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Sample records for martensitic phase transformations

  1. Complexion-mediated martensitic phase transformation in Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Tasan, C. C.; Lai, M. J.; Dippel, A.-C.; Raabe, D.

    2017-02-01

    The most efficient way to tune microstructures and mechanical properties of metallic alloys lies in designing and using athermal phase transformations. Examples are shape memory alloys and high strength steels, which together stand for 1,500 million tons annual production. In these materials, martensite formation and mechanical twinning are tuned via composition adjustment for realizing complex microstructures and beneficial mechanical properties. Here we report a new phase transformation that has the potential to widen the application window of Ti alloys, the most important structural material in aerospace design, by nanostructuring them via complexion-mediated transformation. This is a reversible martensitic transformation mechanism that leads to a final nanolaminate structure of α'' (orthorhombic) martensite bounded with planar complexions of athermal ω (a-ω, hexagonal). Both phases are crystallographically related to the parent β (BCC) matrix. As expected from a planar complexion, the a-ω is stable only at the hetero-interface.

  2. Complexion-mediated martensitic phase transformation in Titanium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Tasan, C C; Lai, M J; Dippel, A-C; Raabe, D

    2017-02-01

    The most efficient way to tune microstructures and mechanical properties of metallic alloys lies in designing and using athermal phase transformations. Examples are shape memory alloys and high strength steels, which together stand for 1,500 million tons annual production. In these materials, martensite formation and mechanical twinning are tuned via composition adjustment for realizing complex microstructures and beneficial mechanical properties. Here we report a new phase transformation that has the potential to widen the application window of Ti alloys, the most important structural material in aerospace design, by nanostructuring them via complexion-mediated transformation. This is a reversible martensitic transformation mechanism that leads to a final nanolaminate structure of α″ (orthorhombic) martensite bounded with planar complexions of athermal ω (a-ω, hexagonal). Both phases are crystallographically related to the parent β (BCC) matrix. As expected from a planar complexion, the a-ω is stable only at the hetero-interface.

  3. Complexion-mediated martensitic phase transformation in Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Tasan, C. C.; Lai, M. J.; Dippel, A. -C.; Raabe, D.

    2017-01-01

    The most efficient way to tune microstructures and mechanical properties of metallic alloys lies in designing and using athermal phase transformations. Examples are shape memory alloys and high strength steels, which together stand for 1,500 million tons annual production. In these materials, martensite formation and mechanical twinning are tuned via composition adjustment for realizing complex microstructures and beneficial mechanical properties. Here we report a new phase transformation that has the potential to widen the application window of Ti alloys, the most important structural material in aerospace design, by nanostructuring them via complexion-mediated transformation. This is a reversible martensitic transformation mechanism that leads to a final nanolaminate structure of α″ (orthorhombic) martensite bounded with planar complexions of athermal ω (a–ω, hexagonal). Both phases are crystallographically related to the parent β (BCC) matrix. As expected from a planar complexion, the a–ω is stable only at the hetero-interface. PMID:28145484

  4. Texture evolution during nitinol martensite detwinning and phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-09

    Nitinol has been widely used to make medical devices for years due to its unique shape memory and superelastic properties. However, the texture of the nitinol wires has been largely ignored due to inherent complexity. In this study, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been carried out during uniaxial tensile testing to investigate the texture evolution of the nitinol wires during martensite detwinning, variant reorientation, and phase transformation. It was found that the thermal martensitic nitinol wire comprised primarily an axial (1{sup ¯}20), (120), and (102)-fiber texture. Detwinning initially converted the (120) and (102) fibers to the (1{sup ¯}20) fiber and progressed to a (1{sup ¯}30)-fiber texture by rigid body rotation. At strains above 10%, the (1{sup ¯}30)-fiber was shifted to the (110) fiber by (21{sup ¯}0) deformation twinning. The austenitic wire exhibited an axial (334)-fiber, which transformed to the near-(1{sup ¯}30) martensite texture after the stress-induced phase transformation.

  5. Texture evolution during nitinol martensite detwinning and phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.; Yu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Nitinol has been widely used to make medical devices for years due to its unique shape memory and superelastic properties. However, the texture of the nitinol wires has been largely ignored due to inherent complexity. In this study, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been carried out during uniaxial tensile testing to investigate the texture evolution of the nitinol wires during martensite detwinning, variant reorientation, and phase transformation. It was found that the thermal martensitic nitinol wire comprised primarily an axial (1¯20), (120), and (102)-fiber texture. Detwinning initially converted the (120) and (102) fibers to the (1¯20) fiber and progressed to a (1¯30)-fiber texture by rigid body rotation. At strains above 10%, the (1¯30)-fiber was shifted to the (110) fiber by (21¯0) deformation twinning. The austenitic wire exhibited an axial (334)-fiber, which transformed to the near-(1¯30) martensite texture after the stress-induced phase transformation.

  6. Martensitic transformation and phase diagram in ternary Co-V-Ga Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Nagashima, Akihide; Nagasako, Makoto; Omori, Toshihiro; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2017-03-01

    We report the martensitic transformation behavior in Co-V-Ga Heusler alloys. Thermoanalysis and thermomagnetization measurements were conducted to observe the martensitic transformation. By using a transmission electron microscope and an in situ X-ray diffractometer, martensitic transformation was found to occur from the L21 Heusler parent phase to the D022 martensite phase. Phase diagrams were determined for two pseudo-binary sections where martensitic transformation was detected. Magnetic properties, including the Curie temperatures and spontaneous magnetization of the parent phase, were also investigated. The magnetic properties showing behaviors different from those of NiMn-based alloys were found.

  7. Transformation temperatures of martensite in beta phase nickel aluminide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Resistivity and thermal arrest measurements determined that the compositional dependence of Ms (martensite state) temperatures for NiAl martensite was linear between 60 and 69 atomic percent nickel, with Ms = 124 Ni - 7410 K. Resistivity and surface relief experiments indicated the presence of thermoelastic martensite for selected alloys. Some aspects of the transformation were studied by hot stage microscopy and related to the behavior observed for alloys exhibiting the shape-memory effect.

  8. Transformation temperatures of martensite in beta-phase nickel aluminide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Resistivity and thermal arrest measurements determined that the compositional dependence of M sub s temperatures for NiAl martensite was linear between 60 and 69 at. % Ni, with M sub s = (124 Ni - 7410)K. Resistivity and surface relief experiments for selected alloys indicated the presence of thermoelastic martensite. Some aspects of the transformation were studied by hot-stage microscopy and related to the behavior observed for alloys exhibiting the shape-memory effect.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of the martensitic phase transformation in NiAl alloys.

    PubMed

    Pun, G P Purja; Mishin, Y

    2010-10-06

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with an embedded-atom interatomic potential, we study the effect of chemical composition and uniaxial mechanical stresses on the martensitic phase transformation in Ni-rich NiAl alloys. The martensitic phase has a tetragonal crystal structure and can contain multiple twins arranged in domains and plates. The transformation is reversible and is characterized by a significant temperature hysteresis. The magnitude of the hysteresis depends on the chemical composition and stress. We show that applied compressive and tensile stresses reduce and can even eliminate the hysteresis. Crystalline defects such as free surfaces, dislocations and anti-phase boundaries reduce the martensitic transformation temperature and affect the microstructure of the martensite. Their effect can be explained by heterogeneous nucleation of the new phase in defected regions.

  10. Confined martensitic phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics in Ni–Co–Fe–Ga shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Daoyong; Rule, Kirrily Clair; Li, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Hung; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Haoliang; Hao, Yulin; Wang, Yandong; Huang, E-Wen

    2016-09-02

    Here we describe insights into the phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics associated with the newly discovered confined martensitic transformation, which are of great significance to the in-depth understanding of the phase transformation behavior responsible for the rich new physical phenomena in shape memory alloys and could shed light on the design of novel multifunctional properties through tuning the confined martensitic transformation.

  11. Computer Simulation of Martensitic Transformations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Jonathan A.

    This investigation attempted to determine the mechanism of martensitic nucleation by employing computer molecular dynamics; simulations were conducted of various lattices defects to see if they can serve as nucleation sites. As a prerequisite to the simulations the relation between transformation properties and interatomic potential was studied. It was found that the interatomic potential must have specific properties to successfully simulate solid-solid transformations; in particular it needs a long range oscillating tail. We've also studied homogeneous transformations between BCC and FCC structures and concluded it is unlikely that any has a lower energy barrier energy than the Bain transformation. A two dimensional solid was modelled first to gain experience on a relatively simple system; the transformation was from a square lattice to a triangular one. Next a three dimensional system was studied whose interatomic potential was chosen to mimic sodium. Because of the low transition temperature (18K) the transformation from the low temperature phase to high temperature phase was studied (FCC to BCC). The two dimensional system displayed many phenomena characteristic of real martensitic systems: defects promoted nucleation, the martensite grew in plates, some plates served to nucleate new plates (autocatalytic nucleation) and some defects gave rise to multiple plates (butterfly martensite). The three dimensional system did not undergo a permanent martensitic transformation but it did show signs of temporary transformations where some martensite formed and then dissipated. This happened following the dissociation of a screw dislocation into two partial dislocations.

  12. Thermal stability and phase transformations of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönisch, Matthias; Calin, Mariana; Waitz, Thomas; Panigrahi, Ajit; Zehetbauer, Michael; Gebert, Annett; Skrotzki, Werner; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Aiming at understanding the governing microstructural phenomena during heat treatments of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory materials for biomedical applications, a series of Ti-Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 29 wt% was produced by cold-crucible casting, followed by homogenization treatment and water quenching. Despite the large amount of literature available concerning the thermal stability and ageing behavior of Ti-Nb alloys, only few studies were performed dealing with the isochronal transformation behavior of initially martensitic Ti-Nb alloys. In this work, the formation of martensites (α‧ and α″) and their stability under different thermal processing conditions were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry and electron microscopy. The effect of Nb additions on the structural competition in correlation with stable and metastable phase diagrams was also studied. Alloys with 24 wt% Nb or less undergo a \\alpha '/\\alpha '' \\to \\alpha + \\beta \\to \\beta transformation sequence on heating from room temperature to 1155 K. In alloys containing >24 wt% Nb α″ martensitically reverts back to β0, which is highly unstable against chemical demixing by formation of isothermal ωiso. During slow cooling from the single phase β domain α precipitates and only very limited amounts of α″ martensite form.

  13. Thermal stability and phase transformations of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys.

    PubMed

    Bönisch, Matthias; Calin, Mariana; Waitz, Thomas; Panigrahi, Ajit; Zehetbauer, Michael; Gebert, Annett; Skrotzki, Werner; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Aiming at understanding the governing microstructural phenomena during heat treatments of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory materials for biomedical applications, a series of Ti-Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 29 wt% was produced by cold-crucible casting, followed by homogenization treatment and water quenching. Despite the large amount of literature available concerning the thermal stability and ageing behavior of Ti-Nb alloys, only few studies were performed dealing with the isochronal transformation behavior of initially martensitic Ti-Nb alloys. In this work, the formation of martensites (α' and α″) and their stability under different thermal processing conditions were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry and electron microscopy. The effect of Nb additions on the structural competition in correlation with stable and metastable phase diagrams was also studied. Alloys with 24 wt% Nb or less undergo a [Formula: see text] transformation sequence on heating from room temperature to 1155 K. In alloys containing >24 wt% Nb α″ martensitically reverts back to β0, which is highly unstable against chemical demixing by formation of isothermal ωiso. During slow cooling from the single phase β domain α precipitates and only very limited amounts of α″ martensite form.

  14. Thermal stability and phase transformations of martensitic Ti–Nb alloys

    PubMed Central

    Bönisch, Matthias; Calin, Mariana; Waitz, Thomas; Panigrahi, Ajit; Zehetbauer, Michael; Gebert, Annett; Skrotzki, Werner; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at understanding the governing microstructural phenomena during heat treatments of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory materials for biomedical applications, a series of Ti–Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 29 wt% was produced by cold-crucible casting, followed by homogenization treatment and water quenching. Despite the large amount of literature available concerning the thermal stability and ageing behavior of Ti–Nb alloys, only few studies were performed dealing with the isochronal transformation behavior of initially martensitic Ti–Nb alloys. In this work, the formation of martensites (α′ and α″) and their stability under different thermal processing conditions were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry and electron microscopy. The effect of Nb additions on the structural competition in correlation with stable and metastable phase diagrams was also studied. Alloys with 24 wt% Nb or less undergo a transformation sequence on heating from room temperature to 1155 K. In alloys containing >24 wt% Nb α″ martensitically reverts back to β0, which is highly unstable against chemical demixing by formation of isothermal ωiso. During slow cooling from the single phase β domain α precipitates and only very limited amounts of α″ martensite form. PMID:27877611

  15. Statistical physics concepts for the explanation of effects observed in martensitic phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberaigner, Eduard Roman; Leindl, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Structural solid-to-solid transformations play a key role for the behaviour of several materials, e.g., shape memory alloys, steels, polymers and ceramics. A novel theoretical approach modelling martensitic phase transformation is demonstrated in the present study. The generally formulated model is based on the block-spin approach and on renormalization in statistical mechanics and is applied to a representative volume element (resp. representative mole element) which is assumed to be in a local thermodynamic equilibrium. The neighbouring representative volume elements are in a generally different thermodynamic equilibrium. This leads to fluxes between those elements. Using fundamental physical properties of a shape memory alloy (SMA) single crystal as input data the model predicts the order parameter ‘total strain’, the martensitic phase fraction and the stress-assisted transformation accompanied by pseudo-elasticity without the requirement of evolution equations for internal variables and assumptions on the mathematical structure of the classical free energy. In order to demonstrate the novel approach the first computations are carried out for a simple one-dimensional case, which can be generalized to the two- and three-dimensional case. Results for total strain and martensitic phase fraction are in good qualitative agreement with well known experimental data according to their macroscopic strain rearrangement when phase transformation occurs. Further a material softening effect during phase transformation in SMAs is predicted by the statistical physics approach. Formulas are presented for the relevant quantities such as volume fraction, total strain, transformation strain, rates of the volume fractions and of the strains.

  16. Surface tension and energy in multivariant martensitic transformations: phase-field theory, simulations, and model of coherent interface.

    PubMed

    Levitas, Valery I; Javanbakht, Mahdi

    2010-10-15

    The Ginzburg-Landau theory for multivariant martensitic phase transformations is advanced in three directions: the potential is developed that introduces the surface tension at interfaces; a mixed term in gradient energy is introduced to control the martensite-martensite interface energy independent of that for austenite-martensite; and a noncontradictory expression for variable surface energy is suggested. The problems of surface-induced pretransformation, barrierless multivariant nucleation, and the growth of an embryo in a nanosize sample are solved to elucidate the effect of the above contributions. The obtained results represent an advanced model for coherent interface.

  17. Phase field approach to martensitic phase transformations with large strains and interface stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2014-10-01

    Thermodynamically consistent phase field theory for multivariant martensitic transformations, which includes large strains and interface stresses, is developed. Theory is formulated in a way that some geometrically nonlinear terms do not disappear in the geometrically linear limit, which in particular allowed us to introduce the expression for the interface stresses consistent with the sharp interface approach. Namely, for the propagating nonequilibrium interface, a structural part of the interface Cauchy stresses reduces to a biaxial tension with the magnitude equal to the temperature-dependent interface energy. Additional elastic and viscous contributions to the interface stresses do not require separate constitutive equations and are determined by solution of the coupled system of phase field and mechanics equations. Ginzburg-Landau equations are derived for the evolution of the order parameters and temperature evolution equation. Boundary conditions for the order parameters include variation of the surface energy during phase transformation. Because elastic energy is defined per unit volume of unloaded (intermediate) configuration, additional contributions to the Ginzburg-Landau equations and the expression for entropy appear, which are important even for small strains. A complete system of equations for fifth- and sixth-degree polynomials in terms of the order parameters is presented in the reference and actual configurations. An analytical solution for the propagating interface and critical martensitic nucleus which includes distribution of components of interface stresses has been found for the sixth-degree polynomial. This required resolving a fundamental problem in the interface and surface science: how to define the Gibbsian dividing surface, i.e., the sharp interface equivalent to the finite-width interface. An unexpected, simple solution was found utilizing the principle of static equivalence. In fact, even two equations for determination of the

  18. A comparison of dilatometry and in-situ neutron diffraction in tracking bulk phase transformations in a martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Christien, F.; Telling, M.T.F.; Knight, K.S.

    2013-08-15

    Phase transformations in the 17-4PH martensitic stainless steel have been studied using different in-situ techniques, including dilatometry and high resolution neutron diffraction. Neutron diffraction patterns were quantitatively processed using the Rietveld refinement method, allowing the determination of the temperature-dependence of martensite (α′, bcc) and austenite (γ, fcc) phase fractions and lattice parameters on heating to 1000 °C and then cooling to room temperature. It is demonstrated in this work that dilatometry doesn't permit an accurate determination of the end temperature (Ac3) of the α′ → γ transformation which occurs upon heating to high temperature. The analysis of neutron diffraction data has shown that the respective volumes of the two phases become very close to each other at high temperature, thus making the dilatometric technique almost insensitive in that temperature range. However, there is a very good agreement between neutron diffraction and dilatometry at lower temperature. The martensitic transformation occurring upon cooling has been analysed using the Koistinen–Marburger equation. The thermal expansion coefficients of the two phases have been determined in addition. A comparison of the results obtained in this work with data from literature is presented. - Highlights: • Martensite is still present at very high temperature (> 930 °C) upon heating. • The end of austenitisation cannot be accurately monitored by dilatometry. • The martensite and austenite volumes become similar at high temperature (> ∼ 850 °C)

  19. Radial Distribution of Martensitic Phase Transformation in a Metastable Stainless Steel under Torsional Deformation: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak, Ercan; Choo, Hahn; An, Ke; Ren, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The strain-induced martensitic phase transformation in a metastable 304 L stainless steel under torsional deformation was investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured radial distribution of the martensite phase fraction in a solid cylindrical specimen agrees well with the prediction based on a combination of transformation kinetics and a radial plastic strain distribution equation.

  20. Incorporation of plasticity into the Landau-Ginzburg theory of martensitic phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Roman; Lookman, Turab

    2008-03-01

    The Landau-Ginzburg theory of martensitic phase transformations has been utilized to reproduce the evolution of elastic texture in defect-free materials undergoing structural phase transformations. Generalizations of this theory to phase transformations that are accompanied by significant plastic distortions (as in U6Nb) have been little studied. We propose a simple model that demonstrates how to incorporate plasticity into the Landau-Ginzburg theory. In the presence of topological defects such as dislocations, the usual Saint Venant compatibility constraint becomes an incompatibility constraint and this is represented by a tensor field ηij. In our case, the components of ηij are expressed as gradients of the components of the Nye tensor that represent the dislocation density. The presence of dislocations induces large internal stresses in certain regions of the material, and these act as initiation sites for plastic deformation. When the external loading is applied, dislocations moving from these regions cause strain hardening that is detectable in experimental uniaxial measurements. This model serves as a starting point for further development of the framework of three-dimensional rate-independent theory of plasticity within the Landau-Ginzburg formalism.

  1. Computer simulation of martensitic transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ping

    1993-11-01

    The characteristics of martensitic transformations in solids are largely determined by the elastic strain that develops as martensite particles grow and interact. To study the development of microstructure, a finite-element computer simulation model was constructed to mimic the transformation process. The transformation is athermal and simulated at each incremental step by transforming the cell which maximizes the decrease in the free energy. To determine the free energy change, the elastic energy developed during martensite growth is calculated from the theory of linear elasticity for elastically homogeneous media, and updated as the transformation proceeds.

  2. Linking simulations and experiments for the multiscale tracking of thermally induced martensitic phase transformation in NiTi SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Sourav; Frantziskonis, George N.

    2016-10-01

    Martensitic phase transformation in NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) occurs over a hierarchy of spatial scales, as evidenced from observed multiscale patterns of the martensitic phase fraction, which depend on the material microstructure and on the size of the SMA specimen. This paper presents a methodology for the multiscale tracking of the thermally induced martensitic phase transformation process in NiTi SMA. Fine scale stochastic phase field simulations are coupled to macroscale experimental measurements through the compound wavelet matrix method (CWM). A novel process for obtaining CWM fine scale wavelet coefficients is used that enhances the effectiveness of the method in transferring uncertainties from fine to coarse scales, and also ensures the preservation of spatial correlations in the phase fraction pattern. Size effects, well-documented in the literature, play an important role in designing the multiscale tracking methodology. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to verify the phase field simulations in terms of different statistical measures and to demonstrate size effects at the nanometer scale. The effects of thermally induced martensite phase fraction uncertainties on the constitutive response of NiTi SMA is demonstrated.

  3. International Conference on Martensitic Transformations (ICOMAT 92)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-05

    of stress -induced (that is, occuring in the region ahead of a crack tip) t-ni martensitic transformation to fracture toughness Of ceramics is...discussed in detail. and considered that it is related to th differenet Initial stress iields Intr~odu4ed by the constrained- h 5tiR in the P"ent Phase...diffractometer, which makes the accurate determination of struc- tures possible for single crystal martensites produced by stress - induced transformation

  4. A uniaxial constitutive model for superelastic NiTi SMA including R-phase and martensite transformations and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Guillaume; Saint-Sulpice, Luc; Arbab Chirani, Shabnam; Dieng, Lamine; Lecompte, Thibaut; Calloch, Sylvain; Pilvin, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    The well-known martensitic transformation is not always the unique solid-solid phase change in NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA). For this material, R-phase can occur from both austenite and martensite. In some applications, macroscopic strain of the material can be limited to 2%. In these cases, R-phase contribution can not be neglected anymore when compared with martensite. Furthermore, different thermomechanical couplings have to be taken into account to carefully predict strain rate effects and to better describe application conditions. In this paper, a new model taking into account various phase transformations with thermomechanical couplings is presented. This model is based on several transformation criteria. In most applications, SMA are used as wires, submitted to tensile-tensile loadings, in the superelasticity working range. Consequently, a uniaxial reduction of the model is presented for its simplicity. A thermodynamic framework is proposed. It enables to describe the internal variables evolution laws. The simple and fast identification process of model parameters is briefly presented. To verify the validity of the proposed model, simulation results are compared with experimental ones. The influences of testing temperature and strain amplitude on the material behavior is discussed. The damping capacity is also studied, using an energy-based criterion.

  5. Martensitic transformation between competing phases in Ti-Ta alloys: a solid-state nudged elastic band study.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Rogal, Jutta; Drautz, Ralf

    2015-03-25

    A combined density functional theory and solid-state nudged elastic band study is presented to investigate the martensitic transformation between β → (α″, ω) phases in the Ti-Ta system. The minimum energy paths along the transformation are calculated and the transformation mechanisms as well as relative stabilities of the different phases are discussed for various compositions. The analysis of the transformation paths is complemented by calculations of phonon spectra to determine the dynamical stability of the β, α″, and ω phase. Our theoretical results confirm the experimental findings that with increasing Ta concentration there is a competition between the destabilisation of the α″ and ω phase and the stabilisation of the high-temperature β phase.

  6. Direct observation of martensitic phase-transformation dynamics in iron by 4D single-pulse electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Soon; Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Baskin, J Spencer; Barwick, Brett; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2009-11-01

    The in situ martensitic phase transformation of iron, a complex solid-state transition involving collective atomic displacement and interface movement, is studied in real time by means of four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy. The iron nanofilm specimen is heated at a maximum rate of approximately 10(11) K/s by a single heating pulse, and the evolution of the phase transformation from body-centered cubic to face-centered cubic crystal structure is followed by means of single-pulse, selected-area diffraction and real-space imaging. Two distinct components are revealed in the evolution of the crystal structure. The first, on the nanosecond time scale, is a direct martensitic transformation, which proceeds in regions heated into the temperature range of stability of the fcc phase, 1185-1667 K. The second, on the microsecond time scale, represents an indirect process for the hottest central zone of laser heating, where the temperature is initially above 1667 K and cooling is the rate-determining step. The mechanism of the direct transformation involves two steps, that of (barrier-crossing) nucleation on the reported nanosecond time scale, followed by a rapid grain growth typically in approximately 100 ps for 10 nm crystallites.

  7. SEM Technique Development for Exploring Martensitic Phase Transformations in Multi-Variant Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Michael G.

    The purpose of this work is to validate that the martensitic transformations predicted by the model from Xian Chen and Dick James from the University of Minnesota. This model uses multiple criteria for compatibility between the austenite and martensite lattices including limitations of the middle eigenvalue of the transformation stretch matrix and what are called the "cofactor conditions." An alloy satisfying these criteria was found, (Au30Cu25Zn 45) but the traditional methods for verifying the shape and crystallographic orientation relationships of the transformation could not be used (serial sectioning and 3D Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)). The first method developed in this work uses the intensity peak of the background of EBSD patterns to extract surface topography measurements. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the deviation from specular reflection for electrons on different materials at varying voltages. The geometric setup of the EBSD camera and the sample were then used with the experimentally measured intensity peak location on the camera to calculate the surface normal vectors for each point on a sample. A proof of concept experiment was first performed on the Tin sphere calibration standard, in which the surface normal vectors were found within around 0:5ffi error near the standard EBSD sample orientation. This technique was then used to measure the surface relief caused by the martensitic transformation of the AuCuZn alloy which can be matched to predicted surface shearing values to confirm the Chen/James model. The second method developed in this thesis measures the out-of-plane grain boundary inclination angle using 2D EBSD. This utilizes the penetration depth of the electron interaction volume, and is measured by calculating the proportion of the pattern that is created from each grain. This is completed by performing dot products between an EBSD line scan across the grain boundary and reference patterns taken from the bulk

  8. Defect-induced incompatability of elastic strains: dislocations within the Landau theory of martensitic phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Groger, Roman1; Lockman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh

    2008-01-01

    In dislocation-free martensites the components of the elastic strain tensor are constrained by the Saint-Venant compatibility condition which guarantees continuity of the body during external loading. However, in dislocated materials the plastic part of the distortion tensor introduces a displacement mismatch that is removed by elastic relaxation. The elastic strains are then no longer compatible in the sense of the Saint-Venant law and the ensuing incompatibility tensor is shown to be proportional to the gradients of the Nye dislocation density tensor. We demonstrate that the presence of this incompatibility gives rise to an additional long-range contribution in the inhomogeneous part of the Landau energy functional and to the corresponding stress fields. Competition among the local and long-range interactions results in frustration in the evolving order parameter (elastic) texture. We show how the Peach-Koehler forces and stress fields for any distribution of dislocations in arbitrarily anisotropic media can be calculated and employed in a Fokker-Planck dynamics for the dislocation density. This approach represents a self-consistent scheme that yields the evolutions of both the order parameter field and the continuous dislocation density. We illustrate our method by studying the effects of dislocations on microstructure, particularly twinned domain walls, in an Fe-Pd alloy undergoing a martensitic transformation.

  9. Defect-induced incompatibility of elastic strains: Dislocations within the Landau theory of martensitic phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.

    2008-11-01

    In dislocation-free martensites the components of the elastic strain tensor are constrained by the Saint-Venant compatibility condition which guarantees continuity of the body during external loading. However, in dislocated materials the plastic part of the distortion tensor introduces a displacement mismatch that is removed by elastic relaxation. The elastic strains are then no longer compatible in the sense of the Saint-Venant law and the ensuing incompatibility tensor is shown to be proportional to the gradients of the Nye dislocation density tensor. We demonstrate that the presence of this incompatibility gives rise to an additional long-range contribution in the inhomogeneous part of the Landau energy functional and to the corresponding stress fields. Competition among the local and long-range interactions results in frustration in the evolving order parameter (elastic) texture. We show how the Peach-Koehler forces and stress fields for any distribution of dislocations in arbitrarily anisotropic media can be calculated and employed in a Fokker-Planck dynamics for the dislocation density. This approach represents a self-consistent scheme that yields the evolutions of both the order parameter field and the continuous dislocation density. We illustrate our method by studying the effects of dislocations on microstructure, particularly twinned domain walls, in an Fe-Pd alloy undergoing a martensitic transformation.

  10. Phase transformation and long-term service of high-temperature martensitic chromium steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, I. S.; Tarasenko, L.; Acselrad, O.; Pereira, L. C.; Shalkevich, A.; Soboleva, G.

    2000-02-01

    Martensitic high Cr (10 - 16%) steels alloyed with Ni (Co), Mo, W, V, and N are widely used in constructions subjected to cyclic loads at temperatures up to 600 degrees Celsius, in general after quenching from 1100 - 1150 degrees Celsius followed by tempering at 650 - 690 degrees Celsius. Due to long term service exposure at high temperatures, different microstructural changes take place, such as second-phases precipitation, formation of low-angle grain boundaries, as well as internal damage caused by cyclic loads and creep. Specific phase diagrams are presented that can be used to define time periods for reliable operation of parts with given composition, based on the time required for the appearance of second phase particles known to be detrimental to mechanical strength and performance. Restoring thermal treatments to be applied after long time exposure at service conditions, aiming at increasing service life, are also presented and discussed. The combined use of the diagrams and the restoring treatment ensures prediction of a reliable service-life period for components made of these steels.

  11. Phase transformation and long-term service of high-temperature martensitic chromium steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, I. S.; Tarasenko, L.; Acselrad, O.; Pereira, L. C.; Shalkevich, A.; Soboleva, G.

    2001-02-01

    Martensitic high Cr (10 - 16%) steels alloyed with Ni (Co), Mo, W, V, and N are widely used in constructions subjected to cyclic loads at temperatures up to 600 degrees Celsius, in general after quenching from 1100 - 1150 degrees Celsius followed by tempering at 650 - 690 degrees Celsius. Due to long term service exposure at high temperatures, different microstructural changes take place, such as second-phases precipitation, formation of low-angle grain boundaries, as well as internal damage caused by cyclic loads and creep. Specific phase diagrams are presented that can be used to define time periods for reliable operation of parts with given composition, based on the time required for the appearance of second phase particles known to be detrimental to mechanical strength and performance. Restoring thermal treatments to be applied after long time exposure at service conditions, aiming at increasing service life, are also presented and discussed. The combined use of the diagrams and the restoring treatment ensures prediction of a reliable service-life period for components made of these steels.

  12. Martensitic transformations in laser processed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Burg, M. van den; De Hosson, J.T.M. . Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1993-09-01

    This paper concentrates on laser coating of Fe-22 wt% Cr and a duplex steel SAF2205 by injecting Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] powder into the melt pool. In particular the work focuses on the stabilization of high temperature distorted spinel phases due to the high quench rates involved as well as on the a quantitative crystallographic analysis of the resulting morphologies. The microstructure observed in TEM indicates that the material does not solidify in the distorted spinel structure. The presence of a small amount of cubic (Fe, Cr)-spinel suggests that the distorted spinel in fact might be nucleated from the cubic spinel phase. The plate like morphology of the distorted spinel phase in combination with the twinned internal structure of the plates put forward the idea that the transformation might be martensitic. Martensitic calculations executed with the lattice parameters of the cubic and distorted (Fe, Cr)-spinel phases are in excellent agreement with the experimental data confirming that the transformation might be martensitic indeed.

  13. A comparative first-principles study of martensitic phase transformations in TiPd2 and TiPd

    SciTech Connect

    Krcmar, Maja; Morris, James R

    2014-01-01

    Martensitic phase transformations in TiPd2 and TiPd alloys are studied employing density-functional, first-principles calculations. We examine the transformation of tetragonal C11b TiPd2 to the low-temperature orthorhombic phase (C11b oI6), and the transformation of cubic B2 TiPd under orthorhombic (B2 B19) and subsequent monoclinic transformations (B19 B19 ) as the system is cooled. To evaluate the transition temperature for TiPd2 we employ a theoretical approach based on a phenomenological Landau theory of the structural phase transition and a mean-field approximation for the free energy, utilizing first-principles calculations to obtain the deformation energy as a function of strains and to deduce parameters for constructing the free energy. The predicted transition temperature for the TiPd2 C11b oI6 transition temperature is in good agreement with reported experimental results. To investigate the TiPd B2 B19 transformation, we employ both the Cauchy-Born rule and a soft-mode- based approach, and elucidate on the importance of coupling of lattice distortion and atomic displacements (i.e., shuffling) in the formation of the final structure. The estimated B2 B19 transition temperature for TiPd system agrees well with the experimental results. We also find that there exists a very small but finite (0.0005 eV/atom) energy barrier of B19 TiPd under monoclinic deformation for B19 B19 structural phase transformation.

  14. A comparative first-principles study of martensitic phase transformations in TiPd2 and TiPd intermetallics.

    PubMed

    Krcmar, M; Morris, James R

    2014-04-02

    Martensitic phase transformations in TiPd2 and TiPd alloys are studied employing density-functional, first-principles calculations. We examine the transformation of tetragonal C11b TiPd2 to the low-temperature orthorhombic phase (C11b → oI6), and the transformation of cubic B2 TiPd under orthorhombic (B2→B19) and subsequent monoclinic transformations (B19→B19') as the system is cooled. We employ a theoretical approach based on a phenomenological Landau theory of the structural phase transitions and a mean-field approximation for the free energy, utilizing first-principles calculations to obtain the deformation energy as a function of strains and to deduce parameters for constructing the free energy. The predicted transition temperature for the TiPd2 C11b → oI6 transition is in good agreement with reported experimental results. To investigate the TiPd B2→B19 transformation, we employ both the Cauchy-Born rule and a soft-mode-based approach, and elucidate the importance of the coupling between lattice distortion and atomic displacements (i.e. shuffling) in the formation of the final structure. The calculated B2→B19 transition temperature for TiPd alloy agrees well with the experimental results. We also find that there exists a very small but finite (0.0005 eV/atom) energy barrier of B19 TiPd under monoclinic deformation for B19→B19' structural phase transformation.

  15. Structure, phase transformations, mechanical characteristics, and cold resistance of low-carbon martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozvonin, V. A.; Shatsov, A. A.; Ryaposov, I. V.; Zakirova, M. G.; Generalova, K. N.

    2016-08-01

    Temper-resistant low-carbon Cr-Mn-Ni-Mo-V-Nb steels with concentrations of carbon of 0.15 and 0.27 wt % have been studied. It has been shown that, upon quenching, various morphological types of the α phase can be formed. The structure of the steels is stable in the course of heating below critical temperatures and remains a lath-type structure in the intercritical temperature range. Specific features of structural and phase transformations, as well as the dependence of the mechanical characteristics of the steels, on the tempering temperature have been determined.

  16. Effect of N on Phase Transformations During Martensite Thermomechanical Processing of the Nano/Ultrafine-Grained 201L Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedipour, S.; Kermanpur, A.; Najafizadeh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Effect of N addition on microstructural evolutions and mechanical properties of a 201L austenitic stainless steel during the martensite thermomechanical treatment was investigated. The as-homogenized samples were cold-rolled by 90% thickness reduction followed by reversion annealing at 800-900 °C for different times of 15-1800 s. The microstructures were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurement, while mechanical properties were determined by hardness and shear punch tests. It was found that N addition retards the kinetics of strain-induced martensitic transformation, but accelerates the martensite reversion. The hardness, yield and ultimate shear strengths were increased by N alloying at the expense of elongation in both solution-annealed and reversion-annealed specimens.

  17. Influences of cyclic loading on martensite transformation of TRIP steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, W. J.; Hu, Z. G.; Zhang, W. G.

    2013-03-01

    While austenite transformation into martensite induces increasing of the crack initiation life and restraining of the growth of fatigue cracks in cyclic-loading processes, TRIP-assisted steels have a better fatigue life than the AHSS (Advance High Strength Steels). As two key parameters in the cyclic loading process, strain amplitude and cyclic frequency are used in a kinetic transformation model to reasonably evaluate the phase transformation from austenite into martensite with the shear-band intersections theory, in which strain amplitude and cyclic frequency are related to the rate of shear-band intersection formation and the driving force of phase transformation. The results revealed that the martensite volume fraction increased and the rate of phase transformation decrease while the number of cycles increased, and the martensite volume fraction was almost constant after the number of cycles was more than 2000 times. Higher strain amplitude promotes martensite transformation and higher cyclic frequency impedes phase transformation, which are interpreted by temperature increment, the driving force of phase transformation and the rate of shearband intersection formation.

  18. Stability of crystalline solids—II: Application to temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations in a bi-atomic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Ryan S.; Shaw, John A.; Triantafyllidis, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies the stability theory of crystalline solids presented in the companion paper (Part I) to the study of martensitic transformations found in shape memory alloys (SMA's). The focus here is on temperature-induced martensitic transformations of bi-atomic crystals under stress-free loading conditions. A set of temperature-dependent atomic potentials and a multilattice description are employed to derive the energy density of a prototypical SMA ( B2 cubic austenite crystal). The bifurcation and stability behavior are then investigated with respect to two stability criteria (Cauchy-Born (CB) and phonon). Using a 4-lattice description five different equilibrium crystal structures are predicted: B2 cubic, L10 tetragonal, B19 orthorhombic, Cmmm orthorhombic, and B19' monoclinic. For our chosen model only the B2 and B19 equilibrium paths have stable segments which satisfy both the CB- and phonon-stability criteria. These stable segments overlap in temperature indicating the possibility of a hysteretic temperature-induced proper martensitic transformation. The B2 and B19 crystal structures are common in SMA's and therefore the simulated jump in the deformation gradient at a temperature for which both crystals are stable is compared to experimental values for NiTi, AuCd, and CuAlNi. Good agreement is found for the two SMA's which have cubic to orthorhombic transformations (AuCd and CuAlNi).

  19. Small-angle neutron scattering study of magnetic ordering and inhomogeneity across the martensitic phase transformation in Ni50–xCoxMn₄₀Sn₁₀ alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatti, Kanwal Preet; El-Khatib, S.; Srivastava, Vijay; ...

    2012-04-27

    The Heusler-derived multiferroic alloy Ni50–xCoxMn₄₀Sn₁₀ has recently been shown to exhibit, at just above room temperature, a highly reversible martensitic phase transformation with an unusually large magnetization change. In this work the nature of the magnetic ordering above and below this transformation has been studied in detail in the critical composition range x = 6–8 via temperature-dependent (5–600 K) magnetometry and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We observe fairly typical paramagnetic to long-range-ordered ferromagnetic phase transitions on cooling to 420–430 K, with the expected critical spin fluctuations, followed by first-order martensitic phase transformations to a nonferromagnetic state below 360–390 K. Themore » static magnetization reveals complex magnetism in this low-temperature nonferromagnetic phase, including a Langevin-like field dependence, distinct spin freezing near 60 K, and significant exchange bias effects, consistent with superparamagnetic blocking of ferromagnetic clusters of nanoscopic dimensions. We demonstrate that these spin clusters, whose existence has been hypothesized in a variety of martensitic alloys exhibiting competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, can be directly observed by SANS. The scattering data are consistent with a liquidlike spatial distribution of interacting magnetic clusters with a mean center-to-center spacing of 12 nm. Considering the behavior of the superparmagnetism, cooling-field and temperature-dependent exchange bias, and magnetic SANS, we discuss in detail the physical form and origin of these spin clusters, their intercluster interactions, the nature of the ground-state magnetic ordering in the martensitic phase, and the implications for our understanding of such alloy systems.« less

  20. Suppression of Martensitic Transformation in Co2Cr(Ga,Si) Heusler Alloys by Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Fei; Jin, Xuejun; Fukuda, Takashi; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of thermal cycles on martensitic transformation of a Co2Cr(Ga,Si) ferromagnetic Heusler alloy. The as-quenched specimen exhibits successive L21(L)-D022-L21(H) martensitic transformation in the cooling process, which is known as reentrant martensitic transformation. However, heating to 800 K (527 °C) for reverse D022-L21 transformation with a rate of 10 K/min (10 °C/min) stabilizes the parent phase, meaning that the martensitic transformation is suppressed by the thermal cycles. We found precipitate after thermal cycles, and it will be the reason for the stabilization of parent phase.

  1. Crystal symmetry and the reversibility of martensitic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Conti, Sergio; Zanzotto, Giovanni; Zimmer, Johannes

    2004-03-01

    Martensitic transformations are diffusionless, solid-to-solid phase transitions, and have been observed in metals, alloys, ceramics and proteins. They are characterized by a rapid change of crystal structure, accompanied by the development of a rich microstructure. Martensitic transformations can be irreversible, as seen in steels upon quenching, or they can be reversible, such as those observed in shape-memory alloys. In the latter case, the microstructures formed on cooling are easily manipulated by loads and disappear upon reheating. Here, using mathematical theory and numerical simulation, we explain these sharp differences in behaviour on the basis of the change in crystal symmetry during the transition. We find that a necessary condition for reversibility is that the symmetry groups of the parent and product phases be included in a common finite symmetry group. In these cases, the energy barrier to lattice-invariant shear is generically higher than that pertaining to the phase change and, consequently, transformations of this type can occur with virtually no plasticity. Irreversibility is inevitable in all other martensitic transformations, where the energy barrier to plastic deformation (via lattice-invariant shears, as in twinning or slip) is no higher than the barrier to the phase change itself. Various experimental observations confirm the importance of the symmetry of the stable states in determining the macroscopic reversibility of martensitic transformations.

  2. Influence of the Martensitic Transformation on the Microscale Plastic Strain Heterogeneities in a Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechartier, Audrey; Martin, Guilhem; Comby, Solène; Roussel-Dherbey, Francine; Deschamps, Alexis; Mantel, Marc; Meyer, Nicolas; Verdier, Marc; Veron, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the martensitic transformation on microscale plastic strain heterogeneity of a duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Microscale strain heterogeneities were measured by digital image correlation during an in situ tensile test within the SEM. The martensitic transformation was monitored in situ during tensile testing by high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A clear correlation is shown between the plasticity-induced transformation of austenite to martensite and the development of plastic strain heterogeneities at the phase level.

  3. Effect of yttrium on martensite-austenite phase transformation temperatures and high temperature oxidation kinetics of Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeoung Han; Kim, Kyong Min; Yeom, Jong Taek; Young, Sung

    2016-03-01

    The effect of yttrium (< 5.5 at%) on the martensite-austenite phase transformation temperatures, microstructural evolution, and hot workability of Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys is investigated. For these purposes, differential scanning calorimetry, hot compression, and thermo-gravimetric tests are conducted. The phase transformation temperatures are not noticeably influenced by the addition of yttrium up to 4.5 at%. Furthermore, the hot workability is not significantly affected by the yttrium addition up to 1.0 at%. However, when the amount of yttrium addition exceeds 1.0 at%, the hot workability deteriorates significantly. In contrast, remarkable improvement in the high temperature oxidation resistance due to the yttrium addition is demonstrated. The total thickness of the oxide layers is substantially thinner in the Y-added specimen. In particular, the thickness of (Ti,Hf) oxide layer is reduced from 200 µm to 120 µm by the addition of 0.3 at% Y.

  4. Investigation of Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation in Metastable Austenite using Nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, T.-H.; Oh, C.-S.; Kim, D. H.; Oh, K. H.; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Han, H. N.

    2010-01-01

    Strain-induced martensitic transformation of metastable austenite was investigated by nanoindentation of individual austenite grains in multi-phase steel. A cross-section prepared through one of these indented regions using focused ion beam milling was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of martensite underneath the indent indicates that the pop-ins observed on the load-displacement curve during nanoindentation correspond to the onset of strain-induced martensitic transformation. The pop-ins can be understood as resulting from the selection of a favorable martensite variant during nanoindentation.

  5. Influence of Nb on the β→α″ martensitic phase transformation and properties of the newly designed Ti-Fe-Nb alloys.

    PubMed

    Ehtemam-Haghighi, Shima; Liu, Yujing; Cao, Guanghui; Zhang, Lai-Chang

    2016-03-01

    A series of Ti-7Fe-xNb (x=0, 1, 4, 6, 9, 11 wt.%) alloys was designed and cast to investigate the β→α″ martensitic phase transformation, β phase stability, the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. Phase analysis revealed that only Ti-7Fe-11Nb alloy shows a single body-centred cubic β phase microstructure while the others are comprised of β and orthorhombic α″ phases. Moreover, Nb addition up to 11 wt.% enhances the stability and volume fraction of β phase in the microstructure, hence reducing the propensity of the alloy system to form α″ phase during quenching. Compressive yield strength and hardness of the alloys are (985-1847) MPa and (325-520) Hv respectively. Additionally, Ti-7Fe-11Nb possesses the lowest Young's modulus (84 GPa) and the highest deformability (42% strain) among the designed alloys due to the single β phase microstructure. This high deformability is also corroborated by the large plastic deformation zone underneath the Vickers indenter. In contrast, the fractured surfaces of Ti-7Fe and Ti-7Fe-1Nb alloys after compressive tests mostly contain shallow dimples, verifying their low ductility. The good combination of mechanical properties obtained for Ti-7Fe-11Nb renders it more desirable than commonly used CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V materials and makes it a promising candidate for biomedical application.

  6. Thermally activated martensitic transformations in Mg-PSZ

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, G.; Heuer, A.H.

    1996-04-01

    The thermally activated, stress-assisted martensitic tetragonal {yields} monoclinic (t {yields} m) and tetragonal {yields} orthorhombic (t {yields} o) transformations in a high-toughness Mg-PSZ were investigated by monitoring the phase assemblage with Raman spectroscopy after a variety of heat treatments and loading conditions. After a short anneal at 1,000 C, which transforms m- and o-ZrO{sub 2} to the t polymorph, isothermal t {yields} m and t {yields} o transformations occur at room temperature during the months following the anneal. The transformation rates in the annealed samples are greatly enhanced under external stress. Alternatively, samples containing regions of significant residual stress, introduced by indentation for example, and then annealed at relatively low temperatures, underwent additional thermally activated transformation in the stressed regions. The thermodynamics and kinetics of this complex transformation ``plasticity,`` and its effect on mechanical properties, are discussed.

  7. Twinning and martensitic transformations in nickel-enriched 304 austenitic steel during tensile and indentation deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N; Busby, Jeremy T; Byun, Thak Sang; Parish, Chad M

    2013-01-01

    Twinning and martensitic transformation have been investigated in nickel-enriched AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to tensile and indentation deformation. Using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the morphology of alpha- and epsilon-martensite and the effect of grain orientation to load axis on phase and structure transformations were analyzed in detail. It was found that the twinning occurred less frequently under indentation than under tension; also, twinning was not observed in [001] and [101] grains. In tensile tests, the martensite particles preferably formed at the deformation twins, intersections between twins, or at twin-grain boundary intersections. Conversely, martensite formation in the indentation tests was not closely associated with twinning; instead, the majority of martensite was concentrated in the dense colonies near grain boundaries. Martensitic transformation seemed to be obstructed in the [001] grains in both tensile and indentation test cases. Under a tensile stress of 800 MPa, both alpha- and epsilon-martensite were found in the microstructure, but at 1100 MPa only -martensite presented in the specimen. Under indentation, alpha- and epsilon-martensite were observed in the material regardless of stress level.

  8. Impurities block the alpha to omega martensitic transformation in titanium.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Richard G; Trinkle, Dallas R; Bouchet, Johann; Srinivasan, Srivilliputhur G; Albers, Robert C; Wilkins, John W

    2005-02-01

    Impurities control phase stability and phase transformations in natural and man-made materials, from shape-memory alloys to steel to planetary cores. Experiments and empirical databases are still central to tuning the impurity effects. What is missing is a broad theoretical underpinning. Consider, for example, the titanium martensitic transformations: diffusionless structural transformations proceeding near the speed of sound. Pure titanium transforms from ductile alpha to brittle omega at 9 GPa, creating serious technological problems for beta-stabilized titanium alloys. Impurities in the titanium alloys A-70 and Ti-6Al-4V (wt%) suppress the transformation up to at least 35 GPa, increasing their technological utility as lightweight materials in aerospace applications. These and other empirical discoveries in technological materials call for broad theoretical understanding. Impurities pose two theoretical challenges: the effect on the relative phase stability, and the energy barrier of the transformation. Ab initio methods calculate both changes due to impurities. We show that interstitial oxygen, nitrogen and carbon retard the transformation whereas substitutional aluminium and vanadium influence the transformation by changing the d-electron concentration. The resulting microscopic picture explains the suppression of the transformation in commercial A-70 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. In general, the effect of impurities on relative energies and energy barriers is central to understanding structural phase transformations.

  9. Possible martensitic transformation and ferrimagnetic properties in Heusler alloy Mn2NiSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ying-Ni; Fan, Xiao-Xi; Kutluk, Abdugheni; Du, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zheng-Wei; Song, Yu-Ling

    2015-07-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of Hg2CuTi-type Mn2NiSn have been studied by performing the first-principle calculations. It is found that the phase transformation from the cubic to the tetragonal structure reduces the total energy, indicating that the martensitic phase is more stable and the phase transition from austenite to martensite may happen at low temperature for Hg2CuTi-type Mn2NiSn. Concerning the magnetism of Hg2CuTi-type Mn2NiSn, both austenitic and martensitic phases are suggested to be ferrimagnets. Furthermore, martensitic transformation decreases the magnetic moment per formula unit compared with austenitic phase. The results are helpful to accelerate the use of Mn2NiSn alloys in the series for magnetic shape memory applications.

  10. Acoustic emission and shape memory effect in the martensitic transformation.

    PubMed

    Sreekala, S; Ananthakrishna, G

    2003-04-04

    Acoustic emission signals are known to exhibit a high degree of reproducibility in time and show correlations with the growth and shrinkage of martensite domains when athermal martensites are subjected to repeated thermal cycling in a restricted temperature range. We show that a recently introduced two dimensional model for the martensitic transformation mimics these features. We also show that these features are related to the shape memory effect where near full reversal of morphological features are seen under these thermal cycling conditions.

  11. Transition temperature of martensitic transformations in hafnia and zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuhui; Demkov, A. A.

    2008-03-01

    Transition metal oxides find applications in ceramics, catalysis and semiconductor technology. In particular, hafnium dioxide or hafnia will succeed silica as a gate dielectric in advanced transistors. However, thermodynamic properties of thin hafnia films are not well understood, despite their technological importance. We use density functional theory to investigate the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transition in hafnia and zirconia. We find that unlike the case of the cubic to tetragonal transition, this phase transition is not driven by a soft mode. We use transition state theory to identify the minimum energy path (MEP) employing first principle calculations for hafnia and zirconia, sow that both transformations are martensitic, and obtain the transition barriers. Martensitic transformations include both the internal coordinate transformation and deformation of the cell lattice vectors (``strain and shuffle''), therefore the potential energy surface and MEP are function not only of the internal atomic coordinates but also of the unit cell lattice vectors. Considering the simplest case of uniform strain the transition temperatures we then relate the barrier height to the transition temperature. As a self-consistency check, assuming the equality of thermodynamics potentials of the tetragonal and monoclinic phases during the transition, and using the difference in the internal energy calculated from first principles we estimate the entropy change associated with the transition which is found in good agreement with that calculated form the phonon spectra.

  12. Crystallographic analysis of the martensitic transformation in medium-carbon steel with packet martensite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundyrev, V. M.; Zel'dovich, V. I.; Schastlivtsev, V. M.

    2016-10-01

    Based on X-ray diffraction studies of the martensite texture in a single martensite packet, exact orientation relationships between the orientations of martensite crystallites and the original austenite single crystal in medium-carbon steel 37KhN3A have been determined to be as follows: (011)α||(1; 0.990; 1.009)γ to an accuracy of ± 0.15°, [ {01overline 1 } ]_α ||{[ {1;1.163; - 2.133} ]_γ } to an accuracy of ±0.15°. It has been shown that the orientation relationships proved to be almost the same as in the Fe-31% Ni alloy with a twinned martensite with close lattice parameters. Therefore, the conclusion has been drawn that the mechanism of the lattice deformation upon the martensitic transformation is the same in both alloys. It is described as follows. The lattice deformation occurs by shear on the (111) plane in the {[ {11overline 2 } ]_{_γ }} direction and is accompanied by an additional change in the dimensions in the mutually perpendicular directions {[ {11overline 2 } ]_{_γ }},[ {111} ],and{[ {1overline 1 0} ]_{_γ }}. The invariantlattice deformation is implemented by slip in martensite on the planes of the (112)α type in the direction {[ {overline 1 overline 1 1} ]_α }. One of the 24 crystallographically equivalent variants of the transformation mechanism has been considered. Apart from this type of deformation, an additional deformation of martensite is possible that does not change its orientation. It has been shown that the orientation of the martensite crystallite calculated via the phenomenological theory of the martensitic transformations (PTMT) differs by approximately 1° from the experimentally determined orientation. This refers to both the lath and twinned martensite. In the twinned martensite, the invariant plane obtained in the PTMT calculations and the habit plane coincide. In lath martensite of 37KhN3A steel, the invariant plane of the martensite crystal obtained in PTMT calculations deviates by 25° from the orientation of the

  13. Martensitic transformation and phase stability of In-doped Ni-Mn-Sn shape memory alloys from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H. B.; Yang, C. P. Wang, R. L.; Luo, X.; Marchenkov, V. V.

    2014-05-28

    The effect of the alloying element Indium (In) on the martensitic transition, magnetic properties, and phase stabilities of Ni{sub 8}Mn{sub 6}Sn{sub 2−x}In{sub x} shape memory alloys has been investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. The energy difference between the austenitic and martensitic phases was found to increase with increasing In content, which implies an enhancement of the martensitic phase transition temperature (T{sub M}). Moreover, the formation energy results indicate that In-doping increases the relative stability of Ni{sub 8}Mn{sub 6}Sn{sub 2−x}In{sub x} both in austenite and martensite. This results from a reduction in density of states near the Fermi level regions caused by Ni-3d–In-5p hybridization when Sn is replaced by In. The equilibrium equation of state results show that the alloys Ni{sub 8}Mn{sub 6}Sn{sub 2−x}In{sub x} exhibit an energetically degenerated effect for an In content of x = ∼1.5. This implies the coexistence of antiparallel and parallel configurations in the austenite.

  14. High Temperature Measurements Of Martensitic transformations Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesing, Benjamin; Mann, Christopher J; Dryepondt, Sebastien N

    2013-01-01

    During thermal cycling of nickel-aluminum-platinum (NiAlPt) and single crystal Fe-15Cr-15Ni alloys, the structural changes associated with the martensite to austenite phase transformation were measured using dual-wavelength digital holography. Real-time in-situ measurements reveal the formation of striations within the NiPtAl alloy at 70 C and the FeCrNi alloy at 520 C. The results demonstrate that digital holography is an effective technique for acquiring non-contact, high precision information of the surface evolution of alloys at high temperatures.

  15. High temperature measurements of martensitic transformations using digital holography.

    PubMed

    Thiesing, Benjamin P; Mann, Christopher J; Dryepondt, Sebastien

    2013-07-01

    During thermal cycling of nickel-aluminum-platinum (NiAlPt) and single crystal iron-chromium-nickel (FeCrNi) alloys, the structural changes associated with the martensite to austenite phase transformation were measured using dual-wavelength digital holography. Real-time in situ measurements reveal the formation of striations within the NiAlPt alloy at 70°C and the FeCrNi alloy at 520°C. The results demonstrate that digital holography is an effective technique for acquiring noncontact, high precision information of the surface evolution of alloys at high temperatures.

  16. Martensitic and magnetic transformation in Mn50Ni50-xSnx ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Wang, S. Q.; Li, Y. Z.; Zhen, C. M.; Hou, D. L.; Wang, W. H.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.

    2012-10-01

    A martensitic transformation (MT) from a body-centered-cubic austenitic phase to a tetragonal martensitic phase has been found in Mn50Ni50-xSnx (0 ≤ x ≤ 11) alloys. The martensitic transformation temperature can be decreased by about 71.6 K by increasing the Sn concentration by 1 at. %. For 9 ≤ x ≤ 11, Mn50Ni50-xSnx ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are obtained. Due to the large magnetization difference (ΔM = 60 emu/g) and small thermal hysteresis (ΔT = 6 K) in the Mn50Ni40Sn10 alloy, a two-way magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation is observed with dT/dH = 2 K/T.

  17. Martensitic transformation in ZrO 2-based ceramics at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.-F.; Hong, C.-S.; Li, Y.-Y.; Zhang, Z.

    The microstructural changes associated with the tetragonal to monoclinic martensitic transformation at cryogenic temperatures in sintered CeO2-ZrO2 ceramics containing 15.5-16.5 mol% CeO2 have been studied by means of TEM observations. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the stress-induced martensitic phase increases with decreases in both temperature and CeO2 content. The effects of martensitic morphologies, anti-phase boundaries (APBs) and various dislocation features on mechanical properties are also discussed in the paper.

  18. Small-angle neutron scattering study of magnetic ordering and inhomogeneity across the martensitic phase transformation in Ni50–xCoxMn₄₀Sn₁₀ alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, Kanwal Preet; El-Khatib, S.; Srivastava, Vijay; James, R. D.; Leighton, C.

