Science.gov

Sample records for mart simm ain

  1. 2000 Caldecott Medal Winner: A Conversation with Simms Taback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Simms Taback, winner of the 2000 Caldecott Award for his children's book illustrations. Discusses Taback's career as a graphic artist and children's book illustrator. Discusses intricate details and clever nuances in "Joseph Had a Little Overcoat," a warm and humorous tale proving that you can always make…

  2. Development of a high-speed single inline memory module (SIMM) connector inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahon, James; O'Neill, Sean

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module) inspection system called SIMMI. The system inspects the front 'C-Gap' of the SIMMS and the back 'True Position' of the solder tails at 1.07 seconds/connector using 3 synchronized shuttered cameras with Telecentric Optics. This system is a very high speed (75 frames/second) inspection system designed from off-the-shelf hardware for inspecting SIMMs to a high degree of accuracy (< 4 micron repeatability). The system used standard linear and area techniques to process 700 measurements/second on an EISA based framestore hosted in 486 based PC. The paper will describe the system, and the techniques which were used to test and debug the system, which is not a trivial problem when the system is processing 75 frames/second. In particular, the paper will describe the techniques used to synchronize the camera and SIMM driver mechanics and the evolution of the lighting techniques.

  3. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  4. P-Mart

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-07

    P-Mart was designed specifically to allow cancer researchers to perform robust statistical processing of publicly available cancer proteomic datasets. To date an online statistical processing suite for proteomics does not exist. The P-Mart software is designed to allow statistical programmers to utilize these algorithms through packages in the R programming language as well as offering a web-based interface using the Azure cloud technology. The Azure cloud technology also allows the release of the software via Docker containers.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of European pine marten, Martes martes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wu, Dan; Malyarchuk, Boris

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Martes martes. The genome is 16,486 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region. The total base composition of the mitogenome is 31.9% for A, 27. 6% for C, 25.8% for T and 14.7% for G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage do not differ significantly from other martens. This mitogenome sequence data might be useful for phylogenetic and systematic analyses within the genus Martes.

  6. A new high-resolution BOLAM-MOLOCH suite for the SIMM forecasting system: assessment over two HyMeX intense observation periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Coraci, E.; Malguzzi, P.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution numerical models can be effective in monitoring and predicting natural hazards, especially when dealing with Mediterranean atmospheric and marine intense/severe events characterised by a wide range of interacting scales. The understanding of the key factors associated to these Mediterranean phenomena, and the usefulness of adopting high-resolution numerical models in their simulation, are among the aims of the international initiative HyMeX - HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment. At the turn of 2013, two monitoring campaigns (SOPs - Special Observation Periods) were devoted to these issues. For this purpose, a new high-resolution BOlogna Limited Area Model-MOdello LOCale (BOLAM-MOLOCH) suite was implemented in the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) hydro-meteo-marine forecasting system (SIMM - Sistema Idro-Meteo-Mare) as a possible alternative to the operational meteorological component based on the BOLAM model self-nested over two lower-resolution domains. The present paper provides an assessment of this new configuration of SIMM with respect to the operational one that was also used during the two SOPs. More in details, it investigates the forecast performance of these SIMM configurations during two of the Intense Observation Periods (IOPs) declared in the first SOP campaign. These IOPs were characterised by high precipitations and very intense and exceptional high waters over the northern Adriatic Sea (acqua alta). Concerning the meteorological component, the high-resolution BOLAM-MOLOCH forecasts are compared against the lower-resolution BOLAM forecasts over three areas - mostly corresponding to the Italian HyMeX hydrometeorological sites - using the rainfall observations collected in the HyMeX database. Three-month categorical scores are also calculated for the MOLOCH model. Despite the presence of a slight positive bias of the MOLOCH model, the results show that the precipitation forecast turns out to improve

  7. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  8. Fabrication of AIN Nano-Structures Using Polarity Control by High Temperature Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Eom, Daeyong; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Jeon, Minhwan; Heo, Cheon; Pyeon, Jaedo; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the crystallographic polarity transition of AIN layers grown by high temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (HT-MOCVD), with varying trimethylaluminum (TMAI) pre-flow rates. AIN layers grown without TMAI pre-flow had a mixed polarity, consisting of Al- and N-polarity, and exhibited a rough surface. With an increasing rate of TMAI pre-flow, the AIN layer was changed to an Al-polarity, with a smooth surface morphology. Finally, AIN nano-pillars and nano-rods of Al-polarity were fabricated by etching a mixed polarity AIN layer using an aqueous KOH solution.

  9. A data mart for operations analysis.

    PubMed

    Isken, M W; Littig, S J; West, M

    2001-01-01

    In this article we describe the evolution and architecture of a data mart developed to address the modeling and analysis needs of healthcare operations analysts. More specifically, the data mart is used in projects relating to demand analysis, forecasting, capacity planning, and service system design for a healthcare system consisting of a large tertiary care hospital and a smaller community hospital. The primary focus of the mart is on the detailed movement of inpatients through each hospital, although most component data tables include outpatient information such as emergency center visits, surgical cases, cardiac catheterization cases, and short-stay visits. We show that the data mart goes well beyond consolidating data from different sources by including a number of complex, precalculated fields, data structures, and function libraries that are specific to the needs of operations analysts. We discuss several outstanding and challenging design issues that should be of interest to the data warehouse vendor community.

  10. iSIMM (Integrated Seismic Imaging and Modelling of Margins): Seismic Acquisition on the Faroes Shelf, Hatton Bank and adjacent Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, B.; Kusznir, N.; Christie, P.; Roberts, A. M.; Lunnon, Z.; Roberts, A. W.; Hurst, N.; Smith, L.; Parkin, C.; Surendra, A.; Davies, A.

    2002-12-01

    The iSIMM project is using state-of-the art seismic techniques with long-offset and wide-angle data, to image the crust formed on volcanic continental margins in parallel with developing and testing new quantitative models of rifted margin formation, incorporating heterogeneous stretching, the effects of melt generation and emplacement and varying thermal anomalies in the mantle. During June-July 2002, we used RRS Discovery to acquire wide angle and normal incidence seismic data on the Faroes Shelf and adjacent continental margin, Hatton-Rockall Basin, Hatton Bank and the adjacent oceanic crust using OBS and MCS. In August 2002, WesternGeco's Topaz used three single-sensor, Q-Marine streamers, 12km plus two 4km, to overshoot the wide-angle profiles on the Faroes Shelf and adjacent continental margin. In the Faroes region we deployed 85 4-component ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and 5 vertical arrays along a 350km-long profile extending from the Faroes-Shetland Channel across the Faroes Shelf and continental margin into the oceanic crust of the Norwegian Sea. The entire profile was shot twice. First with a 6,300 cubic inch airgun array towed at 20 m depth and tuned to enhance the initial peak output pressure pulse. Second, with the airguns reconfigured to enhance the low-frequency bubble waveform, producing a source rich in low frequency energy (centred on 10-12 Hz), and with a broad bandwidth. Shots were spaced at either 75 m or 100 m, giving shot repetition rates in excess of 60 secs, thus avoiding contaminating with wrap-round energy from the previous shot. The Q-Marine acquisition used a 48-gun, 10,170 cu. in. airgun array, also tuned to enhance the low-frequency bubble signature, shooting at 50m/20s intervals and recorded on individual sensors for optimal grouping. The streamer configuration provides swath coverage at shorter offsets, while the long offsets record diving waves and wide-angle reflections. Shot-by-shot source signature recording will facilitate

  11. Venus - Aine Corona (F-MIDR 59S164)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan radar image shows a region approximately 300 kilometers (180 miles) across, centered on 59 degrees south latitude, 164 degrees east longitude and located in a vast plain to the south of Aphrodite Terra. The data for this image was obtained in January 1991. The large circular structure near the center of the image is a corona, approximately 200 kilometers (120 miles) in diameter and provisionally named Aine Corona. Just north of Aine Corona is one of the flat-topped volcanic constructs known as 'pancake' domes for their shape and flap-jack appearance. This pancake dome is about 35 kilometers (21 miles) in diameter and is thought to have formed by the eruption of an extremely viscous lava. Another pancake dome is located inside the western parts of the annulus of the corona fractures. Complex fracture patterns like the one in the upper right of the image are often observed in association with coronae and various volcanic features. They are thought to form because magma beneath the surface follows pre-existing fracture patterns. When eruptions or other movements of the magma occur, the magma drains from the fractures and the overlying surface rock collapses. Other volcanic features associated with Aine Corona include a set of small domes, each less than 10 kilometers (6 miles) across, located along the southern portion of the annulus of fractures, and a smooth, flat region in the center of the corona, probably a relatively young lava flow. The range of volcanic features associated with coronae suggests that volcanism plays a significant role in their formation.

  12. Air quality in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital.

    PubMed

    El Awady, M Y; El Rahman, A T Abd; Al Bagoury, L S; Mossad, I M

    2014-12-01

    Through air sampling, it was possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection, and to check the efficiency of ventilation system and the medical team's hygiene procedures. This study measured the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 or less microns and microbiological organisms in operating rooms (OR), intensive care units (ICU) and emergency rooms (ER) in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital, and to assess ventilation characteristics in operating rooms in the hospital. The passive air sampling was done from ICUs, ORs, and ERs in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. Also for each operating room, an observational checklist was done to record other factors that may affect air quality in the room. The evaluated air quality indices were: suspended (PM) 2.5 micrometer or less, culture media and microbial identification of bacteria and fungi, and temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that the highest mean found for bacterial (105.70±30.49) and fungi concentration (7.50±5.30) was in ER. The three settings did not differ statistically as regard levels of PM 2.5, temperature, and relative humidity. A positive correlation exits between bacteria and fungi concentration on one hand and relative humidity on the other. Diphteroid, CONS, MRSA, S. aureus, and Anthracoid were the most frequent isolated bacterial types, while Penicillium and Asperigillus fumigatus were the most frequent isolated fungi. In operating rooms, the percent of unmasked persons present and the temperature positively influence the bacterial count, while ventilation condition is negatively influencing fungi count, and the number of persons present in the operating room positively affects the PM level.

  13. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  14. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  15. Colonization of burn wounds in Ain Shams University Burn Unit.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Salah; Mabrouk, Amr; Maher, Ashraf

    2003-05-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 70 burned patients admitted to the Burn Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, with the aim to verify the pattern of microbial colonization of burn wounds. Throughout the study period starting from 1 June 1999 till 31 May 2001, 281 sampling procedures (surface swabs) were performed from the burn wounds. A total of 301 microbial isolates were grown in cultures. Eight different species of bacteria, and only one species of Candida (C. albicans) were detected. There was no incidence of recovery of anaerobic microorganisms. Our results revealed that the most frequent isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.2%), then Escherichia coli (13.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (11.6%), Streptococcus pyogenes (8.3%), Enterobacter species (6.6%), and lastly Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans (5.9 and 3.6%, respectively). Studying the time-related changes in burn wound microbial colonization showed an initial predominance of gram-positive cocci upon admission (70.7%) over gram-negative bacilli (27.6%). During the first 5 days, gram-negative bacilli started to predominate (55.7%) over gram-positive cocci (40.3%). Burn wound sampling performed starting from the sixth day onwards, revealed further prevalence of gram-negative bacilli (72.7%) over gram-positive cocci (22.7%). As for Candida albicans, there was a gradual increase in the frequency of its recovery as time elapsed from admission. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  16. Characterization of the Ain Khemouda halloysite (western Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Errais, Emna; Duplay, Joelle; Ben Saleh, Imed; Zagrarni, Mohamed Faouzi; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-11-01

    White clays of Ain Khemouda (Western Tunisia), filling the post-Miocene palaeokarsts cavities dug in the intermediate limestones bed of the Douleb formation (Senonian system), were used as raw materials for the preparation of ceramic bodies. Natural clay samples, collected from the Ain Khemouda palaekarsts to the North of Jebel Semmama (Kasserine, Tunisia), were characterized by different techniques. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Thermal analysis was also performed by thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), dilatometry and Bigot's curve. Chemical analysis indicated that the studied clay was composed of silica and alumina as major elements with the ratio SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3) close to 2. Significant amounts of zinc and iron oxides subordinated the main alumino-silicates minerals. Mineralogical analysis showed that Ain Khemouda white clay consisted of halloysite and meta-halloysite mixture. Characteristic peaks of halloysite occurred near 10 Å and 7 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed rolled wafers, characterizing the tubular shape of halloysite. From these results, it could be concluded that Ain Khemouda clay was Zn-aluminous hydrated halloysite (10 Å). In addition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) was relatively low (18 mEq/100 g), indicating insufficient edge valences. Industrial ceramic tests performed at the laboratory scale indicated that the Ain Khemouda clays have the required technical specifications to be used as raw materials for ceramic tiles and refractory ceramic manufacturing.

  17. [Genetic analysis of sympatric sable (Martes zibellina) and Marten (M. martes) populations in the northern urals].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Pishchulina, S L; Simakin, L V

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (495 bp) of sables (Martes zibellina) and martens (M. martes) from allopatric parts of the species ranges has shown a considerable interspecific genetic distance (3%). In sympatric populations of these species in the northern Urals, differences between two species-specific mtDNA lineages are still large; however, classification of each individual nucleotide sequence with one of the two lineages is not correlated with whether the given animal is phenotypically a sable, a marten, or a potential hybrid (the so-called kidas). This indicates a high degree of mutual introgression of the sable and marten mtDNAs in the northern Urals and suggests that their interspecific hybridization is common in the sympatric zone.

  18. [Analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of the ecological niche: a marten (Martes martes) population case study].

    PubMed

    Puzachenko, Iu G; Zheltukhin, A S; Sandlerskiĭ, R B

    2010-01-01

    A potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  20. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM), a Water Budget Model (WBM), and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM). The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  1. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance Variables: Some Versions of Dylan's "It Ain't Me, Babe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poague, Leland A.

    1979-01-01

    Using Bob Dylan's three somewhat different versions of "It Ain't Me, Babe," the author investigates the variables of Dylan's performances and how they alter the meanings of his songs, and suggests that the more we know about popular song the more we will understand the songs we subsequently encounter. (KC)

  3. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  4. The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Remember the time when all you had to do was memorize these five steps: ask a question, formulate a hypothesis, perform experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions? And you received full credit for defining the scientific method. Well, those days are gone. This article discusses why the "scientific method ain't what it used to be." (Contains 2…

  5. AIN-Coated Al(2)O(3) Substrates For Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elzbieta; Lowry, Lynn; Herman, Martin; Lee, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Type of improved ceramic substrate for high-frequency, high-power electronic circuits combines relatively high thermal conductivity of aluminum nitride with surface smoothness of alumina. Consists of 15-micrometer layer of AIN deposited on highly polished alumina. Used for packaging millimeter-wave gallium arsenide transmitter chips, power silicon chips, and like.

  6. Early human settlements in Northern Africa: paleomagnetic evidence from the Ain Hanech Formation (northeastern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parés, J. M.; Sahnouni, M.; Van der Made, J.; Pérez-González, A.; Harichane, Z.; Derradji, A.; Medig, M.

    2014-09-01

    The question of the earliest hominid settlements in northern Africa has been under debate for a number of years due to the lack of precise chronologies. Here we present new paleomagnetic data that supports an Olduvai Subchron age for the archaeological sites at Ain Hanech and El-Kherba, in northern Algeria. Our study is based on a 22 m-thick magnetostratigraphy of the Ain Hanech Formation, which includes contextualized Oldowan and Acheulian lithic tools. Characteristic remanent magnetization directions were obtained from both thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures of specimens from twenty five sampled horizons. Our results reveal the presence of the Olduvai Subchron in the upper part of the stratigraphic section, constraining the age of these important archaeological sites in northern Africa.

  7. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  8. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  9. Caño Martín Peña (Martín Peña Channel, Puerto Rico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Martín Peña Channel Urban Waters Federal Partnership seeks to make significant contributions to the health and welfare of the eight communities that surround the Martín Peña Channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

  10. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  11. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata Rebeca; de Abreu, Isabel Cristina Mallosto Emerich; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; Silva, Maísa; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  12. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  13. The F-actin bundler α-actinin Ain1 is tailored for ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Christensen, Jenna R.; Homa, Kaitlin E.; Hocky, Glen M.; Fok, Alice; Sees, Jennifer A.; Voth, Gregory A.; Kovar, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The actomyosin contractile ring is a network of cross-linked actin filaments that facilitates cytokinesis in dividing cells. Contractile ring formation has been well characterized in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in which the cross-linking protein α-actinin SpAin1 bundles the actin filament network. However, the specific biochemical properties of SpAin1 and whether they are tailored for cytokinesis are not known. Therefore we purified SpAin1 and quantified its ability to dynamically bind and bundle actin filaments in vitro using a combination of bulk sedimentation assays and direct visualization by two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that, while SpAin1 bundles actin filaments of mixed polarity like other α-actinins, SpAin1 has lower bundling activity and is more dynamic than human α-actinin HsACTN4. To determine whether dynamic bundling is important for cytokinesis in fission yeast, we created the less dynamic bundling mutant SpAin1(R216E). We found that dynamic bundling is critical for cytokinesis, as cells expressing SpAin1(R216E) display disorganized ring material and delays in both ring formation and constriction. Furthermore, computer simulations of initial actin filament elongation and alignment revealed that an intermediate level of cross-linking best facilitates filament alignment. Together our results demonstrate that dynamic bundling by SpAin1 is important for proper contractile ring formation and constriction. PMID:27075176

  14. Sulfide geochemistry and genesis of Chouichia and Ain el Bey copper deposits in northwestern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slim-Shimi, N.; Moëlo, Y.; Tlig, S.; Lévy, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Chouichia and Ain el Bey copper veins that occur in the Eastern Atlas fold belt in northwestern Tunisia, are hosted in Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary sequences in a regional transcurrent shear zone. Paragenetic assemblages were formed during four distinct stages all of which are separated by fracturing and brecciation: Stage 1 consists of low temperature siderite (160 180 °C) formation in association with pyrite, including framboidal pyrite and marcasite. Stage 2 includes pseudomorphing of marcasite by As-rich pyrite and arsenopyrite, and formation of chalcopyrite at higher temperatures (200 300 °C) from S-rich, Fe-Cu-bearing fluids; As contents in individual pyrite and arsenopyrite crystals increase markedly in the rims relative to the centers, thus indicating non-equilibrium conditions. Stage 3 involves fracturing and brecciation predating deposition of enargite, luzonite and tennantite at Ain el Bey, and famatinite and tetrahedrite at Chouichia, from As-Sb-Bi-bearing ore-forming fluids; tennantite-tetrahedrite series exhibit iron and copper-excess replacements in tetrahedral sites inter-related with Cu-Fe interactions (electron transfer). In Stage 4 fracturing was followed by calcite formation in voids. Comprehensive data was obtained from scanning electron microprobe (SEM) and microprobe chemical analyses of minerals, geothermometry using sulfur isotopes, As contents in arsenopyrite crystals and fluid inclusions in siderite and calcite, support an input of magmatic hydrothermal ore-forming fluids, although contamination by sedimentary sulfur were also identified.

  15. Analysis of Urban Expansion of the Resort City of Al Ain Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, S.; Al Shuwaihi, A.

    2009-12-01

    The urban growth of AL Ain city has been investigated using remote sensing data for three different dates, 1972, 1990 and 2000. We used three Landsat images together with socio-economic data in a post-classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Al Ain resort city, United Arab Emirates. Land use/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner (MSS). Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) images for 1972. 1990 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built-up area has expanded by about 170.53km2. The city was found to have a tendency for major expansion in four different directions: along the Abu Dhabi highway, along Dubai highway, Myziad direction and Hafeet recreational area. Expansion in any direction was found to be governed by the availability of road network, suitability for construction, utilities, economic activities, geographical constraints, and legal factors (boundary with Sultanate of Oman). The road network in particular has influenced the spatial patterns and structure of urban development, so that the expansion of the built-up areas has assumed an accretive as well as linear growth along the major roads. The research concludes that the development is based on conservation of agricultural areas (oases) and reclamation of the desert for farming and agricultural activities. The integration of remote sensing and GIS was found to be effective in monitoring LULC changes and providing valuable information necessary for planning and research.

  16. High Quality Al-Polar AIN Growth on (0001) Sapphire Using Polarity-Selective Thermal Etching by High Temperature Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Minhwan; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Eom, Daeyong; Pyeon, Jaedo; Heo, Cheon; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we suggest a polarity-selective in-situ thermal etching and re-growth process for the fabrication of high quality Al terminated AIN epilayers by high temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Mixed-polar AIN layers grown on a thin (5 nm) buffer layer at a high temperature (950 degrees C) exhibited high crystalline quality. Surface morphologies of in-situ thermally etched AIN layers depended on the grain size and distance between grains. Increasing the initial grain size and diminishing the space between grains increased etching depth and width. During re-growth, threading dislocations were bent and annihilated in the vicinity of voids, which were formed by lateral growth of Al-polar AIN regions after thermal etching. Finally, a high quality Al-polar AIN template, as verified by an aqueous KOH solution, was successfully fabricated.

  17. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  18. GrameneMart: the biomart data portal for the gramene project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gramene project was an early adopter of the BioMart software, which remains an integral and well-used component of the Gramene web site. BioMart accessible data sets include plant gene annotations, plant variation catalogues, genetic markers, physical mapping entities, public DNA/mRNA sequences ...

  19. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  20. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  1. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  2. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  3. Dietary intake of ain-93 standard diet induces Fatty liver with altered hepatic fatty acid profile in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Farias Santos, Juliana; Suruagy Amaral, Monique; Lima Oliveira, Suzana; Porto Barbosa, Júnia; Rego Cabral-Jr, Cyro; Sofia Melo, Ingrid; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte Freitas, Johnatan; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio; Rocha Ataíde, Terezinha

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: En la investigación científica, hay varias dietas estándar para los animales, generalmente concebidas por instituciones científicas. La dieta AIN-93 es ampliamente utilizada, pero hay algunos informes de esteatosis hepática en ratones Wistar alimentadas con esta dieta. Objetivo: Evaluar las repercusiones hepáticas de la ingesta de la dieta estándar AIN-93 en ratones Wistar. Métodos: Cuarenta recién destetados, ratones Wistar machos, con 21 días de edad fueron alimentados con la dieta AIN-93 o una dieta comercial, durante 1 mes o 4 meses. El aumento de peso, la bioquímica sérica, la histología hepática y el perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos fueron analizados. Resultados: Se observó esteatosis hepática, especialmente en el grupo alimentado con la dieta AIN-93. Glucosa en suero, peso absoluto y relativo del hígado y los niveles hepáticos de ácidos grasos oleico, palmitoleico, esteárico y palmítico se relacionaron con la esteatosis observada, mientras el lipidograma y los marcadores sanguíneos de la función hepática, no se relacionaron. Conclusión: La dieta estándar AIN-93 causó esteatosis hepática aguda en ratones Wistar, que puede comprometer su uso como una dieta estándar para los estudios experimentales con roedores. El perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos se asoció con la esteatosis, con posibles implicaciones para el pronóstico de la enfermedad.

  4. Allergenic Dermatophagoides mites causing asthma among schoolchildren at Ain-Shams District, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammad K

    2011-04-01

    The present study was performed on house dust samples collected from ten homes of schoolchildren suffering from asthma at Ain-Shams district, over a period of two years (2008 & 2009). The data revealed that the total annual density of the two allergenic mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) & Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) was 202 individual mites with 22 asthmatic children in the first year, and individual mites increased to 268 with 36 asthmatic children in the second year. The two house dust mites were more abundant in bedrooms than in living ones (292 & 187 mites, respectively). The prevalence of the house dust mites on the mattresses and furniture were higher in bedrooms and living rooms than on the floors (340 & 140 mite, respectively). Winter season recorded the highest prevalence for both mites in the first and second year (87 & 110, respectively). Summer represented the lowest values (19 & 25, respectively).

  5. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C.; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  6. Adenovirus MART-1–engineered Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine for Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Lisa H.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Vujanovic, Lazar; Lee, Yohan; Dissette, Vivian B.; Yang, Jin-Quan; Vu, Hong T.; Seja, Elizabeth; Oseguera, Denise K.; Potter, Douglas M.; Glaspy, John A.; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Summary We performed a phase 1/2 trial testing the safety, toxicity, and immune response of a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-defective adenovirus (AdV) encoding the full-length melanoma antigen MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1). This vaccine was designed to activate MART-1–specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Metastatic melanoma patients received 3 injections of 106 or 107 DCs, delivered intradermally. Cell surface phenotype and cytokine production of the DCs used for the vaccines were tested, and indicated intermediate maturity. CD8+ T-cell responses to MART-127-35 were assessed by both major histocompatibility complex class I tetramer and interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) before, during, and after each vaccine and CD4+ T-cell responses to MART-151-73 were followed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. We also measured antigen response breadth. Determinant spreading from the immunizing antigen MART-1 to other melanoma antigens [gp100, tyrosinase, human melanoma antigen-A3 (MAGE-A3)] was assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. Twenty-three patients were enrolled and 14 patients received all 3 scheduled DC vaccines. Significant CD8+ and/or CD4+ MART-1–specific T-cell responses were observed in 6/11 and 2/4 patients evaluated, respectively, indicating that the E1-deleted adeno-virus encoding the cDNA for MART-1/Melan-A (AdV-MART1)/DC vaccine activated both helper and killer T cells in vivo. Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:18317358

  7. High pressure sintering of non-oxide materials. [hot pressing AIN, TiC, and alpha-Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimado, M.; Ogawa, N.; Koizumi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Pure materials of AIN, alpha-Si3N4 and TiC, without additives were sintered at 800 C to 1400 C under the pressures of 30 kbar and 50 kbar for 0.5 hours. The maximum density of sintered bodies for the cited materials was nearly 100% for AIN, 98% for TiC and 96% for alpha-Si3N4.

  8. Contribution to the hydrodynamic modeling of groundwater in the Ain El Bel syncline Wilaya of Djelfa (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azlaoui, Mohamed; Nezli, Imed Eddine; Djelita, Belkhier; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2017-02-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, the protection and preservation of water resources is based on integrated resource managements, which will prove a fruitful way to deal with pollution and shortage of water-the source of life for man on Earth. Djelfa region, and particularly Ain El Bel, the potential water has not able to satisfy human needs,and agriculture, and industry. This article is a contribution to hydrodynamic modeling of the Barremian aquifer of Ain El Bel syncline, with "Modflow" software wich provides a deterministic two-dimensional numerical simulation in steady state and transient of underground water in the studied aquifer. The main results provided a better view of different scenarios to the piezometrics fluctuations. The established predictions show an alarming state of this aquifer, where the need for integrated management of groundwater resources is, to ensure sustainable development.

  9. Water-rock interaction and geochemistry of groundwater from the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belkhiri, Lazhar; Mouni, Lotfi; Tiri, Ammar

    2012-02-01

    Hydrochemical, multivariate statistical, and inverse geochemical modeling techniques were used to investigate the hydrochemical evolution within the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria. Cluster analysis based on major ion contents defined 3 main chemical water types, reflecting different hydrochemical processes. The first group water, group 1, has low salinity (mean EC = 735 μS/cm). The second group waters are classified as Cl-HCO(3)-alkaline earth type. The third group is made up of water samples, the cation composition of which is dominated by Ca and Mg with anion composition varying from dominantly Cl to dominantly HCO(3) plus SO(4). The varifactors obtained from R-mode FA indicate that the parameters responsible for groundwater quality variations are mainly related to the presence and dissolution of some carbonate, silicate, and evaporite minerals in the aquifer. Inverse geochemical modeling along groundwater flow paths indicates the dominant processes are the consumption of CO(2), the dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and halite, along with the precipitation of calcite, Ca-montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, and quartz.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D deficiency has been studied in various adult populations, there are few data on the prevalence of this nutritional deficiency among healthy adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to examine its correlates in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in urban schools. Healthy adolescents (N=315) from a sample of 8 schools were randomly selected from the 142 schools in Al Ain, Abu Dhabi Emirate. Outcomes measured included serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), plasma lipids, blood sugar, blood pressure and anthropometric data, nutrition and lifestyle variables. Results Fourty-one participants (19.7%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD level ≤15 ng/mL [≤37.5 nmol/L]. Using a cutoff level of 25(OH) D of ≤20 ng/ml [≤50 nmol/l] 143 participants (45.4%) were vitamin D insufficient. Overall 65.1% of study participants were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied between boys (10%) and girls (28%). In a final multivariate model, serum 25(OH) D concentrations were inversely correlated with female gender, consumption of fast food per week, and body mass index and positively correlated with physical activity scores after adjustment for age. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in adolescents, and more common in girls. PMID:23311702

  11. An epidemiologic study of the health status among elderly in Ain Shams Geriatric Unit.

    PubMed

    Aisha, A F; Fahim, H I; Gabal, M S; Ashour, M A

    1993-01-01

    A cross-sectional research was done aiming at the assessment of geriatric daily activities, gait and balance, besides assessment of different presentation of common diseases which occur commonly in the elderly. Special Geriatric Unit has been established in Ain Shams University Hospitals in 1984. This study included all those consulting that clinic in the period from January to April 1992. Out of 516 elderly, 270 (52.3%) were males and 246 (47.7%) were females and 478 (70%) of them were in the age group 60-70 years. Eating and wearing Clothes without help decreases with aging from 60-80 years (P < 0.001). Musculoskeletal functional disorders (joint pain and backpain) were the most frequent findings in both sexes (P < 0.001). Incontinence was the most prevalent genitourinary disorder among females Diabetes in combination with other diseases as hypertension and ischemic heart diseases was the most prevalent systemic disorder (28%). Therefore, it is recommended that these findings should be put into consideration for preventive gerontology.

  12. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  13. Systemic AL amyloidosis in a Beech Marten (Martes foina).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Mignone, W; Ferrero, E; Poggi, M; Biolatti, B; Bollo, E

    2013-10-01

    A wild Beech Marten (Martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. Spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red with and without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and showed green birefringence observable under polarized light. A diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis was made. This is the first description of systemic AL amyloidosis in a wild Stone Marten.

  14. Dispersal and genetic structure in the American marten, Martes americana.

    PubMed

    Broquet, T; Johnson, C A; Petit, E; Thompson, I; Burel, F; Fryxell, J M

    2006-05-01

    Natal dispersal in a vagile carnivore, the American marten (Martes americana), was studied by comparing radio-tracking data and microsatellite genetic structure in two populations occupying contrasting habitats. The genetic differentiation determined among groups of individuals using F(ST) indices appeared to be weak in both landscapes, and showed no increase with geographical distance. Genetic structure investigated using pairwise genetic distances between individuals conversely showed a pattern of isolation by distance (IBD), but only in the population occurring in a homogeneous high-quality habitat, therefore showing the advantage of individual-based analyses in detecting within-population processes and local landscape effects. The telemetry study of juveniles revealed a leptokurtic distribution of dispersal distances in both populations, and estimates of the mean squared parent-offspring axial distance (sigma2) inferred both from the genetic pattern of IBD and from the radio-tracking survey showed that most juveniles make little contribution to gene flow.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of sable, Martes zibellina.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhang, Honghai; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Zhonghua

    2012-06-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of the Sable (NC_011579) was determined using long PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). The genome was 16,523 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The gene composition and order of which was similar to most other mammals. The overall base composition of the heavy strand in descending order is A (32.0%), C (27. 6%), T (25.8%) and G (14.7%). The base compositions present clearly the A-C skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain, and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Sable. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in phylogenetics and systematics of Martes zibellina.

  16. eSciMart: Web Platform for Scientific Software Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A. P.; Demichev, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we suggest a design of a web marketplace where users of scientific application software and databases, presented in the form of web services, as well as their providers will have presence simultaneously. The model, which will be the basis for the web marketplace is close to the customer-to-customer (C2C) model, which has been successfully used, for example, on the auction sites such as eBay (ebay.com). Unlike the classical model of C2C the suggested marketplace focuses on application software in the form of web services, and standardization of API through which application software will be integrated into the web marketplace. A prototype of such a platform, entitled eSciMart, is currently being developed at SINP MSU.

  17. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Rosalind J; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detailed experimental conditions. This article is intended to give an overview of PED, describe its data content and work through examples of how to successfully mine and integrate pancreatic cancer data sets and other BioMart resources.

  18. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Rosalind J.; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R.; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detailed experimental conditions. This article is intended to give an overview of PED, describe its data content and work through examples of how to successfully mine and integrate pancreatic cancer data sets and other BioMart resources. Database URL: http://www.pancreasexpression.org PMID:21666272

  19. Adenovirus MART-1-engineered autologous dendritic cell vaccine for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Vujanovic, Lazar; Lee, Yohan; Dissette, Vivian B; Yang, Jin-Quan; Vu, Hong T; Seja, Elizabeth; Oseguera, Denise K; Potter, Douglas M; Glaspy, John A; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni

    2008-04-01

    We performed a phase 1/2 trial testing the safety, toxicity, and immune response of a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-defective adenovirus (AdV) encoding the full-length melanoma antigen MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1). This vaccine was designed to activate MART-1-specific CD+8 and CD4+ T cells. Metastatic melanoma patients received 3 injections of 10(6) or 10(7) DCs, delivered intradermally. Cell surface phenotype and cytokine production of the DCs used for the vaccines were tested, and indicated intermediate maturity. CD8+ T-cell responses to MART-1 27-35 were assessed by both major histocompatibility complex class I tetramer and interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) before, during, and after each vaccine and CD4+ T-cell responses to MART-1 51-73 were followed by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. We also measured antigen response breadth. Determinant spreading from the immunizing antigen MART-1 to other melanoma antigens [gp100, tyrosinase, human melanoma antigen-A3 (MAGE-A3)] was assessed by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. Twenty-three patients were enrolled and 14 patients received all 3 scheduled DC vaccines. Significant CD8+ and/or CD4+ MART-1-specific T-cell responses were observed in 6/11 and 2/4 patients evaluated, respectively, indicating that the E1-deleted adenovirus encoding the cDNA for MART-1/Melan-A (AdVMART1)/DC vaccine activated both helper and killer T cells in vivo. Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  20. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Mitochondrial genomes reveal the pattern and timing of marten (Martes), wolverine (Gulo), and fisher (Pekania) diversification.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yanchun; Zeng, Zhaohui

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the pattern and timescale of evolutionary diversification in the marten, wolverine, fisher, and tayra subfamily Guloninae (Mustelidae, Carnivora), several important issues still remain contentious. Among these are the phylogenetic position of Gulo relative to the subgenera of Martes (Martes and Charronia), the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Martes, and the timing of gulonine divergences. To elucidate these issues we explored nucleotide variation in 11 whole mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from eight gulonine species and two outgroup meline species. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded fully resolved and identical patterns of relationships with high support for all divergences. The generic status of Pekania (P. pennanti), the monophyly of the genus Martes containing M. flavigula (subgenus Charronia) to the exclusion of the genus Gulo (G. gulo), and the M. foina (M. americana (M. melampus (M. zibellina, M. martes))) phylogeny of the subgenus Martes were strongly supported. Dating analyses (BEAST) using a set of five newly applied fossil calibrations provided divergence times considerably younger than previous multigene mitochondrial estimates, but similar to multigene nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial estimates. The 95% confidence (highest posterior density) intervals of our divergence times fell within those inferred from nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial sequence data, and were markedly narrower than in earlier studies (whether nuclear, mitochondrial, or combined). Notably, and contrary to long-held beliefs, our findings indicate that fossils older than the Tortonian-Messinian transition (late Late Miocene) do not represent Martes, excluding from this genus its putative members from the Early, Middle, and early Late Miocene. This study demonstrates the high informativeness of the mitogenome for phylogenetic inference and divergence time estimation within Guloninae, and

  3. A Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, B. S.; Morozov, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    We find a Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations. We also discuss an integrable deformation of the Martínez Alonso-Shabat equation.

  4. Identification of epitope mimics recognized by CTL reactive to the melanoma/melanocyte-derived peptide MART-1(27-35)

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    CTL reactivity to the epitope MART-1(27-35), of the melanoma (self) antigen MART-1/melan A is frequently observed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and may be readily elicited from the peripheral blood of melanoma patients that express HLA-A*0201. Available data suggest that these observations contrast with those made for other HLA-A*0201- presented melanoma self antigens regarding the regularity of observed CTL responses. Based on preliminary findings, we hypothesized that the CTL response to MART-1 might be augmented in part by T cell encounters with peptides derived from sources other than MART-1, which show sequence similarity to MART-1(27-35). To test this idea, a protein database search for potential MART-1 epitope mimics was done using criteria developed from analyses of effector recognition of singly- substituted peptide analogues of MART-1(27-35). Synthetic peptides were made for a portion of the sequences retrieved; 12/40 peptides tested were able to sensitize target cells for lysis by one or more anti-MART- 1 effectors. The peptides recognized correspond to sequences occurring in a variety of proteins of viral, bacterial, and human (self) origin. One peptide derives from glycoprotein C of the common pathogen HSV-1; cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding native glycoprotein C were lysed by anti-MART-1 effectors. Our results overall indicate that sequences conforming to the A2.1 binding motif and possessing features essential to recognition by anti-MART-1 CTL occur frequently in proteins. These findings further suggest that T cells might encounter a variety of such sequences in vivo, and that epitope mimicry may play a role in modulating the CTL response to MART-1(27-35). PMID:8760818

  5. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae) as an antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ana Lúcia A; Vieira, Carla J B; Sousa, Daniella G; Oliveira, Regilene F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of the hexane extract (JCHE), methanol extract (JCME), and chloroform fraction (JCCF) of bark from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Family Bignoniaceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant, traditionally used as anti-syphilis and anti-gonorrhea treatment. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion method followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. JCHE was not active against the bacteria evaluated. JCME presented antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 16.3 mg/mL, 9.1 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. JCCF was active against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, S. pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, and N. gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 18.3 mg/mL, 9.3 mg/mL, 6.3 mg/mL, 6.1 mg/mL, 9.2 mg/mL, 6.2 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of JCME and JCCF gave positive results for saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, triterpenes, and steroids. Verbascoside was isolated and identified as a major peak in JCME and JCCF high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activity.

  6. Antiproliferative activity of Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Dioni A; Alves, Vanessa G; Franco, Danielle M M; Ribeiro, Laryssa C; de Souza, Maria C; Kato, Lucilia; de Carvalho, João E; Kohn, Luciana K; de Oliveira, Cecília M A; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2012-01-01

    Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae) is known as 'açoita-cavalo' and is one of the most important medicinal plants found in the Brazilian cerrado. The crude methanolic extracts of the branches and leaves and their fractions were evaluated using the following cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR (breast expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype), NCI-460 (lung), UACC-62 (melanoma), 786-0 (kidney), OVCAR (ovarian), PCO-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon) and K-562 (leukaemia). The crude methanolic extracts from the branches (B) and leaves (L) were able to inhibit the growth of the K-562 and 786-0 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with GI(50) values of 8.1 and 5.4 µg mL(-1), respectively. The hexane (L1), chloroform (L2) and methanol (L4) fractions derived from extract L showed a high selectivity and pronounced cytostatic activity against 786-0 (GI(50) ~ 40 µg mL(-1)). A significant amount of lupeol was isolated from fraction L2. The chloroform (B2) and methanol (B3) fractions derived from extract (B) exhibited less selectivity, showing the highest cytostatic activity against K-562, NCI-ADR, OVCAR, MCF-7 and NCI-460 cells, with GI(50) values between 27 and 40 µg mL(-1). Lupeol, betulin, a mixture of steroids, (-)-epicatechin, vitexin and liriodendrin were isolated from these active fractions.

  7. Tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine immobilization of American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Belant, Jerrold L

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of tiletamine-zolazepam (Telazol) and xylazine as an immobilizing combination for American martens (Martes americana) was evaluated. Fifteen martens were intramuscularly injected on 19 occasions using a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam (3.2+/-0.6 mg/kg [mean +/- SD]) and xylazine (2.1+/-0.4 mg/kg) at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan (USA) during May to October 2002-2003. Mean induction time was 2.5+/-1.8 min; mean recovery time was 70.8+/-31.9 min. There was no relation between the amount (mg/kg) of tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine injected and induction (r(2)=0.08, P=0.26). However, there was an inverse relation (r(2)=0.28, P<0.01) between dosage and time to first effect of immobilants. Time to recovery increased (r(2)=0.21, P=0.05) with increased dosage. Mean heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature declined through 10 min postinduction (P<0.05). No mortality occurred and no short-term adverse effects were observed in recaptured individuals. In conclusion, a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam/xylazine is a safe and effective immobilizing agent for martens when conducting non-surgical field procedures. Immobilizing martens with 4.2 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam and 2.8 mg/kg xylazine should provide < or =30 min of handling time and allow full recovery in about 70 min.

  8. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka.

  9. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens.

  10. Occurrence of internal parasites in stone martens (Martes foina) from Cracow and suburbs.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Wierzbowska, Izabela A; Górski, Paweł; Okarma, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    The pine marten Martes martes and the stone marten Martes foina are the only representatives of the genus Martes in Poland. During the last few decades, an intensive synurbisation of stone martens has been recorded. The aim of the study was to assess the level of infection by internal parasites of Martes foina in the Cracow urban area. Eleven necropsies were performed of stone martens killed during animal-vehicle collisions. Additionally, coprological examination of 129 stone marten scats was included. For further analysis, two standard methods, i.e. flotation and decantation, were used. The intensity of infection by parasites was low. Taenia martis was found to be present in one marten individual by necropsy, while Taeniidae helminths and two genera of nematodes, Capillaria and Toxocara, were identified during coprodiagnosis. The diet analysis of stone marten scats revealed a high proportion of two food categories. Percentage frequency of occurrence for plant material and anthropogenic was calculated as 42.3% and 15.4%, respectively. This type of food composition might suggest lower infection by internal parasites in particular species, especially with an indirect life cycle.

  11. Seismic expression of Marts field (Silurian reef) in Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Renick, H.J. Jr.; Rene, R.M.; Hester, N.C.; Stanonis, F.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Marts field of Sullivan County, Indiana, is associated with a Silurian reef that is part of the Terre Haute bank on the eastern flank of the Illinois basin. Gas production has come from Pennsylvanian sandstones at Marts field, and oil is presently being produced from limestones of the Devonian Muscatatuck Group. Hydrocarbons were trapped in the Devonian limestones because of structural drape over the reef. A 2.8-km (1.8-mi) north-south 24-CDP reflection seismic profile across the Marts field was obtained by using a hydraulic-assisted weight drop with a source array interval of 16.7 m (55 ft). The data were digitally processed through statics corrections, deconvolution, stack, and migration. These data clearly image drape in Carboniferous and Devonian strata, a characteristic change in reflection pattern at the reef flanks, and diffractions associated with the reef flanks. Near Marts field, one well penetrates Silurian strata, and a synthetic seismogram for this off-reef well is tied to the seismic section. Using well data from Marts and other reefs, mirror-imaged cross-plots of depths to tops of formations vs. depth to top of the Devonian limestone aid in examination of the drape. These plots of transformed cross sections approximate those of vertically stacked right circular cones indicative of the linear relationships between depths to formations.

  12. [Enhancing development of children at risk and their parents by video counselling according to the Marte Meo method].

    PubMed

    Bünder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Marte Meo is a low-intensity programme of counselling parents and other persons significantly involved with children which aims to foster parenting capacity and facilitate child development. The article describes a preliminary pilot study with the aim of identifying variables for the future evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the Marte Meo method.

