term data on flow at Oxley, a gauge within the Macquarie Marshes, as an index to flooding. Annual flows at Oxley have decreased significantly for high and medium rainfall events in the catchment, despite no trend in rainfall between 1944 and 1993. The area flooded by large floods has contracted by at least 40-50% during the last 50 years (1944-1993). Water use has progressively increased upstream in the period, depriving the Macquarie Marshes of water: 51% of all water passing Dubbo each year, a gauge 100 km upstream, reached the Macquarie Marshes in the period 1944-1953, but by 1984-1993 this had declined to 21%. Numbers of species and density of waterbirds on the northern part of the Macquarie Marshes declined between 1983 and 1993. Three other wetlands, not affected by water abstractions, showed no declines. We believe the decline was due to wetland degradation as a result of decreased flooding. We estimated more than 88,000 waterbirds in the Macquarie Marshes in October 1984, establishing the site as an important wetland site in Australia. The extent and viability of this wetland will depend on maintaining or increasing the water supply.

  1. Influence of flooding and vegetation on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in the pore water of a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Negrin, Vanesa L; Spetter, Carla V; Asteasuain, Raúl O; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2011-01-01

    Four sites were selected in a salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina): (1) low marsh (flooded by the tide twice daily) vegetated by S. alterniflora; (2) non-vegetated low marsh; (3) high marsh (flooded only in spring tides) vegetated by S. alterniflora; (4) non-vegetated high marsh. The pH and Eh were measured in sediments, while dissolved nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in pore water. pH (6.2-8.7) was only affected by vegetation in low areas. Eh (from -300 to 250 mV) was lower at low sites than at high ones; in the latter, the values were higher in the non-vegetated sediments. The POM concentration was greater in the high marsh than in the low marsh, with no effect of vegetation. Ammonium was the most abundant nitrogen nutrient species in pore water, except in the non-vegetated high marsh where nitrate concentration was higher. All nitrogen nutrients were affected by both flooding and vegetation. Phosphate was always present in pore water at all sites throughout the year and its concentration varied within narrow limits, with no effect of flooding and greater values always at non-vegetated sites. Our results showed that the variability of the pore water composition within the marsh is greater than the temporal variation, meaning that both tidal flooding and vegetation are important in the dynamics of nutrients and organic matter in the sediment pore water.

  2. Radar and optical mapping of surge persistence and marsh dieback along the New Jersey Mid-Atlantic coast after Hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    This study combined a radar-based time series of Hurricane Sandy surge and estimated persistence with optical sensor-based marsh condition change to assess potential causal linkages of surge persistence and marsh condition change along the New Jersey Atlantic Ocean coast. Results based on processed TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images indicated that surge flooding persisted for 12 h past landfall in marshes from Great Bay to Great Egg Harbor Bay and up to 59 h after landfall in many back-barrier lagoon marshes. Marsh condition change (i.e. loss of green marsh vegetation) was assessed from optical satellite images (Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) collected before and after Hurricane Sandy. High change in condition often showed spatial correspondence, with high surge persistence in marsh surrounding the lagoon portion of Great Bay, while in contrast, low change and high persistence spatial correspondence dominated the interior marshes of the Great Bay and Great Egg Harbor Bay estuaries. Salinity measurements suggest that these areas were influenced by freshwater discharges after landfall possibly mitigating damage. Back-barrier marshes outside these regions exhibited mixed correspondences. In some cases, topographic features supporting longer surge persistence suggested that non-correspondence between radar and optical data-based results may be due to differential resilience; however, in many cases, reference information was lacking to determine a reason for non-correspondence.

  3. A white pelican and egrets in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A white pelican and several small egrets rest on the bank of a pond in in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The range of the egret includes southern and eastern states, Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  4. The use of color infrared imagery for the study of marsh buggy tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, C. A.; Doiron, L. N.

    1974-01-01

    Color infrared imagery is used to determine the location of buggy routes and to quantify the extent of tracks in a selected area where the marsh is seriously dissected. The imagery is used to show successive stages of destruction. It is recommended that alternate routes be identified in the operating area to eliminate continuous use of the same route and facilitate faster revegetation.

  5. What's the Use of a Salt Marsh?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Raalte, Charlene

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes information about salt marshes, including descriptions of their development and structure, details of their values in terms of commercial fishing, stabilization of coastal zones, "reclamation" for grazing and cropfields, recreation and aesthetics. (CS)

  6. Oregon Salt Marshes: How Blue are They?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two important ecosystem services of wetlands are carbon sequestration and filtration of nutrients and particulates. We quantified the carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates in salt marshes at 135 plots distributed across eight estuaries located in Oregon, USA. Net carbon and ...