    2012-04-27

    The Heusler-derived multiferroic alloy Ni50–xCoxMn₄₀Sn₁₀ has recently been shown to exhibit, at just above room temperature, a highly reversible martensitic phase transformation with an unusually large magnetization change. In this work the nature of the magnetic ordering above and below this transformation has been studied in detail in the critical composition range x = 6–8 via temperature-dependent (5–600 K) magnetometry and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We observe fairly typical paramagnetic to long-range-ordered ferromagnetic phase transitions on cooling to 420–430 K, with the expected critical spin fluctuations, followed by first-order martensitic phase transformations to a nonferromagnetic state below 360–390 K. The static magnetization reveals complex magnetism in this low-temperature nonferromagnetic phase, including a Langevin-like field dependence, distinct spin freezing near 60 K, and significant exchange bias effects, consistent with superparamagnetic blocking of ferromagnetic clusters of nanoscopic dimensions. We demonstrate that these spin clusters, whose existence has been hypothesized in a variety of martensitic alloys exhibiting competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, can be directly observed by SANS. The scattering data are consistent with a liquidlike spatial distribution of interacting magnetic clusters with a mean center-to-center spacing of 12 nm. Considering the behavior of the superparmagnetism, cooling-field and temperature-dependent exchange bias, and magnetic SANS, we discuss in detail the physical form and origin of these spin clusters, their intercluster interactions, the nature of the ground-state magnetic ordering in the martensitic phase, and the implications for our understanding of such alloy systems.

  19. Study of the {alpha}{double_prime} phase texture obtained by martensitic {beta}-{alpha}{double_prime} phase transformation induced by tensile test in a sheet of Ti5Al2Sn4Zr4Mo2Cr1Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Pionnier, D.; Humbert, M.; Philippe, M.J.; Combres, Y.

    1998-10-09

    The purpose was to investigate the texture development of the {alpha}{double_prime} orthorhombic martensite phase induced by stress within a commercial sheet of Ti5Al2Sn4Zr4Mo2Cr1Fe. First, the experimental textures of the initial b.c.c. phase, then of the b.c.c. phase and the {alpha}{double_prime} martensite phase after a uniaxial deformation were determined from pole figures. Comparison of the {alpha}{double_prime} experimental texture with a {alpha}{double_prime} texture, simulated with no variant selection from the b.c.c. texture of the initial {beta} matrix clearly shows that a strong variant selection was induced by stress. In order to better understand the formation of this {alpha}{double_prime} orthorhombic texture, texture transformations were simulated according to different variant selection assumptions. As a result, it was shown that the {alpha}{double_prime} orthorhombic texture is formed by the variants favorably oriented with respect to stresses induced during tensile test.

  20. Nanoscale Twinning and Martensitic Transformation in Shock-Deformed BCC Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L L

    2005-03-22

    Shock-induced twinning and martensitic transformation in BCC-based polycrystalline metals (Ta and U-6wt%Nb) have been observed and studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The length-scale of domain thickness for both twin lamella and martensite phase is found to be smaller than 100 nm. While deformation twinning of {l_brace}112{r_brace}<111>-type is found in Ta when shock-deformed at 15 GPa, both twinning and martensitic transformation are found in Ta when shock-deformed at 45 GPa. Similar phenomena of nanoscale twinning and martensitic transformation are also found in U6Nb shock-deformed at 30 GPa. Since both deformation twinning and martensitic transformation occurred along the {l_brace}211{r_brace}{sub b} planes associated with high resolved shear stresses, it is suggested that both can be regarded as alternative paths for shear transformations to occur in shock-deformed BCC metals. Heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms for shock-induced twinning and martensitic transformation are proposed and discussed.

  1. An energy criterion for the stress-induced martensitic transformation in a ductile system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Weng, G. J.

    1994-11-01

    An energy criterion is developed to calculate the stress-strain behavior of a ductile system involving martensitic transformation under the application of stress. The martensitic inclusions are taken to develop from the ductile austenitic matrix due to the reduction in the Gibbs free energy, which consists of the chemical free energy and the surface energy of the parent and product phases, and the mechanical potential energy of the nonlinear system. The inclusions thus formed are assumed to be thin spheroidal platelets, randomly oriented in the matrix, each possessing a normal and shear component of transformation strain. A micromechanical theory is established to determine the nonlinear potential energy and the change in Gibbs free energy of the two-phase system at a given stage of transformation. It is found that the stressstrain behavior of the metastable system is the outcome of two competing effects, one from the ductility due to the plastic deformation of the ductile matrix and the phase transformation strain of the martensite inclusions, and the other from the stiffness due to the purely elastic response of the transformed martensites. While the ductility prevails in the early stage of deformation the stiffening effect later becomes more dominant with increasing amount of transformation. The resulting stress-strain curve then exhibits the familiar sigmoidal shape, characteristically different from that of an ordinary ductile phase. The theory does not assume any a priori law for the evolving volume fraction of the martensite ; it is calculated incrementally based on the change of Gibbs free energy between the current and the transformed state. Nor does the theory assume any a priori flow rule for the transformation strains, which are calculated strictly from the lattice parameters of the parent and transformed phase. Comparison with some available experimental data for the stress-strain behavior of a TRIP steel and the corresponding evolution of the

  2. Large-strain cyclic response and martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasaki, H.; Nakano, T.; Ishimaru, E.; Yoshida, F.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic tension-compression tests were carried out for austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) at elevated temperatures. The significant Bauschinger effect was found in the obtained stress-strain curve. In addition, stagnation of deformation induced martensitic transformation was observed just after stress reversal until the equivalent stress reached the maximum value in the course of experiment. The constitutive model for SUS304 at room temperature was developed, in which homogenized stress of SUS304 was expressed by the weighed summation of stresses of austenite and martensite phases. The calculated stress-strain curves and predicted martensite volume fraction were well correlated with those experimental results.

  3. Nanoscale martensitic phase transition at interfaces in shape memory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Rebecca D.; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In polycrystalline shape memory materials, mechanical interactions between martensitic transformation and grain boundaries at small scales play a critical role. Using a cobalt-based shape memory alloy, instrumented nanoindentation that probes nanoscale behavior reveals that grain boundary regions are resistant to transformation and have an adverse effect on shape memory possibly because an increase in strain energy outweighs reduction in interface energy. When grain boundaries are replaced by a thin, intergranular layer of a ductile and more malleable phase, grain boundary constraints are greatly alleviated, and transformation nearby can be well accommodated. Statistical analysis of results from a large number of nanoindents shows a decrease in shape recovery near grain boundaries and an increase in shape recovery near the new grain boundary phase, compared to grain interior. This is corroborated by analysis of nanoscale hardness and energy dissipation. Nanoscale martensitic transformation near interfaces depends largely on how the material across the interface accommodates transformation displacement. Engineering interfaces and enhancing local compatibility could drastically alter the energetics for phase transition at interfaces favorable for shape memory.

  4. Crystallographic Features of The Martensitic Transformation in PbTiO3 Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navruz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Martensitic transformations are displacive in nature and occur in the solid state in a wide variety of metallic and non metallic materials. Although the occurrence of martensitic transformations in inorganic and ceramic compounds has been well recognized for many years, it is only in the last decade that they have achieved prominence. An important group of materials in which martensitic transformations play a significant role in determining microstructure and thus properties are the perovskite-type oxides such as PbTiO3. In this study, emphasis is given to the crystallography of the paraelectric cubic to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transformation in PbTiO3 compound. A detailed crystallographic analysis is performed in Lead Titanate (PbTiO3) and the crystallographic parameters are calculated. The predictions of the crystallographic analysis are compared with the experimental results available.

  5. A new type of Cu-Al-Ta shape memory alloy with high martensitic transformation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. P.; Su, Y.; Y Yang, S.; Shi, Z.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a new type of Cu-Al-Ta (Cu86Al12Ta2 wt%) shape memory alloy with high martensitic transformation temperature is explored. The microstructure, reversible martensitic transformation and shape memory properties are investigated by means of optical microscopy, back-scattered electron, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and tensile tests. It is proposed that Cu86Al12Ta2 alloy consists of a mixture of primarily {\\beta }_{1}^{\\prime} martensite and a little {\\gamma }_{1}^{\\prime} martensite and some different precipitates. The tiny thin-striped Ta2(Al,Cu)3 precipitate is predominant in the as-quenched condition, whereas the particle-shaped Cu(Al, Ta) precipitate is dominant after hot-rolling. Additionally, the dendritic-shaped γ1(Cu9Al4) phase begins to appear after hot-rolling, but it disappears when the sample is re-quenched. All studied samples have reversible martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 450 ° C. The results show that two-step martensitic transformation behavior is observed for Cu86Al12Ta2 alloy in all three different conditions due to the transformations between ({\\beta }_{1}^{\\prime}+{\\gamma }_{1}^{\\prime}) martensites and the austenite parent phase. The results further show that the recovery ratios are almost 100% when the pre-strains are ≤2.5%, then they gradually decrease with further increase of the pre-strains. The shape memory effects clearly increase as a result of increase of the pre-strains, up to a maximum value of 3.2%.

  6. Martensitic transformation, shape memory effects, and other curious mechanical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vandermeer, R.A.

    1982-01-08

    The objective of this paper is to review tutorially the subject of martensitic transformations in uranium alloys emphasizing their role in the shape memory effect (SME). We examine first what a martensitic transformation is, illustrating some of its characteristics with specific examples. As well as being athermal in nature, as expected, data are presented indicating that martensitic transformations in some uranium alloys also have a strong isothermal component. In addition, a few alloys are known to exhibit thermoelastic martensitic reactions. The SME, which is associated with these, is defined and demonstrated graphically with data from a uranium-6 wt % niobium alloy. Some of the important variables influencing SME behavior are described. Specifically, these are reheat temperature, amount of deformation, crystal structure, and composition. A mechanism for SME is postulated and the association with martensitic transformation is detailed. A self-induced shape instability in the uranium-7.5 wt % niobium-2.5 wt % zirconium alloy with a rationalization of the behavior in terms of texture and lattice parameter change during aging is reviewed and discussed. 24 figures.

  7. Investigation on microstructure and martensitic transformation of neodymium-added NiTi shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maashaa, Dovchinvanchig; Dorj, Ulzii-Orshikh; Lee, Malrey; Lee, Min Hi; Zhao, Chunwang; Dashjav, Munguntsetseg; Woo, Seon-Mi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of rare earth element neodymium (Nd) addition on the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior of Ni50Ti50-xNdx (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 at.%) shape memory alloy was investigated by scanning electronic microscope, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that the microstructure of Ni-Ti-Nd ternary alloy consists of NiNd phase, NiTi2 and the NiTi matrix. A one-step martensitic transformation is observed in the alloys. The martensitic transformation temperature Ms increases sharply increasing 0.1-0.7 at.% Nd content is added.

  8. Martensitic fcc-to-hcp transformations in solid xenon under pressure: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunja; Nicol, Malcolm; Cynn, Hyunchae; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2006-01-27

    First-principles calculations reveal that the fcc-to-hcp pressure-induced transformation in solid xenon proceeds through two mechanisms between 5 and 70 GPa. The dynamics of the phase transition involves a sluggish stacking-disorder growth at lower pressures (path I) that changes to a path involving an orthorhombic distortion at higher pressures (path II). The switchover is governed by a delicate interplay of energetics (enthalpy of the system for the structural stability) and kinetics (energy barrier for the transition). The two types of martensitic transformations involved in this pressure-induced structural transformation are a twinned martensitic transition at lower pressures and a slipped martensitic transition at higher pressures.

  9. Magnetic properties and martensitic transformation in quaternary Heusler alloy of NiMnFeGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, M.; Wang, W. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Meng, F. B.; Liu, H. Y.; Liu, B. D.; Qu, J. P.

    2002-11-01

    Quaternary Heusler alloy Ni2)(Mn,FeGa has been studied systematically for the structure, martensitic transformation, and magnetic properties in two systems of Ni50.5Mn25-xFexGa24.5 and Ni50.4Mn28-xFexGa21.6. Substituting Fe for Mn up to about 70%, the pure L21 phase and the thermoelastic martensitic transformation still can be observed in these quaternary systems. Iron doping dropped the martensitic transformation temperature from 220 to 140 K, increased the Curie temperature from 351 to 429 K, and broadened the thermal hysteresis from about 7 to 18 K. Magnetic analysis revealed that Fe atoms contribute to the net magnetization of the material with a moment lower than that of Mn. The temperature dependence of magnetic-field-induced strains has been improved by this doping method.

  10. In-situ investigations of the martensitic transformation in TiNi by synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkov, S.N.; Mironov, Yu.P.

    1999-01-01

    By means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction method the stress-induced martensite transformation in TiNi (with two different phase compositions) at room temperature was investigated in situ. It has been shown that in the alloys with temperature-induced martensite in the initial state a nonperiodic fluctuation of intensity of the X-ray reflexes appeared due to anomalous transformation B2 + B19{prime}{sub T} {r_arrow} B2 {r_arrow} B19{prime}{sub Si}.

  11. Possible martensitic transformation in Heusler alloy Mn2PdSn from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, L.; Feng, X.; Liu, E. K.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Hu, J. F.; Zhang, W. X.

    2016-12-01

    The tetragonal distortion, electronic structure and magnetic property of Mn2PdSn have been systematically investigated by first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the total energy of tetragonal martensitic phase is lower than cubic austenitic phase for Mn2PdSn. The corresponding c/a ratio and energy difference are 1.23 and 41.62 meV/f.u., respectively. This suggests that there is a great possibility for martensitic transformation to occur in Mn2PdSn with temperature decreasing. The electronic structure shows that there are sharp DOS peaks originating from p-d hybridization in the vicinity of Fermi level in the cubic phase. And these peaks disappear or become more flat in the martensitic phase.

  12. Martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of Heusler alloy Ni-Fe-Ga ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Liu, H.; Zhang, X. X.; Zhang, M.; Dai, X. F.; Hu, H. N.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.

    2004-08-01

    The martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni 50+ xFe 25- xGa 25 ( x=-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) ribbons have been systematically studied. It has been found that with the increase of Ni concentration, the martensitic transformation temperature increases, but the Curie temperature decreases. Both the two-step thermally induced structural transformation and the one-step transition have been observed in NiFeGa alloys with different compositions. It is found that the two-step transition became the one-step transition after the ribbon being heat treated at 873 K or higher. X-ray diffraction patterns show that only L2→B2 transition occurs in the samples treated at 873 K, while the γ phase will form in the samples treated at higher temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the alloys with martensitic transformation temperature above the room temperature are non-modulated martensite with the large domain size, being different from the stoichiometric Ni 2FeGa alloy that is a modulated martensite with small domain size. The influences of Fe substitution for Ni in Ni 2FeGa on the saturation magnetization and exchange interaction are also discussed.

  13. Effect of Annealing in Magnetic Field on Ferromagnetic Nanoparticle Formation in Cu-Al-Mn Alloy with Induced Martensite Transformation.

    PubMed

    Titenko, Anatoliy; Demchenko, Lesya

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the influence of aging of high-temperature phase on subsequent martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Mn alloy. The morphology of behavior of martensitic transformation as a result of alloy aging under annealing in a constant magnetic field with different sample orientation relatively to the field direction and without field was studied for direct control of the processes of martensite induction at cooling. Temperature dependences of electrical resistance, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization, as well as field dependences of magnetization, and phase composition were found. The tendency to the oriented growth of precipitated ferromagnetic phase nanoparticles in a direction of applied field and to an increase of their volume fraction under thermal magnetic treatment of material that favors a reversibility of induced martensitic transformation is observed.

  14. Martensitic transformations in high-strength steels at aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, V. V.; Bannykh, O. A.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of heat treatment and elastic stresses on the texture of maraging NiTi-steels is studied. The interruption of the decomposition of martensite at the early stages is shown to be accompanied by the γ → α transformation, which proceeds upon cooling from the aging temperature and under elastic (σ < σ0.2) tensile stresses. The martensite has a crystallographic texture, which is caused by the evolution of hot-deformation texture as a result of quenching and decomposition of a supersaturated α solid solution.

  15. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-02-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  16. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y ≤ 0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  17. Local strain evolution due to athermal γ→ε martensitic transformation in biomedical CoCrMo alloys.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kenta; Mori, Manami; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Chiba, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    Locally developed strains caused by athermal γ face-centered cubic (fcc)→ε hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensitic transformation were investigated for the γ matrix of Ni-free Co-29Cr-6Mo (wt%) alloys prepared with or without added nitrogen. Electron-backscatter-diffraction-(EBSD)-based strain analysis revealed that in addition to ε-martensite interiors, the N-free alloy that had a duplex microstructure consisting of the γ matrix and athermal ε-martensite plates showed larger magnitudes of both elastic and plastic strains in the γ phase matrix than the N-doped counterpart that did not have a ε-martensite phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that the ε-martensite microplates were aggregates of thin ε-layers, which were formed by three different {111}γ〈112¯〉γ Shockley partial dislocations in accordance with a previously proposed mechanism (Putaux and Chevalier, 1996) that canceled the shear strains of the individual variants. The plastic strains are believed to have originated from the martensitic transformation itself, and the activity of dislocations is believed to be the origin of the transformation. We have revealed that the elastic strains in the γ matrix originate from interactions among the ε-martensite phase, extended dislocations, and/or thin ε-layers. The dislocations highly dissociated into stacking faults, making stress relaxation at intersections difficult and further introducing local strain evolution.

  18. Chirality Switching by Martensitic Transformation in Protein Cylindrical Crystals: Application to Bacterial Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komai, Ricardo Kiyohiro

    Martensitic transformations provide unique engineering properties that, when designed properly, become important parts of new technology. Martensitic transformations have been studied for many years in traditional alloys (iron, steel, titanium, etc.), however there is still much to be learned in regards to these transformations in biological materials. Olson and Hartman showed in 1982 that these transformations are also observed in bacterial flagella and T4 bacteriophage viral sheaths, allowing for propulsion of bacteria in a fluid environment and, for the virus, is responsible for the infection mechanism. This work demonstrates, using the bacterial flagella as an example, that these transformations can be modelled using thermodynamic methods that are also used to model the transformations in alloys. This thesis work attempts to explain the transformations that occur in bacterial flagella, which are capable of small strain, highly reversible martensitic transformations. The first stress/temperature phase diagrams of these flagella were created by adding the mechanical energy of the transformation of the flagella to limited chemical thermodynamics information of the transformation. Mechanical energy is critical to the transformation process because the bacterial body applies a torque to the radius of the flagella. Finally, work has begun and will be completed in regards to understanding the kinetics of the transformation of the flagella. The motion of the transformation interface can be predicted by using a Landau-Ginzburg model. The crystallography of the transformation in bacterial flagella is also being computed to determine the invariant lines of transformation that occur within this cylindrical crystal. This work has shown that it is possible to treat proteins in a similar manner that alloys are treated when using thermodynamic modelling. Much can be learned from translating what is known regarding phase transformations in hard material systems to soft, organic

  19. Magnetic field and atomic order effect on the martensitic transformation of a metamagnetic alloy.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, J M; Chernenko, V A; Cesari, E; Salas, D; Gutierrez, J; Lazpita, P

    2013-12-04

    The martensitic transformation (MT) of metamagnetic shape memory alloys is very sensitive to the applied magnetic field and atomic order. We analyze the alloy Ni50Mn34.5In15.5 in magnetic fields up to 13 T. The alloy has been prepared both in an ordered state by slow cooling, and in a disordered state by rapid quenching. In both cases the dependence of the martensitic transition temperature on the field is highly nonlinear. Such departure from linearity is due to a decrease of the entropy change at the transition, ΔS, with the applied field. This can be explained by the ordering effect of the magnetic field on the frustrated magnetic structure of the alloy in the martensitic phase. Compliance with a recent model, relying on the strong magnetoelastic interactions in these compounds, is very satisfactory.

  20. Suppression of martensitic transformation in Fe50Mn23Ga27 by local symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaolian; Yan, Mi; Wu, Chen; Ren, Shuai; Li, Huiying; Fang, Minxia; Qiu, Zhiyong; Ren, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    Defects-induced local symmetry breaking has led to unusual properties in nonferromagnetic ferroelastic materials upon suppressing their martensitic transformation. Thus, it is of interest to discover additional properties by local symmetry breaking in one important class of the ferroelastic materials, i.e., the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. In this letter, it is found that local symmetry breaking including both tetragonal nano-inclusions and anti-phase boundaries (APBs), suppresses martensitic transformation of a body-centered-cubic Fe50Mn23Ga27 alloy, however, does not affect the magnetic ordering. Large electrical resistivity is retained to the low temperature ferromagnetic state, behaving like a half-metal ferromagnet. Lower ordering degree at APBs and local stress fields generated by the lattice expansion of tetragonal nanoparticles hinder the formation of long-range-ordered martensites. The half-metal-like conducting behavior upon suppressing martensitic transformation extends the regime of ferromagnetic shape memory materials and may lead to potential applications in spintronic devices.

  1. Power-law statistics for avalanches in a martensitic transformation.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, R; Ananthakrishna, G

    2001-04-30

    We devise a two-dimensional model that mimics the recently observed power-law distributions for the amplitudes and durations of the acoustic emission signals observed during martensitic transformation [Vives et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1694 (1994)]. We include a threshold mechanism, long-range interaction between the transformed domains, inertial effects, and dissipation arising due to the motion of the interface. The model exhibits thermal hysteresis and, more importantly, it shows that the energy is released in the form of avalanches with power-law distributions for their amplitudes and durations. Computer simulations also reveal morphological features similar to those observed in real systems.

  2. Fatigue Hardening Behavior of 1.5 GPa Grade Transformation-Induced Plasticity-Aided Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Koh-Ichi; Hojo, Tomohiko

    2016-11-01

    Low cycle fatigue hardening/softening behavior of a 0.2 pct C-1.5 pct Si-1.5 pct Mn-1.0 pct Cr-0.2 pct Mo-0.05 pct Nb transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-aided steel consisting of a wide lath martensite structure matrix and a narrow lath martensite-metastable retained austenite mixture was investigated. The steel exhibited notable fatigue hardening in the same way as TRIP-aided bainitic ferrite steel, although conventional martensitic steel such as SCM420 steel with the same tensile strength exhibited fatigue softening. The considerable fatigue hardening of this steel is believed to be associated mainly with the compressive internal stress that results from a difference in flow stress between the matrix and the martensite-austenite-like phase, with a small contribution from the strain-induced transformation and dislocation hardenings.

  3. Structure and thermoelastic martensitic transformations in ternary Ni-Ti-Hf alloys with a high-temperature shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushin, V. G.; Kuranova, N. N.; Pushin, A. V.; Uksusnikov, A. N.; Kourov, N. I.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of alloying by 12-20 at % Hf on the structure, the phase composition, and the thermoelastic martensitic transformations in ternary alloys of the quasi-binary NiTi-NiHf section is studied by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity is measured at various temperatures to determine the critical transformation temperatures. The data on phase composition are used to plot a full diagram for the high-temperature thermoelastic B2 ↔ B19' martensitic transformations, which occur in the temperature range 320-600 K when the hafnium content increases from 12 to 20 at %. The lattice parameters of the B2 and B19' phases are measured, and the microstructure of the B19' martensite is analyzed.

  4. Ab initio simulations of phase stability and martensitic transitions in NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Thompson, Alexander E.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-12-01

    For NiTi-based alloys, the shape memory effect is governed by a transition from a low-temperature martensite phase to a high-temperature austenite phase. Despite considerable experimental and computational work, basic questions regarding the stability of the phases and the martensitic phase transition remain unclear even for the simple case of binary, equiatomic NiTi. We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to describe the temperature-dependent behavior of NiTi and resolve several of these outstanding issues. Structural correlation functions and finite temperature phonon spectra are evaluated to determine phase stability. We show that finite temperature, entropic effects stabilize the experimentally observed martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) phases while destabilizing the theoretically predicted (B33) phase. Free energy computations based on ab initio thermodynamic integration confirm these results and permit estimates of the transition temperature between the phases. In addition to the martensitic phase transition, we predict a new transition between the B33 and B19' phases. The role of defects in suppressing phase transformation temperatures is discussed.

  5. Ab Initio Simulations of Temperature Dependent Phase Stability and Martensitic Transitions in NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Thompson, Alexander E.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    For NiTi based alloys, the shape memory effect is governed by a transition from a low-temperature martensite phase to a high-temperature austenite phase. Despite considerable experimental and computational work, basic questions regarding the stability of the phases and the martensitic phase transition remain unclear even for the simple case of binary, equiatomic NiTi. We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to describe the temperature-dependent behavior of NiTi and resolve several of these outstanding issues. Structural correlation functions and finite temperature phonon spectra are evaluated to determine phase stability. In particular, we show that finite temperature, entropic effects stabilize the experimentally observed martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) phases while destabilizing the theoretically predicted (B33) phase. Free energy computations based on ab initio thermodynamic integration confirm these results and permit estimates of the transition temperature between the phases. In addition to the martensitic phase transition, we predict a new transition between the B33 and B19' phases. The role of defects in suppressing these phase transformations is discussed.

  6. Strain-induced martensite to austenite reverse transformation in an ultrafine-grained Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Koohdar, H. R.; Habibi-Parsa, M.; Nedjad, S. Hossein; Alidokht, S. A.; Langdon, Terence G.

    2014-05-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of heavy cold rolling on microstructural evolution in an Fe-10Ni-7Mn (wt.%) martensitic steel. The chemical driving force for the strain-induced martensite to austenite reverse transformation was calculated using thermodynamic principles and a model was developed for estimating the effect of applied stress on the driving force of the martensite to austenite reverse transformation through heavy cold rolling. These calculations show that, in order to make a reverse transformation feasible, the applied stress on the material should supply the total driving force, both chemical and non-chemical, for the transformation. It is demonstrated that after 60% cold rolling the required driving force for the reverse transformation may be provided. Experimental results, including cold rolling and transmission electron microscopy images, are utilized to verify the thermodynamic calculations.

  7. Anomalous physical properties of Heusler-type Co2Cr (Ga,Si) alloys and thermodynamic study on reentrant martensitic transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Nagasako, Makoto; Kataoka, Mitsuo; Umetsu, Rie Y.; Omori, Toshihiro; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2015-03-01

    Electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of Co2Cr(Ga,Si) -based shape-memory alloys, which exhibit reentrant martensitic transformation (RMT) behavior, were studied experimentally. For electric resistivity (ER), an inverse (semiconductor-like) temperature dependence in the parent phase was found, along with anomalous behavior below its Curie temperature. A pseudobinary phase diagram was determined, which gives a "martensite loop" clearly showing the reentrant behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry and specific-heat measurements were used to derive the entropy change Δ S between martensite and parent phases. The temperature dependence of the derived Δ S was analyzed thermodynamically to confirm the appearances of both the RMT and normal martensitic transformation. Detailed studies on the specific heat in martensite and parent phases at low temperatures were also conducted.

  8. Stress Induce Martensitic Transformations in Hydrogen Embrittlement of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenak, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In austenitic type stainless steels, hydrogen concentration gradients formed during electrochemical charging and followed by hydrogen loss during aging, at room temperature, surface stresses, and martensitic phases α'-BCC and ɛ-HCP developed. The basic relationship between the X-ray diffraction peak broadening and the hydrogen gradients, formed during charging and aging at room temperature in such austenitic stainless steels, were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the impact of stresses must be considered in the discussion of phase transformations due to hydrogenation. Austenitic stainless steels based on iron-nickel-chromium, have relatively low stacking fault energy γSFE and undergo: quenching to low temperatures, plastic deformation, sensitization heat treatments, high pressure (≥3-5 × 109 Pa) by hydrogen or other gases, electrochemical charging (when the sample is cathode) and when is irradiation by various ions the samples in vacuum. All the above mentioned induce formation of ɛ and α' in the face-centered cubic (FCC) austenite γ matrix. The highest stresses cause formation of mainly α' phase and ɛ-martensite, and both are involved in plastic deformation processes and promoting crack propagation at the surface. In 310 steel, the crack propagation is based on deformation processes following ɛ-martensitic formation only. Formations of ɛ- and α'-martensites were noted along the fracture surfaces and ahead of the crack tip. The cracks propagated through the ɛ-martensitic plates, which formed along the active slip planes, while α' phase was always found in the high-stress region on the ends of the ligaments from both sides of the crack surfaces undergoing propagation.

  9. Stress Induce Martensitic Transformations in Hydrogen Embrittlement of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenak, Paul

    2013-04-01

    In austenitic type stainless steels, hydrogen concentration gradients formed during electrochemical charging and followed by hydrogen loss during aging, at room temperature, surface stresses, and martensitic phases α'-BCC and ɛ-HCP developed. The basic relationship between the X-ray diffraction peak broadening and the hydrogen gradients, formed during charging and aging at room temperature in such austenitic stainless steels, were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the impact of stresses must be considered in the discussion of phase transformations due to hydrogenation. Austenitic stainless steels based on iron-nickel-chromium, have relatively low stacking fault energy γSFE and undergo: quenching to low temperatures, plastic deformation, sensitization heat treatments, high pressure (≥3-5 × 109 Pa) by hydrogen or other gases, electrochemical charging (when the sample is cathode) and when is irradiation by various ions the samples in vacuum. All the above mentioned induce formation of ɛ and α' in the face-centered cubic (FCC) austenite γ matrix. The highest stresses cause formation of mainly α' phase and ɛ-martensite, and both are involved in plastic deformation processes and promoting crack propagation at the surface. In 310 steel, the crack propagation is based on deformation processes following ɛ-martensitic formation only. Formations of ɛ- and α'-martensites were noted along the fracture surfaces and ahead of the crack tip. The cracks propagated through the ɛ-martensitic plates, which formed along the active slip planes, while α' phase was always found in the high-stress region on the ends of the ligaments from both sides of the crack surfaces undergoing propagation.

  10. Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Beran, L.; Cejpek, P.; Kulda, M.; Antos, R.; Holy, V.; Veis, M.; Straka, L.; Heczko, O.

    2015-05-07

    Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystal of Ni{sub 50.1}Mn{sub 28.4}Ga{sub 21.5} magnetic shape memory alloy during its transformation from martensite to austenite phase were systematically studied. Crystal orientation was approximately along (100) planes of parent cubic austenite. X-ray reciprocal mapping confirmed modulated 10 M martensite phase. Temperature depended measurements of saturation magnetization revealed the martensitic transformation at 335 K during heating. Magneto-optical spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were measured in the sample temperature range from 297 to 373 K and photon energy range from 1.2 to 6.5 eV. Magneto-optical spectra of polar Kerr rotation as well as the spectra of ellipsometric parameter Ψ exhibited significant changes when crossing the transformation temperature. These changes were assigned to different optical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga in martensite and austenite phases due to modification of electronic structure near the Fermi energy during martensitic transformation.

  11. Role of Chemical Driving Force in Martensitic Transformations of High-Purity Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behjati, P.; Najafizadeh, A.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of the present work is to point out the respective roles of chemical driving force and stacking fault energy (SFE) in the occurrence of martensitic transformations in high-purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. For this purpose, the transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer, thermal differential microanalyzer (TDA), and tension test were employed to report M s temperatures, austenite stacking fault energies, and driving forces for the concerned alloys. It was observed that the martensitic transformations in the studied alloys occur through the γ → ɛ → α' steps. As a remarkable result, it was shown that a low SFE, if necessary to ɛ-phase nucleation, is not a sufficient condition for nucleation of α' phase. In fact, the formation of stable α' nuclei from α' embryos occur if the required chemical driving force is provided. Also, an equation was proposed for the kinetics of spontaneous martensitic transformation as a function of driving force.

  12. Martensitic transformations and the evolution of the defect microstructure of metastable austenitic steel during severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Tyumentsev, A. N.; Akkuzin, S. A.; Naiden, E. P.; Korznikov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that, in metastable austenitic Fe-18Cr-10Ni-Ti steel, under conditions of torsion under pressure, local reversible (forward plus reverse) (γ → α' → γ) martensitic transformations can occur, which are one of the mechanisms of the formation of nanostructured states. An increase in the rotation rate, which leads to an increase in the deformation temperature, stimulates the reverse (α' → γ) transformation. The evolution of the structural and phase states is represented as the following sequence: (1) mechanical twinning; (2) nucleation of martensitic plates in the microtwinned structure of the austenite with the formation of two-phase (γ + α') structures, packet α' martensite, and structural states with a high curvature of the crystal lattice; (3) reverse (α' → γ)-transformations; and (4) the fragmentation of nanosized crystals via the formation of a nanotwinned structure in the austenite and of a nanoscale banded structure of the ɛ martensite in the α' martensite.

  13. A structured continuum modelling framework for martensitic transformation and reorientation in shape memory materials.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Davide; Pence, Thomas J

    2016-04-28

    Models for shape memory material behaviour can be posed in the framework of a structured continuum theory. We study such a framework in which a scalar phase fraction field and a tensor field of martensite reorientation describe the material microstructure, in the context of finite strains. Gradients of the microstructural descriptors naturally enter the formulation and offer the possibility to describe and resolve phase transformation localizations. The constitutive theory is thoroughly described by a single free energy function in conjunction with a path-dependent dissipation function. Balance laws in the form of differential equations are obtained and contain both bulk and surface terms, the latter in terms of microstreses. A natural constraint on the tensor field for martensite reorientation gives rise to reactive fields in these balance laws. Conditions ensuring objectivity as well as the relation of this framework to that provided by currently used models for shape memory alloy behaviour are discussed.

  14. Ab initio Prediction of Martensitic and Intermartensitic Phase Boundaries in Ni-Mn-Ga.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Çakır, A; Giacobbe, C; Al-Zubi, A; Hickel, T; Acet, M; Neugebauer, J

    2016-01-15

    Despite the importance of martensitic transformations of Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys for their magnetocaloric and shape-memory properties, the martensitic part of their phase diagrams is not well determined. Using an ab initio approach that includes the interplay of lattice and vibrational degrees of freedom we identify an intermartensitic transformation between a modulated and a nonmodulated phase as a function of excess Ni and Mn content. Based on an evaluation of the theoretical findings and experimental x-ray diffraction data for Mn-rich alloys, we are able to predict the phase diagram for Ni-rich alloys. In contrast to other mechanisms discussed for various material systems in the literature, we herewith show that the intermartensitic transformation can be understood solely using thermodynamic concepts.

  15. Electric field control of Martensitic Phase Transitions in Thin Films of Ni-Mn-In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aqtash, Nabil; Sokolov, Andrei; Sabirianov, Renat

    2015-03-01

    We propose the electric field control of martensite transformation of Ni-Mn-In thin films deposited on ferroelectric (FE) substrate. DFT- based calculations indicate that the off-stochiometric Ni2Mn1.5In0.5 alloy shows that the ferromagnetic (FM) cubic phase undergoes transformation to tetragonal ferromagnetic (FiM) martensite phase at low temperature. The presence of FE substrate changes the relative stability of FM austenite and FiM martensite phases. (SrZrO3/PbZrO3) superlattices were considered as FE substrates with polarization perpendicular to the interface. The relative stability of two phases of the thin films can be tuned by polarization reversal in FE due to the change in sign of induced charges at the interface. The energetically favorable structures of the FE/Ni2Mn1.5In0.5 systems depend on interface structure between FE and Ni2Mn1.5In0.5 layers, e.g Ni-(Pb-O) interface. The energy difference (per NiMnIn f.u) between FM austenite and FiM martensite states of the film on FE substrate is ΔE = 0.22 eV with polarization away from interface, upon polarization reversal ΔE = 0.75 eV, compared to (ΔE = 0.24 eV) in the bulk. Additionally Pb atoms in PbO3 planes shifted in opposite direction with respect to oxygen planes and alter the chemical bonding of Pb with Ni atoms of the thin films. These changes possibly cause the shift of the martensite transition temperature. These results clearly indicate the possibility of control of martensitic transition in Ni-Mn-In thin films by FE substrate.

  16. First-principles study of martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of carbon doped Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Haibo; Yang, Changping; Wang, Ruilong; Xu, Linfang; Liu, Guozhen; Marchenkov, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic properties, structural stabilities and martensitic transformation of carbon doped Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler alloys are investigated by means of ab initio calculations in framework of the density functional theory. The results of calculations have shown that the martensitic transformation can be realized in all series of carbon doped Ni2Mn1.5Sn0.5 - xCx alloys with tetragonal ratio of 1.34, 1.40,1.42 and 1.44, respectively for x = 0.125 , 0.25 , 0.375 and 0.5. The DOS peak at the Fermi level almost disappearing in the tetragonal phase near the Fermi level is the evidence of triggering martensitic transformation which is due to the structural Jahn-Teller effect. We have also found that the difference between the austenitic and martensitic phases increases with increasing carbon content, which implies an enhancement of the martensitic phase transition temperature (TM). Besides, the electron density difference shows the enhancement of bonding between Mn and carbon atoms with the distortion taken place.

  17. Stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ni-Ti(-Cu) interlayers controlling stress distribution in functional coatings during sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callisti, M.; Polcar, T.

    2015-01-01

    The stress-induced martensitic transformation occurring in sputter-deposited Ni48.1Ti51.9 and Ni43.4Ti49.6Cu7 interlayers, integrated in a W-S-C/Ni-Ti(-Cu) bilayer design, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, after these bilayers were subjected to different sliding conditions. Martensitic bands across the interlayers were formed depending on the sliding direction with their shape and distribution a function primarily of both applied normal load and grain size. The Ni48.1Ti51.9 interlayer (lateral grain size of ∼3 μm) showed well oriented and ordered martensitic bands extended through the interlayer thickness under low load (5 N). At a higher load (18 N) the growth of these bands was limited by the stabilised martensite formed as a consequence of the high compressive stress, at the interface with the substrate. The Ni43.4Ti49.6Cu7 interlayer (lateral grain size of ∼650 nm) exhibited no significant evidence of stabilised martensite under different loading conditions. The martensitic transformation was limited by the smaller grain size and most of the stress was relaxed by elastic and, to some extent, pseudo-elastic deformation of the austenitic phase. Grain boundaries were found to stop the growth of martensitic bands, thus limiting the activation of the martensitic transformation into the neighbouring grains during sliding. The grain refinement caused a change in the capability of the interlayer to relax shear and compressive stresses. Such a change was found to affect the formation of the WS2-rich tribolayer on the W-S-C sliding surface, and consequently the shear stress transmitted down throughout the bilayers thickness. Accordingly, different levels of deformation were observed on the top layer.

  18. Martensitic transformation thermodynamic calculation of ZrO2-MgO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Jinhui; Guo, Shenghui; Qv, Wenwen; Chen, Guo; Li, Wei; Zhang, Libo

    2012-11-01

    The phase transformation of different polymorphs in zirconia is very important for the processing and mechanical properties of zirconia ceramics. In this work, thermodynamic description of ZrO2-MgO system is investigated using the related thermodynamic parameters. Special attention is paid to the calculation of the Gibbs free energy change between tetragonal and monoclinic phases in ZrO2-MgO, namely t → m phase transformation driving force, as a function of composition and temperature. Furthermore, in 8.7 mol% MgO-ZrO2, the equilibrium temperature between tetragonal and monoclinic phases, T0, was obtained as 1107.8 K and martensitic transformation start temperature (Ms) for t → m of this ceramic with a mean grain size of 1.15 mm was also calculated to be as 737.7 K, which is in good agreement with experiment one of 689.5 K with 7.0% residual.

  19. Narrowing of hysteresis of cubic-tetragonal martensitic transformation by weak axial stressing of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosogor, Anna

    2016-06-01

    An influence of axial mechanical stress on the hysteresis of martensitic transformation and ordinary magnetostriction of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy has been described in the framework of a Landau-type theory of phase transitions. It has been shown that weak stress can noticeably reduce the hysteresis of martensitic transformation. Moreover, the anhysteretic deformation can be observed when the applied mechanical stress exceeds a critical stress value. The main theoretical results were compared with recent experimental data. It is argued that shape memory alloys with extremely low values of shear elastic modulus are the candidates for the experimental observation of large anhysteretic deformations.

  20. Kinetics of martensitic transformations in magnetic field or under hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Nam, Jung-Min; Fukuda, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    We have recently constructed a phenomenological theory that provides a unified explanation for athermal and isothermal martensitic transformation processes. On the basis of this theory, we predict some properties of martensitic transformation and confirm them experimentally using some Fe-based alloys and a Ni-Co-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloy.

  1. Thermoelastic Martensitic Transformations in Single Crystals of FeNiCoAlX(B) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumlyakov, Yu. I.; Kireeva, I. V.; Kuts, O. A.; Platonova, Yu. N.; Poklonov, V. V.; Kukshauzen, I. V.; Kukshauzen, D. A.; Panchenko, M. Yu.; Reunova, K. A.

    2016-03-01

    Using single crystals of Fe-based disordered alloys (Fe - 28% Ni - 17% Co - 11.5% Al - 2.5% X (0.05% B) (at.%) (X = Ti, Nb(B), (Ti + Nb)B), undergoing thermoelastic γ-α '-martensitic transformations (MTs), it is shown that precipitation of particles of the ordered γ'-phase in the course of aging at T = 973 K for 5 h results in the development of shape memory (SME) and superelasticity (SE) effects. It is experimentally found that variation in chemical composition and size of disperse particles of the γ'-phase allows controlling both mechanical and functional properties - SME and SE.

  2. Electronic structure and ferromagnetism in the martensitic-transformation material Ni2FeGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Hu, H. N.; Liu, G. D.; Cui, Y. T.; Zhang, M.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Xiao, Gang

    2004-04-01

    We calculated the electronic structures of the Heusler alloy Ni2FeGa for both the cubic and the orthorhombic structures by self-consistent full-potential linearized-augmented plane-wave method. The localized moment of Fe atom is interpreted based on the electronic structure and the popular explanation of the localized moment of Mn in Heusler alloy X2MnY. Comparing the density of states of cubic and orthorhombic structures, we observed that a Ni peak near the density of states of d band for the cubic structure splits for the orthorhombic structure, indicating a band Jahn-Teller mechanism should be responsible for the structural transition. Accompanied by this transformation, an increase of Ni moment and magnetization redistribution occurred. Temperature-dependence anisotropy field shows an evidence of martensitic transformation between 125 and 190 K. The magnetic behavior seems to contain a transition from Heisenberg-like at temperature below 70 K to itinerant magnetism at temperature higher than 160 K upon martensitic transformation. Temperature dependence of saturation magnetization reveals the spontaneous magnetization at martensite and parent phase are 3.170μB and 3.035μB, respectively. The calculated magnetic moment at martensite is 3.171μB, which is quite consistent with the experimental value. The magnetic moment of Fe and Ni atom in Heusler alloy Ni2FeGa is analyzed based on the computational results and the experimental magnetization curves. It is found that the magnetic moment of Fe atoms is about 10 43% larger than that of α-Fe.

  3. AFM/MFM hybrid nanocharacterization of martensitic transformation and degradation for Fe-Pd shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Nagatani, Kohei; Hirano, Kazumi; Teramoto, Tokuo; Taya, Minoru

    2003-07-01

    Martensitic transformation and degradation characteristics for Fe-Pd ferromagnetic shape memory alloy were investigated by the developed AFM (Atomic Force Microscope)/MFM (Magnetic Force Microscope) hybrid nano-characterization technique. In AFM martensitic transformation was detected by the changes of surface topography of martensite plates. In MFM martensitic transformation was detected by the changes of magnetic domain structures. This technique has an advantage that martensitic transformation characteristics such as martensitic transformation temperature and reverse transformation temperature can be measured at microscopic and nanoscopic small area. Degradation characteristics of martensitic transformation under cyclic loading were also detected by the changes of AFM and MFM images. In AFM images surface topography of martensite plates became flat and in MFM images the morphology of magnetic domain structures became unfocused under cyclic loading. Then it was found that the hybrid nano-characterization was very high sensitive technique to evaluate degradation for Fe-Pd ferromagnetic shape memory alloy.

  4. Irreversibility of the martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-In single crystal studied by resistivity under pressure and in situ optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcar, L.; Courtois, P.; Crouigneau, G.; Debray, J.; Bourgault, D.

    2014-10-01

    Optical observations under uniaxial pressure and in-situ resistivity measurements were undertaken in Ni-Mn-In single crystals as a function of temperature to study the thermal hysteresis of the martensitic transformation. The irreversibility of the isothermal transformation under pressure was clearly observed, and it was possible to stabilize the martensitic phase with large and coarsen variants by applying a pressure at a stable temperature Ms reached during cooling down (cooling branch of the hysteresis). When the uniaxial pressure is applied in the heating branch of the hysteresis, the martensitic transformation occurs in a complete reversible way as the hysteresis delimitates the metastability of the martensitic/austenitic phases and the energy barrier to overcome for the transformation. This procedure leads to a piezoresistance as large as 200%.

  5. Gradient Distribution of Martensite Phase in Melt-Spun Ribbons of a Fe-Ni-Ti-Al Alloy.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Volodymyr; Danilchenko, Vitalij; Dzevin, Ievgenij

    2016-12-01

    Metallographic, X-ray diffraction and magnetometric analysis were used to study the regularities of martensitic transformation in melt-spun ribbons of a Fe - 28 wt. % Ni - 2.1 wt. % Ti - 2 wt. % Al - 0.05 wt. % C alloy. The substantial differences in volume fractions of the martensite phase in local regions of thin melt-spun ribbons of the alloy are related to the size effect of the transformation and structural inhomogeneity of the ribbons. The distribution of austenitic grain size in different local areas of melt-spun ribbons is significantly different. The principal factor for changing the completeness of the martensitic transformation is the size effect of transformation. Difference in the martensite volume fraction in local regions of a ribbon is mainly determined by the different volume fractions of ultrafine-grained (500-1000 nm) and nanosized (80-100 nm and less) initial austenite grains, in which the transformation was slowed down or completely suppressed. Other factors almost do not affect the completeness of the martensitic transformation. The strong stabilizing effect of the reverse α-γ transformation with respect to the subsequent direct γ-α transformation in the melt-spun ribbons is also related to the grain size effect.

  6. Gradient Distribution of Martensite Phase in Melt-Spun Ribbons of a Fe-Ni-Ti-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, Volodymyr; Danilchenko, Vitalij; Dzevin, Ievgenij

    2016-02-01

    Metallographic, X-ray diffraction and magnetometric analysis were used to study the regularities of martensitic transformation in melt-spun ribbons of a Fe - 28 wt. % Ni - 2.1 wt. % Ti - 2 wt. % Al - 0.05 wt. % C alloy. The substantial differences in volume fractions of the martensite phase in local regions of thin melt-spun ribbons of the alloy are related to the size effect of the transformation and structural inhomogeneity of the ribbons. The distribution of austenitic grain size in different local areas of melt-spun ribbons is significantly different. The principal factor for changing the completeness of the martensitic transformation is the size effect of transformation. Difference in the martensite volume fraction in local regions of a ribbon is mainly determined by the different volume fractions of ultrafine-grained (500-1000 nm) and nanosized (80-100 nm and less) initial austenite grains, in which the transformation was slowed down or completely suppressed. Other factors almost do not affect the completeness of the martensitic transformation. The strong stabilizing effect of the reverse α-γ transformation with respect to the subsequent direct γ-α transformation in the melt-spun ribbons is also related to the grain size effect.

  7. Stress-induced martensitic transformation and impact toughness of cast irons and high-carbon Fe-Ni-C steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.-X.; Kelly, P. M.

    2001-11-01

    The relationship between the impact toughness and stress-induced martensitic transformation, which occurs during the impact process, has been studied in white cast irons and an Fe-Ni-C alloy at different temperatures. The experimental results have shown that in the brittle white cast irons, the stress-induced martensitic transformation makes a positive contribution to the impact toughness, and lowering the stability of austenite increases the toughness. In contrast, the transformation makes a negative contribution to the toughness of high-carbon austenitic steels, and lowering the stability of austenite decreases the toughness. The present work supports the early theory[1] that the magnitude of the toughness change depends on the fracture properties of the new phase and the energy being dissipated during the transformation process. Using the crystallographic model for the stress-induced martensitic transformation, which was originally developed in ceramics and was then refined and extended to irons and steels, the effect of the stress-induced martensitic transformation on the impact toughness can be predicted.

  8. Low-temperature criticality of martensitic transformations of Cu nanoprecipitates in α-Fe.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Paul; Sadigh, Babak

    2013-07-12

    Nanoprecipitates form during nucleation of multiphase equilibria in phase segregating multicomponent systems. In spite of their ubiquity, their size-dependent physical chemistry, in particular, at the boundary between phases with incompatible topologies, is still rather arcane. Here, we use extensive atomistic simulations to map out the size-temperature phase diagram of Cu nanoprecipitates in α-Fe. The growing precipitates undergo martensitic transformations from the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase to multiply twinned 9R structures. At high temperatures, the transitions exhibit strong first-order character and prominent hysteresis. Upon cooling, the discontinuities become less pronounced and the transitions occur at ever smaller cluster sizes. Below 300 K, the hysteresis vanishes while the transition remains discontinuous with a finite but diminishing latent heat. This unusual size-temperature phase diagram results from the entropy generated by the soft modes of the bcc-Cu phase, which are stabilized through confinement by the α-Fe lattice.

  9. The Formation of Crystal Defects in a Fe-Mn-Si Alloy Under Cyclic Martensitic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Vladimir I; Danilchenko, Vitaliy E; Iakovlev, Viktor E

    2016-12-01

    Formation of crystalline defects due to cyclic martensitic transformations (CMT) in the iron-manganese Fe-18 wt.% Mn-2 wt.% Si alloy was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Conditions for accumulation of fragment sub-boundaries with low-angle misorientations and chaotic stacking faults in crystal lattice of austenite and ε-martensite were analyzed.

  10. First-principles study of martensitic transformation of IrTi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Zhou; Jiang, Zhen-Yi; Si, Liang; Li, Li-Sha; Zhou, Bo

    2011-10-01

    Ab initio phonon calculations were performed to probe the martensitic transformation of IrTi. The details of the orthorhombic structure were obtained by the soft-phonon approach. We demonstrate that the tetragonal (L10)→ orthorhombic ( Cmmm) transition is driven by the softening of a phonon at the R point (0 1/2 1/2) of the Brillouin zone. The energy landscapes between the various phases of IrTi show that the structural behaviors of IrTi alloy are from cubic to tetragonal, then to orthorhombic and thus the original thought of cubic to monoclinic transition is modified.

  11. Nucleation and growth of the Alpha-Prime Phase martensitic phase in Pu-Ga Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Blobaum, K M; Krenn, C R; Wall, M A; Massalski, T B; Schwartz, A J

    2005-02-09

    In a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy, it is observed experimentally that the amount of the martensitic alpha-prime product formed upon cooling the metastable delta phase below the martensite burst temperature (M{sub b}) is a function of the holding temperature and holding time of a prior conditioning (''annealing'') treatment. Before subjecting a sample to a cooling and heating cycle to form and revert the alpha-prime phase, it was first homogenized for 8 hours at 375 C to remove any microstructural memory of prior transformations. Subsequently, conditioning was carried out in a differential scanning calorimeter apparatus at temperatures in the range between -50 C and 370 C for periods of up to 70 hours to determine the holding time and temperature that produced the largest volume fraction of alpha-prime upon subsequent cooling. Using transformation peak areas (i.e., the heats of transformation) as a measure of the amount of alpha-prime formed, the largest amount of alpha-prime was obtained following holding at 25 C for at prime least 6 hours. Additional time at 25 C, up to 70 hours, did not increase the amount of subsequent alpha-prime formation. At 25 C, the Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy is below the eutectoid transformation temperature in the phase diagram and the expected equilibrium phases are {alpha} and Pu{sub 3}Ga, although a complete eutectoid decomposition of delta to these phases is expected to be extremely slow. It is proposed here that the influence of the conditioning treatment can be attributed to the activation of alpha-phase embryos in the matrix as a beginning step toward the eutectoid decomposition, and we discuss the effects of spontaneous self-irradiation accompanying the Pu radioactive decay on the activation process. Subsequently, upon cooling, certain embryos appear to be active as sites for the burst growth of martensitic alpha-prime particles, and their amount, distribution, and potency appear to contribute to the total amount of martensitic product formed. A

  12. Reversible Martensitic Transformation under Low Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys.

    PubMed

    Bruno, N M; Wang, S; Karaman, I; Chumlyakov, Y I

    2017-01-16

    Magnetic field-induced, reversible martensitic transformations in NiCoMnIn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were studied under constant and varying mechanical loads to understand the role of coupled magneto-mechanical loading on the transformation characteristics and the magnetic field levels required for reversible phase transformations. The samples with two distinct microstructures were tested along the [001] austenite crystallographic direction using a custom designed magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization device while carefully controlling their thermodynamic states through isothermal constant stress and stress-varying magnetic field ramping. Measurements revealed that these meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were capable of generating entropy changes of 14 J kg(-1) K(-1) or 22 J kg (-1) K(-1), and corresponding magnetocaloric cooling with reversible shape changes as high as 5.6% under only 1.3 T, or 3 T applied magnetic fields, respectively. Thus, we demonstrate that this alloy is suitable as an active component in near room temperature devices, such as magnetocaloric regenerators, and that the field levels generated by permanent magnets can be sufficient to completely transform the alloy between its martensitic and austenitic states if the loading sequence developed, herein, is employed.

  13. Reversible Martensitic Transformation under Low Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, N. M.; Wang, S.; Karaman, I.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field-induced, reversible martensitic transformations in NiCoMnIn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were studied under constant and varying mechanical loads to understand the role of coupled magneto-mechanical loading on the transformation characteristics and the magnetic field levels required for reversible phase transformations. The samples with two distinct microstructures were tested along the [001] austenite crystallographic direction using a custom designed magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization device while carefully controlling their thermodynamic states through isothermal constant stress and stress-varying magnetic field ramping. Measurements revealed that these meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were capable of generating entropy changes of 14 J kg‑1 K‑1 or 22 J kg ‑1 K‑1, and corresponding magnetocaloric cooling with reversible shape changes as high as 5.6% under only 1.3 T, or 3 T applied magnetic fields, respectively. Thus, we demonstrate that this alloy is suitable as an active component in near room temperature devices, such as magnetocaloric regenerators, and that the field levels generated by permanent magnets can be sufficient to completely transform the alloy between its martensitic and austenitic states if the loading sequence developed, herein, is employed.

  14. Reversible Martensitic Transformation under Low Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, N. M.; Wang, S.; Karaman, I.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field-induced, reversible martensitic transformations in NiCoMnIn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were studied under constant and varying mechanical loads to understand the role of coupled magneto-mechanical loading on the transformation characteristics and the magnetic field levels required for reversible phase transformations. The samples with two distinct microstructures were tested along the [001] austenite crystallographic direction using a custom designed magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization device while carefully controlling their thermodynamic states through isothermal constant stress and stress-varying magnetic field ramping. Measurements revealed that these meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were capable of generating entropy changes of 14 J kg−1 K−1 or 22 J kg −1 K−1, and corresponding magnetocaloric cooling with reversible shape changes as high as 5.6% under only 1.3 T, or 3 T applied magnetic fields, respectively. Thus, we demonstrate that this alloy is suitable as an active component in near room temperature devices, such as magnetocaloric regenerators, and that the field levels generated by permanent magnets can be sufficient to completely transform the alloy between its martensitic and austenitic states if the loading sequence developed, herein, is employed. PMID:28091551

  15. A Thermo-Plastic-Martensite Transformation Coupled Constitutive Model for Hot Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Zhu; WeiKang, Liang; Zhongxiang, Gui; Kai, Wang; Chao, Wang; Yilin, Wang; Yisheng, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled model based on the von Mises yield criterion and the associated plastic flow rule is developed to further improve the accuracy of numerical simulation during hot stamping. The constitutive model is implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS using user subroutine VUMAT. The martensite transformation, transformation-induced plasticity and volume expansion during the austenite-to-martensite transformation are included in the constitutive model. For this purpose, isothermal tensile tests are performed to obtain the flow stress, and non-isothermal tensile tests were carried out to validate the constitutive model. The non-isothermal tensile numerical simulation demonstrates that the thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled constitutive model provides a reasonable prediction of force-displacement curves upon loading, which is expected to be applied for modeling and simulation of hot stamping.

  16. A Thermo-Plastic-Martensite Transformation Coupled Constitutive Model for Hot Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Zhu; WeiKang, Liang; Zhongxiang, Gui; Kai, Wang; Chao, Wang; Yilin, Wang; Yisheng, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled model based on the von Mises yield criterion and the associated plastic flow rule is developed to further improve the accuracy of numerical simulation during hot stamping. The constitutive model is implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS using user subroutine VUMAT. The martensite transformation, transformation-induced plasticity and volume expansion during the austenite-to-martensite transformation are included in the constitutive model. For this purpose, isothermal tensile tests are performed to obtain the flow stress, and non-isothermal tensile tests were carried out to validate the constitutive model. The non-isothermal tensile numerical simulation demonstrates that the thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled constitutive model provides a reasonable prediction of force-displacement curves upon loading, which is expected to be applied for modeling and simulation of hot stamping.

  17. Small-angle Neutron Scattering Study of Magnetic Ordering and Inhomogeneity Across the Martensitic Phase Transformation in Ni50-xCoxMn40Sn10 Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    dependent (5–600 K) magnetometry and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We observe fairly typical paramagnetic to long-range-ordered 1. REPORT DATE...observe fairly typical paramagnetic to long-range-ordered ferromagnetic phase transitions on cooling to 420–430 K, with the expected critical spin...magnetometry and small- angle neutron scattering (SANS). We observe fairly typical paramagnetic to long-range-ordered ferromagnetic phase transitions

  18. Magnetic indication of the stress-induced martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic Ni Mn Ga alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heczko, O.; L'vov, V. A.; Straka, L.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2006-07-01

    A quantitative study of the stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ni 49.7Mn 29.1Ga 21.2 magnetic shape memory alloy has been carried out in two different ways: the first way is based on the measurements of saturation magnetization under variable mechanical stress and the second one is founded on the quantitative theoretical treatment of experimental stress-strain loops. A functional dependence between the volume fraction of transformed martensite and applied stress has been determined from both magnetization and strain values. A quantitative agreement between the functions determined in two different ways has been observed, and hence, the effectiveness of the magnetic indication of the stress-induced martensitic transformations has been proved. This method can be used to monitor stress-induced transformations in martensitic films, needles and small specimens.