  13. Influence of bilayer period on the characteristics of nanometre-scale ZrN/TiAIN multilayers.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, A; Kiss, A; Popescu, A; Braic, M; Balaceanu, M; Braic, V; Tudor, I; Logofatu, C; Negrila, C C; Rapeanu, R

    2008-02-01

    In the last decade, considerable research effort was directed to the deposition of multilayer films with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range (superlattice coatings), in order to increase the performance of various cutting tools and machine parts. The goal of the present work was to investigate the main microstructural, mechanical and wear resistance characteristics of a superlattice coating, consisting of alternate multilayer ZrN/TiAIN films, with various bilayer periods (5 / 20 nm). The coatings were deposited by the cathodic arc method on Si, plain carbon steel and high speed steel substrates to be used as wear resistance surfaces. The multilayer structures were prepared by using shutters placed in front of each cathode (Zr and Ti+Al). The characteristics of multilayer structures (elemental and phase composition, texture, Vickers microhardness, thickness, adhesion, and wear resistance) were determined by using various techniques (AES, XPS, XRD, microhardness measurements, scratch, and tribological tests). A comparison with the properties of ZrN and TiAIN single-layer coatings was carried out.

  14. Ketamine and midazolam anesthesia in Pacific martens (Martes caurina).

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack A; Moriarty, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of midazolam as a tranquilizer for anesthesia in mustelids in conjunction with the cyclohexamine ketamine is not well documented. Because midazolam is fast acting, inexpensive, and quickly metabolized, it may serve as a good alternative to other more commonly used tranquilizers. We trapped and anesthetized 27 Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in Lassen National Forest (northern California, US) August 2010-April 2013. We assessed anesthesia with ketamine at 18 and 25 mg/kg combined with 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam by comparing mean times of induction, return to consciousness, and recovery, plus physiologic parameters. No reversal was used for the midazolam portion of the anesthetic. Mean (±SD) induction for both ketamine dosages was 1.7±0.5 and 1.8±1.0 min, respectively. Return to consciousness mean times were 8.0 min longer (P<0.001) for martens receiving a 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Mean recoveries were 15.1 min longer (P<0.003) for the 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Physiologic parameter means were similar for both ketamine dosages with no statistically significant differences. Body temperatures and heart and respiratory rates were generally stable, but percentage of oxygen saturation and end tidal carbon dioxide values were below those seen in previous mustelid studies. The combination of ketamine, at both dosages, and midazolam provided reliable field anesthesia for Pacific martens, and supplemental oxygen is recommended as needed.

  15. Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Properties of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. D.; White, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O is an important oxide semiconductor in advanced display technologies. Despite its importance, little has been reported on the thermal and elastic properties of this material. Here, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, shear modulus, and internal friction of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 films are presented. The thermal conductivity of a-In2Ga2ZnO7, measured from 100 K to room temperature, was found to be larger than that of a-InGaZnO4 over the entire temperature range. At room temperature the thermal conductivities were 1.9 W/m K and 1.4 W/m K for the a-In2Ga2ZnO7 and a-InGaZnO4 films, respectively. The shear modulus and internal friction of these films were measured in the temperature range of 340 mK to 65 K. At 4.2 K the shear modulus of the a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2 Ga2ZnO7 films was 44 GPa and 42 GPa, respectively. The internal friction of thin films at each composition exhibited a temperature dependence and magnitude that is in agreement with that observed in all amorphous solids. As the self-heating effect is of concern in the development of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O based thin film transistors on low thermal conductivity substrates, a thermal model of such a device utilizing a-In2Ga2ZnO7 or a-InGaZnO4 as the active layer was explored. It was found that the temperature increase of the thin film transistor channel is essentially independent of the thermal conductivity of the active layer.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  17. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-06-01

    The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

  18. Eruption Constraints for a Young Channelized Lava Flow, Marte Vallis, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Therkelsen, J. P.; Santiago, S. S.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    This study constrains flow rates for a specific channelized lava flow in Marte Vallis, Mars. We measured slope-gradient, channel width, and channel depth. Our results are similar to other recent studies which suggests similarities to long, terrestrial basaltic flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. EnsMart: a generic system for fast and flexible access to biological data.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Arek; Keefe, Damian; Smedley, Damian; London, Darin; Spooner, William; Melsopp, Craig; Hammond, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Cox, Tony; Birney, Ewan

    2004-01-01

    The EnsMart system (www.ensembl.org/EnsMart) provides a generic data warehousing solution for fast and flexible querying of large biological data sets and integration with third-party data and tools. The system consists of a query-optimized database and interactive, user-friendly interfaces. EnsMart has been applied to Ensembl, where it extends its genomic browser capabilities, facilitating rapid retrieval of customized data sets. A wide variety of complex queries, on various types of annotations, for numerous species are supported. These can be applied to many research problems, ranging from SNP selection for candidate gene screening, through cross-species evolutionary comparisons, to microarray annotation. Users can group and refine biological data according to many criteria, including cross-species analyses, disease links, sequence variations, and expression patterns. Both tabulated list data and biological sequence output can be generated dynamically, in HTML, text, Microsoft Excel, and compressed formats. A wide range of sequence types, such as cDNA, peptides, coding regions, UTRs, and exons, with additional upstream and downstream regions, can be retrieved. The EnsMart database can be accessed via a public Web site, or through a Java application suite. Both implementations and the database are freely available for local installation, and can be extended or adapted to 'non-Ensembl' data sets.

  20. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations.

  1. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  2. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  3. Massive infestation with fur mites (Lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Visser, Martin; Messner, Christian; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    A massive infestation with Lynxacarus mustelae (Megnin, 1885) (Acari, Astigmata, Listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol, Austria. In addition, Ixodes rugicollis and Trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in Austria, and the five species of helminths found (Capillaria aerophila, C. mustelorum, C. paranalis, C. plica, Molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.

  4. COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEMS IN MARTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY OF ENDEMIC FAUNAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex assemblages of hosts and parasites reveal insights about biogeography and ecology and inform us about processes which serve to structure faunal diversity and the biosphere in space and time. Exploring aspects of parasite diversity among martens (species of Martes) and other mustelids reveal...

  5. EnsMart: A Generic System for Fast and Flexible Access to Biological Data

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzyk, Arek; Keefe, Damian; Smedley, Damian; London, Darin; Spooner, William; Melsopp, Craig; Hammond, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Cox, Tony; Birney, Ewan

    2004-01-01

    The EnsMart system (www.ensembl.org/EnsMart) provides a generic data warehousing solution for fast and flexible querying of large biological data sets and integration with third-party data and tools. The system consists of a query-optimized database and interactive, user-friendly interfaces. EnsMart has been applied to Ensembl, where it extends its genomic browser capabilities, facilitating rapid retrieval of customized data sets. A wide variety of complex queries, on various types of annotations, for numerous species are supported. These can be applied to many research problems, ranging from SNP selection for candidate gene screening, through cross-species evolutionary comparisons, to microarray annotation. Users can group and refine biological data according to many criteria, including cross-species analyses, disease links, sequence variations, and expression patterns. Both tabulated list data and biological sequence output can be generated dynamically, in HTML, text, Microsoft Excel, and compressed formats. A wide range of sequence types, such as cDNA, peptides, coding regions, UTRs, and exons, with additional upstream and downstream regions, can be retrieved. The EnsMart database can be accessed via a public Web site, or through a Java application suite. Both implementations and the database are freely available for local installation, and can be extended or adapted to `non-Ensembl' data sets. PMID:14707178

  6. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  7. A miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART) as a compact breaking wave analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, M. Dale; Deane, Grant; Collins, Douglas B.; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Dommer, Abigail; Schill, Steven; Forestieri, Sara; Survilo, Mathew

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols, repeatable, controlled methods for their generation are required. A new system, the miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART), has been designed after the success of the original MART system, to approximate a small oceanic spilling breaker by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The smaller tank utilizes an intermittently plunging jet of water produced by a rotating water wheel, into an approximately 6 L reservoir to simulate bubble plume and foam formation and generate aerosols. This system produces bubble plumes characteristic of small whitecaps without the large external pump inherent in the original MART design. Without the pump it is possible to easily culture delicate planktonic and microbial communities in the bulk water during experiments while continuously producing aerosols for study. However, due to the reduced volume and smaller plunging jet, the absolute numbers of particles generated are approximately an order of magnitude less than in the original MART design.

  8. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biologi...

  9. [Water and energy metabolism in representatives of the genus Martes and Mustela (Mammalia: Mustelidae)].

    PubMed

    Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Rozhnov, V V; Naĭdenko, S V

    2003-01-01

    The quantities of consumed food and water, quantity and moisture content of faeces, as well as quantity and concentration of excreted urine were determined in representatives of Martes--marten (M. martes) and sable (M. zibellina)--as well as in polecat (Mustela putorius). Under the same cage conditions and free access to food, all three species had similar energy value of the daily diet. However, the level of drinking water consumption and the ratio between the quantities of arriving water and energy was reliably higher in both Martes species than in polecat. In addition, both marten and sable featured a much higher rate of evaporation loss in the overall water balance and, consequently, a higher quantity of heat dissipated with evaporation as compared to polecat. Comparison of the obtained and previous data (Sokolov et al., 1995; Rozhnov, 1991) allowed us to propose that the mentioned differences can be specific for representatives of Martes and Mustela genera irrespective of ecological specialization of particular species.

  10. Flavonoids from acai (euterpe oleracea mart.) Pulp and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-'-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds ...

  11. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-09-23

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals.

  12. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  13. The vitamin D analog, MART-10, represses metastasis potential via downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-11-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PDA) is a devastating disease and there is no effective treatment available at present. To develop new regiments against PDA is urgently needed. Previously we have shown that vitamin D analog, MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), exerted potent antiproliferative effect on PDA in vitro and in vivo without causing hypercalcemia. Since metastasis is the major cause of PDA-related death, we therefore investigate the anti-metastasis effect of MART-10 on PDA. Our results showed that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 repressed migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PANC cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells through downregulation of Snail, Slug, and Vimentin expression in BxPC-3 and PANC cells. MART-10 further blocked cadherin switch (from E-cadherin to N-cadherin) in BxPC-3 cells. The F-actin synthesis in the cytoplasm of BxPC-3 cells was also repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 as determined by immunofluorescence stain. Both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 decreased MMP-2 and -9 secretion in BxPC-3 cells as determined by western blot and zymography. Collectively, MART-10 should be deemed as a promising regimen against PDA.

  14. A hydrometeorological and geospatial analysis of precipitation within the Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge using the R2AIn-GIS tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokry, William John, Jr.

    Weather radar (radio detection and ranging) is a specialized meteorological tool used to sample and track meteorological objects. This tool is critical for meteorologists and public decision-makers to inform and provide for their constituents in a timely manner, often with the protection of lives and property on the line. With the application of using meteorological and geospatial data in the realm of geographic information systems (G.I.S.), the task of blending the two sciences to inhibit further research and dissemination of information occurs. This study focuses on the creation and implementation of a new geospatial tool, the Radar and Rainfall Analyzed in GIS (R2AIn-GIS) tool. The R2AIn-GIS tool was built upon the initial concepts from Zhang and Srinivasan's (2010) NEXRAD validation and calibration (NEXRAD-VC) tool for G.I.S. R2AIn-GIS is updated to support the latest software features present in the geospatial world as well as analyze dual-polarization radar products. To test the R2AIn-GIS tool, a warm seasonal precipitation study along with statistical analysis was performed over the Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge in Minnesota, the largest prairie and wetland restoration site. Utilizing rain gauges operated by the United States Geological Survey, warm season precipitation events from 24 May 2012 to 31 August 2013 were analyzed using the R2AIn-GIS tool. The R2AIn-GIS tool calculates the values from various dual-polarization radar products in conjunction with the recorded precipitation gauges to provide a detailed depiction of the weather event. Statistical tests including several iterations of multiple-linear regression of various combinations of dual-polarization radar variables allowed determination of rainfall rate prediction equations over the study area. This contributes to the body of radar literature regarding the best prediction equations for other locations. Unlike treatments in prior literature, most of the various assumptions in multiple

  15. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted.

  16. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina).

  17. BioMart Central Portal--unified access to biological data.

    PubMed

    Haider, Syed; Ballester, Benoit; Smedley, Damian; Zhang, Junjun; Rice, Peter; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2009-07-01

    BioMart Central Portal (www.biomart.org) offers a one-stop shop solution to access a wide array of biological databases. These include major biomolecular sequence, pathway and annotation databases such as Ensembl, Uniprot, Reactome, HGNC, Wormbase and PRIDE; for a complete list, visit, http://www.biomart.org/biomart/martview. Moreover, the web server features seamless data federation making cross querying of these data sources in a user friendly and unified way. The web server not only provides access through a web interface (MartView), it also supports programmatic access through a Perl API as well as RESTful and SOAP oriented web services. The website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement.

  18. Molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria repens in beech marten (Martes foina) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Hurníková, Z; Zaleśny, G; Chovancová, B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we present the first finding of Dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in Martes foina. Molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from Tatra National Park, Northern Slovakia, confirmed the presence of D. repens in one of them. Finding of D. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of Dirofilaria parasites.

  19. Ionizing radiation affects human MART-1 melanoma antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Butterfield, Lisa H; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni; Meng, Wilson S; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; McBride, William H

    2004-08-15

    Radiation is generally considered to be an immunosuppressive agent that acts by killing radiosensitive lymphocytes. In this study, we demonstrate the noncytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on MHC class I Ag presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that have divergent consequences depending upon whether peptides are endogenously processed and loaded onto MHC class I molecules or are added exogenously. The endogenous pathway was examined using C57BL/6 murine DCs transduced with adenovirus to express the human melanoma/melanocyte Ag recognized by T cells (AdVMART1). Prior irradiation abrogated the ability of AdVMART1-transduced DCs to induce MART-1-specific T cell responses following their injection into mice. The ability of these same DCs to generate protective immunity against B16 melanoma, which expresses murine MART-1, was also abrogated by radiation. Failure of AdVMART1-transduced DCs to generate antitumor immunity following irradiation was not due to cytotoxicity or to radiation-induced block in DC maturation or loss in expression of MHC class I or costimulatory molecules. Expression of some of these molecules was affected, but because irradiation actually enhanced the ability of DCs to generate lymphocyte responses to the peptide MART-1(27-35) that is immunodominant in the context of HLA-A2.1, they were unlikely to be critical. The increase in lymphocyte reactivity generated by irradiated DCs pulsed with MART-1(27-35) also protected mice against growth of B16-A2/K(b) tumors in HLA-A2.1/K(b) transgenic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that radiation modulates MHC class I-mediated antitumor immunity by functionally affecting DC Ag presentation pathways.

  20. The antibody response against MART-1 differs in patients with melanoma-associated leucoderma and vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Teulings, Hansje-Eva; Willemsen, Karin J; Glykofridis, Iris; Krebbers, Gabrielle; Komen, Lisa; Kroon, Marije W; Kemp, E Helen; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, J P Wietze; Luiten, Rosalie M; Tjin, Esther P M

    2014-11-01

    Patients with melanoma may develop skin depigmentation spontaneously or following therapy, referred to as melanoma-associated leucoderma (MAL). As clinical presentation of MAL may precede primary/metastatic melanoma detection, recognition of MAL is important to prevent its misdiagnosis as vitiligo and the subsequent application of immunosuppressive treatment. To reveal the immunity involved in MAL development, we investigated the presence of antibody and T-cell immune responses directed against the melanocyte-differentiation-antigens MART-1 (Melan-A), tyrosinase and gp100 in patients with MAL, as compared to patients with vitiligo. Autoantibodies to gp100 and tyrosinase were commonly found in both diseases. Interestingly, MART-1 antibodies were only present in patients with MAL. Melanocyte antigen-specific T cells were found in all patients, with relatively more specific T cells in patients with active vitiligo. Although MAL and vitiligo may appear clinically similar, our results indicate that the humoral immune responses against MART-1 differ between these diseases, which can help to differentiate MAL from vitiligo.

  1. Ensembl BioMarts: a hub for data retrieval across taxonomic space.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Rhoda J; Kähäri, Andreas; Haider, Syed; Zamora, Jorge; Proctor, Glenn; Spudich, Giulietta; Almeida-King, Jeff; Staines, Daniel; Derwent, Paul; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kersey, Paul; Flicek, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For a number of years the BioMart data warehousing system has proven to be a valuable resource for scientists seeking a fast and versatile means of accessing the growing volume of genomic data provided by the Ensembl project. The launch of the Ensembl Genomes project in 2009 complemented the Ensembl project by utilizing the same visualization, interactive and programming tools to provide users with a means for accessing genome data from a further five domains: protists, bacteria, metazoa, plants and fungi. The Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts provide a point of access to the high-quality gene annotation, variation data, functional and regulatory annotation and evolutionary relationships from genomes spanning the taxonomic space. This article aims to give a comprehensive overview of the Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts as well as some useful examples and a description of current data content and future objectives. Database URLs: http://www.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://metazoa.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://plants.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://protists.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://fungi.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://bacteria.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/.

  2. The role of oxbow lakes in the off-channel storage of bed material along the Ain River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieras, Pauline Lola; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, T. C.; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie

    2013-04-01

    Incidents of chute cutoff redistribute floodplain sediment into rivers, causing downstream bar growth while simultaneously creating accommodation space for the storage of sediment within the floodplain in the form of oxbow lakes. Oxbows may be able to sequester enough sediment to balance the amount produced by chute incision, but the long-term consequences of chute cutoff on reach-scale sediment budgets have so far remained unclear. This has been due to a relative paucity of field observations that quantify the exchange of coarse sediment between the channel and floodplain. Here, we take advantage of a unique opportunity to document the sediment budget of a reach of the Ain River, France, that has experienced three recent incidents of chute cutoff. Monitoring of the river prior to chute incision allowed us to precisely quantify the rates of bed-material transfer over a thirteen-year period using a combination of bathymetric surveys, LiDAR data, and aerial photographs. The abandoned channels under study sequestered between 17 and 40% of the sediment introduced to the channel, with most of the rest of the sediment being stored within the river itself. Aggradation of the abandoned channels was not evenly distributed, instead occurring by the growth of point bars and thus implying that the abandoned channel planform may be an important control on aggradation rates. Our results make clear that although oxbows may provide a significant sink for bed material, the amount of sediment sequestered within them cannot compensate for the loading caused by chute incision.

  3. MART-10 represses cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and high vitamin D receptor expression indicates better prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chan; Juang, Horng-Heng; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Hsu, Jun-Te; Takano, Masashi; Chen, Tai C.; Kittaka, Atsushi; Hsiao, Michael; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to no effective treatments available. Since the non-mineral functions of vitamin D emerges, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D, has been applied in anti-cancer researches. In this study, we demonstrated that both the 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, and 1α,25(OH)2D3 possessed anti-growth effect on human CCA cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The growth inhibition of both drugs were mediated by induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through upregulation of p27 and downregulation of CDK4, CDK6, and cyclin D3. Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) was found to be involved in 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 meditated growth inhibition for CCA as knockdown of NGAL decreased Ki-67 expression in SNU308 cells and rendered SNU308 cells less responsive to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockdown partly abolished MART-10-induced inhibition of NGAL and cell growth in SNU308 cells. The xenograft animal study demonstrated MART-10 could effectively repressed CCA growth in vivo without inducing obvious side effects. The IHC examination of human CCA specimen for VDR revealed that higher VDR expression was linked with better prognosis. Collectively, our results suggest that MART-10 could be a promising regimen for CCA treatment. PMID:28256614

  4. MART-1 adenovirus-transduced dendritic cell immunization in a murine model of metastatic central nervous system tumor.

    PubMed

    Broder, Howard; Anderson, Andrea; Kremen, Thomas J; Odesa, Sylvia K; Liau, Linda M

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to play a critical role in the initiation of host immune responses against tumor antigens. In this study, a recombinant adenovirus vector encoding the melanoma-associated antigen, MART-1, was used to transduce murine DCs, which were then tested for their ability to activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and induce protective immunity against B16 melanoma tumor cells implanted intracranially. Genetic modifications of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to express MART-1 was achieved through the use of an E1-deficient, recombinant adenovirus vector. Sixty-two C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously with AdVMART-1-transduced DCs (n = 23), untransduced DCs (n = 17), or sterile saline (n = 22). Using the B16 murine melanoma, which naturally expresses the MART-1 antigen, all the mice were then challenged intracranially with viable, unmodified syngeneic B16 tumor cells 7 days later. Splenocytes from representative animals in each group were harvested for standard cytotoxicity (CTL) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. The remaining mice were followed for survival. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with DCs transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding the MART-1 antigen elicited the development of antigen-specific CTL responses. As evidenced by a prolonged survival curve when compared to control-immunized mice with intracranial B16 tumors, AdMART-1-DC vaccination was able to elicit partial protection against central nervous system tumor challenge in vivo.

  5. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M

    2009-03-01

    Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines.

  6. Parasitological and molecular features of the Hepatozoon species in the myocardium of Japanese Martens (Martes melampus melampus).

    PubMed

    Kubo, Masahito; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Sakai, Hiroki; Masegi, Toshiaki; Panciera, Roger J; Yanai, Tokuma

    2009-12-01

    The Hepatozoon species in the myocardium of Japanese martens (Martes melampus melampus) was characterized by histological and molecular methods. Histologically, granulomatous nodules with Hepatozoon sp. merozoites/gametocytes, or schizonts, or both were observed in the hearts of Japanese martens. The most frequently observed forms were merozoites/gametocytes within phagocytes; each host cell included a zoite, which was not microscopically identifiable as a merozoite or gametocyte. Schizonts were oval in shape and 36.9 ± 5.7 x 28.9 ± 3.4 μm in size; each schizont had approximately 20-60 nuclei. The size of the merozoites could not be measured because no mature schizonts were observed. In the analyses of the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, it was strongly suggested that the Hepatozoon sp. in Japanese marten and the Hepatozoon sp. in pine marten (Martes martes) in Scotland were the same species.

  7. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P < 0.0001) and E. coli (significance P < 0.05) bacteria against the mercury chloride heavy metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High

  8. Francisella tularensis infection in a stone marten (Martes foina) without classic pathological lesions consistent with tularemia.

    PubMed

    Origgi, Francesco C; Wu, Natacha; Pilo, Paola

    2013-07-01

    The current report describes the isolation and typing of a strain of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, from the spleen of a stone marten (Martes foina) showing no classic lesions consistent with the disease. The identification of this bacterium, belonging to the World Health Organization risk 3 category and considered to have a low infectious dose, could be performed only because of an ongoing project screening F. tularensis in the environment sensu lato. The findings described herein should alert diagnostic laboratories of the possible presence of F. tularensis in clinical samples in countries where tularemia is endemic even in cases with no consistent anamnesis and from unsuspected animal species.

  9. Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis and description of intramuscular sarcocysts in a fisher (Martes pennanti).

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Richard W; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Lindsay, David S

    2005-01-01

    A free-ranging juvenile fisher (Martes pennanti) with ataxia, lethargy, stupor, and intermittent, whole-body tremors was examined postmortem. Microscopically, the fisher had protozoal meningoencephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism testing, and genetic sequencing. Sarcocysts found in the skeletal muscle of the fisher were negative for S. neurona by PCR, but were morphologically similar to previous light and electron microscopy descriptions of S. neurona. This is the first report of clinical neural S. neurona infection in a fisher.

  10. [Growth of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms Laubach) in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Lareo, L

    1981-12-01

    The growth and reproduction rates of water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes (Mart) Solms Laubach) in tropical areas, under natural and fertilized controlled conditions, were studied. The fertilizer used was swine fecal matter at three different levels: 1.25, 2.5 and 5%. The highest rate of growth was found with the 2.5% concentration, and this value was 49.16 g/m2/day on a dry-weight basis. Under natural conditions the rate of growth was 18.39 g/m2/day on a dry-weight basis. These results represent a yearly production in ton/ha among the highest reported in the world.

  11. [Changes in correlations between commercially valuable characters of the sable Martes zibellina L. during artificial selection].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Labeznyĭ, O E; Imasheva, A G

    2008-11-01

    A farm population of the sable Martes zibellina L. has been selected for darker coat color during 40 years. Correlations between fitness characters and correlations of these characters with the selected character have been monitored. Correlation analysis has shown that the female fertility in the first year of reproduction is a promising predictor of how valuable the female will be for further breeding. Artificial directional selection has been shown to change the correlations that have been formed in natural populations of the sable. The relationship of this phenomenon with a decrease in the overall fitness during selection that has been observed in the sable population is discussed.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae.

  13. A Clinical Audit on Diabetes Care in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Abdulla; Elnour, Asim; Abdulle, Abdishakur

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To implement a prospective interventional clinical audit to evaluate the current clinical practice and the effect of standard interventions on the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: 254 patients with T2DM where recruited in a specialized diabetes care center in Al-Ain, UAE. The diabetes care components were audited before (baseline) and after (3 and 6 months) implementation of Institute of Clinical System Improvement (ICSI) guidelines. Data was compared against international guidelines to achieve target goals of normoglycemia, blood pressure (BP), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). We measured changes in mean scores of patient satisfaction level regarding diabetes care at similar intervals, by validated Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18). Results: We observed a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG; mean± SD; 9.3 ± 0.03 vs 7.4 ± 0.3mmol/l; P=0.03), and HbA1c (8.7 ± 0.02 vs 8.1 ± 0.02 %; P=0.04) levels after 6 months compared with baseline. Patients who achieved target FBG and HbA1c levels improved significantly (45.7 vs 81.1%; P=0.03), and (40.1 vs 73.6%; P=0.04), respectively. The LDL-C levels improved, though this was not statistically significant. Patients achieving target of BP control improved significantly (SBP 142±7.6 and DBP 95±6.2 vs SBP 136±8.2 and DBP 87±5.8 mmHg;P=0.05). Conclusions: The results of this interventional audit were generally positive and emphasized the feasibility of improving the current clinical practice. Our individualized approach has helped us to achieve a better target in glycemic and BP control as well as patient satisfaction. Further research is needed to understand the long-term impact of our structured approach to improve the quality of T2DM care in the UAE. PMID:23136620

  14. An analysis of natural ventilation techniques to achieve indoor comfort in Wal-Mart express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Shona

    Despite global efforts to reduce world fossil fuel dependency the world still obtains 81% of its energy from fossil fuels (IEA,2009). Modern renewable alternatives have been around since the mid twentieth century these alternatives have not been integrated into electrical grid systems at the exponential rate required to eradicate fossil fuels dependency. The problem, world energy demand, is too large to be satisfied by anything other than the energy-dense fossil fuels used today. We must change our energy intensive processes in order to conserve energy and hence reduce the demands that alternatives must satisfy. This research aims to identify sustainable design opportunities through the application of innovative technologies for the largest retailer in the US with the view that a viable conservative design measure could be applied to the store model, which is replicated across the country, causing a cumulative and hence larger impact on the company energy consumption as a whole. This paper will present the literature available on the 'big box' industry and Wal-Mart, comfort, natural ventilation and building simulation software and then perform an analysis into the viability of naturally ventilating the Wal-Mart Express sales zone using Monodraught natural ventilation windcatcher products

  15. SigReannot-mart: a query environment for expression microarray probe re-annotations

    PubMed Central

    Moreews, François; Rauffet, Gaelle; Dehais, Patrice; Klopp, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Expression microarrays are commonly used to study transcriptomes. Most of the arrays are now based on oligo-nucleotide probes. Probe design being a tedious task, it often takes place once at the beginning of the project. The oligo set is then used for several years. During this time period, the knowledge gathered by the community on the genome and the transcriptome increases and gets more precise. Therefore re-annotating the set is essential to supply the biologists with up-to-date annotations. SigReannot-mart is a query environment populated with regularly updated annotations for different oligo sets. It stores the results of the SigReannot pipeline that has mainly been used on farm and aquaculture species. It permits easy extraction in different formats using filters. It is used to compare probe sets on different criteria, to choose the set for a given experiment to mix probe sets in order to create a new one. Database URL: http://sigreannot-mart.toulouse.inra.fr/ PMID:21930501

  16. Analysis of bioactivities and chemical composition of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. using HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Brito, Sharlene M O; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Talvani, Andre; Coronel, Cathia; Barbosa, Andreza G R; Vega, Celeste; Figueredo, Fernando G; Tintino, Saulo R; Lima, Luciene F; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Menezes, Irwin R A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ). The antioxidant DPPH and FRAP assays and chemical profile were determined by colorimetric methods and HPLC/DAD. The antiparasitic, antibiotic and antibiotic-modifying activity were evaluated by microdilution assays. The HPLC-DAD assay showed the presence of mostly tannins and flavonoids, such as caffeic acid and quercetin. The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids were 183.136 mg/g extract and 7.37 mg/g extract, respectively. DPPH and FRAP showed low antioxidant activity for the extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were not of clinical relevance, showing MIC>1024 μg/mL. However, synergism was observed between HELZJ and the antibiotics amikacin and gentamicin, which resulted in decreased bacterial drug resistance. EHFZJ showed low toxicity in fibroblasts in vitro, while antiparasitic results against Trypnosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum were not clinically relevant. Thus, our results indicate that Z. joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ) could be a source of plant-derived natural products that could lead to the development of promising new antibiotic compounds for infectious diseases.

  17. Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) represents an immunogenic HLA-DR4-restricted epitope recognized by melanoma-reactive CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Zarour, H M; Kirkwood, J M; Kierstead, L S; Herr, W; Brusic, V; Slingluff, C L; Sidney, J; Sette, A; Storkus, W J

    2000-01-04

    The human Melan-A/MART-1 gene encodes an HLA-A2-restricted peptide epitope recognized by melanoma-reactive CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here we report that this gene also encodes at least one HLA-DR4-presented peptide recognized by CD4(+) T cells. The Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide was able to induce the in vitro expansion of specific CD4(+) T cells derived from normal DR4(+) donors or from DR4(+) patients with melanoma when pulsed onto autologous dendritic cells. CD4(+) responder T cells specifically produced IFN-gamma in response to, and also lysed, T2.DR4 cells pulsed with the Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide and DR4(+) melanoma target cells naturally expressing the Melan-A/MART-1 gene product. Interestingly, CD4(+) T cell immunoreactivity against the Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide typically coexisted with a high frequency of anti-Melan-A/MART-1(27-35) reactive CD8(+) T cells in freshly isolated blood harvested from HLA-A2(+)/DR4(+) patients with melanoma. Taken together, these data support the use of this Melan-A/MART-1 DR4-restricted melanoma epitope in future immunotherapeutic trials designed to generate, augment, and quantitate specific CD4(+) T cell responses against melanoma in vivo.

  18. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

  19. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR.

  20. Non-fermented and fermented Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces of as valuable sources of functional ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart) is a non-climacteric, highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. The processing to obtain these products generates a great amount of by-products (p...

  1. Reading The Blues: The Individual and Community In Selected Poems of Langston Hughes, Gloria Naylor’s Novel The Women of Brewster Place, and Bebe Moore Campbell’s Novel Your Blues Ain’t Like Mine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Langston Hughes, Gloria Naylor, and Bebe Moore Campbell use the blues in their poetry and fiction to highlight the relationship between the...songs is a prerequisite for a valid analysis of Langston Hughes’s Selected Poetry of Langston Hughes, Gloria Naylor’s The Women of Brewster Place, and Bebe Moore Campbell’s Your Blues Ain’t Like Mine.

  2. A Microstructural Comparison of the Initial Growth of AIN and GaN Layers on Basal Plane Sapphire and SiC Substrates by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Depositon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.; Chang-Chien, P.

    1994-01-01

    The initial growth by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of AIN and GaN epitaxial layers on SiC and sapphire substrates is examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  3. Assessment of dam impacts on sediment dynamics and channel geometry in complex anthropogenic systems: feedbacks from comparative study of the Sacramento and the Ain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollet, A. J.; Piégay, H.; Michalkova, M.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the complexity of river adjustments downstream dams (Williams and Wolman, 1984; Brandt, 2000; Petts and Gurnell, 2005), depending on many parameters such catchment geology context (Grant et al., 2003), land use, pre-dam sediment supply and transport regime, degree of hydrologic alteration (Church, 1995; Schmidt and Wilcock, 2008), and dam characteristics and operation (Brewer and Lewin, 1998). Dam impact is particularly difficult to evaluate in river systems where human pressures are old and manifold, and where dam-induced impacts can be compounded by other human influences, such as in-channel aggregate mining (Kondolf 1997). In such cases, it may be challenging to sort out the causal links between dam-induced disruptions and resulting channel adjustment. To illustrate these problems, we introduce two complex case studies, the Ain (France) and Sacramento (California) Rivers, both freely meandering rivers regulated since mid-20th century, whose sedimentary and morphologic dynamic have been modified in different ways since the end of the 19th century. Dam impacts can be distinguished from the effects of other factors such as floodplain disconnection by flood-control infrastructure, land-use changes, and artificial meander-bend cutoff. The Ain River evinces a significant sediment deficit, which results in bed degradation, decrease in area of gravel bars , and reduced lateral channel migration. As a result, sediment supply is reduced not only from trapping by upstream reservoirs but also by reduced bank erosion. In the case of the Sacramento, the impact of the dam is not as clear as on the Ain due to major effects of prior pressures on the channel. Using aerial imagery and field measurements (grain-size measurements…), we led a spatiotemporal study of several morphologic parameters (active channel narrowing, gravel bar areas …) to underline the relative contribution of dams to the contemporary channel evolution. These analyses are

  4. Triterpene Esters and Biological Activities from Edible Fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio P.; Corrêa, Arthur L.; Lobo, Jonathas F. R.; Caramel, Otávio P.; de Almeida, Fernanda B.; Castro, Elaine S.; Souza, Kauê F. C. S.; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M. F.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Falcão, Deborah Q.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as “guracica.” Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  5. Chemical characterization and protective effect of the Bactris setosa Mart. fruit against oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Boeing, Joana Schuelter; Ribeiro, Daniela; Chisté, Renan Campos; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Costa, Vera Marisa; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2017-04-01

    Bactris setosa Mart. is a Brazilian tree from the palm family (Arecaceae), whose fruits are scientifically underexploited. Here, we report, for the first time, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the pulp, seed, and peel extracts of B. setosa fruits and their in vitro biological activity. The anthocyanins cyanidin deoxyhexose hexoside and cyanidin hexoside and other phenolic compounds were detected mainly in the peel but also in the pulp extracts. All-trans-lutein was the unique carotenoid identified and quantified, and only in the peel extract. All extracts were able to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively), to modulate human neutrophils' oxidative burst and to protect Caco-2 cells against oxidative damage, the peel extract being the most efficient. This study indicates that extracts from B. setosa fruits, especially the peel extract, are a source of bioactive compounds with promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  6. Genetic diversity of the Japanese Marten (Martes melampus) and its implications for the conservation unit.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Hosoda, Tetsuji

    2009-07-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of combined mitochondrial DNA sequences (2814 bp; cytochrome b gene, displacement loop region, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene) identified nine groups among 49 individual Japanese martens, Martes melampus, collected from several areas in Japan. The grouping was not correlated with winter coat color, but was consistent with geography. In particular, the monophyly of 29 Tsushima martens, M. m. tsuensis, was supported by strong clade support and topological tests. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were much lower for the Tsushima population than for any population on the Japanese main islands. In addition, analyses of heterozygosity in nuclear growth hormone receptor gene sequences (654 bp) showed genetic homogeneity for the Tsushima population. This evidence supports the view that the Tsushima marten's long history of isolation on small islands is responsible for its genetic distinctiveness and uniformity, validating the Tsushima population as an evolutionarily significant unit.

  7. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host).

  8. Triterpene esters and biological activities from edible fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Caio P; Corrêa, Arthur L; Lobo, Jonathas F R; Caramel, Otávio P; de Almeida, Fernanda B; Castro, Elaine S; Souza, Kauê F C S; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M F; Santos, Marcelo G; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Falcão, Deborah Q; Carvalho, José C T; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as "guracica." Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea.

  9. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Macías, Paulina; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Borja-de-la-Rosa, Amparo; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E

    2016-02-04

    Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one) is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez) heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (¹H, (13)C), 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC), ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx) of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample) were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome reveals the phylogenetic relationship of sable Martes zibellina linkouensis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yan; Xu, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Over-hunting of the sable (Martes zibellina) in China since the 1950s has resulted in a dramatic decline of sable population size; and owing to effective conservation measures in recent years, sable populations in some areas are going through a rapid recovery. We first determined and annotated the whole mtDNA genome of the Lesser Khingan Mountains sable M. zibellina linkouensis to better understand the evolutionary relationship of this subspecies. The complete mitogenome is 16 460 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. We built the phylogenetic tree of three sable subspecies in Northeast China and other 10 species of Mustelinae.

  11. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) solms: from water parasite to potential medicinal remedy.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Ahmed M; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Shalaby, Emad; Abul-Ela, Faten; Nasr-Allah, Amr A; Mahmoud, Ali M; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2011-06-01

    Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, originating in the amazonian basin, is a warm water aquatic plant. Water hyacinth is considered one of the most productive plants on earth and, accordingly, is considered one of the top 10 world's worst weeds. Water hyacinth spread to other tropical and subtropical regions by humans. It invaded about 62 countries in Africa, Asia and North America, and propagated extremely serious ecological, economical and social problems in the region between 40 degrees north and 45 degrees south. The dense weed of water hyacinth forms dense monocultures that can threaten local native species diversity and change the physical and chemical aquatic environment, thus altering ecosystem structure and function by disrupting food chains and nutrient cycling. We have separated and identified nine active fractions from water hyacinth and showed their promising therapeutic activities. Several compounds (alkaloid, phthalate derivatives, propanoid and phenyl derivatives) were identified in the extract of water hyacinth.

  12. Data mining using the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer BioMart.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Rebecca; Forbes, Simon A; Beare, David; Bamford, S; Cole, Charlotte G; Ward, Sari; Bindal, Nidhi; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Jia, Mingming; Kok, Chai Yin; Leung, Kenric; Menzies, Andrew; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic) is a publicly available resource providing information on somatic mutations implicated in human cancer. Release v51 (January 2011) includes data from just over 19,000 genes, 161,787 coding mutations and 5573 gene fusions, described in more than 577,000 tumour samples. COSMICMart (COSMIC BioMart) provides a flexible way to mine these data and combine somatic mutations with other biological relevant data sets. This article describes the data available in COSMIC along with examples of how to successfully mine and integrate data sets using COSMICMart. DATABASE URL: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/biomart/martview/.

  13. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  14. Evaluation of the impact of water harvesting techniques on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Bidha groundwater in Kairouan at the Central part of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechergui, M. Mohamed; Henda Saoudi, Mme

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of water harvesting constructed hydraulic structures (big and small dams, terraces, seuils for recharge…) on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Beidha groundwater table. The measurements of depth of water table, taken at the end of rain season and at the end of irrigation season, in many piezometers and monitoring wells, for a long period of observation before and after implementation of all the hydraulic structures, were used with the cumulative rain to the highest water table to diagnostic the effect of natural recharge and constructed hydraulic structures. According to the analysis of curves illustrating the evolution of piezometric head and rainfall over time, it was shown that despite the fact that the same amount of rain fall on the total area in the limits of Ain El Beidha groundwater table, the piezometers respond differently. This is because there are many sources of recharge and many factors affecting the recharge. First of all, the aquifer is divided in four compartments (the calcareous formation of Djebel El Houyareb, the plio-quaternary formation, the Miocene formation: Baglia and Saouaf). All those respond differently to the recharge by their capacity of infiltration and their hydrodynamic characteristics. The recharge of the groundwater table was increased by the implementation of small soil and water conservation structures, artificial lakes, El Haouareb Dam, run off in the natural Oued bads and seuils for recharge installed in the bads of oueds. The different piezometric drown maps were used to determine the flow direction and hydraulic gradient in order to identify the recharge areas, while tracking maps for three equal piezometric heads 210 m 300 m and 370 m established over different years made it possible to assess the impact of hydraulic structures, namely the effect of SWC and Ben Zitoun Lake. To illustrate the impact of El Houareb dam on the groundwater, the piezometric maps and local values

  15. Induction of anti-melanoma CTL response using DC transfected with mutated mRNA encoding full-length Melan-A/MART-1 antigen with an A27L amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Zeinab; Kalady, Matthew F; Emani, Sirisha; Onaitis, Mark W; Abdel-Wahab, Omar I; Cisco, Robin; Wheless, Lee; Cheng, Tsung-Yen; Tyler, Douglas S; Pruitt, Scott K

    2003-08-01

    Modification of the parental immunodominant Melan-A/MART-1 peptide (MART-1(26-35)) by replacing the alanine with leucine (A27L) enhances its immunogenicity. Because of the reported advantages of RNA over peptides in DC vaccines, we sought to mutate the MART-1 gene to encode a full-length MART-1 antigen with an A27L amino acid substitution. Human DC were transfected with A27L-mutated MART-1 RNA (A27L RNA) or native MART-1 RNA, and then used to stimulate autologous T cells from a series of 8 HLA-A2+ volunteers. After three stimulations, all CTL induced with DC/A27L RNA exhibited more tetramer+ cells, and demonstrated stronger antigen-specific IFNgamma-secreting activity compared to CTL induced with DC/native RNA. A potent MART-1-specific, and predominantly class-I-restricted lysis was detected in most CTL induced with DC/A27L RNA, while native RNA-induced CTL showed minimal and non-specific lysis. HLA-A2+ DC and MART-1 negative/A2+ melanoma cells transfected with the A27L RNA were recognized and killed by MART-1-specific CTL, suggesting that these APC efficiently processed the A27L RNA and presented correct MART-1-specific epitope(s). In summary, introducing an A27L mutation into the MART-1 full-length mRNA sequence enhanced the immunogenicity of the encoded MART-1 Ag. The ease with which such a mutation can be made in RNA presents another potential advantage of using RNA for immunotherapy. Our results support considering this strategy for enhancing the immunogenicity of DC-based RNA vaccines.

  16. Adoptive transfer of MART-1 T cell receptor transgenic lymphocytes and dendritic cell vaccination in patients with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chodon, Thinle; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Koya, Richard C; Wu, Zhongqi; Auerbach, Martin; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; McCannel, Tara A.; Ishiyama, Akira; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David W.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wong, Deborah J.L.; Kaplan-lefko, Paula; Hamid, Omid; Samlowski, Wolfram; Cohen, Peter A.; Daniels, Gregory A.; Mukherji, Bijay; Yang, Lili; Zack, Jerome A.; Kohn, Donald B.; Heath, James R.; Glaspy, John A.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short one-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimnetal Design A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and re-infused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and nine out of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within two weeks of ACT indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared to cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using non-cryopreserved T cells. Conclusion Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses. PMID:24634374

  17. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Harnack, Lisa; Erikson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). This study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types, and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Design Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies, and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of 12 healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Setting Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Subjects 119 small food retailers and 71 store managers Results Availability of specific items varied across store types. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63%, versus 8% of food-gas marts, 0% dollar stores, and 23% pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash and carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Conclusions Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement, and innovative distribution practices. PMID:26411535

  18. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  19. Phase I trial of a MART-1 peptide vaccine with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for resected high-risk melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Bade, E; Kuniyoshi, C; Spears, L; Jeffery, G; Marty, V; Groshen, S; Weber, J

    1999-10-01

    Twenty-five patients with high-risk resected stages IIB, III, and IV melanoma were immunized with a vaccine consisting of the minimal epitope, immunodominant 9-amino acid peptide derived from the MART-1 tumor antigen (AAGIGILTV) complexed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The last three patients received the MART-1(27-35) peptide with incomplete Freund's adjuvant mixed with CRL 1005, a block copolymer adjuvant. Patients were immunized with increasing doses of the MART-1(27-35) peptide in a Phase I trial to evaluate the toxicity, tolerability, and immune responses to the vaccine. Immunizations were administered every 3 weeks for a total of four injections, preceded by leukapheresis to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells for immune analyses, followed by a post-vaccine leukapheresis 3 weeks after the fourth vaccination. Skin testing with peptide and standard delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test reagents was also performed before and after vaccinations. Local pain and granuloma formation were observed in the majority of patients, as were fevers or lethargy of grade 1 or 2. No vaccine-related grade III/IV toxicity was observed. The vaccine was felt to be well tolerated. Twelve of 25 patients were anergic to skin testing at the initiation of the trial, and 13 of 25 developed a positive skin test response to the MART-1(27-35) peptide. Immune responses were measured by release of IFN-gamma in an ELISA assay by effector cells after multiple restimulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of MART-1(27-35) peptide-pulsed antigen-presenting cells. An ELISPOT assay was also developed to measure more quantitatively the change in numbers of peptide-specific effector cells after vaccination. Ten of 22 patients demonstrated an immune response to peptide-pulsed targets or tumor cells by ELISA assay after vaccination, as did 12 of 20 patients by ELISPOT. Nine of 25 patients have relapsed with a median of 16 months of follow-up, and 3 patients in this

  20. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-17

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression.