  7. Cullinan Ranch Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Cullinan Ranch Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  8. 77 FR 28895 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    .... Additional habitat management actions would include further tidal marsh improvements, more aggressive control of invasive weeds, revegetation of grassland areas, and more aggressive enhancement and...

  9. Joint Geophysical and Hydrologic Constraints on Shallow Groundwater Flow Systems in Clastic Salt Marshes of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppel, C.; Fulton, P.; Schultz, G. M.; Castillo, L.; Bartlett, J.; Sibley, S.

    2005-12-01

    Salt marsh systems play a critical role in buffering upland coastal areas from the influence of open saltwater bodies and in filtering contaminants that originate offshore or are flushed from uplands. For these reasons, it is important to understand the salt marsh hydrologic cycle, especially the interaction of groundwater and surface water across low-lying coastal fringes and the changes in physical, chemical, and ecological parameters across salinity gradients extending from upland to tidal creek to open water. For the past 5 years, we have conducted hydrogeophysical surveys (inductive EM and DC resistivity) and collected limited, coincident groundwater hydrologic data in clastic salt marshes throughout the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), stretching from South Carolina on the north to the Georgia-Florida border on the south. All of the marshes are dominated by Spartina and Juncus grasses and are cut by tidally-influenced creeks, but both the lithology and age of the marshes vary widely. For example, one highly homogeneous marsh study site has formed only within the past century, while most sites have existed for thousands of years and have laterally and vertically heterogeneous lithology. Geophysical images of the marsh subsurface and coincident monitoring of groundwater temperature, water level, and/or chemistry consistently show that marshes in the mixed energy environment of the middle part of the SAB (GCE LTER) tend to be dominated by submarsh discharge of freshwater to adjacent tidal creeks. In the South Carolina part of the SAB, we have greater evidence for seepage, particularly through biologically-created macropore networks and permeable sediment bodies that intersect tidal creeks. It is possible though that the South Carolina results are not so much 'universal' as reflective of local lithology. In a very young marsh near the Florida border, geophysical imaging implies a mixture of seepage and submarsh flow, and hydrologic data provide unequivocal proof that

  10. Shore Stabilization with Salt Marsh Vegetation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    sunken, and the "liplike" guard cells which surround the stomata are accompanied by subsidiary cells equipped with branched papilla (tiny fingerlike...detrital food chain. Dead grass is broken down by bacteria in theIsurrounding waters and on the surface of the marsh. This process greatly decreases...103-118. KNUTSON, P.L., "Planting Guidelines for Marsh Development and Bank Stabl- lisation ," CETA 77-3, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal

  11. Distribution of seed plants with respect to tide levels and water salinity in the natural tidal marshes of the northern San Francisco Bay Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.

    1976-01-01

    Shoaling of subtidal and intertidal mud flats has permitted tidal marshes to spread across large marginal areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary during the past several thousand years. By 1850 A.D. the tidal marshes of the estuary, including those of the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta, covered an area nearly twice as large as the area of open water. Nearly 95 percent of these marshes have been diked or filled during the past 125 years. Species distributions along leveled transects at six tidal marshes indicate that elevation and water salinity are the principal ecological factors that-control the distribution of seed plants in the remaining natural tidal marshes of the northern San Francisco Bay estuary. Marsh surfaces situated near mean tide level are populated by robust monocotyledons (e.g., Spartina foliosa, Scirpus californicus), whereas surfaces situated near high-tide levels support dicotyledons and a few small monocotyledonous species (e.g., Salicornia virginica, Distichlis spicata). Marshes near the seaward end of the estuary are typically occupied by 10-15 salt-tolerant species (e.g., Spartina foliosa, Salicornia virginica), whereas marshes at the riverward end of the estuary are inhabited by as many as 30 species, most of which are known to tolerate moderate or small amounts of salt (e.g., Scirpus spp., Phragmites communis, Typha latifolia).