  19. Dynamic theory of morphological characteristics of crystals of ɛ and γ phases, including Headley-Brooks orientation relationships upon the α-ɛ and α-ɛ-γ martensitic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashchenko, M. P.; Chashchina, V. G.

    2015-10-01

    Different variants of the formation of martensite crystals upon the α-γ transformation caused by the tension-compression deformation of {110}α planes have been considered according to the dynamic theory of martensitic transformations. In contrast to previous works, here we take into account the deviation (angle θ) of the principal directions of deformation from the symmetry axes < {1bar 10} rangle _α and <001>α. It has been shown that the requirement of the symmetry of the arrangement of atoms in the basal plane {0001}ɛ is satisfied in the range of angular deviations-arctan √ {2/3} ≤slant θ ≤slant arctan √ {2/3}. The algorithm for calculating the morphological characteristics is illustrated based on the example of an elastically isotropic medium, which does not require assigning concrete values of elastic moduli. The estimations performed make it possible, in particular, to explain the physical nature of the Headley-Brooks orientation relationships as a result of the inheritance of one of the variants of permissible material orientation relationships for the α-ɛ transformation in the course of the ɛ-γ transformation at θ 35°. The changes in the other morphological signs are also discussed.

  20. High-energy X-ray diffuse scattering studies on deformation-induced spatially confined martensitic transformations in multifunctional Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. P.; Wang, Y. D.; Hao, Y. L.; Wang, H. L.; Wang, Y.; Nie, Z. H.; Su, R.; Wang, D.; Ren, Y.; Lu, Z. P.; Wang, J. G.; Hui, X. D.; Yang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Two main explanations exist for the deformation mechanisms in Ti-Nb-based gum metals, i.e. the formation of reversible nanodisturbance and reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. In this work, we used the in situ synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffuse-scattering technique to reveal the existence of a specific deformation mechanism, i.e. deformation-induced spatially confined martensitic transformations, in Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn-0.10O single crystals with cubic 13 parent phase, which explains well some anomalous mechanical properties of the alloy such as low elastic modulus and nonlinear superelasticity. Two kinds of nanosized martensites with different crystal structures were found during uniaxial tensile loading along the [11 0](beta) axis at room temperature and 190 K, respectively. The detailed changes in the martensitic phase transformation characteristics and the transformation kinetics were experimentally observed at different temperatures. The domain switch from non-modulated martensite to a modulated one occurred at 190 K, with its physical origin attributed to the heterogeneity of local phonon softening depending on temperature and inhomogeneous composition in the parent phase. An in-depth understanding of the formation of stress-induced spatially confined nanosized martensites with a large gradient in chemical composition may benefit designs of high-strength and high-ductility alloys. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Yangwei; Xu, Xin; Liu, Chengze

    2015-09-01

    Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases exhibits various strain rate hardening effects, both failure through adiabatic shear band. Ti-5553 alloy with Widmannstatten microstructure exhibit more obvious strain rate hardening effect, lower critical strain rate for ASB nucleation, compared with the alloy with Bimodal microstructures. Under dynamic compression, shock-induced beta to alpha" martensite transformation occurs.

  2. Martensitic transformation of pure iron at a grain boundary: Atomistic evidence for a two-step Kurdjumov-Sachs-Pitsch pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiser, Jerome; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2016-08-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations and the Meyer-Entel interaction potential, we study the martensitic transformation pathway in a pure iron bi-crystal containing a symmetric tilt grain boundary. Upon cooling the system from the austenitic phase, the transformation starts with the nucleation of the martensitic phase near the grain boundary in a plate-like arrangement. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relations are fulfilled at the plates. During further cooling, the plates expand and merge. In contrast to the orientation relation in the plate structure, the complete transformation proceeds via the Pitsch pathway.

  3. The atomistic mechanism of hcp-to-bcc martensitic transformation in the Ti-Nb system revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, JiaHao; Liu, BaiXin

    2015-02-14

    Applying the constructed Ti-Nb potentials, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the martensitic transformation of Ti100-xNbx alloys (x = 5, 10…25) from the α' phase (hcp) to the β phase (bcc). It is found that the transformation involved four phases, i.e. α', α'', fco (face-centered orthorhombic), and β phases. The structures of the obtained phases exhibit consistency with experimental data, verifying the validity of atomic simulations. The simulations not only revealed the processes of atomic displacements during the transformation, but also elucidated the underlying mechanism of the martensitic transformation at the atomic level. The martensitic transformation incorporates three types of coinstantaneous deformations i.e. slide, shear as well as extension, and the subsequent lattice constant relaxation. Furthermore, according to the proposed mechanism, the crystallographic correlation between the initial α' phase and the final β phase has been deduced. The simulation results provide a clear landscape on the martensitic transformation mechanism, facilitating our comprehensive understanding on the phase transition in the Ti-Nb system.

  4. Direct evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Cong, D. Y.; Wang, Z. L.; Nie, Z. H.; Dong, Y. H.; Zhang, Y.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Y. D.

    2015-07-08

    The structural response of coexisting multiple martensites to stress field in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy was investigated by the in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction technique. Stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites was observed at 110 K, at which five-layered modulated (5M), seven-layered modulated (7M) and non-modulated (NM) martensites coexist. We found that a tiny stress of as low as 0.5 MPa could trigger the transformation from 5M and 7M martensites to NM martensite and this transformation is partly reversible. Besides the transformation between coexisting multiple martensites, rearrangement of martensite variants also occurs during loading, at least at high stress levels. The present study is instructive for designing advanced multifunctional alloys with easy actuation.

  5. Direct evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Cong, D. Y.; Wang, Z. L.; Nie, Z. H.; Dong, Y. H.; Zhang, Y.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Y. D.

    2015-06-03

    The structural response of coexisting multiple martensites to stress field in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy was investigated by the in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction technique. Stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites was observed at 110 K, at which five-layered modulated (5M), seven-layered modulated (7M) and non-modulated (NM) martensites coexist. We found that a tiny stress of as low as 0.5 MPa could trigger the transformation from 5M and 7M martensites to NM martensite and this transformation is partly reversible. Besides the transformation between coexisting multiple martensites, rearrangement of martensite variants also occurs during loading, at least at high stress levels. The present study is instructive for designing advanced multifunctional alloys with easy actuation.

  6. Structure fragmentation in Fe-based alloys by means of cyclic martensitic transformations of different types.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Volodimir I; Danilchenko, Vitalij Ie; Dzevin, Ievgenij M

    2014-02-24

    The effect of martensite transformations of different types on the misorientation of austenite crystalline lattice, which characterizes the degree of structure fragmentation, was investigated for Fe-Ni and Fe-Mn alloys. As a result of multiple face-centered cubic (f.c.c.)-body-centered cubic (b.c.c.)-f.c.c. transformations, an austenite single-crystalline specimen is transformed in a polycrystalline one due to progressive fragmentation. It was shown that the degree of fragmentation depends on the magnitude of volume change and the density of dislocations generated on martensitic transformations.

  7. Surface analysis of the Heusler Ni49.7Mn29.1Ga21.2 Alloy: The composition, phase transition, and twinned microstructure of martensite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horáková, Kateřina; Cháb, Vladimír; Heczko, Oleg; Drchal, Václav; Fekete, Ladislav; Honolka, Jan; Kopeček, Jaromír; Kudrnovský, Josef; Polyak, Yaroslav; Sajdl, Petr; Vondráček, Martin; Lančok, Ján; Feyer, Vitaliy; Wiemann, Carsten; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-09-01

    Surface analysis was used to study the dynamics of the martensitic transformation on macro- and mesoscopic scales. The chemical state, morphology, and magnetic and surface structure were monitored at particular stages of the phase transition. At room temperature, the martensitic phase of the Ni49.7Mn29.1Ga21.2 (100) single crystal exhibited macroscopic a/c twinning and a corresponding magnetic domain structure characterized by magnetization vector in and out of the surface plane. Induced by radiation heating, the transformation from martensite to austenite takes place separately at the surface and in the bulk. Its dynamics depend on the history of the sample treatment which affects the crystallographic orientation of twins and minor changes of the surface stoichiometry. The interfaces (twin planes) between twin variants in the martensitic phase were noticeable also in the austenitic phase, thanks to the shape memory effect of this material.

  8. Martensitic transformation in a Cu-Zn-Al alloy studied by 63Cu and 27Al NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubini, S.; Dimitropoulos, C.; Gotthardt, R.; Borsa, F.

    1991-08-01

    27Al and 63Cu line shape, Knight shift, and relaxation rates over a wide range of temperature and external magnetic field are reported for a Cu-Zn-Al alloy displaying a martensitic phase transformation (MPT) at MS=152 K. Changes in line shape, linewidth, and T-12 at the MPT are detected for both nuclei, and are found to be consistent with the local atomic rearrangement occurring at the transformation. A double structure for the 27Al NMR line is observed in a small range of temperature below MS, and interpreted as the superposition of the signals arising from the two coexisting phases. It is shown that the growth of the martensitic phase during the cooling can be monitored by means of the deconvolution of the 27Al spectrum into the two components. From the analysis, it is inferred that a sudden formation of extensive regions in the martensitic phase occurs at the transition. The Knight shift and the Korringa term (T1T)-1 are slightly different in the two phases, indicating a small increase of the density of s electrons at the Fermi surface at the nuclear sites. The enhancement factors of the susceptibility and of the spin-lattice relaxation rate do not seem to be affected by the MPT but are different when measured at the Al or Cu site, indicating a local nonuniform charge-density distribution in the unit cell. A small enhancement of T-11 is observed for both nuclei in the temperature interval in which the growth of the martensite within the austenite is detected. The anomalous contribution to the relaxation is interpreted as due to strong local charge-density fluctuations caused by atomic motion at the interfaces between the two phases. No precursor effects were detected on the NMR parameters above MS, indicating the absence of a static or long-lived microstructure of the product phase and of a static short-wavelength modulation of the lattice.

  9. Deformation of a Ti-Nb alloy containing a"-martensite and omega phases

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, S; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-30

    Microscopic deformation of a Ti-17at. %Nb alloy with high fractions of alpha"-martensite and omega phases was studied by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Textures, phase fractions, individual lattice strains, and peak intensities during deformation were studied. It is found that, to accommodate the external tensile strain, some of the alpha" and omega grains were first transformed to the beta-phase, which then continuously transformed to the alpha"-phase with chosen variants that effectively accommodate the deformation strain. A strong (010)(alpha") fiber texture was formed at the expense of the (001)(alpha") and (111)(alpha") fiber textures. Above 400 MPa applied stress, (110)(alpha") deformation twinning was triggered with a simultaneous stress relaxation in the (110)(alpha") family and a slight increase in its texture strength in the loading direction. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  10. Martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Ni2FeGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, M.; Cui, Y. T.; Zhou, Y. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Zhang, X. X.; Xiao, Gang

    2003-01-01

    We have synthesized ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Ni2FeGa using the melt-spinning technique. The Ni2FeGa ribbon, having a high chemical ordering L21 structure, exhibits a thermoelastic martensitic transformation from cubic to orthorhombic structure at 142 K and a premartensitic transformation. The alloy has a relatively high Curie temperature of 430 K, a magnetization of 73 Am2/kg, and a low saturated field of 0.6 T. The textured samples with preferentially oriented grains show a completely recoverable two-way shape memory effect with a strain of 0.3% upon the thermoelastic martensitic transformation.

  11. Effects of ternary additions on Young's modulus and the martensitic transformation of Nb/sub 3/Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Bussiere, J.F.; Faucher, B.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Suenaga, M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent measurements on bronze-processed Nb/sub 3/Sn using a vibrating reed technique have shown that Young's modulus at low temperatures decreases to 0.4 of its room temperature value, and that the internal friction increases dramatically below 50 K, the martensitic transformation temperature. In this study, this technique was used to study softening and the occurrence of the martensitic transformation in bronze-processed Nb/sub 3/Sn samples which contained additions of Ta, Ti, and Zr. Sample preparations and characteristics of the compositions are given. Internal friction and dynamic Young's modulus were measured using electronics based on a phase-locked loop and frequency mode developed by Simpson and Sosin. Softening of Young's modulus and occurrence of the martensitic transformation were found to be strongly affected by the presence of relatively small amounts (0-4 at .%) of Ta, Ti, or Zr. Additions incorporating 2 at .% Ti in the Nb/sub 3/Sn increased Young's modulus by a factor of 2 at 10 K and also suppressed the transformation.

  12. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-05-12

    We revisit results from decades of pressure experiments on the bcc ↔ hcp transformations in iron, which are sensitive to non-hydrostatic conditions and sample size. We emphasize the role of martensitic stress in the observed pressure hysteresis and address the large spread in values for onset pressures of the nucleating phase. From electronic-structure calculations, we find a bcc ↔ hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa. Accounting for non-hydrostatic martensitic stress and a stress-dependent transition barrier, we suggest a pressure inequality for better comparison to experiment and observed hysteresis. We construct the equation of state for bcc and hcp phases under hydrostatic pressure, and compare to experiments and previous calculations.

  13. Prediction of precipitate evolution and martensite transformation in Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys by computational thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povoden-Karadeniz, A.; Cirstea, D. C.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2016-04-01

    Ti-50Ni to Ti-55Ni (at.%) can be termed as the pioneer of shape memory alloys (SMA). Intermetallic precipitates play an important role for strengthening. Their influence on the start temperature of the martensitic transformation is a crucial property for the shape memory effect. Efforts for increasing the martensite start temperature include replacement of a part of Ni atoms by Cu. The influence of Cu-addition to Ti-Ni SMA on T0- temperatures and the character of the austenite-martensite transformation is evaluated using a new thermodynamic database for the Ti-Ni-system extended by Cu. Trends of precipitation of intermetallic phases are simulated by combining the assessed thermodynamics of the Ti-Ni-Cu system with assessed diffusion mobility data and kinetic models, as implemented in the solid-state transformation software MatCalc and are presented in the form of time-temperature-precipitation diagrams. Thermodynamic equilibrium considerations, complemented by predictive thermo-kinetic precipitation simulation, facilitates SMA alloy design and definition of optimized aging conditions.

  14. The martensitic transformation, magnetocaloric effect, and magnetoresistance in high-Mn content Mn47+xNi43-xSn10 ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, H. C.; Zheng, Y. X.; Ma, S. C.; Cao, Q. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2010-11-01

    A series of high-Mn content Mn47+xNi43-xSn10 (x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) ferromagnetic shape memory alloys were prepared by arc melting method. The martensitic transformation were observed in these alloys, even the content of Mn is higher than 50 at. %. The phase transition temperature of these alloys can be adjusted by tuning the compositions of Ni and Mn. Large positive magnetic entropy change and negative magnetoresistance which originate from the magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation are obtained in these alloys.

  15. Nature of the effect of magnetic fields on the starting temperature of martensitic transformation in iron alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Mirzaev, D. A.; Kaletina, Yu. V.; Fokina, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on martensitic transformations, which is satisfactorily described by the Krivoglaz-Sadovskii formula, has been analyzed taking into account the nonequilibrium of the martensitic transformation, the possible adiabatic conditions, and the magnetostriction of the paraprocess in ferromagnetic austenite.

  16. THE EFFECT OF REPEATED COMPRESSIVE DYNAMIC LOADING ON THE STRESS-INDUCED MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION IN NiTi SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    D. MILLER; W. THISSELL; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    It has been shown that quasi-static, cyclic, isothermal mechanical loading influences the mechanical response of the stress-induced martensitic transformation in fully annealed NiTi Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). As the cycle number increases, hardening of the stress-strain response during the martensitic phase transformation is seen along with a decrease in the threshold stress for initiation of stress-induced martensite. Also, the amount of plastic strain and detwinned martensitic strain decreases as the cycle number increases. However, NiTi SMAs have not been experimentally explored under high compressive strain rates. This research explores the cyclic near-adiabatic stress-induced martensitic loading using a Split Hopkinskin Pressure Bar (SHPB). The results of the dynamic loading tests are presented with emphasis on the loading rate, stress-strain response, specimen temperature and post-test microstructural evaluation. The results from the high strain rate tests show similarities with the quasi-static results in the hardening of the stress-strain response and shifting of the threshold stress for initiation of stress-induced martensite.

  17. Influence of nonmartensitic transformation products on mechanical properties of tempered martensite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, J M; Lankford, W T

    1952-01-01

    The influence of nonmartensitic transformations products on the mechanical properties of tempered martensite is presented for samples of a SAE 4340 steel, partially isothermally transformed to specific high-temperature transformation products and quenched and tempered to hardness values of from 25 to 40 Rockwell c. The effects of upper bainite in amounts of 1,5, 10, 20 and 50 percent, of 5 percent ferrite, and of 5 percent pearlite on the tensile, impact, and fatigue properties are evaluated. (author)

  18. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-05-12

    We revisit results from decades of pressure experiments on the bcc ↔ hcp transformations in iron, which are sensitive to non-hydrostatic conditions and sample size. We emphasize the role of martensitic stress in the observed pressure hysteresis and address the large spread in values for onset pressures of the nucleating phase. From electronic-structure calculations, we find a bcc ↔ hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa. Accounting for non-hydrostatic martensitic stress and a stress-dependent transition barrier, we suggest a pressure inequality for better comparison to experiment and observed hysteresis. We construct the equation of state for bcc and hcp phasesmore » under hydrostatic pressure, and compare to experiments and previous calculations.« less

  19. Crystallography of the Delta to Alpha Martensitic Transformation in Plutonium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Y; Wang, Y; Khachaturyan, A; Krenn, C; Schwartz, A

    2004-07-15

    A new stress-accommodating crystallographic mechanism of the {delta} {yields} {alpha} martensitic transformation in plutonium alloys is proposed. According to this mechanism, an orientation variant of the {alpha} phase is produced by a combination of a homogeneous strain and shuffling of the alternating close-packed (111){sub {delta}} planes. It is shown that the formation of stable transformation-induced twins whose twin plane orientations and twin shear directions do not depend on the small variations of the crystal lattice parameters is the preferred stress-accommodating mode. Only these stable twins have dislocation-free twin boundaries while the twin boundaries of all others are decorated by ultra-dense distribution of partial dislocations. The theory predicts a crystal lattice rearrangement mechanism involving the (205){sub {alpha}} ((01{bar 1}){sub {delta}}) stable twins. The corresponding Invariant Plane Strain solutions, with special emphasis on two simplest shuffling modes, the single and double elementary modes, are presented and compared with the existing experimental observations. It is shown that the habit plane orientation is highly sensitive to the input values of the crystal lattice parameters and especially to the accuracy of the measured volume change in the {delta}{yields}{alpha} transformation. An analysis of these effects on the habit plane orientation and orientation relations is also presented.

  20. Magnetic Study of Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel by Low Field Hysteresis Loops Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lefu; Takahashi, Seiki; Kamada, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroaki; Mumtaz, Khalid; Ara, Katsuyuki; Sato, Masaya

    2005-04-09

    Magnetic method has been used to evaluate the volume percentage of {alpha}' martensitic phase in austenitic stainless steels by measuring saturation magnetization, and it is said to be a candidate NDE method. However, nondestructive detection of saturation magnetization without high magnetic field is difficult. In the current work, we present a NDE method for evaluating the magnetic properties of strain induced {alpha}' martensitic phase. Low field hysteresis loops of an austenitic stainless steels type SUS 304 after cold rolling were measured by using a yoke sensor. The results show that the initial permeability {mu}i and the relative coercive field Hcl calculated by low field hysteresis loop analysis keep monotonic relation with saturation magnetization and coercive force measured by VSM, respectively. By this method, it is possible to characterize the volume content and particle properties of {alpha}' martensitic phase in stainless steels.

  1. New mechanism for the alpha to omega martensitic transformation in pure titanium.

    PubMed

    Trinkle, D R; Hennig, R G; Srinivasan, S G; Hatch, D M; Jones, M D; Stokes, H T; Albers, R C; Wilkins, J W

    2003-07-11

    We propose a new direct mechanism for the pressure driven alpha-->omega martensitic transformation in pure titanium. A systematic algorithm enumerates all possible pathways whose energy barriers are evaluated. A new, homogeneous pathway emerges with a barrier at least 4 times lower than other pathways. The pathway is shown to be favorable in any nucleation model.

  2. Decomposition of Austenite Under Conditions of Competition of Martensitic and Bainitic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozvonin, V. A.; Shatsov, A. A.; Simonov, M. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Low-carbon martensitic steels (LCMS) 15Kh2G2NMFB and 27Kh2G2NMFB are studied after an isothermal hold at 360°C and 340°C, respectively, with subsequent continuous cooling in air. The temperature and ranges of the dominant shear and diffusion mechanisms of the γ → α transformations are determined by computation. The principal differences in the morphology and the sizes of laths and packets of low-carbon martensite and upper bainite are determined.

  3. Comparative study on microstructure and martensitic transformation of aged Ni-rich NiTi and NiTiCo shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bagoury, Nader

    2016-05-01

    In this article the influence of aging heat treatment conditions of 250, 350, 450 and 550 °C for 3 h on the microstructure, martensitic transformation temperatures and mechanical properties of Ni51Ti49Co0 and Ni47 Ti49Co4 shape memory alloys was investigated. This comparative study was carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer, differential scanning calorimeter and Vickers hardness tester. The results show that the microstructure of both aged alloys contains martensite phase and Ti2Ni in addition to some other precipitates. The martensitic transformation temperature was increased steadily by increasing the ageing temperature and lowering the value of valence electron number (ev/a) and concentration. Moreover, the hardness measurements were gradually increased at first by increasing the aging temperature from 250 to 350 °C. Further elevating in aging temperature to 450 and 550 °C decreases the hardness value.

  4. Dissecting the Mechanism of Martensitic Transformation via Atomic-Scale Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Sun, Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Evan; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Martensitic transformation plays a pivotal role in the microstructural evolution and plasticity of many engineering materials. However, so far the underlying atomic processes that accomplish the displacive transformation have been obscured by the difficulty in directly observing key microstructural signatures on atomic scale. To resolve this long-standing problem, here we examine an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel that has a strain/microstructure-gradient induced by surface mechanical attrition, which allowed us to capture in one sample all the key interphase regions generated during the γ(fcc) --> ɛ(hcp) --> α'(bcc) transition, a prototypical case of deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations confirm the crucial role of partial dislocations, and reveal tell-tale features including the lattice rotation of the α' martensite inclusion, the transition lattices at the ɛ/α' interfaces that cater the shears, and the excess reverse shear-shuffling induced γ necks in the ɛ martensite plates. These direct observations verify for the first time the 50-year-old Bogers-Burgers-Olson-Cohen (BBOC) model, and enrich our understanding of DIMT mechanisms. Our findings have implications for improved microstructural control in metals and alloys.

  5. Dissecting the Mechanism of Martensitic Transformation via Atomic-Scale Observations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Sun, Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Evan; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Martensitic transformation plays a pivotal role in the microstructural evolution and plasticity of many engineering materials. However, so far the underlying atomic processes that accomplish the displacive transformation have been obscured by the difficulty in directly observing key microstructural signatures on atomic scale. To resolve this long-standing problem, here we examine an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel that has a strain/microstructure-gradient induced by surface mechanical attrition, which allowed us to capture in one sample all the key interphase regions generated during the γ(fcc) → ε(hcp) → α′(bcc) transition, a prototypical case of deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations confirm the crucial role of partial dislocations, and reveal tell-tale features including the lattice rotation of the α′ martensite inclusion, the transition lattices at the ε/α′ interfaces that cater the shears, and the excess reverse shear-shuffling induced γ necks in the ε martensite plates. These direct observations verify for the first time the 50-year-old Bogers-Burgers-Olson-Cohen (BBOC) model, and enrich our understanding of DIMT mechanisms. Our findings have implications for improved microstructural control in metals and alloys. PMID:25142283

  6. Dissecting the mechanism of martensitic transformation via atomic-scale observations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Sun, Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Evan; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-08-21

    Martensitic transformation plays a pivotal role in the microstructural evolution and plasticity of many engineering materials. However, so far the underlying atomic processes that accomplish the displacive transformation have been obscured by the difficulty in directly observing key microstructural signatures on atomic scale. To resolve this long-standing problem, here we examine an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel that has a strain/microstructure-gradient induced by surface mechanical attrition, which allowed us to capture in one sample all the key interphase regions generated during the γ(fcc) → ε(hcp) → α'(bcc) transition, a prototypical case of deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations confirm the crucial role of partial dislocations, and reveal tell-tale features including the lattice rotation of the α' martensite inclusion, the transition lattices at the ε/α' interfaces that cater the shears, and the excess reverse shear-shuffling induced γ necks in the ε martensite plates. These direct observations verify for the first time the 50-year-old Bogers-Burgers-Olson-Cohen (BBOC) model, and enrich our understanding of DIMT mechanisms. Our findings have implications for improved microstructural control in metals and alloys.

  7. Probing the isothermal (delta)->(alpha)' martensitic transformation in Pu-Ga with in situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J R; Blobaum, K M; Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Yang, W; Evans, W J

    2010-03-11

    The time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curve for the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} isothermal martensitic transformation in a Pu-1.9 at. % Ga alloy is peculiar because it is reported to have a double-C curve. Recent work suggests that an ambient temperature conditioning treatment enables the lower-C curve. However, the mechanisms responsible for the double-C are still not fully understood. When the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation is induced by pressure, an intermediate {gamma}{prime} phase is observed in some alloys. It has been suggested that transformation at upper-C temperatures may proceed via this intermediate phase, while lower-C transformation progresses directly from {delta} to {alpha}{prime}. To investigate the possibility of thermally induced transformation via the intermediate {gamma}{prime} phase, in situ x-ray diffraction at the Advanced Photon Source was performed. Using transmission x-ray diffraction, the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation was observed in samples as thin at 30 {micro}m as a function of time and temperature. The intermediate {gamma}{prime} phase was not observed at -120 C (upper-C curve) or -155 C (lower-C curve). Results indicate that the bulk of the {alpha}{prime} phase forms relatively rapidly at -120 C and -155 C.

  8. Dependence of the enthalpy of the direct martensitic transformation in titanium nickelide on the stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, S. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-02-01

    An original technique of differential thermal analysis for studying thermal properties of samples loaded with a tangential stress has been created. In a series of experiments studying the direct martensitic transformation B2 → B19' in titanium nickelide during cooling under constant stress, it has been found that the enthalpy of transformation linearly decreases with an increase in stress and, at a stress of 100 MPa, it is 30% less than that of the sample in a free state.

  9. Geometrical model for martensitic phase transitions: Understanding criticality and weak universality during microstructure growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrents, Genís; Illa, Xavier; Vives, Eduard; Planes, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    A simple model for the growth of elongated domains (needle-like) during a martensitic phase transition is presented. The model is purely geometric and the only interactions are due to the sequentiality of the kinetic problem and to the excluded volume, since domains cannot retransform back to the original phase. Despite this very simple interaction, numerical simulations show that the final observed microstructure can be described as being a consequence of dipolar-like interactions. The model is analytically solved in 2D for the case in which two symmetry related domains can grow in the horizontal and vertical directions. It is remarkable that the solution is analytic both for a finite system of size L ×L and in the thermodynamic limit L →∞ , where the elongated domains become lines. Results prove the existence of criticality, i.e., that the domain sizes observed in the final microstructure show a power-law distribution characterized by a critical exponent. The exponent, nevertheless, depends on the relative probabilities of the different equivalent variants. The results provide a plausible explanation of the weak universality of the critical exponents measured during martensitic transformations in metallic alloys. Experimental exponents show a monotonous dependence with the number of equivalent variants that grow during the transition.

  10. Boron's effect on martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect in Ni43Mn46Sn11Bx alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, H. C.; Wang, D. H.; Zhang, C. L.; Han, Z. D.; Gu, B. X.; Du, Y. W.

    2008-03-01

    The most used method for changing the martensitic transformation temperatures in the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys is tuning the valence election concentration e /a. In this paper, we report an alternative way, i.e., introducing few interstitial boron atoms in Ni43Mn46Sn11 alloy. The experimental results show that the martensitic transformation temperatures increase with the increasing boron content remarkably and large magnetic entropy changes can be obtained in these alloys. A possible origin of the enhanced martensitic transformation temperatures and large magnetic entropy changes is discussed in this paper.

  11. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility in the vicinity of martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Zablotskii, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Recarte, V; Gómez-Polo, C

    2010-08-11

    Temperature dependences of low-field quasistatic magnetic susceptibility in the vicinity of martensitic transitions in an NiFeGa alloy are studied both by experiment and analytically. Pronounced reversible jumps of the magnetic susceptibility were observed near the martensitic transition temperature. A general description of the temperature dependences of the susceptibility in ferromagnetic austenite and martensite phases and the susceptibility jump at the transition is suggested. As a result, the main factors governing the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility in the magnetic shape memory alloys are revealed. The magnetic susceptibility jump value is found to be related to changes of: (i) magnetic anisotropy; (ii) magnetic domain wall geometrical constraints (those determined by the alignment and size of twin variants) and (iii) mean magnetic domain spacing.

  12. Microstructure and martensitic transformation in Si-coated TiNi powders prepared by ball milling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-hyun; Cho, Gyu-bong; Im, Yeon-min; Chun, Byong-sun; Kim, Yeon-wook; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous Si-coated TiNi powders were prepared successfully by ball milling. • Ti{sub 4}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 7} was formed at the interface between Si and TiNi after annealing. • Si-coated Ti–Ni powders displayed the R phase after annealing. - Abstract: Si was coated on the surface of Ti–49Ni (at%) alloy powders by ball milling in order to improve the electrochemical properties of the Si electrodes of secondary Li ion batteries and then the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Ti–Ni powders coated with Si were fabricated successfully by ball milling. As-milled powders consisted of highly deformed Ti–Ni powders with the B2 phase and amorphous Si layers. The thickness of the Si layer coated on the surface of the Ti–Ni powders increased from 3–5 μm to 10–15 μm by extending the milling time from 3 h to 48 h. However, severe contamination from the grinding media, ZrO{sub 2} occurred when the ball milling time was as long as 48 h. By heating as-milled powders to various temperatures in the range of 673–873 K, the highly deformed Ti–Ni powders were recovered and Ti{sub 4}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 7} was formed. Two-stage B2–R–B19′ transformation occurred when as-milled Si-coated Ti–49Ni alloy powders were heated to temperatures below 873 K, above this temperature one-stage B2–B19′ transformation occurred.

  13. Neutron diffraction study of the martensitic transformation and chemical order in Heusler alloy Ni1.91Mn1.29Ga0.8

    DOE PAGES

    Ari-Gur, Pnina; Garlea, Vasile O.; Cao, Huibo; ...

    2015-11-05

    In this study, Heusler alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga compositions demonstrate ferromagnetic shape memory effect in the martensitic state. The transformation temperature and the chemical order depend strongly on the composition. In the current work, the structure and chemical order of the martensitic phase of Ni1.91Mn1.29Ga0.8 were studied using neutron diffraction; the diffraction pattern was refined using the FullProf software. It was determined that the structural transition occurs around 330 K. At room temperature, 300 K, which is below the martensite transformation temperature, all the Bragg reflections can be described by a monoclinic lattice with a symmetry of space group P 1more » 2/m 1 and lattice constants of a = 4.23047(7) [Å], b = 5.58333(6) [Å], c = 21.0179(2) [Å], beta = 90.328(1). The chemical order is of critical importance in these alloys, and it was previously studied at 363 K. Analysis of the neutron diffraction in the monoclinic phase shows that the chemical order is maintained during the martensitic transformation.« less

  14. Investigations on Ni-Co-Mn-Sn thin films: Effect of substrate temperature and Ar gas pressure on the martensitic transformations and exchange bias properties

    SciTech Connect

    Machavarapu, Ramudu Jakob, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    We report the effect of substrate temperature (T{sub S}) and Ar gas pressure (P{sub D}) on the martensitic transformations, magnetic and exchange bias (EB) properties in Heusler type Ni-Co-Mn-Sn epitaxial thin films. Martensitic transformation temperatures and EB fields at 5 K were found to increase with increasing T{sub S}. The observed maximum EB value of 320 Oe after field cooling in the film deposited at 650 {sup ∘}C is high among the values reported for Ni-Mn-Sn thin films which is attributed to the coexistence of ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) phases in the martensitic state. In the case of P{sub D} variation, with increase in P{sub D}, martensitic transformation temperatures were increased and a sharp transformation was observed in the film deposited at 0.06 mbar. Magnetization values at 5 K were higher for increasing P{sub D}. These observations are attributed to the compositional shift. EB effect is also present in these films. Microstructural features observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows a fine twinning and reduced precipitation with increase in P{sub D}, which is also confirmed from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. EB effects in both series were confirmed from the training effect. Target ageing effect has been observed in the films deposited before and after ninety days of time interval. This has been confirmed both on substrate temperature and Ar gas pressure variations.

  15. Deformation behavior of duplex austenite and ε-martensite high-Mn steel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ki Hyuk; Suh, Byeong-Chan; Baik, Sung-Il; Kim, Young-Woon; Choi, Jong-Kyo; Kim, Nack J

    2013-02-01

    Deformation and work hardening behavior of Fe-17Mn-0.02C steel containing ε-martensite within the austenite matrix have been investigated by means of in situ microstructural observations and x-ray diffraction analysis. During deformation, the steel shows the deformation-induced transformation of austenite → ε-martensite → α'-martensite as well as the direct transformation of austenite → α'-martensite. Based on the calculation of changes in the fraction of each constituent phase, we found that the phase transformation of austenite → ε-martensite is more effective in work hardening than that of ε-martensite → α'-martensite. Moreover, reverse transformation of ε-martensite → austenite has also been observed during deformation. It originates from the formation of stacking faults within the deformed ε-martensite, resulting in the formation of 6H-long periodic ordered structure.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of a glissile dislocation interface propagating a martensitic transformation.

    PubMed

    Lill, J V; Broughton, J Q

    2000-06-19

    The method of Parrinello and Rahman is generalized to include slip in addition to deformation of the simulation cell. Equations of motion are derived, and a microscopic expression for traction is introduced. Lagrangian constraints are imposed so that the combination of deformation and slip conform to the invariant plane shear characteristic of martensites. Simulation of a model transformation demonstrates the nucleation and propagation of a glissile dislocation interface.

  17. Unraveling the composition dependence of the martensitic transformation temperature: A first-principles study of Ti-Ta alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Rogal, Jutta; Drautz, Ralf

    2016-12-01

    The martensitic start temperature Ms is one of the key characteristics of shape memory materials. High-temperature shape memory alloys are a special class of materials where transformation temperatures between the martensite and austenite phase above 373 K are desirable. For the design of new high-temperature shape memory alloys it is therefore important to understand and predict the dependence of Ms on the composition of the material. Using density functional theory in combination with the quasiharmonic Debye model, we evaluate the different contributions to the free energy to determine the transition temperature T0 over a wide range of compositions in Ti-Ta alloys. Our approach provides physical insight into the various contributions that explain the strong composition dependence of Ms that is observed experimentally. Based on our calculations, we identify the relative phase stability at T =0 K and the vibrational entropy difference between the involved phases as critical parameters to predict changes in T0. We propose a simple, one-dimensional descriptor to estimate the transition temperature that can be used in the identification of new alloys suitable for high-temperature shape memory applications.

  18. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2014-12-24

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite (“glassy” B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, butmore » unstable B2. Furthermore, these high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.« less

  19. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2014-12-24

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite (“glassy” B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. Furthermore, these high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  20. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states.

    PubMed

    Zarkevich, N A; Johnson, D D

    2014-12-31

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy; nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudged elastic band method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between a body-centered orthorhombic (bco) ground state and a newly identified stable austenite ("glassy" B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R phase), and between martensite variants (bco orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. These high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  1. Phase transformation and stabilization of a high strength austenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, S.; Huang, D.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the phase transformation and the austenite stabilization in a high strength austenite has been made. An Fe-29Ni-4.3Ti austenite age-hardened by gamma-prime (Ni3Ti) precipitates showed a further increase of strength after martensitic and reverse martensitic phase transformations. The stability of ausaged austenite as well as ausaged and transformation-strengthened austenite was improved significantly through an isothermal treatment at 500 C. The Ms temperature of the strengthened austenite was restored to nearly that of annealed austenite while the austenite was hardened to R(C) 41 through precipitation and phase transformations. The observed austenite stabilization is attributed to the formation of GP zones or short-range order of less than about 10A in size.

  2. Precipitation Effects on the Martensitic Transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suru, Marius-Gabriel; Lohan, Nicoleta-Monica; Pricop, Bogdan; Mihalache, Elena; Mocanu, Mihai; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the effects of precipitation of α-phase on a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) with chemical composition bordering on β region. By differential scanning calorimetry, a series of reproducible heat flow fluctuations was determined on heating a hot-rolled martensitic Cu-Al-Ni SMA, which was associated with the precipitation of α-phase. Two heat treatments were given to the SMA so as to "freeze" its states before and after the thermal range for precipitation, respectively. The corresponding microstructures of the two heat-treated states were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and were compared with the initial martensitic state. Energy dispersive spectroscopy experiments were carried out to determine the chemical compositions of the different phases formed in heat-treated specimens. The initial as well as the heat-treated specimens with a lamellar shape were further comparatively investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) tests comprising heating-cooling cycles under a bending load. Temperature scans were applied to the three types of specimens (initial and heat-treated states), so as to bring out the effects of heat treatment. The storage modulus increased, corresponding to the reversion of thermoelastic martensite and disappeared with the formation of precipitates. These features are finally discussed in association with TWSME under bending.

  3. Phase composition and hardening of steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Co-Mo system with martensite-austenite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, L. V.; Shal'kevich, A. B.

    2007-03-01

    The phase composition and mechanical properties of maraging steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Co-Mo system are studied as a function of the alloying and of the temperatures of quenching and aging. The intermetallic phases strengthening martensite in different aging stages are determined. The degree of the hardening and the variation of the impact toughness at cryogenic temperatures are compared for steels with different structures (martensite and martensite-austenite) in the stages of maximum hardening and overaging. The effect of retained and reverted austenite on the resistance to crack propagation under impact loading is determined for steels with martensite of a different nature and amount of hardening phases.

  4. Martensitic transformation of Ni2FeGa ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy studied via transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. R.; Ma, C.; Tian, H. F.; Wu, G. H.; Li, J. Q.

    2008-06-01

    The structural properties of Ni2FeGa Heusler alloy synthesized by melt-spinning technique have been systematically studied by means of in situ heating and cooling transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the Ni2FeGa alloy was annealed into a well-defined L21 structure at around 980 K, and complex microstructural domains appeared along with lowering temperature. At room temperature (293 K), a rich variety of micromodulated domains were observed. The domain structures were aligned along the ⟨110⟩ or ⟨100⟩ directions resulting to complex tweed structures. Below martensitic transformation (MT) temperature (Ms,˜142K) , the cubic parent phase transformed into unmodulated martensitic variants and modulated martensitic variants. The variants were alternated along the ⟨100⟩ direction with various arrangements and steplike incommensurate boundaries. The modulated martensitic variants were composed of lamellar structures that have predominately a 5M modulation structure along the ⟨110⟩ directions. The electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the low-loss region and the electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure revealed a visible change of the electronic structure along with MT, which can be well interpreted by means of intra-atomic or intraband charge redistribution due to spd orbital hybridization among the Ni-Fe-Ga atoms.

  5. Martensitic fcc-to-hcp transformation observed in xenon at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Cynn, H; Yoo, C S; Baer, B; Iota-Herbei, V; McMahan, A K; Nicol, M; Carlson, S

    2001-05-14

    Angle-resolved x-ray diffraction patterns of Xe to 127 GPa indicate that the fcc-to-hcp transition occurs martensitically between 3 and 70 GPa in diamond-anvil cells without an intermediate phase. These data also reveal that the transition occurs by the introduction of stacking disorder in the fcc lattice at low pressure, which grows into hcp domains with increasing pressure. The small energy difference between the hcp and the fcc structures may allow the two phases to coexist over a wide pressure range. Evidence of similar stacking disorder and incipient growth of an hcp phase are also observed in solid Kr.

  6. The Formation of Martensitic Austenite During Nitridation of Martensitic and Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangiabadi, Amirali; Dalton, John C.; Wang, Danqi; Ernst, Frank; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2017-01-01

    Isothermal martensite/ferrite-to-austenite phase transformations have been observed after low-temperature nitridation in the martensite and δ-ferrite phases in 15-5 PH (precipitation hardening), 17-7 PH, and 2205 (duplex) stainless steels. These transformations, in the region with nitrogen concentrations of 8 to 16 at. pct, are consistent with the notion that nitrogen is a strong austenite stabilizer and substitutional diffusion is effectively frozen at the paraequilibrium temperatures of our experiments. Our microstructural and diffraction analyses provide conclusive evidence for the martensitic nature of these phase transformations.

  7. The effect of cyclic martensitic transformations on diffusion of cobalt atoms in Fe-18wt.%Mn-2wt.%Si alloy.

    PubMed

    Danilchenko, Vitaliy E; Mazanko, Vladimir F; Filatov, Alexander V; Iakovlev, Viktor E

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion characteristics of cobalt atoms were investigated using radioactive isotope method in phase-hardened Fe-18wt.%Mn-2wt.%Si alloy. The observed significant increase of diffusion coefficient of cobalt atoms under the cyclic γ-ε-γ martensitic transformations was due to the action of two independent mechanisms - an athermal one and a thermally activated one. The first one arose from the direct γ-ε and the reverse ε-γ transformations with corresponding direct and reverse lattice shears during alternating stresses and simultaneous lattice restructuring. Another mechanism arose under the diffusion annealing of the phase-hardened alloy.

  8. The effect of cyclic martensitic transformations on diffusion of cobalt atoms in Fe-18wt.%Mn-2wt.%Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilchenko, Vitaliy E.; Mazanko, Vladimir F.; Filatov, Alexander V.; Iakovlev, Viktor E.

    2015-04-01

    Diffusion characteristics of cobalt atoms were investigated using radioactive isotope method in phase-hardened Fe-18wt.%Mn-2wt.%Si alloy. The observed significant increase of diffusion coefficient of cobalt atoms under the cyclic γ-ɛ-γ martensitic transformations was due to the action of two independent mechanisms - an athermal one and a thermally activated one. The first one arose from the direct γ-ɛ and the reverse ɛ-γ transformations with corresponding direct and reverse lattice shears during alternating stresses and simultaneous lattice restructuring. Another mechanism arose under the diffusion annealing of the phase-hardened alloy.

  9. Evidence of martensitic phase transitions in magnetic Ni-Mn-In thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A.; Zhang, Le; Dubenko, I.; Samanta, T.; Ali, N.; Stadler, S.

    2013-02-18

    Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy thin films (with thicknesses of about 10 nm) have been grown on single crystal MgO and SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) (100) substrates using a laser-assisted molecular beam epitaxy method. Films of mixed austenitic and martensitic phases and of pure martensitic phase have been detected for those grown on MgO and STO substrates, respectively. Thermomagnetic curves were measured using a SQUID magnetometer and are consistent with those of off-stoichiometric In-based bulk Heusler alloys, including a martensitic transition at T = 315 K for films grown on MgO. The differences in the properties of the films grown on MgO and STO are discussed.

  10. Stress-induced martensitic transformation in high-strength [236]-oriented Ni51Ti36.5Hf12.5 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surikov, N. Y.; Eftifeeva, A. S.; Panchenko, E. Yu; Chumlyakov, Yu I.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the stress-induced B2-B19' martensitic transformations in the Ni51.0Ti36.5Hf12.5 single crystals oriented along [236] direction are studied. It is shown that in the annealed at 1323K for 4 h crystals, the temperature range of superelasticity increase almost twofold from 75K up to 135K as compared to the as-grown single crystal contained disperse particles of H-phase. The [236]-oriented Ni51.0Ti36.5Hf12.5 single crystals are characterized with high levels of applied compressive stress up to 1700 MPa in the as-grown state and 1900 MPa in annealed crystals for the completely reversible stress- induced B2-B19' martensitic transformation with reversible strain up to |εSE| =1.4%.

  11. The features of microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic steel after direct and reverse martensitic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Akkuzin, S. A.; Polekhina, N. A.; Tyumentsev, A. N.; Naiden, E. P.

    2015-10-01

    The features of structural states of metastable austenitic steel after thermomechanical treatments, including low-temperature deformation, warm deformation and subsequent annealing are investigated. It is shown that under these conditions the direct (γ → α') and reverse (α' → γ) martensitic transformations occur and submicrocrystalline structural states are formed. The proposed thermomechanical treatment allows varying the strength and plastic properties of austenitic steel in a wide range. The strength of steel in submicrocrystalline state is 4-6 times higher than its original value.

  12. Thermal and magnetic field-induced martensitic transformation in Ni50Mn25-x Ga25Cu x (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  7) melt-spun ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zongbin; Zou, Naifu; Sánchez-Valdés, C. F.; Sánchez Llamazares, J. L.; Yang, Bo; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Yudong; Esling, Claude; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the phase transformation behavior of \\text{N}{{\\text{i}}50}\\text{M}{{\\text{n}}25}-x\\text{G}{{\\text{a}}25}\\text{C}{{\\text{u}}x} melt-spun ribbons with x  =  0, 1, 2, …, 7 (at%). It is shown that Cu substitution simultaneously increases and decreases the martensitic transformation temperature T M and the magnetic transition temperature of austenite T\\text{C}\\text{A} , respectively. In Ni50Mn18Ga25Cu7 ribbons, the magnetic and structural transformations are coupled. The field-induced martensitic transformation from a paramagnetic austenite with lower magnetization to a ferromagnetic martensite with higher magnetization has been studied. The critical field μ o H cr above which the magnetic field can induce the martensitic transition is well defined and decreases linearly with the decrease of the temperature at a reduction rate of 1 T K-1. Under a magnetic field of 5 T, the starting temperature of martensitic transformation (M s) increases by ~9 K. Such a magnetic field-induced transformation is irreversible and temperature dependent, giving rise to the maximum magnetic entropy change of 17.8 J kg-1 K-1 and hysteresis losses of 43.6 J kg-1 under the magnetic field change of 5 T, respectively.

  13. Characterization of the thermoelastic martensitic transformation in a NiTi alloy driven by temperature variation and external stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, K. F.; Lin, Z. C.; Fung, P. C. W.; Zhang, J. X.

    1997-08-01

    In order to test the concept of the physics of dissipation during first-order phase transitions in solids, we measured the internal friction (Q-1) and the relative shear modulus (μ) during a thermoelastic martensitic transformation in a NiTi alloy. We adopted two approaches: temperature variation and application of external stress. This investigation of internal friction was carried out with various vibration frequencies ω, temperature variation rates T˙, and strain variation rates ɛ˙. The index l (coupling factor between phase interface and oscillating stress) and index n (rate exponent for the effective phase transformation driving force) have been calculated from the experimental data for each case and the values of l and n are about the same in the two (doped) NiTi samples, irrespective of whether the phase transition is driven by a temperature variation or stress induced process. We compare the values of n and l for the NiTi samples with that of the other samples (VO2 ceramics and FeMn alloys), reinforcing the previous physical interpretations of these indices. We believe the indices n and l are indeed fingerprints of first-order phase transitions in solids.

  14. Multi-stage martensitic transformation in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiebin; Verlinden, Bert; Kustov, Sergey

    Precipitation hardening is an effective way to improve the functional stability of NiTi shape memory alloys. The precipitates, mainly Ni4Ti3, could be introduced by aging treatment in Ni-rich NiTi alloys. However, the presence of Ni4Ti3 precipitates could disturb the transformation behavior, resulting in the multi-stage martensitic transformation (MMT). With the presence of MMT, it is difficult to control the transformation behavior, and thus limits the applicability of NiTi alloys. In this work, previous efforts on explaining the observed MMT are summarized. The difficulties in developing a unified explanation are discussed, and a possible way to avoid the MMT is proposed.

  15. Determination of the normal and anomalous hall effect coefficients in ferromagnetic Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15-x}Si{sub x} Heusler alloys at the martensitic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Granovskii, A. B. Prudnikov, V. N.; Kazakov, A. P.; Zhukov, A. P.; Dubenko, I. S.

    2012-11-15

    The magnetization, the electrical resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall resistivity of Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15-x}Si{sub x} (x = 1.0, 3.0, 4.0) Heusler alloys are studied at T = 80-320 K. The martensitic transformation in these alloys occurs at T = 220-280 K from the high-temperature ferromagnetic austenite phase into the low-temperature martensite phase having a substantially lower magnetization. A method is proposed to determine the normal and anomalous Hall effect coefficients in the presence of magnetoresistance and a possible magnetization dependence of these coefficients. The resistivity of the alloys increases jumpwise during the martensitic transformation, reaches 150-200 {mu}{Omega} cm, and is almost temperature-independent. The normal Hall effect coefficient is negative, is higher than that of nickel by an order of magnitude at T = 80 K, decreases monotonically with increasing temperature, approaches zero in austenite, and does not undergo sharp changes in the vicinity of the martensitic transformation. At x = 3, a normal Hall effect nonlinear in magnetization is detected in the immediate vicinity of the martensitic transformation. The temperature dependences of the anomalous Hall effect coefficient in both martensite and austenite and, especially, in the vicinity of the martensitic transformation cannot be described in terms of the skew scattering, the side jump, and the Karplus-Lutinger mechanisms from the anomalous Hall effect theory. The possible causes of this behavior of the magnetotransport properties in Heusler alloys are discussed.

  16. Phase diagram of Ti50-xNi50+x : Crossover from martensite to strain glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yu; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Yumei; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Ren, Xiaobing

    2010-06-01

    We systematically investigated the variation in transition behavior and physical properties over a wide excess Ni (acting as defect) concentration range (x=0-2.5) in Ti50-xNi50+x alloys. This enables the establishment of an updated quantitative phase diagram for this important system. The phase diagram shows not only the well-known parent phase and martensite phase but also a premartensitic state and a strain glass state. Our experiments were able to determine quantitatively the borders of these states, the latter two having been unclear so far. The new phase diagram shows that a crossover from martensite to strain glass occurs at x=1.3 , and the appearance of a “premartensitic phase” below a critical temperature Tnd for defect-containing compositions (x>0) . We propose that point defects (excess Ni here) play two roles in a ferroelastic/martensitic system: (i) changing the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of long-range strain order (martensite) and (ii) creating random local stress that favors a premartensitic nanostructure and strain glass. Our work enables a simple explanation for several long-standing puzzles, such as the appearance of premartensitic nanostructure, the vanishing of transition latent heat with increasing Ni content and the anomalous negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity in Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloys.

  17. Micromechanics of plastic deformation and phase transformation in a three-phase TRIP-assisted advanced high strength steel: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ankit; Ghassemi-Armaki, Hassan; Sung, Hyokyung; Chen, Peng; Kumar, Sharvan; Bower, Allan F.

    2015-05-01

    The micromechanics of plastic deformation and phase transformation in a three-phase advanced high strength steel are analyzed both experimentally and by microstructure-based simulations. The steel examined is a three-phase (ferrite, martensite and retained austenite) quenched and partitioned sheet steel with a tensile strength of ~980 MPa. The macroscopic flow behavior and the volume fraction of martensite resulting from the austenite-martensite transformation during deformation were measured. In addition, micropillar compression specimens were extracted from the individual ferrite grains and the martensite particles, and using a flat-punch nanoindenter, stress-strain curves were obtained. Finite element simulations idealize the microstructure as a composite that contains ferrite, martensite and retained austenite. All three phases are discretely modeled using appropriate crystal plasticity based constitutive relations. Material parameters for ferrite and martensite are determined by fitting numerical predictions to the micropillar data. The constitutive relation for retained austenite takes into account contributions to the strain rate from the austenite-martensite transformation, as well as slip in both the untransformed austenite and product martensite. Parameters for the retained austenite are then determined by fitting the predicted flow stress and transformed austenite volume fraction in a 3D microstructure to experimental measurements. Simulations are used to probe the role of the retained austenite in controlling the strain hardening behavior as well as internal stress and strain distributions in the microstructure.

  18. The impact of substrate stimulated functional interface on magnetic and magneto-transport signature of martensitic transformation in NiMnIn shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabirianov, R.; Sokolov, A.; Kirianov, E.; Zlenko, A.; Quetz, A.; Aryal, A.; Pandey, S.; Dubenko, I.; Ali, N.; Stadler, S.; Al-Aqtash, N.

    We study the impact of the substrate on the martensite transformation of Ni-Mn-In thin films by Hall resistance measurements and discuss it using density functional theory calculations. Similarly to the bulk systems, thin films grown on MgO exhibit the martensitic transformation accompanied by large magnetoresistance and a sign reversal of the ordinary as well as anomalous Hall coefficient. Martensite transition temperature of films grown on (100) surface of MgO is near 170K, while the films grown on (111) surface of MgO show the change of Hall coefficient at 110K. The calculated total energy difference between FM austenite and FiM martensite states in Ni2Mn1.5In0.5 film on MgO (001) substrate (with Ni/MgO interface) is 0.20eV per NiMnIn f.u, compared to 0.24eV in the bulk at the same equilibrium lattice parameters, i.e. when film is ``unstrained''. When lattice parameters of Ni2Mn1.5In0.5/MgO are of those of MgO substrate, i.e. when the film experiences strong bi-axial tensile strain Δa / a = 2.4%, the energy difference is 0.08eV per NiMnIn f.u. These results clearly indicate strong interplay between lattice strain/stress and the relative stability martensite and austenite phase The work is supported by NSF.

  19. Magnetostructural martensitic transformations with large volume changes and magneto-strains in all-d-metal Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K.; Li, Y.; Han, X. L.; Du, Z. W.; Luo, H. Z.; Liu, G. D.; Xi, X. K.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.

    2016-08-01

    The all-d-metal Mn2-based Heusler ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Mn50Ni40-xCoxTi10 (x = 8 and 9.5) are realized. With a generic comparison between d-metal Ti and main-group elements in lowering the transformation temperature, the magnetostructural martensitic transformations are established by further introducing Co to produce local ferromagnetic Mn-Co-Mn configurations. A 5-fold modulation and (3, -2) stacking of [00 10] of martensite are determined by X-ray diffraction and HRTEM analysis. Based on the transformation, a large magneto-strain of 6900 ppm and a large volume change of -2.54% are observed in polycrystalline samples, which makes the all-d-metal magnetic martensitic alloys of interest for magnetic/pressure multi-field driven applications.

  20. Effect of Cu addition on the martensitic transformation of powder metallurgy processed Ti–Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeon-wook; Choi, Eunsoo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders is 22 °C, while M{sub s} of SPS-sintered porous bulk increases up to 50 °C. • M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is only 2 °C higher than that of the powders. • Recovered stain of porous TiNi and TiNiCu alloy is more than 1.5%. - Abstract: Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders were prepared by gas atomization and their transformation behaviors were examined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. One-step B2–B19’ transformation occurred in Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, while Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders showed B2–B19 transformation behavior. Porous bulks with 24% porosity were fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The martensitic transformation start temperature (50 °C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} porous bulk is much higher than that (22 °C) of the as-solidified powders. However, the martensitic transformation start temperature (35 °C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is almost the same as that (33 °C) of the powders. When the specimens were compressed to the strain of 8% and then unloaded, the residual strains of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} alloy bulks were 3.95 and 3.7%, respectively. However, these residual strains were recovered up to 1.7% after heating by the shape memory phenomenon.

  1. Effect of atomic order on the martensitic and magnetic transformations in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Alarcos, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Recarte, V; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J A; Chernenko, V A

    2010-04-28

    The influence of long-range L2(1) atomic order on the martensitic and magnetic transformations of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys has been investigated. In order to correlate the structural and magnetic transformation temperatures with the atomic order, calorimetric, magnetic and neutron diffraction measurements have been performed on polycrystalline and single-crystalline alloys subjected to different thermal treatments. It is found that both transformation temperatures increase with increasing atomic order, showing exactly the same linear dependence on the degree of L2(1) atomic order. A quantitative correlation between atomic order and transformation temperatures has been established, from which the effect of atomic order on the relative stability between the structural phases has been quantified. On the other hand, the kinetics of the post-quench ordering process taking place in these alloys has been studied. It is shown that the activation energy of the ordering process agrees quite well with the activation energy of the Mn self-diffusion process.

  2. Magnetic influence on the martensitic transformation entropy in Ni-Mn-In metamagnetic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barandiaran, J. M.; Chernenko, V. A.; Cesari, E.; Salas, D.; Lazpita, P.; Gutierrez, J.; Orue, I.

    2013-02-01

    We study the martensitic transformation (MT) of metamagnetic shape memory alloy Ni50Mn34.5In15.5 in the magnetic fields up to 12 T. The observed dependence of the MT temperature, Tm, on the field is highly nonlinear. As far as magnetization change, ΔM, remains field-independent, a depart from linearity of Tm(H) function is attributed to a decrease of the transformation entropy, ΔS. This decrease correlates with the parameter (TC-Tm), controlled by magnetic field, where TC is the Curie temperature of austenite, and with the dependence of ΔS on the width of the MT temperature interval deduced from a ferroelastic model of MT.