  1. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M.; Arruda, Sandra F.; Dourado, Lívia P. S.; da Cunha, Marcela S. B.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  2. Reviewers required major changes, including rearranging the two articles, so the new title of the first paper is: HVAC and Refrigeration Experiments at Wal-Mart Experimental Supercenters in Texas and Colorado --- original title: ASHRAE Journal DRAFT article McKinney and Aurora Wal-Mart Stores, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J Michael; Deru, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened experimental stores in McKinney, Texas (hot climate), and Aurora, Colo. (cold climate). With these projects Wal-Mart can: * Learn how to achieve sustainability improvements; * Gain experience with the design, design process, and operations for some specific advanced technologies; * Understand energy use patterns in their stores more clearly; * Lay groundwork for better understanding of how to achieve major carbon footprint reductions; and * Measure the potential benefits of specific technologies tested.

  3. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances.

  4. Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E.; Vlachos, Christos G.; Papakosta, Malamati A.; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A.; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N.

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003–2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (BA = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources. PMID:22619607

  5. Orofacial antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliane C; Macedo, Larissa A R O; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Junior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Lavor, Érica M; Silva, Mariana G; Souza, Marilia T S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Mendes, Rosemairy L; Almeida, Jackson R G S

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae) is a species popularly known in Brazil as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga". We have evaluated the antinociceptive effects of A. vepretorum in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced orofacial nociception in mice. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with either saline (p.o.), A. vepretorum ethanol extract (Av-EtOH 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), before formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate was injected into the right upper lip. Pre-treatment with Av-EtOH at all doses produced a reduction in face-rubbing behavior induced by formalin in both phases, and these pre-treatments also produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not reverse the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg in the first phase of this test. Our results suggest that Av-EtOH might be useful in the treatment of orofacial pain.

  6. Canine distemper in an isolated population of fishers (Martes pennanti) from California.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stefan M; Gabriel, Mourad; Terio, Karen A; Dubovi, Edward J; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Sweitzer, Rick; Barret, Reginald; Thompson, Craig; Purcell, Kathryn; Munson, Linda

    2012-10-01

    Four fishers (Martes pennanti) from an insular population in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA died as a consequence of an infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2009. Three fishers were found in close temporal and spatial relationship; the fourth fisher died 4 mo later at a 70 km distance from the initial group. Gross lesions were restricted to hyperkeratosis of periocular skin and ulceration of footpads. All animals had necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Inclusion bodies were abundant in the epithelia of urinary bladder and epididymis but were infrequent in the renal pelvis and the female genital epithelia. No histopathologic or immunohistochemical evidence for virus spread to the central nervous system was found. One fisher had encephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona and another had severe head trauma as a consequence of predation. The H gene nucleotide sequence of the virus isolates from the first three fishers was identical and was 99.6% identical to the isolate from the fourth fisher. Phylogenetically, the isolates clustered with other North American isolates separate from classical European wildlife lineage strains. These data suggest that the European wildlife lineage might consist of two separate subgroups that are genetically distinct and endemic in different geographic regions. The source of infection as well as pertinent transmission routes remained unclear. This is the first report of CDV in fishers and underscores the significance of CDV as a pathogen of management concern.

  7. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-02-19

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species.

  8. High-rate composting-vermicomposting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms).

    PubMed

    Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2002-07-01

    In an attempt to develop a system with which the aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms) can be economically processed to generate vermicompost in large quantities, the weed was first composted by a 'high-rate' method and then subjected to vermicomposting in reactors operating at much larger densities of earthworm than recommended hitherto: 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, 100, 112.5, 125, 137.5, and 150 adults of Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg per litre of digester volume. The composting step was accomplished in 20 days and the composted weed was found to be vermicomposted three times as rapidly as uncomposted water hyacinth [Bioresource Technology 76 (2001) 177]. The studies substantiated the feasibility of high-rate composting-vermicomposting systems, as all reactors yielded consistent vermicast output during seven months of operation. There was no earthworm mortality during the first four months in spite of the high animal densities in the reactors. In the subsequent three months a total of 79 worms died out of 1650, representing less than 1.6% mortality per month. The results also indicated that an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio of the reactors might further improve their efficiency.

  9. Field use of isoflurane as an inhalant anesthetic in the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Cheveau, Marianne; Imbeau, Louis; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and practicality of using isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic with oxygen as a gas carrier for American martens (Martes americana) in a field setting. Sixty-eight martens were trapped in the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest (Québec, Canada) from October to November 2005 and anesthetized with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (1 l/min) using a face mask. Induction setting of isoflurane was 3% for all animals. Mean (+/-SD) length of induction was 1.8+/-1.2 min. Maintenance isoflurane settings ranged from 1% to 4%. Procedures lasted an average of 16.4+/-7.1 min and were uneventful. Length of recovery, defined as the interval between the end of the procedure and animal release, was short (6.3+/-2.8 min), and well below reported lengths of recovery using injectable anesthetics (>/=70 min). As compared to open drop administration of isoflurane described in previous studies, the use of an anesthesia machine prevents the risk of potential fatal anesthetic overdose. We conclude that among anesthesia techniques currently available, isoflurane with oxygen as a gas carrier is a safe and useful field anesthetic in martens, when issues with equipment portability can be overcome.

  10. Diet composition and feeding strategies of the stone marten (Martes foina) in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Vlachos, Christos G; Papakosta, Malamati A; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003-2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (B(A) = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources.

  11. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  12. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed.

  13. Eduardo Martínez Alonso (1903-72): gallant surgeon who undertook special operations.

    PubMed

    Coni, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    Eduardo Martínez Alonso was of Spanish and Uruguyan extraction and was born in Vigo in Galicia in 1903. Due to his father's occupation, he was educated in the UK and qualified from the University of Liverpool. He returned to Madrid to practise and during the Civil War he found himself in the Republican zone where his connections with the Royal Family brought him under suspicion. Threatened with execution, he escaped to serve as a surgeon in the Nationalist Army. Being bilingual, he was medical adviser to the British Embassy during World War II; because of his allegiance to this country and acting from humanitarian motives, he became a ringleader in a plot to smuggle fugitives from Nazi-occupied Europe across a pro-Axis Spain to safety. When the Gestapo was closing in on him, he was smuggled to the UK via Portugal. He underwent training as a potential undercover agent should Franco take Spain into the war but, when hostilities ceased, he returned to Madrid and became a leading thoracic surgeon.

  14. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla de M.; do Nascimento, Evandro A.; de Morais, Sérgio A. L.; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C. S.; Martins, Mário M.; Martins, Carlos Henrique G.; Moraes, Thaís da S.; Rodrigues, Paulla V.; da Silva, Cláudio V.; de Aquino, Francisco J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759

  15. Genetic diversity of four populations of Qualea grandiflora Mart. in fragments of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Antiqueira, Lia Maris Orth Ritter; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the genetic structure and diversity of Qualea grandiflora Mart., the most abundant woody species in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eight microsatellite loci were used to analyze samples from four populations subjected to different types of anthropic pressure, distributed throughout the state of São Paulo in the regions of Assis, Brotas, Itirapina and Pedregulho. Results indicated a mean number of 12 alleles per locus, but only six effective alleles. Alleles private to particular populations and rare alleles were also detected. An excess of homozygotes and moderate levels of inbreeding were observed. No clones were identified. All populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.05). Spatial structure was observed in the distribution of specimens in distance classes ranging from 30 to 40 km and three genetic clusters were identified, with genotypes in the Pedregulho population differing from the others by up to 90 %. The influence of the Wahlund effect on the studied populations lies between 8.5 and 53.3 %. Estimates of effective population size were low (<10), and the minimum viable area for conservation in the short-, medium- and long-term was estimated to be between 4 and 184 ha. Gene flow was high enough to counter the effects of genetic drift. The genetic diversity and divergence between the studied populations indicated that the Pedregulho population should be considered an Evolutionary Significant Unit and a Management Unit.

  16. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  17. Landscape genetics of fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Northeast: dispersal barriers and historical influences.

    PubMed

    Hapeman, Paul; Latch, Emily K; Fike, Jennifer A; Rhodes, Olin E; Kilpatrick, C William

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and overtrapping are thought to have resulted in severe population declines for fisher (Martes pennanti) across the northeastern United States, and by the end of the 1930s only 3 remnant populations remained. Subsequent trapping cessation, extensive reintroduction programs, and natural recolonization have helped fishers to reclaim much of their historical range. The degree to which these processes have impacted genetic structure in this species, however, remains unknown. We used 11 microsatellites from tissue samples (n = 432) of fishers to characterize contemporary population structure in light of historical population structure and thus to determine the relative influence of anthropogenic disturbances and natural landscape features in shaping genetic structure of the contemporary population. Our results indicated that 3 well-differentiated contemporary populations are present that correspond well with what would be expected based on their reported history. A course barrier to dispersal appears in the western portion of the study area associated with several lakes including Lake George and Great Sacandaga Lake. Large-scale reintroduction efforts and natural recolonizations have largely had predictable impacts on population structure. An important exception is the substantial impact of the reintroduction of fishers to Vermont.

  18. Uniform fatty acid mobilization from anatomically distinct fat depots in the sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-07-01

    The mobilization of fatty acids (FA) is a selective process in humans, rodents and the few previously studied carnivores. The FA composition of and mobilization from different fat depots reflect the functions of adipose tissues, e.g. in energy storage or insulation. Sixteen farm-raised sables (Martes zibellina), a terrestrial mustelid, were assigned into a fed control group or fasted for 4 days. The FA composition of the sable was relatively similar to other previously studied mustelids. The masses of the different fat depots decreased by 28-55% during fasting. The subcutaneous (sc) and intraabdominal (iab) fats had a uniform FA composition and the sable could mobilize both sc and iab FA. 18:3n-3, 18:4n-3 and 16:1n-7 were effectively mobilized, while long-chain saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) increased in proportion. Relative mobilization (RM) correlated inversely with the FA chain length and Delta9-desaturation increased RM of several MUFA compared to SFA. The results reinforce the hypothesis that the terrestrial sable can utilize sc and iab fat depots as energy reserves during nutritional scarcity. The natural history of the species is an important determinant of the FA composition and RM between anatomically different fat depots.

  19. [Microsatellite analysis of two captive populations of sable (Martes zibellina L.)].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Afanas'ev, K I; Potapov, S G; Lazebnyĭ, O E

    2011-12-01

    The high value of sable (Martes zibellina L.) fur and stable demand for it over the centuries have led to suboptimal hunting patterns and, as a result, considerable fluctuations in the sizes of natural populations of this species. To maintain the traditional export of sable fur, efforts towards commercial domestication of sable have been made in Russia. The first farm population of sable consisted of animal from eight natural populations in 1929. After the problems related to breeding in captivity were solved, directional selection began. Eighty years of breeding have resulted in sable herds with homogeneous quantitative characters. Prospects for further breeding depend on the current level of genetic diversity in the captive populations of sables formed during the first stages of domestication. The sable populations of the Pushkinsky and Saltykovsky fur farms located in Moscow oblast, which were the objects of this study, are the progenitors of the existing captive populations. The first estimation of genetic variation of this species by means of a panel of microsatellite markers was developed for this study. Two captive sable populations were analyzed using ten microsatellite loci; a total of 75 alleles were found in both populations. Population-specific alleles were identified (6 and 13 in the Pushkinsky and Saltykovsky populations, respectively). The populations studied were found to be differentiated with respect to four microsatellite loci.

  20. Adaptations to fasting in a terrestrial mustelid, the sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Puukka, Matti; Saarela, Seppo; Paakkonen, Tommi; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the actively wintering Palearctic sable Martes zibellina has evolved physiological adaptations to tolerate nutritional scarcity. Sixteen farm-bred male sables were divided into a fed control group and an experimental group fasted for 4 days. The rate of weight loss in the sable was similar to other medium-sized mustelids. Fasting led to hypoglycaemia and to a decreased lymphocyte percentage. The sable derived metabolic energy from both subcutaneous and intraabdominal white adipose tissues and the relative decrease in fat mass was the largest for the retroperitoneal and subcutaneous depots. Metabolic energy derived partly from body proteins indicated by the increased plasma levels of urea, uric acid and total essential amino acids. Triacylglycerols accumulated in the livers of the fasted sables and the increased plasma aminotransferase activities suggested hepatic dysfunction. The decreased plasma insulin concentrations and the elevated cortisol levels probably contributed to stimulated lipolysis and protein catabolism. Moreover, fasting increased the plasma ghrelin concentrations of the sables and down-regulated the thyroid activity.

  1. Microbial enhancement of Cu2+ removal capacity of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.).

    PubMed

    So, L M; Chu, L M; Wong, P K

    2003-09-01

    Bacteria resistant to Cu2+, Ni2+ or Zn2+ were isolated from the rhizosphere of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)) and their metal ion removal capacities (RCs) were determined. The Ni2+ and Zn2+ RCs of the respective metal ion-resistant bacteria were less than 4.1 mg g(-1), while one of the Cu2+-resistant bacteria (Strain CU-1) showed a significant high Cu2+ RC of 10.6 mg g(-1). The effect of inoculating water hyacinth with Strain CU-1 on its Cu2+ RC was further studied. Water hyacinths were treated with an antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), to remove most rhizospheric bacteria of plant roots. Inoculation of Strain CU-1 increased the Cu2+ RC of the plant root by 1.91 (OTC-treated) and 1.56 (OTC-untreated) folds respectively when compared with the control. Results also showed that Strain CU-1 colonized onto the plant root and led to the increase of Cu2+ RC of the roots of water hyacinth.

  2. Toxicological and phytochemical studies of Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. stem bark (Guatambu).

    PubMed

    Santos, S R; Rangel, E T; Lima, J C S; Silva, R M; Lopes, L; Noldin, V F; Cechinel Filho, V; Delle Monache, F; Martins, D T O

    2009-12-01

    Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat digestive disorders. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity and cytotoxicity of stem bark ethanolic extract of Aspidosperma subincanum (EEAs) have been evaluated. In addition, phytochemical analysis was performed. The EEAs had low acute toxicity in mice with LD50 =1129 +/- 154mg/kg p.o. and 397 +/- 15 mg/kg i.p. The LC50 was 1340 +/- 428 microg/mL in the brine shrimp assay. There was no relevance of serious changes in behavioral, hematological and biochemical parameters and no deleterious effect on vital organs of rats that resulted after 30 days daily exposure to 5 and 100 mg/kg of EEAs. Phytochemical analysis of stem bark of A. subincanum revealed the presence of indole alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and tannins and resulted in the isolation of oleic acid and guatambuine as major constituents. Using the method of the dose by factor approach, the human safe dose was 210 mg/70 kg/day. The EEAs appears to be safe and non-toxic in low doses in rodents and domestic preparations used by population have relatively security.

  3. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  4. Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river—Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangabeira, P. A. O.; Labejof, L.; Lamperti, A.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Escaig, F.; Severo, M. I. G.; Silva, D. da C.; Saloes, M.; Mielke, M. S.; Lucena, E. R.; Martins, M. C.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.

    2004-06-01

    Heavy metals are not biodegradable and enter the food chain through a number of pathways causing progressive toxic actions due to the accumulation in different organs during a life span and long-term exposure to contaminated environments. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to localize chromium in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ICP-MS was used for the determination of Cr concentrations in water, sediments and plant samples in the Cachoeira basin, Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained by ICP-MS shows abnormally high values of Cr concentrations in water samples (0.38 μg/l), in soil samples (63 μg/g) and 70 μg/g in plant tissue. SIMS results show increased levels of Cr in the root cell wall and xylem vessel, these sites show high Cr accumulation. The ICP-MS data confirm E. crassipes like bioindicator plant. Chemical analysis using ICP-MS, confirms SIMS analysis on the presence of Cr in roots xylem cell walls. The use of ICP-MS, to investigate the same organs as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on chromium study.

  5. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8(+)T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS).

    PubMed

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-05-04

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing.

  6. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8+T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing. PMID:27143649

  7. Tiny moments of great importance: the Marte Meo method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Utilizing Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' in understanding empirical findings and developing a stringent Marte Meo methodology.

    PubMed

    Vik, Kari; Rohde, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of basic Marte Meo video interaction guidance concepts and describes the therapeutic performance of the method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Weight is put upon the importance of the therapeutic relationship. Further Marte Meo therapy is understood in the light of Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' and accompanied by clinical vignettes from therapy sessions. The empirical basis for the paper is a study of postnatal depression, mother-infant interaction and video guidance, carried out in Southern Norway. The study examined Marte Meo from a phenomenological perspective. Marte Meo was offered to mothers with either postnatal depression or depressive symptoms. In in-depth interviews the participants reported that the Marte Meo method, 'from the outside looking in', increased their reflections about their infants and their own mental states as well as their sensitive interaction with their newborn. Their mothering was improved and they reported feeling less depressed. We argue that Marte Meo methodology can guide new mothers with depressive symptoms, and contribute to the creation of new schemas of being together.

  8. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana Mart.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Ferrara, Lydia; Pezzo, Marisa Del; Mele, Guido; Sorbo, Sergio; Bassi, Paola; Montesano, Domenico

    2005-10-31

    The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, was assessed towards selected bacteria as well as in different antioxidant models. The extract, at a concentration between 16 and 128 microg/ml, showed a significant antibacterial effect expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=16 microg/ml), Proteus mirabilis (MIC=32 microg/ml), Proteus vulgaris (MIC=32 microg/ml) and Escherichia coli (MIC=32 microg/ml) were the most inhibited. The antioxidant activity was determined by the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) test, measuring the MDA concentration in 3T3-L1 cells after induced cellular damage using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC). The reduction of lipid peroxidation was 62.5% using a guarana extract with a concentration of 2 microg/ml. This effect was dose/dependent. The ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana seeds was analysed by spectrophotometry to determine the concentration of catechol substances after treatment of the extract with p-aminophenol. The total phenolics content in the ethanol extract was also determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The concentration of catechol equivalent was 6.06+/-0.13 mg/g (mean+/-S.D.), while the total phenolic content was 8.43+/-0.21 mg/g (mean+/-S.D.). The correlation index between antioxidant activity and catechol content was 0.96.

  9. Effects of Live-Trapping and Isoflurane Anesthesia on Free-Ranging American Martens (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Muller, Lisa I; Keenlance, Paul; Sanders, Robert L; Witt, Jill C; Miller, Debra L

    2017-02-23

    Seventy-two free-ranging American martens ( Martes americana ) in Michigan were immobilized using isoflurane from 2011 to 2015. In total, 129 anesthetic procedures were performed with no mortalities. Hypothermia and hyperthermia were the most common anesthetic complications, and the mean rectal temperatures were significantly higher during summer than in winter. Dental abnormalities were common; the majority of abnormal findings were broken or discolored teeth attributed to previous dental trauma and were not trap-induced. Blood (n=72) was analyzed from 53 martens for venous blood gas, lactate, hematocrit, and/or selected serum biochemistry analytes. Lactate concentration was measured by two different devices (VetScan i-STAT 1 and Lactate Plus) and compared for clinical agreement for 26 samples. Both methods for lactate measurement provided statistically similar results. Using domestic feline reference ranges, the acid-base status and relative arterial oxygen saturation of anesthetized martens in this study were normal as determined by blood pH and pulse oximetry, respectively. Serum biochemistry parameters, multiple environmental parameters, and marten-specific attributes were evaluated for their influence on lactate in American martens using linear regression and an information-theoretic approach with model averaging. Blood urea nitrogen was in all of the top models and was positively related to lactate (ß=0.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.00-0.04). Initial body temperature, ambient temperature, and time from trap discovery until immobilization of martens were informative predictors for lactate level. Recommendations for the live-trapping and isoflurane anesthesia of free-ranging martens include using caution during warmer summer months, minimizing disturbance prior to induction, monitoring lactate in addition to vital rates, and being prepared to prevent or treat both hypothermia and hyperthermia during any time of year.

  10. Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, J.A.; Longstreth, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi/sub s/), turgor potential (psi/sub p/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than rhizosphere PSI. The relationship between psi/sub p/ and tissue water content changed because element of increased with salinity. As a results, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi/sub p/ was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on element of in higher plants. These increases in element of with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant PSI and rhizosphere PSI, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed PSI was constant with 1 day, psi/sub s/ and psi/sub p/ continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and element of continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in element of modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. 24 references, 6 figures.

  11. Development of Clinical Data Mart of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor for Varied Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunah; Jeong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Tong Min; Yang, So Jung; Baik, Sun Jung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Cho, Jae Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing use of electronic medical record (EMR) systems for documenting clinical medical data has led to EMR data being increasingly accessed for clinical trials. In this study, a database of patients who were prescribed statins for the first time was developed using EMR data. A clinical data mart (CDM) was developed for cohort study researchers. Methods Seoul St. Mary's Hospital implemented a clinical data warehouse (CDW) of data for ~2.8 million patients, 47 million prescription events, and laboratory results for 150 million cases. We developed a research database from a subset of the data on the basis of a study protocol. Data for patients who were prescribed a statin for the first time (between the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015), including personal data, laboratory data, diagnoses, and medications, were extracted. Results We extracted initial clinical data of statin from a CDW that was established to support clinical studies; the data was refined through a data quality management process. Data for 21,368 patients who were prescribed statins for the first time were extracted. We extracted data every 3 months for a period of 1 year. A total of 17 different statins were extracted. It was found that statins were first prescribed by the endocrinology department in most cases (69%, 14,865/21,368). Conclusion Study researchers can use our CDM for statins. Our EMR data for statins is useful for investigating the effectiveness of treatments and exploring new information on statins. Using EMR is advantageous for compiling an adequate study cohort in a short period. PMID:28256114

  12. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected.

  13. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  14. TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M.

    2013-09-18

    T cells engineered to express TCRs specific for tumor Ags can drive cancer regression. The first TCRs used in cancer gene therapy, DMF4 and DMF5, recognize two structurally distinct peptide epitopes of the melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A protein, both presented by the class I MHC protein HLA-A*0201. To help understand the mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity and provide a foundation for the further development of immunotherapy, we determined the crystallographic structures of DMF4 and DMF5 in complex with both of the MART-1/Melan-A epitopes. The two TCRs use different mechanisms to accommodate the two ligands. Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both identically. The simpler mode of cross-reactivity by DMF5 is associated with higher affinity toward both ligands, consistent with the superior functional avidity of DMF5. More generally, the observation of two diverging mechanisms of cross-reactivity with the same Ags and the finding that TCR-binding orientation can be determined by peptide alone extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying TCR cross-reactivity.

  15. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  16. Acute and subacute oral toxicity assessment of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart ex Spreng. pulp fruit in rats.

    PubMed

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Menegati, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei; Santos, Ariany Carvalho Dos; Souza, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho; de Oliveira, Vinícius Soares; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida; Vieira, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., popularly known as "bacuri", is a native plant from the brazilian Cerrado and used in folk medicine as a pulmonary decongestant, an anti-inflammatory for joints and antipyretic. There is an expectation about the use in chronic disease of the Attalea phalerata oil since its composition is high in carotenoids and beneficial fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicological profile of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. pulp (APO). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were performed in male and female Wistar rats according to the OECD - Guidelines 425 and 407. For the acute toxicity, one single dose of the APO (2000mg/kg) was administered by gavage to five female rats. In the subacute toxicity, four different doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of the APO were administered to male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. No deaths or behavioral changes were observed during both experiments as well as no changes in organ weights, hematological, histopathological parameters. The biochemical parameters showed changes in phosphatase alkaline and albumin levels, however these values are within the normal range for the species. A significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides was also observed in some of the animals treated with the APO. Therefore, the LD50 is higher than 2000mg/kg and the APO oil can be considered safe at the doses tested in rats. However, further assessments are required in order to proceed to clinical studies in humans.

  17. TCRs used in cancer gene therapy cross-react with MART-1/Melan-A tumor antigens via distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M

    2011-09-01

    T cells engineered to express TCRs specific for tumor Ags can drive cancer regression. The first TCRs used in cancer gene therapy, DMF4 and DMF5, recognize two structurally distinct peptide epitopes of the melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A protein, both presented by the class I MHC protein HLA-A*0201. To help understand the mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity and provide a foundation for the further development of immunotherapy, we determined the crystallographic structures of DMF4 and DMF5 in complex with both of the MART-1/Melan-A epitopes. The two TCRs use different mechanisms to accommodate the two ligands. Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both identically. The simpler mode of cross-reactivity by DMF5 is associated with higher affinity toward both ligands, consistent with the superior functional avidity of DMF5. More generally, the observation of two diverging mechanisms of cross-reactivity with the same Ags and the finding that TCR-binding orientation can be determined by peptide alone extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying TCR cross-reactivity.

  18. Jebel Hafit and the Al Ain oases (Eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates): an integrative approach of a cultural landscape through the scope of geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Louchet, André; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Ragala, Rachid; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Fouache, Éric; Cohen, Marianne; Desruelles, Stéphane; Gramond, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    human settlements and occupation, it is possible to characterize a threefold transition: first, the former transition between the pre-Islamic prehistoric societies and the development of Muslim societies; second, the more recent transition between the traditional historical society (farmers) and the contemporary society, characterized by the growth of urbanization, the creation of modern transport infrastructure and the concomitant growth of tourist flows; third, the current transition between the yesterday and tomorrow Al Ain City, due to the transformation of a local town centred on national economics all along the second half of the twentieth century, into an international town more open to the wider world with the management of a possible increased 20 % of tourist flow because of the inscription of Cultural Sites of Al Ain on the UNESCO's World Heritage List. It is not possible to completely ignore the fact that the Jebel Hafit and its foothills are partly crossed by an international boundary. In case of political tensions, this may cause some difficulties for the management of this territory, with contradictory requirements between security, tourism, traditional land use, and scientific research.

  19. Caractérisation et préconcentration granulométrique de la matière feldspathique d'Ain-Barbar, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouama, M. C.; Bounouala, M.; Ain-Souya, A.; Ghers, M.

    2005-05-01

    Les feldspaths sont répandus dans l'écorce terrestre mais seuls les feldspaths potassiques et sodiques sont très recherchés dans l'industrie céramique et verrière. Pour qu'ils soient utilisables, ces matériaux doivent contenir très peu d'impuretés nocives de fer et surtout de silice. La carrière d'Ain-Barbar exploite la matière feldspathique de teneurs moyennes respectives 74,5% SiO{2}, 9,5% 12,75% Al{2}O{3}, 1,30% Fe{2}O{3} et 9,5 K{2}O (0,90% Na{2}O). Toutefois, on constate un taux très élevé en quartz ce qui diminue la valeur du produit marchand et une teneur élevée en fer ce qui donne au produit fabriqué, des aspects de coloration le rendant impropre à la commercialisation. A cet effet, une caractérisation minéralogique et chimique a été réalisée sur une série d'échantillons prélevés du site d'extraction de la substance utile. Des essais de préconcentration granulométrique ont montré qu'un classement dimensionnel peut offrir une qualité de produits acceptables par les céramistes.

  20. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor and its ionic metabolites in soils and vadose zone solids: consequences on groundwater quality in an alluvial aquifer (Ain Plain, France).

    PubMed

    Baran, Nicole; Gourcy, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    This study characterizes the transfer of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) to the alluvial aquifer. Sorption and mineralization of SMOC and its two ionic metabolites were characterized for cultivated soils and solids from the vadose (unsaturated) zone in the Ain Plain (France). Under sterile soil conditions, the absence of mineralization confirms the importance of biotic processes in SMOC degradation. There is some adsorption and mineralization of the parent molecule and its metabolites in the unsaturated zone, though less than in soils. For soils, the MESA adsorption constant is statistically higher than that of MOXA and the sorption constants of the two metabolites are significantly lower than that of SMOC. After 246 days, for soils, maximums of 26% of the SMOC, 30% of the MESA and 38% of the MOXA were mineralized. This partly explains the presence of these metabolites in the groundwater at concentrations generally higher than those of the parent molecule for MESA, although there is no statistical difference in the mineralization of the 3 molecules. The laboratory results make it possible to explain the field observations made during 27 months of groundwater quality monitoring (monthly sampling frequency). The evolution of both metabolite concentrations in the groundwater is directly related to recharge dynamics; there is a positive correlation between concentrations and the groundwater level. The observed lag of several months between the signals of the parent molecule and those of the metabolites is probably due to greater sorption of the parent molecule than of its metabolites and/or to degradation kinetics.

  1. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Sonya M. S.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hayes, Bryan D.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S.; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. Methods This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0 to 18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. Results During the 5-year study period, 38,470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19,987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4,196 (11%) were 6 to 12 years; and 14,287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29,174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Conclusion Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents while poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agent leading to morbidity and mortality. PMID:26653953

  2. Pharmacological Evidence of α2-Adrenergic Receptors in the Hypotensive Effect of Platonia insignis Mart.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcelo Bezerra; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Sabino, Carla Kelly Barroso; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Sousa, Cleyton Marcos Melo; Costa, Isabella Cristhina Gonçalves; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Amazon region. The present study evaluated the biological potential of the ethanol extract (Pi-EtOH) and ethyl acetate fraction (Pi-EtOAc) of the P. insignis fruit shells on the cardiovascular system of rats. Pi-EtOH or Pi-EtOAc (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously in normotensive rats (260–300 g), and the mean arterial pressure and the heart rate were monitored. The Pi-EtOH induced hypotension (−11.56±0.89, −7.43±0.85, and −17.56±1.97 mmHg) followed by bradycardia in two highest doses (−8.89±3.62 and −15.79±1.83 beats/min) and Pi-EtOAc, at the same doses, induced hypotension (−11.2±1.03, −14.48±1.13, −29.89±2.67 mmHg) more intensively, followed by tachycardia at the dose 12.5 and 25 mg/kg (15.64±2.06, 19.31±1.92 beats/min) and bradycardia at a dose of 50 mg/kg (−9.98±7.33 beats/min). The hypotensive response from Pi-EtOAc was not attenuated when used in the pretreatment with L-NAME, verapamil, propranolol, and hexamethonium. However, when using yohimbine, the hypotensive effect was inhibited (−4.42±1.28 (P<.05), −3.29±0.99 (P<.05), 2.06±1.18 mmHg (P<.05); Student's t-test). Hence, the Pi-EtOAc seems to act similarly to the α2-adrenergic agonist in this hypotensive effect. PMID:25055183

  3. Using remote sensing to monitor herbicide injury and biomass of waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Wilfredo

    Aquatic vegetation plays an important role in the ecological interactions and processes within a water body. However, the presence of the invasive exotic aquatic plant species, waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms], negatively affects those interactions as well as interfering with water use for recreation and navigation. An implemented management plan for waterhyacinth control relies on the use of herbicides. Efficacy is commonly assessed using visual injury and control ratings as well as estimating biomass. The problem is that those approaches are labor intensive only assessing single points throughout the entire water body. Therefore, technology like remote sensing, which is the focus of this research, is recommended as an additional tool to assess implemented management plans. Studies were conducted in a mesocosm research facility to evaluate the relationship between simulated spectral bands 3, 4, 5, and 7 Landsat 5 TM and waterhyacinth treated with the herbicides imazapyr and glyphosate. Results indicate that injury is better detected and predicted with band 4 and that relationship is negative when either herbicide was used. However, prediction is better when plants have developed sufficient injury to influence the spectral response of band 4. In the second study, the biomass of waterhyacinth was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using simulated data from Landsat 5 TM. This study was conducted over natural populations of waterhyacinth in Lakes Columbus and Aberdeen, MS over two growing seasons. Results indicate that the use of NDVI alone is a weak predictor of biomass; however, its combination with morphometric parameters like leaf area index enhanced predictive capabilities. In order to assess field herbicide treatments for waterhyacinth control and its consequent impact on native aquatic vegetation, lake-wide surveys were performed in Lake Columbus, MS using a point-intercept method. The herbicide assessed was 2

  4. Antioxidant responses in the leaves of mercury-treated Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.

    PubMed

    Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivero, Gilda C; Serrano, Jocelyn E

    2014-10-01

    Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. plantlets were grown in 0.1 and 1.0 ppm treatment solutions of Hoagland's hydroponic solutions modified with Hg(NO₃)2 in order to examine the specific cellular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the tolerance of this plant exposed to mercury. This study assessed the responses of chloroplast pigments, i.e., carotenoids and chlorophylls, and evaluated the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) revealed varying Hg(2+) levels in the young and mature leaf tissues, with greater amounts of Hg(2+) found in the tissues of the young leaves. Total chlorophyll levels, notably those of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids, showed significant elevation in young leaf tissues, while a decrease in their levels was observed in mature leaf tissues in comparison to those of the control plants. These results lend support to the protective role of increased chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in the photosynthetic apparatus of young E. crassipes leaves in the presence of Hg(2+). The antioxidant responses of Hg-treated E. crassipes plants were also measured, revealing a highly significant increase in catalase units, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities, and mercury-binding thiols in leaves from Hg-treated plants. Moreover, substantial differences in the degree of oxidative injury between the cells in leaves from the control and Hg-treated plants were evidenced by the lipid peroxidation activities monitored. The Hg-treatment-induced significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was observed in 0.1-ppm Hg(NO₃)2-exposed plants, while a highly significant increase in MDA levels was noted in 1.0-ppm Hg(NO₃)2-exposed plants. The high degree of lipid peroxidation at 1.0-ppm Hg treatment was evidently counteracted by the compensatory protective mechanism brought about by the increased levels in chloroplast pigments and the enhanced activities of the

  5. Small parts: Crisóstomo Martínez (1638-1694), bone histology, and the visual making of body wholeness.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Nuria

    2009-09-01

    The Valencian engraver Crisóstomo Martínez (ca. 1638-1694) arrived in Paris in July 1687, commissioned to create an anatomical atlas. Impressed by Govard Bidloo's Anatomia humani corporis (1685), Martínez decided to make a comparable work on osteology. His unpublished atlas of anatomy was exceptional in its choice of topic, its quality, and its overall visual approach. Martínez's work revolves around the dissolving effects of microscopic study on the traditional understanding of the connections between parts and whole. Underlying his investigation into the most effective composition of an anatomical atlas was the idea of the self-organizing and complex nature of the body as itself a composition, an idea rooted in the way observation and judgment, the seen and the unseen, and notions about collections and communities were connected in the vanitas culture. This essay explores the links between Martínez's work and the cultures of a time in which observation and interpretation of the processes of death, decay, and fragmentation played a primary role in defining a common human nature around which notions of destiny could be articulated.

  6. 77 FR 44677 - Quad/Graphics Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D., Jonesboro, AR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quad/Graphics Inc.,Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D.,Jonesboro, AR; Amended Certification Regarding EligibilityTo Apply for Worker Adjustment... Department of Labor issued a Certification of Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on...

  7. Advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping, device passivation, and piezoelectric-based RF MEMS/NEMS resonator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, S. S.; Vispute, R. D.; Nagaraj, B.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Jones, K. A.; Derenge, M.; Zheleva, T.; Ervin, M. H.; Lelis, A.; Scozzie, C. J.; Habersat, D.; Wickenden, A. E.; Currano, L. J.; Dubey, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we report recent advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping of SiC, passivation of SiC-based devices, and fabrication of a piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS resonator on Pt-metallized SiO2/Si. The AlN films grown using the reactive laser ablation technique were found to be highly stoichiometric, dense with an optical band gap of 6.2 eV, and with a surface smoothness of less than 1 nm. A low-temperature buffer-layer approach was used to reduce the lattice and thermal mismatch strains. The dependence of the quality of AlN thin films and its characteristics as a function of processing parameters are discussed. Due to high crystallinity, near-perfect stoichiometry, and high packing density, pulsed-laser-deposited AlN thin films show a tendency to withstand high temperatures up to 1600°C, and which enables it to be used as an anneal capping layer for SiC wafers for removing ion-implantation damage and dopant activation. The laser-deposited AlN thin films show conformal coverage on SiC-based devices and exhibit an electrical break-down strength of 1.66 MV/cm up to 350°C when used as an insulator in Ni/AlN/SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) AlN films grown on Pt/SiO2/Si (100) substrates for radio-frequency microelectrical and mechanical systems and nanoelectrical and mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) demonstrated resonators having high Q values ranging from 8,000 to 17,000 in the frequency range of 2.5-0.45 MHz. AlN thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (in normal and oxygen resonance mode), atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Applications exploiting characteristics of high bandgap, high bond strength, excellent piezoelectric characteristics, extremely high chemical inertness, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown strength, and high thermal stability of the pulsed

  8. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  9. Acute effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests.

    PubMed

    Campos, A R; Barros, A I S; Albuquerque, F A A; M Leal, L K A; Rao, V S N

    2005-05-01

    Guarana, a herbal extract from the seeds of Paullinia cupana Mart. has been evaluated in comparison with caffeine on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests. Guarana (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) and caffeine (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) each significantly reduced the duration of immobility in the forced swimming test suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in mice. At these doses, neither substance affected ambulation in the open field test. However, a high dose of guarana (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (30 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the locomotor activity in the open field test. Caffeine, but not guarana, could effectively block an adenosine agonist, cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA)-induced increase in swimming immobility suggesting that mechanism(s) other than the adenosinergic mechanism are involved in the antidepressant-like activity of guarana.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona crassiflora Mart. of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability.

    PubMed

    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro; Furlan, Claudia Maria; Dos Santos, Déborah Yara Alves Cursino

    2016-08-01

    Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. This work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. A. crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate, and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated with AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in A. crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie.

  11. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Dunagan, Stephen; Stevens, Todd; Amils, Ricardo; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Fernandez, David; Hall, James; Lynch, Kennda; Cannon, Howard; Zavaleta, Jhony

    2004-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project, an ASTEP field experiment, is exploring for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River- or Rio Tinto- in southwestern Spain. It is also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The project has three primary objectives: (1) search for and characterize subsurface life at Rio Tinto along with the physical and chemical properties and sustaining energy sources of its environment, (2) perform a high fidelity simulation of a robotic Mars drilling mission to search for life, and (3) demonstrate the drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life on Mars. The simulation of the robotic drilling mission is guided by the results of the aseptic drilling campaign to search for life at Rio Tinto. This paper describes results of the first phase of the aseptic drilling campaign.

  12. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  13. [Genetic structure of the sable Martes zibellina L. populations from magadan oblast as inferred from mitochondrial DNA variation].

    PubMed

    Petrovskaia, A V

    2007-04-01

    Restriction polymorphism of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene was studied in nine sable Martes zibellina L. populations from three introduction foci of Khabarovsk and Kamchatka sables in Magadan oblast: Olya, Kolyma, and Omolon. For comparison, similar studies were performed with the populations of central Kamchatka and Khabarovsk krai. In total, 444 DNA specimens were examined. Three mtDNA haplotypes (A, B, and C) proved to occur at various frequencies in the populations under study. The sable population system displayed high differentiation (FST = 22.3%). The populations of the Olya focus were most similar genetically to the populations of Kamchatka; those of the Omolon focus were similar to the Khabarovsk populations, and those of the Kolyma focus occupied an intermediate place. The observed spatial heterogeneity of the sable populations of Magadan oblast was explained in terms of the formation of the introduction foci of Kamchatka and Khabarovsk sables, starting from the 1950s.

  14. It Ain’t New

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Their  Military  Usefulness The  introduction  of  the  aircraft   to  the  US military  did not proceed smoothly. Many po­ litical  and  military ...similarities among various historical events and our technological,  organizational,  and  leadership  challenges  in  the military  today. Particularly...in the joint and coalition arenas, we Ain’t can profit from the beneficial insight that historical analysis pro­ vides. As  the preeminent  military

  15. It Ain't CETA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Jim

    1984-01-01

    Suggests ways that the Job Training Partnership Act can serve as a local labor force development tool. Besides assisting "hardcore unemployed," education can take a proactive role, keeping up with the technology and needs of business and industry. In return, business and industry must support education with state-of-the-art machinery and…

  16. Structures of MART-126/27-35Peptide/HLA-A2 Complexes Reveal a Remarkable Disconnect between Antigen Structural Homology and T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Insaidoo, Francis K; Baxter, Tiffany K; Powell, Jr., Daniel J.; Johnson, Laura A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Baker, Brian M

    2008-09-17

    Small structural changes in peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules often result in large changes in immunogenicity, supporting the notion that T cell receptors are exquisitely sensitive to antigen structure. Yet there are striking examples of TCR recognition of structurally dissimilar ligands. The resulting unpredictability of how T cells will respond to different or modified antigens impacts both our understanding of the physical bases for TCR specificity as well as efforts to engineer peptides for immunomodulation. In cancer immunotherapy, epitopes and variants derived from the MART-1/Melan-A protein are widely used as clinical vaccines. Two overlapping epitopes spanning amino acid residues 26 through 35 are of particular interest: numerous clinical studies have been performed using variants of the MART-1 26-35 decamer, although only the 27-35 nonamer has been found on the surface of targeted melanoma cells. Here, we show that the 26-35 and 27-35 peptides adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to HLA-A2. Nevertheless, clonally distinct MART-1{sub 26/27-35}-reactive T cells show broad cross-reactivity towards these ligands. Simultaneously, however, many of the cross-reactive T cells remain unable to recognize anchor-modified variants with very subtle structural differences. These dichotomous observations challenge our thinking about how structural information on unligated peptide/MHC complexes should be best used when addressing questions of TCR specificity. Our findings also indicate that caution is warranted in the design of immunotherapeutics based on the MART-1 26/27-35 epitopes, as neither cross-reactivity nor selectivity is predictable based on the analysis of the structures alone.

  17. New records of doryctine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Argentina, with the description of Shawius diiorioi Martínez sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José

    2016-09-15

    New distributional records of the genera Fritziella Marsh, Rhoptrocentrus Marshall and Shawius Marsh are reported. Fritziella plaumanni Marsh, Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall and Shawius braziliensis Marsh are newly reported from northern Argentina. Shawius diiorioi Martínez sp. nov. is described and illustrated from central and northern Argentina. The male of Shawius, previously unknown, is described and illustrated for the first time. All species were reared from Fabaceae and Celtidaceae infested by wood boring Coleoptera.