  12. A precise vertical network: Establishing new orthometric heights with static surveys in Florida tidal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, E.A.; Stumpf, R.P.; Marth, N.J.; Shrestha, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Elevation differences on the order of 10 cm within Florida's marsh system influence major variations in tidal flooding and in the associated plant communities. This low elevation gradient combined with sea level fluctuation of 5-to-10 cm over decadel and longer periods can generate significant alteration and erosion of marsh habitats along the Gulf Coast. Knowledge of precise and accurate elevations in the marsh is critical to the efficient monitoring and management of these habitats. Global positioning system (GPS) technology was employed to establish six new orthometric heights along the Gulf Coast from which kinematic surveys into the marsh interior are conducted. The vertical accuracy achieved using GPS technology was evaluated using two networks with 16 vertical and nine horizontal NGS published high accuracy positions. New positions were occupied near St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and along the coastline of Levy County and Citrus County. Static surveys were conducted using four Ashtech dual frequency P-code receivers for 45-minute sessions and a data logging rate of 10 seconds. Network vector lengths ranged from 4 to 64 km and, including redundant baselines, totaled over 100 vectors. Analysis includes use of the GEOID93 model with a least squares network adjustment and reference to the National Geodetic Reference System (NGRS). The static surveys show high internal consistency and the desired centimeter-level accuracy is achieved for the local network. Uncertainties for the newly established vertical positions range from 0.8 cm to 1.8 cm at the 95% confidence level. These new positions provide sufficient vertical accuracy to achieve the project objectives of tying marsh surface elevations to long-term water level gauges recording sea level fluctuations along the coast.

  13. Reproductive ecology of tundra swans on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monda, Matthew J.; Ratti, John T.; McCabe, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Management of tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) is hampered by a lack of information on their nesting and brood-rearing ecology. We studied tundra swan nesting and brood-rearing ecology on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Alaska, 1988-90. Nest success was 58% (n = 31) in 1988, 83% (n = 36) in 1989, 84% (n = 43) in 1990, and 76% (n = 110) for the 3 years. Nests were located predominately in marshes dominated by sheathed pondweed (Potamogeton vaginatus), mare's tail (Hippuris vulgaris), and Hoppner sedge (Carex subspathacea), or by pendent grass (Arctophila fulva), water sedge (C. aquatilis), and tall cotton grass (Eriophorum angustifolium). Nests were seldom located in upland or partially vegetated habitats and were near coastal lagoons or large coastal lakes. Incubating swans were easily disturbed by ground observers and left their nests when we were 500-2,000 m from the nest. Swans did not cover eggs with nest material prior to departure; thus, eggs were vulnerable to avain predation and thermal stress. Brood-foraging sites on the Kongakut Delta (n = 41) were frequently in aquatic-marsh (59%) and saline graminoid-shrub (29%) habitats, occasionally in graminoid-marsh (7%) and partially vegetated (5%) habitats, and absent from upland, graminoid-shrub-water sedge, and graminoid-shrub-cotton grass habitats. Brood-foraging sites on the Canning Delta (n = 35) were frequently in graminoid-marsh (46%), graminoid-shrub-water sedge (26%), and aquatic-marsh (23%) habitats, occasionally in graminoid-shrub-cotton grass (3%) and upland habitats (3%), and absent from saline graminoid-shrub and partially vegetated habitats. Young cygnets grazed in terrestrial habitats more frequently than older broods on the Kongakut (P = 0.003) and Canning (P = 0.053) deltas. Wetlands with sheathed pondweed were uncommon but preferred by broods (P = 0.001). Using field experiments, we evaluated effects of swan grazing and fertilization from feces on aboveground biomass production and

  14. Salt-marsh plants as potential sources of Hg0 into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canário, João; Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; Caetano, Miguel; Hintelmann, Holger; O'Driscoll, Nelson J.

    2017-03-01

    To assess the role of salt-marsh plants on the vegetation-atmospheric Hg0 fluxes, three salt marsh plant species, Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima were selected from a moderately contaminated site in the Tagus estuary during May 2012. Total mercury in stems and leaves for each plant as well as total gaseous mercury and vegetation-air Hg0 fluxes were measured over two continuous days. Mercury fluxes were estimated with a dynamic flux Tedlar® bag coupled to a high-resolution automated mercury analyzer (Tekran 2537A). Other environmental parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity and net solar radiation were also measured aside. H. portulacoides showed the highest total mercury concentrations in stems and leaves and the highest average vegetation-air Hg0 flux (0.48 ± 0.40 ng Hg m-2 h-1). The continuous measurements converged to a daily pattern for all plants, with enhanced fluxes during daylight and lower flux during the night. It is noteworthy that throughout the measurements a negative flux (air-vegetation) was never observed, suggesting the absence of net Hg0 deposition. Based on the above fluxes and the total area occupied by each species we have estimated the total amount of Hg0 emitted from this salt-marsh plants. A daily emission of 1.19 mg Hg d-1 was predicted for the Alcochete marsh and 175 mg Hg d-1 for the entire salt marsh area of the Tagus estuary.