  3. The anomalous expansion of lattice parameter as a function of temperature for an Fe-24Mn alloy during {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} martensitic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Qin, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, B.; Hu, Z.

    2000-02-14

    In the present letter, the authors will report their experiment on an Fe-24Mn alloy using high temperature XRD and dilation. A relation between the lattice parameter of austenite and temperature during {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} martensitic transformation was determined. It is expected to be helpful in the understanding of {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn based alloys.

  4. In-situ studies of the TGO growth stresses and the martensitic transformation in the B2 phase in commercial Pt-modified NiAl and NiCoCrAlY bond coat alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, D.; Hu, L.; Reddy, A.; Heuer, A. H.; Paulikas, A. P.; Veal, B. W.

    2007-12-01

    Oxide growth stresses were measured in situ at 1100 C on commercial Pt-modified NiAl and NiCoCrAlY bond coat alloys using synchrotron X-rays. Measurements were taken on samples that had no preoxidation, as well as on samples that had experienced 24 one-hour thermal exposures at 1150 C, a condition known to induce rumpling in the Pt-modified NiAl alloy, but not in the NiCoCrAlY alloy. The NiCoCrAlY alloy showed continuous stress relaxation under all conditions, whereas the Pt-modified NiAl alloys would typically stabilize at a fixed (often non-zero) stress suggesting a higher creep strength in the 'Thermally Grown Oxide' on the latter alloy, though the precise behavior was dependent on initial surface preparation. The formation of martensite in the Pt-modified NiAl alloys was also observed upon cooling and occurred at temperatures below 200 C for all of the samples observed. Based on existing models, this M{sub s} temperature is too low to account for the rumpling observed in these alloys.

  5. Martensite transformations in Mn2NiGa thin films grown on GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, D. M.; Neckel, I. T.; Mazzaro, I.; Graff, I. L.; Varalda, J.; Schreiner, W. H.; Mosca, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the correlation between magnetism and crystallographic structures of Mn2NiGa thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(1 1 1) and GaAs(0 0 1) surfaces. The films present themselves with thermoelastic martensitic transformations upon cooling, and heating with high-temperature leads to austenite structures exhibiting a preferable (1 1 0) texture. X-ray diffraction measurements performed as a function of temperature reveal three different types of domain variants in the films within a large interval of temperatures. The austenite structures with lattice parameters ranging from 0.574 nm to 0.601 nm undergo volume conserving structural transitions to martensite with a c/a ratio of 1.2. The coexistence of variants with different domain configurations is induced on each GaAs substrate. Although the Curie temperatures (~360 K) are similar for films grown on GaAs(1 1 1) and GaAs (0 0 1) substrates, their saturation magnetizations are respectively 18 kA m-1 and 8 kA m-1 at room temperature and exhibit quite different magnetic irreversibility behaviors. Our results indicate that a multiplicity of possible equivalent variant domains on the GaAs surfaces makes it difficult to stabilize epitaxial films on these substrates.

  6. γ→α‧ Martensitic transformation and magnetic property of cold rolled Fe-20Mn-4Al-0.3C steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Biao; Li, Changsheng; Han, Yahui; Wang, Jikai

    2016-12-01

    Direct γ→α‧ martensitic transformation during cold rolling deformation was investigated for a high-Mn non-magnetic steel. Its influence on magnetic property was also analyzed. The magnetization under rolling reduction less than 50% almost presents a linear increase with the applied magnetic field. With deformation up to 73% and 93% thickness reductions, strain induced α‧-martensite transformation starts to occur, causing the steel to be slightly magnetized. The α‧-martensite prefers to nucleate directly at either microband-microband or microband-twin intersections without participation of intermediate ε-martensite. The volume fraction of α‧-martensite is estimated as 0.070% and 0.17%, respectively, based on the magnetic hysteresis loops. Such a small fraction of ferromagnetic α‧-martensite shows little influence on the magnetic induction intensity and low relative permeability.

  7. Orientation relationship, plasticity, twin relationship, and interfacial structure of the ???' isothermal martensitic transformation in Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; Krenn, C; Wall, M; Schwartz, A

    2006-01-24

    The orientation relationship, habit plane, parent-product interface at the atomic level, twin relationship, and plastic deformation resulting from the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} isothermal martensitic transformation in Pu-Ga alloys are examined using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and finite element calculations. The {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation exhibits a {approx}20% volume collapse when the face-centered cubic {delta} phase transforms to the monoclinic {alpha}{prime} phase, which results in unique and intriguing crystallography and morphology. Here, we show that the orientation relationship is very close to that previously reported by Zocco et al. (1990), but has small rotational misalignments between the two phases both parallel and perpendicular to the [110]{sub {delta}} {parallel}[100]{sub {alpha}{prime}} direction. The amount of plastic deformation is exceedingly large due to the {approx}20% volume collapse and transmission electron microscopy is used to quantify the difference in dislocation density between untransformed {delta}-matrix and regions of {delta} adjacent to the transformed {alpha}{prime}. The twins contained in {alpha}{prime} plates are shown to have a (205){sub {alpha}} orientation as the lattice invariant deformation and are found to be composed of two alternating variants that share a common <020>{sub {alpha}{prime}} direction, but differ by a 60 degree rotation about <020>{sub {alpha}{prime}}. A combination of electron diffraction and optical microscopy has been employed to examine the macroscopic habit plane and the analysis suggests that a large fraction of the observed habit planes are on or near {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub {delta}}. Finally, high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the interface is faceted on {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub {delta}}, exhibiting a series of terrace and ledges.

  8. The elastic properties and martensitic transformation behaviour of Ti50Pt50-xCox shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauke, Hasani; Mahlangu, Rosinah; Ngoepe, Phuti

    2014-03-01

    Ti-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) such as PdTi, AuTi and PtTi are important in the design for high temperature alloys due to their high martensitic transformation (Ms) of above 673 K. PtTi is the most attractive for the development of high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) since it has the highest Ms of about 1273 K. Above 1273 K The crystal structure is the ordered cubic B2 phase, and transforms to an orthorhombic B19 phase at lower temperature. The supercell approach method was used to investigate the effect of partial substitution of Pt with Co on the TiPt potential shape memory alloy. The first-principles calculations were carried out within the generalized gradient approximation to determine the stability of the Ti50Pt50-xCo for x=6.25, 18.75 and 25. We found that the calculated heats of formation and density of states predicted the 6.25 at.% Co to be the most stable structures compared. The elastic properties and the phonon dispersion results suggest that the partial substitution of Pt with Co increases the Ms of TiPt with the softening of the ' shear moduli.

  9. Martensitic transformation in as-grown and annealed near-stoichiometric epitaxial Ni2MnGa thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machain, P.; Condó, A. M.; Domenichini, P.; Pozo López, G.; Sirena, M.; Correa, V. F.; Haberkorn, N.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic shape memory nanostructures have a great potential in the field of the nanoactuators. The relationship between dimensionality, microstructure and magnetism characterizes the materials performance. Here, we study the martensitic transformation in supported and free-standing epitaxial Ni47Mn24Ga29 films grown by sputtering on (0 0 1) MgO using a stoichiometric Ni2MnGa target. The films have a Curie temperature of ~390 K and a martensitic transition temperature of ~120 K. Similar transition temperatures have been observed in films with thicknesses of 1, 3 and 4 μm. Thicker films (with longer deposition time) present a wider martensitic transformation range that can be associated with small gradients in their chemical concentration due to the high vapour pressure of Mn and Ga. The magnetic anisotropy of the films shows a strong change below the martensitic transformation temperature. No features associated with variant reorientation induced by magnetic field have been observed. Annealed films in the presence of a Ni2MnGa bulk reference change their chemical composition to Ni49Mn26Ga25. The change in the chemical composition increases the martensitic transformation temperature, being closer to the stoichiometric compound, and reduces the transformation hysteresis. In addition, sharper transformations are obtained, which indicate that chemical inhomogeneities and defects are removed. Our results indicate that the properties of Ni-Mn-Ga thin films grown by sputtering can be optimized (fixing the chemical concentration and removing crystalline defects) by the annealing process, which is promising for the development of micromagnetic shape memory devices.

  10. Martensitic transformation of FeNi nanofilm induced by interfacial stress generated in FeNi/V nanomultilayered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Fengcang; Liu, Xinkuan; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Daihua

    2014-08-01

    FeNi/V nanomultilayered films with different V layer thicknesses were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. By adjusting the thickness of the V layer, different interfacial compressive stress were imposed on FeNi layers and the effect of interfacial stress on martensitic transformation of the FeNi film was investigated. Without insertion of V layers, the FeNi film exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. With the thickness of V inserted layers up to 1.5 nm, under the coherent growth structure in FeNi/V nanomultilayered films, FeNi layers bear interfacial compressive stress due to the larger lattice parameter relative to V, which induces the martensitic transformation of the FeNi film. As the V layer thickness increases to 2.0 nm, V layers cannot keep the coherent growth structure with FeNi layers, leading to the disappearance of interfacial compressive stress and termination of the martensitic transformation in the FeNi film. The interfacial compressive stress-induced martensitic transformation of the FeNi nanofilm is verified through experiment. The method of imposing and modulating the interfacial stress through the epitaxial growth structure in the nanomultilayered films should be noticed and utilized.

  11. Martensitic transformation of FeNi nanofilm induced by interfacial stress generated in FeNi/V nanomultilayered structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    FeNi/V nanomultilayered films with different V layer thicknesses were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. By adjusting the thickness of the V layer, different interfacial compressive stress were imposed on FeNi layers and the effect of interfacial stress on martensitic transformation of the FeNi film was investigated. Without insertion of V layers, the FeNi film exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. With the thickness of V inserted layers up to 1.5 nm, under the coherent growth structure in FeNi/V nanomultilayered films, FeNi layers bear interfacial compressive stress due to the larger lattice parameter relative to V, which induces the martensitic transformation of the FeNi film. As the V layer thickness increases to 2.0 nm, V layers cannot keep the coherent growth structure with FeNi layers, leading to the disappearance of interfacial compressive stress and termination of the martensitic transformation in the FeNi film. The interfacial compressive stress-induced martensitic transformation of the FeNi nanofilm is verified through experiment. The method of imposing and modulating the interfacial stress through the epitaxial growth structure in the nanomultilayered films should be noticed and utilized. PMID:25232296

  12. Martensitic transformation of FeNi nanofilm induced by interfacial stress generated in FeNi/V nanomultilayered structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Fengcang; Liu, Xinkuan; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Daihua

    2014-01-01

    FeNi/V nanomultilayered films with different V layer thicknesses were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. By adjusting the thickness of the V layer, different interfacial compressive stress were imposed on FeNi layers and the effect of interfacial stress on martensitic transformation of the FeNi film was investigated. Without insertion of V layers, the FeNi film exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. With the thickness of V inserted layers up to 1.5 nm, under the coherent growth structure in FeNi/V nanomultilayered films, FeNi layers bear interfacial compressive stress due to the larger lattice parameter relative to V, which induces the martensitic transformation of the FeNi film. As the V layer thickness increases to 2.0 nm, V layers cannot keep the coherent growth structure with FeNi layers, leading to the disappearance of interfacial compressive stress and termination of the martensitic transformation in the FeNi film. The interfacial compressive stress-induced martensitic transformation of the FeNi nanofilm is verified through experiment. The method of imposing and modulating the interfacial stress through the epitaxial growth structure in the nanomultilayered films should be noticed and utilized.

  13. An approach to developing a force field for molecular simulation of martensitic phase transitions between phases with subtle differences in energy and structure.

    PubMed

    Tuble, Sigrid C; Anwar, Jamshed; Gale, Julian D

    2004-01-14

    d,l-Norleucine is one of only a few molecules whose crystals exhibit a martensitic or displacive-type phase transformation where the emerging phase shows a topotaxial relationship with the parent phase. The molecular mechanism for such phase transformations, particularly in molecular crystals, is not well understood. Crystalline phases that exhibit displacive phase transitions tend to be very similar in structure and energy. Consequently, the development of a force field for such phases is challenging as the phase behavior is determined by subtle differences in their lattice energies and entropies. We report an approach for developing a force field for such phases with an application to d,l-norleucine. The proposed procedure includes calculation of the phase diagram of the crystalline phases as a function of temperature to identify the best force field. d,l-Norleucine also presents an additional problem since in the solid state it exists as a zwitterion that is unstable in vacuo and therefore cannot be characterized using high-level ab initio calculations in the gas phase. However, a stable zwitterion could be obtained using Onsager's reaction-field continuum model for a solvent (SCRF) using both Hartree-Fock and density functional theory. A number of force fields and the various sets of partial charges obtained from the SCRF calculations were screened for their ability to reproduce the crystal structures of the two known phases, alpha and beta, of d,l-norleucine. Selected parameter sets were then employed in free energy minimizations to identify the best set on the basis of a correct prediction of the alpha-beta phase transition. The Williams' nonbonded parameters combined with partial charges from SCRF-Polarized Continuum Model calculation were found to reproduce the structures of the phases accurately and also maintained their stability in extended molecular dynamics simulations in the Parrinello-Rahman constant stress ensemble. Moreover, we were also able to

  14. Magnetostrain and magnetocaloric effect by field-induced reverse martensitic transformation for Pd-doped Ni45Co5Mn37In13 Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Xu, K.; Yang, H. M.; Zhang, Y. L.; Jing, C.

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, polycrystalline Ni45Co5-xPdxMn37In13 (x = 0, 0.5, 1, and 3) Heusler alloys were prepared. The influences of Pd substitution for Co on crystal structure, martensitic transformation (MT), and magnetic properties have been carefully investigated for these quinary alloys. The structure measurement indicates that every sample possesses L10 martensitic structure at room temperature. With increasing of Pd content, it is found that the MT region shifts towards higher temperature, but the Curie transition region of austenitic state moves to lower temperature. Owing to the fact that the MT gradually approaches Curie point, the magnetization of austenitic phase is significantly decreased, while the one of martensitic phase almost remains unchanged. In addition, the functional properties associated with the field-induced reverse MT have been also studied in Ni45Co5-xPdxMn37In13 (x = 0, 0.5, and 1) alloys. In comparison to quaternary parent alloy, both of enhanced magnetostrain (0.3%) and isothermal entropy change (25 J/kg K) are observed in quinary Ni45Co4.5Pd0.5Mn37In13 alloy under an applied magnetic field up to 3 T. The implication of such results has been discussed in detail.

  15. Calorimetric and acoustic emission study of martensitic transformation in single-crystalline Ni2MnGa alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, László Z.; Szabó, Sándor; Daróczi, Lajos; Beke, Dezső L.

    2014-12-01

    The jerky character of austenite-martensite phase transformation in Ni2MnGa single crystals (with 10M martensite structure) has been investigated by thermal cycling using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and by detection of acoustic emissions (AEs) at low cooling and heating rates (0.1 K/min and below). It is illustrated that, besides the low cooling and heating rate, mass and surface roughness are also important parameters in optimizing the best signal/noise ratio in order to obtain individual peaks suitable for statistical analysis. Three types of samples, differing in the twin structure and twin boundary behavior, were investigated with and without surface roughening made by electro-erosion. The statistical analysis, carried out for both (thermal and acoustic) types of signals, provided power-law behavior. In calorimetric measurements the energy exponents, obtained in cooling, were the same within the experimental errors (ɛ =1.7 ±0.2 ) for the three samples investigated. In acoustic emission experiments the energy and amplitude, α , exponents were determined both for cooling and heating. The exponents for cooling and heating runs are slightly different. They are larger for heating for both α and ɛ , in accordance with the asymmetric acoustic activity: we observed higher acoustic activity (higher number of hits) during cooling. The effect of the surface roughness is negligible in the exponents (but higher acoustic activity corresponds to higher roughness) and the following values were obtained: ɛ =1.5 ±0.1 and α =2.1 ±0.1 for cooling as well as ɛ =1.8 ±0.1 and α =2.6 ±0.1 for heating. Our results are in accordance with the results of Gallardo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81, 174102 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.174102] obtained in Cu based alloys: the exponents of the energy distributions, for both DSC and AE signals, were the same within the experimental errors. Furthermore, our exponents obtained from the AE measurements are close to the values

  16. Plasticity-improved Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites containing martensite phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.F.; Wei, B.C.; Wang, Y.R.; Li, W.H.; Cheung, T.L.; Shek, C.H.

    2005-08-01

    Zr{sub 48.5}Cu{sub 46.5}Al{sub 5} bulk metallic glass matrix composites with diameters of 3 and 4 mm were produced through water-cooled copper mold casting. Micrometer-sized bcc based B2 structured CuZr phase containing martensite plate, together with some densely distributed nanocrystalline Zr{sub 2}Cu and plate-like Cu{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} compound, was found embedded in a glassy matrix. The microstructure formation strongly depends on the composition and cooling rate. Room temperature compression tests reveal significant strain hardening and plastic strains of 7.7% and 6.4% before failure are obtained for the 3-mm- and 4-mm-diam samples, respectively. The formation of the martensite phase is proposed to contribute to the strain hardening and plastic deformation of the materials.

  17. Aspects of thermal martensite in a FeNiMnCo alloy.

    PubMed

    Güler, M; Güler, E; Kahveci, N

    2010-07-01

    Thermal martensite characteristics in Fe-29%Ni-2%Mn-2%Co alloy were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization techniques. SEM observations obviously revealed the lath martensite morphology in the prior austenite phase of examined alloy. As well, the martensitic transformation kinetics was found to be as athermal type. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy offered the paramagnetic austenite phase and ferromagnetic martensite phase with their volume fractions. Also, the internal magnetic field of the martensite was measured as 32.9T from the Mössbauer spectrometer.

  18. PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS AND ALLOYS (SELECTED ARTICLES),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Stabilization of reverse martensite transformation under the influence of intraphase work hardening; and Structural changes during decomposition of supersaturated solid solution of tungsten in cobalt.

  19. Determination of the vibrational contribution to the entropy change at the martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Sn metamagnetic shape memory alloys: a combined approach of time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Recarte, V; Zbiri, M; Jiménez-Ruiz, M; Sánchez-Alarcos, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I

    2016-05-25

    The different contributions to the entropy change linked to the austenite-martensitic transition in a Ni-Mn-Sn metamagnetic shape memory alloy have been determined by combining different experimental techniques. The vibrational contribution has been inferred from the vibrational density of states of both the martensitic and austenite phases. This has been accomplished by combining time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements and ab initio calculations. Further, the electronic part of the entropy change has also been calculated. Since the martensitic transformation takes place between two paramagnetic phases, the magnetic contribution can be neglected and the entropy change can be reduced to the sum of two terms: vibrational and electronic. The obtained value of the vibrational contribution ([Formula: see text]) nearly provides the total entropy change measured by calorimetry ([Formula: see text]), the difference being the electronic contribution within the experimental error.

  20. Effect of annealing on the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect in Ni44.1Mn44.2Sn11.7 ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, H. C.; Xie, K. X.; Wang, D. H.; Han, Z. D.; Zhang, C. L.; Gu, B. X.; Du, Y. W.

    2008-06-01

    The Ni44.1Mn44.2Sn11.7 ribbons were prepared by melt spinning. A single-phase austenite with L21 structure was confirmed in the melt-spun ribbons at room temperature. After the heat treatment, the martensitic transformation temperature increases obviously in the annealed ribbons. This method may be an effective way to tune the characteristic temperatures in the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Giant magnetic entropy changes are observed in the annealed ribbons. The peak values at 10kOe are 32.1 and 20.1J /kgK, for the ribbons annealed at 1123 and 1173K, respectively.

  1. Lattice instability and martensitic transformation in LaAg predicted from first-principles theory.

    PubMed

    Vaitheeswaran, G; Kanchana, V; Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Yanming; Svane, A; Kaul, S N

    2012-02-22

    The electronic structure, elastic constants and lattice dynamics of the B(2) type intermetallic compound LaAg are studied by means of density functional theory calculations with the generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation. The calculated equilibrium properties and elastic constants agree well with available experimental data. From the ratio between the bulk and shear moduli, LaAg is found to be ductile, which is unusual for B(2) type intermetallics. The computed band structure shows a dominant contribution from La 5d states near the Fermi level. The phonon dispersion relations, calculated using density functional perturbation theory, are in good agreement with available inelastic neutron scattering data. Under pressure, the phonon dispersions develop imaginary frequencies, starting at around 2.3 GPa, in good accordance with the martensitic instability observed above 3.4 GPa. By structural optimization the high pressure phase is identified as orthorhombic B(19).

  2. Different structures of monoclinic martensitic phases in titanium nickelide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, V. I.; Naish, V. E.; Novoselova, T. V.; Pushin, V. G.; Sagaradze, I. V.

    2000-03-01

    The detailed theoretical and experimental analysis has been undertaken to bring to light the true structure of the monoclinic phase in titanium nickelide (NiTi). Theoretical models for such a phase have been proposed to describe the experimental data. In addition to the well-known B19‧ phase two more structures - new monoclinic M phase with Cm space group and triclinic phase with P1 space group - have been produced and analyzed in detail. Diffraction patterns have been obtained from different NiTi samples by using the neutron diffractometer IVV2 at different temperatures. From the refinement by DBWS-9411 program all these neutron patterns have been decoded successfully. The proposed new structures and stereotype B19‧ one agree with correspondent experimental data and the agreement is quite good.

  3. Interaction between phase transformations and dislocations at the nanoscale. Part 1. General phase field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Javanbakht, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    Thermodynamically consistent, three-dimensional (3D) phase field approach (PFA) for coupled multivariant martensitic transformations (PTs), including cyclic PTs, variant-variant transformations (i.e., twinning), and dislocation evolution is developed at large strains. One of our key points is in the justification of the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic, transformational, and plastic parts. The plastic part includes four mechanisms: dislocation motion in martensite along slip systems of martensite and slip systems of austenite inherited during PT and dislocation motion in austenite along slip systems of austenite and slip systems of martensite inherited during reverse PT. The plastic part of the velocity gradient for all these mechanisms is defined in the crystal lattice of the austenite utilizing just slip systems of austenite and inherited slip systems of martensite, and just two corresponding types of order parameters. The explicit expressions for the Helmholtz free energy and the transformation and plastic deformation gradients are presented to satisfy the formulated conditions related to homogeneous thermodynamic equilibrium states of crystal lattice and their instabilities. In particular, they result in a constant (i.e., stress- and temperature-independent) transformation deformation gradient and Burgers vectors. Thermodynamic treatment resulted in the determination of the driving forces for change of the order parameters for PTs and dislocations. It also determined the boundary conditions for the order parameters that include a variation of the surface energy during PT and exit of dislocations. Ginzburg-Landau equations for dislocations include variation of properties during PTs, which in turn produces additional contributions from dislocations to the Ginzburg-Landau equations for PTs. A complete system of coupled PFA and mechanics equations is presented. A similar theory can be developed for PFA to dislocations and other

  4. Neutron diffraction study of the martensitic transformation and chemical order in Heusler alloy Ni1.91Mn1.29Ga0.8

    SciTech Connect

    Ari-Gur, Pnina; Garlea, Vasile O.; Cao, Huibo; Ge, Y.; Aaltio, I.; Hannula, S. P.; Koledov, V.

    2015-11-05

    In this study, Heusler alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga compositions demonstrate ferromagnetic shape memory effect in the martensitic state. The transformation temperature and the chemical order depend strongly on the composition. In the current work, the structure and chemical order of the martensitic phase of Ni1.91Mn1.29Ga0.8 were studied using neutron diffraction; the diffraction pattern was refined using the FullProf software. It was determined that the structural transition occurs around 330 K. At room temperature, 300 K, which is below the martensite transformation temperature, all the Bragg reflections can be described by a monoclinic lattice with a symmetry of space group P 1 2/m 1 and lattice constants of a = 4.23047(7) [Å], b = 5.58333(6) [Å], c = 21.0179(2) [Å], beta = 90.328(1). The chemical order is of critical importance in these alloys, and it was previously studied at 363 K. Analysis of the neutron diffraction in the monoclinic phase shows that the chemical order is maintained during the martensitic transformation.

  5. Chemically Induced Phase Transformation in Austenite by Focused Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basa, Adina; Thaulow, Christian; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2013-11-01

    A highly stable austenite phase in a super duplex stainless steel was subjected to a combination of different gallium ion doses at different acceleration voltages. It was shown that contrary to what is expected, an austenite to ferrite phase transformation occurred within the focused ion beam (FIB) milled regions. Chemical analysis of the FIB milled region proved that the gallium implantation preceded the FIB milling. High resolution electron backscatter diffraction analysis also showed that the phase transformation was not followed by the typical shear and plastic deformation expected from the martensitic transformation. On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that the change in the chemical composition of the austenite and the local increase in gallium, which is a ferrite stabilizer, results in the local selective transformation of austenite to ferrite.

  6. Martensitic transformation behaviors of rapidly solidified Ti–Ni–Mo powders

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeon-wook

    2012-10-15

    For the fabrication of bulk near-net-shape shape memory alloys and porous metallic biomaterials, consolidation of Ti–Ni–Mo alloy powders is more useful than that of elemental powders of Ti, Ni and Mo. Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 49.9}Mo{sub 0.1} shape memory alloy powders were prepared by gas atomization, and transformation temperatures and microstructures of those powders were investigated as a function of powder size. XRD analysis showed that the B2–R–B19 martensitic transformation occurred in powders smaller than 150 μm. According to DSC analysis of the as-atomized powders, the B2–R transformation temperature (T{sub R}) of the 25–50 μm powders was 18.4 °C. The T{sub R} decreased with increasing powder size, however, the difference in T{sub R} between 25–50 μm powders and 100–150 μm powders is only 1 °C. Evaluation of powder microstructures was based on SEM examination of the surface and the polished and etched powder cross sections and the typical images of the rapidly solidified powders showed cellular morphology. Porous cylindrical foams of 10 mm diameter and 1.5 mm length were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 800 °C and 5 MPa. Finally these porous TiNi alloy samples are heat-treated for 1 h at 850 °C, and then quenched in ice water. The bulk samples have 23% porosity and 4.6 g/cm{sup 3} density and their T{sub R} is 17.8 °C.

  7. Cyclic Martensitic Transformations Influence on the Diffusion Of Carbon Atoms in Fe-18 wt.%Mn-2 wt.%Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilchenko, Vitaliy E.; Filatov, Alexander V.; Mazanko, Vladimir F.; Iakovlev, Viktor E.

    2017-03-01

    A significant carbon diffusion mobility acceleration as a result of cyclic γ↔ɛ martensitic transformations in iron-manganese alloy is determined by one- and two-dimensional structure defects of ɛ-martensite with face-centered close-packed lattice. Such defects (dislocations, low angle sub-boundaries of dislocations, chaotic stacking faults) were formed during cyclic γ↔ɛ martensitic transformations. Peak carbon diffusion coefficient increase was observed under thermocycling when maximum quantity of lattice defects increase was fixed.

  8. Surface modification, martensitic transformation, and optical properties of hydrogenated ZrO2 nanocondensates via pulsed laser ablation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chao-Hsien; Huang, Chang-Ning; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shuei-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    Pulsed laser ablation on Zr plate in water under Q-switch mode and a fluence of 700 and 800 mJ/pulse for a rather high power density of 1.5 and 1.7 × 1011 W/cm2, respectively, was employed to fabricate hydrogenated ZrO2 nanocondensates. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic observations indicated such nanocondensates are full of {111} and {100} facets and predominantly in monoclinic (m-) rather than cubic- and/or tetragonal (t-) crystal symmetry in particular when fabricated at 700 mJ/pulse. The hydrogenated ZrO2 nanocondensates underwent martensitic t → m transformation at a rather small critical size (ca. 20 nm) due to H+ signature and hence oxygen vacancy deficiency in the lattice. The resultant m-phase was free of twin and fault due to site saturation and rather limited growth of the nanosized particles. Spectroscopic characterizations indicated that the nanocondensates have a significant internal compressive stress, (H+, Zr2+, Zr3+) co-signature and hence a smaller band gap of 5.2-5.3 eV for potential applications in UV region.

  9. Enhanced reversibility and unusual microstructure of a phase-transforming material.

    PubMed

    Song, Yintao; Chen, Xian; Dabade, Vivekanand; Shield, Thomas W; James, Richard D

    2013-10-03

    Materials undergoing reversible solid-to-solid martensitic phase transformations are desirable for applications in medical sensors and actuators, eco-friendly refrigerators and energy conversion devices. The ability to pass back and forth through the phase transformation many times without degradation of properties (termed 'reversibility') is critical for these applications. Materials tuned to satisfy a certain geometric compatibility condition have been shown to exhibit high reversibility, measured by low hysteresis and small migration of transformation temperature under cycling. Recently, stronger compatibility conditions called the 'cofactor conditions' have been proposed theoretically to achieve even better reversibility. Here we report the enhanced reversibility and unusual microstructure of the first martensitic material, Zn45Au30Cu25, that closely satisfies the cofactor conditions. We observe four striking properties of this material. (1) Despite a transformation strain of 8%, the transformation temperature shifts less than 0.5 °C after more than 16,000 thermal cycles. For comparison, the transformation temperature of the ubiquitous NiTi alloy shifts up to 20 °C in the first 20 cycles. (2) The hysteresis remains approximately 2 °C during this cycling. For comparison, the hysteresis of the NiTi alloy is up to 70 °C (refs 9, 12). (3) The alloy exhibits an unusual riverine microstructure of martensite not seen in other martensites. (4) Unlike that of typical polycrystal martensites, its microstructure changes drastically in consecutive transformation cycles, whereas macroscopic properties such as transformation temperature and latent heat are nearly reproducible. These results promise a concrete strategy for seeking ultra-reliable martensitic materials.

  10. In-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction investigation on stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ti-Nb binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.

    2016-01-10

    Microstructure evolution, mechanical behaviors of cold rolled Ti-Nb alloys with different Nb contents subjected to different heat treatments were investigated. Optical microstructure and phase compositions of Ti-Nb alloys were characterized using optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometre, while mechanical behaviors of Ti-Nb alloys were examined by using tension tests. Stress-induced martensitic transformation in a Ti-30. at%Nb binary alloy was in-situ explored by synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD). The results obtained suggested that mechanical behavior of Ti-Nb alloys, especially Young's modulus was directly dependent on chemical compositions and heat treatment process. According to the results of HE-XRD, α"-V1 martensite generated prior to the formation of α"-V2 during loading and a partial reversible transformation from α"-V1 to β phase was detected while α"-V2 tranformed to β completely during unloading.

  11. Atomistic simulation of martensite-austenite phase transition in nanoscale nickel-titanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kexel, Christian; Schramm, Stefan; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2015-09-01

    Shape-memory (SM) alloys can, after initial inelastic deformation, reconstruct their pristine lattice structure upon heating. The underlying phenomenon is the structural solid-solid phase transition from low-temperature lower-symmetry martensite to the high-temperature higher-symmetry austenite. Conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) with near-equiatomic concentration already possesses an eminent importance for many applications, whereas the nanostructured equivalent can exhibit yet enhanced thermomechanical properties. However, no plausible microscopic theory of the SM effect in NiTi exists, especially for nanoscale systems. We investigate the thermally induced martensite-austenite phase transition in free equiatomic nanocrystals, comprising up to approximately 40 000 atoms, by means of molecular-dynamics simulations (MD) using a classical Gupta-type many-body scheme. Thereby we complement and extend a previously published study [D. Mutter, P. Nielaba, Eur. Phys. J. B 84, 109 (2011)]. The structural transition, revealing features of a first-order phase transition, is demonstrated. It is contrasted with the melting phase transition, a quantum solid model and bulk experimental findings. Moreover, a nucleation-growth process is observed as well as the irreversibility of the transition upon cooling.

  12. Influence of Ti additions on martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of cast Ni51Fe22-xGa27Tix shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bagoury, Nader; Mohsen, Q.; Kaseem, M. A.; Hessien, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of Ti addition on the microstructure, martensitic transformation, magnetic and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ni51Fe22- x Ga27Ti x ( x=0, 2 and 4) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy was investigated by scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the martensitic transformation temperature increases monotonously with the increase of fraction of Ti substitution for Fe. The increase in the martensite transformation temperatures should be related to the change of the electron concentration after the addition of Ti to Ni51Fe22- x Ga27Ti x alloys. According to the results of X-ray diffraction and magnetic properties, Ti has significant effect the structure of Ni51Fe22- x Ga27Ti x . Adding of 4 at% Ti altered the structure of the matrix from five-layered tetragonal martensite of Ni51Fe22Ga27 and Ni51Fe20Ga27Ti2 alloys to non-modulated tetragonal martensite. Magnetic properties proved that the alloy transits from ferromagnetic, five-layered tetragonal martensite, to paramagnetic, non-modulated martensite structure, with increasing Ti content to 4 at.%. Saturation magnetization, remnant magnetization and coercivity of the alloy were significantly influenced by Ti additions. Hardness values of Ni51Fe22Ga27 increased by the addition of Ti.

  13. On phase transformation behavior of porous Shape Memory Alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingfei; Dui, Guansuo; Zhu, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned on the phase transformation mechanism of porous Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). A unit-cell model is adopted to establish the constitutive relation for porous SMAs, the stress distributions, the phase distributions and the martensitic volume fractions for the model are then derived under both pure hydrostatic stress and uniaxial compression. Further, an example for the uniaxial response under compression for a porous Ni-Ti SMA material considering hydrostatic stress is supplied. Good agreement between the theoretical prediction of the proposed model and published experimental data is observed.

  14. Thermoelastic martensitic transformations, mechanical properties, and shape-memory effects in rapidly quenched Ni45Ti32Hf18Cu5 alloy in the ultrafine-grained state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushin, V. G.; Pushin, A. V.; Kuranova, N. N.; Kuntsevich, T. E.; Uksusnikov, A. N.; Dyakina, V. P.; Kourov, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy and chemical microanalysis, electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and the chemical and phase composition of ribbons of the four-component quasi-binary alloy Ni45Ti32Hf18Cu5. The influence of the synthesis regimes and subsequent heat treatment of the alloy on the formation of the amorphized state and ultrafine-grained structure has been determined. The critical temperatures of the devitrification and of the B2 ↔ B19' thermoelastic martensitic transformation have been established based on the data of the temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity. The lattice parameters of the B2 and B19' phases and the (Ti,Hf)2Ni phase have been determined by X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties of the alloy were determined in tensile tests, and the shape-memory effects in the ribbons of the alloy were measured using bending tests.

  15. Zig-zag twins and helical phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Ganor, Yaniv; Dumitrică, Traian; Feng, Fan; James, Richard D

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrate the large bending deformation induced by an array of permanent magnets (applied field ∼0.02 T) designed to minimize poles in the bent state of the crystal. Planar cantilevers of NiMnGa (5M modulated martensite) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy deform into an arched shape according to theory, with a zig-zag microstructure that complies with the kinematic and magnetic compatibility between adjacent twin variants. A general theory of bent and twisted states is given, applicable to both twinning and austenite/martensite transformations. Some of these configurations achieve order-of-magnitude amplification of rotation and axial strain. We investigate also atomistic analogues of these bent and twisted configurations with perfect interfaces between phases. These mechanisms of large deformation, induced by small magnetic fields or temperature changes, have potential application to the development of new actuation technologies for micro-robotic systems.

  16. Energy Barriers and Hysteresis in Martensitic Phase Transformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    I) ∂F2 (Gλ,Gλ) + ω(|λGλ|)|Gλ|2 ] Jλdt1dt2 (93) Since Gλ is bounded uniformly in L2(Ω`) and ω(|λGλ|)→ 0 uniformly, then the error term can be...small hysteresis width. Nature Materials 5 (2006), 286-290. [9] E. De Giorgi and T. Franzoni, Su un tipo di convergenza variazionale. Atti Accad. Naz

  17. The Impact of Martensite Deformation on Shape Memory Effect Recovery Strain Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanba, Asheesh; Hamilton, Reginald F.

    2015-08-01

    The one-way shape memory effect of polycrystalline NiTi is investigated after differential levels of martensite deformation. Martensite naturally forms an energy-minimizing configuration, referred to as self-accommodated, of differently oriented martensite variants, which are internally twinned. Stress preferentially orients a select variant that eventually detwins and plastically deforms at the highest stress levels. In this work, the underlying morphology is ascertained based on the evolution of micro-scale deformation measurements using digital image correlation analysis of three characteristic material responses. An initial martensitic structure is deformed at constant temperature. The forward austenite-to-martensite and reverse martensite-to-austenite phase transformations take place during temperature cycling under a constant stress. The austenite-to-martensite transformation is tensile stress induced at a constant temperature and initiates via a localized strain band. For the conversion of self-accommodated martensite to orientated morphology and further deformation, spatially heterogeneous strains accrue over the entire specimen surface. Shape memory recovery during heating, on the other hand, culminates with a centralized strain localization that persists as recovery approaches completion. The recovery temperature differential ( A f - A s) depends on the extent of deformation. This work characterizes the influence of stress on phase transformation and martensite deformation morphology for deformation in the martensitic state compared to the stress-induced phase transformation.

  18. Stress-induced martensitic transformation during tensile test of full-size TF conductor jacket tube at 4.2 K

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H. H.; Li, S. P.; Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J.; Huang, R. J.; Li, L. F.

    2014-01-27

    The toroidal-field (TF) conductor jacket of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is made of modified 316LN stainless steel, which is influenced by heat treatment at approximately 650 °C for 200 h to produce Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting materials at the final stage. Due to the high electromagnetic forces arising during magnet operation, higher mechanical properties of the jacket materials at cryogenic temperatures are required. In our work, mechanical properties of the full-size TF conductor jacket tube were investigated, which satisfied the ITER requirements. Stress-induced martensitic transformation mechanism during tensile test of the conductor jacket material at 4.2 K was characterized by means of in-situ temperature dependent XRD, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile behavior related to the amount of stress-induced phase transformation at cryogenic temperature was also discussed.

  19. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19′ martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19′ martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  20. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-04-06

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen.

  1. Effect of austenite on mechanical properties in high manganese austenitic stainless steel with two phase of martensite and austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, T. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Kang, C. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the austenite phase on mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels was investigated using specimens with different volume fractions of retained and reversed austenite. Stainless steels with dual-phase coexisting martensite and austenite were successfully synthesized by deformation and reverse transformation treatment in the cold-rolled high manganese austenitic stainless steel and the ultrafine reverse austenite with less than 0.5 µm in size was formed by reverse transformation treatment in the temperature range of 500-750 °C for various times. With the increase of deformation degree, the volume fraction of retained austenite decreased, while that of the reversed austenite increased as the annealing time increased. From the results of the mechanical properties, it was obvious that as the volume fraction of retained and reversed austenite increased, hardness and strength rapidly decreased, while elongation increased. With regard to each austenite, reversed austenite indicated higher value of hardness and strength, while elongation suggested a lower value because of strengthening owing to grain refinement.

  2. The Effect of Cold Work on Martensitic Transformations in CU-ZN-AL Shape Memory Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    the transformations. Marea and Aarea are defined as the area under the generated curves for the P -.M and M--’P phase transformations. These areas...among the other measured parameters (Ms, Mf height’ width and Marea ) occured. This is consistent with findings by Perkins and Muesing [Ref. 11]. Working...toward lower temperatures, Mheight and Marea significantly decreased, and Mwidt h markedly expanded. The DSC data available for precise analysis of as

  3. Martensitic transformation B2-R in Ni-Ti-Fe: experimental determination of the Landau potential and quantum saturation of the order parameter.

    PubMed

    Salje, Ekhard K H; Zhang, Huali; Planes, Antoni; Moya, Xavier

    2008-07-09

    The Landau potential of the martensitic phase transformation in Ni(46.8)Ti(50)Fe(3.2) was determined using high resolution x-ray diffraction to measure the spontaneous strain and calorimetric measurements to determine the excess specific heat of the R phase. The spontaneous strain is proportional to the square of the order parameter which is tested by the relation of the excess entropy and the order parameter. The parameters of the Landau free energy were determined by fitting the temperature evolution of the order parameter and using the scaling between the excess entropy and the order parameter. The double well potential at absolute zero temperature was calculated and the interface energy and domain wall thickness were estimated.

  4. Shape Memory effect and Superelasticity in the [001] Single crystals of a FeNiCoAlTa Alloy with γ-α'-Thermoelastic Martensitic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumlyakov, Yu. I.; Kireeva, I. V.; Kretinina, I. V.; Keinikh, K. S.; Kuts, O. A.; Kirillov, V. A.; Karaman, I.; Maier, H.

    2013-12-01

    Using single crystals of a Fe - 28% Ni - 17% Co - 11.5% Al - 25% Ta (аt.%) alloy, oriented for tensile loading along the [001] direction, the shape-memory (SME) and superelasticity (SE) effects caused by reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformations (MTs) from a high-temperature fcc-phase into a bctmartensite are investigated. It is demonstrated that the conditions necessary for the thermoelastic MTs to occur are achieved by aging at 973 K within the time interval (t) from 0.5 to 7.0 hours, which is accompanied by precipitation of the γ'-phase particles, (FeNiCo)3(AlTa), whose d < 8-12 nm. When the size of the γ'-precipitates becomes as large as d ≥ 8-12 nm, the MT becomes partially reversible. The physical causes underlying the kinetics of thermoelstic reversible fcc-bct MTs are discussed.

  5. The HCP To BCC Phase Transformation in Ti Characterized by Nanosecond Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G; LaGrange, T; King, W; Colvin, J; Ziegler, A; Browning, N; Kleinschmidt, H; Bostanjoglo, O

    2005-06-21

    The general class of martensitic phase transformations occurs by a rapid lattice-distortive mechanism, where kinetics and morphology of the transformation are dominated by the strain energy. Since transformation is diffusionless, phase fronts propagate through a crystal with great speed that can approach the speed of sound. We have observed a particular example of this class of phase transformation, the hexagonal close packed (HCP) to body centered cubic (BCC) transformation in titanium that is driven by a rapid increase in temperature. We have used a novel nanosecond electron microscope (the dynamic transmission electron microscope, DTEM) to acquire diffraction and imaging information on the transformation, which is driven in-situ by nanosecond laser irradiation. Using nanosecond exposure times that are possible in the DTEM, data can be collected about the transient events in these fast transformations. We have identified the phase transformation with diffraction patterns and correlated the time of the phase transformation with calculated conditions in the sample.

  6. Effect of martensitic transformation on magnetoelectric properties of Ni2MnGa/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, K.; Chen, K.; Dai, Y. R.; Wan, J. G.; Zhu, J. S.

    2005-10-01

    The magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient was measured as a function of temperature, from room temperature to 100°C, in a bilayer composite of Ni2MnGa/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3. A distinct peak of the ME coefficient was observed near the martensitic transformation temperature of the Ni2MnGa alloy. The effect of martensitic transition on the ME coefficient and the multiferroic properties were discussed.

  7. Atomic Structure and Phase Transformations in Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Moore, K T; Evans, W J; Farber, D L; Jeffries, J R; Massalski, T B

    2008-04-28

    Plutonium and plutonium-based alloys containing Al or Ga exhibit numerous phases with crystal structures ranging from simple monoclinic to face-centered cubic. Only recently, however, has there been increased convergence in the actinides community on the details of the equilibrium form of the phase diagrams. Practically speaking, while the phase diagrams that represent the stability of the fcc {delta}-phase field at room temperature are generally applicable, it is also recognized that Pu and its alloys are never truly in thermodynamic equilibrium because of self-irradiation effects, primarily from the alpha decay of Pu isotopes. This article covers past and current research on several properties of Pu and Pu-(Al or Ga) alloys and their connections to the crystal structure and the microstructure. We review the consequences of radioactive decay, the recent advances in understanding the electronic structure, the current research on phase transformations and their relations to phase diagrams and phase stability, the nature of the isothermal martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, and the pressure-induced transformations in the {delta}-phase alloys. New data are also presented on the structures and phase transformations observed in these materials following the application of pressure, including the formation of transition phases.

  8. Interplay between diffusive and displacive phase transformations: time-temperature-transformation diagrams and microstructures.

    PubMed

    Bouville, Mathieu; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

    2006-08-04

    Materials which can undergo extremely fast displacive transformations as well as very slow diffusive transformations are studied using a Ginzburg-Landau framework. This simple model captures the essential physics behind microstructure formation and time-temperature-transformation diagrams in alloys such as steels. It also predicts the formation of mixed microstructures by an interplay between diffusive and displacive mechanisms. The intrinsic volume changes associated with the transformations stabilize mixed microstructures such as martensite-retained austenite (responsible for the existence of a martensite finish temperature) and martensite-pearlite.

  9. Study of martensitic-ferritic dual phase steels produced by hot stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erişir, E.; Bilir, O. G.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of heat treatment and initial microstructure on tensile properties of 22MnB5 and 30MnB5 high-strength hot stamping steels with martensite-ferrite matrix were investigated. Hot stamping steels possessed limited elongations of about 5% in a tensile strength ranging from 1300 to 1500 MPa when quenched at temperatures above A3 temperatures. The total elongations were tried to improve by partial austenization between Ac1 and Ac3 temperature and quenching. Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures were calculated via ThermoCalc. Microstructural characterization was made by using Light Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope. Microstructure is composed of ferrite+martensite. It was seen that annealing temperature affects the volume fraction of phases. It was concluded that initial microstructure is an important parameter for the final microstructure. This method can be used for automobile parts which require higher TE with sufficient yield and tensile strength. Also this process may be a way of using Zn coated steel sheets in hot stamping process.

  10. Adaptive modulations of martensites.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, S; Rössler, U K; Heczko, O; Wuttig, M; Buschbeck, J; Schultz, L; Fähler, S

    2010-04-09

    Modulated phases occur in numerous functional materials like giant ferroelectrics and magnetic shape-memory alloys. To understand the origin of these phases, we employ and generalize the concept of adaptive martensite. As a starting point, we investigate the coexistence of austenite, adaptive 14M phase, and tetragonal martensite in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloy epitaxial films. We show that the modulated martensite can be constructed from nanotwinned variants of the tetragonal martensite phase. By combining the concept of adaptive martensite with branching of twin variants, we can explain key features of modulated phases from a microscopic view. This includes metastability, the sequence of 6M-10M-14M-NM intermartensitic transitions, and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  11. Neodymium-rich precipitate phases in a high-chromium ferritic/martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Zhou, Xiaoling; Shang, Zhongxia

    2016-05-01

    Neodymium being considered as nitride forming element has been used in a design of advanced ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels for fossil fired power plants at service temperatures of 630 °C to 650 °C to effectively improve the creep strength of the steels. To fully understand the characteristics of neodymium precipitates in high-Cr FM steels, precipitate phases in an 11Cr FM steel with 0.03 wt% addition of Nd have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Three neodymium phases with a face-centered cubic crystal structure and different composition were observed in the steel. They consisted of neodymium carbonitride with an average lattice parameter of 1.0836 nm, Nd-rich carbonitride mainly containing Mn, and Nd-rich MN nitride mainly containing Mn and Co. Other three Nd-rich and Nd-containing phases, which appear to be Nd-Co-Cr/Nd-rich intermetallic compounds and Cr-Fe-rich nitride containing Nd, were also detected in the steel. Nd-relevant precipitates were found to be minor phases compared with M23C6 and Nb/V/Ta-rich MX phases in the steel. The content of Nd in other precipitate phases was very low. Most of added Nd is considered to be present as solid solution in the matrix of the steel.

  12. Precipitate phases in normalized and tempered ferritic/martensitic steel P92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Liu, Huan; Shang, Zhongxia; Xu, Zhiqiang

    2015-10-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steel P92 is a promising candidate for cladding and duct applications in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor. The precipitate phases of the P92 steel normalized at 1323 K (1050 °C) for 30 min and tempered at 1038 K (765 °C) for 1 h have been investigated using transmission electron microscopes. Four types of phases consisting of M23C6, MX, M2X and sigma-FeCr were identified in the steel. MX phases consist of Nb-rich M(C,N) carbonitride, Nb-rich MC carbide, V-rich M(C,N) carbonitride, V-rich MC carbide, V-rich MN nitride, and complex MC carbides with Nb-rich MC core and V-rich MC wings. M2X phases consist of Cr-rich M2(C,N) carbonitride, Cr-rich M2C carbide and M2N nitride. Sigma-FeCr has a simple tetragonal lattice and a typical chemical formula of Fe0.45Cr0.45W0.1. M23C6 and MX are the dominant phases, while the sigma-FeCr has the lowest content. The formation of sigma-FeCr and M2X phases in the steel is also discussed.

  13. The effect of multiple martensitic transformations on diffusion of Fe and Ni atoms in Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion characteristics of iron and nickel atoms were investigated using radioactive isotopes method in phase-hardened metastable iron-nickel Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy with nanofragmented structure. It has been found that diffusion mobility of nickel and iron atoms in reverted austenite of Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy significantly increases as the result of multiple γ-α-γ martensitic transformations. The diffusion coefficients of nickel and iron in the austenite at 400°C corresponded to the stationary diffusion coefficients at the temperatures above 900°C. The revealed diffusion acceleration at low temperatures is caused by high-density dislocations and additional low-angle subboundaries of disoriented nanofragments of reverted austenite and deformation twin subboundaries formed during multiple γ-α-γ cycles. PMID:25024684

  14. The effect of multiple martensitic transformations on diffusion of Fe and Ni atoms in Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy.

    PubMed

    Danilchenko, Vitaliy E; Mazanko, Vladimir F; Iakovlev, Viktor E

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion characteristics of iron and nickel atoms were investigated using radioactive isotopes method in phase-hardened metastable iron-nickel Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy with nanofragmented structure. It has been found that diffusion mobility of nickel and iron atoms in reverted austenite of Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy significantly increases as the result of multiple γ-α-γ martensitic transformations. The diffusion coefficients of nickel and iron in the austenite at 400°C corresponded to the stationary diffusion coefficients at the temperatures above 900°C. The revealed diffusion acceleration at low temperatures is caused by high-density dislocations and additional low-angle subboundaries of disoriented nanofragments of reverted austenite and deformation twin subboundaries formed during multiple γ-α-γ cycles.

  15. Interaction between phase transformations and dislocations at the nanoscale. Part 2: Phase field simulation examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanbakht, Mahdi; Levitas, Valery I.

    2015-09-01

    The complete system of phase field equations for coupled martensitic phase transformations (PTs), dislocation evolution, and mechanics at large strains is presented. Finite element method (FEM) is utilized to solve this system for two important problems. The first one is related to the simulation of shear strain-induced PT at the evolving dislocation pile-ups in a nanosized bicrystal. Plasticity plays a dual part in the interaction with PT. Dislocation pile-ups produce strong stress tensor concentrators that lead to barrierless martensite (M) nucleation. On the other hand, plasticity in the transforming grain relaxes these stress concentrators suppressing PT. The final stationary M morphology is governed by the local thermodynamic equilibrium, either at the interfaces or in terms of stresses averaged over the martensitic region or the entire grain. This is very surprising because of strong heterogeneity of stress fields and is in contrast to previous statements that phase equilibrium conditions do not enter the description of strain-induced PTs. The second problem is devoted to martensitic plate propagation through a bicrystal during temperature-induced PT. For elastic growth (without dislocations) and a large thermal driving force, a complex transformation path with plate branching and direct and reverse PTs is observed, which still ends with the same stationary nanostructure as for a smaller driving force and a traditional transformation path. Sharp grain boundary arrests plate growth at a relatively small driving force, exhibiting an athermal friction. For elastoplastic growth, the generation of dislocations produces athermal friction and arrests the plate below some critical driving force, leading to a morphological transition from plate to lath M. The width of the martensitic plate increases in comparison with elastic growth due to internal stress relaxation. Plate growth is accompanied by the nucleation of dislocations within M and remaining in M, the

  16. Anisotropic kinetics of solid phase transition from first principles: alpha-omega phase transformation of Zr.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shu-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2016-02-14

    Structural inhomogeneity is ubiquitous in solid crystals and plays critical roles in phase nucleation and propagation. Here, we develop a heterogeneous solid-solid phase transition theory for predicting the prevailing heterophase junctions, the metastable states governing microstructure evolution in solids. Using this theory and first-principles pathway sampling simulation, we determine two types of heterophase junctions pertaining to metal α-ω phase transition at different pressures and predict the reversibility of transformation only at low pressures, i.e. below 7 GPa. The low-pressure transformation is dominated by displacive Martensitic mechanism, while the high-pressure one is controlled by the reconstructive mechanism. The mechanism of α-ω phase transition is thus highly pressure-sensitive, for which the traditional homogeneous model fails to explain the experimental observations. The results provide the first atomic-level evidence on the coexistence of two different solid phase transition mechanisms in one system.

  17. Phase Transformation in Tantalum under Extreme Laser Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.-H.; Hahn, E. N.; Remington, B. A.; Maddox, B. R.; Bringa, E. M.; Meyers, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and important structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of extreme pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centered cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an extreme regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. Molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).

  18. Phase transformation in tantalum under extreme laser deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C. -H.; Hahn, E. N.; Remington, B. A.; Maddox, B. R.; Bringa, E. M.; Meyers, M. A.

    2015-10-19

    The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and important structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of extreme pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centered cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an extreme regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. In conclusion, molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).

  19. Phase transformation in tantalum under extreme laser deformation

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, C. -H.; Hahn, E. N.; Remington, B. A.; ...

    2015-10-19

    The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and important structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of extreme pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centeredmore » cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an extreme regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. In conclusion, molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).« less

  20. Phase Transformation in Tantalum under Extreme Laser Deformation.

    PubMed

    Lu, C-H; Hahn, E N; Remington, B A; Maddox, B R; Bringa, E M; Meyers, M A

    2015-10-19

    The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and important structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of extreme pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centered cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an extreme regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. Molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).

  1. Effect of Quenching and Partitioning with Hot Stamping on Martensite Transformation and Mechanical Properties of AHSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ying; Li, Guanzhong; Wang, Cunyu; Li, Xiaodong; Dong, Han

    2015-08-01

    Two-step quenching and partitioning treatment with hot stamping was applied to advanced high-strength steel (AHSS). The newly treated steel possesses a fine microstructure and typically curved micromorphology. The martensite start temperature of the newly treated steel is increased through the effect of plastic deformation on austenitic microstructure. However, the martensite volume fraction of this steel is deceased because of the enhanced stability of the untransformed austenite after plastic deformation. Consequently, the fraction of retained austenite is increased. The newly treated steel also shows excellent mechanical properties. The volume fraction of retained austenite reaches the highest value of 17.2% when hot stamping is performed at 750 °C. Hence, the steel displays favorable plasticity with an elongation of 14.5%. Moreover, the highest hardness value of 426 HV is obtained when hot stamping is performed at 650 °C. The newly developed process may be employed to develop a new generation of AHSSs.

  2. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  3. Effects of interstitial impurities on the high pressure martensitic α to ω structural transformation and grain growth in zirconium.

    PubMed

    Velisavljevic, Nenad; Chesnut, Gary N; Stevens, Lewis L; Dattelbaum, Dana M

    2011-03-30

    Static high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments were performed on three polycrystalline Zr samples having varying interstitial impurity concentrations. Systematic increase in transition pressure with the increase in the amount of interstitial impurities is observed for the martensitic α →ω structural phase transition in Zr. Significant room temperature crystal grain growth is also observed for the two highest purity samples at the α →ω transition. In the case of the lowest purity sample interstitial impurities obstruct the α →ω transition, while possibly helping impede grain growth-even as the sample is heated to 1279 K.

  4. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass composites.

    PubMed

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Dolors Baró, Maria; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr48Cu48 - x Al4M x (M ≡ Fe or Co, x = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr48Cu48Al4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Co0.5 and 6.2% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Fe0.5) is considerably larger than for Zr48Cu48Al4 or the alloys with x = 1. Slight variations in the Young's modulus (around 5-10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite-martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr-Cu-Al-(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications.

  5. Influence of annealing on martensitic transformation and magnetic entropy change in Ni37.7Co12.7Mn40.8Sn8.8 magnetic shape memory alloy ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Liu, W. L.; Shi, Y. G.; Müllner, P.

    2015-03-01

    The microstructure, martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of Ni37.7Co12.7Mn40.8Sn8.8 high temperature magnetic shape memory ribbon subjected to different annealing temperature were investigated. Annealing up to 1073 K slightly raised the transformation temperatures and the transformation interval, while annealing at 1173 K considerably decreased the transformation temperature and strongly widened the transformation interval due to the formation of a second phase. The as-spun and annealed ribbon at 973 K exhibited giant magnetic entropy changes of around 15 J/kg K under 15 kOe magnetic field above 400 K. Further increasing annealing temperature caused a decrease of the magnetic entropy change. To achieve a large magnetocaloric effect while keeping an elevated transformation temperature, an appropriate annealing parameter should be carefully considered.

  6. Metastability of the martensitic transformation in a 12 mol% ceria-zirconia alloy; II, grinding studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.V.; Hannink, R.H.J. . Div. of Materials Science and Technology)

    1989-08-01

    Observations of the grinding-induced transformation in single-phase Ce-TZP materials, referred to in an earlier paper, are presented. Two techniques were used to grind the surface: by hand in a slurry of abrasive particles and with a high-speed diamond-impregnated wheel. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction profiles between the two grinding methods were observed. Limited monoclinic ZrO/sub 2/ was detected on the machine-ground surface, along with the reversal of the tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/ (200) peak intensities. On the hand-ground surface, considerable monoclinic phase was observed. Transmission electron microscope studies at various depths below the ground surface were undertaken to identify the differences between these surfaces and fractured surfaces. A simple explanation is proposed for the reversal of the tetragonal peak intensities.