  18. Induction of strong and persistent MelanA/MART-1-specific immune responses by adjuvant dendritic cell-based vaccination of stage II melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tuettenberg, Andrea; Becker, Christian; Huter, Eva; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H; Jonuleit, Helmut

    2006-05-15

    A significant percentage of stage II melanoma patients (tumor thickness>1 mm) remain at risk of tumor recurrence after primary tumor excision. In this study, we used tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells as an adjuvant for immunization of these "high-risk" melanoma patients after resection of the primary tumor. A total of 13 patients were included and vaccinated 6 times every 14 days with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with a MelanA/MART-1 peptide in combination with a recall antigen. Antigen-specific immune responses were monitored before, during and up to 1 year after the last vaccination. The majority of patients exhibited increased recall antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses upon vaccination. MelanA/MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells were expanded in 9/13 patients resulting in increased frequencies of memory cells in these patients. CD8+ T cells acquired the capacity to secrete IFN-gamma, to proliferate in culture in response to the tumor antigen used for vaccination and postvaccine samples contained MelanA/MART-1-specific T cells that recognized also the natural MelanA/MART-1-antigen expressed by tumor cells. Moreover, vaccination induced a long-lived tumor antigen-specific DTH-reactivity in the majority of the patients, detectable even 12 months after the last immunization. These data demonstrate for the first time that vaccination with tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells in a clinically adjuvant setting induces strong and persistent antigen-specific T-cell responses in tumor-free stage II melanoma patients, suggesting that tumor protective T cell immunity can be achieved.

  19. Contribution of electromagnetic and tomographic technique to the study of the impact of salinity in soils of the experimental station of Al Ain Atti (Errachidia, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamara, A.; El Harnafi, M.; Ammar, A.

    2017-03-01

    is closely related to the concentration of mineral particles. Characterization studies at the La Ronde tailings mine (Agnico-Eagle Ltd, in Abitibi), showed quite encouraging results (Campos, 2004; Anterrieu, 2006). Since it is a salt-bearing areas (highly conductive) and given that the induced polarization is very sensitive to the ground conductivity; by measurement of residual potential, so we took measures chargeability tomography, the result is compared to the resistivity measured at different soils (control and irrigated), which will better clarify the impact of salinity on the quality of the disturbed soil. Indeed, the chargeability response it possible to characterize the different irrigated soils and its variation is attributed not only to the effect of saline irrigation but also the existence of an heterogeneity of the original ground. Prospecting in electrical tomography has displayed vertically and horizontally anomalies existing within the experimental site of the station of Ain Al Atti, it showed that: - accumulation of salinity becomes wider going from the control ground to that of Acacias. - surveyed the ground at least appear more homogeneous in surface, but their conductivity varies in depth. - salinity origin and the concretion formed on the surface greatly influenced chargeability and resistivity measured on the different experimental soils.

  20. Protective effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) against DEN-induced DNA damage on mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, H; Avanzo, J L; Heidor, R; Silva, T C; Atroch, A; Moreno, F S; Dagli, M L Z

    2006-06-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) is a plant originally from Brazil, which is rich in tannins. Some tannins are known to present protective effects against DNA damage. This study was performed to investigate the anti-genotoxic/cytotoxic properties of guarana in hepatocytes of mice injected with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). The protective effect of guarana was evaluated both by comet assay and DNA smear fragmentation technique in two month-old female BALB/c mice. These were treated previously with 2.0 mg/g bw of guarana for 16 days and then injected with DEN (160 microg/g body weight) to induce DNA damage. The DEN-only treated group presented higher comet image length than the guarana plus DEN and untreated groups (116.06+/-5.0 microm, 104.09+/-3.3 microm and 93.28+/-14.4 microm, respectively; p<0.01). Guarana treatment presented a 52.54% reduction in comet image length when animals were exposed to DEN (p<0.05). DNA samples from the guarana plus DEN group clearly showed less EtBr fluorescence intensity when compared to the DEN-only group, reinforcing the comet assay data. These results show, for the first time, that guarana has a protective effect against DEN-induced DNA damage in mouse liver.

  1. Winter activity patterns of American martens (Martes americana): Rejection of the hypothesis of thermal-cost minimization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Gary S.; Bissonette, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Despite their temperate to subarctic geographic range, American martens (Martes americana) possess a thermally inefficient morphology. The lack of morphological adaptations for reducing thermal costs suggests that marten may use behavioral strategies to optimize thermal budgets. During the winters of 1989–1990 and 1990–1991, we radio-collared and monitored the diel activity of 7 martens. A log-linear model suggested that the presence or absence of light was the only factor associated with marten activity patterns (p < 0.001). A regression of the percentage of active fixes on ambient temperature failed to detect an association (b = −4.45, p = 0.084, n = 12). Contents of marten scats suggested that their activity was consistent with the prey-vulnerability hypothesis. While martens must balance multiple life requisites, their activity patterns suggest that they accept increased thermal costs in order to increase foraging efficiency. However, the nocturnal activity of martens during winter was also consistent with the hypothesis that they may be able to limit their own exposure to predation risk. The nocturnal habits of Newfoundland martens in the winter were consistent with the hypothesis of avoidance of predation risk.

  2. Fasting in the American marten (Martes americana): a physiological model of the adaptations of a lean-bodied animal.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Saarela, Seppo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-10-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to total food deprivation with seven control animals. Selected morphological and hematological parameters, plasma and serum biochemistry, endocrinological variables and liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) enzyme activities were determined. After 48 h without food, the marten were within phase II of fasting with depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores, but with active lipid mobilization indicated by the high lipase activities in several WAT depots. The plasma ghrelin concentrations were higher due to food deprivation, possibly increasing appetite and enhancing foraging behavior. The lower plasma insulin and higher cortisol concentrations could mediate augmented lipolysis and the lower triiodothyronine levels could suppress the metabolic rate. Fasting did not affect the plasma levels of stress-associated catecholamines or variables indicating tissue damage. In general, the adaptations to short-term fasting exhibited some differences compared to the related farm-bred American mink (Mustela vison), an example of which was the better ability of the marten to hydrolyze lipids despite its significantly lower initial fat mass.

  3. Effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests to assess pathogens of fishers (Martes pennanti) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mourad W; Wengert, Greta M; Matthews, Sean M; Higley, J Mark; Foley, Janet E; Blades, Amanda; Sullivan, Mike; Brown, Richard N

    2010-07-01

    Wildlife managers often need to assess the current health status of wildlife communities before implementation of management actions involving surveillance, reintroductions, or translocations. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available domestic canine rapid diagnostic antigen test for canine parvovirus and a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies toward Anaplasma phagocytophilum on populations of fishers (Martes pennanti) and sympatric gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Eighty-two fecal samples from 66 fishers and 16 gray foxes were tested with both SNAP((R)) PARVO rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Whole blood samples from 23 fishers and 53 gray foxes were tested with both SNAP 4Dx RDT and immunofluorescence assays (IFAs). The SNAP PARVO RDT detected no parvovirus, whereas PCR detected the virus in 17 samples. Eleven samples were positive using the SNAP 4Dx RDT, whereas 46 samples tested by IFA were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Both RDTs had low sensitivity and poor test agreement. These findings clearly demonstrate the importance of validating RDTs developed for domesticated animals before using them for wildlife populations.

  4. Landscape-scale deforestation decreases gene flow distance of a keystone tropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Alesandro S; Cazetta, Eliana; Dodonov, Pavel; Faria, Deborah; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2016-09-01

    Habitat loss represents one of the main threats to tropical forests, which have reached extremely high rates of species extinction. Forest loss negatively impacts biodiversity, affecting ecological (e.g., seed dispersal) and genetic (e.g., genetic diversity and structure) processes. Therefore, understanding how deforestation influences genetic resources is strategic for conservation. Our aim was to empirically evaluate the effects of landscape-scale forest reduction on the spatial genetic structure and gene flow of Euterpe edulis Mart (Arecaceae), a palm tree considered a keystone resource for many vertebrate species. This study was carried out in nine forest remnants in the Atlantic Forest, northeastern Brazil, located in landscapes within a gradient of forest cover (19-83%). We collected leaves of 246 adults and 271 seedlings and performed genotyping using microsatellite markers. Our results showed that the palm populations had low spatial genetic structure, indicating that forest reduction did not influence this genetic parameter for neither seedlings nor adults. However, forest loss decreased the gene flow distance, which may negatively affect the genetic diversity of future generations by increasing the risk of local extinction of this keystone palm. For efficient strategies of genetic variability conservation and maintenance of gene flow in E. edulis, we recommend the maintenance of landscapes with intermediary to high levels of forest cover, that is, forest cover above 40%.

  5. Dichloromethane-methanol extract from Borassus aethiopumn mart. (Arecaceae) induces apoptosis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Sakandé, J; Rouet-benzineb, P; Devaud, H; Nikiema, J B; Lompo, M; Nacoulma, O G; Guissou, I P; Bado, A

    2011-05-15

    Borassus aetihiopum MART (Arecaceae) is a plant used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases (bronchitis, laryngitis, antiseptic). In particular, their male inflorcscences were reported to exhibit cicatrizing, antiseptic and fungicidal properties. In the present study, the biological activity of E2F2, an apolar extract from Borassus aethiopum male inflorescence was investigated on colon cancer HT29 cells. Phytochemical screening was carried according to methodology for chemical analysis for vegetable drugs. Cells proliferation was determined by the MTT assay and cells cycle distribution was analysed by using laser flow cytometer (Beckman coulter). The cytoskeleton organisation was examined under a laser scanning confocal microscope (Zess). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of E2F2 extract revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes and saponosids. E2F2 extract (1 microg and 100 microg mL(-1)) significantly inhibited cell proliferation by blocking cell population in G0/G1 phase. Flow Cytometric analysis of E2F2-treated HT29 cells showed that hypoploïd cell population (sub G1 phase) increased with processing time exposures. Immunofluorescence confocal analysis revealed a disrupt actin microfilaments network in E2F2 treated-cells with a significant reduction in actin stress fibres and appearance of a random, non-oriented distribution of focal adhesion sites. These data indicate that E2F2 extract has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms of action of E2F2 extract.

  6. Estimated Seed Shadow Generated by Japanese Martens(Martes melampus): Comparison with Forest-Dwelling Animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Okumura, Tadanobu; Kitahara, Masahiko; Jiang, Zhaowen

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the seed shadow generated by wild Japanese martens (Martes melampus), we combined data on their ranging behavior from the northern foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan (seven males and three females) with data on gut passage time obtained from martens in Toyama Municipal Family Park Zoo (three males and one female). The movement distances varied, and mean distances for 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 h intervals were 152.4, 734.7, and 1,162.4 m, respectively, with no significant sex difference. The mean gut passage time of ingested seeds was 7.4 h (range: 0.6-51.7 h), and two-thirds were defecated within 12 h. Seeds of fleshy fruits was frequently transported to 501-1,000 m, and 20% of ingested seeds were transported > 1,000 m from feeding sites. We found positive correlations between body size and home range of the animals in Japan and their seed dispersal distances. We conclude that Japanese martens are medium-range dispersers that can transport seeds from the source to open habitats conducive for germination and/or growth, partly due to scent marking behaviors.

  7. Açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) berry extract exerts neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid exposure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daphne Yiu San; Musgrave, Ian Francis; Harvey, Benjamin Scott; Smid, Scott Darryl

    2013-11-27

    The native South American palm açaí berry (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) has high polyphenolic and antioxidant levels. This study examined whether açaí berry extract afforded protection against β-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated loss of cell viability and oxidative stress associated with anti-fibrillar effects. PC12 cells were exposed to either Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or tert butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), alone or in the presence of açaí extract (0.5-50μg/ml). Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine effects of açaí extract on Aβ1-42 fibril morphology and compared to açaí phenolics gallic acid, cyanidin rutinoside and cyanidin glucoside. Exposure to Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or t-BHP decreased PC12 cell viability. Pretreatment with açaí extract significantly improved cell viability following Aβ1-42 exposure, however Aβ25-35 or t-BHP-mediated viability loss was unaltered. Açaí extract inhibited ThT fluorescence and disrupted Aβ1-42 fibril and aggregate morphology. In comparison with other phenolics, açaí was most effective at inhibiting Aβ1-42 aggregation. Inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation may underlie a neuroprotective effect of açaí.

  8. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Modulates Oxidative Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J.; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; de Paula Oliveira, Riva

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  9. [The effect of artificial selection for coat color on fitness in a farm population of the sable (Martes zibellina)].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Lazebnyĭ, O E; Beketov, S V; Imasheva, A G

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between the response to artificial selection for darker coat color and fitness in a farm population of the sable (Martes zibellina L.) from the Pushkinskoe Fur Farm (Moscow oblast) was studied. The selection was performed during 41 years. By the moment of the study, a response to the selection for this character had been obtained: the coat color in the selected population had become darker, and the proportion of black animals in it increased. In addition, sables with black heads, which were absent in the original population, had appeared. Artificial selection was accompanied by a decrease in the fitness of the selected population, which was expressed in decreased female reproductive capacity parameters (the fertility, maturation rate, and duration of the reproductive period). A selection technique consisting in the use of only highly fertile animals in the selection originally made it possible to restore the fitness parameters to the initial level almost without a decrease in the dark shade of the fur. However, further selection led to a drastic decrease in fitness that could not be precluded by any selection method used. The possible ways to overcome this unfavorable effect of artificial selection are discussed.

  10. Constituents from stem barks of Luehea ochrophylla Mart and evaluation of their antiparasitic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Araújo, C R R; Silva, R R; Silva, T M; Takahashi, J A; Sales-Junior, P A; Dessimoni-Pinto, N A V; Souza-Fagundes, E M; Romanha, A J; Murta, S M F; Alcântara, A F C

    2016-12-14

    Luehea species are found in almost all Central and South American countries. The present work describes the phytochemical study, isolation, and structural characterisation of friedelin, β-friedelinol, lupeol, pseudotaraxasterol, β-sitosterol, betulinic acid, taraxasterol, (-)-epicatechin, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (+)-epicatechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin from stem barks of Luehea ochrophylla Mart. The structural identification of the isolated compounds was mainly performed by NMR analyses and comparison with the data from literature. These compounds were isolated for the first time in the genus Luehea, except β-sitosterol glucopyranoside, (-)-epicatechin, and lupeol. Hexane extract (HE) and dichloromethane (DF) and ethyl acetate (AF) fractions exhibited antiparasitic activity against amastigote (intracellular) and trypomastigote culture forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The ethanol extract (EE), DF, and ethanol fraction (EF) exhibited considerable antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Moreover, extracts and fractions exhibited significant percentage of capture free radicals of 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) when compared to the standard of ascorbic acid.

  11. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of extracts and fractionates of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, P; Lalitha, P; Aarthi, N

    2012-11-01

    Petroleum ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, aqueous extract, methanol and ethanol fractionate of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms was tested for their larvicidal efficacy against the different instars (I, II, III and IV) and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of the treatment. The extracts showed a dose-dependent toxicity to larvae. The toxicity of the extracts decreased with increase in larval stage. Ethanol fractionate of E. crassipes showed the highest larvicidal and pupicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus compared to other solvent extracts and fractionates with LC(50) 71.43, 94.68,120.42, 152.15 and 173.35 ppm for I, II, III, IV and pupae, respectively. Presence of metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, anthroquinones and anthocyanins in the tested extracts might be the reason for the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of the plant extracts and fractionates of waterhyacinth. Mosquito-repellent activity was not exhibited by these extracts at the tested concentrations. The results demonstrated the potential of the aquatic plant E. crassipes in the successful control of the filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus.

  12. Study on the Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Clastogenic Potential of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Oil Pulp In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Lima Tolouei Menegati, Sara Emilia; Karenina Traesel, Giseli; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Honaiser Lescano, Caroline; Moraes Peixoto, Sara; Mao Silva, Felipe Ariel; Heredia Vieira, Silvia Cristina; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as “bacuri”, is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. oil (APMO) in vitro and in vivo. For the analysis of cytotoxic potential, the Artemia salina and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethizzol-zyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed. Possible cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of APMO intake were determined by performing the comet and micronucleus assays. Male and female Wistar rats were orally treated with doses of 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg.kg-1 of the APMO daily for 28 consecutive days (four weeks). The results showed that the APMO did not induce cell death in the experiments of Artemia salina and MTT, indicating that it has no cytotoxicity. The APMO did not cause significant damage to the DNA of the rats in the four doses used when compared to the negative control group (saline + Tween® 80). The APMO did not present any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) for the four tested doses. When compared to the positive control group, all groups (comet and micronucleus tests) were statistically different. These data suggest that the administration of Attalea phalerata Mart oil. ex Spreng does not cause cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and clastogenicity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo following oral administration in this study. PMID:27764219

  13. Study on the Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Clastogenic Potential of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Oil Pulp In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models.

    PubMed

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Lima Tolouei Menegati, Sara Emilia; Karenina Traesel, Giseli; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Honaiser Lescano, Caroline; Moraes Peixoto, Sara; Mao Silva, Felipe Ariel; Heredia Vieira, Silvia Cristina; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as "bacuri", is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. oil (APMO) in vitro and in vivo. For the analysis of cytotoxic potential, the Artemia salina and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethizzol-zyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed. Possible cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of APMO intake were determined by performing the comet and micronucleus assays. Male and female Wistar rats were orally treated with doses of 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg.kg-1 of the APMO daily for 28 consecutive days (four weeks). The results showed that the APMO did not induce cell death in the experiments of Artemia salina and MTT, indicating that it has no cytotoxicity. The APMO did not cause significant damage to the DNA of the rats in the four doses used when compared to the negative control group (saline + Tween® 80). The APMO did not present any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) for the four tested doses. When compared to the positive control group, all groups (comet and micronucleus tests) were statistically different. These data suggest that the administration of Attalea phalerata Mart oil. ex Spreng does not cause cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and clastogenicity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo following oral administration in this study.

  14. Rubisco and PEP carboxylase responses to changing irradiance in a Brazilian Cerrado tree species, Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae).

    PubMed

    Paulilo, M T; Besford, R T; Wilkins, D

    1994-02-01

    The activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase, Rubisco (E.C. 4.1.1.39) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, PEPc (E.C. 4.1.1.31), and concentrations of protein and chlorophyll were measured in extracts from cotyledons and first leaves of Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) seedlings after transfer from high-light (20 days at 320 micro mol m(-2) s(-1), PAR) to low-light (35 days at 120 micro mol m(-2) s(-1), PAR) conditions. When Tween 20 and glycerol were added to the extraction medium, Rubisco activities obtained for Qualea grandiflora were comparable to published values for several coniferous species and the broad-leaved species, Prunus avium L. Stella, grown in a similar light environment. Rubisco activity in cotyledons of Q. grandiflora grown in high light for 20 days and then transferred to low light for a further 35 days was similar to the activity in cotyledons of plants grown continuously in high light. However, the first leaf above the cotyledons showed a greater response to the change in irradiance; in high light, Rubisco activity of the first leaf was 1.8 times higher on a fresh weight basis and 2.7 times higher on an area basis than that of leaves transferred from high to low light. Fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration expressed on a unit leaf area basis were also higher in the high-light treatment. These responses to irradiance are indicative of a species adapted to growth in an unshaded habitat. The PEPc activity in leaves was 15% of Rubisco activity, which is typical of species with a C(3) photosynthetic pathway. The relatively slow growth rate of Q. grandiflora observed in these experiments could not be attributed to a low carboxylation capacity per unit leaf area.

  15. Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Flynn, Rodney W; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-10-01

    Phylogeographic patterns were used to assess intraspecific diversification of American martens (Martes americana). Within martens, two morphological groups (americana and caurina) have been recognized, though the level of distinction between them has been debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes from 680 martens to explore the colonization history of the Pacific Northwest and found two clades that correspond to the morphological groups. The widespread americana clade extends from interior Alaska south to Montana and eastward to Newfoundland and New England (i.e. northwestern, north-central and northeastern North America). The caurina clade occurs in western North America, minimally extending from Admiralty Island (southeastern Alaska) south to Oregon and Wyoming. Our data indicated two colonization events for the Pacific Northwest (one by members of each clade) and were consistent with the persistence of populations throughout past glacial periods in eastern and western refugia. Due to vegetational and geological history following the past deglaciation, we hypothesize that martens of the caurina clade spread along the North Pacific Coast, and into southeastern Alaska, earlier than martens of the americana clade. Mismatch distributions for the americana clade were indicative of populations that recently experienced demographic expansion, while mismatch distributions for the caurina clade suggested that populations were at equilibrium. These clades are reciprocally monophyletic and distinctive (interclade divergence ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% (uncorrected p), whereas, intraclade divergence was < 0.7%), and two regions of sympatry have been identified. Genetic signatures of past admixture in hybrid zones may have been extinguished during subsequent glacial periods when ranges contracted. This recurrent pattern of relatively restricted western, or Pacific coastal, lineages and more widespread eastern, or interior continental, lineages exists across

  16. Fatty acid profiles and relative mobilization during fasting in adipose tissue depots of the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Collinsb, Danielle; Grant, Judy; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2006-03-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity but high metabolic rate. The study describes the FA composition in white adipose tissue depots of the species and the influence of food deprivation on them. American marten (n = 8) were fasted for 2 d with 7 control animals. Fasting resulted in a 13.4% weight loss, while the relative fat mass was >25% lower in the fasted animals. The FA composition of the fat depots of the trunk was quite similar to other previously studied mustelids with 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and 18:2n-6 as the most abundant FA. In the extremities, there were higher proportions of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and PUFA. Food deprivation decreased the proportions of 16:0 and 16:1 n-7, while the proportion of long-chain MUFA increased in the trunk. The mobilization of FA was selective, as 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and particular n-3 PUFA were preferentially mobilized. Relative mobilization correlated negatively with the carbon chain length in saturated FA (SFA) and n-9 MUFA. The delta9-desaturation of SFA enhanced the mobilization of the corresponding MUFA, but the positional isomerism of the first double bond did not correlate consistently with relative mobilization in MUFA or PUFA. In the marten, the FA composition of the extremities was highly resistant to fasting, and the tail tip and the paws contained more long-chain PUFA to prevent the solidification of lipids and to maintain cell membrane fluidity during cooling.

  17. Removal of aluminium by constructed wetlands with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-02-01

    This article reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions for Al rich wastewaters in batch type constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems). This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1 week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth (average height of 20 +/- 2 cm) in 590 L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 2-fold [56 and 15.4 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 1-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 5.62 Al mg/L. A control set-up of hyacinths comprising only Al with no nutrients was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to identify the different Al removal mechanisms from the wastewaters. Chemical precipitation of Al(OH)3 was a dominant contribution to Al removal at the beginning of the study, whereas adsorption of Al3+ to sediments was observed to be a predominant Al removal mechanism as the study progressed. Phytoremediation mainly due to rhizofiltration was also an important mechanism of Al removal especially during the first 4 weeks of the study in almost all the set-ups. However, chemical precipitation and sediment adsorption of Al3+ was a dominant contribution to Al removal in comparison with phytoremediation. Plants cultured in the control set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 63% during the period of the 4th week. A similar scenario was evident in the 1/8-fold set-up. Hence we conclude that water hyacinth grown under lower nutritional conditions are more ideal to commence a batch type constructed wetland treating Al rich wastewaters with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 4 weeks, after which a complete harvesting is recommended.

  18. Determining the Shape of the Orbit of Mars in the High School. (Spanish Title: Determinación de la Forma de la Órbita de Marte en la Escuela Secundaria.) Determinando a Forma da Órbita de Marte no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Carlos Maximiliano; Rossini Goulart, Andressa

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, in order to supply the lacks of practical activities related to the content of Kepler's Laws in high school physics textbooks, we present a practical activity to determine the shape of the orbit of Mars. In this activity the student can experience the discovery the shape of the orbit of Mars in a way similar to that realized by Johannes Kepler combining the physical concepts with geometry. We applied the activity to eighteen high school teachers participating in a Postgraduate Course in Science Education. After two hours of work the group obtained the shape of the orbit of Mars and estimated its orbital parameters with a relative error less than 14%. En el presente trabajo y con el objetivo de reducir la escasez de actividades prácticas relacionadas con el contenido de las leyes de Kepler en libros de texto de física de la escuela secundaria, se presenta una actividad práctica para determinar la forma de la órbita de Marte. En esta actividad el estudiante puede vivir la experiencia de descubrir la forma de la órbita de Marte de una manera similar a la realizada por Johannes Kepler combinando los conceptos físicos con la geometría. Aplicamos la actividad a dieciocho maestros de escuelas secundarias en un Curso de Especialización en Enseñanza de las Ciencias. Después de dos horas de trabajo el grupo obtuvo la forma de la órbita de Marte com error inferior al 14% en los parámetros orbitales. No presente trabalho, visando suprir a deficiência de atividades práticas relacionadas ao conteúdo de Leis de Kepler nos livros-textos de Física do 1º ano do Ensino Médio, apresentamos uma atividade prática de determinação da órbita de Marte. O aluno, combinando conceitos físicos com a geometria poderá vivenciar a experiência da descoberta da forma da órbita de Marte de modo similar ao realizado por Johannes Kepler. Aplicamos a metodologia proposta junto a dezoito professores do Curso de Especialização em Educação em Ciências e

  19. [Impacts of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms stress on the growth characteristics, microcystins and nutrients release of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Han, Shi-Qun; Yan, Shao-Hua; Song, Wei; Liu, Guo-Feng

    2014-02-01

    Due to the large-scale application of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms on the bioremediation of eutrophic lake in China, the influence of growth, physiological characteristics, microcystins production and release of M. aeruginosa by E. crassipes was investigated. Meanwhile, the release risk of nutrients from M. aeruginosa and the accumulation risk of microcystins in E. crassipe were explored through semi-continuous co-existence experiments. Our results indicated that M. aeruginosa was promoted by E. crassipes to undergo the cell death. Under the stress of E. crassipes, direct damage of phycocyanin and phycocyanin/allophycocyanin ratio in M. aeruginosa occurred, while the photosystem II-Hill reaction in M. aeruginosa was not interrupted. The PC/APC levels in the treatment of 10% and 20% water exchange rate were respectively decreased to 54.93% +/- 7.07% and 55.81% +/- 1.97% of the level in their relative controls after 8 days. Then, the final significant decrease of specific superoxide dismutase activity and the striking elevation of malondialdehyde content in M. aeruginosa could be the results of oxidative damage by E. crassipes. Algal malondialdehyde content in the treatment of 10% and 20% water exchange rate were respectively 2.95 +/- 0.074 and 2.22 +/- 0.086 times of the level in their relative controls on day 8. The release of nutrients from M. aeruginosa was accelerated because the decay and lysis of algal cells were promoted by E. crassipes. After 12-day co-existence experiments, the concentration of total dissolved nitrogen in water was brought back to the initial level and the release of total dissolved phosphorus was faster than nitrogen nutrients under the stress of E. crassipes. In addition, the microcystins production in M. aeruginosa was not stimulated and the extracellular microcystins were significantly eliminated by the influence of E. crassipes. The extracellular microcystins contents in the treatment of 10% and 20% water exchange rate were

  20. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  1. The first evidence of cut marks and usewear traces from the Plio-Pleistocene locality of El-Kherba (Ain Hanech), Algeria: implications for early hominin subsistence activities circa 1.8 Ma.

    PubMed

    Sahnouni, Mohamed; Rosell, Jordi; van der Made, Jan; Vergès, Josep María; Ollé, Andreu; Kandi, Nadia; Harichane, Zoheir; Derradji, Abdelkader; Medig, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    The current archaeological data on early hominin subsistence activities in Africa are derived chiefly from Sub-Saharan Plio-Pleistocene sites. The recent studies at El-Kherba (Ain Hanech) in northeastern Algeria expand the geographic range of evidence of hominin subsistence patterns to include the earliest known archaeological sites documented in North Africa. Dated to 1.78 million years ago (Ma), excavations from El-Kherba yielded an Oldowan industry associated with a savanna-like fauna contained in floodplain deposits. The faunal assemblage is dominated by large and medium-sized animals (mainly adults), especially equids, which are represented by at least 11 individuals. The mammalian archaeofauna preserves numerous cut-marked and hammerstone-percussed bones. Made of primarily limestone and flint, the stone assemblage consists of core forms, débitage, and retouched pieces. Evidence of usewear traces is found on several of the flint artifacts, indicating meat processing by early hominins. Overall, our subsistence analysis indicates that early hominins were largely responsible for bone modification at the site, which is also corroborated by other relevant taphonomic evidence. Moreover, at 1.78 Ma, the cutmarked bones recovered from El-Kherba represent the earliest known evidence for ancestral hominin butchery activities and large animal foraging capabilities in northern Africa.

  2. [Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Córdova-Ballona, Leonides; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl

    2008-01-01

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants.

  3. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de Hierro field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.

  4. Teaching Money "$marts" Smarts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Economics can be a tough subject, so good teachers find creative ways to teach it. However, only a few economic literacy programs promote "an economic way of thinking" and teach students how to analyze relevant economic problems, says Burton Folsom. Having examined several economic education programs, the author has found that many…

  5. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Solomun, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Knežević, Zorka; Slavica, Alen

    2010-11-01

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from Croatia. Rural and suburban habitats affected Cd and Hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. Significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. Suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w.w.): in muscle 0.019 for Hg; in liver 0.161 for Cd, 36.1 for Cu and 0.349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats.

  6. Health Impact Assessments for Environmental Restoration: The Case of Caño Martín Peña

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry; Agu, Damiris; Rodríguez, Lyvia; Avilés, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a methodology for predicting health impacts of a proposed policy or plan. A proposed environmental restoration and development plan presented an opportunity for an HIA in an environmental justice community surrounding the Martín Peña channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The HIA focused on the dredging of the channel, debris removal, road, sewer, and storm water infrastructure improvements, housing demolition, and resident relocation. Objective The HIA sought to determine the potential health impacts of the proposed plan on the community to inform the funding decision by the Puerto Rican legislature. As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, a secondary objective was to build HIA capacity in Puerto Rico. Methods This HIA used a community training, literature reviews, existing local studies, focus groups, interviews, and disease surveillance data to assess baseline health, determine expected impacts, and build capacity. Findings The Martín Peña community is experiencing deteriorating environmental conditions. Flooding and negative environmental exposures, such as mold, limits to physical activity, stress, chemical toxicants, pathogenic bacteria, and pests, are worsening. The higher rates of diseases, such as asthma and diarrhea, in the community compared to elsewhere in Puerto Rico appear to be largely attributable to these factors. Overall, the proposed plan is expected to improve many of these health disparities but the successful implementation depends on continued community acceptance and participation, particularly with the relocation process. Recommendations are for full financing and several mitigation efforts to avoid negative and preserve beneficial health consequences. Conclusions As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, this assessment provided specific recommendations to benefit the health of the community affected by an environmental restoration and development plan and also capacity building for a larger audience in Puerto

  7. Molecular Mechanism of MART-1+/A*0201+ Human Melanoma Resistance to Specific CTL-Killing Despite Functional Tumor-CTL Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jazirehi, Ali R.; Baritaki, Stavroula; Koya, Richard C.; Bonavida, Benjamin; Economou, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Durable responses in metastatic melanoma patients remain generally difficult to achieve. Adoptive cell therapy with ex vivo engineered lymphocytes expressing high affinity T cell receptors TCRα/β for the melanoma antigen MART-127-35/HLA A*0201 (recognized by F5 cytotoxic T lymphocytes [F5 CTLs]) has been found to benefit certain patients. However, many other patients are inherently unresponsive and/or relapse for unknown reasons. To analyze the basis for the acquired-resistance and strategies to reverse it, we established F5 CTLresistant (R) human melanoma clones from relatively sensitive parental lines under selective F5 CTL pressure. Surface MART-127-35/HLA-A*0201 in these clones was unaltered and F5 CTLs recognized and interacted with them similarly to the parental lines. Nevertheless, the R clones were resistant to F5 CTL killing, exhibited hyperactivation of the NF-κB survival pathway, and overexpression of the anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Sensitivity to F5 CTL-killing could be increased by pharmacological inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, Bcl-2 family members, or the proteasome, the latter of which reduced NF-κB activity and diminished anti-apoptotic gene expression. Specific gene-silencing (by siRNA) confirmed the protective role of anti-apoptotic factors by reversing R clone resistance. Together, our findings suggest that long-term immunotherapy may impose a selection for the development of resistant cells that are unresponsive to highly avid and specific melanoma-reactive CTLs, despite maintaining expression of functional peptide:MHC complexes, due to activation of anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Though unresponsive to CTL, our results argue that resistant cells can be re-sensitized to immunotherapy with co-administration of targeted inhibitors to anti-apoptotic survival pathways. PMID:21159666

  8. Use of existing data for public health planning: a study of the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed Central

    al-Owais, A.; al-Suwaidi, K.; Amiri, N.; Carter, A. O.; Hossain, M. M.; Sheek-Hussein, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is of major public health importance. Accurate information on its occurrence, with particular reference to the prevalence of immunity and chronic infection (marked by the presence of hepatitis B core antibody and surface antigen, respectively, in serum), is essential for planning public health programmes for the control of the disease. The generation of marker prevalence data through serological surveys is costly and time-consuming. The present study in Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates, investigated the possibility of obtaining sufficiently accurate marker prevalence estimates from existing data to plan public health programmes. METHODS: Two antenatal screening databases, one student serological survey database, one immunization programme database and one pre-marriage screening database containing information on marker prevalence were identified. Epidemiological data were abstracted from these databases and analysed. RESULTS: The data showed that the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and the prevalence of core antibody in young citizens in 1998 were approximately 2% and 14% respectively, that any immunization campaign aimed at citizens of the United Arab Emirates should target teenagers as they had the highest risk of acquiring the disease, and that pre-immunization screening of young adults would be wasteful. However, the data did not yield information on the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in other population subgroups of public health significance. DISCUSSION: While data generated by the study are sufficient to support a hepatitis B immunization programme targeted at teenaged citizens, more accurate data, generated by a well-designed serological survey, would be essential for optimal public health planning. PMID:11143192

  9. Reply to Comment by Domínguez-Villar on "Land surface temperature changes in Northern Iberia since 4000 yr BP, based in δ13C of speleothems" (Martín-Chivelet et al., 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Muñoz-García, M. Belén; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Turrero, María J.; Ortega, Ana I.

    2013-02-01

    We have considered the additional data that Domínguez-Villar (this issue) has provided, as well as his criticisms of the interpretations of Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011). We argue that with or without the additional data, our original interpretations are the most likely interpretations, on the basis of Ockham's Razor. Those of Domínguez-Villar violate Ockham's Razor, and in the final analysis do not offer an alternative explanation for the Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011) and Domínguez-Villar (this issue) data. In particular, all of the 230Th ages (reported by both Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011) and Domínguez-Villar (this issue)) are in stratigraphic order, within quoted errors, so that our original chronology is robust, with no reason to invoke diagenetic processes. Given this chronology, the empirical relationship between δ13C and temperature also hold. Finally, our original mechanism for the cause of this relationship (prior calcite precipitation) has been invoked in a number of other studies to explain carbon isotopic variations and remains a perfectly plausible explanation for the observations at the studied caves.

  10. It Ain't What You Say...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yandell, John

    2013-01-01

    This essay takes as its starting-point the recent announcement that GCSE English, the high-stakes test taken by 16-year-olds in England, will no longer include the assessment of speaking and listening. It attempts to place this decision, and other recent policy interventions that will have an impact on how talk in the classroom is conceptualised…

  11. It Ain't What You Do...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sam

    2007-01-01

    When developing partnership work, the members of Wakefield Skills for Life Group drew up a protocol setting out what each partner expected of the others. The process helped create one of the most cohesive partnerships in the region. This article takes a closer look at that journey, reflecting upon the nature of partnerships in general, and looking…

  12. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Histology and gametogenesis in Heleobia piscium (Cochliopidae) from the Multiple Use Reserve “Isla Martín García,” Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Heleobia piscium (d’Orbigny, 1835), a member of the Cochliopidae family found only in South America, is distributed from Entre Ríos, Delta del Paraná, and the littoral of the Río de la Plata down as far as to Punta Indio (Buenos Aires), the southernmost limit of the snail’s geographical distribution. To date, little information is available regarding the reproductive cycle of species within this family either in Argentina or throughout South America. The present work analyzed the histology of the reproductive system of the gonochoric species H. piscium and determined the stages oogenesis and spermatogenesis under natural conditions. Specimens of H. piscium were collected in the Multiple-Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, located in the Upper Río de la Plata estuary to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay River. The gametogenic cycle in both sexes was found to consist of the following stages: early maturation, maturation, and evacuation. The maturation period was found to extend from January to October and evacuation of the gametes to start in November and end in February (summer in the Southern Hemisphere). The results indicated the H. piscium exhibit a reproductive cycle without a resting period. PMID:27761336

  14. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  15. Case Report of a Fatal Serious Adverse Event Upon Administration of T Cells Transduced With a MART-1-specific T-cell Receptor.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Joost H; Gomez-Eerland, Raquel; van de Wiel, Bart; Hulshoff, Lenie; van den Broek, Daan; Bins, Adriaan; Tan, Hanno L; Harper, Jane V; Hassan, Namir J; Jakobsen, Bent K; Jorritsma, Annelies; Blank, Christian U; Schumacher, Ton N M; Haanen, John B A G

    2015-09-01

    Here, we describe a fatal serious adverse event observed in a patient infused with autologous T-cell receptor (TCR) transduced T cells. This TCR, originally obtained from a melanoma patient, recognizes the well-described HLA-A*0201 restricted 26-35 epitope of MART-1, and was not affinity enhanced. Patient 1 with metastatic melanoma experienced a cerebral hemorrhage, epileptic seizures, and a witnessed cardiac arrest 6 days after cell infusion. Three days later, the patient died from multiple organ failure and irreversible neurologic damage. After T-cell infusion, levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin increased to extreme levels, indicative of a cytokine release syndrome or T-cell-mediated inflammatory response. Infused T cells could be recovered from blood, broncho-alveolar lavage, ascites, and after autopsy from tumor sites and heart tissue. High levels of NT-proBNP indicate semi-acute heart failure. No cross reactivity of the modified T cells toward a beating cardiomyocyte culture was observed. Together, these observations suggest that high levels of inflammatory cytokines alone or in combination with semi-acute heart failure and epileptic seizure may have contributed substantially to the occurrence of the acute and lethal event. Protocol modifications to limit the risk of T-cell activation-induced toxicity are discussed.

  16. RIO Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodriquez, N.; Davila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemistry and mineralogy on Mars surface characterized by the MER Opportunity Rover suggest that early Mars hosted acidic environments in the Meridiani Planum region [1, 2]. Such extreme paleoenvironments have been suggested to be a regional expression of the global Mars geological cycle that induced acidic conditions by sulfur complexation and iron buffering of aqueous solutions [3]. Under these assumptions, underground reservoirs of acidic brines and, thereby, putative acidic cryptobiospheres, may be expected. The MARTE project [4, 5] has performed a drilling campaign to search for acidic and anaerobic biospheres in R o Tinto basement [6] that may be analogs of these hypothetical communities occurring in cryptic habitats of Mars. This Rio Tinto geological region is characterized by the occurrence of huge metallic deposits of iron sulfides [7]. Late intensive diagenesis of rocks driven by a compressive regimen [8] largely reduced the porosity of rocks and induced a cortical thickening through thrusting and inverse faulting and folding. Such structures play an essential role in transporting and storing water underground as any other aquifers do in the Earth. Once the underground water reservoirs of the Ro Tinto basement contact the hydrothermal pyrite deposits, acidic brines are produced by the release of sulfates and iron through the oxidation of sulfides [9].

  17. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  18. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of the anti-inflammatory compound vicenin-2 in the leaves of L. ericoides Mart.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Solange Leite; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports a rapid and sensitive method for determination of the anti-inflammatory compound vicenin-2 in L. ericoides Mart. using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Separation of the compound of interest was performed on a VP-ODS(18) (150 x 2 mm, Shimadzu, Japan) column and a pre-column packed with GPV-ODS C(18) (5 x 2 mm, Sigma-Aldrich, USA) with acetonitrile-water (15:85) mobile phase containing 2% acetic acid using isocratic flow at 0.5 mL/min for 2 min. Multiple-reaction monitoring of vicenin-2 was performed using electrospray positive ionization. The linear calibration curves were generated using a concentration range of 5-2500 ng/mL with correlation coefficients >0.99. The values of limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 1 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The method developed based on LC-ESIMS/MS is advantageous because it permits the rapid and selective detection of vicenin-2. Furthermore, the method can be easily applied to the routine analysis of vicenin-2 in plant extracts using a minimal amount of sample.

  19. Encephalitis in a stone marten (Martes foina) after natural infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Wolf, P U; Wolf, C; Harder, T; Starick, E; Niebuhr, M; Mettenleiter, T C; Teifke, J P

    2007-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of disease in different avian species, caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), have involved infection by subtype H5N1 of the virus. This virus has also crossed species barriers and infected felines and humans. Here, we report the natural infection of a stone marten (Martes foina) from an area with numerous confirmed cases of H5N1 HPAIV infection in wild birds. Histopathological examination of tissues from this animal revealed a diffuse nonsuppurative panencephalitis with perivascular cuffing, multifocal gliosis and neuronal necrosis. Additionally, focal necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, lesions in these organs were associated with avian influenza virus antigen in neurons, glial cells and pancreatic acinar cells. Thus, the microscopical lesions and viral antigen distribution in this stone marten differs from that recently described for cats naturally and experimentally infected with the same virus subtype. This is the first report of natural infection of a mustelid with HPAIV H5N1.

  20. [Arthropod community associated with the canopy of Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae) during the flood period of the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Battirola, Leandro D; Adis, Joachim; Marques, Marinêz I; Silva, Fábio H O

    2007-01-01

    Six trees of the palm species Attalea phalerata Mart. were sampled during high water (aquatic phase) of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001), by canopy fogging. The composition, structure, and biomass of the arthropod community associated with their canopies were analysed, as well as the influence the flood pulse renders on it. Each tree was fogged once, followed by three consecutive collections. A total of 63,657 arthropods (643.0 +/-; 259.87 ind./m(2)) were collected, representing 25 orders in the classes Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea. The dominant groups were Acari (40.0%; 257.2 +/- 116.50 ind./m(2)), Coleoptera (12.0%; 77.5 +/- 64.93 ind./m(2)), Psocoptera (9.2%; 59.0 +/- 38.00 ind./m(2)), Diptera (8.4%; 54.1 +/- 18.72 ind./m(2)), Collembola (8.3%; 53.4 +/- 26.24 ind./m(2)) and Hymenoptera (7.9%; 50.6 +/- 21.40 ind./m(2)), the latter mostly represented by Formicidae (49.2%). Arthropod biomass amounted to 8.86 g dry weight and 0.18 mg/m(2). Coleoptera, Blattodea, Orthoptera, Araneae and Hymenoptera were the most representative taxa. The hydrological regime (flood pulse), as well as seasonality, appear to strongly affect the composition and structure of this canopy community.