  15. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  16. Characteristics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Strains Circulating at the Wildlife/livestock Interface of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Caron, A; Thompson, P N; Dwarka, R; Foggin, C; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Hofmeyr, M; Van Heerden, J; Heath, L

    2016-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) inflicts severe economic losses within infected countries and is arguably the most important trade-restricting livestock disease in the world. In southern Africa, infected African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the major reservoir of the South African Territories (SAT) types of the virus. With the progressive expansion of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), the risk of FMD outbreaks is expected to increase due to a higher probability of buffalo/livestock contacts. To investigate the dynamics of FMD within and around the Great Limpopo TFCA (GLTFCA), 5 herds of buffaloes were sampled in June 2010 to characterize circulating viruses in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Three SAT-2 and three SAT-3 viral strains were isolated in both countries, including one that was genetically linked with a recent SAT-2 outbreak in Mozambique in 2011. In addition, two groups of unvaccinated cattle (n = 192) were serologically monitored for 1 year at the wildlife/livestock interface of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) in Zimbabwe between April 2009 and January 2010, using the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a test for antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP). Neither clinical signs nor vaccination of cattle were reported during the study, yet a high proportion of the monitored cattle showed antibody responses against SAT-3 and SAT-1. Antibodies against NSP were also detected in 10% of the monitored cattle. The results of this study suggest that cattle grazing in areas adjacent to the GLTFCA can be infected by buffalo or other infected livestock and that cattle trade movements can act as efficient disseminators of FMD viruses to areas several hundred kilometres from the virus source. Current methods of surveillance of FMD at the GLTFCA interface seem insufficient to control for FMD emergence and dissemination and require urgent reassessment and regional coordination.

  17. Estimates of future inundation of salt marshes in response to sea-level rise in and around Acadia National Park, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Salt marshes are ecosystems that provide many important ecological functions in the Gulf of Maine. The U.S. Geological Survey investigated salt marshes in and around Acadia National Park from Penobscot Bay to the Schoodic Peninsula to map the potential for landward migration of marshes using a static inundation model of a sea-level rise scenario of 60 centimeters (cm; 2 feet). The resulting inundation contours can be used by resource managers to proactively adapt to sea-level rise by identifying and targeting low-lying coastal areas adjacent to salt marshes for conservation or further investigation, and to identify risks to infrastructure in the coastal zone. For this study, the mapping of static inundation was based on digital elevation models derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) topographic data collected in October 2010. Land-surveyed control points were used to evaluate the accuracy of the LiDAR data in the study area, yielding a root mean square error of 11.3 cm. An independent accuracy assessment of the LiDAR data specific to salt-marsh land surfaces indicated a root mean square error of 13.3 cm and 95-percent confidence interval of ± 26.0 cm. LiDAR-derived digital elevation models and digital color aerial photography, taken during low tide conditions in 2008, with a pixel resolution of 0.5 meters, were used to identify the highest elevation of the land surface at each salt marsh in the study area. Inundation contours for 60-cm of sea-level rise were delineated above the highest marsh elevation for each marsh. Confidence interval contours (95-percent,± 26.0 cm) were delineated above and below the 60-cm inundation contours, and artificial structures, such as roads and bridges, that may present barriers to salt-marsh migration were mapped. This study delineated 114 salt marshes totaling 340 hectares (ha), ranging in size from 0.11 ha (marshes less than 0.2 ha were mapped only if they were on Acadia National Park property) to 52 ha, with a median

  18. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  19. Exchanges and photo-biogeochemical transformation of dissolved organic compounds in Eastern US tidal marsh ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Neale, Patrick; Megonigal, Patrick; Butterworth, Megan; Jaffe, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The role of tidal marshes as sources, sinks and/or transformers of biologically important nutrients, carbon and pollutants has been studied in various marsh-estuarine environments and geomorphological settings. Although there is no consensus on the magnitude and direction of marsh-estuary net (particulate and dissolved) organic fluxes, most previous studies suggest that salt marshes export dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the surrounding estuarine waters. There has been less attention, however, to the influence of transformations on marsh-exported organic carbon composition or "quality". Yet, carbon composition affects a wide variety of estuarine processes, including microbial respiration and photochemistry. Our objectives in this study were to quantify the photo-reactivity and bio-availability of dissolved organic carbon compounds exported from tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay and determine their effects on the optical properties of colored organic matter (CDOM). We quantified DOC bioavailability with two assays of microbial mineralization: the traditional batch incubation approach in which a suspension of DOM and microbial cells (1 µm filtrate) was incubated in bottles for 7 d, and a continuous-flow bioreactor approach in which DOC (0.2 µm filtrate) was passed through a microbial community that had been pre-established on glass beads from the same source water. Photochemical degradation was measured after a 10h exposure to filtered xenon irradiance simulating midday surface exposure. We measured decreases in CDOM absorption and fluorescence spectra, DOC concentrations, changes in molecular weight distribution, and increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CO2. Results provide important insights on the transformation, fate and cycling of marsh-exported organic compounds, and the role of tidal marsh systems as major regulators of short-scale biological, optical and biogeochemical variability in highly dynamic coastal margins and catchment areas.