  7. Fatigue properties of a metastable beta-type titanium alloy with reversible phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Li, S J; Cui, T C; Hao, Y L; Yang, R

    2008-03-01

    Due to recent concern about allergic and toxic effects of Ni ions released from TiNi alloy into human body, much attention has been focused on the development of new Ni-free, metastable beta-type biomedical titanium alloys with a reversible phase transformation between the beta phase and the alpha'' martensite. This study investigates the effect of the stress-induced alpha'' martensite on the mechanical and fatigue properties of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.6Sn (wt.%) alloy. The results show that the as-forged alloy has a low dynamic Young's modulus of 55GPa and a recoverable tensile strain of approximately 3%. Compared with Ti-6Al-4V ELI, the studied alloy has quite a high low-cycle fatigue strength because of the effective suppression of microplastic deformation by the reversible martensitic transformation. Due to the low critical stress required to induce the martensitic transformation, it has low fatigue endurance comparable to that of Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Cold rolling produces a beta+alpha'' two-phase microstructure that is characterized by regions of nano-size beta grains interspersed with coarse grains containing alpha'' martensite plates. Cold rolling increases fatigue endurance by approximately 50% while decreasing the Young's modulus to 49GPa along the rolling direction but increasing it to 68GPa along the transverse direction. Due to the effective suppression of the brittle isothermal omega phase, balanced properties of high strength, low Young's modulus and good ductility can be achieved through ageing treatment at intermediate temperature.

  8. Phase transformation and its effect on mechanical characteristics in warm-deformed Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taekyung; Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Chong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr (TNTZ) alloy has been extensively studied as it is promising for use in biomedical applications. Despite its potential, the effects of warm plastic deformation on the alloy have not yet been revealed. This study investigated the differences in phase constitution of two warm-deformed TNTZ alloys and revealed relevant mechanisms with particular attention to martensitic transformation. The influence of phase constituents on mechanical characteristics was discussed as well. The TNTZ alloy deformed at 823 K possessed α, β, and ω phases as well as α″ martensite, and demonstrated a low Young's modulus and double-yielding phenomenon. In contrast, the alloy deformed at 723 K had no martensite but more ω phase, leading to increased strength, hardness, and Young's modulus. The absence of α″ martensite in the alloy deformed at 723 K was interpreted in light of β-stability of the parent phase and reduced M s temperature.

  9. Numerical simulation of martensitic transformations in magnetic transition-metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entel, P.; Kadau, K.; Meyer, R.; Herper, H. C.; Acet, M.; Wassermann, E. F.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of martensitic nucleation processes in iron-based transition-metal alloys. In order to handle a sufficiently large number of atoms in the simulation process, use has been made of the embedded-atom method (EAM). Results for structural transition temperatures, superelastic behavior as well as tendential-shape memory effects compare qualitatively well with experimental results. Results are also compared with a zero-temperature stability analysis on the basis of full-potential band-structure calculations.

  10. A new Framework for the Interpretation of Modulated Martensites in Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusuf, Vincent

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a class of materials with unusual properties that have been attributed to the material undergoing a martensitic phase transformation (MPT). An MPT consists of the material's crystal structure evolving in a coordinated fashion from a high symmetry austenite phase to a low symmetry martensite phase. Often in SMAs, the austenite is a B2 cubic configuration that transforms into a Modulated Martensite (MM) phase. MMs are long-period stacking order structures consisting of cubic (110) basal planes. First-principles computational results have shown that the minimum energy phase for these materials is not a MM, but a short-period structure called the ground state martensite. It is commonly argued that energy contributions associated with kinematic compatibility constraints at the austenite-martensite interface explain the experimental observation of meta-stable MMs, as opposed to the expected ground state martensite phase. To date, a general approach for predicting the properties of the MM structure that will be observed for a particular material has not been available. In this work, we develop a new framework for the interpretation of MMs as natural features of the material's energy landscape (expressed as a function of the lattice parameters and individual atomic positions within a perfect infinite crystal). From this energy-based framework, a new understanding of MMs as a mixture of two short-period base martensite phases is developed. Using only a small set of input data associated with the two base martensites, this Modulated Martensite Mixture Model is capable of accurately predicting the energy, lattice constants, and structural details of an arbitrary modulated martensite phase. This is demonstrated by comparing the Modulated Martensite Mixture Model predictions to computational results from a particular empirical atomistic model.

  11. Vibrational and magnetic contributions to the entropy change associated with the martensitic transformation of Ni-Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Recarte, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Gómez-Polo, C; Sánchez-Alarcos, V; Cesari, E; Pons, J

    2010-10-20

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys undergo a martensitic transformation accompanied by a change in the magnetic and vibrational properties. However, these property changes are not independent. In this paper, the interplay between magnetic and vibrational properties in the martensitic transformation entropy change has been analyzed for Ni-Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. The martensitic transformation entropy change has a magnetic and a vibrational contribution, ΔS(p−>m)=ΔS(vib)(p−>m) + ΔS(mag)(p−>m). Using a mean field approximation for the magnetic entropy, the full entropy ΔS(p−>m) has been decomposed and the magnetic contribution ΔS(mag)(p−>m) calculated. Upon removing the magnetic term, the vibrational entropy ΔS(vib)(p−>m) does not change substantially in the composition range where T(M) is below T(C). This latter contribution to the martensitic transformation entropy change has been analyzed using a Debye distribution for the density of states and a proportion of Einstein modes that account for the anomalous phonon mode of the austenite.

  12. The correlation of local deformation and stress-assisted local phase transformations in MMC foams

    SciTech Connect

    Berek, H.; Ballaschk, U.; Aneziris, C.G.; Losch, K.; Schladitz, K.

    2015-09-15

    Cellular structures are of growing interest for industry, and are of particular importance for lightweight applications. In this paper, a special case of metal matrix composite foams (MMCs) is investigated. The investigated foams are composed of austenitic steel exhibiting transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ). Both components exhibit martensitic phase transformation during deformation, thus generating the potential for improved mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and energy absorption capability. The aim of these investigations was to show that stress-assisted phase transformations within the ceramic reinforcement correspond to strong local deformation, and to determine whether they can trigger martensitic phase transformations in the steel matrix. To this end, in situ interrupted compression experiments were performed in an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT). By using a recently developed registration algorithm, local deformation could be calculated and regions of interest could be defined. Corresponding cross sections were prepared and used to analyze the local phase composition by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show a strong correlation between local deformation and phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • In situ compressive deformation on MMC foams was performed in an XCT. • Local deformation fields and their gradient amplitudes were estimated. • Cross sections were manufactured containing defined regions of interest. • Local EBSD phase analysis was performed. • Local deformation and local phase transformation are correlated.

  13. Re-equilibration after quenches in athermal martensites: Conversion delays for vapor-to-liquid domain-wall phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankaraiah, N.; Murthy, K. P. N.; Lookman, T.; Shenoy, S. R.

    2015-06-01

    Entropy barriers and aging states appear in martensitic structural-transition models, slowly re-equilibrating after temperature quenches, under Monte Carlo dynamics. Concepts from protein folding and aging harmonic oscillators turn out to be useful in understanding these nonequilibrium evolutions. We show how the athermal, nonactivated delay time for seeded parent-phase austenite to convert to product-phase martensite arises from an identified entropy barrier in Fourier space. In an aging state of low Monte Carlo acceptances, the strain structure factor makes constant-energy searches for rare pathways to enter a Brillouin zone "golf hole" enclosing negative-energy states, and to suddenly release entropically trapped stresses. In this context, a stress-dependent effective temperature can be defined, that re-equilibrates to the quenched bath temperature.

  14. Mechanism of the gamma-beta phase transformation of Mg2SiO4 at high temperature and pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Brearley, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of experiments on the phase transformation of Mg2SiO4 olivine at 15 GPa pressure in a multianvil cell are reported. At this pressure and a temperature of 900 C, early formed metastable gamma-spinel transforms partially to the beta-phase. The observed microstructures, which are similar to those in shocked meteorites, show that the gamma-to-beta transformation can occur either by diffusion-controlled growth or by a martensitic mechanism, depending on how far the pressure-temperature conditions deviate from their values at phase equilibrium. The results suggest that the diffusion-controlled mechanism is most likely to operate at the beta/gamma phase boundary in the mantle, but martensitic beta-to-gamma transformation might occur in subduction zones and could reduce the shear strength of the subducting slab.

  15. Modeling thermally induced martensitic transformations in nickel titanium shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Stefanie; Eggeler, Gunther; Kastner, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    During stress-free thermal analysis with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nickel titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys show a thermal hysteresis which is affected by cooling/heating rates. Moreover, the Ni content of near equiatomic alloys governs the phase transition temperatures. This contribution aims at establishing a constitutive equation which can account for these effects, building on earlier work by Müller, Achenbach and Seelecke (MAS). To be specific, we discuss our new method with a focus on NiTi alloys. As in the original MAS model, our approach is rooted in a non-convex free energy representation and rate equations are utilized to incorporate history dependence during non-equilibrium processes. The relaxation times of these rate equations are determined by characteristic transformation probabilities which in turn are governed by the free energy landscape of our system. We show how the model can be parameterized to rationalize experimental DSC data observed for NiTi samples of variable composition and measured at variable cooling/heating rates. The good agreement between model predictions and experimental results suggests that thermal hystereses are not only related to interfacial strain energy effects but also affected by the transient character of the transformation process incorporating specific thermal relaxation times. Our analysis shows that we observe strong hysteretic effects when the cooling/heating rates exceed these characteristic relaxation rates.

  16. Effect of uni- and biaxial strain on phase transformations in Fe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak-Saracino, Emilia; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2016-01-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the phase transformations in Fe thin films induced by uni- and biaxial strain. Both the austenitic transformation of a body-centered cubic (bcc) film at the equilibrium temperature of the face-centered cubic (fcc)-bcc transformation and the martensitic transformation of an undercooled fcc film are studied. We demonstrate that different strain states (uni- or biaxial) induce different nucleation kinetics of the new phase and hence different microstructures evolve. For the case of the austenitic transformation, the direction of the applied strain selects the orientation of the nucleated grains of the new phase; the application of biaxial strain leads to a symmetric twinned structure. For the martensitic transformation, the influence of the strain state is even more pronounced, in that it can either inhibit the transformation, induce the homogeneous nucleation of a fine-dispersed array of the new phase resulting in a single-crystalline final state, or lead to the more conventional mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation of grains at the free surfaces, which grow and result in a poly-crystalline microstructure of the transformed material.

  17. Effect of niobium addition on the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect in low hysteresis NiCoMnSn magnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Emre, Baris; Bruno, Nickolaus M.; Yuce Emre, Suheyla; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2014-12-08

    The effect of Nb substitution for Ni in Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} magnetic shape memory alloys on their magnetic properties, martensitic transformation characteristics, transformation hysteresis, and magnetocaloric properties was studied using wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization. Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} alloy has a very low transformation hysteresis; however, the martensitic transformation temperatures are notably above room temperature, which is not desirable for magnetic refrigeration applications. In this study, small quantities of Nb substitution were shown to drastically shift the transformation temperatures to lower temperatures, at a rate of 68 K/at. % Nb, which is needed for household refrigeration. The austenite Curie temperature also decreased with increasing Nb content. However, a decrease in the latent heat of the martensitic transition was observed, which negatively affects the magnetic field-induced adiabatic temperature change capability. Still, the relatively large transformation entropy and the low transformation hysteresis make the Nb-doped Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} alloys potential candidates for solid state refrigeration near room temperature.

  18. Strain-rate-induced bcc-to-hcp phase transformation of Fe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongxian; Yu, Tao; Fang, Wei; Yin, Fuxing; Faraz Khan, Dil

    2016-12-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulation method, the plastic deformation mechanism of Fe nanowires is studied by applying uniaxial tension along the [110] direction. The simulation result shows that the bcc-to-hcp martensitic phase transformation mechanism controls the plastic deformation of the nanowires at high strain rate or low temperature; however, the plastic deformation mechanism will transform into a dislocation nucleation mechanism at low strain rate and higher temperature. Furthermore, the underlying cause of why the bcc-to-hcp martensitic phase transition mechanism is related to high strain rate and low temperature is also carefully studied. Based on the present study, a strain rate-temperature plastic deformation map for Fe nanowires has been proposed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51571082) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M580191).

  19. Observation on Formation of Fresh Martensite from the Reversed Austenite During Water-Quenching Process in Fe-0.2C-5Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuan; Zhang, Chi; Cao, Wen-Quan; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Weng, Yu-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Phase transformation behavior during intercritical annealing in Fe-0.2C-5Mn was studied. Austenite lath formed and transformed at martensite lath during annealing. XRD revealed that retained austenite amount did not always increase with time. TEM result may firstly demonstrate that reversed austenite partly changed into fresh martensite during quenching while the remained part was retained as retained austenite. The final structure consisted of ferrite, retained austenite and fresh martensite. Simulation was done by DICTRA to support TEM result.

  20. The effect of crystallographic texture on stress-induced martensitic transformation in NiTi: A computational analysis.

    PubMed

    Weafer, F M; Guo, Y; Bruzzi, M S

    2016-01-01

    NiTi׳s superelasticity is exploited in a number of biomedical devices, in particular self-expanding endovascular stents. These stents are often laser-cut from textured micro-tubing; texture is the distribution of crystallographic grain orientations in a polycrystalline material which has been experimentally shown to have a marked influence on mechanical properties. This study offers a computational examination into the effect of texture on the stress-induced martensite transformation (SIMT) in a micro-dogbone NiTi specimen subject to tensile loading. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is employed to simulate the transformational behaviour of the specimen on a micro-scale level. To represent a realistic grain structure in the FEA model, grains present in a 200µm×290µm test site located at the centre edge of the specimen were identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Grains are assumed to have homogenous behaviour with properties varying according to their crystallographic orientation to the loading direction. Required material properties were extracted from uniaxial stress-strain curves of single crystals for each crystallographic orientation for input into the in-built UMAT/Nitinol. The orientation of each grain in the test site was identified using Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) techniques. In this way, a quantitative explanation is offered to the effect of crystallographic texture on SIMT. Finally, the evolution of grains in the specimen, during the transformation process, was experimentally investigated by means of an in-situ SEM tensile test.

  1. Revealing martensitic transformation and α/β interface evolution in electron beam melting three-dimensional-printed Ti-6Al-4V

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xipeng; Kok, Yihong; Toh, Wei Quan; Tan, Yu Jun; Descoins, Marion; Mangelinck, Dominique; Tor, Shu Beng; Leong, Kah Fai; Chua, Chee Kai

    2016-01-01

    As an important metal three-dimensional printing technology, electron beam melting (EBM) is gaining increasing attention due to its huge potential applications in aerospace and biomedical fields. EBM processing of Ti-6Al-4V as well as its microstructure and mechanical properties were extensively investigated. However, it is still lack of quantitative studies regarding its microstructural evolution, indicative of EBM thermal process. Here, we report α′ martensitic transformation and α/β interface evolution in varied printing thicknesses of EBM-printed Ti-6Al-4V block samples by means of atom probe tomography. Quantitative chemical composition analysis suggests a general phase transformation sequence. By increasing in-fill hatched thickness, elemental partitioning ratios arise and β volume fraction is increased. Furthermore, we observe kinetic vanadium segregation and aluminum depletion at interface front and the resultant α/β interface widening phenomenon. It may give rise to an increased α/β lattice mismatch and weakened α/β interfaces, which could account for the degraded strength as printing thickness increases. PMID:27185285

  2. Revealing martensitic transformation and α/β interface evolution in electron beam melting three-dimensional-printed Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xipeng; Kok, Yihong; Toh, Wei Quan; Tan, Yu Jun; Descoins, Marion; Mangelinck, Dominique; Tor, Shu Beng; Leong, Kah Fai; Chua, Chee Kai

    2016-05-17

    As an important metal three-dimensional printing technology, electron beam melting (EBM) is gaining increasing attention due to its huge potential applications in aerospace and biomedical fields. EBM processing of Ti-6Al-4V as well as its microstructure and mechanical properties were extensively investigated. However, it is still lack of quantitative studies regarding its microstructural evolution, indicative of EBM thermal process. Here, we report α' martensitic transformation and α/β interface evolution in varied printing thicknesses of EBM-printed Ti-6Al-4V block samples by means of atom probe tomography. Quantitative chemical composition analysis suggests a general phase transformation sequence. By increasing in-fill hatched thickness, elemental partitioning ratios arise and β volume fraction is increased. Furthermore, we observe kinetic vanadium segregation and aluminum depletion at interface front and the resultant α/β interface widening phenomenon. It may give rise to an increased α/β lattice mismatch and weakened α/β interfaces, which could account for the degraded strength as printing thickness increases.

  3. Revealing martensitic transformation and α/β interface evolution in electron beam melting three-dimensional-printed Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xipeng; Kok, Yihong; Toh, Wei Quan; Tan, Yu Jun; Descoins, Marion; Mangelinck, Dominique; Tor, Shu Beng; Leong, Kah Fai; Chua, Chee Kai

    2016-05-01

    As an important metal three-dimensional printing technology, electron beam melting (EBM) is gaining increasing attention due to its huge potential applications in aerospace and biomedical fields. EBM processing of Ti-6Al-4V as well as its microstructure and mechanical properties were extensively investigated. However, it is still lack of quantitative studies regarding its microstructural evolution, indicative of EBM thermal process. Here, we report α‧ martensitic transformation and α/β interface evolution in varied printing thicknesses of EBM-printed Ti-6Al-4V block samples by means of atom probe tomography. Quantitative chemical composition analysis suggests a general phase transformation sequence. By increasing in-fill hatched thickness, elemental partitioning ratios arise and β volume fraction is increased. Furthermore, we observe kinetic vanadium segregation and aluminum depletion at interface front and the resultant α/β interface widening phenomenon. It may give rise to an increased α/β lattice mismatch and weakened α/β interfaces, which could account for the degraded strength as printing thickness increases.

  4. Ion-irradiation-assisted tuning of phase transformations and physical properties in single crystalline Fe7Pd3 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabi-Hashemi, A.; Witte, R.; Lotnyk, A.; Brand, R. A.; Setzer, A.; Esquinazi, P.; Hahn, H.; Averback, R. S.; Mayr, S. G.

    2015-05-01

    Control of multi-martensite phase transformations and physical properties constitute greatly unresolved challenges in Fe7Pd3-based ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Single crystalline Fe7Pd3 thin films reveal an austenite to martensite phase transformation, continuously ranging from the face-centered cubic (fcc) to the face-centered tetragonal (fct) and body-centered cubic (bcc) phases upon irradiation with 1.8 MeV Kr+ ions. Within the present contribution, we explore this scenario within a comprehensive experimental study: employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), we first clarify the crystallography of the ion-irradiation-induced austenite \\Rightarrow martensite and inter-martensite transitions, explore the multi-variant martensite structures with c-a twinning and unravel a very gradual transition between variants at twin boundaries. Accompanying magnetic properties, addressed locally and globally, are characterized by an increasing saturation magnetization from fcc to bcc, while coercivity and remanence are demonstrated to be governed by magnetocrystalline anisotropy and ion-irradiation-induced defect density, respectively. Based on reversibility of ion-irradiation-induced materials changes due to annealing treatment and a conversion electron Mößbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) study to address changes in order, a quantitative defect-based physical picture of ion-irradiation-induced austenite ⇔ martensite transformation in Fe7Pd3 is developed. The presented concepts thus pave the way for ion-irradiation-assisted optimization strategies for tailored functional alloys.

  5. Superstrength of nanograined steel with nanoscale intermetallic precipitates transformed from shock-compressed martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hailiang; Yan, Ming; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Qiang; Godbole, Ajit; Li, Jintao; Su, Lihong; Kong, Charlie

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of industrial applications need superstrength steels. It is known that refined grains and nanoscale precipitates can increase strength. The hardest martensitic steel reported to date is C0.8 steel, whose nanohardness can reach 11.9 GPa through incremental interstitial solid solution strengthening. Here we report a nanograined (NG) steel dispersed with nanoscale precipitates which has an extraordinarily high hardness of 19.1 GPa. The NG steel (shock-compressed Armox 500T steel) was obtained under these conditions: high strain rate of 1.2 μs-1, high temperature rise rate of 600 Kμs-1 and high pressure of 17 GPa. The mean grain size achieved was 39 nm and reinforcing precipitates were indexed in the NG steel. The strength of the NG steel is expected to be ~3950 MPa. The discovery of the NG steel offers a general pathway for designing new advanced steel materials with exceptional hardness and excellent strength.

  6. Superstrength of nanograined steel with nanoscale intermetallic precipitates transformed from shock-compressed martensitic steel

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hailiang; Yan, Ming; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Qiang; Godbole, Ajit; Li, Jintao; Su, Lihong; Kong, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial applications need superstrength steels. It is known that refined grains and nanoscale precipitates can increase strength. The hardest martensitic steel reported to date is C0.8 steel, whose nanohardness can reach 11.9 GPa through incremental interstitial solid solution strengthening. Here we report a nanograined (NG) steel dispersed with nanoscale precipitates which has an extraordinarily high hardness of 19.1 GPa. The NG steel (shock-compressed Armox 500T steel) was obtained under these conditions: high strain rate of 1.2 μs−1, high temperature rise rate of 600 Kμs−1 and high pressure of 17 GPa. The mean grain size achieved was 39 nm and reinforcing precipitates were indexed in the NG steel. The strength of the NG steel is expected to be ~3950 MPa. The discovery of the NG steel offers a general pathway for designing new advanced steel materials with exceptional hardness and excellent strength. PMID:27892460

  7. Influence of structural-phase state of ferritic-martensitic steels on the helium porosity development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, I. I.; Staltsov, M. S.; Kalin, B. A.; Bogachev, I. A.; Guseva, L. Yu; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Emelyanova, O. V.; Drozhzhina, M. V.; Manukovsky, K. V.; Nikolaeva, I. D.

    2016-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to study the effect of the initial structural-phase state (SPhS) of ferritic-martensitic steels EK-181, EP-450 and EP-450- ODS (with 0.5 wt.% nanoparticles of Y2O3) on the of helium porosity formation and gas swelling. Different SPhS of steel EK-181 was produced by water quenching, annealing, normalizing plus tempered, intensive plastic deformation by torsion (HPDT). Irradiation was carried out by He+-40 keV ions at 923 K up to fluence of 5-1020 He+/m2. It is shown that the water quenching causes the formation of uniformly distributed small bubbles (d¯ ∼ 2 nm) of the highest density (ρ∼ 1025 m-3). After normalization followed by tempering as well as after annealing bubbles distribution is highly non-uniform both by volume and in size. Very large faceted bubbles (pre-equilibrium gas-filled voids) are formed in ferrite grains resulting in high level of gas swelling of the irradiated layer with S = 4,9 ± 1,2 and 3.8 ± 0.9% respectively. Nano- and microcrystalline structure created by HPDT completely degenerate at irradiation temperature and ion irradiation formed bubbles of the same parameters as in the annealed steel. Bubbles formed in EP-450-ODS steel are smaller in size and density, which led to a decrease of helium swelling by 4 times (S = 0.8 ± 0.2%) as compared to the swelling of the matrix steel EP-450 (S = 3.1 ± 0.7%).

  8. Phase transformations in some hafnium-tantalum-titanium-zirconium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Kapoor, D.

    1997-11-01

    Phase transformations in hafnium alloys are of interest as a means of achieving a material which exhibits flow softening and high localized strains during deformation at high strain rates. Hafnium transforms from a body-centered-cubic beta phase to a hexagonal alpha phase upon cooling below 1749{degrees}C. Hafnium-based alloys containing up to 17.5% Ti, up to 17.5% Ta, and up to 7.3% Zr by weight were button-arc melted and, in some cases, hot extruded to obtain a refined grain size. A number of alloys were shown to have beta solvus temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1300{degrees}C and showed evidence of a shear transformation upon water quenching. The Vickers microhardness of the quenched materials are typically above 350 HV as compared to 300 HV or less for materials with an alpha plus beta structure. Quenching dilatometry indicates a martensite start temperature of about 750{degrees}C for the Hf-7.5 Ta-10 Ti-1 Zr alloy and 800{degrees}C or more for the Hf-7.5 Ta-7.5 Ti-1 Zr alloy. Tensile tests at 1 s{sup {minus}1} strain rate show a constant ultimate tensile strength for temperatures up to 600{degrees}C for the above two alloys and a rapid decrease in strength with a further increase in temperature.

  9. A study of stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy by in-situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dongmei; Mu, Juan; Chen, Yan; ...

    2017-03-01

    The stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy were investigated by in-situ neutron diffraction. The pseudoelastic behavior with a pronounced strain-hardening effect is observed. The retained martensite nuclei and the residual stress obtained from the 1st cycle reduce the stress threshold for the martensitic transformation. A critical stress level is required for the reverse martensitic transformation from martensite to B2 phase. An increase of intensity for the B2 (110) plane in the 1st cycle is caused by the twinning along the {112}<111> twinning system. The convoluted stress partitioning influenced by the elastic and transformation anisotropy along with themore » newly formed martensite determines the microstress partitioning of the studied CuZr-based alloy. The reversible martensitic transformation is responsible for the pseudoelasticity. The macro mechanical behavior of the pure B2 phase can be divided into 3 stages, which are mediated by the evolvement of the martensitic transformation. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).« less

  10. A micromechanics constitutive model for pure dilatant martensitic transformation of ZrO2-containing ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingping, Sun; Shouwen, Yu; Kehchih, Hwang

    1990-05-01

    A new micromechanics constitutive model for pure dilatant transformation plasticity of structure ceramics is proposed in this paper. Based on the thermodynamics, micromechanics and microscale t→m transformation mechanism analysis of the TZP and PSZ ZrO2-containing ceramics, an analytic expressions of the Helmholtz and complementary free energy of the constitutive element for the case of pure dilatant transformation is derived for the first time in a self-consistent manner. By the analysis of energy dissipation in the forward and reverse transformations, the micromechanics constitutive law is derived in the framework of Hill-Rice's internal variable constitutive theory.

  11. A scanning Hall probe imaging study of the field induced martensite-austenite phase transition in Ni50Mn34In16 alloy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Moore, J D; Chattopadhyay, M K; Morrison, Kelly; Cohen, L F; Roy, S B

    2010-01-13

    The martensite to austenite phase transition in the off-stoichiometric Heusler alloy Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) can be induced both by temperature change and by application of a magnetic field. We have used scanning Hall probe imaging to study the magnetic field induced martensite-austenite phase transition. The study provides clear visual evidence of the coexistence of the martensite and austenite phases across this field induced transition in both increasing and decreasing magnetic fields. Clear evidence of thermomagnetic history effects associated with the martensite-austenite phase transition is also obtained. Quantitative analysis of the magnetic field dependence of the volume fraction of the austenite phase in Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) shows evidence of a nucleation and growth mechanism across the field induced martensite-austenite phase transition. The local M-H loops constructed from the Hall images indicate the presence of a landscape of the critical magnetic field (for the field induced transition) distributed over the sample volume and thus confirm the disorder influenced nature of this first-order magnetic phase transition.

  12. Phase field modeling of tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamivand, Mahmood

    Zirconia based ceramics are strong, hard, inert, and smooth, with low thermal conductivity and good biocompatibility. Such properties made zirconia ceramics an ideal material for different applications form thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to biomedicine applications like femoral implants and dental bridges. However, this unusual versatility of excellent properties would be mediated by the metastable tetragonal (or cubic) transformation to the stable monoclinic phase after a certain exposure at service temperatures. This transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic, known as LTD (low temperature degradation) in biomedical application, proceeds by propagation of martensite, which corresponds to transformation twinning. As such, tetragonal to monoclinic transformation is highly sensitive to mechanical and chemomechanical stresses. It is known in fact that this transformation is the source of the fracture toughening in stabilized zirconia as it occurs at the stress concentration regions ahead of the crack tip. This dissertation is an attempt to provide a kinetic-based model for tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in zirconia. We used the phase field technique to capture the temporal and spatial evolution of monoclinic phase. In addition to morphological patterns, we were able to calculate the developed internal stresses during tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The model was started form the two dimensional single crystal then was expanded to the two dimensional polycrystalline and finally to the three dimensional single crystal. The model is able to predict the most physical properties associated with tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in zirconia including: morphological patterns, transformation toughening, shape memory effect, pseudoelasticity, surface uplift, and variants impingement. The model was benched marked with several experimental works. The good agreements between simulation results and experimental data, make the model a reliable tool for

  13. Two internal-friction peaks related to thermoelastic martensitic transformations in CuAlNiMnTi shape-memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.L.; Han, F.S.; Li, Z.; Wang, M.P.

    2004-09-01

    A partial phase transition method was used in internal friction measurements to study the motion of phase interface in martensitic transition of CuAlNiMnTi polycrystalline shape memory alloy. It is found that the IF peak arisen from the reversible martensitic transition is in fact composed of two independent IF peaks that relate to different motion modes of the interface. The low-temperature peak corresponds to the minimum of relative dynamic modulus and is attributed to an elastic modulus softening effect caused by the viscous motion of the phase interface. The high-temperature peak corresponds to the inflection point of the relative dynamic modulus and the volume change produced by the normal motion of the phase interface is responsible for the peak.

  14. Reversible Characteristics and Cycling Effects of the ɛ ↔ γ Martensitic Transformations in Fe-Mn-Cr Twip/Trip Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertinger, V.; Benke, M.; Nagy, E.; Pataki, T.

    2014-07-01

    The variation of thermal characteristics of the ɛ ↔ γ transformation during thermal cycling and the effect of Cr content was studied in two Fe-Mn-Cr steels through cyclic DSC examinations. It was found that the martensite start temperature decreased and the austenite start temperature increased in the first cycles, then both stabilized after several cycles. The latent heat of the transformations increased first and then also stabilized. The Cr content pushed the ɛ ↔ γ transformations to lower temperatures, decreased the thermal hysteresis and the latent heat. It is experimentally shown that 6.53 m/m% Cr content increases the stacking fault energy in this alloy.

  15. Anomalous magnetic configuration of Mn{sub 2}NiAl ribbon and the role of hybridization in the martensitic transformation of Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 50−x}Al{sub x} ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, R. B.; Zhao, D. W.; Li, G. K.; Ma, L. E-mail: houdenglu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn; Zhen, C. M.; Hou, D. L. E-mail: houdenglu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn; Wang, W. H.; Liu, E. K.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.

    2014-12-08

    The magnetic configuration of Mn{sub 2}NiAl ribbon has been investigated. In contrast to Ni{sub 2}MnAl, the compound Mn{sub 2}NiAl with considerable disorder does exhibit ferromagnetism and, due to exchange interaction competition, both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic moment orientations can coexist between nearest neighbor Mn atoms. This is unexpected in Heusler alloys. Regarding the mechanism of the martensitic transformation in Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 50−x}Al{sub x}, it is found that increasing the Al content results in an unusual change in the lattice constant, a decrease of the transformation entropy change, and enhancement of the calculated electron localization. These results indicate that the p-d covalent hybridization between Mn (or Ni) and Al atoms gradually increases at the expense of the d-d hybridization between Ni and Mn atoms. This leads to an increased stability of the austenite phase and a decrease of the martensitic transformation temperature. For 11 ≤ x ≤ 14, Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 50−x}Al{sub x} ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are obtained.

  16. Effect of warm rolling on the martensite transformation temperatures, shape memory effect, and superelasticity in Ti49.2Ni50.8 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotkov, Aleksander; Zhapova, Dorzhima; Grishkov, Victor; Cherniavsky, Alexander; Timkin, Victor

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research data demonstrating the effect of warm caliber rolling on the martensite transformation temperatures, shape memory effect, and superelasticity in Ti49.2Ni50.8 (at %). The experimental values of inelastic strain in coarse-grained and microcrystalline Ti49.2Ni50.8 (at %) specimens exceed the theoretical limit of recoverable strain or maximum lattice strain for TiNi-based alloys.

  17. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part I

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-08-29

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance, including in extreme environments, of structural metal alloys. In this paper, aspects of phase transformations and microstructural evolution aremore » highlighted from the atomic to the microscopic scale for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Many papers from this issue are highlighted with small summaries of their scientific achievements given.« less

  18. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in thismore » issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.« less

  19. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in this issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.

  20. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-08-29

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance, including in extreme environments, of structural metal alloys. In this paper, aspects of phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted from the atomic to the microscopic scale for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Many papers from this issue are highlighted with small summaries of their scientific achievements given.

  1. Reverse-Martensitic Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel upon Up-quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiminori; Guo, Defeng; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiangyi

    2016-08-01

    Reverse-martensitic transformation utilizing up-quenching was demonstrated for austenitic stainless steel. Up-quenching was done following the stress-induced phase modification to martensite and then enrichment of the body-centered-cubic ferrite. Transmission-electron-microscopy observation and Vickers hardness test revealed that the reverse-martensitic transformation yields quench hardening owing to an introduction of highly-concentrated dislocation. It is furthermore found that Cr precipitation on grain boundaries caused by isothermal aging is largely suppressed in the present approach.

  2. Correlation of martensitic transformation temperatures of Ni- Mn-Ga/Al-X alloys to non-bonding electron concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramudu, M.; Satish Kumar, A.; Seshubai, V.; Rajasekharan, T.

    2015-02-01

    The martensitic transformation TM of the alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and Ni-Mn-Al show a general trend of increase with electron per atom ratio (e/a) calculated from the total number of electrons outside the rare gas shell of the atoms. However prediction of TM fails among iron substituted Ni-Mn-Ga alloys and those with In doped for Ga, due to the absence of a useful trend. A scheme of computing modified electron concentration is presented considering only the non-bonding electrons per atom Ne/a of the compounds, based on Pauling's ideas on the electronic structure of metallic elements. Systematic variation of TM with Ne/a is reproduced for a large number of alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and the anomaly observed for Fe containing alloys with e/a disappears. The non-bonding electron concentration is thus demonstrated to be effective in predicting TM of shape memory alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga-X system including the isoelectronic compounds of Ni-Mn-Ga-In.

  3. Fracture mechanisms in dual phase steels based on the acicular ferrite + martensite/austenite microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poruks, Peter

    The fracture mechanisms of low carbon microalloyed plate steels based on the acicular ferrite + marten site/austenite microstructure (AF + M/A) are investigated. The final microstructure consists of a dispersed phase of submicron equi-axed martensite particles with a bainitic ferrite matrix. A series of plates with M/A volume fractions of 0.076--0.179 are studied. Brittle fracture is investigated by Instrumented Charpy impact testing of samples at -196°C and subsequent metallography. The M/A particles are identified as the crack nucleation sites and the cleavage fracture stress calculated to be 2400 MPa in a complete AF microstrucuture. This value is significantly larger than in steels that contain significant proportions of conventional bainite. Standard Charpy and Instrumented Charpy impact testing is conducted through a temperature range from -80 to + 22°C to study ductile fracture behaviour. The total absorbed energy is separated into energies of crack nucleation and of crack propagation. It is found that the energy of crack nucleation is weakly dependent on the volume fraction of M/A and completely independent of temperature over the range studied. The crack propagation energy varies significantly with both variables, decreasing with increased volume fraction of M/A and with decreasing temperature. The peak load in the instrumented Charpy data is used to calculate the dynamic fracture toughness, KId, which is found to be 105--120 MPa-m1/2. The void nucleation and void growth stages of ductile fracture are studied by metallographic examination of tensile bars. The sites of void nucleation are identified as inclusions and M/A particles. Voids nucleate at the M/A particles by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. A constant void nucleation strain of epsilon = 0.90 +/- 0.05 is measured for all of the samples independent of the volume fraction of M/A. A stress-based criterion is used to predict void nucleation and the interface strength is determined to be

  4. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Dolors Baró, Maria; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr48Cu48 − xAl4Mx (M ≡ Fe or Co, x = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr48Cu48Al4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Co0.5 and 6.2% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Fe0.5) is considerably larger than for Zr48Cu48Al4 or the alloys with x = 1. Slight variations in the Young’s modulus (around 5–10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite–martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr–Cu–Al–(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications. PMID:27877691

  5. Elastic model of a dislocation center for martensite nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Vereshchagin, V.P.; Kashchenko, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of spontaneous nucleation of a crystal of new phase when the original structure is metastable is usually connected with the catalyzing effect of defects playing the role of nucleation centers. In the case of the {gamma}{r_arrow}{alpha} martensite transformation in iron alloys, even individual dislocations can act as such defects, based on analysis of long-range elastic fields of isolated linear dislocations in a linearly elastic anisotropic continuum, the authors established the existence of a correlation between the geometric characteristics of the elastically deformed state in the vicinity of 60-degree and 30-degree dislocations and the structure and morphological characteristics of {alpha}-martensite observed in massive iron alloy samples. These results suggest that the dislocation affects the pathway of the martensite reaction and allows the authors to say that the specific characteristics of heterogeneous nucleation of new phase for the martensite mechanism of the {gamma}{r_arrow}{alpha} transformation involves singling out a single structural rearrangement variant which is suitable from the standpoint of adapation of the transforming lattice to the characteristic features of the elastically deformed state created by the dislocation. The possibilities for such adaption are limited by the crystallography of the transformation and the reactions of the surrounding austenite occurring when regular connections exist with the morphological characteristics of the martensite crystal, and are not necessarily compatible with the individual features of the elastic field of each dislocation. Considering this, the authors can introduce the concept of a dislocation center for nucleation of a martensite crystal about the region of the dislocation where conditions are realized which are favorable for the formation of a nucleus of martensite crystal of a certain shape and orientation, and they can develop an elastic model corresponding to this concept.

  6. Temperature-induced phase transformation of Fe1-xNix alloys: molecular-dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak-Saracino, Emilia; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-07-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the temperature induced bcc/fcc phase transformation of random Fe1-xNix alloys in the concentration range of x ≤ 40 at%. The Meyer-Entel potential describes faithfully the decrease of the transition temperature with increasing Ni concentration. The austenite transformation proceeds by homogeneous nucleation and results in a fine-grained poly-crystalline structure. The transformation follows the Nishiyama-Wassermann orientation relationship. The martensite phase nucleates at the grain boundaries (heterogeneous nucleation). Even for the largest crystallite studied (2.75 × 105 atoms) the back-transformation results in a single-crystalline grain containing only a small amount of defects. The morphological changes in the transformed material show no significant dependence on Ni content.

  7. ELASTIC AND ANELASTIC BEHAVIOR DURING THE MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION IN INDIUM-THALLIUM ALLOYS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    originate from the stress-assisted motion of twin boundaries that are known to spontaneously coalesce immediately below the transformation temperature...proposed for this relaxation, invoking an interaction between twin boundaries and solute, whereby reordering of solute is effected in differently orientated tetragonal regions by twin-boundary motion. (Author)

  8. Phase transformation during mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe–32Mn–6Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Rasool; Shamsipoor, Ali; Ghaffari, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Morteza; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2013-10-15

    Mechano-synthesis of Fe–32Mn–6Si alloy by mechanical alloying of the elemental powder mixtures was evaluated by running the ball milling process under an inert argon gas atmosphere. In order to characterize the as-milled powders, powder sampling was performed at predetermined intervals from 0.5 to 192 h. X-ray florescence analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and high resolution transmission electron microscope were utilized to investigate the chemical composition, structural evolution, morphological changes, and microstructure of the as-milled powders, respectively. According to the results, the nanocrystalline Fe–Mn–Si alloys were completely synthesized after 48 h of milling. Moreover, the formation of a considerable amount of amorphous phase during the milling process was indicated by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy image and its selected area diffraction pattern. It was found that the α-to-γ and subsequently the amorphous-to-crystalline (especially martensite) phase transformation occurred by milling development. - Graphical abstract: Mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe–32Mn–6Si shape memory alloys in the powder form: amorphous phase formation, α-to-γ phase transformation, mechano-crystallization of the amorphous, and martensite phase formation during the process. Highlights: • During MA, the α-to-γ phase transformation and amorphization occurred. • Mechano-crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred at sufficient milling time. • The formation of high amount of ε-martensite was evidenced at high milling times. • The platelet, spherical, and then irregular particle shapes was extended by MA. • By MA, the particles size was increased, then reduced, and afterward re-increased.

  9. Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation Using Low Temperature Phase Transformation Filler Wire in Welded Armor Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Bunn, Jeffrey R; Tzelepis, Demetrios A; Payzant, E Andrew; Yu, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has been a persistent issue in welding of high-strength steels. Mitigating residual stresses is one of the most efficient ways to control HIC. The current study develops a proactive in-process weld residual stress mitigation technique, which manipulates the thermal expansion and contraction sequence in the weldments during welding process. When the steel weld is cooled after welding, martensitic transformation will occur at a temperature below 400 C. Volume expansion in the weld due to the martensitic transformation will reduce tensile stresses in the weld and heat affected zone and in some cases produce compressive residual stresses in the weld. Based on this concept, a customized filler wire which undergoes a martensitic phase transformation during cooling was developed. The new filler wire shows significant improvement in terms of reducing the tendency of HIC in high strength steels. Bulk residual stress mapping using neutron diffraction revealed reduced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the welds made by the new filler wire.

  10. Microstructures and martensitic transformation behavior of superelastic Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shuanglei; Kim, Eun-soo; Kim, Yeon-wook; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in 49Ti-50.3Ni-0.7Ag alloy fibers. • Annealing treated alloy fibers showed superelastic recovery ratio of 93%. • Ageing treated scaffold had an elastic modulus of 0.67 GPa. • Ageing treated scaffold exhibited good superelasticity at human body temperature. - Abstract: Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds were prepared by sintering rapidly solidified alloy fibers. Microstructures and transformation behaviors of alloy fibers and scaffolds were investigated by means of electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The B2-R-B19′ transformation occurs in alloy fibers. The alloy fibers have good superelasticity with superelastic recovery ratio of 93% after annealing heat treatment. The as-sintered Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds possess three-dimensional and interconnected pores and have the porosity level of 80%. The heat treated Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds not only have an elastic modulus of 0.67 GPa, which match well with that of cancellous bone, but also show excellent superelasticity at human body temperature. In terms of the mechanical properties, the Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds in this study can meet the main requirements of bone scaffold for the purpose of bone replacement applications.

  11. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentation studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.

  12. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentationmore » studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.« less

  13. Residual stress induced stabilization of martensite phase and its effect on the magnetostructural transition in Mn-rich Ni-Mn-In/Ga magnetic shape-memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Kushwaha, Pallavi; Scheibel, F.; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Barman, S. R.; Acet, M.; Felser, C.; Pandey, Dhananjai

    2015-07-01

    The irreversibility of the martensite transition in magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) with respect to the external magnetic field is one of the biggest challenges that limits their application as giant caloric materials. This transition is a magnetostructural transition that is accompanied with a steep drop in magnetization (i.e.,Δ M ) around the martensite start temperature (Ms) due to the lower magnetization of the martensite phase. In this Rapid Communication, we show that Δ M around Ms in Mn-rich Ni-Mn-based MSMAs gets suppressed by two orders of magnitude in crushed powders due to the stabilization of the martensite phase at temperatures well above Ms and the austenite finish (Af) temperatures due to residual stresses. Analysis of the intensities and the FWHM of the x-ray powder-diffraction patterns reveals stabilized martensite phase fractions as 97 % , 75 % , and 90 % with corresponding residual microstrains as 5.4 % , 5.6 % , and 3 % in crushed powders of the three different Mn-rich Ni-Mn alloys, namely, M n1.8N i1.8I n0.4 , M n1.75N i1.25Ga , and M n1.9N i1.1Ga , respectively. Even after annealing at 773 K, the residual stress stabilized martensite phase does not fully revert to the equilibrium cubic austenite phase as the magnetostructural transition is only partially restored with a reduced value of Δ M . Our results have a very significant bearing on the application of such alloys as inverse magnetocaloric and barocaloric materials.

  14. Computational Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Martensitic Transformations in Nicoal for Self-Sensing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, T. A.; Yamakov, V. I.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Leser, W. P.; Warner, J. E.; Newman, J. A.; Purja Pun, G. P.; Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes to aero-vehicle management require the utilization of automated health monitoring of vehicle structural components. A novel method is the use of self-sensing materials, which contain embedded sensory particles (SP). SPs are micron-sized pieces of shape-memory alloy that undergo transformation when the local strain reaches a prescribed threshold. The transformation is a result of a spontaneous rearrangement of the atoms in the crystal lattice under intensified stress near damaged locations, generating acoustic waves of a specific spectrum that can be detected by a suitably placed sensor. The sensitivity of the method depends on the strength of the emitted signal and its propagation through the material. To study the transition behavior of the sensory particle inside a metal matrix under load, a simulation approach based on a coupled atomistic-continuum model is used. The simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the particle's pseudoelastic response on its crystallographic orientation with respect to the loading direction and suggest possible ways of optimizing particle sensitivity. The technology of embedded sensory particles will serve as the key element in an autonomous structural health monitoring system that will constantly monitor for damage initiation in service, which will enable quick detection of unforeseen damage initiation in real-time and during onground inspections.

  15. Machining and Phase Transformation Response of Room-Temperature Austenitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    This experimental work reports the results of a study addressing tool wear, surface topography, and x-ray diffraction analysis for the finish cutting process of room-temperature austenitic NiTi alloy. Turning operation of NiTi alloy was conducted under dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and cryogenic cooling conditions at various cutting speeds. Findings revealed that cryogenic machining substantially reduced tool wear and improved surface topography and quality of the finished parts in comparison with the other two approaches. Phase transformation on the surface of work material was not observed after dry and MQL machining, but B19' martensite phase was found on the surface of cryogenically machined samples.

  16. Microstructural Evidence for Conditioning-dependent (delta) -> (alpha)' Transformations in Retained (delta)-phase Pu-Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J R; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2008-06-16

    The retained {delta} phase of a Pu-1.9 at.% Ga alloy is metastable with respect to the martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation that occurs at low temperatures. This transformation has been shown to proceed by means of an isothermal martensitic mode, but the kinetics of the transformation are atypical. The transformation exhibits a 'double-C' in a time-temperature-transformation diagram, wherein there exist two temperatures where a given amount of transformation occurs in a minimum amount of time. The cause of the double-C kinetics remains uncertain, eliciting proposals of multiple mechanisms, multiple paths, or different morphologies as possible origins. Recently, a 'conditioning' treatment was found to affect the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, but the underlying mechanism by which the conditioning treatment influences the transformation has not yet been resolved. In this study, microstructural characterization as a function of temperature, time, and conditioning has been employed to illuminate the role of conditioning in the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation. Conditioning is found to enhance transformation in the upper-C and to enable transformation in the lower-C. The data garnered from these experiments suggest that conditioning is intimately linked to nucleation processes and of little consequence to the growth and morphology of the {alpha}{prime} product phase.

  17. An in-situ neutron diffraction study of a multi-phase transformation and twinning-induced plasticity steel during cyclic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Brown, Donald W.; Clausen, Bjørn; Tomé, Carlos N.; Pereloma, Elena V.; Davies, Christopher H. J.; Gazder, Azdiar A.

    2015-04-27

    In-situ neutron diffraction during cyclic tension-compression loading (∼+3.5% to −2.8%) of a 17Mn-3Al-2Si-1Ni-0.06C steel that exhibits concurrent transformation and twinning -induced plasticity effects indicated a significant contribution of intragranular back stresses to the observed Bauschinger effect. Rietveld analysis revealed a higher rate of martensitic transformation during tension compared to compression. Throughout cycling, α′-martensite exhibited the highest phase strains such that it bears an increasing portion of the macroscopic load as its weight fraction evolves. On the other hand, the ε-martensite strain remained compressive as it accommodated most of the internal strains caused by the shape misfit associated with the γ→ε and/or ε→α′ transformations.

  18. Fundamental Development on Utilizing the R-phase Transformation in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiebin; Kustov, Sergey; Verlinden, Bert; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2015-06-01

    In near equiatomic NiTi alloys, the reversible thermoelastic transformation between B2-structured austenite phase and the R-phase is attracting increasing interest for practical applications. However, the following two issues limit the widespread utilization of the R-phase transformation: (1) there is no effective approach to control the R-phase transformation temperatures; (2) it is not easy to largely separate the temperature domain of the R-phase and the B19' martensite phase transformation, especially in the presence of an external force. This article reviews concisely the work of the present authors on solving the above two problems. The effect of grain size on the aging microstructure and related transformation behavior is first discussed. Inspired by these findings, an approach to solve the above two problems has been developed by introducing nanoscaled Ni4Ti3 precipitates in the samples with micron-sized grains. The performance of alloys associated with the R-phase transformation, which shows controllable transformation temperatures, is summarized.

  19. Phase transformations and phase relations in Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub (50-x)}TM{sub x} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.J.; Sluiter, M.H.; Harmon, B.N.; Tanner, L.E.

    1994-07-15

    The effect of transition metal (TM) substitution for Pd in Ti{sub 5O}Pd{sub (50-x}TM{sub x} alloys with x between 5 and 37.5 at.% and TM = V, Cr, Mn and Fe are being characterized by transmission electron microscopy and First-Principles Alloy Theory modeling. The goal is to obtain detailed structural information related to the ternary phase relations and transformations that are necessary for effective shape-memory alloy development. Thus far, the authors have found that the tend to have pseudobinary eutectoid-like configurations with a terminal TiPd and a non-close-packed long period ordered structure type crystal structure) based on the stoichiometry Ti{sub 2}PdTM. The systems exhibit a conventional martensitic transformation, as well as a new type of displacive transformation that shear-modulates B2 to produce a periodically distorted, but non-close-packed metastable product phase.

  20. A Shear Strain Route Dependency of Martensite Formation in 316L Stainless Steel.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu; Jang, Jinsung; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of simple shearing on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Two different shear strain routes were obtained by twisting cylindrical specimens in the forward and backward directions. The strain-induced martensite phase was effectively obtained by alteration of the routes. Formation of the martensite phase clearly resulted in significant hardening of the steel. Grain-size reduction and strain-induced martensitic transformation within the deformed structures of the strained specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy - electron back-scattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and the TEM-ASTAR (transmission electron microscopy - analytical scanning transmission atomic resolution, automatic crystal orientation/phase mapping for TEM) system. Significant numbers of twin networks were formed by alteration of the shear strain routes, and the martensite phases were nucleated at the twin interfaces.

  1. The influence of aging on critical transformation stress levels and martensite start temperatures in NiTi. Part 1: Aged microstructure and micro-mechanical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, K.; Sehitoglu, H.; Chumlyakov, Y.I.; Kireeva, I.V.; Maier, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to determine the microstructures of a Ti-50.8 at% Ni alloy given different aging treatments. Two different peak-aging treatments are shown to result in disk shaped semi-coherent Ti{sub 3}Ni{sub 4} precipitates with a diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm depending on the aging temperature. In the peak-aged materials, strong strain fields are clearly visible on TEM micrographs. An Eshelby based model is used to predict the local stress fields due to the differences in the lattice parameters of the precipitates and surrounding matrix. The position dependent local stress fields are then resolved onto the 24 different martensite correspondence variant pairs (CVP`s). It is further demonstrated that due to the unique orientation relationship that exists between the precipitate variants and the martensite CVP`s, the local resolved shear stresses are extremely large on some CVP`s and negligible on others. When the Ni rich NiTi is over-aged, it is found that the precipitates coarsen to approximately 1000 nm, they become in-coherent, and the local stress fields disappear. It is also determined that after over-aging in the average composition of the matrix drops from 50.8 at% Ni to approximately 50.4 at% Ni. In a subsequent paper (part 2) the results here are used to explain the dependence of the critical transformation stress levels and martensite start temperatures on the aging treatment.

  2. Thermodynamics of entropy-driven phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Radosz, A; Ostasiewicz, K; Magnuszewski, P; Damczyk, J; Radosiński, Ł; Kusmartsev, F V; Samson, J H; Mituś, A C; Pawlik, G

    2006-02-01

    Thermodynamic properties of one-dimensional lattice models exhibiting entropy-driven phase transformations are discussed in quantum and classical regimes. Motivated by the multistability of compounds exhibiting photoinduced phase transitions, we consider systems with asymmetric, double, and triple well on-site potential. One finds that among a variety of regimes, quantum versus classical, discrete versus continuum, a key feature is asymmetry distinguished as a "shift" type and "shape" type in limiting cases. The behavior of the specific heat indicates one phase transformation in a "shift" type and a sequence of two phase transformations in "shape"-type systems. Future analysis in higher dimensions should allow us to identify which of these entropy-driven phase transformations would evolve into phase transitions of the first order.

  3. Transformation Toughening of Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    34Metastabiits of Martensitic Trans- (-50 Am in diameter) of cubic phase, whereas the Ce- TZP formation in a 12 moll, Ceria- Zirconia Alloy I. Deformation and...ceria-partially-stablized zirconia (Ce- TZP ) that undergoes martensitic transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase. 1- 7 However, the shapes...Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals (Ce- TZP )," . Mat. Sci. 204[4], 1178-84 (1985). 8. D.B. Marshall, "Crack Shielding in Ceria-Partially-Stabilized

  4. Experimental and computational investigation of the effect of phase transformation on fracture parameters of an SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghgouyan, Behrouz; Shafaghi, Nima; Aydıner, C. Can; Anlas, Gunay

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive, multi-method experimental characterization of fracture is conducted on shape memory alloy NiTi that exhibits superelasticity due to austenite-to-martensite stress induced phase transformation. This characterization includes (i) load-based measurement of critical stress intensity factor (K max) using ASTM standard E399, (ii) measurement of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) per ASTM standard E1290, (iii) the digital image correlation (DIC) characterization of the transformation zone as well as the displacement-field based measurement of K max from the DIC data. Samples have also been tested at T = 100 °C to suppress the martensitic transformation to investigate transformation toughening. The experimental investigation is complemented with finite element (FE) analysis that uses Auricchio-Taylor-Lubliner constitutive model. A direct observation with DIC revealed a small scale transformation (K-dominance). K max of the transforming material is higher than that of the transformation-suppressed material tested at 100 °C, suggesting transformation toughening. At 100 °C, the material becomes quite brittle with a very small crack-tip plastic zone when the transformation mechanism is blocked. By measures of critical CTOD, the gap widens even more between the superelastic and transformation-suppressed cases, particularly because of the side effect that, in this very interesting material, material modulus increases with temperature. Evaluating the transformation zone from the DIC strains with reference to the uniaxial stress-strain curve, an equivalent strain form is proposed in conjunction with the plane stress FE prediction.

  5. Thickness dependent exchange bias in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Behler, Anna; Teichert, Niclas; Auge, Alexander; Hütten, Andreas; Dutta, Biswanath; Hickel, Tilmann; Waske, Anja; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-12-15

    A thickness dependent exchange bias in the low temperature martensitic state of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films is found. The effect can be retained down to very small thicknesses. For a Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 32}Sn{sub 18} thin film, which does not undergo a martensitic transformation, no exchange bias is observed. Our results suggest that a significant interplay between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions, which is the origin for exchange bias, is only present in the martensite. The finding is supported by ab initio calculations showing that the antiferromagnetic order is stabilized in the phase.

  6. Low temperature stability of 4O martensite in Ni49.1Mn38.9Sn12 metamagnetic Heusler alloy ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, P.; Przewoźnik, J.; Gondek, Ł.; Hawelek, L.; Żywczak, A.; Zschech, E.

    2017-01-01

    The structural transformation sequence in Ni49.1Mn38.9Sn12 ribbons is studied using calorimetric, thermomagnetic, resistivity and in-situ XRD measurements. It is confirmed that the ferromagnetic L21 austenite phase transforms into 4O martensite at 242 K. The austenite phase persists in the sample to well below the TC of martensite. Upon further cooling the 4O martensite phase is stable down to the low temperature range, what is ascribed to its limited Ni/Mn and e/a ratios. On heating lattice constants assume lower values resulting from stress relief upon thermal cycling.

  7. The mechansims by which solute nitrogen affects phase transformations and mechanical properties of automotive dual-phase sheet steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tyson W.