  1. Case Report of a Fatal Serious Adverse Event Upon Administration of T Cells Transduced With a MART-1-specific T-cell Receptor

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Joost H; Gomez-Eerland, Raquel; van de Wiel, Bart; Hulshoff, Lenie; van den Broek, Daan; Bins, Adriaan; Tan, Hanno L; Harper, Jane V; Hassan, Namir J; Jakobsen, Bent K; Jorritsma, Annelies; Blank, Christian U; Schumacher, Ton N M; Haanen, John B A G

    2015-01-01

    Here, we describe a fatal serious adverse event observed in a patient infused with autologous T-cell receptor (TCR) transduced T cells. This TCR, originally obtained from a melanoma patient, recognizes the well-described HLA-A*0201 restricted 26–35 epitope of MART-1, and was not affinity enhanced. Patient 1 with metastatic melanoma experienced a cerebral hemorrhage, epileptic seizures, and a witnessed cardiac arrest 6 days after cell infusion. Three days later, the patient died from multiple organ failure and irreversible neurologic damage. After T-cell infusion, levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin increased to extreme levels, indicative of a cytokine release syndrome or T-cell-mediated inflammatory response. Infused T cells could be recovered from blood, broncho-alveolar lavage, ascites, and after autopsy from tumor sites and heart tissue. High levels of NT-proBNP indicate semi-acute heart failure. No cross reactivity of the modified T cells toward a beating cardiomyocyte culture was observed. Together, these observations suggest that high levels of inflammatory cytokines alone or in combination with semi-acute heart failure and epileptic seizure may have contributed substantially to the occurrence of the acute and lethal event. Protocol modifications to limit the risk of T-cell activation-induced toxicity are discussed. PMID:25896248

  2. Histology and gametogenesis in Heleobia piscium (Cochliopidae) from the Multiple Use Reserve "Isla Martín García," Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stella Maris; Díaz, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Heleobia piscium (d'Orbigny, 1835), a member of the Cochliopidae family found only in South America, is distributed from Entre Ríos, Delta del Paraná, and the littoral of the Río de la Plata down as far as to Punta Indio (Buenos Aires), the southernmost limit of the snail's geographical distribution. To date, little information is available regarding the reproductive cycle of species within this family either in Argentina or throughout South America. The present work analyzed the histology of the reproductive system of the gonochoric species H. piscium and determined the stages oogenesis and spermatogenesis under natural conditions. Specimens of H. piscium were collected in the Multiple-Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, located in the Upper Río de la Plata estuary to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay River. The gametogenic cycle in both sexes was found to consist of the following stages: early maturation, maturation, and evacuation. The maturation period was found to extend from January to October and evacuation of the gametes to start in November and end in February (summer in the Southern Hemisphere). The results indicated the H. piscium exhibit a reproductive cycle without a resting period.

  3. Genetic distinctness and variation in the Tsushima Islands population of the Japanese marten, Martes melampus (Carnivora: Mustelidae), revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Shouko; Moteki, Shusaku; Baba, Minoru; Ochiai, Keiji; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2012-12-01

    A carnivoran mammal endemic to Japan, the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) is native in forested regions on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu (main islands of Japan), and the Tsushima Islands. The Tsushima population is classified as a different subspecies (M. m. tsuensis) from populations on the main islands (M. m. melampus). To elucidate the genetic structure of the Tsushima population, we genotyped 101 individuals from the Tsushima Islands and 43 individuals from Honshu and Kyushu using 10 microsatellite loci, and performed population genetic analyses on the genotype data. Genetic diversity was lower in the Tsushima population than in three geographic populations on the main islands: heterozygosity was 0.189-0.364 in the former, compared to 0.457-0.747 in the latter. In addition, high pairwise Fst values (0.485-0.682) and Nei's standard distance (0.550-1.183) between the Tsushima and main-island populations indicated a high degree of genetic differentiation. Finally, a Bayesian clustering analysis showed that the Tsushima population is apparently differentiated from the main-island populations and comprises two genetic clusters. A factorial correspondence analysis corroborated these results. Our results suggest that restricted gene flow or inbreeding may have reduced genetic diversity in the Tsushima population, which has been geographically isolated from the main-island populations since the formation of Tsushima Strait.

  4. Mechanisms of manganese removal from wastewaters in constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Ranil K A; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Manatunge, Jagath M A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2009-02-01

    This article discusses key mechanisms involved in removing 1 mg/L Mn from synthetic wastewaters in constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient levels of 1-fold (28 mg/L and 7.7 mg/L of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively), 2-fold, 1/4-fold, and 1/8-fold. A mass balance was carried out to evaluate the key removal mechanisms. Phytoremediation mainly due to phytoextraction substantially contributed to manganese removal. However, chemical precipitation was absent, suggesting that manganese has a higher solubility in the given average pH (6.2 to 7.1) conditions in constructed wetlands. Bacterial mediated immobilization mechanisms also did not contribute to manganese removal. Sediments constituted a minor sink to manganese, implying that manganese has a poor adsorption potential. Constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth are effective at removing manganese from wastewaters despite the fact that the plants are grown under higher or lower nutrient conditions.

  5. Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, guaraná, reduces cell proliferation and increases apoptosis of B16/F10 melanoma lung metastases in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, H; Avanzo, J L; Nagamine, M K; Barbuto, J A; Rao, K V; Dagli, M L Z

    2008-04-01

    We showed that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis) had a chemopreventive effect on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis and reduced diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA damage. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of guaraná in an experimental metastasis model. Cultured B16/F10 melanoma cells (5 x 10(5) cells/animal) were injected into the tail vein of mice on the 7th day of guaraná treatment (2.0 mg P. cupana/g body weight, per gavage) and the animals were treated with guaraná daily up to 14 days until euthanasia (total treatment time: 21 days). Lung sections were obtained for morphometric analysis, apoptotic bodies were counted to calculate the apoptotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were counted to determine the proliferation index. Guaraná-treated (GUA) animals presented a 68.6% reduction in tumor burden area compared to control (CO) animals which were not treated with guaraná (CO: 0.84 +/- 0.26, N = 6; GUA: 0.27 +/- 0.24, N = 6; P = 0.0043), a 57.9% reduction in tumor proliferation index (CO: 23.75 +/- 20.54, N = 6; GUA: 9.99 +/- 3.93, N = 6; P = 0.026) and a 4.85-fold increase in apoptotic index (CO: 66.95 +/- 22.95, N = 6; GUA: 324.37 +/- 266.74 AB/mm(2), N = 6; P = 0.0152). In this mouse model, guaraná treatment decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells, consequently reducing the tumor burden area. We are currently investigating the molecular pathways of the effects of guaraná in cultured melanoma cells, regarding principally the cell cycle inhibitors and cyclins.

  6. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Badorrey, Maria Sol; Capani, Francisco; Alvarez, Lisandro Diego Giraldez

    2011-09-01

    Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system. The potential beneficial uses of Guaraná in neurodegenerative disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate if an extract of commercial powdered seeds of Guaraná could protect human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Two concentration of Guaraná dimethylsulfoxide extract (0.312 and 0.625 mg/mL) were added to SH-SY5Y cells treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h, and the cytoprotective effects were assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and analyzing nuclear integrity with Hoechst33258 stain. Results showed that the addition of Guaraná extract significantly increased the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with rotenone, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, LDH levels were significantly reduced by addition of 0.312 mg/mL of Guaraná, but unexpectedly, no changes were observed with the higher concentration. Moreover, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were significantly reduced by addition of any of both concentrations of the extract. The results obtained in this work could provide relevant information about the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD and precede in vivo experiments. Further studies are needed to investigate which active constituent is responsible for the cytoprotective effect produced by Paullinia cupana.

  7. Effect of Paullinia cupana Mart. Commercial Extract During the Aging of Middle Age Wistar Rats: Differential Effects on the Hippocampus and Striatum.

    PubMed

    Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Heimfarth, Luana; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Gomes, Henrique Mautone; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Delgado, Jeferson; Roncato, Sabrina; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2017-03-27

    During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age, male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to a group according to their treatment (saline, CGE, or caffeine). Solutions were administered daily by oral gavage for 6 months. Open field and novel object recognition tasks were performed before and after treatment. Biochemical analyses were carried out on the hippocampus and striatum. Our open field data showed an increase in exploratory activity and a decrease in anxiety-like behavior with caffeine but not with the CGE treatment. In the CGE-treated group, catalase activity decreased in the hippocampus and increased in the striatum. Analyses of the hippocampus and striatum indicate that CGE and/or caffeine altered some of the analyzed parameters in a tissue-specific manner. Our data suggest that CGE intake does not improve cognitive development, but modifies the oxidative stress machinery and neurodegenerative-signaling pathway, inhibiting pro-survival pathway molecules in the hippocampus and striatum. This may contribute to the development of unfavorable microenvironments in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Anthocyanin-rich açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Fisher, Derek R; Larson, Jessica; Bielinski, Donna F; Rimando, Agnes M; Carey, Amanda N; Schauss, Alexander G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    Age-related diseases of the brain compromise memory, learning, and movement and are directly linked with increases in oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berries can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of their high polyphenolic content, fruit pulp fractions of açai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were explored for their protective effect on BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Freeze-dried açai pulp was fractionated using solvents with different polarities and analyzed using HPLC for major anthocyanins and other phenolics. Fractions extracted using methanol (MEOH) and ethanol (ETOH) were particularly rich in anthocyanins such as cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin, whereas the fraction extracted using acetone (ACE) was rich in other phenolics such as catechin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol, and synergic and vanillic acids. Studies were conducted to investigate the mitigating effects of açai pulp extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) induced oxidative stress and inflammation; treatment of BV-2 cells with acai fractions resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decreases in nitrite production, accompanied by a reduction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The inhibition pattern was emulated with the ferulic acid content among the fractions. The protection of microglial cells by açai pulp extracts, particularly that of MEOH, ETOH, and ACE fractions, was also accompanied by a significant concentration-dependent reduction in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The current study offers valuable insights into the protective effects of açai pulp fractions on brain cells, which could have implications for improved cognitive and motor functions.

  9. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  10. Molecular characterization of the endophytic fungal community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) (Pontederiaceae) native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, T T; Orlandelli, R C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2015-05-11

    Endophytic fungi live in the interior of healthy plants without causing them any damage. These fungi are of biotechnological interest; they may be used in the biological control of pests and plant diseases, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) belong to the Pontederiaceae family. The first is a fixed-floating species and the second is a free-floating species that is known for its phytoremediation potential. The fungal endophytes associated with the leaves of E. azurea and E. crassipes, native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil, were isolated. The sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA was performed and the nucleotide sequences obtained were compared with those available in the GenBank database for the molecular identification of the isolates. The construction of phylogenetic trees was performed using the MEGA5 software. The results showed that high colonization frequencies were obtained from the 610 foliar fragments sampled from each plant: 87.86% for E. azurea and 88.85% for E. crassipes. At the genus level, it was possible to identify 19 fungal endophytes belonging to the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Cercospora, Diaporthe, Gibberella, Pestalotiopsis, Plectosphaerella, Phoma, and Saccharicola. Two other endophytes were identified at the species level (Microsphaeropsis arundinis). Genera Bipolaris, Cercospora, Microsphaeropsis, and Phoma were found as endophytes in the two macrophytes and the other genera were host-specific, being isolated from only one macrophyte, proving that there is a small difference in the endophytic diversity of the two Eichhornia species analyzed.

  11. Crystal Structures of HLA-A*0201 Complexed with Melan-A/MART-1[subscript 26(27L)-35] Peptidomimetics Reveal Conformational Heterogeneity and Highlight Degeneracy of T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Douat-Casassus, Celine; Borbulevych, Oleg; Tarbe, Marion; Gervois, Nadine; Jotereau, Francine; Baker, Brian M.; Quideau, Stphane

    2010-10-07

    There is growing interest in using tumor associated antigens presented by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) proteins as cancer vaccines. As native peptides are poorly stable in biological fluids, researchers have sought to engineer synthetic peptidomimetics with greater biostability. Here, we demonstrate that antigenic peptidomimetics of the Melan-A/MART-1{sub 26(27L)-35} melanoma antigen adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to MHC-I, highlighting the degeneracy of T cell recognition and revealing the challenges associated with mimicking native peptide conformation.

  12. Lose to win: marT pseudogenization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi contributed to the surV-dependent survival to H2O2, and inside human macrophage-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A P; Villagra, N A; Urrutia, I M; Valenzuela, L M; Talamilla-Espinoza, A; Hidalgo, A A; Rodas, P I; Gil, F; Calderón, I L; Paredes-Sabja, D; Mora, G C; Fuentes, J A

    2016-11-01

    The difference in host range between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) can be partially attributed to the gain of functions, to the loss of functions (i.e. pseudogenization), or to a combination of both processes. As previously reported, the loss of functions by pseudogenization may play a role in bacterial evolution, especially in host-restricted pathogens such as S. Typhi. The marT-fidL operon, located at the SPI-3, encodes the MarT transcriptional regulator and a hypothetical protein (i.e. FidL) with no significant similarities to known proteins, respectively. Even though predicted S. Typhimurium FidL exhibit 99.4% identity with S. Typhi FidL, marT has been annotated as a pseudogene in S. Typhi. In this work, we found that S. Typhi expressing S. Typhimurium marT-fidL exhibited an increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a decreased survival in presence of H2O2. Moreover, we found that that the presence of a functional copy of S. Typhimurium marT-fidL in S. Typhi resulted in a repression of surV (STY4039), an ORF found in the S. Typhi SPI-3 but absent from S. Typhimurium SPI-3, that contribute to the resistance to H2O2 by decreasing the accumulation of ROS. Finally, we observed that the presence of S. Typhimurium marT-fidL in S. Typhi negatively affected the survival inside macrophage-like cells, but not in epithelial cells, after 24h post infection. Therefore, this work provides evidence arguing that marT pseudogenization in Salmonella Typhi contributed to the surV-dependent survival against H2O2, and inside human macrophage-like cells. This is a good example of how the loss of functions (marT pseudogenization) and the gain of functions (presence of surV) might contribute to phenotypic changes improving virulence.

  13. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  14. Population structure of Uncancylus concentricus (d'Orbigny, 1835) (Ancylidae, Pulmonata, Basommatophora) in the Multiple Use Reserve Martín García Island, Upper Río de la Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martín, S M; Díaz, A C

    2012-02-01

    The present work analyzes the population dynamics of Uncancylus concentricus in natural conditions in the northeastern coastal area of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García (Beach of Basural), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Martín García Island is located in the Upper Río de La Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay River (34° 11' 25" S and 58° 15'38" W). Monthly collections were made from August 2005 to December 2006. The size frequency of the U. concentricus population throughout the sampling period ranges from 1.2 to 8.3 m. The changes in the size frequencies throughout the months surveyed indicate a variable distribution pattern because of the increase and decrease in water flow, but we observed a peak in the frequency of individuals within the size range 3.5 to 4.5 mm in the population. It can be concluded that this species lives for at least a year in the wild since the juveniles are highly abundant in spring and summer.

  15. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  16. Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms--Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l(-1), and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure

  17. [Effect of consumption of bread with amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) on glycemic response and biochemical parameters in Sprague dawley rats].

    PubMed

    Montero-Quintero, Keyla Carolina; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Molina, Edgar Alí; Colina-Barriga, Máximo Segundo; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    Introducción: La incorporación de ingredientes funcionales como el amaranto (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) en la elaboración de pan es una estrategia para aumentar el consumo de fibra, el cual está relacionado con efectos beneficiosos para la salud, mejorando la respuesta glicémica y el perfil lipídico. Materiales y métodos: Treinta ratas machos Sprague dawley se distribuyeron al azar en tres grupos: dieta de pan con 0% de amaranto (PA0, control), dieta de pan con 10% de amaranto (PA10) y dieta de pan con 20% de amaranto (PA20) para determinar el consumo de alimento, ganancia en peso, triglicéridos, colesterol total, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, proteínas y la respuesta glicémica postpandrial. Los datos fueron analizados a través de un análisis completamente aleatorizado con 10 repeticiones, utilizando la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey para los parámetros bioquímicos. La respuesta glicémica postprandial fue analizada por el método de medidas repetidas en el tiempo. Resultados y discusión: La ingesta diaria y la ganancia de peso no se afecto (p>0,05) en los grupos con PA10 y PA20. La concentración de glucosa, triglicéridos y proteína presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05) por la diferencia de contenido de amaranto de las dietas. Los valores de colesterol total, LDL-C, factor de riesgo e índice aterogénico presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05) resultando el grupo de menor valor el formado por PA10 y PA20. En los grupos PA10 y PA20 el pico de hiperglucemia y la fase de hiperglucemia total fue más bajo, mostrando una mejor respuesta glicémica. Conclusión: el amaranto podría ser utilizado como ingrediente funcional en la elaboraciones de panes ya que permitió mejorar el perfil lipídico así como la respuesta glicémica postpandrial.

  18. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  19. Proyecto multidisciplinar `Marte nos visita'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D.; Merlo, N.; Parodi, B.; Garis, A.; Peralta, G.; Rovessi, V.; Urrutia, S.; Calderón, J.; Bustos Fierro, I.; Melia, R.

    The planets Earth and Mars reached in August 2003 the most approximation in the last 58,000 years. In order to that we carried out a transversal study of red planet, joining the knowledges from several subjects of second school year of unified basic cycle (eighth basic general education) at I.P.E.M. No 249 "Nicolás Copérnico" (a public secondary institution from Córdoba, Argentine). In this study, activities in accordance with current contents has been proposed by common consents of each teacher. Besides, students visited Córdoba Astronomical Observatory in order to search informations and received a multimedia exposition about of astronomical event and a performance of the "Carl Sagan" Moveable Planetary. Finally, each student carried out practical works and wrote an integrative report, which one has been evaluated and exposed at ExpoIPEM 2003, an annual exhibition of several specialities that Institution offers in its specialization cycle (10-12 grade), where the annual students' activities are exhibited too (workshops, school projects, etc.).

  20. Oral treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) extract improves cardiac dysfunction and exercise intolerance in rats subjected to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as “açaí”, on rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Hydroalcoholic extracts of açaí were obtained from a decoction of the seeds. Two male Wistar rat groups were delineated: 1) the sham-operated group (control, n = 6), with no surgical amendment, and 2) the MI group (n = 12), in which the anterior descendent coronary artery was occluded during surgery. MI group was divided into two subgroups, in which rats were either treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Euterpe oleracea seeds (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or received no treatment. Treatment began on the day of surgery, and lasted 4 weeks. Subsequently, rats were subject to an exercise test protocol, hemodynamic evaluation, and histological analysis of the left ventricle. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s test. Results The total running distance of sham rats was 1339.0 ± 276.6 m, MI rats was 177.6 ± 15.8 m (P < 0.05), and MI-açaí rats was 969.9 ± 362.2 m. Systolic arterial pressure was significantly decreased in MI rats (86.88 ± 4.62 mmHg) compared to sham rats (115.30 ± 7.24 mmHg; P < 0.05). Açaí treatment prevented a reduction in systolic arterial pressure (130.00 ± 8.16 mmHg) compared to MI rats (P < 0.05). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure was significantly augmented in MI rats (17.62 ± 1.21 mmHg) compared to sham rats (4.15 ± 1.60 mmHg; P < 0.05), but was 3.69 ± 2.69 mmHg in açaí-treated rats (P < 0.05 vs. MI). The LV relaxation rate (-dp/dt) was reduced in MI rats compared to the sham group, whereas açaí treatment prevented this reduction. Açaí treatment prevented cardiac hypertrophy and LV fibrosis in MI rats. Conclusions Euterpe oleracea treatment of MI rats prevented the development of exercise intolerance, cardiac

  1. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  2. Classification of the peritrich ciliate Opisthonecta matiensis (Martín-Cereceda et al. 1999) as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb., based on new observations and SSU rDNA phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; Guinea, Almudena; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Dyal, Patricia; Novarino, Gianfranco; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2007-11-01

    New observations on Opisthonecta matiensis Martín-Cereceda et al. [1999. Description of Opisthonecta matiensis n. sp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora), a new peritrich ciliate from wastewater. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 46, 283-289] especially the lack of an epistomial membrane, reveal that the species does not belong to the genus Opisthonecta, but to Telotrochidium, the other genus within the family Opisthonectidae Foissner, 1975. The contractile vacuole and the cytopyge are on the dorsal wall of the vestibulum and the trochal band is limited distally and proximally by rows of narrowly spaced pellicular pores. Thus the species is redefined as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb. The morphological, cortical and nuclear events occurring during conjugation are illustrated, compared with those in other species, and phylogenetically discussed. Invariably, the microconjugants attach to and penetrate the lateral side of the macroconjugants. Nuclear processes are very similar to those reported from other peritrichs. The small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) is sequenced and the phylogeny within Opisthonectidae and peritrichs examined. T. matiense is more closely related to Epistylis (63% Maximum Parsimony (MP), 85% Maximum Likelihood (ML)) than to any other genus, while another representative of the family, viz., Opisthonecta henneguyi, is closely related to Vorticella microstoma, Astylozoon enriquesi and clone RT3n18 (100% MP, 100% ML). Morphology and gene sequences suggest that Telotrochidium and Opisthonecta have derived from different lineages of stalked peritrichs: Opisthonecta could have arisen from peritrichs with stalk myonemes, while Telotrochidium probably evolved from peritrichs without stalk myonemes.

  3. The Use of Thermal Analysis and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the Evaluation of Maltodextrin Microencapsulation of Anthocyanins from Juçara Palm Fruit (Euterpe edulis Mart.) and Their Application in Food

    PubMed Central

    Paula da Silva dos Passos, Ana; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; Marcolino, Vanessa Aparecida; Baesso, Mauro Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Summary Anthocyanins extracted from the pulp of the fruit of juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.) were microencapsulated with maltodextrin in order to stabilise them. Photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to investigate the photostability of the microencapsulated samples. Complementary differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy measurements were also performed. Lyophilised extract had 14 340.2 mg/L of total anthocyanins, and the microencapsulation efficiency of 93.6%. Temperature analysis showed that maltodextrin conferred protection up to 70 °C for 120 min. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microencapsulated particles had a flake-like morphology with a smooth surface, characteristic of lyophilisation processes. In addition, when added to yogurt, a red colourant was predominant in the samples at pH from 1.5 up to 5.0. Thermal analysis showed a weak interaction between the sample and the encapsulating agent, and photoacoustic data indicated the photostability of the matrix when exposed to light. Yogurts containing microencapsulated anthocyanins showed a more intense pink colour than yogurts treated with pure dye, and sensory analysis demonstrated that they can have good acceptance on the market. Microencapsulation enabled the innovative application of anthocyanins from juçara palm fruit, and complementary techniques allied to the photoacoustic spectroscopy were effective tools for its evaluation. PMID:27904373

  4. Annelida (Oligochaeta and Aphanoneura) from the Natural Reserve of Isla Martín García (upper Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina): biodiversity and response to environmental variables.

    PubMed

    César, I I

    2014-02-01

    The Island of Martín García--located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the Uruguay River--is an outcropping of the crystalline basement. Fourteen sampling sites were selected, five along the littoral section of the island and nine in inland ponds. Four major environmental variables were measured: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and pH. A total of 34 species of Oligochaeta and Aphanoneura were found, 30 belonging to Naididae plus one species each of the Narapidae, Lumbricidae, Enchytraeidae, and Aeolosomatidae. The thirteen most frequent species were: A. leydigi (30%), N. bonettoi (13%), L. hoffmeisteri (11%), N. variabilis (10%), S. trivandrana (6.5%), A. pigueti (5.6%), D. sawayai (4.5%), D. digitata (3.5%), C. diastrophus (2.7%), A. costatus (2.5%), P. longiseta (2.0%), Enchytraeidae (1.5%), and A. p. paraguayensis (1.4%). UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. Canonic-correspondence analysis (CCA) was conducted with the 15 most frequent and abundant species in the 9 sampling sites and the 4 environmental variables. Results from the CCA revealed that the order of fluctuation of the environmental variables during the sampling period was, from the greatest to the least: dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and water temperature. Approximately 97.6% of the correlations between species and environmental variables were expressed on axis 1 of the ordination diagram. Species richness correlated with the four environmental variables in the following order, from the weakest to the strongest: water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen.

  5. Offline Prints via DIALMAIL: They Ain't Necessarily Cheap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Linda J.

    When DIALOG introduced DIALMAIL, its electronic mail service, online searchers were encouraged to use it as an alternative delivery method for offline prints. The new method of retrieval was considered to be fast and described in documentation and reviews as being much less expensive than online types. Performed in June 1987, this study compares…

  6. Ain't We Never Gonna Study No Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Eileen A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the dilemmas involved with teaching Standard American English (SAE) while still accepting and not judging nonstandard dialects. Relates how the teacher used "Pygmalion" by George Bernard Shaw to show students why they needed to learn SAE. (PRA)

  7. Preparation of Sic/AIN Solid Solutions Using Organometallic Precursors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-15

    studies suggested that RAINH phase separation from the liquid polycarbosilane might be avoided by carrying out the pyrolyses at elevated temperatures, where... Pyrolyses Involving [Aethvl 2AMN21 3 In the last few months of this program, an alternative route to SiC/AlN solid solutions was discovered which obviates the

  8. The Hollow Men: Ain't It Awful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Martha E.

    1991-01-01

    Charles Sykes' book "The Hollow Men: Politics and Corruption in Higher Education" is criticized as overreacting to trends in higher education and the college curriculum but also seen as potentially prompting educators to ask questions about the dominant politics on their campuses. (MSE)

  9. SIRT-ain relief from age-inducing stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Yufei; Chen, Danica

    2011-02-01

    Aging is one of the most fundamental biological processes. It results in a decline in physiological function and an increased risk for pernicious diseases such as cancer. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a major cause of aging, but experimental tests of this hypothesis have been discouraging. Calorie restriction (CR) prevents age-related decline, but there are still gaps in our knowledge of the exact mechanisms underlying this feat. Finally, a tenuous balance exists between aging and cancer, calling for a search for interventions that prevent both aging and cancer. Recent work on the mammalian sirtuin SIRT3 has shed light on these long-standing issues and suggested new approaches to ameliorate the ravages of aging.

  10. 'Life Ain't Been No Crystal Stair...'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Thelma T.

    1972-01-01

    The current President of the American School Counselor Association, in writing about the minorities in APGA and in the field as a whole, finds that women, blacks, and other minorities were for a long time all but invisible, but she finds some hope for the future in recent election results and other developments. (Author)

  11. Postrace: Every Good-bye Ain't Gone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Iris Carter

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary, anthropologist Iris Carter Ford reflects on the preceding pieces by Carmen Kynard and Signithia Fordham. She identifies parallels among the two essays and her own life, drawing out themes that emerge from the narratives. Integrating ideas about "talking black" and "talking back," Ford notes that both phenomena have roots in…

  12. The cytometric future: it ain't necessarily flow!

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Howard M

    2011-01-01

    Initial approaches to cytometry for classifying and characterizing cells were based on microscopy; it was necessary to collect relatively high-resolution images of cells because only a few specific reagents usable for cell identification were available. Although flow cytometry, now the dominant cytometric technology, typically utilizes lenses similar to microscope lenses for light collection, improved, more quantitative reagents allow the necessary information to be acquired in the form of whole-cell measurements of the intensities of light transmission, scattering, and/or fluorescence.Much of the cost and complexity of both automated microscopes and flow cytometers arises from the necessity for them to measure one cell at a time. Recent developments in digital camera technology now offer an alternative in which one or more low-magnification, low-resolution images are made of a wide field containing many cells, using inexpensive light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination. Minimalist widefield imaging cytometers can provide a smaller, less complex, and substantially less expensive alternative to flow cytometry, critical in systems intended for in resource-poor areas. Minimalism is, likewise, a good philosophy in developing instrumentation and methodology for both clinical and large-scale research use; it simplifies quality assurance and compliance with regulatory requirements, as well as reduces capital outlays, material costs, and personnel training requirements. Also, importantly, it yields "greener" technology.

  13. Camp Greentop's Adventure Camp: We Ain't No Rudypoo's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Diane; Albright, Brian; Purvis, Katie; Creamer, Justin; Pease, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    A day-by-day account describes Camp Greentop's first 5-day adventure camping trip, which was attended by five individuals with disabilities and their counselors. The first day was spent in games and initiatives designed to develop communication, teamwork, and dependability. Other days were devoted to hiking, rock climbing, and whitewater rafting.…

  14. Physiological stress responses, fecal marking behavior, and reproduction in wild European pine martens (Martes martes).

    PubMed

    Barja, Isabel; Silván, Gema; Martínez-Fernández, Leticia; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2011-03-01

    The relationship among physiological stress responses, fecal marking behavior, and reproduction in male and female European pine martens was investigated. Between July 2004 and June 2007, 145 fresh fecal samples were collected in a protected area of northwest Spain. Fecal DNA was used for specific identification by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Glucocorticoids (cortisol) and sex steroid hormones (P, progesterone; E, estradiol; T, testosterone) were quantified by enzyme immunoassays. Sex was assigned according to concentrations of T+P+E and the T/P ratio. Fecal cortisol concentrations were higher in males than in females. Feces with a presumptive marking function (on conspicuous substrates, above ground level, and/or in latrines) had higher mean levels of cortisol than those that were on inconspicuous substrates and/or at ground level, for both males and females. Fecal mark density was highest in spring, when mean levels of fecal cortisol were more elevated. Therefore, the higher physiological stress levels in females could be due to female physiological state (late-term pregnancy and lactation), competition for resources connected to birth, or food resources for offspring rearing. In males, the increase could be due to higher male competition for access to females during pro-estrus and estrus. Our results suggest that scent marking in European pine martens is related to reproduction and is involved in intersexual and intrasexual communication.

  15. Myocarditis and myositis due to infection with Hepatozoon species in pine martens (Martes martes) in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Simpson, V R; Panciera, R J; Hargreaves, J; McGarry, J W; Scholes, S F E; Bown, K J; Birtles, R J

    2005-04-02

    Postmortem examinations of four pine martens which had died as a result of road accidents in Scotland revealed focal, granulomatous lesions in the heart and skeletal muscles of three of them. An immunoperoxidase staining technique showed that the lesions were due to infection with Hepatozoon species. A PCR-based assay was used to confirm the presence of Hepatozoon DNA in the infected tissues. The nucleotide base sequence of the PCR products suggested that the infecting organism was probably a new species of Hepatozoon, most closely related to, but distinct from, Hepatozoon canis. The pine martens were in good physical condition and there was no indication that the infection was causing ill health.

  16. It Ain't Easy Livin' in the Big Easy: Down and Dazed but Not out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; West, Jill; Lazarus, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the impact of two major disasters (Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon oil rig fire and subsequent oil spill) on residents of New Orleans and the Gulf Coast are discussed. An overriding concern as expressed by the recently released report issued by the National Commission on Children and Disasters, 2010 "Report to the…

  17. Life for Minority Professors of Special Education Ain't Been No Crystal Stair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    To expect an "easy life" as a professor of special education is to expect what never was nor never will be. But when the playing field is uneven for minorities, or even worse, when it is not even recognized that the playing field is uneven, there is cause for action. For example, Bonner (2004) stated that minority faculty face tremendous…

  18. Ain't I a Woman: Affirming the Place of the African Woman in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Benn, Charlotte

    A reading and writing instructor of a population of students who are largely "marginalized" (of African descent, female, and/or poor) sees the literature of Toni Morrison as a relevant and critical teaching tool. Additionally, the instructor believes it is important to look critically at Morrison's literature for several reasons: (1)…

  19. The Repeal of Section 28: It Ain't over 'til It's over

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Katy; Nunney, Rosalind

    2008-01-01

    Section 28 (part of the Local Government Act of 1988) was a notorious piece of legislation that sought to prevent local education authorities in the UK from "promoting homosexuality". The effect of Section 28 was to create uncertainty and fear among teachers as to what was (and what was not) permitted in schools. Over time practitioners…

  20. A Completely New Type of Actuator -or- This Ain't Your Grandfather's Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian W.; Hawkins, Gary F.; Hess, Peter A.; Moore, Teresa A.; Fournier, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    A completely new type of actuator - one that is proposed for use in a variety of environments from sea to land to air to space - has been designed, patented, built, and tested. The actuator is loosely based on the principle of the internal combustion engine, except that it is a completely closed system, only requiring electrical input, and the working fuel is water. This paper outlines the theory behind the electrolysis- and ignition-based cycle upon which the actuator operates and describes the performance capability test apparatus and results for the actuator. A mechanism application that harnessed the unit s power to twist a scaled rotor blade is also highlighted.

  1. AIN-Based Packaging for SiC High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savrun, Ender

    2004-01-01

    Packaging made primarily of aluminum nitride has been developed to enclose silicon carbide-based integrated circuits (ICs), including circuits containing SiC-based power diodes, that are capable of operation under conditions more severe than can be withstood by silicon-based integrated circuits. A major objective of this development was to enable packaged SiC electronic circuits to operate continuously at temperatures up to 500 C. AlN-packaged SiC electronic circuits have commercial potential for incorporation into high-power electronic equipment and into sensors that must withstand high temperatures and/or high pressures in diverse applications that include exploration in outer space, well logging, and monitoring of nuclear power systems. This packaging embodies concepts drawn from flip-chip packaging of silicon-based integrated circuits. One or more SiC-based circuit chips are mounted on an aluminum nitride package substrate or sandwiched between two such substrates. Intimate electrical connections between metal conductors on the chip(s) and the metal conductors on external circuits are made by direct bonding to interconnections on the package substrate(s) and/or by use of holes through the package substrate(s). This approach eliminates the need for wire bonds, which have been the most vulnerable links in conventional electronic circuitry in hostile environments. Moreover, the elimination of wire bonds makes it possible to pack chips more densely than was previously possible.

  2. Developing TiAIN Coatings for Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Johnson, C.D.; Li, C.; Xu, J.; Cross, C.

    2007-02-01

    TiN-type coatings have potential to be used as SOFC interconnect coatings SOFC because of their low resistance and high temperature stability. In this research, various (Ti,Al)N coatings were deposited on stainless steels by filtered-arc method. ASR and XRD tests were conducted on these coatings, and SEM/EDAX analysis were conducted after ASR and XRD tests. SEM/EDAX analyses show that (Ti,Al)N remains stable at temperature up to 700°C. It is also indicated that Al has beneficial effect on the stability of TiN type coatings. At 900°C, (Ti-30Al)N is fully oxidized and some of (Ti-50Al)N coating still remains as nitride. The analyses on cross-sectional samples show that these coatings are effective barrier to the Cr migration. In summary, (Ti.Al)N coatings are good candidates for the SOFC interconnect applications at 700°C. The future directions of this research are to improve the stability of these coatings by alloy-doping and to develop multi-layer coatings.

  3. ChAInGeS: THE CHANDRA ARP INTERACTING GALAXIES SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Beverly J.; Miller, Olivia; Swartz, Douglas A.; Burleson, Jacob A.; Nowak, Michael A.; Struck, Curtis E-mail: millero@goldmail.etsu.edu E-mail: jab0039@uah.edu E-mail: curt@iastate.edu

    2012-06-15

    We have conducted a statistical analysis of the ultra-luminous X-ray point sources (ULXs; L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}) in a sample of galaxies selected from the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. We find a possible enhancement of a factor of {approx}2-4 in the number of ULXs per blue luminosity for the strongly interacting subset. Such an enhancement would be expected if ULX production is related to star formation, as interacting galaxies tend to have enhanced star formation rates on average. For most of the Arp galaxies in our sample, the total number of ULXs compared to the far-infrared luminosity is consistent with values found earlier for spiral galaxies. This suggests that for these galaxies, ULXs trace recent star formation. However, for the most infrared-luminous galaxies, we find a deficiency of ULXs compared to the infrared luminosity. For these very infrared-luminous galaxies, active galactic nuclei may contribute to powering the far-infrared; alternatively, ULXs may be highly obscured in the X-ray in these galaxies and therefore not detected by these Chandra observations. We determined local UV/optical colors within the galaxies in the vicinity of the candidate ULXs using Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV and Sloan Digitized Sky Survey optical images. In most cases, the distributions of colors are similar to the global colors of interacting galaxies. However, the u - g and r - i colors at the ULX locations tend to be bluer on average than these global colors, suggesting that ULXs are preferentially found in regions with young stellar populations. In the Arp sample there is a possible enhancement of a factor of {approx}2-5 in the fraction of galactic nuclei that are X-ray-bright compared to more normal spirals.

  4. "It Ain't Hard No More!" Individualizing Instruction for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Katie; Sparrow, Amanda; Siefert, Bobbi

    2017-01-01

    Despite sound instructional practices to develop foundational reading skills with young learners, numerous learners continue to lag behind in literacy learning. Many do not view themselves as readers, lack motivation, and become disengaged with learning in general. This article shares a research-based instructional framework developed by one of…

  5. Theory Ain't Practice: Four Novice Researchers Navigate Dilemmas of Representation within Immigrant Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleixo, Marina; Hansen, Sarah; Horii, Sachiko; Un, Silvy

    2014-01-01

    This article illuminates instances in which four graduate students have struggled with issues of representation--of themselves and of immigrant participants--at their research sites and in their writing. These dilemmas are situated within the literature on the politics of representation in qualitative research. Although these dilemmas are not…

  6. Research Review: 'Ain't misbehavin': Towards a developmentally-specified nosology for preschool disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Tolan, Patrick H; Leventhal, Bennett L

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that disruptive behavior disorders and syndromes (DBDs) are identifiable in preschool children. There is also concomitant recognition of the limitations of the current DBD nosology for distinguishing disruptive behavior symptoms from the normative misbehavior of early childhood. In particular, there appears to be substantial insensitivity to heterotypic manifestations of this developmental period and problems in identifying meaningful heterogeneity. As a result, the developmental basis for much of the current nosology may be called into question. To address these and other critical issues, this paper reviews the foundational elements of clinical and developmental science pertinent to developmental differentiation of disruptive behavior in the preschool period as paradigmatic for developmental specification across the lifespan and generates an agenda for future research. We begin by reviewing evidence of the validity of DBDs in preschool children. This is followed by an outline of key developmental concepts and a review of the corollary evidence from developmental science. These provide a basis for conceptualizing disruptive behavior in reference to developmental deviation in four core dimensions hypothesized to mark the core features of disruptive behavior syndromes. Finally, we propose a program of research to establish an empirical basis for determining the incremental utility of a developmentally specified nosology. Central to this approach is a contention that the benefits of developmental specification are extensive and outweigh any disadvantages. This is because a developmentally specified approach holds substantial promise for increasing sensitivity and specificity for differentiating disruptive behavior from normative misbehavior and from other related syndromes as well as for improving prediction. Further, more precisely defined, developmentally based phenotypes are likely to elucidate distinct mechanisms within translational studies and to serve as a catalyst for the generation of novel treatments.

  7. "You Ain't My Daddy!": Black Male Teachers and the Politics of Surrogate Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockenbrough, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship on male teachers across several national contexts has investigated the dilemmas of hegemonic masculinity for male educators while only recently beginning to examine race as a mediator of masculinity politics in teaching. Conversely, an emergent body of work on Black male teachers has centred analyses of race and culture, but has…

  8. Summertime, and the Choosin' Ain't Easy: An Ice Cream Counting Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the problem of determining the number of different ice cream cones and cups that can be made from a choice of 31 flavors to investigate the concepts of combinations and permutations. Provides a set of six related problems with their answers. (MDH)

  9. "Ain't Misbehavin'": Bench Conduct and Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in Criminal Jury Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wayne

    The possibility that judges' expectancy effects may adversely affect the results of jury trials is a problem that needs careful theoretical analysis and innovative methods of resolution. Traditional efforts by the legal community to counteract the threat of verbal/nonverbal bias by judges include the "Code of Judicial Conduct," curative…

  10. Cowboy Wonderland, History, and Myth: "It Ain't All That Different Than Real Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, William G.; Spence, Louise

    1995-01-01

    Explores the significance of Robert Altman's film "Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull's History Lesson." States that this film examines the western as a national myth and as a commercial entertainment form. Discusses questions about the moral authority of the hero and the consequences for Native Americans of western…

  11. "I Know There Ain't No Pigs with Wigs": Challenges of Tier 2 Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Diane; Cox, Robin; Downs, Anne; Goforth, Jennie; Jaeger, Lisa; Matheny, Ashley; Plyler, Kristi; Ray, Sandra; Riser, Lee; Sawyer, Beth; Thompson, Tara; Vickio, Kathy; Wilcox, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    As a part of Response to Intervention, for three years, ten reading interventionists provided supplemental support to readers. They formed a learning community, took an inquiry-based approach to assessment and developed a theory of what students needed to know and be able to do as readers. They addressed and learned from several other challenges:…

  12. Acoustic plate mode propagation and interaction with ultraviolet light in periodic AIN-on-sapphire structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chivukula, Venkata; Shur, Michael; Ciplys, Daumantas; Jain, Rakesh; Yang Jinwei; Gaska, Remis

    2011-02-28

    AlN overlay featuring periodic columnar structure fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth technique leads to excitation of acoustic plate modes (APMs) not observed in overlays without such periodic structure. The measured velocities of acoustic plate modes propagating in AlN-on-sapphire structure were verified by numerical simulation. The APM velocity is strongly modulated by UV illumination at wavelengths from 240 to 365 nm, and the corresponding phase response is sensitive to both the UV power and the wavelength with maximum sensitivity of 3.0 ppm/({mu}W/cm{sup 2}) at 240 nm.

  13. Everyday Engineering: Ain't She Sweet--Bats, Rackets, Golf Clubs, and All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The pitcher throws the ball and the batter takes a mighty swing. Crack! The ball is hit on the sweet spot and soars to the outfield. Or, you hear a thud! This time, the ball dribbles along the infield ground and the batter's hands sting. Everyone who has played baseball or softball has probably experienced both of these outcomes. This may not seem…

  14. It ain't necessarily so about high rates: memo to the Fed

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.W.

    1981-06-21

    The author sees high interest rates and the rise of energy prices as the cause of the US economic troubles and the resultant decline of standard of living. Eurodollars have come into the US for investment, raised the domestic money supply and, therefore, nullified the tight money policy of the Federal Reserve Board. The author advocates a plan be devised to cut interest rates below 8% and control credit. (PSB)

  15. Ultrascaled AIN/GaN HEMT Technology for mm-wave RT Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    342. The best achieved sheet resistance is 128 ohm/sq. at RT and 40 ohm/sq. at 77 K. Shown in Figure 2.7 and 2.8 are the RT sheet resistance versus Ga...3C ’ o 1000 0 RT2DEG density (10𔃽 cm2) Figure 2.9. Plot of RT sheet resistance against 2DEC densities. The hluc and red zones indicate...the RT sheet resistance achieved in AlCa\\/Ca\\ and InAlN/AlN/Ga.\\ hetcrojunclions so far. 100 Temperature (K) Figure 2.in. Measured tempofalure

  16. "Ain't no one here but us social forces": constructing the professional responsibility of engineers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael

    2012-03-01

    There are many ways to avoid responsibility, for example, explaining what happens as the work of the gods, fate, society, or the system. For engineers, "technology" or "the organization" will serve this purpose quite well. We may distinguish at least nine (related) senses of "responsibility", the most important of which are: (a) responsibility-as-causation (the storm is responsible for flooding), (b) responsibility-as-liability (he is the person responsible and will have to pay), (c) responsibility-as-competency (he's a responsible person, that is, he's rational), (d) responsibility-as-office (he's the responsible person, that is, the person in charge), and (e) a responsibility-as-domain-of-tasks (these are her responsibilities, that is, the things she is supposed to do). For all but the causal sense of responsibility, responsibility may be taken (in a relatively straightforward sense)-and generally is. Why then would anyone want to claim that certain technologies make it impossible to attribute responsibility to engineers (or anyone else)? In this paper, I identify seven arguments for that claim and explain why each is fallacious. The most important are: (1) the argument from "many hands", (2) the argument from individual ignorance, and (3) the argument from blind forces. Each of these arguments makes the same fundamental mistake, the assumption that a certain factual situation, being fixed, settles responsibility, that is, that individuals, either individually or by some group decision, cannot take responsibility. I conclude by pointing out the sort of decisions (and consequences) engineers have explicitly taken responsibility for and why taking responsibility for them is rational, all things considered. There is no technological bar to such responsibility.