  20. Abstracts from "Coastal Marsh Dieback in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Extent, Causes, Consequences, and Remedies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Robert E.; Proffitt, C. Edward; Charron, Tammy Michelle

    2001-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, scientists discovered a new and unprecedented loss of salt marsh vegetation in coastal Louisiana and other areas along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This dieback of salt marsh vegetation, sometimes called the brown marsh phenomenon', primarily involved the rapid browning and dieback of smooth cordgrass (Spanina alterniflora). Coastal Louisiana has already undergone huge, historical losses of coastal marsh due to both human-induced and natural factors, and the current overall rate of wetland loss (25-35 sq mi 65-91 SQ KM each year) stands to threaten Louisiana's coastal ecosystem, infrastructure, and economy. On January 11-12, 2001, individuals from Federal and State agencies, universities, and the private sector met at the conference 'Coastal Marsh Dieback in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Extent, Causes, Consequences, and Remedies' to discuss and share information shout the marsh dieback. Presentations discussed trends in the progress of dieback during the summer of 2000 and in environmental conditions occurring at field study sites, possible causes including drought and Mississippi low flow' conditions, changes in soil conditions (salinity, the bioavailability of metals, pathogens, etc.), the potential for wetland loss that could occur if above and below normality occurs and is sustained over an extended period, advanced techniques for tracking the dieback via aerial photography and remote sensing, linkages of marsh hydrology to the dieback, and mechanisms of modeling dieback and recovery. In addition, presentations were made regarding development of a web site to facilitate information sharing and progress in preparation for requests for proposals based on an emergency appropriation by the U.S. Congress. All findings tended to support the idea that the dieback constituted a continuing environmental emergency and research and natural resource management efforts should be expended accordingly.

  1. Role of crab herbivory in die-off of New England salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Holdredge, Christine; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2009-06-01

    Die-offs of cordgrass are pervasive throughout western Atlantic salt marshes, yet understanding of the mechanisms precipitating these events is limited. We tested whether herbivory by the native crab, Sesarma reticulatum, is generating die-offs of cordgrass that are currently occurring on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), by manipulating crab access to cordgrass transplanted into die-off areas and healthy vegetation. We surveyed 12 Cape Cod marshes to investigate whether the extent of cordgrass die-off on creek banks, where die-offs are concentrated, was related to local Sesarma grazing intensity and crab density. We then used archived aerial images to examine whether creek bank die-off areas have expanded over the past 2 decades and tested the hypothesis that release from predation, leading to elevated Sesarma densities, is triggering cordgrass die-offs by tethering crabs where die-offs are pervasive and where die-offs have not yet been reported. Intensity of crab grazing on transplanted cordgrass was an order of magnitude higher in die-off areas than in adjacent vegetation. Surveys revealed that Sesarma herbivory has denuded nearly half the creek banks in Cape Cod marshes, and differences in crab-grazing intensity among marshes explained >80% of variation in the extent of the die-offs. Moreover, the rate of die-off expansion and area of marsh affected have more than doubled since 2000. Crab-tethering experiments suggest that release from predation has triggered elevated crab densities that are driving these die-offs, indicating that disruption of predator-prey interactions may be generating the collapse of marsh ecosystems previously thought to be exclusively under bottom-up control.

  2. Oxygen transfer in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) constructed wetlands have been used to treat wastewater from swine anaerobic lagoons. To mitigate undesired ammonia emission from M-P-M, ponds were covered with floating wetlands (M-FB-M). The pond sections of the M-FB-M were covered with floating wetlands consisted of recyc...

  3. TYPES OF SALT MARSH EDGE AND EXPORT OF TROPHIC ENERGY FROM MARSHES TO DEEPER HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We quantified nekton and estimated trophic export at salt marshes with both erosional and depositional edges at the Goodwin Islands (York River, Virginia, USA). At depositional-edge marshes, we examined trophic flows through quantitative sampling with 1.75 m2 drop rings, and thro...