    Dual-phase steels have seen increased use in automotive applications in recent years, in order to meet the goals of weight reduction and occupant safety. Variations in nitrogen content that may be encountered in steel sourced from a basic oxygen furnace process compared to an electric arc furnace process require that dual-phase steel producers understand the ways that nitrogen affects processing and properties. In the current work, the distribution of nitrogen was investigated in a dual-phase steel with a base chemistry of 0.1 C, 2.0 Mn, 0.2 Cr, 0.2 Mo (wt pct) across a range of nitrogen contents (30-159 ppm) with Al (0.2 and 0.08 wt pct), and Ti (0.02 wt pct) additions used for precipitation control of nitrogen amounts. The distribution of nitrogen amongst trapping sites, including precipitates, grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial sites (away from other types of defects) was determined from a combination of electrolytic dissolution, internal friction, and three-dimensional atom probe tomography experiments. Various mechanisms by which different amounts and locations of nitrogen affect phase transformations and mechanical properties were identified from quantitative metallography, dilatometric measurement of phase transformations, tensile testing, and nanoindentation hardness testing. Results indicate nitrogen that is not precipitated with Ti or Al (free nitrogen) partitions to austenite (and thus martensite) during typical intercritical annealing treatments, and is mostly contained in Cottrell atmospheres in martensite. Due to the austenite stabilizing effect of nitrogen, the presence of free nitrogen during intercritical annealing leads to a higher austenite fraction in certain conditions. Thus, the presence of free nitrogen in a dual-phase microstructure will lead to an increase in tensile and yield strengths from both an increase in martensite fraction, and an increase in martensite hardness due to solid solution strengthening. Despite the presence

  8. Deformation and Phase Transformation Processes in Polycrystalline NiTi and NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane

    2012-01-01

    The deformation and transformation mechanisms of polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (in at.%) shape memory alloys were investigated by combined experimental and modeling efforts aided by an in situ neutron diffraction technique at stress and temperature. The thermomechanical response of the low temperature martensite, the high temperature austenite phases, and changes between these two states during thermomechanical cycling were probed and reported. In the cubic austenite phase, stress-induced martensite, deformation twinning and slip processes were observed which helped in constructing a deformation map that contained the limits over which each of the identified mechanisms was dominant. Deformation of the monoclinic martensitic phase was also investigated where the microstructural changes (texture, lattice strains, and phase fractions) during room-temperature deformation and subsequent thermal cycling were compared to the bulk macroscopic response. When cycling between these two phases, the evolution of inelastic strains, along with the shape setting procedures were examined and used for the optimization of the transformation properties as a function of deformation levels and temperatures. Finally, this work was extended to the development of multiaxial capabilities at elevated temperatures for the in situ neutron diffraction measurements of shape memory alloys on the VULCAN Diffractometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Effects of Quenching Media on Phase Transformation Characteristics and Hardness of Cu-Al-Ni-Co Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Farahany, S.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the investigation on the effects of various thermal treatments and quenching media on the phase transformation behaviour of Cu-Al-Ni-Co shape memory alloys (SMAs). The transformation temperatures were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter. The variation of cooling rates had a consequential effect on the phase transformation characteristics of the Cu-Al-Ni-Co SMAs. Nevertheless, the transformation temperature peaks were varied in terms of location as well as heat flow. The results indicated that there was an improvement in transformation temperatures whenever ice water was used as quenching medium. It was also observed that the forward transformation temperatures were higher than the reverse transformation. It was verified that the required heat for the transformation of martensite into austenite was more than the transformation of austenite into martensite. Moreover, thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy and entropy, tended to decrease and increase as a result of the changes in the cooling rates of each medium. To clarify the variations of the structures and properties of Cu-Al-Ni-Co SMA quenched samples, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness were used.

  10. Interface Propagation and Microstructure Evolution in Phase Field Models of Stress-Induced Martensitic Phase Transformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    simulation, the initial conditions are g1 ¼ g2 ¼ 0:1 in a circle of radius 2 nm (an embryo ) at the center of the sample and zero elsewhere. The boundary...in narrow bands around the interfaces if the driving force is less than a critical value, K: Fig. 10. Evolution of an embryo , gi ¼ 0:1, in a circle...concentration curve does not exhibit a hysteresis loop and energy dissipation. 4. In Fig. 22 we display the evolution of an embryo with gi ¼ 0:1 as in

  11. Mechanisms of transformation toughening

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.B.

    1992-02-01

    Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of isothermal martensitic transformation under stress, transformation toughening in austenitic steels, and dispersed phase transformation plasticity in low alloy steels are discussed briefly in this progress report for Doe Grant DE-FG02-88ER45365.

  12. Martensitic transformation behavior in Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jai-young; Chun, Su-jin; Kim, Nam-suk; Cho, Jeung-won; Kim, Jae-hyun; Yeom, Jong-taek; Kim, Jae-il; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag, In and Sn were soluble in TiNi matrix, while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not. • The B2-R-B19′transformation occurred in Ti-Ni-(Ag, In, Sn) alloys. • Solid solution hardening was essential for inducing the B2-R transformation. - Abstract: The microstructures and transformation behaviors of Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys were investigated using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Micro Vickers hardness tests. All specimens consisted of Ti–Ni matrices and second phase particles. Ag, In and Sn were soluble in Ti–Ni matrices with a limited solubility (≤1.0 at%), while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not soluble. Two-stage B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–48.8Ni–1.2Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0In and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sn alloys, while one-stage B2-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sb, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Te, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Pb and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Bi alloys. Micro Vickers hardness of the alloys displaying the B2-R-B19′ transformation (Hv 250–368) was much larger than that (transformation. Solid solution hardening was an important factor for inducing the B2-R transformation in Ti–Ni–X (X = non-transition elements) alloys.

  13. Phase and structural transformations in U and U-Nb alloy upon severe deformation and heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Yu. N.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Pecherkina, N. L.; Kabanova, I. I.; Svyatov, I. L.; Bondarchuk, S. V.; Belyaev, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze the twin and dislocation structure of samples of commercial uranium in the initial (undeformed) state and after severe deformation using explosive loading by plane and spherical waves of various intensity. It has been shown that an increase in the intensity of explosive loading by a plane wave leads, first, to an increase in the density of randomly distributed dislocations and twins and, then, to the development of polygonization processes with the formation of a subgrain structure of the α phase. Crystallographic analysis of the initial and deformation-induced twins in uranium has shown the presence of predominantly {130} twins of mixed type and, in singular cases, {172} and {176} twins of the second kind. It has been established that the retained spherical shells have a distinctly pronounced zonal structure, which contains information on the forward and reverse martensitic phase transformations of uranium (α ↔ β(γ) ↔ L, etc.) that occur under shock-wave loading by spherical waves. Conditions are determined for the manifestation of structural heredity in the U-6 wt % Nb alloy with recovery of the size and shape of grains of the initial high-temperature γ phase during the forward γ → α″ martensitic transformation upon cooling and during reverse α″ → γ transformation upon heating. Elimination of the structural heredity with significant grain refinement of the high-temperature γ phase occurs in the process of repeated quenching from 700°C after one type of preliminary treatments (cold deformation of α″ martensite, recrystallization of the deformed α″ phase, high-temperature aging of the initial α″ martensite, and eutectoid decomposition).

  14. In-situ characterization of highly reversible phase transformation by synchrotron X-ray Laue microdiffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian; Tamura, Nobumichi; MacDowell, Alastair; James, Richard D.

    2016-05-01

    The alloy Cu25Au30Zn45 undergoes a huge first-order phase transformation (6% strain) and shows a high reversibility under thermal cycling and an unusual martensitc microstructure in sharp contrast to its nearby compositions. This alloy was discovered by systematically tuning the composition so that its lattice parameters satisfy the cofactor conditions (i.e., the kinematic conditions of compatibility between phases). It was conjectured that satisfaction of these conditions is responsible for the enhanced reversibility as well as the observed unusual fluid-like microstructure during transformation, but so far, there has been no direct evidence confirming that these observed microstructures are those predicted by the cofactor conditions. To verify this hypothesis, we use synchrotron X-ray Laue microdiffraction to measure the orientations and structural parameters of variants and phases near the austenite/martensite interface. The areas consisting of both austenite and multi-variants of martensite are scanned by microLaue diffraction. The cofactor conditions have been examined from the kinematic relation of lattice vectors across the interface. The continuity condition of the interface is precisely verified from the correspondent lattice vectors between two phases.

  15. The influence of phase transformation hardening on continuous laser processing of notches for fracture splitting of a C70S6 connecting rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, S. Q.; Gao, Y.; Shi, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic process of local material microstructure and hardness of continuous laser grooving for fracture splitting of a C70S6 connecting rod was studied. According to the phase transformation characteristics of C70S6 steel during laser processing, the coupling calculation between the transient temperature field and phase transformation process of continuous laser grooving was carried out, and then the phase transformation process and phase compositions in the heat affected zone (HAZ) was obtained. The research results showed that the HAZ was composed of martensite and pearlite as well as residual austenite after continuous laser grooving, and the generation of the martensite in the HAZ is beneficial to the subsequent splitting process; meanwhile, the hardening effect of continuous laser grooving is remarkable on the HAZ, and the requirement for the cutting tool and technique used at the subsequent machining process for the fine boring of the big end hole should be higher.

  16. Fatigue crack propagation in dual-phase steels: Effects of ferritic-martensitic microstructures on crack path morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, V. B.; Suresh, S.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1984-06-01

    microstructures with maximum resistance to fatigue crack extension while maintaining high strength levels. A wide range of crack growth rates has been examined, from ~10-8 to 10-3 mm per cycle, in a series of duplex microstructures of comparable yield strength and prior austenite grain size where intercritical heat treatments were used to vary the proportion, morphology, and distribution of the ferrite and martensite phases. Results of fatigue crack propagation tests, conducted on “long cracks” in room temperature moist air environments, revealed a very large influence of microstructure over the entire spectrum of growth rates at low load ratios. Similar trends were observed at high load ratio, although the extent of the microstructural effects on crack growth behavior was significantly less marked. Specifically, microstructures containing fine globular or coarse martensite in a coarse-grained ferritic matrix demonstrated exceptionally high resistance to crack growth without loss in strength properties. To our knowledge, these microstructures yielded the highest ambient temperature fatigue threshold stress intensity range ΔK0 values reported to date, and certainly the highest combination of strength and ΔK0 for steels ( i.e., ΔK0 values above 19 MPa√m with yield strengths in excess of 600 MPa). Such unusually high crack growth resistance is attributed primarily to a tortuous morphology of crack path which results in a reduction in the crack driving force from crack deflection and roughness-induced crack closure mechanisms. Quantitative metallography and experimental crack closure measurements, applied to currently available analytical models for the deflection and closure processes, are presented to substantiate such interpretations.

  17. Role of magnetic and atomic ordering in the martensitic transformation of Ni-Mn-In from a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Mei; Luo, Hu-Bin; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2012-12-01

    The composition-dependent lattice parameters, crystal structure, elastic properties, magnetic moment, and electronic structure of Ni2Mn1+xIn1-x (0≤x≤0.6) are studied by using first-principles calculations. It is shown that the martensitic phase transition (MPT) from cubic L21 to tetragonal L10 accompanies the MnMn-MnIn ferromagnetic (FM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition, at around the critical composition x=0.32, in agreement with the experimental measurement. The Mn-In atomic disorder leads to decreasing stability of the martensite relative to the austenite, which depresses the MPT. The shear elastic constant C' of the parent phase first decreases slightly with increasing x and then remains almost unchanged above x=0.32, indicating C' alone cannot account for the increase of the MPT temperature with x. The total magnetic moments for the L21 phase are in good agreement with those determined by experiments, whereas for the L10 phase they are slightly larger than the experimental data due to the possible Mn-In atomic disorder in the sample. The calculated density of states demonstrate that the covalent bonding between the minority spin states of Ni and In plays an important role in both the magnetic and structural stability.

  18. Origins of asymmetric stress-strain response in phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K.

    1997-12-31

    It has been determined that the transformation stress-strain behavior of CuZnAl and NiTi shape memory alloys is dependent on the applied stress state. The uniaxial compressive stress necessary to macroscopically trigger the transformation is approximately 34% (CuZnAl) and 26% (NiTi) larger than the required uniaxial tensile stress. For three dimensional stress states, the response of either alloy system is dependent on the directions of the dominant principal stresses along with the hydrostatic stress component of the stress state. The stress state effects are dominated by the favored growth and nucleation of more martensite plates in tension versus compression. The effect of different hydrostatic pressure levels between stress states on martensite plates volume change is considered small.

  19. Effect of tensile pre-strain at different orientation on martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, F.; Zulfi, F. R.; Korda, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensite was studied in 316L stainless steel through tensile pre-strain deformation in the rolling direction (RD) and perpendicular to the rolling direction (LT) at various %pre-strain. The experiment was carried out at various given %pre-strain, which were 0%, 4.6%, 12%, 17.4%, and 25.2% for the RD, whereas for LT were 0%, 4.6%, 12%, 18%, and 26% for LT. Changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties were observed using optical microscope, tensile testing, hardness testing, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The experimental results showed that the volume fraction of martensite was increased as the %pre-strain increased. In the same level of deformation by tensile pre-strain, the volume of martensite for RD was higher than that with LT direction. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and hardness of the steel were increased proportionally with the increases in %pre-strain, while the value of elongation and toughness were decreased with the increases in %pre-strain.

  20. Phase transformation and phonon anomalies in Ni{sub 2}MnGa

    SciTech Connect

    Zheludev, A.; Shapiro, S.M.; Wochner, P.; Schwartz, A.; Wall, M.; Tanner, L.E.

    1995-07-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments and transmission electron microscopy have been used to study a single crystal of the Ni{sub 2}MnGa shape memory Hustler alloy in a wide temperature range covering the parent phase (T>T{sub 1}=265 K), a recently discovered pemartensitic (T{sub 1}T>T{sub M}) and martensitic (Tphase regions. A temperature-dependent anomaly in the TA{sub 2} phonon dispersion in the parent phase was observed and related to the phase transformations. The premartensitic phase involves a transverse modulation of the parent cubic structure with a simple periodicity of 1/3 [110]. The approximately tetragonal lattice of the low-temperature martensite is distorted by transverse modulations with incommensurate wave vectors [{zeta}M {zeta}M {sup 0}] and [{sup 2}{zeta}M {sup 2}{zeta}M {sup 0}], {zeta}M {approx}0.43. The observed phenomena are attributed to electron-phonon interactions and anharmonic effects.

  1. Characterization of strain-induced martensite phase in austenitic stainless steel using a magnetic minor-loop scaling relation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Saito, Atsushi; Takahashi, Seiki; Kamada, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroaki

    2008-05-05

    We propose a combined magnetic method using a scaling power-law rule and initial permeability in magnetic minor hysteresis loops for characterization of ferromagnetic {alpha}{sup '} martensites in austenitic stainless steel. The scaling power law between the hysteresis loss and remanence is universal, being independent of volume fraction of strain-induced {alpha}{sup '} martensites. A coefficient of the power law largely decreases with volume fraction, while the initial permeability linearly increases, reflecting a change in the morphology and quantity of martensites, respectively. The present method is highly effective for integrity assessment of austenitic stainless steels because of the sensitivity and extremely low measurement field.

  2. In Situ Observation of Phase Transformation and Structure Evolution of a 12 pct Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changjiang; Guo, Yuanyi; Li, Kefeng; Sun, Fengmei; Han, Qingyou; Zhai, Qijie

    2012-10-01

    This work focuses on an in situ observation of phase transformation of a 12 pct Cr ferritic stainless steel using high-temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy. α→ γ→ δ phase transformation temperatures are determined to be approximately 1073 K and 1423 K (800 °C and 1150 °C), respectively. The onset of phase transformation is found to occur at grain boundaries. When the temperature is beyond 1518 K (1245 °C), the grain growth rate suddenly becomes very high, and the grain growth is related to the self-organizing of adjacent grains. δ→ γ phase transformation has been mostly restrained when cooling rates are in the range of 22.4 K/s to 13.3 K/s (22.4 °C/s to 13.3 °C/s) except for at grain boundaries. Martensitic phase transformation, rather than γ→ α phase transformation, occurs when the cooling rates are in the range of 8.5 K/s to 2.2 K/s (8.5 °C/s to 2.2 °C/s). The starting temperature of martensitic phase transformation is approximately 697 K to 728 K (424 °C to 455 °C) for specimens heated to 1373 K (1100 °C) ( i.e., γ phase field), which is 50 K to 100 K (50 °C to 100 °C) higher than that of specimens heated to 1723 K (1450 °C) ( i.e., δ phase field). Many bulges remain on the surfaces of the specimen heated to 1723 K (1450 °C), and their formation mechanism is analyzed.

  3. The Kinetics of Phase Transformation in Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J W; Wong, J; Palmer, T

    2002-02-06

    The fundamentals of welding-induced phase transformations in metals and alloys are being investigated using a combination of advanced synchrotron based experimental methods and modem computational science tools. In-situ experimental methods have been developed using a spatially resolved x-ray probe to enable direct observations of phase transformations under the real non- isothermal conditions experienced during welding. These experimental techniques represent a major step forward in the understanding of phase transformations that occur during welding, and are now being used to aid in the development of models to predict microstructural evolution under the severe temperature gradients, high peak temperatures and rapid thermal fluctuations characteristic of welds. Titanium alloys, stainless steels and plain carbon steels are currently under investigation, and the phase transformation data being obtained here cannot be predicted or measured using conventional metallurgical approaches. Two principal synchrotron-based techniques have been developed and refined for in-situ investigations of phase transformation dynamics in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ) of welds: Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) and Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (TRXRD). Both techniques provide real-time observations of phases that exist during welding, and both have been developed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using a high flux wiggler beam line. The SRXRD technique enables direct observations of the phases existing in the HAZ of quasi-stationary moving arc welds, and is used to map the HAZ phases by sequentially jogging the weld with respect to the x-ray beam while taking x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns at each new location. These spatially resolved XRD patterns are collected in linear traverses perpendicular to the direction of weld travel. The XRD data contained in multiple traverses is later compiled to produce an areal map of the phases

  4. Phase Transformation Study in Nb-Mo Microalloyed Steels Using Dilatometry and EBSD Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isasti, Nerea; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Taheri, Mitra L.; Uranga, Pello

    2013-08-01

    A complete microstructural characterization and phase transformation analysis has been performed for several Nb and Nb-Mo microalloyed low-carbon steels using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and dilatometry tests. Compression thermomechanical schedules were designed resulting in the undeformed and deformed austenite structures before final transformation. The effects of microalloying additions and accumulated deformation were analyzed after CCT diagram development and microstructural quantification. The resulting microstructures ranged from polygonal ferrite and pearlite at slow cooling ranges, to a combination of quasipolygonal ferrite and granular ferrite for intermediate cooling rates, and finally, to bainitic ferrite with martensite for fast cooling rates. The addition of Mo promotes a shift in the CCT diagrams to lower transformation start temperatures. When the amount of Nb is increased, CCT diagrams show little variations for transformations from the undeformed austenite and higher initial transformation temperatures in the transformations from the deformed austenite. This different behavior is due to the effect of niobium on strain accumulation in austenite and its subsequent acceleration of transformation kinetics. This article shows the complex interactions between chemical composition, deformation, and the phases formed, as well as their effect on microstructural unit sizes and homogeneity.

  5. Phase Transformation Behavior of Porous TiNi Alloys Produced by Powder Metallurgy Using Magnesium as a Space Holder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydoğmuş, Tarik; Bor, Elif Tarhan; Bor, Şakir

    2011-09-01

    Porous TiNi alloys with porosities in the range of 51 to 73 pct were prepared successfully applying a new powder metallurgy fabrication route in which magnesium was used as a space holder, resulting in either single austenite phase or a mixture of austenite and martensite phases dictated by the composition of the starting powders, but entirely free from secondary brittle intermetallics, oxides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. Since transformation temperatures are very sensitive to composition, deformation, and oxidation, for the first time, transformation temperatures of porous TiNi alloys were investigated using chemically homogeneous specimens in as-sintered and aged conditions eliminating secondary phase, contamination, and deformation effects. It was found that the porosity content of the foams has no influence on the phase transformation temperatures both in as-sintered and aged conditions, while deformation, oxidation, and aging treatment are severely influential.

  6. Lath martensites in low carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sarikaya, M.; Thomas, G.

    1982-01-01

    The morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in low and medium carbon steels have been studied by transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. The steels have microduplex structures of dislocated lath martensite (a < b much less than c) with fairly straight boundaries and continuous interlath thin films of retained austenite. Stacks of laths (i.e., single crystals of martensite) form the packets which are derived from different (111) transformation variants of austenite. Microdiffraction experiments directly allow the determination of the orientation relationships between austenite and martensite. Relative orientations of adjacent individual laths cluster about common orientations from small to large angular differences all around a common <110>M direction. The overall microstructure and orientations result from minimization of the total strain and shape deformation. Considerable accommodation occurs by deformation of laths (sometimes twinned) and austenite (sometimes tripped to twin martensite). In the meantime, microchemical analyses have shown considerable carbon segregation to the martensite-austenite interface. 4 figures.

  7. Martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric properties in Ni40.4Mn46.5Sn10.9Sb2.2 ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, H. C.; Zhang, T.; Wu, Y. F.; Xu, Y. K.; Li, H.; Han, P. D.; Du, Y. W.; Zhang, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    The Ni40.4Mn46.5Sn10.9Sb2.2 ribbons were prepared by melt-spun method. The martensitic transformation (MT) and magnetocaloric effect in melt-spun and annealed Ni40.4Mn46.5Sn10.9Sb2.2 ribbons were investigated. After the heat treatment, the MT temperature increases obviously in the annealed ribbons. The large values of magnetic entropy changes and the effective refrigerant capacity around the MT and Curie temperature of the austenite are found to be 30.9 and -2.2 J/kg K, 70.6 and 132.6 J/kg, respectively, under the field change of 30 kOe for the annealed ribbons. The annealing effect on the MT and magnetocaloric effect, together with the origin of the large magnetic entropy changes, has been discussed in this paper.

  8. Z phase precipitation in martensitic 12CrMoVNb steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodarek, V.; Strang, A.

    2003-10-01

    Precipitation of Z phase contributes significantly to degradation of creep properties of 12CrMoVNb steels because its precipitation is accompanied by dissolution offinely dispersed nitrides and carbonitrides of M2X and/or MX type. The orientation relationship between Z phase and the ferritic matrix was determined as: (001)_z// (001)_{α}, [010]_z // [010]_{α}. Prolonged thcrmal/creep exposure is accompanied by recrystallisation of the matrix and this orientation relationship is destroyed. Nevertheless Z phase particles preserve the form of thin plates. Z phase is a nitride which is rich in vanadium, niobium and chromium and its composition depends on both the temperature of precipitation and the initial chemical composition of steels. The composition of Z phase does not change during long term exposure at the original precipitation temperature. A relationship between the composition of Z phase and its temperature of formation may be able to be used as a temperature exposure indicator of steels. However it is also necessary to know the Z phase composition for a given cast of material.

  9. X-ray diffraction study of the t-to-m phase transformation in 12-mol%-ceria-doped zirconia at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.Y. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    The t-to-m phase transformation in a 12-mol%-ceria-doped zirconia to subzero temperatures was studied in situ by XRD with a cryogenic sample stage. It was found that the t-to-m transformation continuously proceeded to 30 vol% as the temperature decreased to 125 K, when a burstlike transformation suddenly occurred with a transformation to 75 vol%. A preferred orientation of the ([bar 1]11)[sub m] plane parallel to the surface during the preburst transformation and XRD line broadening of both m and t phases after the burst were observed. The preburst transformation, which has not been revealed by previous dilatometry studies, is explained as surface martensitic transformation. This surface transformation occurs at higher temperature than the burstlike transformation due to less matrix constraint and the higher probability of nucleation.

  10. Influence of Addition of Nb on Phase Transformation, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Equiatomic NiTi SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shuyong; Liang, Yulong; Zhang, Yanqiu; Zhao, Yanan; Zhao, Chengzhi

    2016-10-01

    Three novel NiTiNb shape memory alloys, which possess a nominal chemical composition of Ni50- x/2-Ti50- x/2-Nb x (at.%) where x stands for 2, 4 and 6, respectively, were designed in order to investigate the influence of the addition of Nb on phase transformation, microstructure and mechanical properties of equiatomic NiTi shape memory alloy. All the three NiTiNb shape memory alloys contain B2 austenite phase, B19' martensite phase and β-Nb precipitate phase. Martensite type II twin can be observed in the case of Ni49Ti49Nb2 alloy. In the case of Ni48Ti48Nb4 alloy, there exists a boundary between Ti2Ni precipitate phase and β-Nb precipitate phase. As for Ni47Ti47Nb6 alloy, it can be observed that there exists an orientation relationship of [01bar{1}]_{{β{{ - Nb}}}} //[01bar{1}]_{{B2}} between β-Nb precipitate phase and B2 austenite matrix. The increase in Nb content contributes to enhancing the yield stress of NiTiNb shape memory alloy, but it leads to the decrease in compression fracture stress. The addition of Nb to equiatomic NiTi shape memory alloy does not have a significant influence on the transformation hysteresis of the alloy, which is attributed to the fact that NiTiNb shape memory alloy is not subjected to plastic deformation and hence β-Nb precipitate phase is unable to relax the elastic strain in the martensite interface.

  11. Mechanochemical spinodal decomposition: a phenomenological theory of phase transformations in multi-component, crystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraraju, Shiva; van der Ven, Anton; Garikipati, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    We present a phenomenological treatment of diffusion-driven martensitic phase transformations in multi-component crystalline solids that arise from non-convex free energies in mechanical and chemical variables. The treatment describes diffusional phase transformations that are accompanied by symmetry-breaking structural changes of the crystal unit cell and reveals the importance of a mechanochemical spinodal, defined as the region in strain-composition space, where the free-energy density function is non-convex. The approach is relevant to phase transformations wherein the structural order parameters can be expressed as linear combinations of strains relative to a high-symmetry reference crystal. The governing equations describing mechanochemical spinodal decomposition are variationally derived from a free-energy density function that accounts for interfacial energy via gradients of the rapidly varying strain and composition fields. A robust computational framework for treating the coupled, higher-order diffusion and nonlinear strain gradient elasticity problems is presented. Because the local strains in an inhomogeneous, transforming microstructure can be finite, the elasticity problem must account for geometric nonlinearity. An evaluation of available experimental phase diagrams and first-principles free energies suggests that mechanochemical spinodal decomposition should occur in metal hydrides such as ZrH2-2c. The rich physics that ensues is explored in several numerical examples in two and three dimensions, and the relevance of the mechanism is discussed in the context of important electrode materials for Li-ion batteries and high-temperature ceramics.

  12. Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys: Phase Transformation/Plasticity Interaction at the Nano Scale and the Statistics of Variation in Pseudoelastic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Harshad Madhukar

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) show two remarkable properties- pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect. These properties make them an attractive material for a variety of commercial applications. However, the mechanism of austenite to martensite phase transformation, responsible for these properties also induces plastic deformation leading to structural and functional fatigue. Micron scale experiments suggest that the plastic deformation is induced in part due to the local stress field of the fine martensite microstructure. However, the results are qualitative and the nature of transformation-plasticity interaction is dependent on factors like the width of the interfaces. This thesis presents a new modeling approach to study the interaction between martensite correspondence variant scale microstructure and plastic deformation in austenite. A phase field method based evolution law is developed for phase transformation and reorientation of martensite CVs. This is coupled with a crystal plasticity law for austenite plastic deformation. The model is formulated with finite deformation and rotations. The effect of local crystal orientation is incorporated. An explicit time integration scheme is developed and implemented in a finite element method (FEM) based framework, allowing the modeling of complex boundary conditions and arbitrary loading conditions. Two systematic studies are carried out with the model. First, the interaction between plasticity and phase transformation is studied for load-free and load-biased thermal cycling of single crystals. Key outcomes of this study are that, the residual martensite formed during thermal cycling provides nucleation sites for the phase transformation in the subsequent cycles. Further, the distribution of slip on different slip systems is determined by the martensite texture. This is a strong evidence for transformation induced plasticity. In the second study, experimentally informed simulations of NiTi micropillar compression are

  13. Effect of constituent phase on mechanical properties of 9Cr-1WVTa reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Moon, Joonoh; Park, Min-Gu; Lee, Tae-Ho; Jang, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoung Chan; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2014-12-01

    Influence of the formation of ferrite and accompanying carbides in martensite matrix on the tensile and Charpy impact properties was investigated for reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) 9Cr-1WVTa steel. As the fractions of ferrite and carbide adjacent to the ferrite grain boundary increase, both tensile and Charpy impact properties deteriorated in as-normalized condition. In particular, the tensile strength and elongation decreased simultaneously, which is believed to be led by the localized deformation in ferrite which is softer than martensite, promoting the formation and growth of voids. In addition, the formation of ferrite was also detrimental to the Charpy impact properties regarding to the absorbed energy because the precipitation of carbides around ferrite were vulnerable to the nucleation and propagation of cleavage cracks. The degradation of tensile properties can be recovered by tempering, but the DBTT temperature still increases with presence of ferrite.

  14. Magneto-structural transformations in Ni50Mn37.5Sn12.5-xInx Heusler powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziarz, Wojciech; Wójcik, Anna; Czaja, Paweł; Żywczak, Antoni; Dutkiewicz, Jan; Hawełek, Łukasz; Cesari, Eduard

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ball milling and subsequently annealing of melt spun ribbons on magneto-structural transformations in Ni50Mn37.5Sn12.5-xInx (x=0, 2, 4, 6) ribbons is presented. Short time vibration milling allows to obtain chemically homogenous powders of angular particle shapes and size within 10-50 μm. Milling does not change the characteristic temperatures of martensitic transformation in comparison to the melt spun ribbons. The effect of In substitution for Sn on martensitic transformation has a complex mechanism, associated with electron density change. Substitution of Sn by In in both milled and annealed powders leads to decrease of Curie temperature of austenite and increase of martensitic transformation temperature, stabilizing martensitic phase. The coexistence of magnetic transformation of austenite and martensitic transformation at low magnetic field was observed. The intermartensitic transformation of 4O martensite to L10 martensite was observed during cooling at low magnetic field and this was confirmed by TEM microstructure observations. The annealing process of as-milled powders leads to the change of their martensitic structure due to relaxation of internal stresses associated with anisotropic columnar grain microstructure formed during melt spinning process. The level of stresses introduced during milling of ribbons has no significant influence on martensitic transformation. The annealing process of as milled powders leads to enhancement of their magnetic properties, decrease of Curie temperature of austenite, and marginal change of temperature of martenisitic transformation.

  15. Structural and phase transformations in quasi-binary TiNi-TiCu alloys with thermomechanical shape-memory effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushin, V. G.; Kuranova, N. N.; Makarov, V. V.; Pushin, A. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Kourov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    The structure, thermoelastic martensitic transformations, and physical properties of the usual microcrystalline and rapidly quenched submicrocrystalline ternary alloys of the quasi-binary TiNi-TiCu section with a copper content to 35 at % have been studied in a wide temperature range. The fine structure of the alloys has been investigated by the methods of the analytical transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and selected-area electron diffraction, including the in situ heating and cooling in the column of the microscope. The main specific features of the premartensitic state of the B2 austenite, the morphology, and the fine structure of the B19 and B19' martensitic phases have been established, and their evolution upon the alloying with copper and upon grain refinement and cooling and heating in situ have been studied. According to the data of the temperature measurements of electrical resistance, magnetic susceptibility, and XRD analysis, generalized complete diagrams of the B2 ↔ B19', B2 ↔ B19 ↔ B19' and B2↔ B19 martensitic transformations that occur upon cooling in these alloys with an increase in the copper concentration in the limits of 0-8, 8-15, and 15-35 at %, respectively, have been constructed.

  16. Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelev, M. I.; Underwood, T. L.; Ackland, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    New interatomic potentials describing defects, plasticity, and high temperature phase transitions for Ti are presented. Fitting the martensitic hcp-bcc phase transformation temperature requires an efficient and accurate method to determine it. We apply a molecular dynamics method based on determination of the melting temperature of competing solid phases, and Gibbs-Helmholtz integration, and a lattice-switch Monte Carlo method: these agree on the hcp-bcc transformation temperatures to within 2 K. We were able to develop embedded atom potentials which give a good fit to either low or high temperature data, but not both. The first developed potential (Ti1) reproduces the hcp-bcc transformation and melting temperatures and is suitable for the simulation of phase transitions and bcc Ti. Two other potentials (Ti2 and Ti3) correctly describe defect properties and can be used to simulate plasticity or radiation damage in hcp Ti. The fact that a single embedded atom method potential cannot describe both low and high temperature phases may be attributed to neglect of electronic degrees of freedom, notably bcc has a much higher electronic entropy. A temperature-dependent potential obtained from the combination of potentials Ti1 and Ti2 may be used to simulate Ti properties at any temperature.

  17. Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium.

    PubMed

    Mendelev, M I; Underwood, T L; Ackland, G J

    2016-10-21

    New interatomic potentials describing defects, plasticity, and high temperature phase transitions for Ti are presented. Fitting the martensitic hcp-bcc phase transformation temperature requires an efficient and accurate method to determine it. We apply a molecular dynamics method based on determination of the melting temperature of competing solid phases, and Gibbs-Helmholtz integration, and a lattice-switch Monte Carlo method: these agree on the hcp-bcc transformation temperatures to within 2 K. We were able to develop embedded atom potentials which give a good fit to either low or high temperature data, but not both. The first developed potential (Ti1) reproduces the hcp-bcc transformation and melting temperatures and is suitable for the simulation of phase transitions and bcc Ti. Two other potentials (Ti2 and Ti3) correctly describe defect properties and can be used to simulate plasticity or radiation damage in hcp Ti. The fact that a single embedded atom method potential cannot describe both low and high temperature phases may be attributed to neglect of electronic degrees of freedom, notably bcc has a much higher electronic entropy. A temperature-dependent potential obtained from the combination of potentials Ti1 and Ti2 may be used to simulate Ti properties at any temperature.

  18. Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelev, M. I.; Underwood, T. L.; Ackland, G. J.

    2016-10-17

    New interatomic potentials describing defects, plasticity, and high temperature phase transitions for Ti are presented. Fitting the martensitic hcp-bcc phase transformation temperature requires an efficient and accurate method to determine it. We apply a molecular dynamics method based on determination of the melting temperature of competing solid phases, and Gibbs-Helmholtz integration, and a lattice-switch Monte Carlo method: these agree on the hcp-bcc transformation temperatures to within 2 K. We were able to develop embedded atom potentials which give a good fit to either low or high temperature data, but not both. The first developed potential (Ti1) reproduces the hcp-bcc transformation and melting temperatures and is suitable for the simulation of phase transitions and bcc Ti. Two other potentials (Ti2 and Ti3) correctly describe defect properties and can be used to simulate plasticity or radiation damage in hcp Ti. The fact that a single embedded atom method potential cannot describe both low and high temperature phases may be attributed to neglect of electronic degrees of freedom, notably bcc has a much higher electronic entropy. As a result, a temperature-dependent potential obtained from the combination of potentials Ti1 and Ti2 may be used to simulate Ti properties at any temperature.

  19. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon-Jun

    2004-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as σ and χ can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (σ + χ) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, σ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and χ by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by

  20. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 5, Phase Transformations in Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasen, Peter

    1996-12-01

    This volume covers phase transformations, a general phenomenon central to understanding the behavior of materials and to creating high-performance materials. From the Contents: Pelton: Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams of Materials. Murch: Diffusion in Crystalline Solids. Binder: Statistical Theories of Phase Transitions/Spinodal Decomposition. Wagner/Kampmann: Homogeneous Second Phase Precipitation. Purdy: Transformations Involving Interfacial Diffusion. Delaey: Diffusionless Transformations. Ruoff: High Pressure Phase Transformations. Pitsch/Inden: Atomic Ordering. Müller- Krumbhaar/Kurz: Solidification.

  1. Pressure-magnetic field induced phase transformation in Ni{sub 46}Mn{sub 41}In{sub 13} Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Rama Rao, N. V. Manivel Raja, M.; Pandian, S.; Esakki Muthu, S.; Arumugam, S.

    2014-12-14

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on the magnetic properties and phase transformation in Ni{sub 46}Mn{sub 41}In{sub 13} Heusler alloy was investigated. Pressure (P)-magnetic field (H)-temperature (T) phase diagram has been constructed from experimental results. In the P–T contour of the phase diagram, the slope of the austenite-martensite phase boundary line appears positive (dT/dP > 0), while it appears negative (dT/dH < 0) in the H–T contour. The results revealed that pressure and magnetic field have opposite effect on phase stabilization. The combined effect of pressure and magnetic field on martensitic transition has led to two important findings: (i) pressure dependent shift of austenite start temperature (A{sub s}) is higher when larger field is applied, and (ii) field dependent shift of A{sub s} is lowered when a higher pressure is applied. The pressure and magnetic field dependent shift observed in the martensitic transformation has been explained on the basis of thermodynamic calculations. Curie temperature of the phases was found to increase with pressure at a rate of 0.6 K/kbar.

  2. Mossbauer and XRD characterization of the phase transformations in a Fe-Mn-Al-C-Mo-Si-Cu as cast alloy during tribology test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J.; Piamba, J. F.; Sánchez, H.; Alcazar, G. A. Pérez

    2015-06-01

    In present study Fe-29.0Mn-6Al-0.9C-1.8Mo-1.6Si-0.4Cu (%w) alloy was obtained after melted in an induction furnace, and then molded as an ingot. From the as cast ingot it were cut samples for the different characterization measurements. The microstructure of the as-cast sample is of dendritic type and its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of the austenite, with a big volumetric fraction, and the lines of the martensite, with small volumetric fraction. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample was fitted with a broad singlet which corresponds to disordered austenite. After the tribology test, its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of two austenite phases, one similar to the previous one and other with bigger lattice parameter. The total volumetric fraction of the austenite is smaller than that obtained for sample without wear. It was added the lines of the martensite phase with bigger volumetric fraction than that of the previous sample. The Mössbauer spectrum of the weared sample was fitted with two paramagnetic sites which correspond to the two Fe austenite phases and a hyperfine magnetic field distribution which is associated to the disordered original martensite and the new one which appears in the surface as a consequence of the wear process. These results show that during wear process the original austenite phase is transformed in martensite and in a new austenite phase. The increases of the martensitic phase improves mechanical properties and wear behavior.

  3. Phase field simulations of plastic strain-induced phase transformations under high pressure and large shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanbakht, Mahdi; Levitas, Valery I.

    2016-12-01

    Pressure and shear strain-induced phase transformations (PTs) in a nanograined bicrystal at the evolving dislocations pile-up have been studied utilizing a phase field approach (PFA). The complete system of PFA equations for coupled martensitic PT, dislocation evolution, and mechanics at large strains is presented and solved using the finite element method (FEM). The nucleation pressure for the high-pressure phase (HPP) under hydrostatic conditions near a single dislocation was determined to be 15.9 GPa. Under shear, a dislocation pile-up that appears in the left grain creates strong stress concentration near its tip and significantly increases the local thermodynamic driving force for PT, which causes nucleation of HPP even at zero pressure. At pressures of 1.59 and 5 GPa and shear, a major part of a grain transforms to HPP. When dislocations are considered in the transforming grain as well, they relax stresses and lead to a slightly smaller stationary HPP region than without dislocations. However, they strongly suppress nucleation of HPP and require larger shear. Unexpectedly, the stationary HPP morphology is governed by the simplest thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, which do not contain contributions from plasticity and surface energy. These equilibrium conditions are fulfilled either for the majority of points of phase interfaces or (approximately) in terms of stresses averaged over the HPP region or for the entire grain, despite the strong heterogeneity of stress fields. The major part of the driving force for PT in the stationary state is due to deviatoric stresses rather than pressure. While the least number of dislocations in a pile-up to nucleate HPP linearly decreases with increasing applied pressure, the least corresponding shear strain depends on pressure nonmonotonously. Surprisingly, the ratio of kinetic coefficients for PT and dislocations affect the stationary solution and the nanostructure. Consequently, there are multiple stationary solutions

  4. Effect of prestrain on martensitic transformation in a Ti46.4Ni47.6Nb6.0 superelastic alloy and its application to medical stents.

    PubMed

    Takagi, T; Sutou, Y; Kainuma, R; Yamauchi, K; Ishida, K

    2006-01-01

    The effect of applied strain on martensitic transformation in a superelastic Ti(46.4)Ni(47.6)Nb(6.0) alloy at room temperature was investigated by tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry measurements, and X-ray diffraction. Reverse transformation starting (A(s)) and finishing (A(f)) temperatures increased with the application of tensile-strain over 13%, the undeformed specimen showing A(s) = -29.2 degrees C and A(f) = 17.9 degrees C, while the 13% predeformed alloy exhibited A(s) = 37.1 degrees C and A(f) = 40.2 degrees C. Furthermore, the values of the A(s) and A(f) for the predeformed alloy almost recovered to those of the undeformed alloy when heated to about 42 degrees C and then showed superelasticity again at room temperature. This characteristic is significant for application in sensors, actuators, and medical devices. Especially, medical stents with such qualities show promise as a new class of self-expandable stents with both excellent mountability and deliverability.

  5. Transformation relaxation and aging in a CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied by modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Z.G.

    1998-11-01

    The reverse martensitic transformation and aging processes in a polycrystalline Cu-23.52 at. pct Zn-9.65 at. pct Al shape-memory alloy have been studied using the recently developed modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) technique, and some new findings are obtained. By separating the nonreversing heat flow from the reversing heat flow, MDSC can better characterize the thermodynamic, kinetic, and hysteretic feature of thermoelastic martensitic transformations. Two kinds of exothermal relaxation peaks have been identified and separated from the endothermal reverse martensitic transformations: one is associated with the movement of twin interfaces or martensite-parent interfaces, and another is due to the atomic reordering in the parent phase via a vacancy mechanism. The martensite aging processes have been examined, and two stages of the aging process has been distinguished: the first stage of aging is characterized by the stabilization of martensite, as manifested in the increase in the reversing enthalpy of the reverse martensitic transformation and in the transformation temperatures, and the second stage, is in fact, the decomposition of the martensite on prolonged aging, accompanied by a decrease in the transformation enthalpy. The results suggest that the mechanisms of the relaxation in the martensite and in the parent phase may be quite different.

  6. Structural and phase transformations, mechanical properties, and shape-memory effects in quasibinary Ni50Ti38Hf12 alloy obtained by quenching from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushin, V. G.; Kuranova, N. N.; Pushin, A. V.; Uksusnikov, A. N.; Kourov, N. I.; Kuntsevich, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy and chemical microanalysis, electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction were used to systematically study the structure and the chemical and phase composition of the Ni50Ti38Hf12 alloy synthesized by rapid quenching from the melt and subjected to various heat treatments. The critical temperatures of the devitrification of the initially amorphous rapidly quenched alloy and the B2 ↔ B19' thermoelastic martensitic transformations have been determined. The lattice parameters of the B2 austenite and thermoelastic B19' martensite have been measured. The main features of the formation of an ultrafine-grained structure in the alloy and the subsequent phase transformations (martensitic transformation and the decomposition with the formation of an intermetallic phase of the (Ti,Hf)2Ni type) have been studied depending on the regimes of heat treatment. Based on the results of measurements of mechanical properties upon tension (σM, σu, and δ) and the shape-memory effects (degree of shape recovery depending on the deformation by bending; and magnitude of the reversible strain ɛrev), regimes for obtaining high-strength and plastic states of the alloy with a shape-memory effect have been established.

  7. Domain walls in ω-phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanati, Mahdi; Saxena, Avadh

    1998-11-01

    The β-phase (body-centered cubic: b.c.c.) to ω-phase transformation in certain elements (e.g. Zr) and alloys (e.g. ZrNb) is induced either by quenching or application of pressure. The ω-phase is a metastable state and usually coexists with the β-matrix in the form of small particles. To study the formation of domain walls in these materials we have extended the Landau model of Cook for the ω-phase transition by including a spatial gradient (Ginzburg) term of the scalar order parameter. In general, the Landau free energy is an asymmetric double-well potential. From the variational derivative of the total free energy we obtain a static equilibrium condition. By solving this equation for different physical parameters and boundary conditions, we obtained different quasi-one-dimensional soliton-like solutions. These solutions correspond to three different types of domain walls between the ω-phase and the β-matrix. In addition, we obtained soliton lattice (domain wall array) solutions, calculated their formation energy and the asymptotic interaction between the solitons.

  8. Phase amplitude conformal symmetry in Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, S.

    2015-04-01

    For the Fourier transform ℑ : L2(R) → L2(R) of a complex-valued even or odd function ψ, it is found that the amplitude invariance |ℑψ| = |ψ| leads to a phase invariance or inversion as arg(ℑψ) = ±argψ + θ (θ = constant). The converse holds unless arg ψ = constant. The condition |ψ| = |ℑψ| is required in dealing with, for example, the minimum uncertainty relation between position and momentum. Without the evenness or oddness of ψ, |ℑψ| = |ψ| does not necessarily imply arg(ℑψ) = ±argψ + θ, nor is the converse.

  9. Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium

    DOE PAGES

    Mendelev, M. I.; Underwood, T. L.; Ackland, G. J.

    2016-10-17

    New interatomic potentials describing defects, plasticity, and high temperature phase transitions for Ti are presented. Fitting the martensitic hcp-bcc phase transformation temperature requires an efficient and accurate method to determine it. We apply a molecular dynamics method based on determination of the melting temperature of competing solid phases, and Gibbs-Helmholtz integration, and a lattice-switch Monte Carlo method: these agree on the hcp-bcc transformation temperatures to within 2 K. We were able to develop embedded atom potentials which give a good fit to either low or high temperature data, but not both. The first developed potential (Ti1) reproduces the hcp-bcc transformationmore » and melting temperatures and is suitable for the simulation of phase transitions and bcc Ti. Two other potentials (Ti2 and Ti3) correctly describe defect properties and can be used to simulate plasticity or radiation damage in hcp Ti. The fact that a single embedded atom method potential cannot describe both low and high temperature phases may be attributed to neglect of electronic degrees of freedom, notably bcc has a much higher electronic entropy. As a result, a temperature-dependent potential obtained from the combination of potentials Ti1 and Ti2 may be used to simulate Ti properties at any temperature.« less

  10. The Effect of Hardenability Variation on Phase Transformation of Spiral Bevel Gear in Quenching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingtao; Shi, Wankai; Yang, Lin; Gu, Zhifei; Li, Zhichao

    2016-07-01

    The hardenability of gear steel is dependent on the composition of alloying elements and is one of important criteria to assess process of phase transformation. The variation of hardenability has to be considered in control of the microstructures and distortion during gear quenching. In this paper, the quantitative effect of hardenability has been investigated on phase transformations of spiral bevel gears in die quenching. The hardenability deviation of 22CrMoH steel was assessed by using Jominy test. The dilatometry experiments were conducted to build phase transformation kinetic models for steels with low and high hardenability, respectively. The complete die quenching process of spiral bevel gear was modeled to reveal the significant difference on microstructures and temperature history with variation of hardenability. The final microstructures of the gear are martensite in surface layer after quenching process. There are bainite inside the gear tooth and the mixture of bainite and ferrite inside gear for the gear with low hardenability. The microstructure is bainite inside the gear with high hardenability.

  11. Phase transformations in xerogels of mullite composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    Monophasic and diphasic xerogels have been prepared as precursors for mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2). Monophasic xerogel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate and the diphasic xerogel from colloidal suspension of silica and boehmite. The chemical and structural evolutions, as a function of thermal treatment, in these two types of sol-gel derived mullite precursor powders have been characterized by DTA, TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and infrared spectroscopy. Monophasic xerogel transforms to an Al-Si spinel from an amorphous structure at approximately 980 C. The spinel then changes into mullite on further heating. Diphasic xerogel forms mullite at approximately 1360 C. The components of the diphasic powder react independently up to the point of mullite formation. The transformation in the monophasic powder occurs rapidly and yields strongly crystalline mullite with no other phases present. The diphasic powder, however, transforms rather slowly and contains remnants of the starting materials (alpha-Al2O3, cristobalite) even after heating at high temperatures for long times (1600 C, 6 hr). The diphasic powder could be sintered to high density but not the monophasic powder in spite of its molecular level homogeneity.

  12. Phase transformations in xerogels of mullite composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    Monophasic and diphasic xerogels have been prepared as precursors for mullite (3Al203-2Si02). Monophasic xerogel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate and the diphasic xerogel from colloidal suspension of silica and boehmite. The chemical and structural evolutions, as a function of thermal treatment, in these two types of sol-gel derived mullite precursor powders have been characterized by DTA, TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and infrared spectroscopy. Monophasic xerogel transforms to an Al-Si spinel from an amorphous structure at approximately 980 C. The spinel then changes into mullite on further heating. Diphasic xerogel forms mullite at approximately 1360 C. The components of the diphasic powder react independently up to the point of mullite formation. The transformation in the monophasic powder occurs rapidly and yields strongly crystalline mullite with no other phases present. The diphasic powder, however, transforms rather slowly and contains remnants of the starting materials (alpha-Al203, cristobalite) even after heating at high temperatures for long times (1600 C, 6 hr). The diphasic powder could be sintered to high density but not the monophasic powder in spite of its molecular level homogeneity.

  13. Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, I.N.

    1995-09-01

    Ambient aerosols frequently contain large portions of hygroscopic inorganic salts such as chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates in either pure or mixed forms. Such inorganic salt aerosols exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in air. The phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet usually occurs spontaneously when the relative humidity of the atmosphere reaches a level specific to the chemical composition of the aerosol particle. Conversely, when the relative humidity decreases and becomes low enough, the saline droplet will evaporate and suddenly crystallize, expelling all its water content. The phase transformation and growth of aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climate changes. In this chapter, an exposition of the underlying thermodynamic principles is given, and recent advances in experimental methods utilizing single-particle levitation are discussed. In addition, pertinent and available thermodynamic data, which are needed for predicting the deliquescence properties of single and multi-component aerosols, are compiled. This chapter is useful to research scientists who are either interested in pursuing further studies of aerosol thermodynamics, or required to model the dynamic behavior of hygroscopic aerosols in a humid environment.

  14. Martensitic accommodation strain and the metal-insulator transition in manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzorov, V.; Kim, B. G.; Kiryukhin, V.; Gershenson, M. E.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we report polarized optical microscopy and electrical transport studies of manganese oxides that reveal that the charge ordering transition in these compounds exhibits typical signatures of a martensitic transformation. We demonstrate that specific electronic properties of charge-ordered manganites stem from a combination of martensitic accommodation strain and effects of strong electron correlations. This intrinsic strain is strongly affected by the grain boundaries in ceramic samples. Consistently, our studies show a remarkable enhancement of low field magnetoresistance and the grain size effect on the resistivity in polycrystalline samples and suggest that the transport properties of this class of manganites are governed by the charge-disordered insulating phase stabilized at low temperature by virtue of martensitic accommodation strain. High sensitivity of this phase to strains and magnetic field leads to a variety of striking phenomena, such as unusually high magnetoresistance (1010%) in low magnetic fields.

  15. Relationships Between the Phase Transformation Kinetics, Texture Evolution, and Microstructure Development in a 304L Stainless Steel Under Biaxial Loading Conditions: Synchrotron X-ray and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Cakmak, Ercan; Choo, Hahn; Kang, Jun-Yun; ...

    2015-02-11

    Here we report that the relationships between the martensitic phase transformation kinetics, texture evolution, and the microstructure development in the parent austenite phase were studied for a 304L stainless steel that exhibits the transformation-induced plasticity effect under biaxial loading conditions at ambient temperature. The applied loading paths included: pure torsion, simultaneous biaxial torsion/tension, simultaneous biaxial torsion/compression, and stepwise loading of tension followed by torsion (i.e., first loading by uniaxial tension and then by pure torsion in sequence). Synchrotron X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction techniques were used to measure the evolution of the phase fractions, textures, and microstructures as a functionmore » of the applied strains. The influence of loading character and path on the changes in martensitic phase transformation kinetics is discussed in the context of (1) texture-transformation relationship and the preferred transformation of grains belonging to certain texture components over the others, (2) effects of axial strains on shear band evolutions, and (3) volume changes associated with martensitic transformation.« less

  16. Relationships Between the Phase Transformation Kinetics, Texture Evolution, and Microstructure Development in a 304L Stainless Steel Under Biaxial Loading Conditions: Synchrotron X-ray and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak, Ercan; Choo, Hahn; Kang, Jun-Yun; Ren, Yang

    2015-02-11

    Here we report that the relationships between the martensitic phase transformation kinetics, texture evolution, and the microstructure development in the parent austenite phase were studied for a 304L stainless steel that exhibits the transformation-induced plasticity effect under biaxial loading conditions at ambient temperature. The applied loading paths included: pure torsion, simultaneous biaxial torsion/tension, simultaneous biaxial torsion/compression, and stepwise loading of tension followed by torsion (i.e., first loading by uniaxial tension and then by pure torsion in sequence). Synchrotron X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction techniques were used to measure the evolution of the phase fractions, textures, and microstructures as a function of the applied strains. The influence of loading character and path on the changes in martensitic phase transformation kinetics is discussed in the context of (1) texture-transformation relationship and the preferred transformation of grains belonging to certain texture components over the others, (2) effects of axial strains on shear band evolutions, and (3) volume changes associated with martensitic transformation.

  17. Phase diffusionless γ↔α transformations and their effect on physical, mechanical and corrosion properties of austenitic stainless steels irradiated with neutrons and charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimkin, O. P.

    2016-04-01

    The work presents relationships of γ→α' and α'→γ-transformations in reactor 12Cr18Ni10Ti and 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 austenitic stainless steels induced by cold work, irradiation and/or temperature. Energy and mechanical parameters of nucleation and development of deformation-induced martensitic α'-phase in the non-irradiated and irradiated steels are given. The mechanisms of localized static deformation were investigated and its effect on martensitic γ→α' transformation is determined. It has been shown that irradiation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel with heavy Kr ions (1.56MeV/nucleon, fluence of 1·1015 cm-2) results in formation of α'-martensite in near-surface layer of the sample. Results of systematic research on reversed α'→γ-transformation in austenitic metastable stainless steels irradiated with slow (VVR-K) and fast (BN-350) neutrons are presented. The effect of annealing on strength and magnetic characteristics was determined. It was found that at the temperature of 400 °C in the irradiated with neutrons samples (59 dpa) an increase of ferromagnetic α'-phase and microhardness was observed. The obtained results could be used during assessment of operational characteristics of highly irradiated austenitic steels during transportation and storage of Fuel Assemblies for fast nuclear reactors.

  18. Magnetic Properties and Phase Diagram of Ni50Mn_{50-x}Ga_{x/2}In_{x/2} Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Yoshida, Yasuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2016-12-01

    Ni50Mn50- x Ga x/2In x/2 magnetic shape memory alloys were systematically prepared, and the magnetic properties as well as the phase diagram, including atomic ordering, martensitic and magnetic transitions, were investigated. The B2- L21 order-disorder transformation showed a parabolic-like curve against the Ga+In composition. The martensitic transformation temperature was found to decrease with increasing Ga+In composition and to slightly bend downwards below the Curie temperature of the parent phase. Spontaneous magnetization was investigated for both parent and martensite alloys. The magnetism of martensite phase was found to show glassy magnetic behaviors by thermomagnetization and AC susceptibility measurements.

  19. Effect of pre-strain on mechanical properties and deformation induced transformation of 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfi, Fahri R.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2016-08-01

    Effect of pre-strain on mechanical properties and deformation induced phase transformation of 304 stainless steel under tensile deformation has been studied. Pre-strain with the variation percentage of deformation was applied to the tensile test specimens. Tensile and hardness testing were carried out after pre-strain to study the mechanical properties change. Deformation induced phase transformation was investigated by using X-ray diffraction and optical microscope. XRD study indicates that metastable austenite transforms to martensite due to deformation. The martensite volume fraction increases with the increase in percentage of deformation. The increase in strength and hardness were associated with an increase in the volume fraction of martensite.

  20. Phase transformations in ion-irradiated silicides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, C. A.; Lau, S. S.; Suni, I.; Hung, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation has three objectives. The first is concerned with the phase transformation of CoSi2 under ion implantation and the subsequent crystallization characteristics during annealing, taking into account epitaxial and nonepitaxial recrystallization behavior. The second objective is related to a study of the general trend of implantation-induced damage and crystallization behavior for a number of commonly used silicides. The last objective involves a comparison of the recrystallization behavior of cosputtered refractory silicides with that of the ion-implanted silicides. It was found that epitaxial regrowth of ion-irradiated CoSi2 occurred for samples with an epitaxial seed left at the Si/CoSi2 interface. A structural investigation of CoSi2 involving transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that after high-dose implantation CoSi2 is amorphous.

  1. Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, I.N.

    1999-11-01

    Ambient aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climatic changes as well. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the formation of ambient aerosols, which are composed mostly of sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides in either pure or mixed forms. These inorganic salt aerosols are hygroscopic by nature and exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in humid air. For pure inorganic salt particles with diameter larger than 0.1 micron, the phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet occurs only when the relative humidity in the surrounding atmosphere reaches a certain critical level corresponding to the water activity of the saturated solution. The droplet size or mass in equilibrium with relative humidity can be calculated in a straightforward manner from thermodynamic considerations. For aqueous droplets 0.1 micron or smaller, the surface curvature effect on vapor pressure becomes important and the Kelvin equation must be used.

  2. Thermally Activated Martensite: Its Relationship to Non-Thermally Activated (Athermal) Martensite

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, D E; Jones, N J; Schwartz, A J; Massalski, T B

    2008-10-21

    The classification of martensitic displacive transformations into athermal, isothermal or anisothermal is discussed. Athermal does not mean 'no temperature dependence' as is often thought, but is best considered to be short for the notion of no thermal activation. Processes with no thermal activation do not depend on time, as there is no need to wait for sufficient statistical fluctuations in some specific order parameter to overcome an activation barrier to initiate the process. Clearly, this kind of process contrasts with those that are thermally activated. In the literature, thermally activated martensites are usually termed isothermal martensites, suggesting a constant temperature. Actually such martensites also typically occur with continuous cooling. The important distinctive feature of these martensites is that they are thermally activated and hence are distinguishable in principle from athermal martensites. A third type of process, anisothermal, has been introduced to account for those transformations which are thought to be thermally activated but which occur on continuous cooling. They may occur so rapidly that they do not appear to have an incubation time, and hence could be mistakenly called an athermal transformation. These designations will be reviewed and discussed in terms of activation energies and kinetic processes of the various martensitic transformations.