  17. "Ain't Misbehavin": Towards a Developmentally-Specified Nosology for Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that disruptive behavior disorders and syndromes (DBDs) are identifiable in preschool children. There is also concomitant recognition of the limitations of the current DBD nosology for distinguishing disruptive behavior symptoms from the normative misbehavior of early childhood. In particular, there appears to be…

  18. "Every Shut Eye Ain't Sleep": Studying How People Live Culturally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carol D.; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Harpalani, Vinay

    2003-01-01

    Recommends the integration of cultural socialization and identity processes in learning within educational research in order to improve educational outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities and youth facing persistent intergenerational poverty. Suggests that educational researchers must understand the cultural niches in which young people develop,…

  19. Duke of Edinburgh Award Expeditions: "Fings Ain't Wot They Used To Be!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Outlines environmental, equipment, and social changes related to the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Expedition since 1956, and debates the need to restore the expedition's physical challenge or to emphasize the developmental inner journey of the mind and spirit. Considers whether the purpose of the expedition is a physical challenge or a developmental…

  20. Pharmacological activity of Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Espinola, E B; Dias, R F; Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1997-02-01

    Mice that ingested a suspension of guarana (Paullinia cupana, Sapindaceae) in a dose of 0.3 mg/ml showed a significant increase in physical capacity when subjected to a stressful situation such as forced swimming after 100 and 200 days of treatment. Such an effect, however, was not obtained with a concentration of 3.0 mg/ml, nor with the ingestion of a suspension of ginseng 5.0 mg/ml, nor of a solution of caffeine 0.1 mg/ml. Guarana, both after a single (3.0 and 30 mg/kg) or chronic administrations (0.3 mg/ml), was able to partially reverse the amnesic effect of scopolamine as measured through a passive avoidance test in mice and rats, indicating a positive effect on memory acquisition. However, no effect was observed when an active avoidance task was used in rats, even after 20 days of guarana administration. There was also a tendency of rats treated with 0.3 mg/ml of guarana to better maintain the memory of a Lashley III maze path. The animals had the same average lifespan, indicating a low toxicity of guarana, even after 23 months of treatment.

  1. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to non-reported triterpene and flavonoids from this species. PMID:27013790

  2. The first report on flavonoid isolation from Annona crassiflora Mart.

    PubMed

    Lage, Gisele Avelar; Medeiros, Felipe da Silva; Furtado, Werônica de Lima; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida; de Souza Filho, José Dias; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos

    2014-01-01

    Annona crassiflora, a native tree from Brazilian Cerrado, is reported to possess several ethnomedical uses. Here, we report the isolation and unambiguous characterisation of the flavonoids quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosil(1 → 6)-O-α-L-arabinoside (1), known as peltatoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-L-arabinopiranoside (4) and the ( - )-epicatechin (5) from the hydroalcoholic portion of the leaf ethanolic extract. Their structures were elucidated by using 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, UV/Vis spectroscopy, optical rotation analysis and literature data comparison. The leaf ethanolic extract and its isolated compounds were evaluated by using antimicrobial, antioxidant and larvicidal assays, expressing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. This is the first report on flavonoid isolation from A. crassiflora.

  3. Multiple Aperture Radiation Therapy (MART) for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Original contains colored plates: ALL DTIC reproductions will be in black and white. 14. ABSTRACT Conventional breast radiotherapy utilizes two opposed...Modern advances in radiation therapy such as the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may be used to achieve dose distribution with superior tumor...conformality and normal tissue spare . However, the increased complexity of the treatment planning and delivery procedures is a problem in a busy

  4. Multiple Aperture Radiation Therapy (MART) for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    anterior to the isocenter and it was desired that the 100% isodose curve to cover the breast target volume. For comparison, we have scaled the...objective function or the prescription value on a voxel-dependent basis. The new formalism provides an effective mechanism to incorporate prior

  5. EVALUATION OF THE MART CORPORATION'S EQ-1 WASTEWATER PROCESSING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ETV Program is to further environment...

  6. Hispanos en la EPA: Carlos Martínez

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  7. Multiple Aperture Radiation Therapy (MART) to Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Tianfang Li, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 9

  8. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size. PMID:27186334

  9. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size.

  10. [Mitochondrial genome variation in domesticated sable (Martes zibellina)].

    PubMed

    Andrianov, B V; Sorokina, S Iu; Lazebniĭ, O E; Goryacheva, I I; Gorelova, T V; Kashtanov, S N

    2012-04-01

    The first comparison of mitochondrial variations in sables from captive and natural populations of the Urals, Central Siberia, Yakutia, Kamchatka, and Japan has been performed. The object of comparative analysis was a 427-bp 5' fragment of the mitochondrial control region, including the D-loop. Two main haplogroups of the sable mitochondrial genome have been found, which provides new data for reconstruction of the spread of the sable over its current range. Asymmetry of the haplotype abundances in the captive populations of sables has been detected. The mitochondrial haplotypes characteristic of sable breeds have been identified. The possible role of the frequent mitochondrial haplotypes of the captive population in the sable adaptation to the conditions of captivity is discussed.

  11. Bias in diet determination: incorporating traditional methods in Bayesian mixing models.

    PubMed

    Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    There are not "universal methods" to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing models (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can incorporate prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators' diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal's diet the sea lion's did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP's diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs' estimates, incorporating informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys' contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators' diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably ascertain and

  12. "Fast-Tracking": Ain't No Golden Parachute So Don't Slide off the Rainbow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburger, Craig; Butler, Jerry

    Awareness of the corporate cultural phenomenon of fast-tracking, a process whereby executives are advanced within and among organizations, should assist communication students and practicing professionals to become more effective corporate communicators. A critical distinction between self-directed fast-trackers and their corporately-sanctioned…

  13. Method 445.0 In Vitro Determination of Chlorophyll a and Pheophytin ain Marine and Freshwater Algae by Fluorescence

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for low level determination of chlorophyll a (chl a) and its magnesium free derivative, pheophytin a (pheo a), in marine and freshwater phytoplankton using fluorescence detection.(1,2) Phaeophorbides present in the sample are determined collective...

  14. I Ain't Thinkin' 'bout No...: The Development of Two Parallel Diversity-Related Case Studies for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Susan K.; Johnson, C. Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Educators are becoming increasingly sensitive to accommodating the needs of students from diverse backgrounds in their classes while ensuring that learning occurs. Group work often is the vehicle chosen to stimulate participation and positively affect learning. In this paper, we describe the development of parallel case studies related to…

  15. It "Ain't" Always So: Sixth Graders' Interpretations of Hispanic-American Stories with Universal Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the responses of eight sixth grade students discussing four realistic fiction Hispanic-American multicultural stories with universal themes by Gary Soto in peer-led literature discussion groups. The results indicate the importance of a reader's sociocultural frame--class, race, and gender, on their interpretation of…

  16. "School Ain't What It Used to Be": The Impact of the Young Latino in an Aging California Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jose Joel

    California's population changes will present challenging public policy dilemmas concerning employment, income, political participation, education, and health services. This paper shares research results to be published in a book entitled "The Burden of Support: The Young Latino in an Aging Society," by David Hayes-Bautista, Jorge Chapa,…

  17. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  18. Effects of high-temperature AIN buffer on the microstructure of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    SciTech Connect

    Coerekci, S.; Oeztuerk, M. K.; Yu, Hongbo; Cakmak, M.; Oezcelik, S.; Oezbay, E.

    2013-06-15

    Effects on AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor structure of a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate have been studied by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques. The buffer improves the microstructural quality of GaN epilayer and reduces approximately one order of magnitude the edge-type threading dislocation density. As expected, the buffer also leads an atomically flat surface with a low root-mean-square of 0.25 nm and a step termination density in the range of 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}. Due to the high-temperature buffer layer, no change on the strain character of the GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers has been observed. Both epilayers exhibit compressive strain in parallel to the growth direction and tensile strain in perpendicular to the growth direction. However, an high-temperature AlN buffer layer on sapphire substrate in the HEMT structure reduces the tensile stress in the AlGaN layer.

  19. Ain't no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss.

    PubMed

    De Vet, Emely; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for.

  20. Your tooth it ain't so purty but it's gen-u-ine: Cole Porter's comic song "Snagtooth Gertie".

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    Cole Porter (1891-1964), an American musical icon, has been internationally acknowledged as one of the most cosmopolitan, sophisticated, elegant and influential composer-lyricists of the 20th century. Born in Indiana and raised in wealth and privilege, he attended both Yale and Harvard universities where he honed his song-writing skills. In his 800 tunes, many of which became smash hits, he blended fresh, witty, urbane and colloquial lyrics with catchy, singable melodies. He composed musical scores for both Broadway stage and Hollywood movies, but focused on the former. While Porter enjoyed penning comic songs, he rarely had them published. In 1946, Cole wrote the music and lyrics for a Broadway show entitled Around the World in Eighty Days. Deemed a failure, it closed after only 75 performances. One light-hearted ditty, "Snagtooth Gertie", which he composed for the show, was never used. The lyrics are presented for the first time in this paper.

  1. Nitric oxide as a mediator of gastrointestinal mucosal injury?—Say it ain't so

    PubMed Central

    Kubes, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been suggested as a contributor to tissue injury in various experimental models of gastrointestinal inflammation. However, there is overwhelming evidence that nitric oxide is one of the most important mediators of mucosal defence, influencing such factors as mucus secretion, mucosal blood flow, ulcer repair and the activity of a variety of mucosal immunocytes. Nitric oxide has the capacity to down-regulate inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract, to scavenge various free radical species and to protect the mucosa from injury induced by topical irritants. Moreover, questions can be raised regarding the evidence purported to support a role for nitric oxide in producing tissue injury. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting a role for nitric oxide in protecting the gastrointestinal tract from injury. PMID:18475671

  2. If it ain't broke, don't price fix it: the OFT and the PPRS.

    PubMed

    Towse, Adrian

    2007-07-01

    The Office of Fair Trading (OFT) Report on the UK Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS) recommends that when the current five-year PPRS expires in 2010 it be replaced with 'value-based pricing' which involves pre-launch centralised government price setting based on a cost-per-QALY threshold plus periodic ex post reviews. I examine the validity of the OFTs criticisms of the existing PPRS, review its proposals and propose an alternative way forward. I conclude that PPRS has performed well as a procurement bargain between industry and the UK government. It does not, however, incentivise efficient relative prices. That is not its job. I identify a number of problems with the OFT proposals. I recommend that key elements of a reformed UK pharmaceutical environment for 2010 should include an expanded role for HTA but with companies retaining freedom to set prices at launch; HTA use targeted via a contingent value of information approach; a retained backstop PPRS, perhaps moving to an RPI-X type control; the use of risk sharing and non-linear pricing arrangements; measures to ensure more effective therapeutic switching at local level; and measures to improve the take up of cost-effective treatments.

  3. Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't.

    PubMed

    White, John S

    2008-12-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a fructose-glucose liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (common table sugar) first introduced to the food and beverage industry in the 1970s. It is not meaningfully different in composition or metabolism from other fructose-glucose sweeteners like sucrose, honey, and fruit juice concentrates. HFCS was widely embraced by food formulators, and its use grew between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s, principally as a replacement for sucrose. This was primarily because of its sweetness comparable with that of sucrose, improved stability and functionality, and ease of use. Although HFCS use today is nearly equivalent to sucrose use in the United States, we live in a decidedly sucrose-sweetened world: >90% of the nutritive sweetener used worldwide is sucrose. Here I review the history, composition, availability, and characteristics of HFCS in a factual manner to clarify common misunderstandings that have been a source of confusion to health professionals and the general public alike. In particular, I evaluate the strength of the popular hypothesis that HFCS is uniquely responsible for obesity. Although examples of pure fructose causing metabolic upset at high concentrations abound, especially when fed as the sole carbohydrate source, there is no evidence that the common fructose-glucose sweeteners do the same. Thus, studies using extreme carbohydrate diets may be useful for probing biochemical pathways, but they have no relevance to the human diet or to current consumption. I conclude that the HFCS-obesity hypothesis is supported neither in the United States nor worldwide.

  4. Effects of process control agent on the synthesis of AIN-carbon nanotube by ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hye Rim; Kim, Young Jin; Ahn, Jung-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum and its alloy are of importance due to high specific strength. In particular, aluminum matrix composites have good corrosion resistance and mechanical property at high temperatures. However, enhanced mechanical strength and wear resistance via proper heat treatments are strongly required for many structural applications. For this purpose, we synthesized carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced aluminum matrix composites by employing a new method. We employed controlled ball-milling and sintering: the use of some specific process control agents (PCAs) for ball-milling and sintering in a specific atmosphere. The use of our PCAs was beneficial both for homogeneous mixing and for the formation of hard dispersoids. Hardened layers was formed at the surface of the present aluminum-CNT composites as a result of reaction of aluminum with PCAs and nitrogen in the processing atmosphere. The resulting materials after sintering showed interesting mechanical properties, combined with surface hardening. The hardening mainly stems from the formation of Al-N-O phase at the surface of specimens.

  5. "If It Ain't True, Then It's Just a Book!" The Reading and Teaching of Faction Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olin-Scheller, Christina; Tengberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article examines issues related to the reading and teaching of faction literature in school. Faction is defined not only as a literary genre but also as a form of reading applied to the reader. The article discusses young people's encounters with novels "based on a true story" as well as the challenges this means for literature…

  6. It Ain't What You Do, It's How You Do It: Global Education for Gender Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramdas, Kavita N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, as the author seeks to challenge everyone to be similarly open to their blind spots as educators, administrators, and policy makers seeking to provide young people with a global education, she will stress three main points. First, everyone is at a moment in history when one has no choice but to consider the world as a whole as the…

  7. Incidence, Etiology, and Patterns of Maxillofacial Fractures in Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt: A 4-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Amr; Helal, Hesham; Mohamed, Abdel Rahman; Mahmoud, Nada

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a worldwide increase in maxillofacial trauma incidence; the pattern and etiology of these injuries varies from one country to another depending on socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental factors. This study aims to realize the epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial fractures in our department. A retrospective cross-sectional study of all facial trauma patients admitted to our department during 2009 to 2012. Patients' data including gender, age, etiology of trauma, the pattern and demographic distribution of fractures of maxillofacial skeleton, and associated injuries were analyzed and compared with previously published data. The chi-square test was used with a p value of less than 0.05, which was considered statistically significant. There is a significant increase in maxillofacial fractures incidence in the past 2 years than former ones. There is a male predominance with highest incidence in the age group of 20 to 40 years. Road traffic accident is the most common etiological factor followed by violence. There is increase in mandibular fracture incidence compared with midface. The significant increased incidence of maxillofacial fracture due to motor car accidents and assaults in the past 2 years reflects a behavioral change within the community. PMID:25136412

  8. Preparation, structure, and properties of aluminium nitride (AIN) reinforced polymer composites: alternative substrate materials for microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Koh, Juay S.; Hing, Peter

    1997-08-01

    A series of composite materials of varying compositions based on a high temperature resistance engineering thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer and particulate aluminium nitride (AlN) were compounded at relatively low temperature using a co-rotating twin screw extruder/compounder equipped with the segmented screws. The compounded composites are injection molded into different shapes, i.e., dumbbell, rectangular bar and cylindrical disk, for various physical and mechanical tests. In particular, detailed study was carried out to understand the effect of AlN on the dielectric constant, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion behavior of these materials. Results have shown that the thermal conductivity steadily increases with AlN filler concentration. An increase by about 80 percent in thermal conductivity of the composite materials is achieved as compared to the unfilled polymer. The dielectric constants of these composites were found to increase with filer content and range from 3.6 to 5.0 at 1 kHz and 3.0 to 4.2 at 10 MHz. Substantial reductio in thermal expansion coefficient was also achieved in the composite materials. Attempt has been made to correlate the experimental data with composite theories.

  9. Leaving home ain't easy: non-local seed dispersal is only evolutionarily stable in highly unpredictable environments

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Robin E.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely understood that in the presence of asynchronous environmental variation, seeds disperse to escape disturbances, avoid crowding or colonize newly favourable habitat before a superior competitor can arrive. If seeds are dispersing for any of these reasons, it seems intuitive that they should travel far enough to reach conditions uncorrelated with their natal environment: why ‘escape in space’ only to land somewhere more or less like where they started? However, in this paper, I present a series of mathematical experiments which show that the evolutionarily stable mean dispersal distance remains well short of the spatial correlation length of the environmental variation, regardless of disturbance severity, coevolution with a superior competitor or the presence of a small fraction of seeds which travel well beyond the mean distance. Non-local dispersal arises only as part of a polymorphism that evolves when favourable conditions are fleeting. To the degree that non-local dispersal is a response to environmental variation, it appears to be a response to environmental unpredictability. PMID:20843844

  10. Things ain't what they used to be! Demography, mental cohorts, morality and values in post-war Australia.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, G A

    1998-11-01

    This is the "presidential address to the Ninth Biennial Conference of the Australian Population Association, Brisbane, 30 September 1998.... I propose to look back 50 or so years, at a period of demographic change in Australia that I have found intensely interesting, and that it is hard to imagine will be rivalled in extent or profoundness over the next half century." Aspects considered include morality and values--demographic evidence of change; broad changes in nuptiality and fertility; the sexual revolution; contraception; and life cycle changes.

  11. The Army and Defense Resource Allocation: The Bronze Medal Ain’t Good Enough in a Three-Man Race

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    than 2 percent of the historical average over the last 30 years. Advocates for increased Defense spending have pointed out that Defense spending , as...many dollars have been spent. Figure 3 shows defense spending since World War II. It includes all supplemental spending requests as well as budgeted...funds. Obviously, defense spending has been on the rise since the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks and especially since the invasion of Iraq

  12. "This Ain't the Projects": A Researcher's Reflections on the Local Appropriateness of Our Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Danny C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article I examine the ways in which Black and Latina/o urban high school youth pressed me to reflexively examine my positionality and that of my research tools during a year-long ethnographic study documenting their communicative repertoires. I reflect on youth comments on my researcher tools, as well as myself, in order to wrestle with…

  13. "It ain't all as bad as it may seem": young Black lesbians' responses to sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah J; Valenti, Maria T

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which young, Black lesbians manage their sexual minority identity when experiencing sexual prejudice. Fourteen Black lesbians between the ages of 16 and 24 participated in semistructured interviews. Instances of sexual prejudice and the young women's responses were thematically analyzed using open and axial qualitative coding techniques. Results indicated that participants experienced sexual prejudice frequently and even within the lesbian community. Responses to sexual prejudice included: cognitive reframing of heterosexist messages, passing, gaining support from self-created gay families, and fighting back (physically and verbally) in the event of isolated instances of sexual prejudice. Analysis focuses on how gender identity relates to experiences of sexual prejudice and identity management strategies. Findings suggest that there are parallels between the management strategies of these women and young, Black gay and bisexual males and between these women and Black women who are coping with sexism and racism.

  14. It ain't what you say, it's how you say it: linguistic and cultural diversity in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cynthia Cole; Clardy, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The disparity between the cultural and linguistic diversity of the teaching population and the student population continues to grow as teacher education programs enroll and graduate primarily white teacher candidates (83.7%). At the same time, the diversity of the K-12 student body has increased with 65% of public school students being from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007). This chasm between the diversity of the teaching force and student population is of concern as many teachers report that they do not have the cultural knowledge and experience of working or living in diverse environments, yet will be faced with teaching a very diverse student population. Hence, the need for teacher candidates and current teachers to be explicitly taught the skills needed to successfully teach diverse student populations is urgent. In this article, we explore the following phenomena: how linguistic and cultural diversity is regarded in teacher education programs, as well as teacher candidates' and current K-12 teachers' dispositions towards students who do not share their cultural backgrounds or language (including those who vary in their dialects). Finally, we will present strategies that teacher educators can use to embrace and empower culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) teacher candidates, as well as prepare teacher candidates to teach diverse student populations.

  15. Bias in Diet Determination: Incorporating Traditional Methods in Bayesian Mixing Models

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    There are not “universal methods” to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing models (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can incorporate prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators’ diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal’s diet the sea lion’s did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP’s diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs’ estimates, incorporating informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys’ contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators’ diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably

  16. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we review recent advances in Stable Isotope Mixing Models (SIMMs) and place them into an over-arching Bayesian statistical framework which allows for several useful extensions. SIMMs are used to quantify the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixtur...

  17. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale.

  18. [Genetic variability of sable Martes zibellina L., pine marten M. martes L., and their hybrids in Western Siberia: protein and DNA polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Zhigileva, O N; Politov, D V; Golovacheva, I M; Petrovicheva, S V

    2014-05-01

    Using four types of markers, the genetic variability of sable and pine marten inhabiting Western Siberia was examined. Izoenzyme and restriction endonuclease analysis of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment, as well as the ISSR-PCR and analysis of microsatellite variation, revealed a low differentiation level of sable and pine marten and confirmed the hybrid origin of atypical representatives of these species. The hybrids were characterized by an increased heterozygosity level and were genetically closer to sable than to pine marten. In atypical martens, the presence of mtDNA haplotypes of eastern sable was identified. This could be the consequence of the reintroduction of the Barguzin sable in the 20th century. In Western Siberia, the introgression of genes between sable and pine marten was massive and symmetrical. It apparently occurred in the past and continues in the present.

  19. [A formal description of mammals' behavior based on data on snow tracking, with pine marten (Martes martes) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, É D; Morozov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The formalism allowing to describe animals' behavior is based on the model of informational interactions between an animal and its environment. The model may be represented as an assemblage consisting of two blocks. The first block, which corresponds to the perception system, is a probabilistic operator: it selects an object of certain class out of many objects randomly encountered by an animal while it moves around. The selected object keeps its actuality as an input symbol for the second block of the assemblage during one or several cycles of the block operation. The second block, being afinite structural probabilistic automaton, generates output reactions to the input symbol. The structural automaton, which consists of elementary automata, produces a sequence of output reactions in course of interactions with the selected object: After exhaustion of the previous input actuality, the assemblage moves to the next cycle. At that, the probabilistic operator comes back to the receptive state and produces next output. Automaton "inputs" correspond to objects of certain classes, selectively perceived by an animal; "outputs" correspond to a sequence of elementary motor reactions. Based on data on snow tracking of pine marten foraging activity, there have been composed: the assemblage input and output alphabets, a conjugation matrix of input signals and internal states of the first elementary automaton that is contained in the second block structure, and transition probability matrices for the states of the second block elementary automata, which are defined for a class of environmental objects when foraging activity occurs. The proposed formalism makes it possible to convert field data on tracking into the unified form, detect key circumstances of animals' behavioral activity, and analyze this natural phenomenon in detail.

  20. GENE FLOW AS A GENETIC HOMOGENIZATION EVENT BETWEEN POPULATIONS OF ACROCOMIA ACULEATA (JACQ.) LODD. EX MART AND A. TOTAI MART (ARECACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract The taxonomy of species of the genus Acrocomia (Arecaceae) is unclear. Some authors recognize two species: the caulescent Acrocomia aculeata and the acaulescent A. hassleri (Barb. Rodr.) W. J. Hahn; while others in recognition of the high phenotypic diversity assume the presence o...

  1. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  2. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) offers protection against gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rats.

    PubMed

    Campos, A R; Barros, A I S; Santos, F A; Rao, V S N

    2003-12-01

    The effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract were analyzed in rats on acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin and were compared to those produced by caffeine, a methylxanthine. Guarana (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) pretreated animals showed a significant reduction in the severity of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol in a manner similar to caffeine (20 and 30 mg/kg p.o.). Against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, guarana at a higher dose offered significant protection but caffeine was ineffective at the doses tested. In 4 h pylorus-ligated rats, both guarana and caffeine caused significant diminution in the gastric secretory volume as well as the total acidity. Gastrointestinal transit in mice was not significantly affected by either of these agents. These findings indicate that guarana has a gastroprotective property that needs further elucidation as regards to its mechanism.

  3. Chemopreventive effects of Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, the guaraná, on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, Heidge; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Avanzo, José Luis; de Lima, Cyntia Esteves; Mackowiak, Ivone Isabel; Atroch, André; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan

    2006-02-20

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is originally from Amazon, Brazil. Its effects on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis have been investigated in this study. Mice were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), received three different doses of P. cupana added to commercial food, and euthanized after 25 weeks. Gross lesions were quantified, and preneoplastic lesions (PNL) were histologically measured. Cellular proliferation was evaluated by immunobloting for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The incidence and multiplicity of macroscopic lesions were reduced. The PNL number and PCNA expression were reduced in the highest P. cupana dose. According to these results, guaraná presented inhibitory effects on DEN hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.

  4. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) attenuates methylmercury-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Chen, Pam; Caito, Samuel; Aschner, Michael; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2016-11-01

    The influence of routine guarana (Paullinia cupana) consumption on apparent tolerance to mercury intoxication has been proposed. The present study investigated this hypothesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, a suitable experimental model for studies in toxicology. Wild type (WT) and skn-1 (ok2315) worm strains were pretreated with guarana ethanolic extract (GEE) from larvae 1 (L1) to L4 stage and then exposed for 6 hours to methylmercury (MeHg). The analyses included evaluation of GEE's effects on lethality, developmental delay, feeding, locomotion, gene expression (sod-3, gst-4, sir-2.1, hsf-1, snn-1, mtl-1, mtl-2, aat-1, aat-2 and aat-3) and antioxidant activity. GEE pre-treatment had no aberrant effects on WT worms exposed to MeHg, and protected skn-1 (ok2315) worms, which are more susceptible to environmental stresses. Protective effects of GEE might be dependent on modulation of genes other than those directly involved in antioxidant activity. GEE increased the expression of genes involved in metal transport (aat-2), metal detoxification (mtl-1 and mtl-2) and antioxidant responses (sir-2.1 and sod-3). Thus, routine consumption of guarana might be beneficial in protecting against MeHg-induced toxicity.

  5. 78 FR 46952 - Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Section 5(a) of the FTC Act. The Commission does not typically challenge subjective claims, such as smell... representations that a memory foam mattress lacks the common smell associated with memory foam to mean that...

  6. Vellozia flavicans Mart. ex Schult. hydroalcoholic extract inhibits the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebite is a significant public health issue in tropical countries. In Brazil, some of the most common snake envenomations are from Bothrops. Bothrops bites trigger local and systemic effects including edema, pain, erythema, cyanosis, infections, and necrosis. Vellozia flavicans is a plant from the Brazilian “cerrado” (savanna) that is popularly used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Since inflammation develops quickly after Bothrops bites, which can lead to infection, the aim of the present study was to observe possible anti-snake venom and antimicrobial activities of V. flavicans (Vf). Methods The chromatographic profile of the main constituents from the Vf leaf hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf’s ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). After a 20 min incubation, preparations of PND were added to Tyrode’s solution (control); Vf (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL); 40 μg/mL Bjssu; pre-incubation for 30 min with Bjssu and 1 mg/mL Vf; and a Bjssu pretreated preparation (for 10 min) followed by 1 mg/mL Vf. Myographic recording was performed, and the contractile responses were recorded. The antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]) was obtained for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis, using gentamicin and vancomycin as positive controls. Results TLC analysis yielded several compounds from Vf, such as flavonoids (quercetin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). Bjssu completely blocked the contractile responses of PND preparations, while Vf preserved 97% (±10%) of the contractile responses when incubated with Bjssu. In the PND pretreated with Bjssu, Vf was able to inhibit the neuromuscular blockade progress. MIC and MBC of Vf ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains, while no antimicrobial activity was observed for E. coli and E. faecalis. Conclusions The hydroalcoholic extract from Vf leaves was able to neutralize and decrease the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bjssu. However, it did not show significant antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria. PMID:24507387

  7. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests....

  8. In vivo antimalarial efficacy of acetogenins, alkaloids and flavonoids enriched fractions from Annona crassiflora Mart.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Garcia, Giani Martins; Gonçalves, Samuel Geraldo do Vale; Dionísio, Bárbara Lana; Braga, Erika Martins; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Annona crassiflora and Annonaceae plants are known to be used to treat malaria by traditional healers. In this work, the antimalarial efficacy of different fractions of A. crassiflora, particularly acetogenin, alkaloids and flavonoid-rich fractions, was determined in vivo using Plasmodium berghei-infected mice model and toxicity was accessed by brine shrimp assay. The A. crassiflora fractions were administered at doses of 12.5 mg/kg/day in a 4-day test protocol. The results showed that some fractions from woods were rich in acetogenins, alkaloids and terpenes, and other fractions from leaves were rich in alkaloids and flavonoids. The parasitaemia was significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced (57-75%) with flavonoid and alkaloid-rich leaf fractions, which also increased mean survival time of mice after treatment. Our results confirm the usage of this plant in folk medicine as an antimalarial remedy.

  9. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours).

  10. Faculty Distance Courseware Ownership and the "Wal-Mart" Approach to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talab, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    Whether by choice or necessity, colleges and universities are in competition with each other for the burgeoning web-based course market. Spurred by the growth of the for-profits such as the University of Phoenix, institutions have reasons, both practical and philosophical,"...to secure a position in ownership and control of faculty-produced…

  11. Searching for an Acidic Aquifer in the Rio Tinto Basin: First Geobiology Results of MARTE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Stoker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the conceivable modern habitats to be explored for searching life on Mars are those potentially developed underground. Subsurface habitats are currently environments that, under certain physicochemical circumstances, have high thermal and hydrochemical stability [1, 2]. In planets like Mars lacking an atmospheric shield, such systems are obviously protected against radiation, which strongly alters the structure of biological macromolecules. Low porosity but fractured aquifers currently emplaced inside ancient volcano/sedimentary and hydrothermal systems act as excellent habitats [3] due to its thermal and geochemical properties. In these aquifers the temperature is controlled by a thermal balance between conduction and advection processes, which are driven by the rock composition, geological structure, water turnover of aquifers and heat generation from geothermal processes or chemical reactions [4]. Moreover, microbial communities based on chemolithotrophy can obtain energy by the oxidation of metallic ores that are currently associated to these environments. Such a community core may sustain a trophic web composed of non-autotrophic forms like heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

  12. [Etiological factors of fungemia in the Hospital San Martín in La Plata].

    PubMed

    Mestroni, S C; Verna, J A; Smolkin, A; Bava, A J

    2003-01-01

    To determine the distribution of etiologic agents of fungemia in San Martin Hospital, La Plata, we retrospectively studied 81 consecutive episodes of fungemia, diagnosed in 46 adults and 35 preterm newborn (PNB) hospitalized from November 1998 to August 2001. The diagnosis was achieved by blood culture obtained by venipuncture and by catheter aspiration and was processed using BactAlert and lysis-centrifugation technique. Isolated yeasts were identified employing API 32C system and additional tests. Candida parapsilosis (28.4%), C. albicans (25.9%) and C. tropicalis (25.9%) were predominant as etiological agents (80%). Other species of Candida (C. pelliculosa, C. kefyr and C. guillermondii), Malassezia pachydermatis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in low percentage (each one < or = 7%). C. parapsilosis was predominant as causative agent among PNB male (47.4%), C. albicans among adult women (41.7%) and C. tropicalis among adult men (32.3%). The species of Candida (C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. albicans) were predominant as etiologic agents of fungemia, with a different distribution in the episodes which occurred in adults and PNB patients, and also according to gender in both groups.

  13. A Study of the Discount Retail Industry and Wal-Mart Corporation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    framework helps strategic managers to link remote fectors to their effects on a firm’s operating environment.12 2.3.2. Threat of Entry: Threat of...bridges individual stores, identifies the most efficient way to manage the distribution of its products internally. Jim Royal, the manager of the Wal...FACULTY IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, MANAGEMENT FOR JONATHAN E. LEWIS BY MICHAEL E. ZARBO FT. HUACHUCA, ARIZONA

  14. Antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult & Schult f. (Bromeliaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Katharinne I Moraes; Fernandes, Hélio B; Machado, Flávia D Frota; Oliveira, Irisdalva S; Oliveira, Francisco A; Nunes, Paulo Humberto M; Lima, Julianeli T; Almeida, Jackson R G Silva; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the antiulcer activity of an ethanolic extract of Encholirium spectabile (ES-EtOH) by using different standard experimental models of induced acute gastric ulceration. ES-EtOH (100 mg/kg p.o) protected the gastric mucosa against ulceration that was induced by absolute ethanol (53%), ethanol/HCl (75%), ibuprofen (52 %) and ischemia/reperfusion (43 %). It also restored catalase activity and non-protein sulfhydryl group concentration in the gastric wall of mice that had been treated with ethanol. The pre-treatment of mice with N-nitro-L-arginine (70 mg/kg i.p.) abolished the protective activity of ES-EtOH, which indicates that prostaglandins, antioxidant compounds and nitric oxide synthase activity are involved in the gastroprotective activity of the extract.

  15. From Wall Street to Wal-Mart: Why College Graduates Are Not Getting Good Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Christopher; Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher; Robe, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons for pursing a higher education. For most persons, a significant, maybe even the dominant reason, for going to college is that it supposedly will improve one's prospect of acquiring a good job. In a sense, a college degree has long been considered a ticket to the middle class--an adult life with a good income and relatively…

  16. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Andreazza, Ana Cristina; da Silva, Tatiane Morgana; do Nascimento, Vanusa; Duong, Angela; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, particularly in the floodplains of the Amazon River. Given this proposed association, this study analyzed the potential in vitro neuropharmacological effect of Euterpe oleracea (açaí) extract in the modulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone to induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and before and after we exposed the cells to açaí extract at 5 μg/mL. Treated and untreated cells were then analyzed by spectrophotometric, fluorescent, immunological, and molecular assays. The results showed that açaí extract can potentially increase protein amount and enzyme activity of mitochondrial complex I, mainly through NDUFS7 and NDUFS8 overexpression. Açaí extract was also able to decrease cell reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation. We thus suggest açaí as a potential candidate for drug development and a possible alternative BD therapy. PMID:27781077

  17. Three new di-O-glycosyl-C-glucosyl flavones from the leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart..

    PubMed

    Nawwar, Mahmoud; El-Mousallami, Amani; Hussein, Sahar; Hashem, Amani; Mousa, Mona; Lindequist, Ulrike; Linscheid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Three hitherto unknown di-O-xylosyl-C-glycosyl flavones were isolated from the leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea. The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated by conventional methods and spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, as well as by HRESIMS.

  18. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Odilon A.; Sanches, Júlio C.M.; Silva, Ícaro E.F.; Silva, Márcio L.A.; Vinhólis, Adriana H.C.; Felix, Mireille A.P.; Santos, Raquel A.; Cecchi, Andréa O.

    2012-01-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa (“ipê roxo”) on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg−1 of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg−1 dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects. PMID:22888300

  19. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Odilon A; Sanches, Júlio C M; Silva, Icaro E F; Silva, Márcio L A; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Felix, Mireille A P; Santos, Raquel A; Cecchi, Andréa O

    2012-04-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo") on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg(-1) dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  20. Salinity effects on photosynthesis and growth in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, D.J.; Bolanos, J.A.; Smith, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides, alligator weed, was grown at five different NaCl concentrations to determine the effect of salinity on factors related to the net rate of CO/sub 2/ uptake (P/sub n/). Over the range of 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl, P/sub n/ declined 51%. Stomatal conductance declined in parallel with P/sub n/ and as a result there was no reduction in intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentrations and therefore no reduction in the amount of CO/sub 2/ available for photosynthesis. The CO/sub 2/ compensation point did not change with salt stress. Increases in leaf thickness tended to compensate slightly for the negative effects of salinity on leaf cell metabolism, at least in relation to P/sub n/. On a mesophyll cell area basis, soluble protein was relatively constant in leaves developed at 100 to 400 millimolar NaCl while total chlorophyll decreased at all salinities. Dry weight production and P/sub n/ were closely correlated in alligator weed grown at different salinities. Plants produced less leaf area per unit dry weight as salinity increased, which may aid in water conservation. 26 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Contributions of the MART Program to Math Modeling and Material Characterization of Elastomers for Transducer Application,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-12-01

    used to mathematically model rubber mounts and intersticies in te DC/PA A , SQS-23 7 , and BQS-6 I4 transducers. The finite element models were used to...element. It is considered advantageous to use plastic materials in an intersticial structure configuration for producing the desired impedances without a

  2. Inhibitory effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. on nitric oxide production and iNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Maria Eline; de Oliveira Fernandes, Sidnei Bessa; Silveira, Cristiane Silva; Rodrigues, Verônica Pinto; de Sousa Menezes, Fabio; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2006-09-19

    The palm Euterpe oleracea is a plant of great economic value in Brazil. Although the heart of palm extracted from its trunk is considered a delicacy the world over, its fruits are popular only among Brazilians. In some poor regions of Brazil, there are reports on the popular use of its juice in the treatment of several disorders, mainly those of oxidative onset as cardiovascular ones. Because of its wide utilization; because there are very few scientific studies of this species, and to discover if its use in folk medicine for problems related with oxidation is in fact justifiable, we decided, in this study, to evaluate the effects of Euterpe oleracea flowers, fruits and spikes fractions on: nitric oxide (NO) production, NO scavenger capacity, and on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme, as well. Results showed that the fractions obtained from fruits were the most potent in inhibiting NO production, followed by those from flowers and spikes. Only in high doses, did some fractions reduce cell viability. Reduction on NO production was not due to NO scavenger activity. These results were accompanied by inhibition of iNOS expression. The more pronounced effect was observed in the fractions in which the concentration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside were higher. To sum up, our results indicate that fractions from Euterpe oleracea inhibits NO production by reducing the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

  3. Genetic variation detected by RAPD markers in natural populations of babassu palm (Attalea speciosa Mart.).

    PubMed

    Santos, M F; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Carvalhaes, M A; Lima, P S C

    2015-06-10

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of management on the genetic structure of natural populations of Attalea speciosa in the State of Piauí, Brazil, using random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Three babassu populations under different management systems were selected. Polymerase chain reactions were performed for 20 RAPD primers. A total of 146 bands were generated, 141 of which were polymorphic (96.58%), with a variation of 4 and 12 loci and an average of 7 bands per primer. A dendrogram revealed a clear separation between the three populations (0.57). Data reliability and node consistency were verified by bootstrap values and the cophenetic correlation coefficient (88.15%). Coefficients of similarity between pairs of genotypes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86, with a mean of 0.57. Nei's genetic diversity index (HE) value of the population sampled in Teresina was 0.212, of Esperantina it was 0.195, and of José de Freitas it was 0.207. After the HE was decomposed, the complete diversity was found to be 0.3213. Genetic differentiation between populations was 0.362, and the estimation of gene flow between populations was low (0.879). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 59.52% of the variation was contained within populations, and 40.48% was between populations. RAPD markers were effective for genetic diversity analysis within and between natural babassu populations, and exhibited a high level of polymorphism. Genetic diversity was the highest within populations; variability was lower in the managed populations than in the undisturbed populations.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Andreazza, Ana Cristina; da Silva, Tatiane Morgana; Boligon, Aline Augusti; do Nascimento, Vanusa; Scola, Gustavo; Duong, Angela; Cadoná, Francine Carla; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, particularly in the floodplains of the Amazon River. Given this proposed association, this study analyzed the potential in vitro neuropharmacological effect of Euterpe oleracea (açaí) extract in the modulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone to induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and before and after we exposed the cells to açaí extract at 5 μg/mL. Treated and untreated cells were then analyzed by spectrophotometric, fluorescent, immunological, and molecular assays. The results showed that açaí extract can potentially increase protein amount and enzyme activity of mitochondrial complex I, mainly through NDUFS7 and NDUFS8 overexpression. Açaí extract was also able to decrease cell reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation. We thus suggest açaí as a potential candidate for drug development and a possible alternative BD therapy.

  5. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Patel, Dinesh; Huang, Dejian; Kababick, James P

    2006-11-01

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests. Among many findings, anthocyanins (ACNs), proanthocyanidins (PACs), and other flavonoids were found to be the major phytochemicals. Two ACNs, cyandin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were found to be predominant ACNs; three others were also found as minor ACNs. The total content of ACNs was measured as 3.1919 mg/g dry weight (DW). Polymers were found to be the major PACs. The concentration of total PACs was calculated as 12.89 mg/g DW. Other flavonoids, namely, homoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, scoparin, and taxifolin deoxyhexose, along with several unknown flavonoids, were also detected. Resveratrol was found but at a very low concentration. In addition, components including fatty acids, amino acids, sterols, minerals, and other nutrients were analyzed and quantified. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid, total monounsaturated fatty acid, and total saturated fatty acids contributed to 11.1%, 60.2%, and 28.7% of total fatty acid. Oleic acid (53.9%) and palmitic acid (26.7%) were found to be the two dominant fatty acids. Nineteen amino acids were found; the total amino acid content was determined to be 7.59% of total weight. The total sterols accounted for 0.048% by weight of powder. The three sterols B-sitosterol, campesterol, and sigmasterol were identified. A complete nutrient analysis is also presented. Microbiological analysis was also performed.

  6. [Genetic structure of sable (Martes zibellina L.) from Eurasia based on distribution of mitochondrial lineages].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Pishchulina, S L; Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Simakin, L V; Lazebnyĭ, O E; Kashtanov, S N

    2013-02-01

    The phylogeography of the sable, which is a commercially valuable species, is extremely complicated and poorly investigated. Specifically, the effects of factors such as the range dynamics of the sable during the Pleistocene Epoch, the localization of glacial refugia, species distribution pattern in Holocene, and recent dramatic population decline, along with massive reacclimatization measures, on the species phylogeography remain unclear. Based on the sequence analysis of the control region of mitochondrial DNA from sables that inhabit different parts of the species range, a suggestion was made of the considerably high Pleistocene genetic diversity in sable, which was subsequently lost. The initial diversity of mitochondrial lineages is mostly preserved in the Urals, while in the eastern part of the range, it seems to have been depleted as early as before the last glacial maximum. On the other hand, the even greater depletion of the mitochondrial lineages observed in some populations of central Siberia can be associated with the dramatic population decline at the turn of the 20th century.

  7. [Topological Conflicts in Phylogenetic Analysis of Different Regions of the Sable (Martes zibellina L.) Mitochondrial Genome].

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, B A; Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A; Litvinov, A N

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of different regions of the mitochondrial genome of the sable showed the presence of several topologies of phylogenetic trees, but the most statistically significant topology is A-BC, which was obtained as a result of the analysis of the mitochondrial genome as a whole, as well as of the individual CO1, ND4, and ND5 genes. Analysis of the intergroup divergence of the mtDNA haplotypes (Dxy) indicated that the maximum Dxy values between A and BC groups were accompanied by minimum differences between B and C groups only for six genes showing the A-BC topology (12S rRNA; CO1, CO2, ND4, ND5, and CYTB). It is assumed that the topological conflicts observed in the analysis of individual sable mtDNA genes are associated with the uneven distribution of mutations along the mitochondrial genome and the mitochondrial tree. This may be due to random causes, as well as the nonuniform effect of selection.

  8. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay

    PubMed Central

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24–48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg−1 and DXR - 5 mg.kg−1) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5–2 g.kg−1), GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg−1 and 1–2 g.kg−1 and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg−1). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  9. Chromate-tolerant bacteria for enhanced metal uptake by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.).

    PubMed

    Abou-Shanab, R A I; Angle, J S; van Berkum, P

    2007-01-01

    A total of 85 chromate-resistant bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of water hyacinth grown in Mariout Lake, Egypt, as well as the sediment and water of this habitat. Only 4 (11%), 2 (8%), and 2 (8%) of isolates from each of the environments, respectively, were able to tolerate 200 mg Cr (VI) L(-1). When these eight isolates were tested for their ability to tolerate other metals or to reduce chromate, they were shown to also be resistant to Zn, Mn, and Pb, and to display different degrees of chromate reduction (28% to 95%) under aerobic conditions. The isolates with the higher chromate reduction rates from 42% to 95%, (RA1, RA2, RA3, RA5, RA7, and RA8) were genetically diverse according to RAPD analysis using four differentprimers. Bacterial isolates RA1, RA2, RA3, RAS, and RA8 had 16 S rRNA gene sequences that were most similar to Pseudomonas diminuta, Brevundimonas diminuta, Nitrobacteria irancium, Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Water hyacinth inoculated with RA5 and RA8 increased Mn accumulation in roots by 2.4- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to uninoculated controls. The highest concentrations of Cr (0.4 g kg(-1)) and Zn (0.18 g kg(-1)) were accumulated in aerial portions of water hyacinth inoculated with RA3. Plants inoculated with RA1, RA2, RA3, RA5, RA7, and RA8 had 7-, 11-, 24-, 29-, 35-, and 21-fold, respectively, higher Cr concentrations in roots compared to the control. These bacterial isolates are potential candidates in phytoremediation for chromium removal.