  4. Annual net ecosystem exchanges of carbon dioxide and methane from a temperate brackish marsh: should the focus of marsh restoration be on brackish environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Anderson, F. E.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Ferner, M. C.; Schile, L. M.; Spinelli, G.

    2015-12-01

    The exchange and transport of carbon in tidally driven, saline marsh ecosystems provide habitat and trophic support for coastal wildlife and fisheries, while potentially accumulating and storing carbon at some of the highest rates compared to other ecosystems. However, due to the predicted rise in sea level over the next century, the preservation and restoration of estuarine habitats is necessary to compensate for their expected decline. In addition, restoration of these marsh systems can also reduce the impacts of global climate change as they assimilate as much carbon as their freshwater counterparts, while emitting less methane due to the higher concentrations of sulfate in seawater. Unfortunately, in brackish marshes, with salinity concentrations less than 18 parts per thousand (ppt), simple relationships between methane production, salinity and sulfate concentrations are not well known. Here we present the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide and methane, as calculated by the eddy covariance method, from a brackish marsh ecosystem in the San Francisco Estuary where salinity ranges from oligohaline (0.5-5 ppt) to mesohaline (5-18 ppt) conditions. Daily rates of carbon dioxide and methane NEE ranged from approximately 10 gC-CO2 m-2 d-1 and 0 mgC-CH4 m-2 d-1, during the winter to -15 gC-CO2 m-2 d-1 and 30 mgC-CH4 m-2 d-1, in the summer growing season. A comparison between similar measurements made from freshwater wetlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta found that the daily rates of carbon dioxide NEE were similar, but daily rates of methane NEE were just a small fraction (0-15%). Our research also shows that the daily fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane at the brackish marsh were highly variable and may be influenced by the tidal exchanges of seawater. Furthermore, the observed decline in methane production from summer to fall may have resulted from a rise in salinity and/or a seasonal decline in water and air temperatures. Our research goals are

  5. Stability of organic carbon accumulating in Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marshes of the Mid-Atlantic U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Viktoria; Elsey-Quirk, Tracy; Sommerfield, Christopher; Velinsky, David

    2016-12-01

    Organic carbon sequestration in salt marsh soils is a function of factors that influence both spatial variability and chemical stability of accumulating carbon. Refractory carbon (slowly decomposed) may be the most important in terms of long-term sequestration and is widely referred to in models of carbon storage; however, little information exists about the quantity and variability of refractory carbon accumulation in marshes. In this study, total (CT), labile (CL) and refractory (CR) organic carbon accumulation rates were measured for Spartina alterniflora-dominated marshes representing different geomorphological settings with a range of vertical accretion rates. Three 50-cm long cores were collected in each of three marshes in Barnegat Bay and three marshes in Delaware Estuary, USA. Rates of C accumulation were calculated using Cesium-137 dating and the relative stability of soil organic carbon was quantified using acid-hydrolysis. CT accumulation ranged over fourfold among marshes from 72 to 346 g m-2 yr-1. CT and CL accumulation increased with increasing mineral sediment accumulation, while CR accumulation was uniform across cores averaging 78 ± 5 g m-2 yr-1. Similar rates of CR accumulation across marsh areas with different accretion and mineral sediment accumulation rates was associated with a decline in the CR:CL density ratio as mineral volume increased. Our results suggest that carbon accumulation is higher in salt marshes with higher mineral sedimentation due, primarily, to the burial of labile carbon, and that there is a limit on the rate of chemically recalcitrant carbon accumulation in marsh soils.

  6. Wildlife management assistance report

    SciTech Connect

    Caudell, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    Thirty-four days were spent administering hunts on Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area with 1773 people participating. Biological data was collected on 76 deer, eight wild turkeys, 33 feral hogs, 58 ducks of two species, 75 gray squirrels, 4 raccoons, 9 bobwhites, and 484 fish of 9 species. Serving as a Coordinating Land User for the SRS Site Use Committee entailed evaluating 81 land use proposals with regard to effects on wildlife populations. The antlerless deer quota program continued in the district with 129 landowners in Aiken, Barnwell, and Orangeburg Counties being approved for antlerless harvest which required field investigations, acreage verification at tax offices, and personal correspondence. Bait sites for turkey trapping were maintained on the SRS for two months. Wildlife census work was conducted on wild turkey, bobwhite, mourning dove, furbearers, fox squirrels, and bald eagles on the SRS and in Aiken and Barnwell Counties. Three wetlands in Aiken County were evaluated for suitability with regard to wood duck boxes. Two wetland environmental review notices for the SRS were evaluated. Additional work on Wildlife Management Area land included reposting 50 miles of boundary in Aiken and Lexington County and removing signs form several tracts lost from the program. Future recommendations for the turkey and regulations brochures were submitted and WMA maps covering Aiken and Lexington Counties were updated.