  3. phase transformations in Titanium-Molybdenum-Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckels, Herbert

    The present dissertation has investigated the effect of oxygen on the ω and α phase stability in metastable Ti-Mo β titanium alloys using thermal analysis, hardness measurements, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Single crystal x-ray diffraction has shown that oxygen atoms are located in the tetrahedral interstitial lattice sites in the rapidly cooled bcc Ti crystal structure, interfering directly with the reversible displacive formation of ω, with this transformation involving collapse of the bcc lattice along β. Subsequent thermal exposure of reversible ω, as occurring during slower cooling, heating, and aging, prompts short range diffusion and the formation of chemical altered irreversible ω. X-ray diffraction particle size analysis based on the Warren-Averbach approach has shown that the continued irreversible ω phase evolves in four stages during isothermal aging, initial growth followed by size stabilization, coarsening, and dissolution. The latter stages of ω evolution are controlled by elastic residual stresses surrounding these particles. Ultimate stress relaxation is based on secondary formation and growth, promoting coarsening and dissolution of ω. All of the aforementioned stages can be accelerated by increasing both the oxygen content and isothermal aging temperature. The hardness response parallels this evolution and is dependent upon the ω and α phase evolution. The initial hardness increase is due to the growth of ω. The hardness plateau is based on stabilized ω size and fine α precipitation. The overaging hardness response is due to continuous secondary α formation and growth combined with ω coarsening and dissolution. Hardness increases with increasing interstitial content as a result of solid solution strengthening and α particle refinement. Isochronal and isothermal thermal analysis has shown that increasing oxygen content promotes the α phase formation thereby increasing the ω instability. Grain boundary and

  4. Stressed microstructures in thermally induced M9R M18R martensites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandraud, Xavier; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    We revisit the phase transformation that produces 'long-period stacking' M9R-M18R martensites in Cu-based shape-memory alloys and analyze some associated microstructures, in particular, the typical wedge-shaped configuration. Our basic premise is that the cubic-to-monoclinic martensitic phase change in these alloys is, geometrically, but a slight modification of the well-known bcc-to-9R transformation occurring in various elemental crystals, whose lattice strain is, at the microlevel, the same Bain strain as for the bcc-to-fcc transformation. For the memory alloys we thus determine the 'near-Bain' microstrain, thereby analyzing the faulted, long-period stacking martensite as a mesoscale structure derived from compatibility with the austenite. We compute the transformation-twin systems, habit planes, average deformation and stacking-fault density of the 9R, 18R, M9R or M18R martensites, as they arise from the compatibility conditions between the parent and product lattices. We confirm earlier conclusions that a stress-free wedge is not kinematically compatible in these materials. However, we show that this microstructure is 'close enough' to compatibility, finding that its stress levels are low and should cause only minimal plastification and damage in the crystal. The wedge is therefore rationalized as a viable path for the transformation also in these substances. We verify this to hold for all the lattice parameters reported for Cu-based alloys. In general, we conclude that martensitic microstructures can be stressed to a degree also in good memory materials. Furthermore, we find that the lattice-parameter relations, guaranteeing the zero-stress compatibility of special configurations favoring the transformation and its reversibility, do not need to be strictly enforced in these crystals, because the residual stresses in microstructures are low regardless of lattice-parameter values.

  5. Exceptional Resilience of Small-Scale Au30Cu25Zn45 under Cyclic Stress-Induced Phase Transformation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaoyue; Greer, Julia R; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; James, Richard D; Chen, Xian

    2016-12-14

    Shape memory alloys that produce and recover from large deformation driven by martensitic transformation are widely exploited in biomedical devices and microactuators. Generally their actuation work degrades significantly within first a few cycles and is reduced at smaller dimensions. Further, alloys exhibiting unprecedented reversibility have relatively small superelastic strain, 0.7%. These raise the questions of whether high reversibility is necessarily accompanied by small work and strain and whether high work and strain is necessarily diminished at small scale. Here we conclusively demonstrate that these are not true by showing that Au30Cu25Zn45 pillars exhibit 12 MJ m(-3) work and 3.5% superelastic strain even after 100 000 phase transformation cycles. Our findings confirm that the lattice compatibility dominates the mechanical behavior of phase-changing materials at nano to micron scales and points a way for smart microactuators design having the mutual benefits of high actuation work and long lifetime.

  6. Ultrahigh Ductility, High-Carbon Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua; Chen, Nailu

    2016-10-01

    Based on the proposed design idea of the anti-transformation-induced plasticity effect, both the additions of the Nb element and pretreatment of the normalization process as a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) were designed for Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb hot-rolled steel. This high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel exhibits a tensile strength of 1890 MPa and elongation of 29 pct accompanied by the excellent product of tensile and elongation of 55 GPa pct. The origin of ultrahigh ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel is revealed from two aspects: one is the softening of martensitic matrix due to both the depletion of carbon in the matensitic matrix during the Q-P-T process by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to retained austenite and the reduction of the dislocation density in a martensitic matrix by dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect during deformation, which significantly enhances the deformation ability of martensitic matrix; another is the high mechanical stability of considerable carbon-enriched retained austenite, which effectively reduces the formation of brittle twin-type martensite. This work verifies the correctness of the design idea of the anti-TRIP effect and makes the third-generation advanced high-strength steels extend to the field of high-carbon steels from low- and medium-carbon steels.

  7. First-principles computation of structural, elastic and magnetic properties of Ni2FeGa across the martensitic transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahariah, Munima B.; Ghosh, Subhradip; Singh, Chabungbam S.; Gowtham, S.; Pandey, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    The structural stabilities, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of the Heusler-type shape memory alloy Ni2FeGa are calculated using density functional theory. The volume conserving tetragonal distortion of the austenite Ni2FeGa find an energy minimum at c/a = 1.33. Metastable behaviour of the high temperature cubic austenite phase is predicted due to elastic softening in the [110] direction. Calculations of the total and partial magnetic moments show a dominant contribution from Fe atoms of the alloy. The calculated density of states shows a depression in the minority spin channel of the cubic Ni2FeGa just above the Fermi level which gets partially filled up in the tetragonal phase. In contrast to Ni2MnGa, the transition metal spin-down states show partial hybridization in Ni2FeGa and there is a relatively high electron density of states near the Fermi level in both phases.

  8. First-principles computation of structural, elastic and magnetic properties of Ni2FeGa across the martensitic transformation.

    PubMed

    Sahariah, Munima B; Ghosh, Subhradip; Singh, Chabungbam S; Gowtham, S; Pandey, Ravindra

    2013-01-16

    The structural stabilities, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of the Heusler-type shape memory alloy Ni(2)FeGa are calculated using density functional theory. The volume conserving tetragonal distortion of the austenite Ni(2)FeGa find an energy minimum at c/a = 1.33. Metastable behaviour of the high temperature cubic austenite phase is predicted due to elastic softening in the [110] direction. Calculations of the total and partial magnetic moments show a dominant contribution from Fe atoms of the alloy. The calculated density of states shows a depression in the minority spin channel of the cubic Ni(2)FeGa just above the Fermi level which gets partially filled up in the tetragonal phase. In contrast to Ni(2)MnGa, the transition metal spin-down states show partial hybridization in Ni(2)FeGa and there is a relatively high electron density of states near the Fermi level in both phases.

  9. On consistent micromechanical estimation of macroscopic elastic energy, coherence energy and phase transformation strains for SMA materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition

  10. Crystal Level Continuum Modeling of Phase Transformations: The (alpha) <--> (epsilon) Transformation in Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, N R; Benson, D J; Becker, R; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M

    2004-10-18

    We present a crystal level model for thermo-mechanical deformation with phase transformation capabilities. The model is formulated to allow for large pressures (on the order of the elastic moduli) and makes use of a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. Elastic and thermal lattice distortions are combined into a single lattice stretch to allow the model to be used in conjunction with general equation of state relationships. Phase transformations change the mass fractions of the material constituents. The driving force for phase transformations includes terms arising from mechanical work, from the temperature dependent chemical free energy change on transformation, and from interaction energy among the constituents. Deformation results from both these phase transformations and elasto-viscoplastic deformation of the constituents themselves. Simulation results are given for the {alpha} to {epsilon} phase transformation in iron. Results include simulations of shock induced transformation in single crystals and of compression of polycrystals. Results are compared to available experimental data.

  11. THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN PLUTONIUM ALLOYS - PART I

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Liu, Z; Zhou, S

    2004-08-18

    In this report we investigate order, stability, and phase transformations for a series of actinide-based alloys. The statics and kinetics of precipitation and ordering in this class of alloys are modeled with a scheme that couples fundamental information on the alloy energetics obtained from experimental and assessed thermo-chemical data to the CALPHAD approach commonly used in industry for designing alloys with engineering specificity with the help of the Thermo-Calc software application. The CALPHAD approach is applied to the study of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Pu-based alloys, Pu-X, where X=Al, Fe, Ga. The assessment of the equilibrium phase diagrams in the whole range of alloy composition has been performed with the PARROT module of the Thermo-Calc application software. Predictions are made on the low temperature and Pu-rich side of the phase diagrams of Pu-Ga and Pu-Al for which controversy has been noted in the past. The validity of the assessed thermo-chemical database will be discussed by comparing predicted heats of transformation for pure Pu with measured values from differential scanning calorimetry analysis. An overall picture for the stability properties of Pu-Ga and Pu-Al that reconciles the results of past studies carried out on these alloys is proposed. Results on phase stability in the ternary Fe-Ga-Pu and Al-Fe-Pu alloys are discussed. The information collected in this study is then used to model metastability, long-term stability and aging for this class of alloys by coupling Thermo-Calc with DICTRA, a series of modules that allow the analysis of DIffusion Controlled TRAnsformations. Kinetics information is then summarized in so-called TTT (temperature-time-transformations) diagrams for the most relevant phases of actinide alloys. Specifically, results are presented on kinetics of phase transformations associated with the eutectoid-phase decomposition reaction occurring at low temperature, and with the martensitic transformation

  12. Reversion of a Parent {130 }⟨310⟩ α'' Martensitic Twinning System at the Origin of {332 }⟨113⟩ β Twins Observed in Metastable β Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castany, P.; Yang, Y.; Bertrand, E.; Gloriant, T.

    2016-12-01

    In bcc metastable β titanium alloys, and particularly in superelastic alloys, a unique {332 }⟨113 ⟩ twinning system occurs during plastic deformation. However, in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction during a tensile test shows that the β phase totally transforms into α'' martensite under stress in a Ti-27Nb (at. %) alloy. {332 }⟨113⟩ β twins are thus not formed directly in the β phase but are the result of the reversion of {130 }⟨310⟩ α'' parent twins occurring in martensite under stress. The formation of an interfacial twin boundary ω phase is also observed to accommodate strains induced during the phase reversion.

  13. Performance analysis of energy conversion via caloric effects in first-order ferroic phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Song, Yintao

    2014-07-07

    A finite-time thermodynamic model of ferroic refrigerators and generators, based on first order phase transformation, is given. We use this model to evaluate a novel method of converting heat directly into electricity based on the martensitic phase transformation accompanied by an abrupt change in magnetic ordering recently discovered [Srivastava et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2011, 1, 97]. In this paper, we study the efficiency and power output of this method. The formulas of efficiency and power output in terms of material constants, design parameters, and working conditions are derived. The Clausius-Clapeyron coefficient is shown to be important to the efficiency. The figure of merit, as a dimensionless parameter, of energy conversion using the new method is introduced. It is shown that, as the figure of merit goes to infinity, the efficiency approaches the Carnot efficiency. Thermodynamic cycles of the new energy conversion method are optimized for a maximum power output. The matching criteria between materials and working temperatures of such optimized cycles are derived. Using these criteria, one can choose the most suitable materials under given working conditions, or decide the best working conditions for available materials.

  14. The effect of martensite plasticity on the cyclic deformation of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2014-01-01

    Based on stress-controlled cyclic tension-unloading experiments with different peak stresses, the effect of martensite plasticity on the cyclic deformation of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes is investigated and discussed. The experimental results show that the reverse transformation from the induced martensite phase to the austenite phase is gradually restricted by the plastic deformation of the induced martensite phase caused by an applied peak stress that is sufficiently high (higher than 900 MPa), and the extent of such restriction increases with further increasing the peak stress. The residual and peak strains of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy accumulate progressively, i.e., transformation ratchetting occurs during the cyclic tension-unloading with peak stresses from 600 to 900 MPa, and the transformation ratchetting strain increases with the increase of the peak stress. When the peak stress is higher than 900 MPa, the peak strain becomes almost unchanged, but the residual strain accumulates and the dissipation energy per cycle decreases very quickly with the increasing number of cycles due to the restricted reverse transformation by the martensite plasticity. Furthermore, a quantitative relationship between the applied stress and the stabilized residual strain is obtained to reasonably predict the evolution of the peak strain and the residual strain.

  15. Temperature-dependent quantitative 3omega scanning thermal microscopy: Local thermal conductivity changes in NiTi microstructures induced by martensite-austenite phase transition.

    PubMed

    Chirtoc, M; Gibkes, J; Wernhardt, R; Pelzl, J; Wieck, A

    2008-09-01

    We develop the theoretical description of 3omega signals from the resistive Wollaston thermal probe (ThP) of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) in terms of an equivalent low-pass filter. The normalized amplitude and phase frequency spectra are completely characterized by a single parameter, the crossover frequency f(c)(k) depending on the sample thermal conductivity k. The application concerns polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy microstructured by focused Ga ion beam milling and implantation. The calibration of the ThP combined with a novel two-step normalization procedure allowed quantitative exploitation of 3omega signal variations as small as -1.75% in amplitude and 0.60 degrees in phase upon heating the sample from room temperature to 100 degrees C. This corresponds to k increase of 23.9% that is consistent with the expected thermal conductivity variation due to martensite-austenite structural phase transition. To our knowledge this is for the first time that SThM 3omega phase information is used quantitatively as well. The static, calibrated 3omega measurements are complementary to 3omega SThM images of the patterned sample surface. The local SThM measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity opens the possibility to imaging structural phase transitions at submicron scale.

  16. X-ray measurements of the self-organization of martensitic variants during thermal cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Daniel; Sutton, Mark; Rogers, Michael

    The deformation of most types of metals involves an irreversible flow of crystallographic dislocations. This allows for their ductility. The deformation of a metallic shape memory alloy (SMA), on the other hand, is accommodated by a solid-solid phase transition. If deformed in the low-temperature martensitic phase, an SMA can be returned to its original shape by raising its temperature to the point where it changes back to its high-temperature parent phase. When the reverse occurs and the transformation is from parent to martensitic phase, an SMA goes from a high-symmetry to a low-symmetry state in which a number of martensitic variants are produced. We monitored the self-organization of these variants during cycles of periodic thermal driving. This was done using in situ X-ray Photon Correlation Scectroscopy (XPCS), which uses correlation from X-ray speckle to quantify the degree of microstructural change in a material. Our measurements revealed enhanced reversibility in the organization of the martensitic variants as the system evolved during repeated thermal cycling.

  17. Phase and structural transformations in magnetorheological suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskakova, L. Yu.; Romanchuk, A. P.; Zubarev, A. Yu.

    2006-07-01

    Particle condensation in magnetorheological suspensions (MRS) under external magnetic field is studied theoretically. It is shown that the bulk condensation of particles into dense phases is preceded by the formation of fairly long chain aggregates. Phase transition occurs as a condensation of such chains due to their magnetic interaction. In thin layers of MRS, placed into the normal magnetic field, scenario of the phase transition differs essentially from that in infinite volumes of these systems. Equilibrium state of the system after the phase transition corresponds to the formation of ensemble of discrete domains of the dense phase rather than to separation into two massive phases as it takes place in infinite media.

  18. Phase Transformation and Creep Behavior in Ti50Pd30Ni20 High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy in Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Parikshith K.; Desai, Uri; Monroe, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Karaman, Ibrahim; Noebe, Ron; Bigelow, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The creep behavior and the phase transformation of Ti50Pd30Ni20 High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy (HTSMA) is investigated by standard creep tests and thermomechanical tests. Ingots of the alloy are induction melted, extruded at high temperature, from which cylindrical specimens are cut and surface polished. A custom high temperature test setup is assembled to conduct the thermomechanical tests. Following preliminary monotonic tests, standard creep tests and thermally induced phase transformation tests are conducted on the specimen. The creep test results suggest that over the operating temperatures and stresses of this alloy, the microstructural mechanisms responsible for creep change. At lower stresses and temperatures, the primary creep mechanism is a mixture of dislocation glide and dislocation creep. As the stress and temperature increase, the mechanism shifts to predominantly dislocation creep. If the operational stress or temperature is raised even further, the mechanism shifts to diffusion creep. The thermally induced phase transformation tests show that actuator performance can be affected by rate independent irrecoverable strain (transformation induced plasticity + retained martensite) as well as creep. The rate of heating and cooling can adversely impact the actuators performance. While the rate independent irrecoverable strain is readily apparent early in the actuators life, viscoplastic strain continues to accumulate over the lifespan of the HTSMA. Thus, in order to get full actuation out of the HTSMA, the heating and cooling rates must be sufficiently high enough to avoid creep.

  19. Determination of the magnetic ground state in the martensite phase of Ni-Mn-Z (Z = In, Sn and Sb) off-stoichiometric Heusler alloys by nonlinear AC susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, R Y; Fujita, A; Ito, W; Kanomata, T; Kainuma, R

    2011-08-17

    DC and AC magnetic measurements were carried out to clarify the difference in the magnetic ground state depending on the kinds of Z element used in the martensite phase in Ni-Mn-Z (Z = In, Sn and Sb) off-stoichiometric Heusler alloys. Magnetic field cooling effects were observed in the DC thermomagnetization curves in the low temperature regions, and a frequency dependence on AC susceptibility was also observed in both real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility. Negative divergence was clearly observed in nonlinear AC susceptibility only for the Ni(50)Mn(40)Sb(10) alloy, suggesting that the magnetic feature of its ground state is the spin-glass state. The magnetic ground state of the martensite phase in these alloys would relate to the magnetic configuration of the Mn atoms in the ferromagnetic austenite phase.

  20. Anomalous plasticity in defect-mediated phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Punam; Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.

    2014-03-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of shocked wave propagation in metallic single crystals exhibit high elastic limits and are ideally suited for investigating the role defect nucleation and multiplication play on the kinetics of phase transformations. Here we report on the morphology and kinetics of shocked-induced phase transformations in Aluminum single crystals. The atomic interactions were modeled utilizing various embedded atom method (EAM) models of Aluminum, with most models exhibiting an artificial fcc -->bcc phase transformation in the 25-30 GPa range. For cases where plastic deformation precedes the phase transformation, anomalous defect structures atypical of plastic deformation in bcc lattices nucleate early on but anneal out with time. In all cases, the defect-mediated phase transitions proceed at faster rates than defect-free ones. Part of this work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-12-1-0476.

  1. Friction Stir Welding of HT9 Ferritic-Martensitic Steel: An Assessment of Microstructure and Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    development. While high speed steel or WC-Co tools can be used for aluminum and copper alloys, FSW of steel generally requires even more refractory... steel and the microstructure produced by FSW is much more critical than in aluminum alloys. The αγδ phase transformations can cause complex, multi...thesis explores the processing-microstructure-property relationships in friction stir welded ( FSW ) HT9A ferritic-martensitic steel . HT9 has previously

  2. Non-gauge phase transformations in quantum transition amplitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, H. R.

    1993-01-01

    The prescription for introducing a gauge transformation into a quantum transition amplitude, nominally well known, contains an ambiguous feature. It is presumed by some authors that an appropriate transformation of the phase of a wave function will generate the associated gauge transformation. It is shown that this is a necessary but not sufficient step. Examples from the literature are cited to show the consequences of the failure of this procedure. One must distinguish between true gauge transformations and unitary transformations within a fixed gauge.

  3. Fundamental Studies of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties in the Heat Affected Zone of 10 wt% Nickel Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrick, Erin J.

    United States naval applications require the use of steels with high strength and resistance to fracture at low temperatures to provide good ballistic properties. In recent years, 10 wt% Ni steel has been developed with strength and toughness values exceeding those of steels currently used, and is now being considered as a candidate material to replace existing high-strength, low alloy steels. This steel has excellent toughness from the mechanically induced transformation of interlath austenite films to martensite. These austenite films are formed via a carefully developed quenching, lamellarizing, and tempering heat treatment. However, before 10 wt% Ni steel can be implemented for full-scale applications, the effects of the rapid heating and cooling rates associated with welding thermal cycles on phase transformations and mechanical properties must be understood. In this research, a fundamental understanding of phase transformations and mechanical properties in the heat-affected zone of fusion welds in 10 wt% Ni steel was developed through heating and cooling rate dilatometry experiments, gas tungsten arc welding, and simulation of gas metal arc welding. First, an investigation into the effects of heating and cooling rate on the phase transformations in 10 wt% Ni steel was performed. The Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures during heating were determined as a function of heating rate, and sluggish transformation during fast heating rates manifested itself as a high Ac3 temperature of 1050°C as opposed to a temperature of 850°C at slow heating rates. A continuous cooling transformation diagram produced for 10 wt% Ni steel reveals that martensite will form over a very wide range of cooling rates, which reflects a very high hardenability of this alloy. This is significant because the range of cooling rates for which the diagram was constructed over easily covers the range associated with fusion welding, so there would not be the need for precise control over the weld

  4. A phase-field approach to nonequilibrium phase transformations in elastic solids via an intermediate phase (melt) allowing for interface stresses.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I

    2016-04-28

    A phase-field approach for phase transformations (PTs) between three different phases at nonequilibrium temperatures is developed. It includes advanced mechanics, thermodynamically consistent interfacial stresses, and interface interactions. A thermodynamic Landau-Ginzburg potential developed in terms of polar order parameters satisfies the desired instability and equilibrium conditions for homogeneous phases. The interfacial stresses were introduced with some terms from large-strain formulation even though the small-strain assumption was utilized. The developed model is applied to study the PTs between two solid phases via a highly disordered intermediate phase (IP) or an intermediate melt (IM) hundreds of degrees below the melting temperature. In particular, the β ↔ δ PTs in HMX energetic crystals via IM are analyzed. The effects of various parameters (temperature, ratios of widths and energies of solid-solid (SS) to solid-melt (SM) interfaces, elastic energy, and interfacial stresses) on the formation, stability, and structure of the IM within a propagating SS interface are studied. Interfacial and elastic stresses within a SS interphase and their relaxation and redistribution with the appearance of a partial or complete IM are analyzed. The energy and structure of the critical nucleus (CN) of the IM are studied as well. In particular, the interfacial stresses increase the aspect-ratio of the CN. Although including elastic energy can drastically reduce the energy of the CN of the IM, the activation energy of the CN of the IM within the SS interface increases when interfacial tension is taken into account. The developed thermodynamic potential can also be modified to model other multiphase physical phenomena, such as multi-variant martensitic PTs, grain boundary and surface-induced pre-melting and PTs, as well as developing phase diagrams for IPs.

  5. Effects of Microalloying on the Impact Toughness of Ultrahigh-Strength TRIP-Aided Martensitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Junya; Ina, Daiki; Nakajima, Yuji; Sugimoto, Koh-ichi

    2013-11-01

    The effects of the addition of Cr, Mo, and/or Ni on the Charpy impact toughness of a 0.2 pct C-1.5 pct Si-1.5 pct Mn-0.05 pct Nb transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-aided steel with a lath-martensite structure matrix ( i.e., a TRIP-aided martensitic steel or TM steel) were investigated with the aim of using the steel in automotive applications. In addition, the relationship between the toughness of the various alloyed steels and their metallurgical characteristics was determined. When Cr, Cr-Mo, or Cr-Mo-Ni was added to the base steel, the TM steel exhibited a high upper-shelf Charpy impact absorbed value that ranged from 100 to 120 J/cm2 and a low ductile-brittle fracture appearance transition temperature that ranged from 123 K to 143 K (-150 °C to -130 °C), while also exhibiting a tensile strength of about 1.5 GPa. This impact toughness of the alloyed steels was far superior to that of conventional martensitic steel and was caused by the presence of (i) a softened wide lath-martensite matrix, which contained only a small amount of carbide and hence had a lower carbon concentration, (ii) a large amount of finely dispersed martensite-retained austenite complex phase, and (iii) a metastable retained austenite phase of 2 to 4 vol pct in the complex phase, which led to plastic relaxation via strain-induced transformation and played an important role in the suppression of the initiation and propagation of voids and/or cleavage cracks.

  6. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  7. Reflectance Changes during Shock-induced Phase Transformations in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L. R.; Jensen, B. J.; Rigg, P. A.

    2010-06-01

    In performing shock wave experiments to study the characteristics of metals at high pressures, wave profiles (i.e., velocity measurements of the surface of the sample) are an established and useful way to study phase transformations. For example, a sudden change in the velocity or its slope can occur when the phase transformation induces a large volume change leading to a change in particle velocity. Allowing the shock to release into a transparent window that is in contact with the sample surface allows the study of conditions away from the shock Hugoniot. However, in cases where the wave profile is not definitive an additional phase-transformation diagnostic would be useful. Changes in the electronic structure of the atoms in the crystal offer opportunities to develop new phase-change diagnostics. We have studied optical reflectance changes for several phase transformations to see whether reflectance changes might be a generally applicable phase-transformation diagnostic. Shocks were produced by direct contact with explosives or with impacts from guns. Optical wavelengths for the reflectance measurements ranged from 355 to 700 nm. We studied samples of tin, iron, gallium, and cerium as each passed through a phase transformation during shock loading and, if observable, a reversion upon unloading. For solid-solid phase changes in tin and iron we saw small changes in the surface scattering characteristics, perhaps from voids or rough areas frozen into the surface of the sample as it transformed to a new crystal structure. For melt in gallium and cerium we saw changes in the wavelength dependence of the reflectance, and we surmise that these changes may result from changes in the crystal electronic structure. It appears that reflectance measurements can be a significant part of a larger suite of diagnostics to search for difficult-to-detect phase transformations.

  8. Reversible metal-hydride phase transformation in epitaxial films.

    PubMed

    Roytburd, Alexander L; Boyerinas, Brad M; Bruck, Hugh A

    2015-03-11

    Metal-hydride phase transformations in solids commonly proceed with hysteresis. The extrinsic component of hysteresis is the result of the dissipation of energy of internal stress due to plastic deformation and fracture. It can be mitigated on the nanoscale, where plastic deformation and fracture are suppressed and the transformation proceeds through formation and evolution of coherent phases. However, the phase coherency introduces intrinsic thermodynamic hysteresis, preventing reversible transformation. In this paper, it is shown that thermodynamic hysteresis of coherent metal-hydride transformation can be eliminated in epitaxial film due to substrate constraint. Film-substrate interaction leads to formation of heterophase polydomain nanostructure with variable phase fraction which can change reversibly by varying temperature in a closed system or chemical potential in an open system.

  9. Reversible metal-hydride phase transformation in epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roytburd, Alexander L.; Boyerinas, Brad M.; Bruck, Hugh A.

    2015-03-01

    Metal-hydride phase transformations in solids commonly proceed with hysteresis. The extrinsic component of hysteresis is the result of the dissipation of energy of internal stress due to plastic deformation and fracture. It can be mitigated on the nanoscale, where plastic deformation and fracture are suppressed and the transformation proceeds through formation and evolution of coherent phases. However, the phase coherency introduces intrinsic thermodynamic hysteresis, preventing reversible transformation. In this paper, it is shown that thermodynamic hysteresis of coherent metal-hydride transformation can be eliminated in epitaxial film due to substrate constraint. Film-substrate interaction leads to formation of heterophase polydomain nanostructure with variable phase fraction which can change reversibly by varying temperature in a closed system or chemical potential in an open system.

  10. Suppression of Twinning and Phase Transformation in an Ultrafine Grained 2 GPa Strong Metastable Austenitic Steel: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yongfeng; Jia, Nan; Wang, Y. D.; Sun, Xin; Zuo, Liang; Raabe, Dierk

    2015-07-17

    An ultrafine-grained 304 austenitic 18 wt.%Cr-8 wt.%Ni stainless steel with a grain size of ~270 nm was synthesized by accumulative rolling (67 % total reduction) and annealing (550 °C, 150s). Uniaxial tensile testing at room temperature reveals an extremely high yield strength of 1890 ± 50MPa and a tensile strength of 2050 ± 30MPa, while the elongation reaches 6 ± 1%. Experimental characterization on samples with different grain sizes between 270 nm and 35 μm indicates that both, deformation twinning and martensitic phase transformation are significantly retarded with increasing grain refinement. A crystal plasticity finite element model incorporating a constitutive law reflecting the grain size-controlled dislocation slip and deformation twinning captures the micromechanical behavior of the steels with different grain sizes. Comparison of simulation and experiment shows that the deformation of ultrafine-grained 304 steels is dominated by the slip of partial dislocations, whereas for coarse-grained steels dislocation slip, twinning and martensite formation jointly contribute to the shape change.

  11. Synthesis of general polarization transformers. A geometric phase approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Rajendra

    1989-07-01

    Using a generalized form of Jordan's formulation of the geometric phase problem it is shown that a single gadget capable of realising an arbitrary element of the polarization transformation group SU (2) can be constructed using two half-wave plates and two quarter-wave plates. For special transformations, simpler, practical gadgets are proposed.

  12. Typical Phases of Transformative Learning: A Practice-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Empirical models of transformative learning offer important insights into the core characteristics of this concept. Whereas previous analyses were limited to specific social groups or topical terrains, this article empirically typifies the phases of transformative learning on the basis of a comparative analysis of various social groups and topical…

  13. Edge Detection in Digital Images Using Dispersive Phase Stretch Transform

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Mohammad H.; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new computational approach to edge detection and its application to biomedical images. Our digital algorithm transforms the image by emulating the propagation of light through a physical medium with specific warped diffractive property. We show that the output phase of the transform reveals transitions in image intensity and can be used for edge detection. PMID:25878656

  14. Solidification Processing and Phase Transformations in Ordered High Temperature Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-20

    transformation from cubic to hexagonal and ends with a transformation, from c2 to Orthorhombic phase. During these stages a complex domain structure is formed...arrangement of rotational domains of the 6 ower symmetry orthorhombic phase. [he Crystal Structure of the Ti2AINb Orthorhombic Phase - The results of a... orthorhombic phase in the Ti-Al-Nb system (Paper #7). The structure is ýmcmn (HgNa or Cd 3Er) with a=0.6089 nm, b=0.9569 nm, and c= 0.4667 rnm. Ti(Nb) fills

  15. Intra-variant substructure in Ni–Mn–Ga martensite: Conjugation boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Muntifering, B.; Pond, R. C.; Kovarik, L.; Browning, N. D.; Müllner, P.

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure of a Ni–Mn–Ga alloy in the martensitic phase was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Inter-variant twin boundaries were observed separating non-modulated tetragonal martensite variants. In addition, intra-variant boundary structures, referred to here as “conjugation boundaries”, were also observed. We propose that conjugation boundaries originate at the transformation interface between austenite and a nascent martensite variant. In the alloy studied, deformation twinning was observed, consistent with being the mode of lattice-invariant deformation, and this can occur on either of two crystallographically equivalent conjugate View the MathML source{101}(101⁻) twinning systems: conjugation boundaries separate regions within a single variant in which the active modes were distinct. The defect structure of conjugation boundaries and the low-angle of misorientation across them are revealed in detail using high-resolution microscopy. Finally, we anticipate that the mobility of such boundaries is lower than that of inter-variant boundaries, and is therefore likely to significantly affect the kinetics of deformation in the martensitic phase.

  16. Positive phase space transformation incompatible with classical physics.

    PubMed

    Son, Wonmin; Kofler, Johannes; Kim, M S; Vedral, Vlatko; Brukner, Caslav

    2009-03-20

    Bell conjectured that a positive Wigner function does not allow violation of the inequalities imposed by local hidden variable theories. A requirement for this conjecture is "when phase space measurements are performed." We introduce the theory-independent concept of "operationally local transformations" which refers to the change of the switch on a local measurement apparatus. We show that two separated parties, performing only phase space measurements on a composite quantum system with a positive Wigner function and performing only operationally local transformations that preserve this positivity, can nonetheless violate Bell's inequality. Such operationally local transformations are realized using entangled ancillae.

  17. Nucleation, kinetics and morphology of displacive phase transformations in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiker, A. S. J.; Thijsse, B. J.

    2013-11-01

    An extensive, systematic molecular dynamics (MD) study is performed for analysing the nucleation, kinetics and morphology characteristics of thermally-induced, displacive phase transformations from face-centred cubic (fcc) to body-centred cubic (bcc) iron. At the atomic level these transformation characteristics are influenced by a number of factors, including (i) the appearance of free surfaces, (ii) the initial presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries, (iii) the existence of point defects (i.e., atomic vacancies) near a grain boundary, (iv) the initial thermal velocities of the atoms, and (v) the specific interatomic potential used. Other MD studies that capture the overall transformation behaviour of iron well have often underestimated or ignored the influence by these factors on the transformation response, with the risk of putting the accuracy, generality and physical explanation of the MD results on loose grounds. The present research illustrates the relative contribution of each of the above factors by means of a detailed comparison study for three different interatomic potentials. The accuracy of the interatomic potentials is established by validating for the fcc and bcc phases the calculated elastic moduli, cohesive energy, vacancy formation energy and interfacial energy against experimental and ab initio data reported in the literature. The importance of calibrating material data of both the stable bcc phase and the metastable fcc phase - instead of the stable bcc phase only - is demonstrated. The numerical results call for general caution when interpreting phenomena that start close to instability points and therefore are sensitive to small disturbances; a large spread in the overall transformation time is found under different initial thermal velocities, interfacial lattice incoherence, boundary conditions (free vs. periodic), and interatomic potentials, where for completely transformed atomic systems the discrepancy between the maximum and minimum

  18. Kinetics of Propagating Phase Transformation in Compressed Bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, M; Bastea, S; Emig, J; Springer, P; Reisman, D

    2004-08-18

    The authors observed dynamically driven phase transitions in isentropically compressed bismuth. By changing the stress loading conditions they explored two distinct cases one in which the experimental signature of the phase transformation corresponds to phase-boundary crossings initiated at both sample interfaces, and another in which the experimental trace is due to a single advancing transformation front in the bulk of the material. They introduce a coupled kinetics-hydrodynamics model that for this second case enables them, under suitable simplifying assumptions, to directly extract characteristic transition times from the experimental measurements.

  19. Efficient multiscale phase unwrapping methodology with modulo wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Blinder, David; Ottevaere, Heidi; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-10-03

    Many robust phase unwrapping algorithms are computationally very time-consuming, making them impractical for handling large datasets or real-time applications. In this paper, we propose a generic framework using a novel wavelet transform that can be combined with many types of phase unwrapping algorithms. By inserting reversible modulo operators in the wavelet transform, the number of coefficients that need to be unwrapped is significantly reduced, which results in large computational gains. The algorithm is tested on various types of wrapped phase imagery, reporting speedup factors of up to 500. The source code of the algorithm is publicly available.

  20. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels.

    PubMed

    Morris, John W; Kinney, Chris; Pytlewski, Ken; Adachi, Y

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified 'classic' lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov-Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  1. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, John W., Jr.; Kinney, Chris; Pytlewski, Ken; Adachi, Y.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified ‘classic’ lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov-Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  2. Identification of epsilon martensite in a Fe-based shape memory alloy by means of EBSD.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, K; Van Caenegem, N; Raabe, D

    2009-01-01

    Ferrous shape memory alloys (SMAs) are often thought to become a new, important group of SMAs. The shape memory effect in these alloys is based on the reversible, stress-induced martensitic transformation of austenite to epsilon martensite. The identification and quantification of epsilon martensite is crucial when evaluating the shape memory behaviour of this material. Previous work displayed that promising results were obtained when studying the evolution of the amount of epsilon martensite after different processing steps with Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). The present work will discuss in detail, on the one hand, the challenges and opportunities arising during the identification of epsilon martensite by means of EBSD and, on the other hand, the possible interpretations that might be given to these findings. It will be illustrated that although the specific nature of the austenite to epsilon martensite transformation can still cause some points of discussion, EBSD has a high potential for identifying epsilon martensite.

  3. Mechanisms of transformation toughening. Progress report, 1 August 1988--31 July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.B.

    1992-02-01

    Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of isothermal martensitic transformation under stress, transformation toughening in austenitic steels, and dispersed phase transformation plasticity in low alloy steels are discussed briefly in this progress report for Doe Grant DE-FG02-88ER45365.

  4. Nanoscale Transforming Mineral Phases in Fresh Nacre.

    PubMed

    DeVol, Ross T; Sun, Chang-Yu; Marcus, Matthew A; Coppersmith, Susan N; Myneni, Satish C B; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2015-10-21

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the iridescent inner layer of many mollusk shells, is a biomineral lamellar composite of aragonite (CaCO3) and organic sheets. Biomineralization frequently occurs via transient amorphous precursor phases, crystallizing into the final stable biomineral. In nacre, despite extensive attempts, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors have remained elusive. They were inferred from non-nacre-forming larval shells, or from a residue of amorphous material surrounding mature gastropod nacre tablets, and have only once been observed in bivalve nacre. Here we present the first direct observation of ACC precursors to nacre formation, obtained from the growth front of nacre in gastropod shells from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), using synchrotron spectromicroscopy. Surprisingly, the abalone nacre data show the same ACC phases that are precursors to calcite (CaCO3) formation in sea urchin spicules, and not proto-aragonite or poorly crystalline aragonite (pAra), as expected for aragonitic nacre. In contrast, we find pAra in coral.

  5. High Strain Rate Compression of Martensitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ying; Young, Marcus L.; Nie, Xu

    2017-02-01

    The compressive response of martensitic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) rods has been investigated using a modified Kolsky compression bar at various strain rates (400, 800, and 1200 s-1) and temperatures [room temperature and 373 K (100 °C)], i.e., in the martensitic state and in the austenitic state. SEM, DSC, and XRD were performed on NiTi SMA rod samples after high strain rate compression in order to reveal the influence of strain rate and temperature on the microstructural evolution, phase transformation, and crystal structure. It is found that at room temperature, the critical stress increases slightly as strain rate increases, whereas the strain-hardening rate decreases. However, the critical stress under high strain rate compression at 373 K (100 °C) increase first and then decrease due to competing strain hardening and thermal softening effects. After high rate compression, the microstructure of both martensitic and austenitic NiTi SMAs changes as a function of increasing strain rate, while the phase transformation after deformation is independent of the strain rate at room temperature and 373 K (100 °C). The preferred crystal plane of the martensitic NiTi SMA changes from ( 1bar{1}1 )M before compression to (111)M after compression, while the preferred plane remains the same for austenitic NiTi SMA before and after compression. Additionally, dynamic recovery and recrystallization are also observed to occur after deformation of the austenitic NiTi SMA at 373 K (100 °C). The findings presented here extend the basic understanding of the deformation behavior of NiTi SMAs and its relation to microstructure, phase transformation, and crystal structure, especially at high strain rates.

  6. Influence of quenching rate on the magnetic and martensitic properties of Ni-Fe-Ga melt-spun ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, H.; Uemura, K.

    2010-08-15

    We have fabricated Ni-Fe-Ga {beta} single phase alloy ribbons with Ga content less than 25 at. %. Higher spinning rate of melt-spinning technique can produce {beta} single phase alloys without precipitation of {gamma} particles, whereas lower spinning rate results in the {beta}+{gamma} two phase structure. This higher quenching rate is found to be able to fully suppress the formation of {gamma} phase during fabrication. The martensitic and magnetic transition temperatures of {beta} phase ribbons are both above room temperature, and the ribbon show saturation magnetization as high as 56.5 emu/g at room temperature. These features are attractive for practical applications. The effects of quenching rate on microstructure, martensitic transformation, and magnetic properties are discussed.

  7. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Dynamic model of a three-phase power transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Dolinar, D.; Pihler, J.; Grcar, B. . Faculty of Technical Sciences)

    1993-10-01

    An adequate mathematical model of a three-phase power transformer is one of the important elements in the programs for the computer analysis of power system transients. Featured in this paper is the simulation model of a three-phase, three-limb core-type power transformer. Non-linear effects of saturation, hysteresis and eddy currents are considered. Two ways of creating major and minor hysteresis loops are presented. The transformer model, described by a system of time dependent differential equations, is solved by an efficient numerical algorithm. The behavior of the transformer model during switching-in and fault transients, as well as other types of transients, has been tested. The computed transient waveforms are compared with the measured ones of there exists very close agreement between them.

  9. Texture development in dual-phase cold-rolled 18 pct Ni maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Z.; Farooque, M.; Ul Haq, A.; Khan, A.Q.

    1997-12-01

    Austenite and martensite textures were studied in 18 pct Ni 350-maraging steel as a function of various degrees of cold rolling. The austenite phase in the samples was produced by repeated thermal cycling between ambient and 800 C. The austenite phase thus formed was mechanically unstable and transformed to the martensite phase after 30 pct cold rolling. The texture developed as a result of cold rolling, and its effect upon microstructure and hardness has been studied.

  10. Antiferromagnetic coupling between martensitic twin variants observed by magnetic resonance in Ni-Mn-Sn-Co films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, V. O.; Lvov, V. A.; Aseguinolaza, I.; Salyuk, O.; Popadiuk, D.; Kharlan, Y.; Kakazei, G. N.; Araujo, J. P.; Barandiaran, J. M.; Chernenko, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties of N i46.0M n36.8S n11.4C o5.8/MgO (001 ) epitaxial thin film, which undergo a martensitic phase transformation from cubic austenitic phase to a twinned orthorhombic martensitic phase at 270 K, were studied by the magnetic resonance at the microwave frequency of 9.45 GHz. It was found that the single resonance line observed in the austenite splits into three lines in the martensitic phase. A theoretical approach was developed to show that the additional resonance lines are caused by the weak antiferromagnetic coupling of the ferromagnetic twin components across twin boundaries. Fitting of the experimental resonance lines to model gives an effective field of antiferromagnetic coupling of about 1.5 kOe, which is two or three orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional antiferromagnetic solids because the number of magnetic ions interacting antiferromagnetically through the twin boundary is much less than the total number of magnetic ions in the twin. This feature shows a strong resemblance between the submicron twinned martensite and artificial antiferromagnetic superlattices, whereby providing a distinctive insight into magnetism of the studied magnetic shape memory material.

  11. Kinetics of the wurtzite-to-rock-salt phase transformation in ZnO at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Solozhenko, Vladimir L; Kurakevych, Oleksandr O; Sokolov, Petr S; Baranov, Andrey N

    2011-05-05

    Kinetics of the wurtzite-to-rock-salt transformation in ZnO has been studied in the 5-7 GPa pressure range at temperatures below the activation of diffusion processes. The detailed analysis of non-isothermal experimental data using the general evolution equation describing the kinetics of direct phase transformations in solids allowed us to study the kinetic particularities of both nucleation and growth of the rock-salt phase in parent wurtzite ZnO. The main rate-limiting processes are thermally activated nucleation (E(N) = 383 kJ mol(-1) at 6.9 GPa) and thermally nonactivated (most probably quasi-martensitic) growth (k(G) = 0.833 min(-1) at 6.9 GPa). The high impact of thermal deactivation of nucleation places has been evidenced in the case of slow heating, which indirectly indicates that the rs-ZnO nucleation places are mainly produced by pressure-induced stresses in the parent phase.

  12. Low temperature phase transformations in the metallic phases of iron and stony-iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, K. B.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1988-03-01

    The nickel content and the structure of kamacite and decomposed taenite (clear taenite 1, CT-1; the cloudy zone, CZ; and clear taenite 2, CT-2) in the metallic phases of meteorites were determined using X-ray microanalysis techniques in the AEM. The kamacite near the CT-1 interface was found to contain about 4 wt pct Ni. The CT-1 structure contains 51.4-45.6 wt pct Ni; it is ordered FeNi with the L1(0) superstructure. The CZ structure consists of two phases: a globular phase (ordered FeNi containing 50.9 wt pct Ni) and a surrounding honeycomb martensitic phase containing 11.7 wt pct Ni. The CT-2 was found in all of the iron meteorite groups studied and in the pallasites, but not in the mesosiderites. Based on the preliminary evidence, this region is believed to be ordered Fe3Ni. Possible mechanisms for the decomposition of taenite are discussed.

  13. Low temperature phase transformations in the metallic phases of iron and stony-iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, K. B.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The nickel content and the structure of kamacite and decomposed taenite (clear taenite 1, CT-1; the cloudy zone, CZ; and clear taenite 2, CT-2) in the metallic phases of meteorites were determined using X-ray microanalysis techniques in the AEM. The kamacite near the CT-1 interface was found to contain about 4 wt pct Ni. The CT-1 structure contains 51.4-45.6 wt pct Ni; it is ordered FeNi with the L1(0) superstructure. The CZ structure consists of two phases: a globular phase (ordered FeNi containing 50.9 wt pct Ni) and a surrounding honeycomb martensitic phase containing 11.7 wt pct Ni. The CT-2 was found in all of the iron meteorite groups studied and in the pallasites, but not in the mesosiderites. Based on the preliminary evidence, this region is believed to be ordered Fe3Ni. Possible mechanisms for the decomposition of taenite are discussed.

  14. Phase transformations in steels: Processing, microstructure, and performance

    DOE PAGES

    Gibbs, Paul J.

    2014-04-03

    In this study, contemporary steel research is revealing new processing avenues to tailor microstructure and properties that, until recently, were only imaginable. Much of the technological versatility facilitating this development is provided by the understanding and utilization of the complex phase transformation sequences available in ferrous alloys. Today we have the opportunity to explore the diverse phenomena displayed by steels with specialized analytical and experimental tools. Advances in multi-scale characterization techniques provide a fresh perspective into microstructural relationships at the macro- and micro-scale, enabling a fundamental understanding of the role of phase transformations during processing and subsequent deformation.

  15. A diffuse interface approach to phase transformation via virtual melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Kasra

    This work represents development of the first phase field models and detailed study solid-solid transformations via intermediate melting within nanometer size interface. Such phase transformations can occur in different materials, including HMX energetic crystals, PbTiO3 nanowires, complex pharmaceutical substances, electronic and geological materials, as well as colloidal, and superhard materials. A thermodynamically consistent phase field model for three phases is developed using two polar order parameters. It includes the effect of energy and width of solid-solid and solid-melt interfaces, interaction between two solid-melt interfaces, temperature, mechanics, and interface stresses. The derived thermodynamic potential satisfies all the equilibrium and stability conditions for homogeneous phases. The HMX energetic crystal is used as the model material and numerical simulations are performed using COMSOL and Cystorm high performance computing facility. Depending on parameters, the intermediate melt may appear and disappear by continuous or discontinuous barrierless disordering or via critical nucleus due to thermal fluctuations. The intermediate melt may appear during heating and persist during cooling at temperatures well below what it follows from sharp-interface approach. For some parameters when intermediate melt is expected, it does not form, producing an intermediate melt free gap. Elastic energy promotes barrierless intermediate melt formation in terms of an increasing degree of disordering, interface velocity, and width of intermediate melt. Drastic reduction (by a factor of 16) of the energy of the critical nuclei of the intermediate melt within the solid-solid interface caused by mechanics is captured. Interfacial stresses surprisingly increase nucleation temperature for the intermediate melt. Interfacial stresses alter the kinetics of phase transformation, resulting in formation of new interfacial phases and drifting of a thermally activated spontaneous

  16. Phase transformation of zirconia ceramics by hydrothermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yohei; Uo, Motohiro; Wang, Yongming; Kono, Sayaka; Ohnuki, Somei; Watari, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Zirconia has found wide application in dentistry because of its high mechanical strength and superior esthetic properties. However, zirconia degradation caused by phase transformation occurring in a hydrothermal environment is of concern. In the present study, phase transformation and microstructure of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal partially stabilized with yttrium oxide (Y-TZP) and alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ) sintered at different temperatures were estimated. On grazing angle X-ray diffraction analysis, ATZ showed less phase transformation to the monoclinic phase during hydrothermal treatment and this transformation appeared to occur within a few micrometers below the surface. At a higher sintering temperature the monoclinic phase content of ATZ was found to be lesser than that of Y-TZP, indicating that the alumina in ATZ was effective in suppressing hydrothermal degradation. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and studying of electron backscatter diffraction patterns indicated that grain growth in ATZ was slightly suppressed compared with that in Y-TZP at higher sintering temperatures. The present study demonstrated the effect of adding alumina to zirconia for suppressing hydrothermal degradation and studied the effect of this addition on grain growth in zirconia.

  17. Phase transformations during the growth of paracetamol crystals from the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.; Bordei, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    Phase transformations during the growth of paracetamol crystals from the vapor phase are studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that the vapor-crystal phase transition is actually a superposition of two phase transitions: a first-order phase transition with variable density and a second-order phase transition with variable ordering. The latter, being a diffuse phase transition, results in the formation of a new, "pretransition," phase irreversibly spent in the course of the transition, which ends in the appearance of orthorhombic crystals. X-ray diffraction data and micrograph are presented.

  18. Pressure-induced structural phase transformations in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Poswal, H K; Garg, Nandini; Sharma, Surinder M; Busetto, E; Sikka, S K; Gundiah, Gautam; Deepak, F L; Rao, C N R

    2005-05-01

    High-pressure structural behavior of silicon nanowires is investigated up to approximately 22 GPa using angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements. Silicon nanowires transform from the cubic to the beta-tin phase at 7.5-10.5 GPa, to the Imma phase at approximately 14 GPa, and to the primitive hexagonal structure at approximately 16.2 GPa. On complete release of pressure, it transforms to the metastable R8 phase. The observed sequence of phase transitions is the same as that of bulk silicon. Though the X-ray diffraction experiments do not reveal any size effect, the pressure dependence of Raman modes shows that the behavior of nanowires is in between that of the bulk crystal and porous Si.

  19. Temperature dependent phase transformation in nano sized magnesium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumangala T., P.; Mahender, C.; Venkataramani, N.; Prasad, Shiva

    2015-06-01

    The phase transformation in nanosized stoichiometric magnesium ferrite is being discussed. It was shown by TGA/DSC that there exist two reactions (shown by exothermic peaks) in nano sized magnesium ferrite when synthesized by sol gel combustion synthesis. First one of these reactions resulted in the precipitation of α-Fe2O3 and a resultant spinel. The second reaction resulted in stoichiometric spinel from this two phase system.

  20. Hydrogen storage and phase transformations in Mg-Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callini, E.; Pasquini, L.; Rude, L. H.; Nielsen, T. K.; Jensen, T. R.; Bonetti, E.

    2010-10-01

    Microstructure refinement and synergic coupling among different phases are currently explored strategies to improve the hydrogen storage properties of traditional materials. In this work, we apply a combination of these methods and synthesize Mg-Pd composite nanoparticles by inert gas condensation of Mg vapors followed by vacuum evaporation of Pd clusters. Irreversible formation of the Mg6Pd intermetallic phase takes place upon vacuum annealing, resulting in Mg/Mg6Pd composite nanoparticles. Their hydrogen storage properties are investigated and connected to the undergoing phase transformations by gas-volumetric techniques and in situ synchrotron radiation powder x-ray diffraction. Mg6Pd transforms reversibly into different Mg-Pd intermetallic compounds upon hydrogen absorption, depending on temperature and pressure. In particular, at 573 K and 1 MPa hydrogen pressure, the metal-hydride transition leads to the formation of Mg3Pd and Mg5Pd2 phases. By increasing the pressure to 5 MPa, the Pd-richer MgPd intermetallic is obtained. Upon hydrogen desorption, the Mg6Pd phase is reversibly recovered. These phase transformations result in a specific hydrogen storage capacity associated with Mg-Pd intermetallics, which attain the maximum value of 3.96 wt % for MgPd and influence both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen sorption in the composite nanoparticles.

  1. In-situ characterization of transformation plasticity during an isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Holzweissig, M.J.; Canadinc, D.; Maier, H.J.

    2012-03-15

    This paper elucidates the stress-induced variant selection process during the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in a tool steel. Specifically, a thorough set of experiments combining electron backscatter diffraction and in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) was carried out to establish the role of superimposed stress level on the evolution of transformation plasticity (TP) strains. The important finding is that TP increases concomitant with the superimposed stress level, and strain localization accompanies phase transformation at all stress levels considered. Furthermore, TP strain distribution within the whole material becomes more homogeneous with increasing stress, such that fewer bainitic variants are selected to grow under higher stresses, yielding a more homogeneous strain distribution. In particular, the bainitic variants oriented along [101] and [201] directions are favored to grow parallel to the loading axis and are associated with large TP strains. Overall, this very first in-situ DIC investigation of the austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in steels evidences the clear relationship between the superimposed stress level, variant selection, and evolution of TP strains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local variations of strain were observed by DIC throughout the phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study clearly established the role of the stress-induced variant selection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variant selection is a key parameter that governs distortion.

  2. Solid-state synthesis and phase transformations in Ni/Fe films: Structural and magnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkov, V. G.; Zhigalov, V. C.; Bykova, L. E.; Bondarenko, G. N.

    2006-10-01

    We have used X-ray diffraction, volume magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant and resistance measurements to study solid-state synthesis in Ni(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1), Ni/Fe(0 0 1) and Ni/Fe thin films with the atomic ratio between Fe and Ni of 1:1 (1Fe:1Ni), and 3:1 (3Fe:1Ni). We have found that the formation of Ni 3Fe and NiFe phases in the 1Fe:1Ni films takes place at temperatures ˜620 and ˜720 K, correspondingly. In the case of the 3Fe:1Ni films the solid-state synthesis starts with Ni 3Fe and NiFe phase formation at the same temperatures as for the 1Fe:1Ni films. The increasing of annealing temperature above 820 K leads to the nucleation of a paramagnetic γpar phase at the FeNi/Fe interface. The final products of solid-state synthesis in the Ni(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) thin films are crystallites which consist of the epitaxially intergrown NiFe and γpar phases according to the [1 0 0](0 0 1)NiFe||[1 0 0](0 0 1) γpar orientation relationship. The crystalline perfection and epitaxial growth of the (NiFe+ γpar) crystallites on the MgO(0 0 1) surface allow to distinguish (0 0 2) γpar and (0 0 2)NiFe X-ray peaks (the cell parameters are: a( γpar)=0.3600±0.0005 nm and a(NiFe)=0.3578±0.0005 nm, correspondingly). At low temperatures the paramagnetic γpar phase undergoes the martensite γ→α' phase transition which can be hindered by thermal and epitaxial strains and epitaxial clamping with a MgO substrate. On the basis of the studies of the thin-film solid-state synthesis we predict the existence of two novel structural phase transformations at the temperatures of about 720 and 820 K for alloys of the invar region of the Fe-Ni system.

  3. Ageing effects on structural and magnetic transformations in a Ni-Co-Mn-Ga alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguí, C.; Cesari, E.

    Partial substitution of Ni by Co in Mn-rich Ni-Mn-Ga alloys has been found to modify the magnetic ordering of the phases, improving in this way the possibility to obtain large magnetization difference between austenite and martensite, an essential requirement to induce the martensitic transformation by application of a magnetic field. Particularly, Ni50-xCoxMnyGa50-y alloys undergo, for Co content below x = 9, structural transformation between ferromagnetic austenite and paramagnetic martensite, thus leading to enhanced magnetization difference values. The martensitic transformation temperatures as well as the martensite and austenite Curie temperatures depend on composition, but significant changes can be brought about by selected thermal treatments. In this work, the composition is chosen as Ni42Co8Mn32Ga18 in order to obtain concurrent martensitic transformation and austenite Curie temperature, and the effect of quench and subsequent ageing on the structural and magnetic transitions is studied. Aside from the monotonic transformation temperatures change, which is mostly attributed to atomic ordering taking place upon post-quench ageing, the results show the effect of the relative position of the structural and magnetic ordering reactions on the transformation entropy change.

  4. Anomalous compression behavior of germanium during phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Tan, Dayong; Ren, Xiangting; Yang, Wenge E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; He, Duanwei E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2015-04-27

    In this article, we present the abnormal compression and plastic behavior of germanium during the pressure-induced cubic diamond to β-tin structure transition. Between 8.6 GPa and 13.8 GPa, in which pressure range both phases are co-existing, first softening and followed by hardening for both phases were observed via synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. These unusual behaviors can be interpreted as the volume misfit between different phases. Following Eshelby, the strain energy density reaches the maximum in the middle of the transition zone, where the switch happens from softening to hardening. Insight into these mechanical properties during phase transformation is relevant for the understanding of plasticity and compressibility of crystal materials when different phases coexist during a phase transition.