  10. [Approaches to pregnancy diagnosis in the sable (Martes zibellina, Mustelidae, Carnivora) by noninvasive methods: postimplantation period].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Chernova, I E; Naĭdenko, S V

    2008-01-01

    To develop a reliable approach to pregnancy diagnosis in sables based on noninvasive methods of hormonal status assessment, the concentrations of immunoreactive compounds (IRC) binding with antibodies to progesterone have been measured in the feces of females at different stages of the reproductive cycle. The results show that this concentration is higher in truly pregnant than in mated but nonreproducing females. An increase in the IRC concentration relative to its individual baseline level may be regarded as a reliable indication of true pregnancy.

  11. [Influence of anthropogenous factors on the genetic variety of the sable (Martes zibellina L.)].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Svishcheva, G R; Lazebny, O E; Kolobkov, D S; Pishchulina, I G; Meshchersky, S L; Rozhnov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The genetic variety of seven geographic populations of sable has been studied; its distribution area stretches from the Urals to the Far East. It was shown using the panel of eight nuclear microsatellite markers that the sable populations from different geographical regions retain their individual genetic characteristics, despite the influence of anthropogenous factors (overhunting and introduction). There is a significant genetic similarity between the three populations of Central Siberia (Reynolds distances are 0.170-0.200) due to the influence of natural migrations that weaken genetic differentiation, while genetic difference is maximum (0.361) between populations located at the edges of the sable' habitat. The population of the Kamchatka Peninsula is isolated and exists as an independent phylogenetic group. An analysis of the topology of the phylogenetic tree suggests that the populations of Kamchatka and the Sikhote-Alin are closest to the ancestral form. Despite the existence of interspecific hybrids of sable and marten, the level of interspecific genetic differentiation between them is maximal.

  12. Low Titers of Canine Distemper Virus Antibody in Wild Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Mitcheltree, Denise H; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects species in the order Carnivora. Members of the family Mustelidae are among the species most susceptible to CDV and have a high mortality rate after infection. Assessing an animal's pathogen or disease load prior to any reintroduction project is important to help protect the animal being reintroduced, as well as the wildlife and livestock in the area of relocation. We screened 58 fishers for CDV antibody prior to their release into Pennsylvania, US, as part of a reintroduction program. Five of the 58 (9%) fishers had a weak-positive reaction for CDV antibody at a dilution of 1:16. None of the fishers exhibited any clinical sign of canine distemper while being held prior to release.

  13. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  14. Anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening effects of jucá (Libidibia ferrea Mart.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Barros, Aline Oliveira; Nogueira, Jéssica Rodrigues; Fruet, Andréa Costa; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Smith, Marilia de Arruda Cardoso; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho; Silva, Felipe Moura Araújo da; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2016-11-01

    Skin aging is a natural process of the human body that may be accelerated due to extrinsic causes. Libidibia ferrea, popularly known as jucá, is a small tree, which possesses an abundant phenolic composition with potential antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening potentials of jucá trunk bark (LFB) and pod (LFP) extracts. A comprehensive analysis of LFB and LFP phenolic composition was accomplished by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Effects on skin degradation were assessed by inhibitory enzymatic activity against elastase, hyaluronidase and collagenase through colorimetric assays. Cellular viability in B16F10 and primary fibroblasts were determined by Trypan Blue exclusion assay. Anti-melanogenic effects on B16F10 cells were evaluated using cellular tyrosinase, melanin content, western blot, and RT-qPCR analyses. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was determined by gelatin zymography and western blot methodologies. LC-MS/MS analyses of LFB and LFP extracts allowed the characterization of 18 compounds, among them, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and secoridoids. Additionally the pod and trunk bark compositions were compared. Hyaluronidase inhibitory activity for both extracts, LFB (IC50 = 8.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL) and LFP (IC50 = 16 ± 0.5 µg/mL), was stronger than standard rutin (IC50 = 27.6 ± 0.06). Pro-MMP-2 was significantly inhibited by both extracts. LFB and LFP decreased the melanin content in B16F10 due to tyrosinase inhibitory activity. L. ferrea extracts has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle and depigmentant effects.

  15. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA. PMID:26246740

  16. Lead tolerance of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. - Pontederiaceae) as defined by anatomical and physiological traits.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fabricio J; Castro, Evaristo M de; Oliveira, Cynthia de; Pires, Marinês F; Pereira, Marcio P; Ramos, Silvio J; Faquin, Valdemar

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at verifying the lead tolerance of water hyacinth and at looking at consequent anatomical and physiological modifications. Water hyacinth plants were grown on nutrient solutions with five different lead concentrations: 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 4.00 mg L-1 by 20 days. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the Ci/Ca rate were measured at the end of 15 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment, the anatomical modifications in the roots and leaves, and the activity of antioxidant system enzymes, were evaluated. Photosynthetic and Ci/Ca rates were both increased under all lead treatments. Leaf anatomy did not exhibit any evidence of toxicity effects, but showed modifications of the stomata and in the thickness of the palisade and spongy parenchyma in the presence of lead. Likewise, root anatomy did not exhibit any toxicity effects, but the xylem and phloem exhibited favorable modifications as well as increased apoplastic barriers. All antioxidant system enzymes exhibited increased activity in the leaves, and some modifications in roots, in the presence of lead. It is likely, therefore, that water hyacinth tolerance to lead is related to anatomical and physiological modifications such as increased photosynthesis and enhanced anatomical capacity for CO2 assimilation and water conductance.

  17. Phyto-reduction of graphene oxide using the aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdhouse, M. Jannathul; Lalitha, P.

    2014-10-01

    The aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes was used as reductant to produce graphene from graphene oxide by refluxing method. The complete reduction of graphene oxide was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Characterization of graphene was made through FTIR, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy analysis. The stability of graphene was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and zeta potential measurements. The nature and surface morphology of the synthesized graphene was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The production of graphene using phytoextract as reductant emphasizes on the facile method of synthesis and greener nanotechnology.

  18. Mercury methylation in mesocosms with and without the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) Solms.

    PubMed

    Correia, Raquel Rose Silva; Martins de Oliveira, Diana Ciannella; Guimarães, Jean Remy Davée

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant and spreads to several compartments in the environment. Previous in-vitro studies showed that roots of aquatic macrophytes are sites of methylmercury formation, performed mainly by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The objective of this study was to observe MMHg formation and distribution among filtered water (0.2µm), suspended and settled particles and macrophyte roots during seventeen days, in (203)Hg- spiked mesocosms with and without live Eichhornia crassipes whole plants and a SRB inhibitor. Root samples were also incubated in-vitro for comparison of MM(203)Hg formation under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. To evaluate the effect of SRB inhibition by sodium molybdate on total heterotrophic activity, the latter was measured by (3)H-leucine uptake. Inhibition of Hg methylation by sodium molybdate decreased with time in mesocosms. MMHg averaged 10, 12.4 and 0.23 percent of total (203)Hg present in filtered water, suspended particles and roots respectively. In vitro MMHg formation in roots averaged 5.54 percent of total added (203)Hg, with a clearer SRB inhibition effect than in mesocosms. Though significant, MMHg formation in roots from in-vivo mesocosms was one order of magnitude lower than previously found in in-vitro incubations of roots alone.

  19. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    PubMed

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  20. Purification and primary structure of a novel mannose-specific lectin from Centrolobium microchaete Mart seeds.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Alves, Ana Cecília; Carneiro, Rômulo Farias; Dias, Artur Hermano Sampaio; Martins, Francisco William Viana; Cajazeiras, João Batista; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago do; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to purify and characterize a novel mannose-binding lectin from the seeds of Centrolobium microchaete. Centrolobium microchaete lectin (CML) was purified by affinity chromatography in mannose-Sepharose-4B column. CML agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by D-mannose, α-methyl-D-mannoside, D-glucose, N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine and sucrose. The lectin was stable at pH 7.0 and 8.0 and temperatures up to 60°C. The monomeric form of CML showed approximately 28kDa, and its native form is probably a homodimer, as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The primary structure of CML was determined by tandem mass spectrometry that showed CML as a protein with two distinct forms (isolectins CML-1 and CML-2) with 246 and 247 residues, respectively. CML-2 possesses one residue of Asn more than CML-1 in C-terminal. The primary structure of CML agrees with the molecular weights found by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: 27,224 and 27,338Da for CML-1 and CML-2, respectively. CML is a metal-dependent glycoprotein. Moreover, the glycan composition of CML and its structure were predicted.

  1. "A 28-Day Program Ain't Helping the Crack Smoker" -- Perceptions of Effective Drug Abuse Prevention Interventions by North Central Florida African Americans Who Use Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emma J.; Hill, Mary Angelique; Giroux, Stacey A.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine is a major problem in the rural South, but knowledge is limited regarding the impact on African American populations. Purpose: This study of 18-39-year-old black drug users assessed perceptions of contributing factors to drug use and possible interventions. The study design was qualitative-descriptive, utilizing 4 focus groups with 5 rural…

  2. It Ain't Just What You Do and the Way That You Do It: Why Discourse Matters in Higher Education Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    A number of Australian universities have established and sponsored interdisciplinary communities of practice (CoPs) to develop teaching and learning. CoPs are popularly defined as groups of people who share a passion for something and, together, learn how to do it better. Without further specification, this definition is of limited use in…

  3. It Ain't (Just) the Heat, It's the Humanity: Increasing Public Understanding of Scientific Consensus and Its Role in Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, P.; Cook, J.; Nuccitelli, D.

    2014-12-01

    An overwhelming scientific consensus exists on the issue of anthropogenic climate change. Unfortunately, public perception of expert agreement remains low- only around 1 in 10 Americans correctly estimates the actual level of consensus on the topic. Moreover, several recent studies have demonstrated the pivotal role that perceived consensus plays in the public's acceptance of key scientific facts about environmental problems, as well as their willingness to support policy to address them. This "consensus gap", between the high level of scientific agreement vs. the public's perception of it, has led to calls for increased consensus messaging. However this call has been challenged by a number of different groups: climate "skeptics" in denial about the existence and validity of the consensus; some social science researchers and journalists who believe that such messages will be ineffective or counterproductive; and even some scientists and science advocates who downplay the value of consensus in science generally. All of these concerns can be addressed by effectively communicating the role of consensus within science to the public, as well as the conditions under which consensus is likely to be correct. Here, we demonstrate that the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change satisfies these conditions, and discuss past examples of purported consensus that failed or succeeded to satisfy them as well. We conclude by discussing the way in which scientific consensus is interpreted by the public, and how consensus messaging can improve climate literacy.

  4. 'It ain't what you do it's the way that you do it': lessons for health care from decommissioning of older people's services.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Suzanne; Glasby, Jon; Allen, Kerry

    2013-11-01

    Public sector organisations are facing one of the most difficult financial periods in history and local decision-makers are tasked with making tough rationing decisions. Withdrawing or limiting services is an emotive and complex task and something the National Health Service has always found difficult. Over time, local authorities have gained significant experience in the closure of care homes - an equally complex and controversial issue. Drawing on local knowledge and best practice examples, this article highlights lessons and themes identified by those decommissioning care home services. We believe that such lessons are relevant to those making disinvestment decisions across public sector services, including health-care. The study employed semi-structured interviews with 12 Directors of Adult Social Services who had been highlighted nationally as having extensive experience of home closures. Interviews were conducted over a 2-week period in March 2011. Results from the study found that having local policy guidance that is perceived as fair and reasonable was advocated by those involved in home closures. Many local policies had evolved over time and had often been developed following experiences of home closures (both good and bad). Decisions to close care home services require a combination of strong leadership, clear strategic goals, a fair decision-making process, strong evidence of the need for change and good communication, alongside wider stakeholder engagement and support. The current financial challenge means that public sector organisations need to make tough choices on investment and disinvestment decisions. Any such decisions need to be influenced by what we know constitutes best practice. Sharing lessons and experiences within and between sectors could well inform and develop decision-making practices.

  5. A nickel ain't worth a dime anymore: the illusion of money and the rapid encoding of its true value.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Huang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    People often evaluate money based on its face value and overlook its real purchasing power, known as the money illusion. For example, the same 100 Chinese Yuan can buy many more goods in Tibet than in Beijing, but such difference in buying power is usually underestimated. Using event related potential combined with a gambling task, we sought to investigate the encoding of both the real value and the face value of money in the human brain. We found that the self-reported pleasantness of outcomes was modulated by both values. The feedback related negativity (FRN), which peaks around 250ms after feedback and is believed to be generated in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), was only modulated by the true value but not the face value of money. We conclude that the real value of money is rapidly encoded in the human brain even when participants exhibit the money illusion at the behavioral level.

  6. It ain't What You Say, but the Way that You Say It: Jazz Articulation for Horns in the Big Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundson, Jon

    2006-01-01

    A big-band horn section can play the correct rhythms, pitches, and dynamics with good tone and still be unintelligible. If the horns articulate together, however, the improvement will be dramatic. They will much more successfully convey the meaning of the music, and they will sound like a section rather than four or five individuals. In this…

  7. "Ain't Nobody Gonna Get Me down": An Examination of the Educational Experiences of Four African American Women Labeled with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to explore the educational experiences of four African American women with disabilities, revealing how each participant developed a critical consciousness in response to the dominant ideology surrounding the discourses of African American, woman, and disabled. The development of a critical consciousness…

  8. "There Ain't No Accounting for What Folks See in Their Own Mirrors": Considering Colorism within a Sharon Flake Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan; Hampton, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a study of both textual and reader response analyses of "The Skin I'm In" by Sharon Flake. Because gender and race constitute central themes in the narrative, Black feminist thought and feminism undergirded the textual critique. Critics' reviews, scholarly articles, and published author interviews also supported the textual…

  9. There ain't nothing like a Dame: a commentary on Lonsdale (1947) ‘Divergent beam X-ray photography of crystals’

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Prof. Dame Kathleen Lonsdale was one of the two first female Fellows of the Royal Society, having originally been a student of that great British scientist and Nobel Laureate William Henry Bragg. She came to fame initially for her solution of the crystal structure of hexamethyl benzene, thus demonstrating that the benzene ring was flat, of considerable importance to organic chemistry, where it had been proposed before but without proof. This was at a time when the solution of crystal structures was in its infancy, and in its day this work was considered a triumph. As a rare example then of a female physicist, Lonsdale became interested in various aspects of the diffraction of X-rays, and in particular published an important paper on a form of diffraction in which a strongly divergent source was used rather than the usual highly collimated beam. The photographs thus obtained showed a series of arcs and circles, whose positions were so sensitive that they could be used to determine the quality of crystals such as diamond, and even to calculate their lattice dimensions, and hence carbon–carbon bond lengths, to hitherto extraordinary precision. Lonsdale also became known not just as a scientist but as a peace activist and an active member of the Society of Friends. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750139

  10. Growth, nitrogen vacancy reduction and solid solution formation in cubic GaN thin films and the subsequent fabrication of superlattice structures using AIN and InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert F.

    1992-02-01

    An atomic layer epitaxy deposition system configured for the growth of thin films of the III-V nitrides of Al, Ga and In has been designed, constructed and commissioned. The system allows the introduction of up to 16 gases without mixing. Self-terminating growth of crystalline GaN films has been achieved on single crystal wafers of (0001) alpha(6H)-SiC. Results of analyses via Auger spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electron diffraction are described. Deposition of AlN and GaN via gas-source MBE was also continued during this period. The principal emphasis concerned the initial stages of growth of both compounds on the substrates of (00001) alpha(6H)-SiC and (0001) sapphire, as determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An initial layer of silicon nitride formed on the surface of SiC prior to the deposition of either nitride. The deposition of GaN on sapphire followed the Stranski-Krastanov mode of nucleation and growth, while on SiC, characteristics of three-dimensional growth were evident. By contrast, AlN grew initially in a layer-by-layer mode. Deposition of GaN on vicinal (100) Beta-SiC during UV irradiation resulted in the formation of a new 4H polytype of this material. Deposition of BN via gas-source MBE on Cu(110) resulted in nanocrystalline cBN; films grown on (111) Cu resulted in h-BN (graphitic phase). Similar studies using Si(100) substrates also resulted in the occurrence of cBN. The occurrence of the cubic polytype was enhanced while that of h-BN was discouraged with the use of the UV light at 400-500 C.

  11. Impact of Dust from Ore Processing Facilities on Rain Water Collection Tanks in a Tropical Environment--The Obvious Source "Ain't Necessarily So".

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Bradshaw, Anthony

    2016-02-22

    Concerns have been expressed that dust from the minerals processing facilities at Karumba Queensland Australia have resulted in elevated lead (Pb) concentrations in rain water tanks. The ores derived from the Century mine some 304 km from the port. High precision Pb isotopic measurements on environmental samples have been undertaken to evaluate the source of Pb in rainwaters and acid digests from roof wipes and gutter wipes. There does not appear to be any relationship between sample location and the processing facility but samples from the area subject to the prevailing winds show the highest contribution of Century Pb. All gutter wipes (82 to 1270 µg Pb/wipe) have contributions of Century ore ranging from 87% to 96%. The contribution of Century ore to five roof wipes (22 to 88 µg Pb/wipe) ranges from 89% to 97% and in the other two samples there is a mix of Century and Broken Hill Pb. Three of the seven rainwater have contributions of Century ore Pb ranging from 33% to 75%. Two of the other four rainwater samples have the highest water Pb concentrations of 88 and 100 µg/L and their isotopic data show Broken Hill Pb contributions ranging from 77% to 80%. The source of the Broken Hill Pb is probably from the galvanized roofing material and/or brass fittings in the rainwater tanks. The discrimination between various sources is only detectable using high precision (204)Pb-based isotopic ratios and not the now common inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS ) data presentations of the higher abundance isotopes (208)Pb, (207)Pb and (206)Pb. Isotopic results for the waters demonstrate that apportioning blame where there is an obvious point source may not always be the correct conclusion. Nevertheless the isotopic data for the gutter wipes indicates that there was widespread contamination from the processing facilities throughout the town.

  12. It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got Musicality: A Music-First Method for Teaching Historically Rooted Jazz Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebhard, Erinn

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for teaching jazz dance technique according to music concepts and prioritizing deep embodiment of music. This method addresses what can be seen as a disconnect between current practices and historical understanding in jazz dance today, a gap that can be bridged with education empowering students to make innovative…

  13. Pattern of renal diseases among elderly Egyptians patients with acute or chronic renal diseases in Ain Shams University and Nasser Institute Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Adel M; Mady, Gamal E; Ahmad, Ahmad A; el-Shar-Kawy, Magdy E; Aly, Ahmad R; Khalil, Hazem H M

    2005-12-01

    This study among elderly renal Egyptian patients (n=220) with only 20 of them were subjected to renal biopsy. Results showed: diabetic nephropathy in 28.2%, hypertensive nephrosclerosis 25.5%, UTI, cystitis and pyelonephritis in 6.8%, renal stones in 5.9%, obstructive uropathy in 7.6%, simple cysts in 4.5%, CRF of unknown origin in 13.1%, and others in 26.4%. DM and HTN were S related to kidney function tests and increase in elderly. Other cardiovascular risk factors and smoking are reported by previous workers to be HS related to renal diseases. Age was significantly related to GFR, BUN and Cr. but sex difference was not significantly related to renal diseases. Multiple myeloma, lupus nephritis, vasculitis and hepatitis B were all recorded in few numbers of elderly Egyptians. HCV was more common and more likely to cause renal diseases. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasound was confirmatory to clinical renal diseases diagnosis. Among patients (n=20) biopsies showed focal necrotizing GN in 20%, membranous nephropathy in 50% and renal amyloidosis in 30%. CTIN was associated in some cases due to NSAID intake. Analgesic nephropathy was a common problem that might lead to ARF in some cases especially in the elderly. Ultrasound results among the biopsy group were confirmatory to clinical diagnosis.

  14. "That Ain't No Ninja Turtles": The Prevalence and Influence of Popular Culture in the Talk and Writing of Prekindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how 2 classrooms of 4-year-old children incorporated popular media (cartoons, television shows, video games, movies, and music) into their conversations with peers during writing. The findings assert that (a) children naturally incorporate popular culture into their writing, (b) children include popular culture in their…

  15. "That Ain't Going to Get You a Professorship": Discourses of Writing and the Positioning of Academics' Work with Student Writers in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of academic literacies research has enhanced our understanding of university writing as contested, institutionally situated practice with important consequences, particularly for students as they learn to negotiate the writing demands of university study. Less empirical attention has been paid to the practices of subject academics…

  16. When What You Know Ain't Necessarily So: A Comparative Analysis of the Texas School Foundation School Program Revenues for Independent and Charter School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolle, R. Anthony; Wood, R. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Texas charter school districts (CSDs) are accredited and monitored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) utilizing the various components within the state accountability systems for both state and federal requirements. Yet, Texas CSDs are believed to operate with few regulatory restrictions on administrative, instructional, and pedagogical methods.…

  17. "I Ain't No Cowboy, I Just Found This Hat": Confessions of an Administrator in an Organization of Self-Managing Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubans, John

    1996-01-01

    Explain's Duke University Library's change from a hierarchical management structure to one of self-managing teams developed within a total quality management (TQM) framework. Emphasizes the personal views and experiences of a manager responsible for implementing and guiding the process of change. (JKP)

  18. Ain't Nothin' Like the Real Thing. Motivation and Study Processes on a Work-Based Project Course in Information Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helle, Laura; Tynjala, Paivi; Olkinuora, Erkki; Lonka, Kirsti

    2007-01-01

    Background: Advocates of the project method claim that project-based learning inspires student learning. However, it has been claimed that project-based learning environments demand quite a bit of self-regulation on the part of the learner. Aims: Consequently, it was tested whether students scoring low in self-regulation of learning experienced…

  19. The Problem of Poverty in Three Young Adult Novels: "A Hero Ain't Nothin' But a Sandwich,""Buried Onions," and "Make Lemonade."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marler, Myrna Dee

    2002-01-01

    Considers how in order to highlight the disastrous effects of systematic racial oppression, ethnic American writers of young adult literature have portrayed their characters struggling to break free of poverty against overwhelming odds. Discusses the problem of poverty in three adolescent novels. Concludes that poverty can be an equal opportunity…

  20. Phonons in Wurtzite (GaN) mu(AIN) nu Superlattices: Non-Monotoneous Dependence of the Number of Raman-Active Modes on Superlattice Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-18

    The symmetry of wurtzite (GaN)(sub m) (AlN)(sub n), is established to depend on the numbers of monolayers of constituent materials in the primitive ... cell being C?4 to 6V! (odd m+n) or C?1 to 3V! (even m+n). As a result it was shown that the number of Raman active modes depends non-monotonically on m+n.

  1. I Ain't Gonna Make It. Comparing Job Demands-Resources and Attrition Intention Between Senior Teachers and Senior Employees of Six Other Occupational Categories in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Van Droogenbroeck, Filip; Spruyt, Bram

    2016-07-01

    Teachers are often thought to retire early and have more stress and burnout than other human service professionals. In this article, we investigate attrition intention amongst senior teachers and senior employees of six other blue- and white-collar occupational categories using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. We followed a two-step approach. First, analysis of variance and logistic regression analysis was used to assess differences in the level of job demands, resources, and attrition intention between occupations for male and female employees separately. Subsequently, multiple group path analysis was used to assess the invariance of the JD-R model across occupational groups and genders. We used representative data gathered in Flanders among 6,810 senior employees (45 years or older). Results indicate that there are differences in the determinants of attrition intention between men and women. The differences in attrition intention are minimal between occupations once controlled for job demands and resources. In addition, the JD-R model is largely invariant across white-collar occupations and gender. We provide support for both the energetic and motivational process of the JD-R model.

  2. "It Ain't Much, but It's All I Got." The Rural Homelessness Project: A Study of Living Conditions in Two Rural West Virginia Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Beth

    Many poor families in rural West Virginia live in unsafe, unsanitary structures that do not protect them from the elements, but these families are not considered officially homeless. Lincoln and Clay Counties are very rural, traditionally poor areas, with 45% of their populations receiving welfare and much larger proportions receiving food stamps.…

  3. "There Ain't No White People Here": Master Narratives of the Civil Rights Movement in the Stories of Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson, Ashley N.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author uses the critical race theoretical construct of "master narrative" to explore historical and ideological assumptions about the Civil Rights Movement held by two Black youth in an urban community. Master narrative is defined as the dominant social mythologies that mute, erase, and neutralize features of racial…

  4. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AIN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    IK AD-A248 058 - - H Final Technical ReportI I Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the...structural and chemical analyses, there is no reason to believe that a homogeneous solid solution close to this composition had formed. Moreover

  5. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AIN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    AD-A258 804 Final Technical Report Ii Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent...Technical 6/1/86-12/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin...According to the structural and chemical analyses, there is no reason to believe that a homogeneous solid solution close to this composition had

  6. 'If it ain't broke, don't fix it?': scandals, 'risk', and cosmetic surgery regulation in the UK and France.

    PubMed

    Latham, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The recent PIP scandal that affected patients worldwide, and received extensive media coverage, led to concerns being felt by patients about the 'risks' of cosmetic surgery. Theories about regulation and risk refer to societies such as those in the West becoming more risk averse. Regulation, in turn, has come to be seen as an instrument to solve a problem for a community seen to be or which perceives itself to be at risk. The political and electoral risk acknowledged by government if it ignores that concern, or at least media coverage of it, can lead to regulation, or the tightening up of regulation, as a response. This article looks at current proposals for legislation in the UK following the PIP silicone implant scandal as an example of the risk-regulation premise. Are cosmetic surgery patients in the UK now going to see stricter regulation of the cosmetic surgery industry? The article argues that the UK and France have both reacted to healthcare scandals and the ensuing societal conception of risk by drawing up more thorough legislation on cosmetic surgery than previously existed. France enacted the Kouchner law in 2002 and the UK government published the Keogh Report in April 2013. A comparison is made of these to establish whether the UK can learn from the French legislation when it comes to drafting actual regulation in the future, perhaps in 2014. Finally, some arguments are made about whether risk aversion may make better law.

  7. "You Ain't Going to Say...I've Got a Problem down There": Workplace-Based Prostate Health Promotion with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Alan; Staples, Victoria; Summer, Sylvie; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

    2005-01-01

    Prostate health has emerged as a key health issue for men. Nearly 10000 men die from prostate cancer each year and many more live with non-cancerous, but debilitating, prostate conditions. Despite the widespread prevalence, evidence suggests that men lack knowledge about male cancers and conditions, and are more likely to ignore signs and delay…

  8. "Every shut eye, ain't sleep": The role of racism-related vigilance in racial/ethnic disparities in sleep difficulty.

    PubMed

    Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Ailshire, Jennifer; Burgard, Sarah A; Williams, David R

    2013-06-01

    Although racial/ethnic disparities in health have been well-characterized in biomedical, public health, and social science research, the determinants of these disparities are still not well-understood. Chronic psychosocial stress related specifically to the American experience of institutional and interpersonal racial discrimination may be an important determinant of these disparities, as a growing literature in separate scientific disciplines documents the adverse health effects of stress and the greater levels of stress experienced by non-White compared to White Americans. However, the empirical literature on the importance of stress for health and health disparities specifically due to racial discrimination, using population-representative data, is still small and mixed. In this paper, we explore the association between a novel measure of racially-salient chronic stress - "racism-related vigilance" - and sleep difficulty. We found that, compared to the White adults in our sample, Black (but not Hispanic) adults reported greater levels of vigilance. This vigilance was positively associated with sleep difficulty to similar degrees for all racial/ethnic groups in our sample (White, Black, Hispanic). Black adults reported greater levels of sleep difficulty compared to White adults. This disparity was slightly attenuated after adjustment for education and income. However, this disparity was completely attenuated after adjustment for racism-related vigilance. We found similar patterns of results for Hispanic compared to White adults, however, the disparities in sleep difficulty were smaller and not statistically significant. Because of the importance of sleep quality to health, our results suggest that the anticipation of and perseveration about racial discrimination is an important determinant of racial disparities in health.

  9. Ain't I a Leader: Exploring the Leadership Narratives of Black Female Undergraduate Student Leaders at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Lamara D.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research on student leadership development has been exclusive and focused primarily on the experiences of White, male undergraduate student leaders. Therefore, there is little knowledge about the leadership development of Black female undergraduate students. This exploratory study attempts to fills a gap in the student leadership…

  10. Formation, structure and magnetism of the metastable defect fluorite phases AVO{sub 3.5+x} (A=In, Sc)

    SciTech Connect

    Shafi, Shahid P.; Lundgren, Rylan J.; Cranswick, Lachlan M.D.; Bieringer, Mario

    2007-12-15

    We report the preparation and stability of ScVO{sub 3.5+x} and the novel phase InVO{sub 3.5+x}. AVO{sub 3.5+x} (A=Sc, In) defect fluorite structures are formed as metastable intermediates during the topotactic oxidation of AVO{sub 3} bixbyites. The oxidation pathway has been studied in detail by means of thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and in-situ powder X-ray diffraction. The oxidation of the bixbyite phase follows a topotactic pathway at temperatures between 300 and 400 deg. C in air/carbon dioxide. The range of accessible oxygen stoichiometries for the AVO{sub 3.5+x} structures following this pathway are 0.00{<=}x{<=}0.22. Rietveld refinements against powder X-ray and neutron data revealed that InVO{sub 3.54} and ScVO{sub 3.70} crystallize in the defect fluorite structure in space group Fm-3 m (227) with a=4.9863(5) and 4.9697(3)A, respectively with A{sup 3+}/V{sup 4+} disorder on the (4a) cation site. Powder neutron diffraction experiments indicate clustering of oxide defects in all samples. Bulk magnetic measurements showed the presence of V{sup 4+} and the absence of magnetic ordering at low temperatures. Powder neutron diffraction experiments confirmed the absence of a long range ordered magnetic ground state. - Graphical abstract: Topotactic oxidation of AVO{sub 3} bixbyite to AVO{sub 3.5} defect fluorite structure followed by in-situ powder X-ray diffraction. The upper structural diagram shows a six coordinated (A/V)-O{sub 6} fragment in bixbyite, the lower structure illustrates the same seven-fold coordinated (A/V)-O{sub 7} cubic environment in the defect fluorite structure.

  11. "She Don't Know I Got It. You Ain't Gonna Tell Her, Are You?" Popular Culture as Resistance in American Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henward, Allison S.

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is often a site of contestation in preschool classrooms. A multisited ethnographic design revealed preschools employed varied strategies to limit popular culture. Teacher and children's actions were considered through Michel de Certeau's (1984) concepts of tactics and strategies. Interviews and observations revealed children were…

  12. "I ain't been reading while on parole": experts, mental tests, and eugenic commitment law in Illinois, 1890-1940.

    PubMed

    Rembis, Michael A

    2004-08-01

    This article analyzes professional challenges to the 1915 commitment law and the ultimate demise of eugenic institutionalization in Illinois. It reveals the pivotal role of psychologists and intelligence testing in the debate over the necessity and viability of a state-sponsored system of eugenic commitment. It focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on a specific group of young female test subjects and the female professionals who attempted to measure their intelligence. The article relies on published studies as well as case records chosen at random from the Illinois State Training School for Girls at Geneva to explain and analyze the complex relationships among mental testing, feeblemindedness, and eugenics. Focusing on Geneva enables the author to highlight and evaluate previously underanalyzed social and environmental factors that affected testing as well as the experience of women in both eugenics and intelligence testing.

  13. There ain't nothing like a Dame: a commentary on Lonsdale (1947) 'Divergent beam X-ray photography of crystals'.

    PubMed

    Glazer, A M

    2015-04-13

    Prof. Dame Kathleen Lonsdale was one of the two first female Fellows of the Royal Society, having originally been a student of that great British scientist and Nobel Laureate William Henry Bragg. She came to fame initially for her solution of the crystal structure of hexamethyl benzene, thus demonstrating that the benzene ring was flat, of considerable importance to organic chemistry, where it had been proposed before but without proof. This was at a time when the solution of crystal structures was in its infancy, and in its day this work was considered a triumph. As a rare example then of a female physicist, Lonsdale became interested in various aspects of the diffraction of X-rays, and in particular published an important paper on a form of diffraction in which a strongly divergent source was used rather than the usual highly collimated beam. The photographs thus obtained showed a series of arcs and circles, whose positions were so sensitive that they could be used to determine the quality of crystals such as diamond, and even to calculate their lattice dimensions, and hence carbon-carbon bond lengths, to hitherto extraordinary precision. Lonsdale also became known not just as a scientist but as a peace activist and an active member of the Society of Friends. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  14. Your blues ain't like mine: considering integrative antiracism in HIV prevention research with black men who have sex with men in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Walker, Ja'Nina J; DuBois, Steve N; Giwa, Sulaimon

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based interventions have been developed and used to prevent HIV infections among black men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada and the United States; however, the degree to which interventions address racism and other interlocking oppressions that influence HIV vulnerability is not well known. We utilize integrative antiracism to guide a review of HIV prevention intervention studies with black MSM and to determine how racism and religious oppression are addressed in the current intervention evidence base. We searched CINAHL, PsychInfo, MEDLINE and the CDC compendium of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions and identified seventeen interventions. Three interventions targeted black MSM, yet only one intervention addressed racism, religious oppression, cultural assets and religious assets. Most interventions' samples included low numbers of black MSM. More research is needed on interventions that address racism and religious oppression on HIV vulnerability among black MSM. Future research should focus on explicating mechanisms by which multiple oppressions impact HIV vulnerability. We recommend the development and integration of social justice tools for nursing practice that aid in addressing the impacts of racism and other oppressions on HIV vulnerability of black MSM.

  15. I've got 99 problems but a phone ain't one: Electronic and mobile health in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pratap; Paton, Chris; Kirigia, Doris

    2016-10-01

    Mobile technology is very prevalent in Kenya-mobile phone penetration is at 88% and mobile data subscriptions form 99% of all internet subscriptions. While there is great potential for such ubiquitous technology to revolutionise access and quality of healthcare in low-resource settings, there have been few successes at scale. Implementations of electronic health (e-Health) and mobile health (m-Health) technologies in countries like Kenya are yet to tackle human resource constraints or the political, ethical and financial considerations of such technologies. We outline recent innovations that could improve access and quality while considering the costs of healthcare. One is an attempt to create a scalable clinical decision support system by engaging a global network of specialist doctors and reversing some of the damaging effects of medical brain drain. The other efficiently extracts digital information from paper-based records using low-cost and locally produced tools such as rubber stamps to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines. By bringing down the costs of remote consultations and clinical audit, respectively, these projects offer the potential for clinics in resource-limited settings to deliver high-quality care. This paper makes a case for continued and increased investment in social enterprises that bridge academia, public and private sectors to deliver sustainable and scalable e-Health and m-Health solutions.

  16. Mars ain't the kind of place to raise your kid: ethical implications of pregnancy on missions to colonize other planets.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Haley; Peck, Steven L

    2016-12-01

    The colonization of a new planet will inevitably bring about new bioethical issues. One is the possibility of pregnancy during the mission. During the journey to the target planet or moon, and for the first couple of years before a colony has been established and the colony has been accommodated for children, a pregnancy would jeopardize the safety of the crew and the wellbeing of the child. The principal concern with a pregnancy during an interplanetary mission is that it could put the entire crew in danger. Resources such as air, food, and medical supplies will be limited and calculated to keep the crew members alive. We explore the bioethical concerns of near-future space travel.

  17. Education and Modernization in Egypt. Selections from Seminars Organized by Ain Shams University, Cairo for the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (1972 and 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salah El-Din Kotb, Yusef, Ed.

    This book presents selections from seminars whose purpose was to provide American teacher educators and faculty from related disciplines with a first-hand exposure to the modernization process in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The analysis of this topic focuses on three major areas affected in the modernization process: education, culture, and…

  18. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... JC, Parkes M, Annese V, Hakonarson H, Radford-Smith G, Duerr RH, Vermeire S, Weersma RK, Rioux JD. ... MA, Eri R, Simms LA, Florin TH, Radford-Smith G. Intestinal barrier dysfunction in inflammatory bowel diseases. ...

  19. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 471 FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Northampton Avenue & Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 471 FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Northampton Avenue & Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Expressive language disorder - developmental

    MedlinePlus

    If you are concerned about a child's language development, have the child tested. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE AT THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE AT THE EAST END. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH WEST END TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH WEST END TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST END WITH SOUTH SIDE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST END WITH SOUTH SIDE TO THE LEFT. VIEW FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING COLUMNS WITH CONICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING COLUMNS WITH CONICAL CAPITALS. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  8. Dietary supplementation with the polyphenol-rich açaí pulps (Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart.) improves cognition in aged rats and attenuates inflammatory signaling in BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine if lyophilized acai fruit pulp (genus, Euterpe), rich in polyphenolics and other bioactive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is efficacious in reversing age-related cognitive deficits in aged rats. Methods: The diets of 19-mo...

  9. Effect of lyophilized extracts from guaraná seeds [Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke] on behavioral profiles in rats.

    PubMed

    Otobone, F J; Sanches, A C C; Nagae, R; Martins, J V C; Sela, V R; de Mello, J C P; Audi, E A

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological properties of the crude lyophilized extract (EBPC) of Paullinia cupana seeds (guaraná) and the semi-purified extracts (EPA and EPB) after acute or chronic administration by the oral route in rats. Anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and motor stimulant effects were evaluated using the plus maze (PMT), forced swimming (FST) and open field (OFT) tests, respectively. Acute or chronic administration of EBPC (3.0, 30.0 or 60.0 mg/kg) did not alter the percentage of entries or the time spent in the open arm in the PMT. In the FST, chronic treatment with 30.0 mg EBPC/kg and 4.0 mg EPA/kg extract decreased the immobility time similarly to the antidepressant reference drug, imipramine (20.0 mg/kg). Locomotor activity in the OFT was not increased by these extracts. Caffeine (10.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST, but increased locomotor activity in the OFT, indicating psychostimulant activity. The EPB extract did not induce any effect after acute or chronic treatment in the different models used. The present results suggest that the crude EBPC extract and EPA extract produced an antidepressant-like effect after long-term administration.

  10. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats.

  11. Wound-Healing potential of Sebastiania hispida (Mart.) Pax (Euphorbiaceae) ointment compared to low power laser in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, E S; Dourado, D M; Matias, R; Muller, J A I; Guilhermino, J F; Guerrero, A T G; Moreira, D L; Silva, B A K; Barbosa-Ferreira, M

    2016-10-03

    Impaired wound healing represents a serious complication in some pathologies and the use of plant extracts has proved to improve tissue repair. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the healing potential of the ointment of Sebastiana hispida compared with Aluminum-Gallium Indium-Phosphide Laser (InGaAlP) in surgically induced wounds in rats and to perform the phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical analysis was performed in the classic way and also by HPLC. A controlled study was developed with 80 rats (200-250 g) in which a linear excision was performed in the dorsal region after shaving, measuring 2 cm × 1 cm (epidermis and dermis) exposing the muscle fascia. The rats were randomly divided into four groups of twenty animals each. The experimental groups (n = 5) were G1 (Saline); G2 (crude methanol plant extract 2% + Carbopol Gel 98%); G3 (crude methanol plant extract 2% + lanolin/vaseline) and G4 (laser). The incision healing processes were monitored during 3, 7, 14 and until 21 days after excision. The histologic parameters evaluated were Collagen fiber types, microscopic examination and neovascularization. There was a significant increase in the deposition of collagen fibers, as evidenced by a better organized epithelial tissue, keratinized and showing greater proliferation of new blood vessels in the inflammatory phase in the group treated with both the extract and laser. The results were correlated to the phenolic derivatives found after qualitative and quantitative analysis. These compounds were considered responsible for the healing process. The topical treatment with S. hispida leaves, in the two different formulations, was more effective than the application of the laser (Ingan ALP) 660 nm in the model used.

  12. Beetle pollination and flowering rhythm of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae) in Brazilian cerrado: Behavioral features of its principal pollinators.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marilza Silva; Silva, Ricardo José; Paulino-Neto, Hipólito Ferreira; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators. Anthesis was nocturnal, starting at sunset, and lasted for 52-56 h. The flowers were bisexual, protogynous and emitted a strong scent similar to the plant´s own ripe fruit. There was pronounced synchrony among all floral events (the period and duration of stigmatic receptivity, release of odor, pollen release and drooping flowers) in different individuals, but no synchrony in the same individuals. All of the flowers monitored were visited by beetle species of the genera Cyclocephala and Arriguttia. Beetles arrived at the flowers with their bodies covered in pollen and these pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata while foraging on nutritious tissues at the base of the petals. With dehiscence of the stamens and retention within the floral chamber, the bodies of the floral visitors were again covered with pollen which they carried to newly opened flowers, thus promoting the cycle of pollination. After leaving the flowers, female beetles often excavated holes in the soil to lay eggs. Larvae were found between the leaf litter and the first layer of soil under specimens of A. coriacea. Cyclocephala beetles were the main pollinators of A. coriacea, but Arriguttia brevissima was also considered a pollinator and is the first species of this genus to be observed in Annonaceae flowers. Annona coriacea was found to be self-compatible with a low reproductive efficiency in the area studied. The results of this investigation provide ecological data that should contribute to the conservation and economic exploitation of A. coriacea.

  13. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  14. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P.; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the rivers Ebro, Tagus and Guadiana, suggesting that main watercourses in the Iberian Peninsula may act as semi-permeable barriers to gene flow in stone martens. To our knowledge, this is the first phylogeographic and population genetic study of the species at a broad regional scale. We also wanted to make the case for the importance and benefits of using and comparing multiple different clustering and multivariate methods in spatial genetic analyses of mobile and continuously distributed species. PMID:26222680

  15. SoMART, a web server for miRNA, tasiRNA and target gene analysis in Solanaceae plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant micro(mi)RNAs and trans-acting small interfering (tasi)RNAs mediate posttranscriptional silencing of genes and play important roles in a variety of biological processes. Although bioinformatics prediction and small (s)RNA cloning are the key approaches used for identification of miRNAs, tasiRN...

  16. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the rivers Ebro, Tagus and Guadiana, suggesting that main watercourses in the Iberian Peninsula may act as semi-permeable barriers to gene flow in stone martens. To our knowledge, this is the first phylogeographic and population genetic study of the species at a broad regional scale. We also wanted to make the case for the importance and benefits of using and comparing multiple different clustering and multivariate methods in spatial genetic analyses of mobile and continuously distributed species.

  17. The Use of Megamelus scutellaris Berg in the Southern United States as a Biocontrol Agent of Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    spread to include the southern and western United States and disjunct northern populations (US Department of Agriculture/ Natural Resources...green waterhyacinth plants growing in greenhouse cultures under natural light. Waterhyacinth planthoppers were maintained on waterhyacinth cultured in...C with natural daylight (Figure 4). Reverse osmosis (RO) water was used in the tanks with periodic application of nutrients. Waterhyacinth was

  18. Evaluation of the Allelopathic Potential of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart.

    PubMed

    Candido, Lafayette P; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2016-08-01

    Despite the increase in recent decades in herbicide research on the potential of native plants, current knowledge is considered to be low. Very few studies have been carried out on the chemical profile or the biological activity of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) species. In the study reported here, the allelopathic activity of AcOEt and MeOH extracts of leaves, stems, and roots from Ocotea pulchella Nees was evaluated. The extracts were assayed on etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The AcOEt leaf extract was the most active and this was tested on standard target species (STS). Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa were the most sensitive species in this test. A total of eleven compounds have been isolated and characterized. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6 have not been identified previously from O. pulchella and ocoteol (9) is reported for the first time in the literature. Eight compounds were tested on wheat coleoptile growth, and spathulenol, benzyl salicylate, and benzyl benzoate showed the highest activities. These compounds showed inhibitory activity on L. esculentum. The values obtained correspond to the activity exhibited by the extract and these compounds may therefore be responsible for the allelopathic activity shown by O. pulchella.