  7. Sea level driven marsh expansion in a coupled model of marsh erosion and migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Walters, David C.; Reay, William G.; Carr, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most valuable ecosystems on Earth, where ecosystem services such as flood protection depend nonlinearly on wetland size and are threatened by sea level rise and coastal development. Here we propose a simple model of marsh migration into adjacent uplands and couple it with existing models of seaward edge erosion and vertical soil accretion to explore how ecosystem connectivity influences marsh size and response to sea level rise. We find that marsh loss is nearly inevitable where topographic and anthropogenic barriers limit migration. Where unconstrained by barriers, however, rates of marsh migration are much more sensitive to accelerated sea level rise than rates of edge erosion. This behavior suggests a counterintuitive, natural tendency for marsh expansion with sea level rise and emphasizes the disparity between coastal response to climate change with and without human intervention.

  8. Sea level driven marsh expansion in a coupled model of marsh erosion and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Walters, David C.; Reay, William G.; Carr, Joel A.

    2016-05-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most valuable ecosystems on Earth, where ecosystem services such as flood protection depend nonlinearly on wetland size and are threatened by sea level rise and coastal development. Here we propose a simple model of marsh migration into adjacent uplands and couple it with existing models of seaward edge erosion and vertical soil accretion to explore how ecosystem connectivity influences marsh size and response to sea level rise. We find that marsh loss is nearly inevitable where topographic and anthropogenic barriers limit migration. Where unconstrained by barriers, however, rates of marsh migration are much more sensitive to accelerated sea level rise than rates of edge erosion. This behavior suggests a counterintuitive, natural tendency for marsh expansion with sea level rise and emphasizes the disparity between coastal response to climate change with and without human intervention.

  9. Wave exposure of Corte Madera Marsh, Marin County, California-a field investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Hoover, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    was selected as a study site because of its exposure to wind waves, as well as its history of shoreline erosion and marsh restoration and monitoring. Data were collected in the winter of 2010, along a cross-shore transect extending from offshore of the subtidal mudflats into the tidal marsh. This study forms part of the Innovative Wetland Adaptation in the Lower Corte Madera Creek Watershed Project initiated by the Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC) (http://www.bcdc.ca.gov/planning/climate_change/WetlandAdapt.shtml). Objectives- This study was designed to address the following questions: * What are the characteristics of waves and currents in the study area, and how do they vary over time? * Do wave heights or orbital velocities decrease, or wave periods change, as waves pass over the mudflats? * Do wave heights decrease, or wave periods change, as waves pass over the marsh?

  10. Biogeomorphically driven salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt-marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marshes are under increasing threat, particularly from sea-level rise and increased wave action associated with climate change. The development and stability of these valuable habitats largely depend on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic processes operating at different scales. Also, interactions between biotic and abiotic processes drive internal morphological change in salt-marshes. In this paper we used a biogeomorphological approach to assess the impact of biological activities and interactions on salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt marshes. Salt pans represent a key physiographic feature of salt-marshes and recent studies hypothesized that biogeomorphic processes could be related to salt pan formation in SW Atlantic salt-marshes. The glasswort Sarcocornia perennis is one of the dominant plants in the salt-marshes of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) where they form patches up to 8 m in diameter. These salt-marshes are also inhabited in great densities by the burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata whose bioturbation rates are among the highest reported for salt-marshes worldwide. A set of biological interactions between N. granulata and S. perennis appears to be responsible for salt pan development in these areas which has not been described elsewhere. The main objective of this work was to determine the ecological interactions occurring between plants and crabs that lead to salt pan formation by using field-based sampling and manipulative experiments. Our results showed that S. perennis facilitated crab colonization of the salt-marsh by buffering otherwise stressful physical conditions (e.g., temperature, desiccation). Crabs preferred to construct burrows underneath plants and, once they reach high densities (up to 40 burrows m- 2), the sediment reworking caused plant die-off in the central area of patches. At this state, the patches lose elevation and become depressed due to the continuous bioturbation by crabs

  11. [The small halophilic zygopteric odonate, Mortonagrion hirosei, of central Japan, a predator utilizable against tiny stinging diptera of coastal salt marshes, especially Ceratopogonidae of the genera Culicoides and Oecacta, pests of sea shores in southwestern U.S.A. and Caribbean area].

    PubMed

    Vasserot, J

    1986-01-01

    Among stinging diptera pullulating in coastal salt marshes Ceratopogonidae gnats (mainly of genus Culicoides and Oecacta) are especially troublesome, particularly in Southeastern U. S. A. and Caribbean area, escaping attacks of most predators by their tiny size. But the zygopteric odonate insect Mortonagrion hirosei is well fitted for hunting those minute diptera, by its tiny size and its behaviour, seeking shelter between halophilic plants (2 facts explaining that it was not discovered in central Japan before 1971...). Its larvae, living in brackish waters of coastal lagoons, can devour those of Ceratopogonidae and at least young stages of those of Mosquitoes whose some halophilic species are dangerous vectors of diseases. According to similarity of climates M. hirosei can certainly thrive in Southeastern U. S. A., and probably in Southern Europe. At lower latitudes problems for completion of annual cycle could perhaps arise from lack of hivernal cooling. It is necessary to make at the world scale methodical researches for other species of zygopteric odonates of similar ecology which could exist in other countries, both for avoiding harmful competition of introduced M. hirosei with native species still unknown and for fulfilling the same ecological function in areas of climate no suitable for this Japanese insect. Introduction of M. hirosei in new geographic areas would be very useful, too, for protection of this interesting species threatened by human activities in its natural biotopes, made of discontinuous and rather little areas.

  12. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bees (Apis mellifera) and honey in urban areas and wildlife reserves.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Giacomelli, Alessandra; Medrzycki, Piotr; Sabatini, Anna Gloria; Persano Oddo, Livia; Marinelli, Enzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-26

    The honeybee is a good biological indicator that quickly reflects chemical impairment of the environment by its high mortality and the presence of pollutants in its body or in beehive products. In this work the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and honey were used to detect the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in several areas with different degrees of environmental pollution. All sampling sites showed the presence of PAHs. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected. Fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(k)fluoranthene were the PAHs detected in bees, whereas the honey contained only phenanthrene, anthracene, and chrysene. Phenanthrene showed the highest mean values in honeybees and honey. Independent from the season and location the pattern of PAHs in honeybees and honey was dominated by the presence of the lowest molecular weight PAHs. Furthermore, the mean PAH concentrations in honey samples were lower than those reported in honeybees, and no positive correlation was found between the compounds detected in bees and those in honey.

  13. Mercury volatilization from salt marsh sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lora M.; Reinfelder, John R.

    2009-06-01

    In situ volatilization fluxes of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), were estimated for tidally exposed salt marsh sediments in the summer at the urban/industrial Secaucus High School Marsh, New Jersey Meadowlands (Secaucus, New Jersey) and in the early autumn at a regional background site in the Great Bay estuary (Tuckerton, New Jersey). Estimated daytime sediment-air mercury volatilization fluxes at the Secaucus High School Marsh ranged from -375 to +677 ng m-2 h-1 and were positive (land to air flux) in 16 out of 20 measurement events. At the Great Bay estuary, mercury fluxes measured continuously over a 48-h period ranged from -34 to +81 ng m-2 h-1 and were positive during the day and negative at night. At both sites, mercury volatilization fluxes peaked at midday, and cumulative mercury fluxes exhibited strong positive correlations with cumulative solar radiation (r2 = 0.97, p < 0.01) consistent with a light-driven mercury volatilization efficiency of about 15 ng Hg mol PAR-1 or about 0.06 ng Hg kJ-1. No significant correlations were found between mercury fluxes and wind speed, air temperature, or tide height at either site. Thus despite a tenfold difference in sediment mercury concentration, photochemistry appears to be the dominant factor controlling mercury volatilization from these salt marsh sediments. The average mercury volatilization flux estimated for the Great Bay salt marsh in this study (17 ng m-2 h-1) compares well with other micrometeorological mercury fluxes for nonpoint source contaminated salt marsh and forest soils (8-18 ng m-2 h-1) and is more than 10 times higher than the average mercury emission flux from land (˜1 ng m-2 h-1). Annual mercury emissions from salt marsh wetlands may be comparable to individual industrial emissions sources in coastal states of the eastern United States.

  14. Wildlife food habits and habitat use on revegetated stripmine land in Alaska. Final report. [Ph. D Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.L.; McKendrick, J.D.