  19. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  20. Endophytic Actinobacteria from the Brazilian Medicinal Plant Lychnophora ericoides Mart. and the Biological Potential of Their Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Conti, Raphael; Chagas, Fernanda Oliveira; Caraballo-Rodriguez, Andrés Mauricio; Melo, Weilan Gomes da Paixão; do Nascimento, Andréa Mendes; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Cláudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Krogh, Renata; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2016-06-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria from the Brazilian medicinal plant Lychnophora ericoides were isolated for the first time, and the biological potential of their secondary metabolites was evaluated. A phylogenic analysis of isolated actinobacteria was accomplished with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predominance of the genus Streptomyces was observed. All strains were cultured on solid rice medium, and ethanol extracts were evaluated with antimicrobial and cytotoxic assays against cancer cell lines. As a result, 92% of the extracts showed a high or moderate activity against at least one pathogenic microbial strain or cancer cell line. Based on the biological and chemical analyses of crude extracts, three endophytic strains were selected for further investigation of their chemical profiles. Sixteen compounds were isolated, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzamide (9) and 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-quinazolinone (15) are reported as natural products for the first time in this study. The biological activity of the pure compounds was also assessed. Compound 15 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against all four tested cancer cell lines. Nocardamine (2) was only moderately active against two cancer cell lines but showed strong activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results show that endophytic actinobacteria from L. ericoides are a promising source of bioactive compounds.

  1. DPyC-SMF Medal Award in Honor of José Luis Lucio Martínez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napsuciale, M.

    2011-09-01

    The DPyC Medal award 2009 has been granted to José Luis Lucio for his contributions to the field of particle physics and to the development of the Mexican high energy physics community. In this contribution I briefly discuss these topics.

  2. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanism of action of lupeol acetate isolated from Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The species Himatanthus drasticus is popularly known in Northeast Brazil as "janaguba" and belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The latex collected from its stem bark is used for several purposes including anti-inflammatory properties and presents among its bioactive constituents the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. The objective of the present work was to study in vivo and in vitro the lupeol acetate (LA) isolated from the plant latex, in several models of inflammation. Methods Male Swiss mice (25-30 g, 6-24 animals per group) were administered with LA, 30 min before the test initiation. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the formalin test was used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the following tests: paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, and the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavities. Furthermore, the effect of LA on the myeloperoxidase release (MPO, an inflammation biomarker) from human neutrophils was also determined, as well as its antioxidant potential by the DPPH assay. Results In the formalin test, LA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited both the 1st (neurogenic, 0-5 min) and mainly the 2nd (inflammatory, 20-25 min) phase. Naloxone completely reversed the LA effect, indicating the participation of the opioid system. LA also significantly inhibited carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edemas, as well as the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity evaluated by the carrageenan-induced pleurisia. In this model, the effect of a very low dose of LA (0.1 mg/kg) was potentiated by the same dose of pentoxifylline (PTX), a known TNF-alpha inhibitor. LA (25 and 50 μg/ml) was also very effective in inhibiting MPO released from stimulated human neutrophils, and significantly decreased the number of cells expressing iNOS activity in the paw of mice submitted to carrageenan-induced edema, suggesting a drug involvement with the NO system. Conclusions The anti-inflammatory effect of LA probably involves the opioid system, as indicated by the complete blockade of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Furthermore, the LA effect was potentiated by PTX (a TNF-alpha inhibitor). LA also decreased the number of iNOS cells, suggesting the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the NO system in the drug action. PMID:21167055

  4. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  5. Açai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging.

  6. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

  7. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Huang, Dejian; Owens, John; Agarwal, Amit; Jensen, Gitte S; Hart, Aaron N; Shanbrom, Edward

    2006-11-01

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder (OptiAcai) were evaluated by different assays with various free radical sources. It was found to have exceptional activity against superoxide in the superoxide scavenging (SOD) assay, the highest of any food reported to date against the peroxyl radical as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe (ORACFL), and mild activity against both the peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical by the peroxynitrite averting capacity (NORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays, respectively. The SOD of acai was 1614 units/g, an extremely high scavenging capacity for O2*-, by far the highest of any fruit or vegetable tested to date. Total phenolics were also tested as comparison. In the total antioxidant (TAO) assay, antioxidants in acai were differentiated into "slow-acting" and "fast-acting" components. An assay measuring inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in freshly purified human neutrophils showed that antioxidants in acai are able to enter human cells in a fully functional form and to perform an oxygen quenching function at very low doses. Furthermore, other bioactivities related to anti-inflammation and immune functions were also investigated. Acai was found to be a potential cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. It also showed a weak effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide but no effect on either lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytic capacity.

  8. [Geographical structure of the sable (Martes zibellina L.) gene pool on the basis of microsatellite loci analysis].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Svishcheva, G R; Pishchulina, S L; Lazebnyĭ, O E; Meshcherinskiĭ, I G; Simakin, L V; Rozhnov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of seven natural sable populations was investigated with the use of the original panel of 10 microsatellite loci. The populations were selected on the basis of the historical data on sable numbers fluctuations for the last 300 years, as well as on data on natural and artificial migrations affecting neighboring populations. We have demonstrated that the populations are in a state of genetic equilibrium for the majority of the loci. The genetic differences between three samplings from Central Siberia populations were insignificant, and the fixation index values were relatively low. At the same time, populations from the margins of the species habitation areal were characterized by the highest fixation index values. We have shown for the first time that populations from different regions of the sable habitation areal maintain their specific features despite the influence of natural and artificial migrations. The current study, performed with nuclear genetic markers, made it possible to get insight into the genetic structure of the analyzed species as a whole.

  9. [Intraspecific structure of sable Martes zibellina inferred from nucleotide variation of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene].

    PubMed

    Maliarchuk, B A; Petrovskaia, A V; Derenko, M V

    2010-01-01

    A fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene was sequences in sable from Magadan oblast, Khabarovsk krai, and Kamchatka. Using phylogenetic analysis, the presence of two clusters (A and BC), with the divergence value of 1.4%, was demonstrated. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene median networks indicated that split of the ancestral population took place in early Pleistocene (about one Myr ago), while expansion of its more young phylogenetic group A occurred in late Pleistocene, about 120,000 years ago.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried ac...

  11. Beetle pollination and flowering rhythm of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae) in Brazilian cerrado: Behavioral features of its principal pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators. Anthesis was nocturnal, starting at sunset, and lasted for 52–56 h. The flowers were bisexual, protogynous and emitted a strong scent similar to the plant´s own ripe fruit. There was pronounced synchrony among all floral events (the period and duration of stigmatic receptivity, release of odor, pollen release and drooping flowers) in different individuals, but no synchrony in the same individuals. All of the flowers monitored were visited by beetle species of the genera Cyclocephala and Arriguttia. Beetles arrived at the flowers with their bodies covered in pollen and these pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata while foraging on nutritious tissues at the base of the petals. With dehiscence of the stamens and retention within the floral chamber, the bodies of the floral visitors were again covered with pollen which they carried to newly opened flowers, thus promoting the cycle of pollination. After leaving the flowers, female beetles often excavated holes in the soil to lay eggs. Larvae were found between the leaf litter and the first layer of soil under specimens of A. coriacea. Cyclocephala beetles were the main pollinators of A. coriacea, but Arriguttia brevissima was also considered a pollinator and is the first species of this genus to be observed in Annonaceae flowers. Annona coriacea was found to be self-compatible with a low reproductive efficiency in the area studied. The results of this investigation provide ecological data that should contribute to the conservation and economic exploitation of A. coriacea. PMID:28152094

  12. Use of an inexpensive chlorophyll meter to predict Nitrogen levels in leaf tissues of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue nitrogen is also an important indicator of plant health and can be a useful predictor of plant vigor and susceptibility to disease and pests. Hence, knowing nitrogen content may aid in determining establishment success of plants used in restoration programs, including those destined for aqua...

  13. Host specificity assessment and potential impact of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Pontederiales: Pontederiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delphacid Megamelus scutellaris Berg was evaluated for host specificity and potential impact as part of a biological control program targeting E. crassipes. Survival and development of adults and nymphs were used as metrics with no-choice, choice, nymph transfer, and sustainability tests conduc...

  14. Deep River Velocity and Sediment Profiles and the Suspended Sand Load,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-02-01

    5.03 x IO~~ ATCHAFALAVA RIVER WIDTH : 1587 FT D 5, : 6.75 w 0 ~ FT SIMM ESPORT u : 6.66 FPS WATER TEMP. : 70 F d : 46.3 FT FINE SAND PORTION OP BED...1.34 * 10 3FT SIMM ESPORT ~ : 5.85 FPS WATCR TEMP. :69 ’F d : 47.7 FT FiNE SAND PORTION OP BED MATERIAL : 39.$ ~~ FIG. 16...DEC. 14,196 1 Q : 218,000 CF’S S : 336 *io ’~ ATCHAFALAVA RIVERWIDTH ?~ FPS WATER TEMP : løOx I0~~ FT SIMM ESPORT d : 4 1 .7 FT FINE SAND PORTION OF B

  15. Advanced modeling environment for developing and testing FES control systems.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, R; Brown, I E; Loeb, G E

    2003-01-01

    Realistic models of neuromusculoskeletal systems can provide a safe and convenient environment for the design and evaluation of controllers for functional electrical stimulation (FES) prior to clinical trials. We have developed a set of integrated musculoskeletal modeling tools to facilitate the model building process. Simulink models of musculoskeletal systems are created using two software packages developed in our laboratory, Musculoskeletal Modeling in Simulink (MMS) and virtual muscle, in addition to one software package available commercially, SIMM (Musculographics Inc., USA). MMS converts anatomically accurate musculoskeletal models generated by SIMM into Simulink(R) blocks. It also removes run-time constraints on kinetic simulations in SIMM, and allows the development of complex musculoskeletal models without writing a line of code. Virtual muscle builds realistic Simulink models of muscles responding to either natural recruitment or FES. Models of sensorimotor control systems can be developed using various Matlab (Mathworks Inc., USA) toolboxes and integrated easily with these musculoskeletal blocks in the graphical environment of Simulink.

  16. Experimentally derived δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N discrimination factors for gray wolves and the impact of prior information in Bayesian mixing models.

    PubMed

    Derbridge, Jonathan J; Merkle, Jerod A; Bucci, Melanie E; Callahan, Peggy; Koprowski, John L; Polfus, Jean L; Krausman, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of diet has become a common tool in conservation research. However, the multiple sources of uncertainty inherent in this analysis framework involve consequences that have not been thoroughly addressed. Uncertainty arises from the choice of trophic discrimination factors, and for Bayesian stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs), the specification of prior information; the combined effect of these aspects has not been explicitly tested. We used a captive feeding study of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to determine the first experimentally-derived trophic discrimination factors of C and N for this large carnivore of broad conservation interest. Using the estimated diet in our controlled system and data from a published study on wild wolves and their prey in Montana, USA, we then investigated the simultaneous effect of discrimination factors and prior information on diet reconstruction with Bayesian SIMMs. Discrimination factors for gray wolves and their prey were 1.97‰ for δ13C and 3.04‰ for δ15N. Specifying wolf discrimination factors, as opposed to the commonly used red fox (Vulpes vulpes) factors, made little practical difference to estimates of wolf diet, but prior information had a strong effect on bias, precision, and accuracy of posterior estimates. Without specifying prior information in our Bayesian SIMM, it was not possible to produce SIMM posteriors statistically similar to the estimated diet in our controlled study or the diet of wild wolves. Our study demonstrates the critical effect of prior information on estimates of animal diets using Bayesian SIMMs, and suggests species-specific trophic discrimination factors are of secondary importance. When using stable isotope analysis to inform conservation decisions researchers should understand the limits of their data. It may be difficult to obtain useful information from SIMMs if informative priors are omitted and species-specific discrimination factors are unavailable.

  17. Experimentally Derived δ13C and δ15N Discrimination Factors for Gray Wolves and the Impact of Prior Information in Bayesian Mixing Models

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Melanie E.; Callahan, Peggy; Koprowski, John L.; Polfus, Jean L.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of diet has become a common tool in conservation research. However, the multiple sources of uncertainty inherent in this analysis framework involve consequences that have not been thoroughly addressed. Uncertainty arises from the choice of trophic discrimination factors, and for Bayesian stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs), the specification of prior information; the combined effect of these aspects has not been explicitly tested. We used a captive feeding study of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to determine the first experimentally-derived trophic discrimination factors of C and N for this large carnivore of broad conservation interest. Using the estimated diet in our controlled system and data from a published study on wild wolves and their prey in Montana, USA, we then investigated the simultaneous effect of discrimination factors and prior information on diet reconstruction with Bayesian SIMMs. Discrimination factors for gray wolves and their prey were 1.97‰ for δ13C and 3.04‰ for δ15N. Specifying wolf discrimination factors, as opposed to the commonly used red fox (Vulpes vulpes) factors, made little practical difference to estimates of wolf diet, but prior information had a strong effect on bias, precision, and accuracy of posterior estimates. Without specifying prior information in our Bayesian SIMM, it was not possible to produce SIMM posteriors statistically similar to the estimated diet in our controlled study or the diet of wild wolves. Our study demonstrates the critical effect of prior information on estimates of animal diets using Bayesian SIMMs, and suggests species-specific trophic discrimination factors are of secondary importance. When using stable isotope analysis to inform conservation decisions researchers should understand the limits of their data. It may be difficult to obtain useful information from SIMMs if informative priors are omitted and species-specific discrimination factors are unavailable. PMID:25803664

  18. Floating Point Multiply-Add-Subtract Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-07

    implementation receives two floating point numbers Ain and Bin. The floating point number is separated into component parts for processing. For this purpose...in FIG. 2 the mantissa of Ain is identified as Aman, and the mantissa of Bin is identified as Bman. The exponent of Ain is identified as Aexp, and...unit implementation 10 receives Ain and Bin in a floating point format that can be broken up into signs, mantissas, and exponents. These numbers

  19. "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got that Swing"- an Alternative Concept for Understanding the Evolution of Dance and Music in Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Ostovar, Roya

    2016-01-01

    The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language. Our view is supported by increasing experimental evidence particularly in infants and children: beat is perceived and anticipated already by newborns and rhythm perception depends on body movement. Infants and toddlers spontaneously move to a rhythm irrespective of their cultural background. The impulse to dance may have been prepared by the susceptibility of infants to be soothed by rocking. Conceivable evolutionary functions of R&D include sexual attraction and transmission of mating signals. Social functions include bonding, synchronization of many individuals, appeasement of hostile individuals, and pre- and extra-verbal communication enabling embodied individual and collective memorizing. In many cultures R&D are used for entering trance, a base for shamanism and early religions. Individual benefits of R&D include improvement of body coordination, as well as painkilling, anti-depressive, and anti-boredom effects. Rhythm most likely paved the way for human speech as supported by studies confirming the overlaps between cognitive and neural resources recruited for language and rhythm. In addition, dance encompasses visual and gestural communication. In future studies attention should be paid to which attribute of music is focused on and that the close mutual relation between R&D is taken into account. The possible evolutionary functions of dance deserve more attention.

  20. 76 FR 63657 - Certain Flat Panel Display Devices, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...''); and BrandsMart USA, Inc. of Hollywood, Florida (``BrandsMart''). On August 31, 2011, AU Optronics... Corporation of America of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, d/b/a BrandsMart U.S.A. (collectively, ``New Respondents''), and to terminate the investigation as to AT&T, Best Buy, and BrandsMart. On September 15, 2011,...

  1. The Intricate Knot: Black Figures in American Literature, 1776-1863.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellin, Jean Fagan

    Beginning with Thomas Jefferson's view of the black man as a victim in his "Notes on Virginia," this book studies the characterization of the Negro in pre-Civil War fiction (1776-1863). Traced are the stereotypes of the black in plantation fiction by George Tucker, James Paulding, John Kennedy, and Gilmore Simms--all of whom used the image of…

  2. Hard Talk About Hardware: The Care and Repair of Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines minor repairs and maintenance that can be done to minimize problems and to lower service costs for computers. Highlights include: components of a repair tool kit; benefits of familiarity with equipment; preventative measures to cut down on repairs; installation of RAM, DIP, and SIMM chips; board configurations; installation of a drive;…

  3. The Power of Expectations: Two Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Laurene E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the power of the word "CAN". The author, Laurene E. Simms reports that as a poor, black, deaf youngster her teacher's facial expressions conveyed their feelings that she was of low IQ and mentally retarded, however two persons had a positive impact on her, her father and 7th grade math teacher. They challenged…

  4. Specifying Software Behavior for Requirements and Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2] language. When translated to the language of the Salsa property checker [4], Salsa checks the consis- tency and completeness [9] of the SOL...Distributed Com- puting Systems, May 2003. [4] R. Bharadwaj and S. Simms. “ Salsa : Combining Constraint Solvers with BDDs for Automatic Invariant

  5. Dimensions of Literacy in a Multicultural Society. Conference Proceedings (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heft, Riva, Ed.; Rovinescu, Olivia, Ed.

    The following papers from a conference on the dimensions of literacy in a multicultural society are included in this volume: "Literacy: Affirmation and Empowerment in a Multicultural Society" (Simms); "Literacy, Border Pedagogy, and Multiculturalism in the Aftermath of the Los Angeles Uprising" (Giroux); "Alphabetisme et…

  6. Total Warrant Officer System (TWOS). Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-30

    Aviation Center ( ) ... ................... . CbMrAndant, US Army Aviation LogisticsSchool (A2SQ-PN) ....................... 3 Omandant , us m Chemical...Sanborn, Frederick S. CW2 AG ADP Operations Simms, Gary N. CW2 AG Admin. Officer Wirth, Barry 0. CW2 AG USAR Representative Newman, David E. SFC 75Z

  7. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL WINDOWS ON SECOND FLOOR AT THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORIGINAL WINDOWS ON SECOND FLOOR AT THE EAST END, SHOWING CLEARANCE BETWEEN WINDOW SASH AND PILASTER. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Chlorophyll a + b content and chlorophyll fluorescence in avocado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One Tonnage (T) and one Simmonds (S) avocado tree and four TxS crosses were evaluated for differences in chlorophyll content and maximal quantum yield of photosystem II in sun and shade-type leaves. Total chlorophyll content by area (Chl a+bar) ranged from 981 mg m-2 in TxS240 to 4339 mg m-2 in Simm...

  10. Stuttering

    MedlinePlus

    ... health/stuttering . Accessed June 13, 2016. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 35. Review Date 2/ ...

  11. 75 FR 16483 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

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  12. Comparing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder's Symptom Structure between Deployed and Nondeployed Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Ryan M.; Elhai, Jon D.; Richardson, J. Don; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We tested two empirically validated 4-factor models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using the PTSD Checklist: King, Leskin, King, and Weathers' (1998) model including reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal factors, and Simms, Watson, and Doebbeling's (2002) model including reexperiencing, avoidance,…

  13. In vitro SCREENING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Bidens pilosa LINNÉ AND Annona crassiflora MART. AGAINST OXACILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) FROM THE AERIAL ENVIRONMENT AT THE DENTAL CLINIC

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jeferson; Cerdeira, Cláudio Daniel; Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Cintra, Ana Beatriz Pugina; da Silva, Carla Brigagão Pacheco; de Mendonça, Andreia Natan; Ishikawa, Tati; Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber

    2014-01-01

    Currently multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus is one common cause of infections with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which directs scientific endeavors in search for novel antimicrobials. In this study, nine extracts from Bidens pilosa (root, stem, flower and leaves) and Annona crassiflora (rind fruit, stem, leaves, seed and pulp) were obtained with ethanol: water (7:3, v/v) and their in vitro antibacterial activity evaluated through both the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 60 Oxacillin Resistant S. aureus (ORSA) strains and against S. aureus ATCC6538. The extracts from B. pilosa and A. crassiflora inhibited the growth of the ORSA isolates in both methods. Leaves of B. pilosa presented mean of the inhibition zone diameters significantly higher than chlorexidine 0.12% against ORSA, and the extracts were more active against S. aureus ATCC (p < 0.05). Parallel, toxicity testing by using MTT method and phytochemical screening were assessed, and three extracts (B. pilosa, root and leaf, and A. crassiflora, seed) did not evidence toxicity. On the other hand, the cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 and CC90) for other extracts ranged from 2.06 to 10.77 mg/mL. The presence of variable alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins was observed, even though there was a total absence of anthraquinones. Thus, the extracts from the leaves of B. pilosa revealed good anti-ORSA activity and did not exhibit toxicity. PMID:25076435

  14. The Keck "Mars 2000" Project: Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data to Assess Geological Processes and Regional Stratigraphy Near Orcus Patera and Marte Vallis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Keck 'Mars 2000' summer project 10 undergraduates (rising juniors) used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to study a 19x14 degree region they identified as a potential Mars 2003 landing site. Here we introduce the project science and organization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp in modulating lifespan and reproduction in a Tephritid fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Liedo, Pablo; Carey, James R; Ingram, Donald K; Zou, Sige

    2012-07-01

    Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried açai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive output in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Individual flies were cultured on one of the 24 diets made from a combination of 1) sugar and yeast extract (SY) at four ratios, 2) palmitic acid, a saturated fat, at two concentrations and 3) freeze-dried açai pulp at three concentrations. Fat addition decreased lifespan in females on the sugar only diet and the diet with a low SY ratio, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output in flies on the diet with the low SY ratio when compared to SY ratio-matched low fat controls. Açai supplementation promoted survival, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output, in flies on diets with high fat and high sugar but not other diets when compared to diet-matched non-supplemented controls. These findings reveal that the impact of fat and açai on lifespan and reproductive output depends on the dietary content of other macronutrients. Our results reveal the intricate interplay among macronutrients and nutraceuticals, and underscore the importance of taking macronutrient balance into consideration in designing dietary interventions for aging and health.

  16. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  17. Filaria martis Gmelin 1790 (Spirurida, Filariidae) affecting beech marten (Martes foina): morphological description and molecular characterisation of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2007-09-01

    Filaria martis causes a poorly known subcutaneous filariosis in mustelids. Few information is available about lesions that F. martis causes in beech martens, on its morphology, biology and the occurrence of the infection. From 1997 to 2006, 29 beech martens from two sites of southern Italy (Sites A and B) have been necropsied. Ectoparasites and nematodes were collected and morphologically identified. A variable region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of F. martis has been characterised to compare females presenting caudal tips smooth without spines (i.e. Morphotype 1-Mrph. 1) and with spines (i.e. Mrph. 2). All ticks collected were identified as Haemaphysalis erinacei. Eleven animals from Site A were found infected by F. martis nematodes in subcutaneous tissue in both membranous capsules or free under the inner skin surface. The most important morphological characters of F. martis have been reported and discussed. The molecular analysis showed 100% homology among cox1 sequences from Mrph. 1 and 2 thus indicating that the shape of female posterior edge may vary among specimens of F. martis. The results here presented provide new insights into the biology, ecology and morphological characteristics of this scantly known nematode.

  18. Anticonvulsant profile of the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine isolated from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart ex Benth (Leguminosae-Papilionaceae).

    PubMed

    Faggion, Silmara Aparecida; Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Fachim, Helene Aparecida; Gavin, Amanda Salomão; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Beleboni, Renê Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying the onset and maintenance of epileptic seizures involve alterations in inhibitory and/or excitatory neurotransmitter pathways. Thus, the prospecting of novel molecules from natural products that target both inhibition and excitation systems has deserved interest in the rational design of new anticonvulsants. We isolated the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu and evaluated the action of these compounds against chemically induced seizures in rats. Our results showed that the administration of different doses of (+)-erythravine inhibited seizures evoked by bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, and kainic acid at maximum of 80, 100, and 100%, respectively, whereas different doses of (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine inhibited seizures at a maximum of 100% when induced by bicuculline, NMDA, and kainic acid, and, to a lesser extent, PTZ (60%). The analysis of mean latency to seizure onset of nonprotected animals, for specific doses of alkaloids, showed that (+)-erythravine increased latencies to seizures induced by bicuculline. Although (+)-erythravine exhibited very weak anticonvulsant action against seizures induced by NMDA, this alkaloid increased the latency in this assay. The increase in latency to onset of seizures promoted by (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine reached a maximum of threefold in the bicuculline test. All animals were protected against death when treated with different doses of (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine in the tests using the four chemical convulsants. Identical results were obtained when using (+)-erythravine in the tests of bicuculline, NMDA, and PTZ, and, to a lesser extent, kainic acid. Therefore, these data validate the anticonvulsant properties of the tested alkaloids, which is of relevance in consideration of the ethnopharmacological/biotechnological potential of E. mulungu.

  19. Pollen flow in fragmented landscapes maintains genetic diversity following stand-replacing disturbance in a neotropical pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea Mart.

    PubMed

    Davies, S J; Cavers, S; Finegan, B; White, A; Breed, M F; Lowe, A J

    2015-08-01

    In forests with gap disturbance regimes, pioneer tree regeneration is typically abundant following stand-replacing disturbances, whether natural or anthropogenic. Differences in pioneer tree density linked to disturbance regime can influence pollinator behaviour and impact on mating patterns and genetic diversity of pioneer populations. Such mating pattern shifts can manifest as higher selfing rates and lower pollen diversity in old growth forest populations. In secondary forest, where more closely related pollen donors occur, an increase in biparental inbreeding is a potential problem. Here, we investigate the consequences of secondary forest colonisation on the mating patterns and genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays for the long-lived, self-compatible pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea, at two Costa Rican sites. Five microsatellite loci were screened across adult and seed cohorts from old growth forest with lower density, secondary forest with higher density, and isolated individual trees in pasture. Progeny from both old growth and secondary forest contexts were predominantly outcrossed (tm=1.00) and experienced low levels of biparental inbreeding (tm-ts=0.00-0.04). In contrast to predictions, our results indicated that the mating patterns of V. ferruginea are relatively robust to density differences between old growth and secondary forest stands. In addition, we observed that pollen-mediated gene flow possibly maintained the genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays in stands of secondary forest adults. As part of a natural resource management strategy, we suggest that primary forest remnants should be prioritised for conservation to promote restoration of genetic diversity during forest regeneration.

  20. Isolation, characterization and molecular three-dimensional structural predictions of metalloprotease from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.) Sor.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Chandrasekar, Raman; Chun, Se-Chul; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims at isolation, identification, characterization and prediction of three-dimensional molecular architecture of a proteolytic enzyme from the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani which are hypothesized to be a marker of phytopathogenicity. Maximum enzyme production by A. solani was observed in Czapex's Dox broth amended with 2% (w/v) casein than other inducer amendments. Results indicate that the enzyme remained highly active in a pH range of 7.0-10.0 and a temperature range of 45-50°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and monovalent cations (Na(+), K(+)) had little effect. Metal ions such as MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl at 10 mM concentration showed a stimulatory effect (>85%) on protease activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified enzyme revealed the presence of protease belonging to a keratinolytic protein (metalloprotease) of exopeptidase nature. Putative A. solani keratinolytic enzyme (AsK) is made up of 216 amino acid residues with molecular weight (MW) 24.5 kDa, having a molecular formula of C1094H1704N290O342S4. Ramachandran plot analysis of the protein residues falling into the most favored secondary structures was observed at 84.2%. The major protein structural blocks, 2-β-sheets, and 9-α-helices have a greater tendency to be conserved during the evolutionary process than do mere sequences of amino acids. Besides, AsK, model prediction showed the presence of a Zinc atom at helix regions (Helix 3, 6, 7: His(57), His(130), His(169), and Cys(123)). Thus, it can be concluded that the major proteinases of AsK are divalent cation-requiring metalloproteinases and make them potential targets of protease inhibitors designing.

  1. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rosany Lopes; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Ramos, Ryan da Silva; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E) -β-farnesene (37.615%), Linalool (33.375%), α-Santalene (3.255%) and linalyl acetate (3.222%). The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1. PMID:27907002

  2. The interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp in modulating lifespan and reproduction in a Tephritid fruit fly

    PubMed Central

    Liedo, Pablo; Carey, James R.; Ingram, Donald K.; Zou, Sige

    2012-01-01

    Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried açai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive output in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Individual flies were cultured on one of the 24 diets made from a combination of 1) sugar and yeast extract (SY) at four ratios, 2) palmitic acid, a saturated fat, at two concentrations and 3) freeze-dried açai pulp at three concentrations. Fat addition decreased lifespan in females on the sugar only diet and the diet with a low SY ratio, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output in flies on the diet with the low SY ratio when compared to SY ratio-matched low fat controls. Açai supplementation promoted survival, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output, in flies on diets with high fat and high sugar but not other diets when compared to diet-matched non-supplemented controls. These findings reveal that the impact of fat and açai on lifespan and reproductive output depends on the dietary content of other macronutrients. Our results reveal the intricate interplay among macronutrients and nutraceuticals, and underscore the importance of taking macronutrient balance into consideration in designing dietary interventions for aging and health. PMID:22580089

  3. Employee Involvement: The Competitive Edge. Transactions of the IAQC Annual Conference and Resource Mart (9th, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 6-9, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Quality and Participation, Cincinnati, OH.

    Among the 96 papers presented at this conference are the following: "Team Building Techniques that Get Results" (Berg); "The Subtleties of Communication in Small Group Meetings" (Henry); "Feedback--Its Role in Team Building" (Lucas); "Group Dynamics--Success through Interaction" (Manning, Johnson); "The Able-Bodied Handicapped: Bridging the Gap"…

  4. [Effect of coat color mutations on behavioral polymorphism in farm populations of american minks (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758)].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; Sergeev, E G

    2008-04-01

    Behavioral polymorphism estimated by the expression of the defensive reaction towards humans has been studied in farm-bred American minks and sables with different color types. Most animals (both minks and sables) from farm populations displayed passive defensive behavior towards humans in the standard hand catch test. Coat color genes have been found to have pleiotropic effects; they influence both the penetrance and expressivity of domestication behavior: in animals with aberrant color types (both sapphire minks and white-and-black sables), the proportion of animals with domestication behavior and the expressivity of this behavior are significantly higher (p <0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively).

  5. Climate change sensitivity of the African ivory nut palm, Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. (Arecaceae) - a keystone species in SE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blach-Overgaard, A.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, H.

    2009-11-01

    Africa is the most vulnerable continent to future climate change. Profound changes are projected for southwestern Africa with increased drying, notably with delayed onset of the rainy season in September-November, and temperature increases in all seasons. The projected climate changes combined with land-use changes are thought to constitute the main threats to biodiversity in the 21st century. To be able to predict the potential impact on biodiversity, it is crucial to achieve a better insight into the controls of contemporary species ranges. Using species distribution modeling, we assessed the climate sensitivity of the key-stone palm species Hyphaene petersiana (African ivory nut palm) in southern Africa. We tested the relative roles of climate vs. non-climatic range-controls and found that climate had a clear effect on the range of H. petersiana and that especially water-related variables (annual precipitation and precipitation driest quarter) were of high importance. Nevertheless, latitude was the overall most dominant variable, reflecting spatial constraints on the continental-scale distribution. Of the remaining non-climatic factors, soil type and human influence were as important as the climatic factors. A future decrease in annual precipitation below 400 mm and hydrological changes towards drier conditions could cause a dramatic decline in H. petersiana populations, while the influence of temperature changes is less clear. The ongoing, unsustainable utilization pressures on this palm species by humans and livestock are likely to exacerbate the negative effect of future climate changes on its populations, especially, given the expected human population increase in Africa.

  6. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit oil (açaí), in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marques, E S; Froder, J G; Carvalho, J C T; Rosa, P C P; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2016-07-01

    E. oleracea is a tropical plant from the Amazon region, with its fruit used for food, and traditionally, as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, for atherosclerotic disease, and has anticancer properties. The oil of the fruit has antidiarrheic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, but without genotoxicity evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of E. oleracea fruit oil (EOO), in rat cells. Male Wistar rats were treated with EOO by gavage at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, for 14 days, within a 24 h interval. The DNA damage in the leukocytes, liver, bone marrow and testicular cells, was assessed by the comet assay, and the clastogenic/aneugenic effects in the bone marrow cells, by the micronucleus test. Our phytochemicals characterization of the EOO showed the presence of vanillic, palmitic, γ-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, cinnamic, caffeic, protocatechuic, ferulic, syringic acids, and flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside as the main constituents. Both cytogenetic tests performed showed that EOO presented no significant genotoxic effects in the analyzed cells, at the three tested doses. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, E. oleracea fruit oil did not reveal genetic toxicity in rat cells.

  7. Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr.) Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Carvalho Júnior, Wellington G O; Amaral, Vanessa B

    2015-03-01

    The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation.

  8. Synbiotic Amazonian palm berry (açai, Euterpe oleracea Mart.) ice cream improved Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG survival to simulated gastrointestinal stress.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Ooki, Gabriela Namur; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-02-22

    The effect of açai pulp ice cream and of its supplementation with inulin (I), whey protein concentrate (WC), and/or whey protein isolate (WI) on the viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal stress of the probiotic Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus GG strain throughout storage at -18 °C for up to 112 days was evaluated and morphological changes during stress were monitored. Lb. rhamnosus GG viability was stable in all formulations for up to 112 days of storage, preserving populations around 9 log CFU g(-1). Compared to the fresh culture, Lb. rhamnosus GG showed higher survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions when incorporated into açai ice cream, indicating that the presence of the food matrix contributed to the microorganism survival. A reduction of at least 5 log cycles of Lb. rhamnosus GG was observed in all formulations after the gastrointestinal simulation in all storage periods assessed. The addition of I, WC, and/or WI did not show any significant effect on the probiotic survival under simulated gastrointestinal stress (p < 0.05). Compared to the fresh culture, fewer morphological changes were observed when the probiotic was added to ice cream. Thus, the açai pulp ice cream was shown to be a suitable matrix for Lb. rhamnosus GG, improving its survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

  9. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  10. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rios, Jolian; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Meibohm, Bernd; Talcott, Stephen T; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2008-09-10

    The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial.

  11. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-Derived Polyphenols Protect Mice from Diet-Induced Obesity and Fatty Liver by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Excretion

    PubMed Central

    de Bem, Graziele F.; Cordeiro, Viviane S. C.; Santos, Izabelle B.; de Carvalho, Lenize C. R. M.; da Conceição, Ellen Paula S.; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Ognibene, Dayane T.; Sousa, Pergentino José C.; Martins, Gabriel R.; da Silva, Antônio Jorge R.; de Moura, Roberto S.; Resende, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a polyphenol-rich Açaí seed extract (ASE, 300 mg/kg-1d-1) on adiposity and hepatic steatosis in mice that were fed a high-fat (HF) diet and its underlying mechanisms based on hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Four groups were studied: C57BL/6 mice that were fed with standard diet (10% fat, Control), 10% fat + ASE (ASE), 60% fat (HF), and 60% fat + ASE (HF + ASE) for 12 weeks. We evaluated the food intake, body weight gain, serum glucose and lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol and triacyglycerol (TG), hepatic expression of pAMPK, lipogenic proteins (SREBP-1c, pACC, ACC, HMG-CoA reductase) and cholesterol excretion transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8. We also evaluated the steatosis in liver sections and oxidative stress. ASE reduced body weight gain, food intake, glucose levels, accumulation of cholesterol and TG in the liver, which was associated with a reduction of hepatic steatosis. The increased expressions of SREBP-1c and HMG-CoA reductase and reduced expressions of pAMPK and pACC/ACC in HF group were antagonized by ASE. The ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters expressions were increased by the extract. The antioxidant effect of ASE was demonstrated in liver of HF mice by restoration of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and reduction of the increased levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonylation. In conclusion, ASE substantially reduced the obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by HF diet by reducing lipogenesis, increasing cholesterol excretion and improving oxidative stress in the liver, providing a nutritional resource for prevention of obesity-related adiposity and hepatic steatosis. PMID:26630290

  12. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-Derived Polyphenols Protect Mice from Diet-Induced Obesity and Fatty Liver by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Excretion.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paola Raquel B; da Costa, Cristiane A; de Bem, Graziele F; Cordeiro, Viviane S C; Santos, Izabelle B; de Carvalho, Lenize C R M; da Conceição, Ellen Paula S; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Ognibene, Dayane T; Sousa, Pergentino José C; Martins, Gabriel R; da Silva, Antônio Jorge R; de Moura, Roberto S; Resende, Angela C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a polyphenol-rich Açaí seed extract (ASE, 300 mg/kg-1d-1) on adiposity and hepatic steatosis in mice that were fed a high-fat (HF) diet and its underlying mechanisms based on hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Four groups were studied: C57BL/6 mice that were fed with standard diet (10% fat, Control), 10% fat + ASE (ASE), 60% fat (HF), and 60% fat + ASE (HF + ASE) for 12 weeks. We evaluated the food intake, body weight gain, serum glucose and lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol and triacyglycerol (TG), hepatic expression of pAMPK, lipogenic proteins (SREBP-1c, pACC, ACC, HMG-CoA reductase) and cholesterol excretion transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8. We also evaluated the steatosis in liver sections and oxidative stress. ASE reduced body weight gain, food intake, glucose levels, accumulation of cholesterol and TG in the liver, which was associated with a reduction of hepatic steatosis. The increased expressions of SREBP-1c and HMG-CoA reductase and reduced expressions of pAMPK and pACC/ACC in HF group were antagonized by ASE. The ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters expressions were increased by the extract. The antioxidant effect of ASE was demonstrated in liver of HF mice by restoration of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and reduction of the increased levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonylation. In conclusion, ASE substantially reduced the obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by HF diet by reducing lipogenesis, increasing cholesterol excretion and improving oxidative stress in the liver, providing a nutritional resource for prevention of obesity-related adiposity and hepatic steatosis.

  13. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  14. HealthMarts, HIPCs (health insurance purchasing cooperatives), MEWAs (multiple employee welfare arrangements), and AHPs (association health plans): a guide for the perplexed.

    PubMed

    Hall, M A; Wicks, E K; Lawlor, J S

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers how pending proposals to authorize new forms of group purchasing arrangements for health insurance would fit and function within the existing, highly complex market and regulatory landscape and whether these proposals are likely to meet their stated objectives and avoid unintended consequences. Cost savings are more likely to result from increased risk segmentation than through true market efficiencies. Thus, these proposals could erode previous market reforms whose goal is increased risk pooling. On the other hand, these proposals contain important enhancements, clarifications, and simplification of state and federal regulatory oversight of group purchasing vehicles. Also, they address some of the problems that have hampered the performance of purchasing cooperatives. On balance, although these proposals should receive cautious and careful consideration, they are not likely to produce a significant overall reduction in premiums or increase in coverage.

  15. Seedling survival of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart ex DC) Mattos in a semi-arid environment through modified germination speed and post-germination desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Martins, J R; Edvaldo, A A S; Alvarenga, A A; Rodrigues, A C; Ribeiro, D E; Toorop, P E

    2015-11-01

    Uniform rapid seed germination generally forms a great risk for the plant population if subsequent intermittent precipitation causes desiccation and seedling death. Handroanthus impetiginosus can be found commonly in a wide range of biomes within Brazil including those that are semi-arid. Germination and early growth was studied to understand how germinated seeds survive under these stringent conditions. Accessions were sampled from four seasonally dry biomes in Brazil. Precipitation at the start of the rainy season in the Caatinga, a semi-arid biome, is less predictable and the number of successive dry days per dry interval in the first four months of the rainy season was higher than in the other studied biomes. Plants from the Caatinga produced thicker seeds and this trait concurred with slow germination and stronger osmotic inhibition of germination across the accessions, forming a stress avoidance mechanism in the Caatinga. Post-germination desiccation tolerance was high in the Caatinga accession, could be re-induced in accessions from biomes with more regular precipitation (Cerrado and transition zone), but remained poor in the Cerradão accession; thus forming a stress tolerance mechanism. Production of adventitious roots ascertained survival of all tested individuals from all four locations, even if protruded radicles did not survive desiccation, forming an additional stress tolerance mechanism. A sequence of stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms in seeds and germinated seeds was associated with precipitation patterns in different biomes. These mechanisms purportedly allow rapid seedling establishment when conditions are suitable and enable survival of the young seedling when conditions are adverse.

  16. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  17. Does fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendment enhance phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted aquatic ecosystem in the presence of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms)?

    PubMed

    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Jenyo-Oni, Adetola; Chukwuka, Kanayo S; Ndimele, Chinatu Charity; Ayodele, Ibukunoluwa Augustine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of inorganic fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendments on crude oil uptake by water hyacinth. Experimental units (water hyacinth grown in fresh water) were spiked with 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L crude oil. After 24 h, they were randomly assigned fertilizer (N15P15K15) at three different concentrations; 0, 6 and 10 mg/L. Crude oil degradation and absorption were determined by measuring total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the water column and water hyacinth, respectively. The measurements were taken monthly for six months (February-August 2010). The results showed that TPH concentration in the water column in the treatment amended at 6 mg/L (0.30 ± 0.01 mg/L) was significantly lower (p < .05) than the treatment amended at 10 mg/L (0.76 ± 0.15 mg/L) but was similar to the control (0.33 ± 0.03 mg/L). The water hyacinth in the control (phytoremediation) absorbed significantly higher (p < .05) TPH than the fertilizer-amended treatments. The first-order kinetic model gave a better description of the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study showed that phytoremediation of crude oil by water hyacinth and biostimulation with fertilizer (N15P15K15) is possible.

  18. Phentermine induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Emily Ximin; Wilson, Gregory John; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan

    2017-03-09

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has a number of medication-related aetiologies. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes; however, any medication has the potential to cause drug-induced AIN. We report the first case of phentermine-induced AIN. A Caucasian woman aged 43 years presented with a 5-week history of lethargy, left-sided lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. She had been taking phentermine for weight loss for 9 months and had recently ceased the medication. The patient underwent a renal biopsy that showed a predominantly lymphohistiocytic interstitial infiltrate with a moderate number of eosinophils consistent with AIN. Phentermine is increasingly used for weight loss in obese patients. This is the first case implicating phentermine as the causative agent for drug-induced AIN. While rare, phentermine-induced AIN is a possible adverse reaction of phentermine. Physicians and patients need to be aware of this risk.

  19. Beaked Whale Strandings and Naval Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    whales (family Ziphiidae) (Frantzis, 1998 , 2004; Evans & England, 2001; Martín Martel, 2002; Brownell et al., 2004; Freitas, 2004; Martín et al., 2004...ings associated with naval exercises (Simmonds & Lopez-Jurado, 1991; Frantzis, 1998 , 2004; Evans & England, 2001; Martín Martel, 2002; Freitas, 2004...Martín et al., 2004) have suggested that they may occur over more than 1 d and along many km of coastline. Frantzis ( 1998 ) defined an “atypical

  20. Refractory Adult Primary Autoimmune Neutropenia that Responded to Alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Neerukonda, Anu R; Lan, Fengshuo; Gabig, Theodore; Saraya, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Primary autoimmune neutropenia (P-AIN) is an extremely rare disease. The most effective treatment for primary P-AIN is a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; however, no curative treatment has been reported. We herein report a case of an adult P-AIN patient with a relatively mild medical history (irrespective of the severe neutropenia) who showed a sustained hematological response over seventeen months after the initiation of treatment with subcutaneous Alemtuzumab.