  5. Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostriction of Fe-Ga and Fe-Ga-Zn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yin-Chih Lin, Chien-Feng

    2015-05-07

    The phase transformation and magnetostriction of bulk Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} and Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 18}Zn{sub 9} (at. %) ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMs) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a magnetostrictive-meter setup. For the Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} FSM alloy solution treated at 1100 °C for 4 h and quenched in ice brine, the antiphase boundary segments of the D0{sub 3} domain were observed in the A2 (disordered) matrix, and the Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} FSM alloy had an optimal magnetostriction (λ{sub ‖}{sup s }= 71 × 10{sup −6} and λ{sub ⊥}{sup s }= −31 × 10{sup −6}). In Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} FSM alloy as-quenched, aged at 700 °C for 24 h, and furnace cooled, D0{sub 3} nanoclusters underwent phase transformation to an intermediate tetragonal phase (i.e., L1{sub 0}-like martensite) via Bain distortion, and finally L1{sub 2} (Fe{sub 3}Ga) structures precipitated, as observed by TEM and XRD. The L1{sub 0}-like martensite and L1{sub 2} phases in the aged Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} FSM alloy drastically decreased the magnetostriction from positive to negative (λ{sub ‖}{sup s }= −20 × 10{sup −6} and λ{sub ⊥}{sup s }= −8 × 10{sup −6}). However, in Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 18}Zn{sub 9} FSM alloy as-quenched and aged, the phase transformation of D0{sub 3} to an intermediate tetragonal martensite phase and precipitation of L1{sub 2} structures were not found. The results indicate that the aged Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 18}Zn{sub 9} FSM alloy maintained stable magnetostriction (λ{sub ‖}{sup s }= 36 × 10{sup −6} and λ{sub ⊥}{sup s }= −31 × 10{sup −6}). Adding Zn can improve the ferromagnetic shape memory effect of aged Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 18}Zn{sub 9} alloy, which may be useful in application of the alloy in high temperature environments.

  6. In situ phase transformation of Laves phase from Chi-phase in Mo-containing Fe–Cr–Ni alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, L.; Yang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    For an in situ phase transformation of the Chi (χ) phase to the Laves phase we observed in a Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo model alloy. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure of the χ and Laves phases, and their orientation relationship with the matrix austenite phase were investigated. The resulted Laves phase has larger lattice mismatch with the matrix phase than the χ phase, leading to the increase of local strain fields and the formation of dislocations. Moreover, this finding is helpful to understand the precipitation behavior of the intermetallic phases in the Mo-containing austenitic stainless steels.

  7. Microstructure characterization of the non-modulated martensite in Ni-Mn-Ga alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M. Bennett, J.C.; Gharghouri, M.A.; Chen, J.; Hyatt, C.V.; Mailman, N.

    2008-06-15

    The microstructure of the non-modulated martensite in a Ni-Mn-Ga alloy has been characterized in detail by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Bright field images show that the martensite exhibits an internal substructure consisting of a high density of narrow twins. Using electron diffraction, it is found that the martensite has a tetragonal crystal structure. The lattice correspondence between the parent phase and the non-modulated martensite is investigated. Furthermore, the four twinning elements describing the microtwinning have been graphically and quantitatively determined. The results indicate that the microtwinning within the non-modulated martensite belongs to the compound type.

  8. Iterative-Transform Phase Retrieval Using Adaptive Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2007-01-01

    A phase-diverse iterative-transform phase-retrieval algorithm enables high spatial-frequency, high-dynamic-range, image-based wavefront sensing. [The terms phase-diverse, phase retrieval, image-based, and wavefront sensing are defined in the first of the two immediately preceding articles, Broadband Phase Retrieval for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing (GSC-14899-1).] As described below, no prior phase-retrieval algorithm has offered both high dynamic range and the capability to recover high spatial-frequency components. Each of the previously developed image-based phase-retrieval techniques can be classified into one of two categories: iterative transform or parametric. Among the modifications of the original iterative-transform approach has been the introduction of a defocus diversity function (also defined in the cited companion article). Modifications of the original parametric approach have included minimizing alternative objective functions as well as implementing a variety of nonlinear optimization methods. The iterative-transform approach offers the advantage of ability to recover low, middle, and high spatial frequencies, but has disadvantage of having a limited dynamic range to one wavelength or less. In contrast, parametric phase retrieval offers the advantage of high dynamic range, but is poorly suited for recovering higher spatial frequency aberrations. The present phase-diverse iterative transform phase-retrieval algorithm offers both the high-spatial-frequency capability of the iterative-transform approach and the high dynamic range of parametric phase-recovery techniques. In implementation, this is a focus-diverse iterative-transform phaseretrieval algorithm that incorporates an adaptive diversity function, which makes it possible to avoid phase unwrapping while preserving high-spatial-frequency recovery. The algorithm includes an inner and an outer loop (see figure). An initial estimate of phase is used to start the algorithm on the inner loop, wherein

  9. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  10. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE PAGES

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  11. Reconstructing solute-induced phase transformations within individual nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Tarun C; Baldi, Andrea; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    Strain and defects can significantly impact the performance of functional nanomaterials. This effect is well exemplified by energy storage systems, in which structural changes such as volume expansion and defect generation govern the phase transformations associated with charging and discharging. The rational design of next-generation storage materials therefore depends crucially on understanding the correlation between the structure of individual nanoparticles and their solute uptake and release. Here, we experimentally reconstruct the spatial distribution of hydride phases within individual palladium nanocrystals during hydrogen absorption, using a combination of electron spectroscopy, dark-field imaging, and electron diffraction in an environmental transmission electron microscope. We show that single-crystalline cubes and pyramids exhibit a uniform hydrogen distribution at equilibrium, whereas multiply twinned icosahedra exclude hydrogen from regions of high compressive strains. Our technique offers unprecedented insight into nanoscale phase transformations in reactive environments and can be extended to a variety of functional nanomaterials.

  12. Natural transformation and phase variation modulation in Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Heather L; Richardson, Anthony R; Stojiljkovic, Igor

    2004-05-01

    Neisseria meningitidis has evolved the ability to control the expression-state of numerous genes by phase variation. It has been proposed that the process aids this human pathogen in coping with the diversity of microenvironments and host immune systems. Therefore, increased frequencies of phase variation may augment the organism's adaptability and virulence. In this study, we found that DNA derived from various neisserial co-colonizers of the human nasopharynx increased N. meningitidis switching frequencies, indicating that heterologous neisserial DNA modulates phase variation in a transformation-dependent manner. In order to determine whether the effect of heterologous DNA was specific to the Hb receptor, HmbR, we constructed a Universal Rates of Switching cassette (UROS). With this cassette, we demonstrated that heterologous DNA positively affects phase variation throughout the meningococcal genome, as UROS phase variation frequencies were also increased in the presence of neisserial DNA. Overexpressing components of the neisserial mismatch repair system partially alleviated DNA-induced changes in phase variation frequencies, thus implicating mismatch repair titration as a cause of these transformation-dependent increases in switching. The DNA-dependent effect on phase variation was transient and may serve as a mechanism for meningococcal genetic variability that avoids the fitness costs encountered by global mutators.

  13. In-situ X-ray diffraction studies of the phase transformations and structural states of B2, R and B19′ phases in Ti{sub 49.5}Ni{sub 50.5} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ostapenko, Marina G.; Meisner, Ludmila L.; Lotkov, Aleksandr I. Gudimova, Ekaterina Y.; Zakharova, Margarita A.

    2015-10-27

    The martensitic transformation, Debye–Waller factor, mean-square atomic displacements and the coefficient of thermal expansion on cooling of the Ti{sub 49.5}Ni{sub 50.5} shape memory alloy were examined using in-situ X-ray diffraction. It was revealed B2→R (T{sub R} ≡ T = 273 ± 10 K) along with B2→B19’ (M{sub s} ≡ T = 273 ± 10 K) transitions occur. It was found that Debye–Waller factor and mean-square displacement of B2 phase undergo significant increase as functions of temperature when phase transition B2→R and B2→B19’ take place. The analysis of the thermal expansion coefficient of the B2 phase indicates that the value of a increases almost linearly while cooling.

  14. Influence of Martensite Fraction on the Stabilization of Austenite in Austenitic-Martensitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiuliang; De Cooman, Bruno C.; Biermann, Horst; Mola, Javad

    2016-05-01

    The influence of martensite fraction ( f α') on the stabilization of austenite was studied by quench interruption below M s temperature of an Fe-13Cr-0.31C (mass pct) stainless steel. The interval between the quench interruption temperature and the secondary martensite start temperature, denoted as θ, was used to quantify the extent of austenite stabilization. In experiments with and without a reheating step subsequent to quench interruption, the variation of θ with f α' showed a transition after transformation of almost half of the austenite. This trend was observed regardless of the solution annealing temperature which influenced the martensite start temperature. The transition in θ was ascribed to a change in the type of martensite nucleation sites from austenite grain and twin boundaries at low f α' to the faults near austenite-martensite (A-M) boundaries at high f α'. At low temperatures, the local carbon enrichment of such boundaries was responsible for the enhanced stabilization at high f α'. At high temperatures, relevant to the quenching and partitioning processing, on the other hand, the pronounced stabilization at high f α' was attributed to the uniform partitioning of the carbon stored at A-M boundaries into the austenite. Reduction in the fault density of austenite served as an auxiliary stabilization mechanism at high temperatures.

  15. Free energy functionals for efficient phase field crystal modeling of structural phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael; Provatas, Nikolas; Rottler, Jörg

    2010-07-23

    The phase field crystal (PFC) method is a promising technique for modeling materials with atomic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. While numerically more efficient than classical density functional theory (CDFT), its single mode free energy limits the complexity of structural transformations that can be simulated. We introduce a new PFC model inspired by CDFT, which uses a systematic construction of two-particle correlation functions that allows for a broad class of structural transformations. Our approach considers planar spacings, lattice symmetries, planar atomic densities, and atomic vibrational amplitudes in the unit cell, and parameterizes temperature and anisotropic surface energies. The power of our approach is demonstrated by two examples of structural phase transformations.

  16. Temperature-induced martensite in magnetic shape memory Fe{sub 2}MnGa observed by photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Catherine; Scholl, Andreas; Kainuma, R.; Elmers, Hans-Joachim; Omori, Toshihiro

    2012-01-18

    The magnetic domain structure in single crystals of a Heusler shape memory compound near the composition Fe{sub 2}MnGa was observed during phase transition by photoelectron emission microscopy at Beamline 11.0.1.1 of the Advanced Light Source. The behavior is comparable with recent observations of an adaptive martensite phase in prototype Ni{sub 2}MnGa, although the pinning in the recent work is an epitaxial interface and in this work the e ective pinning plane is a boundary between martensitic variants that transform in a self-accommodating way from the single crystal austenite phase present at high temperatures. Temperature dependent observations of the twinning structure give information as to the coupling behavior between the magnetism and the structural evolution.

  17. Isothermal formation of martensite in a 12Cr-9Ni-4Mo maraging stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Holmquist, M.

    1995-11-01

    The present paper is concerned with the nature of the martensite, which provides the basis for the maraging treatment. Rather than forming martensite during cooling, 1RK91 develops martensite when held at a constant temperature in a range from room temperature and below. Isothermal martensite formation showing C-curve kinetics was found to occur in the maraging steel 1RK91, the nose temperature being about {minus}40 C. The kinetics was found to be enhanced for higher austenitizing treatment temperatures, presumably through a combination of larger grain size and a larger number of quenched in nuclei for isothermal martensite transformation. Experiments involving different cooling rates showed that fast cooling enhanced the transformation kinetics. Based on this observation it is suggested that quenched-in vacancy clusters provide suitable strain embryos for isothermal martensite nucleation.

  18. Influence of low-temperature nitriding on the strain-induced martensite and laser-quenched austenite in a magnetic encoder made from 304L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaž; Kogej, Peter

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the possibility of producing a magnetic encoder by an innovative process. Instead of turning grooves in the encoder bar for precise positioning, we incorporated the information in 304L stainless steel by transforming the austenite to martensite after bar extrusion in liquid nitrogen and marking it with a laser, which caused a local transformation of martensite back into austenite. 304L has an excellent corrosion resistance, but a low hardness and poor wear resistance, which limits its range of applications. However, nitriding is a very promising way to enhance the mechanical and magnetic properties. After low-temperature nitriding at 400 °C it is clear that both ε- and α‧-martensite are present in the deformed microstructure, indicating the simultaneous stress-induced and strain-induced transformations of the austenite. The effects of a laser surface treatment and the consequent appearance of a non-magnetic phase due to the α‧ → γ transformation were investigated. The EDS maps show a high concentration of nitrogen in the alternating hard surface layers of γN and α‧N (expanded austenite and martensite), but no significantly higher concentration of chromium or iron was detected. The high surface hardness of this nitride layer will lead to steels and encoders with better wear and corrosion resistance.

  19. Influence of low-temperature nitriding on the strain-induced martensite and laser-quenched austenite in a magnetic encoder made from 304L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaž; Kogej, Peter

    2016-08-05

    We have investigated the possibility of producing a magnetic encoder by an innovative process. Instead of turning grooves in the encoder bar for precise positioning, we incorporated the information in 304L stainless steel by transforming the austenite to martensite after bar extrusion in liquid nitrogen and marking it with a laser, which caused a local transformation of martensite back into austenite. 304L has an excellent corrosion resistance, but a low hardness and poor wear resistance, which limits its range of applications. However, nitriding is a very promising way to enhance the mechanical and magnetic properties. After low-temperature nitriding at 400 °C it is clear that both ε- and α'-martensite are present in the deformed microstructure, indicating the simultaneous stress-induced and strain-induced transformations of the austenite. The effects of a laser surface treatment and the consequent appearance of a non-magnetic phase due to the α' → γ transformation were investigated. The EDS maps show a high concentration of nitrogen in the alternating hard surface layers of γN and α'N (expanded austenite and martensite), but no significantly higher concentration of chromium or iron was detected. The high surface hardness of this nitride layer will lead to steels and encoders with better wear and corrosion resistance.

  20. Influence of low-temperature nitriding on the strain-induced martensite and laser-quenched austenite in a magnetic encoder made from 304L stainless steel

    PubMed Central

    Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaž; Kogej, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of producing a magnetic encoder by an innovative process. Instead of turning grooves in the encoder bar for precise positioning, we incorporated the information in 304L stainless steel by transforming the austenite to martensite after bar extrusion in liquid nitrogen and marking it with a laser, which caused a local transformation of martensite back into austenite. 304L has an excellent corrosion resistance, but a low hardness and poor wear resistance, which limits its range of applications. However, nitriding is a very promising way to enhance the mechanical and magnetic properties. After low-temperature nitriding at 400 °C it is clear that both ε- and α′-martensite are present in the deformed microstructure, indicating the simultaneous stress-induced and strain-induced transformations of the austenite. The effects of a laser surface treatment and the consequent appearance of a non-magnetic phase due to the α′ → γ transformation were investigated. The EDS maps show a high concentration of nitrogen in the alternating hard surface layers of γN and α′N (expanded austenite and martensite), but no significantly higher concentration of chromium or iron was detected. The high surface hardness of this nitride layer will lead to steels and encoders with better wear and corrosion resistance. PMID:27492862

  1. Observation of magnetic-field-induced transformation in MnCo0.78Fe0.22Ge alloys with colossal strain output and large magnetocaloric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zilong; Xiu, Pengyuan; Huang, Lian; Nie, Zhihua; Zeng, Junxi; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yandong

    2016-05-01

    The thermal, structural and magnetic properties were studied for the hexagonal MnCo0.78Fe0.22Ge alloys, which undergoes a first-order phase transformation from paramagnetic hexagonal phase into ferromagnetic orthorhombic martensite on cooling. Owing to the magnetostructural coupling, large magnetocaloric effect (∆SM=-10.97 J kg-1 K-1) was obtained at 254 K. In-situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted to reveal the detailed change in crystallographic structure of phases and the effect of applied magnetic field on phase transformation behaviors. An anomalously huge strain of 11.89% and volume expansion of 4.35% in unit-cell were obtained between martensite and parent phase across the transformation. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced martensitic transformation was directly evidenced at 250 K, which eventually demonstrates the possibility to achieve magnetic-field-induced strain and large magnetocaloric effect simultaneously.

  2. In-situ study of surface relief due to cubic-tetragonal martensitic transformation in Mn69.4Fe26.0Cu4.6 antiferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Yuan, F.; Gen, Z.; Wang, L.; Cui, Y. G.; Wan, J. F.; Zhang, J. H.; Rong, Y. H.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature-dependence surface relief during cubic↔tetragonal martensitic transformation (MT) in Mn69.4Fe26.0Cu4.6 antiferromegnetic shape memory alloy was studied by means of in-situ atomic force microscopy. The surface morphology memory effect was found and the crystallography reversibility of the transformation and its shearing characters were directly verified. Twin shearing is suggested as the main mechanism of formation of tent-type surface relief. The surface relief angle (θα|θβ)<0.5° was firstly measured and might be the smallest compared with that in other shape memory alloys. A Landau model was proposed to consider the shearing strain related with surface relief of MT varying with the coupling effect between second-order antiferromagnetic transition and first-order MT. According to this model, the Mn69.4Fe26.0Cu4.6 alloy belongs to the weak coupling system and this kind of weak coupling effect makes the main contribution to the small relief angle.

  3. AM363 martensitic stainless steel: A multiphase equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Crockett, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    A multiphase equation of state for stainless steel AM363 has been developed within the Opensesame approach and has been entered as material 4295 in the LANL-SESAME Library. Three phases were constructed separately: the low pressure martensitic phase, the austenitic phase and the liquid. Room temperature data and the explicit introduction of a magnetic contribution to the free energy determined the martensitic phase, while shock Hugoniot data was used to determine the austenitic phase and the phase boundaries. More experimental data or First Principles calculations would be useful to better characterize the liquid.

  4. Combined nano-SIMS/AFM/EBSD analysis and atom probe tomography, of carbon distribution in austenite/ε-martensite high-Mn steels.

    PubMed

    Seol, Jae-Bok; Lee, B-H; Choi, P; Lee, S-G; Park, C-G

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a new experimental approach for the identification of the atomistic position of interstitial carbon in a high-Mn binary alloy consisting of austenite and ε-martensite. Using combined nano-beam secondary ion mass spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analyses, we clearly observe carbon partitioning to austenite. Nano-beam secondary ion mass spectroscopy and atom probe tomography studies also reveal carbon trapping at crystal imperfections as identified by transmission electron microscopy. Three main trapping sites can be distinguished: phase boundaries between austenite and ε-martensite, stacking faults in austenite, and prior austenite grain boundaries. Our findings suggest that segregation and/or partitioning of carbon can contribute to the austenite-to-martensite transformation of the investigated alloy.

  5. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    DOE PAGES

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; ...

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  6. Crystalline phase transformation of colloidal cadmium sulfide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghali, M.; Eissa, A. M.; Mosaad, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we give a microscopic view concerning influence of the growth conditions on the physical properties of nanocrystals (NCs) thin films made of CdS, prepared using chemical bath deposition CBD technique. We show a crystalline phase transformation of CdS NCs from hexagonal wurtzite (W) structure to cubic zincblende (ZB) when the growth conditions change, particularly the solution pH values. This effect was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The optical absorption spectra allow calculation of the bandgap value, Eg, where significant increase ˜200 meV in the CdS bandgap when transforming from Hexagonal to Cubic phase was found.

  7. Rapid Solidification and Phase Transformations in Additive Manufactured Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Clarke, Amy Jean

    2016-01-14

    Within the past few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a promising manufacturing technique to enable the production of complex engineering structures with high efficiency and accuracy. Among the important factors establishing AM as a sustainable manufacturing process is the ability to control the microstructures and properties of AM products. In most AM processes, such as laser sintering (LS), laser melting (LM), and laser metal deposition (LMD), rapid solidification and high-temperature phase transformations play primary roles in determining nano- and microstructures, and consequently the mechanical and other properties of AM products. This topic of JOM is dedicated to summarizingmore » the current research efforts in the area of rapid solidification and phase transformations in additively manufactured materials. Finally, a brief summary follows below of 10 journal articles in this topic.« less

  8. Rapid Solidification and Phase Transformations in Additive Manufactured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Clarke, Amy Jean

    2016-01-14

    Within the past few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a promising manufacturing technique to enable the production of complex engineering structures with high efficiency and accuracy. Among the important factors establishing AM as a sustainable manufacturing process is the ability to control the microstructures and properties of AM products. In most AM processes, such as laser sintering (LS), laser melting (LM), and laser metal deposition (LMD), rapid solidification and high-temperature phase transformations play primary roles in determining nano- and microstructures, and consequently the mechanical and other properties of AM products. This topic of JOM is dedicated to summarizing the current research efforts in the area of rapid solidification and phase transformations in additively manufactured materials. Finally, a brief summary follows below of 10 journal articles in this topic.

  9. 2D Hilbert transform for phase retrieval of speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, M. P.; Ryabyi, P. A.; Ivanskyi, D. I.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents principal approaches to diagnosing the structure forming skeleton of the complex optical field. An analysis of optical field singularity algorithms depending on intensity discretization and image resolution has been carried out. An optimal approach is chosen, which allows to bring much closer the solution of the phase problem of localization speckle-field special points. The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of the intensity of a speckle field is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a change of the position of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval, and introduce an additional algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions.

  10. Application of phase coherent transform to cloud clutter suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L.C.

    1994-11-15

    This paper describes a tracking algorithm using frame-to-frame correlation with frequency domain clutter suppression. Clutter suppression was mechanized via a `Phase Coherent Transform` (PCT) approach. This approach was applied to explore the feasibility of tracking a post-boost rocket from a low earth orbit satellite with real cloud background data. Simulation results show that the PCT/correlation tracking algorithm can perform satisfactorily at signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as low as 5 or 7 dB.

  11. Special phase transformation and crystal growth pathways observed in nanoparticles†

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Zhang, Hengzhong; Huang, Feng; Finnegan, Michael P; Waychunas, Glenn A; Banfield, Jillian F

    2003-01-01

    Phase transformation and crystal growth in nanoparticles may happen via mechanisms distinct from those in bulk materials. We combine experimental studies of as-synthesized and hydrothermally coarsened titania (TiO2) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) with thermodynamic analysis, kinetic modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering, and UV-vis spectroscopy. At low temperatures, phase transformation in titania nanoparticles occurs predominantly via interface nucleation at particle–particle contacts. Coarsening and crystal growth of titania nanoparticles can be described using the Smoluchowski equation. Oriented attachment-based crystal growth was common in both hydrothermal solutions and under dry conditions. MD simulations predict large structural perturbations within very fine particles, and are consistent with experimental results showing that ligand binding and change in aggregation state can cause phase transformation without particle coarsening. Such phenomena affect surface reactivity, thus may have important roles in geochemical cycling.

  12. Phase stretch transform for super-resolution localization microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Jalali, Bahram; Asghari, Mohammad H.; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution localization microscopy has revolutionized the observation of living structures at the cellular scale, by achieving a spatial resolution that is improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to the diffraction limit. These methods localize single events from isolated sources in repeated cycles in order to achieve super-resolution. The requirement for sparse distribution of simultaneously activated sources in the field of view dictates the acquisition of thousands of frames in order to construct the full super-resolution image. As a result, these methods have slow temporal resolution which is a major limitation when investigating live-cell dynamics. In this paper we present the use of a phase stretch transform for high-density super-resolution localization microscopy. This is a nonlinear frequency dependent transform that emulates the propagation of light through a physical medium with a specific warped diffractive property and applies a 2D phase function to the image in the frequency domain. By choosing properly the transform parameters and the phase kernel profile, the point spread function of each emitter can be sharpened and narrowed. This enables the localization of overlapping emitters, thus allowing a higher density of activated emitters as well as shorter data collection acquisition rates. The method is validated by numerical simulations and by experimental data obtained using a microtubule sample. PMID:27867725

  13. Phase transformation-induced tetragonal FeCo nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Gong, Maogang; Kirkeminde, Alec; Wuttig, Manfred; Ren, Shenqiang

    2014-11-12

    Tetragonal FeCo nanostructures are becoming particularly attractive because of their high magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetization achievable without rare-earth elements, . Yet, controlling their metastable structure, size and stoichiometry is a challenging task. In this study, we demonstrate AuCu templated FeCo shell growth followed by thermally induced phase transformation of AuCu core from face-centered cubic to L10 structure, which triggers the FeCo shell to transform from the body-centered cubic structure to a body-centered tetragonal phase. High coercivity, 846 Oe, and saturation magnetization, 221 emu/g, are achieved in this tetragonal FeCo structure. Beyond a critical FeCo shell thickness, confirmed experimentally and by lattice mismatch calculations, the FeCo shell relaxes. The shell thickness and stoichiometry dictate the magnetic characteristics of the tetragonal FeCo shell. This study provides a general route to utilize phase transformation to fabricate high performance metastable nanomagnets, which could open up their green energy applications.

  14. Structural and magnetic transformations in Ni51 - x Mn36 + x Sn13 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaletina, Yu. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gaviko, V. S.; Terentev, P. B.

    2015-02-01

    The structural and magnetic phase transitions in Ni-Mn-Sn-based alloys have been studied. The temperature dependences of the martensitic and magnetic phase transformations in Ni51 - x Mn36 + x Sn13 alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 4) have been determined in the case where manganese atoms substitute for nickel atoms. For the studied alloys, the concentration phase diagram has been constructed and the temperature regions of the existence of the high-temperature austenite phase L21 and the low-temperature martensite phase in different magnetic states have been determined.

  15. Fundamental Mechanisms Driving the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B W; Browning, N D; Santala, M K; LaGrange, T; Gilmer, G H; Masiel, D J; Campbell, G H; Raoux, S; Topuria, T; Meister, S; Cui, Y

    2011-01-04

    Phase transformations are ubiquitous, fundamental phenomena that lie at the heart of many structural, optical and electronic properties in condensed matter physics and materials science. Many transformations, especially those occurring under extreme conditions such as rapid changes in the thermodynamic state, are controlled by poorly understood processes involving the nucleation and quenching of metastable phases. Typically these processes occur on time and length scales invisible to most experimental techniques ({micro}s and faster, nm and smaller), so our understanding of the dynamics tends to be very limited and indirect, often relying on simulations combined with experimental study of the ''time infinity'' end state. Experimental techniques that can directly probe phase transformations on their proper time and length scales are therefore key to providing fundamental insights into the whole area of transformation physics and materials science. LLNL possesses a unique dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) capable of taking images and diffraction patterns of laser-driven material processes with resolution measured in nanometers and nanoseconds. The DTEM has previously used time-resolved diffraction patterns to quantitatively study phase transformations that are orders of magnitude too fast for conventional in situ TEM. More recently the microscope has demonstrated the ability to directly image a reaction front moving at {approx}13 nm/ns and the nucleation of a new phase behind that front. Certain compound semiconductor phase change materials, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST), Sb{sub 2}Te and GeSb, exhibit a technologically important series of transformations on scales that fall neatly into the performance specifications of the DTEM. If a small portion of such material is heated above its melting point and then rapidly cooled, it quenches into an amorphous state. Heating again with a less intense pulse leads to recrystallization into a vacancy

  16. Precipitation phase transformation in nanocrystalline Fe-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subhajit; Bansal, Chandrahaas

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation phase transformation was studied in nanocrystalline Fe-rich Fe-Mo alloys with the use of X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Alloys up to 5 at% Mo in Fe were synthesized by mechanical alloying and formed in alpha phase bcc solid solutions with average grain sizes in the range of 10-13 nm. The precipitation transformation (alpha-->alpha + lambda) was found to proceed via a Mo clustering that was correlated with the size of the nanograins. This was understood in terms of the Gibbs Thomson effect with a concept of negative surface energy contribution to the Gibbs free energy of mixing in a nanocrystalline alloy with positive internal energy of mixing. This contribution increased the stability of the solid solution for nanosized grains, and the Mo precipitation started once the grains grew beyond a critical size. We argue that the Mo precipitation takes place in the grain boundary regions, and the Mo-rich lambda phase also precipitates directly in the grain boundary regions, in contrast to the microcrystalline alloys, where the Mo clusters formed within the grains and were first dissolved in the Fe matrix before the lambda phase was formed.

  17. Phase transformations and vibrational properties of coronene under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Zhang, Jiang; Berlie, Adam; Qin, Zhen-Xing; Huang, Qiao-Wei; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Jian-Bo; Tang, Ling-Yun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Lin, Hai-Qing; Chen, Xiao-Jia

    2013-10-01

    Both the vibrational and structural properties of coronene have been investigated upon compression up to 30.5 GPa at room temperature by a combination of Raman scattering and synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. The spectroscopic and crystallographic results demonstrate that two pressure-induced structural phase transitions take place at 1.5 GPa and 12.2 GPa where the high-pressure phases are identified as monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal structures with space groups of P2/m and Pmmm, respectively. A kink in the slope of the cell parameters as a function of pressure is associated with the disappearance of several internal Raman modes, which suggests the existence of structural distortions or reorganizations at approximately 6.0 GPa. Above 17.1 GPa, almost no evidence of crystallinity can be observed, indicating a possible transformation of coronene into an amorphous phase.

  18. Phase transformations and thermodynamics of aluminum-based metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changhua (Michael)

    This thesis examines the thermodynamics and associated kinetics and phase transformations of the glass forming Al-Ni-Gd and Al-Fe-Gd systems. In order to fully understand the unique glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, the ternary Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems in their Al-rich corners were examined experimentally to assist in a thermodynamic assessment. The solid-state phase equilibria are determined using XRD and TEM-EDS techniques. While this work basically confirms the solid-state equilibria in Al-Fe-Gd reported previously, the ternary phase in Al-Ni-Gd system has been identified to be Al15Ni3Gd2 rather than Al16Ni 3Gd reported in the literature. DTA analysis of 24 alloys in the Al-Fe-Gd system and 42 alloys in the Al-Ni-Gd system have yielded critical temperatures pertaining to the solid-liquid transition. Based on these data and information from the literature, a self-consistent thermodynamic database for these systems has been developed using the CALPHAD technique. Parameters describing the Gibbs free energy for various phases of the Al-Gd, Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems are manually optimized in this study. Once constructed, the database is used to calculate driving forces for nucleation of crystalline phases which can qualitatively explain the phase formation sequence during crystallization at low temperatures. It was also confirmed that alloy compositions with the lowest Gibbs free energy difference between the equilibrium state and undercooled liquid state exhibit better GFA than other chemistries. Based on 250°C isothermal devitrification phase transformations of 17 Al-Ni-Gd alloys, a phase formation sequence map is constructed. Fcc-Al nanocrystals are formed first in most of the alloys studied, but eutectic crystallization of a metastable phase and fcc-Al is also observed. Addition of Al or Ni promotes fcc-Al phase formation, while increasing Gd suppresses it. The continuous heating DSC scans revealed that crystallization in Al

  19. Nonequilibrium phase transformations in bcc titanium and niobium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Kevin James

    The major goal throughout this entire study was to find a bulk beta-titanium amorphous system. In this case, the feasibility of bulk amorphization by destabilizing the crystalline phase in bcc titanium alloys is developed. The binary Ti-Cr system was previously reported, by others, to undergo spontaneous vitrification. This work was later proven to be irreproducible by several other groups. With the proper alloying additions to the Ti-Cr system, the resultant bcc matrix is extremely unstable, however, the formation of alpha, o, and intermetallics is inhibited. Powders of the complex system Ti65Cr13Cu 16Mn4Fe2 transform to a fully amorphous structure after just 3 to 4 hours of mechanical milling. In bulk, this system forms nanoscale disordered regions, totaling 20 to 30% of the microstructure, upon annealing of the metastable bcc phase. The phase separation, beta → beta + beta' accompanies this transformation and induces strain into the matrix. Analytical high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to characterize the decomposition behavior by obtaining physical measurements of the microstructure and chemistry, and to determine the mechanism of the phase separation. High resolution and analytical TEM data map the development of successive chromium rich (copper poor) and chromium poor (copper rich) regions formed in <100> directions during heat treatment. This reaction is shown to occur by spinodal decomposition. A known bcc, binary spinodal decomposition system, Nb-Zr, was chosen as a reference system to verify the spinodal mechanism in the 5-component titanium system and to validate the use of analytical TEM to characterize spinodal decomposition. The Ti-Cr system is also investigated for comparison with the complex Ti-Cr-Cu-Mn-Fe system and to resolve some of the issues presented during the earlier spontaneous vitrification studies. Finally, a combination of high resolution TEM and chemical analysis is utilized to differentiate between the

  20. Role of B19' martensite deformation in stabilizing two-way shape memory behavior in NiTi

    DOE PAGES

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Noebe, R. D.; ...

    2012-11-01

    Deformation of a B19' martensitic, polycrystallineNi49.9Ti50.1 (at. %) shape memoryalloy and its influence on the magnitude and stability of the ensuing two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was investigated by combined ex situ mechanical experimentation and in situneutron diffraction measurements at stress and temperature. The microstructural changes (texture, lattice strains, and phase fractions) during room-temperature deformation and subsequent thermal cycling were captured and compared to the bulk macroscopic response of the alloy. With increasing uniaxial strain, it was observed that B19' martensite deformed by reorientation and detwinning with preferred selection of the (1¯50)M and (010)M variants, (201¯)B19' deformation twinning, and dislocationmore » activity. These mechanisms were indicated by changes in bulk texture from the neutron diffraction measurements. Partial reversibility of the reoriented variants and deformation twins was also captured upon load removal and thermal cycling, which after isothermal deformation to strains between 6% and 22% resulted in a strong TWSME. Consequently, TWSME functional parameters including TWSME strain, strain reduction, and transformation temperatures were characterized and it was found that prior martensite deformation to 14% strain provided the optimum condition for the TWSME, resulting in a stable two-way shape memory strain of 2.2%. Thus, isothermal deformation of martensite was found to be a quick and efficient method for creating a strong and stable TWSME in Ni₄₉.₉Ti₅₀.₁.« less

  1. Magnetic nature of the austenite-martensite phase transition and spin glass behaviour in nanostructured Mn2Ni1.6Sn0.4 melt-spun ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nidhi; Borgohain, Barsha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay; Singh, H. K.

    2016-03-01

    Nanocrystalline ribbons of inverse Heusler alloy Mn2Ni1.6Sn0.4 have been synthesised by melt spinning of the arc-melted bulk precursor. The single-phase ribbons crystallize into a cubic structure and exhibit very fine crystallite size of <2 nm. Temperature-dependent magnetization ( M- T) measurements reveal ferromagnetic-austenite (FM-A)-antiferromagnetic-martensite (AFM-M) phase transition that begins at M S ≈ 249 K and finishes at M f ≈ 224 K. During warming, the reverse AFM-M to FM-A transitions begins at A s ≈ 240 K and finishes at A f ≈ 261 K. A re-entrant FM transition is observed in the M-phase at T_{{CM}} ≈ 145 K. These transitions are also confirmed by temperature-dependent resistivity ( ρ- T) measurements. The hysteretic behaviour of M- T and ρ- T in the temperature regime spanned by the A-M transition is a manifestation of the first-order phase transition. M- T and ρ- T data also provide unambiguous evidence in favour of spin glass at T < T_{{CM}}. The scaling of the glass freezing temperature ( T f) with frequency, extracted from the frequency-dependent AC susceptibility measurements, confirms the existence of canonical spin glass at T < T_{{CM}} ≈ 145 K. The occurrence of canonical spin glass has been explained in terms of the nanostructuring modified interactions between the coexisting FM and AFM correlations in the martensitic phase.

  2. Phase transformation strengthening of high-temperature superalloys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T. M.; Esser, B. D.; Antolin, N.; Carlsson, A.; Williams, R. E. A.; Wessman, A.; Hanlon, T.; Fraser, H. L.; Windl, W.; McComb, D. W.; Mills, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research has been focused on improving the high-temperature properties of nickel-based superalloys, an essential class of materials used in the hot section of jet turbine engines, allowing increased engine efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions. Here we introduce a new ‘phase-transformation strengthening' mechanism that resists high-temperature creep deformation in nickel-based superalloys, where specific alloying elements inhibit the deleterious deformation mode of nanotwinning at temperatures above 700 °C. Ultra-high-resolution structure and composition analysis via scanning transmission electron microscopy, combined with density functional theory calculations, reveals that a superalloy with higher concentrations of the elements titanium, tantalum and niobium encourage a shear-induced solid-state transformation from the γ′ to η phase along stacking faults in γ′ precipitates, which would normally be the precursors of deformation twins. This nanoscale η phase creates a low-energy structure that inhibits thickening of stacking faults into twins, leading to significant improvement in creep properties. PMID:27874007

  3. Phase transformation strengthening of high-temperature superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. M.; Esser, B. D.; Antolin, N.; Carlsson, A.; Williams, R. E. A.; Wessman, A.; Hanlon, T.; Fraser, H. L.; Windl, W.; McComb, D. W.; Mills, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    Decades of research has been focused on improving the high-temperature properties of nickel-based superalloys, an essential class of materials used in the hot section of jet turbine engines, allowing increased engine efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions. Here we introduce a new `phase-transformation strengthening' mechanism that resists high-temperature creep deformation in nickel-based superalloys, where specific alloying elements inhibit the deleterious deformation mode of nanotwinning at temperatures above 700 °C. Ultra-high-resolution structure and composition analysis via scanning transmission electron microscopy, combined with density functional theory calculations, reveals that a superalloy with higher concentrations of the elements titanium, tantalum and niobium encourage a shear-induced solid-state transformation from the γ' to η phase along stacking faults in γ' precipitates, which would normally be the precursors of deformation twins. This nanoscale η phase creates a low-energy structure that inhibits thickening of stacking faults into twins, leading to significant improvement in creep properties.

  4. Two-dimensional phase transformation probed by second harmonic generation: Oscillatory transformation of the K/Al(111) system

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Z.C.; Plummer, E.W. |

    1995-12-31

    The technique of optical second harmonic generation is used to study phase transformations at two-dimensional surfaces and interfaces. Examples are given to illustrate that changes in surface symmetry, adsorption configuration, and electronic structure can be detected by this nonlinear optical technique. An oscillatory phase transformation of potassium adsorbed atoms on Al(111) probed by second harmonic generation is analyzed in detail.

  5. Direct Measurement of Microstructural Avalanches during the Martensitic Transition of Cobalt Using Coherent X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, Christopher; Ludwig, Karl F.; Rogers, Michael C.; Sutton, Mark

    2011-09-06

    Heterogeneous microscale dynamics in the martensitic phase transition of cobalt is investigated with real-time x-ray scattering. During the transformation of the high-temperature face-centered cubic phase to the low-temperature hexagonal close-packed phase, the structure factor evolution suggests that an initial rapid local transformation is followed by a slower period during which strain relaxes. Coherent x-ray scattering measurements performed during the latter part of the transformation show that the kinetics is dominated by discontinuous sudden changes-avalanches. The spatial size of observed avalanches varies widely, from 100 nm to 10{mu}m, the size of the x-ray beam. An empirical avalanche amplitude quantifies this behavior, exhibiting a power-law distribution. The avalanche rate decreases with inverse time since the onset of the transformation.

  6. Direct measurement of microstructural avalanches during the martensitic transition of cobalt using coherent x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Christopher; Ludwig, Karl F; Rogers, Michael C; Sutton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Heterogeneous microscale dynamics in the martensitic phase transition of cobalt is investigated with real-time x-ray scattering. During the transformation of the high-temperature face-centered cubic phase to the low-temperature hexagonal close-packed phase, the structure factor evolution suggests that an initial rapid local transformation is followed by a slower period during which strain relaxes. Coherent x-ray scattering measurements performed during the latter part of the transformation show that the kinetics is dominated by discontinuous sudden changes-avalanches. The spatial size of observed avalanches varies widely, from 100 nm to 10 μm, the size of the x-ray beam. An empirical avalanche amplitude quantifies this behavior, exhibiting a power-law distribution. The avalanche rate decreases with inverse time since the onset of the transformation.

  7. Simulation of an Austenite-Twinned-Martensite Interface.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, A J; Melara, L A

    2003-01-01

    Developing numerical methods for predicting microstructure in materials is a large and important research area. Two examples of material microstructures are Austenite and Martensite. Austenite is a microscopic phase with simple crystallographic structure while Martensite is one with a more complex structure. One important task in materials science is the development of numerical procedures which accurately predict microstructures in Martensite. In this paper we present a method for simulating material microstructure close to an Austenite-Martensite interface. The method combines a quasi-Newton optimization algorithm and a nonconforming finite element scheme that successfully minimizes an approximation to the total stored energy near the interface of interest. Preliminary results suggest that the minimizers of this energy functional located by the developed numerical algorithm appear to display the desired characteristics.

  8. Phase transformations of siderite ore by the thermomagnetic analysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomar, V. P.; Dudchenko, N. O.; Brik, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    Thermal decomposition of Bakal siderite ore (that consists of magnesium siderite and ankerite traces) was investigated by thermomagnetic analysis. Thermomagnetic analysis was carried-out using laboratory-built facility that allows automatic registration of sample magnetization with the temperature (heating/cooling rate was 65°/min, maximum temperature 650 °C) at low- and high-oxygen content. Curie temperature gradually decreases with each next cycles of heating/cooling at low-oxygen content. Curie temperature decrease after 2nd cycle of heating/cooling at high-oxygen content and do not change with next cycles. Final Curie temperature for both modes was 320 °C. Saturation magnetization of obtained samples increases up to 20 Am2/kg. The final product of phase transformation at both modes was magnesioferrite. It was shown that intermediate phase of thermal decomposition of Bakal siderite ore was magnesiowustite.

  9. Previous heat treatment inducing different plasma nitriding behaviors in martensitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, C. A.; Alvarez, F.; Mitchell, D. R. G.; Collins, G. A.; Short, K. T.

    2006-09-15

    In this work we report a study of the induced changes in structure and corrosion behavior of martensitic stainless steels nitrided by plasma immersion ion implantation (PI{sup 3}) at different previous heat treatments. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction and glancing angle x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic measurements. Depending on the proportion of retained austenite in the unimplanted material, different phase transformations are obtained at lower and intermediate temperatures of nitrogen implantation. At higher temperatures, the great mobility of the chromium yields CrN segregations like spots in random distribution, and the {alpha}{sup '}-martensite is degraded to{alpha}-Fe (ferrite). The nitrided layer thickness follows a fairly linear relationship with the temperature and a parabolic law with the process time. The corrosion resistance depends strongly on chromium segregation from the martensitic matrix, as a result of the formation of CrN during the nitrogen implantation process and the formation of Cr{sub x}C during the heat treatment process. Briefly speaking, the best results are obtained using low tempering temperature and low implantation temperature (below 375 deg. ) due to the increment of the corrosion resistance and nitrogen dissolution in the structure with not too high diffusion depths (about 5-10 {mu}m)

  10. Phase Transformation in Silica-Coated FePt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Levent; Hadjipanayis, George

    2009-03-01

    The A1 to L10 phase transformation has been examined in silica-coated FePt particles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of platinum acetylacetonate (Pt (acac) 2) followed by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO)5) in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and oleyl amine (OY) as surfactants at low temperature ^[1]. The monodispersed FePt nanoparticles, with a size of 5.8 nm were then coated with silica (SiO2) shells ^[2] . The thickness of the silica shell could be controlled between 7.5-25 nm. The coated particles were subjected to thermal processing at 800 C for various amounts of times. No significant sintering was observed up to 2 hours of annealing for the shell thickness of 15.0 nm. In some silica-coated samples an increase in the particle size was observed after annealing. Selected Area Diffraction analysis and magnetic measurements showed the development of ordered L10 structure. Coercivity values up to 15 kOe at 7K are obtained. The phase transformation is currently being examined in other samples annealed at different times and temperatures and the results will be reported.1.Levent Colak and George C. Hadjipanayis, Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 235703.2.M. Aslam, L. Fu, S. Li, Vinayak P. Dravid, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 290 (2005) 444--449.

  11. Phase-field-crystal methodology for modeling of structural transformations.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael; Rottler, Jörg; Provatas, Nikolas

    2011-03-01

    We introduce and characterize free-energy functionals for modeling of solids with different crystallographic symmetries within the phase-field-crystal methodology. The excess free energy responsible for the emergence of periodic phases is inspired by classical density-functional theory, but uses only a minimal description for the modes of the direct correlation function to preserve computational efficiency. We provide a detailed prescription for controlling the crystal structure and introduce parameters for changing temperature and surface energies, so that phase transformations between body-centered-cubic (bcc), face-centered-cubic (fcc), hexagonal-close-packed (hcp), and simple-cubic (sc) lattices can be studied. To illustrate the versatility of our free-energy functional, we compute the phase diagram for fcc-bcc-liquid coexistence in the temperature-density plane. We also demonstrate that our model can be extended to include hcp symmetry by dynamically simulating hcp-liquid coexistence from a seeded crystal nucleus. We further quantify the dependence of the elastic constants on the model control parameters in two and three dimensions, showing how the degree of elastic anisotropy can be tuned from the shape of the direct correlation functions.

  12. Ti-Nb-(Zr,Ta) superelastic alloys for medical implants: Thermomechanical processing, structure, phase transformations and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinskiy, Sergey

    lattice evolution is performed under strain-controlled conditions. The lattice parameters of beta- and α"-phases calculated across the whole testing temperature range allow us to conclude that the higher the temperature, the lower the α"→beta transformation strain. It is found also that loading at low temperatures results in α"-phase formation and reorientation, while application of the load during heating changes the transformation sequences. The observed reversible beta-phase X-ray line widening and narrowing during temperature scanning are the direct result of appearance and disappearance of microstresses caused by reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation.

  13. Two-phase transformation of lepidocrocite to maghemite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekkers, M. J.; Gapeev, A. K.; Gendler, T. S.; Gribov, S. K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.

    2003-04-01

    A detailed investigation of CRM acquired at different stages of the transformation lepidocrocite -> maghemite -> hematite is carried out. Apparently, at least two-stage lepidocrocite maghemite transformation was revealed from: a) the two-peak Ms(T) curve; b) the observation of constricted hysteresis loops appearing after annealing fresh lepidocrocite samples at elevated temperatures; c) continuous monitoring (for 500 hrs) of CRM acquisition at elevated temperatures. For the latter two sets of CRM acquisition experiments at 12 temperatures from 175C to 550C in the presence of 0.1 mT magnetic field were performed: 1) with fine dispersed natural lepidocrocite grains in a kaolin matrix (about 1 volume % of lepidocrocite), 2) for lepidocrocite peaces 3x3x3 mm in size. In both cases the CRM was detected already at 175C after 1 day of annealing. Note that this temperature is lower than the temperature of the TGA peak of the lepidocrocite -> maghemite transformation. Mossbauer spectra obtained from the peaces after annealing at 225C during 6 and 14 hours, respectively, revealed significantly different patterns. Unexpectadly, fine dispersed maghemite grains formed due the lepidocrocite dehydration in the first peace (6 hrs of annealing) occurred to be more ordered than those of from the second peace. The samples are subjected to the X-ray analysis in an attempt to clarify the observed difference. The observed phenomena can be explained by the two-phase conception of the transformation lepidocrocite -> maghemite. First the precipitation of small superparamagnetic particles of maghemite takes place growing with time. Second, these grains coalesce with each other resulting in appearance of the antiphase boundaries decreasing the susceptibility, slowing down the process of CRM acquisition and generating the constricted hysteresis loops. The work is supported by INTAS 99-1273.

  14. An Investigation Into 6-Fold Symmetry in Martensitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Christopher; Pytlewski, Ken; Qi, Liang; Khachaturyan, Armen G.; Morris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Austenite grains that have undergone a martensitic transformation are typically composed of 24 variants that can be categorized by their Bain axis of transformation. There are 3 <001> axes for Bain transformations, therefore the (001) pole figure of a prior austenite grain displays 3-fold symmetry. However, we observed superficially similar prior austenite grains containing 6-fold symmetry in the (001) pole figure. This paper introduces evidence of this 6-fold symmetry and explores the crystallographic origins.

  15. A micromechanics-inspired constitutive model for shape-memory alloys that accounts for initiation and saturation of phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Alex; Stebner, Aaron P.; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    A constitutive model to describe macroscopic elastic and transformation behaviors of polycrystalline shape-memory alloys is formulated using an internal variable thermodynamic framework. In a departure from prior phenomenological models, the proposed model treats initiation, growth kinetics, and saturation of transformation distinctly, consistent with physics revealed by recent multi-scale experiments and theoretical studies. Specifically, the proposed approach captures the macroscopic manifestations of three micromechanial facts, even though microstructures are not explicitly modeled: (1) Individual grains with favorable orientations and stresses for transformation are the first to nucleate martensite, and the local nucleation strain is relatively large. (2) Then, transformation interfaces propagate according to growth kinetics to traverse networks of grains, while previously formed martensite may reorient. (3) Ultimately, transformation saturates prior to 100% completion as some unfavorably-oriented grains do not transform; thus the total transformation strain of a polycrystal is modest relative to the initial, local nucleation strain. The proposed formulation also accounts for tension-compression asymmetry, processing anisotropy, and the distinction between stress-induced and temperature-induced transformations. Consequently, the model describes thermoelastic responses of shape-memory alloys subject to complex, multi-axial thermo-mechanical loadings. These abilities are demonstrated through detailed comparisons of simulations with experiments.

  16. Radiation embrittlement of manganese-stabilized martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Hu, W.L.

    1986-12-01

    Fractographic examination has been performed on selected Charpy specimens of manganese stabilized martensitic stainless steels in order to identify the cause of irradiation embrittlement. Embrittlement was found to be partly due to enhanced failure at grain boundaries arising from precipitation. Microstructural examination of a specimen irradiated at higher temperature has demonstrated the presence of Fe-Cr-Mn chi phase, a body centered cubic intermetallic phase known to cause embrittlement. This work indicated that manganese stabilized martensitic stainless steels are prone to intermetallic phase formation which is detrimental to mechanical properties.

  17. Atomic structure and pressure-induced phase transformations in a phase-change alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming

    Phase-change materials exist in at least two phases under the ambient condition. One is the amorphous state and another is crystalline phase. These two phases have vastly different physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, optical reflectivity, mass density, thermal conductivity, etc. The distinct physical properties and the fast transformation between amorphous and crystalline phases render these materials the ability to store information. For example, the DVD and the Blue-ray discs take advantage of the optical reflectivity contrast, and the newly developed solid-state memories make use of the large conductivity difference. In addition, both the amorphous and crystalline phases in phase-change memories (PCMs) are very stable at room temperature, and they are easy to be scaled up in the production of devices with large storage density. All these features make phase-change materials the ideal candidates for the next-generation memories. Despite of the fast development of these new memory materials in industry, many fundamental physics problems underlying these interesting materials are still not fully resolved. This thesis is aiming at solving some of the key issues in phase-change materials. Most of phase-change materials are composed of Ge-Sb-Te constituents. Among all these Ge-Sb-Te based materials, Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) has the best performance and has been frequently studied as a prototypical phase-change material. The first and foremost issue is the structure of the two functioning phases. In this thesis, we investigate the unique atomic structure and bonding nature of amorphous GST (a-GST) and crystalline GST ( c-GST), using ab initio tools and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Their local structures and bonding scenarios are then analyzed using electronic structure calculations. In order to gain insight into the fast phase transformation mechanism, we also carried out a series of high-pressure experiments on GST. Several new polymorphs and their

  18. Nanoscale heat transfer and phase transformation surrounding intensely heated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Kiran

    Over the last decade there has been significant ongoing research to use nanoparticles for hyperthermia-based destruction of cancer cells. In this regard, the investigation of highly non-equilibrium thermal systems created by ultrafast laser excitation is a particularly challenging and important aspect of nanoscale heat transfer. It has been observed experimentally that noble metal nanoparticles, illuminated by radiation at the plasmon resonance wavelength, can act as localized heat sources at nanometer-length scales. Achieving biological response by delivering heat via nanoscale heat sources has also been demonstrated. However, an understanding of the thermal transport at these scales and associated phase transformations is lacking. A striking observation made in several laser-heating experiments is that embedded metal nanoparticles heated to extreme temperatures may even melt without an associated boiling of the surrounding fluid. This unusual phase stability is not well understood and designing experiments to understand the physics of this phenomenon is a challenging task. In this thesis, we will resort to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which offer a powerful tool to investigate this phenomenon, without assumptions underlying continuum-level model formulations. We present the results from a series of steady state and transient non-equilibrium MD simulations performed on an intensely heated nanoparticle immersed in a model liquid. For small nanoparticles (1-10 nm in diameter) we observe a stable liquid phase near the nanoparticle surface, which can be at a temperature well above the boiling point. Furthermore, we report the existence of a critical nanoparticle size (4 nm in diameter) below which we do not observe formation of vapor even when local fluid temperatures exceed the critical temperature. Instead, we report the existence of a stable fluid region with a density much larger than that of the vapor phase. We explain this stability in terms of the

  19. Phase transformation considerations during process development and manufacture of solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geoff G Z; Law, Devalina; Schmitt, Eric A; Qiu, Yihong

    2004-02-23

    The quality and performance of a solid oral dosage form depends on the choice of the solid phase, the formulation design, and the manufacturing process. The potential for process-induced solid phase transformations must be evaluated during design and development of formulations and manufacturing processes. This article briefly reviews the basic principles of polymorphism, defines the classes of phase transformation and the underlying transformation mechanisms, and discusses respective kinetic factors. The potential phase transformations associated with common unit operations employed in manufacturing solid oral dosage forms are highlighted. Specific examples are given to illustrate the importance of solid phases, and process-induced phase transitions in formulation and process development.

  20. Role of valence electrons in phase transformation kinetics of thallium and its dilute alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, R.; Ahmed, S.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the phase transformation of thallium and its dilute alloys were investigated using XRD and calorimetry. Pure thallium exhibits a beta(bcc) to alpha(hcp) phase transformation on cooling at 508 K. With alloying additions, the crystal structure for each phase does not change, although the size of the unit cell increases. The enthalpy and the temperature of phase transformation of each alloy have been determined. The chemical free energy change associated with the phase transformation of each alloy was calculated. The valence electrons make an outstanding contribution to the chemical free energy change required for the phase change.

  1. Phase transformation dependence on initial plastic deformation mode in Si via nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Sherman; Haberl, Bianca; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2016-09-30

    Silicon in its diamond-cubic phase is known to phase transform to a technologically interesting mixture of the body-centred cubic and rhombohedral phases under nanoindentation pressure. In this study, we demonstrate that during plastic deformation the sample can traverse two distinct pathways, one that initially nucleates a phase transformation while the other initially nucleates crystalline defects. These two pathways remain distinct even after sufficient pressure is applied such that both deformation mechanisms are present within the sample. Here, it is further shown that the indents that initially nucleate a phase transformation generate larger, more uniform volumes of the phase transformed material than indents that initially nucleate crystalline defects.

  2. On Inclusion-Matrix Interfacial Stresses in Composites Containing Phase-Transforming Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Che; Ko, Chi-Ching

    2010-05-01

    Recent development in composites containing phase-transforming particles, such as vanadium dioxide or barium titanate, reveals the overall stiffness and viscoelastic damping of the composites may be unbounded. Negative stiffness is induced from phase transformation predicted by the Landau phase transformation theory. Although this unbounded phenomenon is theoretically supported with the composite homogenization theory, detailed stress analyses of the composites are still lacking. In this work, we analyze the two-dimensional plane stress elasticity problem of a square plate containing a circular inclusion, under the assumption that the Young's modulus of the inclusion is negative. Assumption of negative stiffness is a priori in the present analysis. A static loading condition is adopted to estimate the effective modulus of the composites by the ratio of applied stress to averaged strain on the loading edges. It is found that the interfacial stresses between the circular inclusion and matrix increase dramatically when the negative stiffness is so tuned that overall stiffness is unbounded. Furthermore, it is found that stress distributions in the inclusion are not uniform, contrary to Eshelby's theorem, which states, for two-phase, infinite composites, the inclusion's stress distribution is uniform when the shape of the inclusion has higher symmetry than an ellipse. The rationale for this nonuniform stress distributions is due to nonlocal effects induced from negative stiffness.

  3. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Lookman, Turab

    2015-05-01

    A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material. The microstructure evolution during athermal transformation as well as under different stress states, e.g. uni-axial tensile and compressive, bi-axial tensile and compressive, shear and tri-axial loadings, is studied. The effects of plasticity, stress states and the stress loading direction on the microstructure evolution as well as on the mechanical properties are studied. The input data corresponding to a Zr – 8 at.% Nb alloy are acquired from experimental studies as well as by using the CALPHAD method. Our simulations show that the four different omega variants grow as ellipsoidal shaped particles. Our results show that due to stress relaxation, the athermal phase transformation occurs slightly more readily in the presence of plasticity compared to that in its absence. The evolution of omega phase is different under different stress states, which leads to the differences in the mechanical properties of the material. The variant selection mechanism, i.e. formation of different variants under different stress loading directions, is also nicely captured by our model.

  4. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Lookman, Turab

    2015-05-01

    A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material. The microstructure evolution during athermal transformation as well as under different stress states, e.g. uni-axial tensile and compressive, bi-axial tensile and compressive, shear and tri-axial loadings, is studied. The effects of plasticity, stress states and the stress loading direction on the microstructure evolution as well as on the mechanical properties are studied. The input data corresponding to a Zr – 8 at.% Nb alloy aremore » acquired from experimental studies as well as by using the CALPHAD method. Our simulations show that the four different omega variants grow as ellipsoidal shaped particles. Our results show that due to stress relaxation, the athermal phase transformation occurs slightly more readily in the presence of plasticity compared to that in its absence. The evolution of omega phase is different under different stress states, which leads to the differences in the mechanical properties of the material. The variant selection mechanism, i.e. formation of different variants under different stress loading directions, is also nicely captured by our model.« less

  5. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wei; Chen, Gaoqiang; Chen, Jian; Yu, Xinghua; Frederick, David Alan; Feng, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zone mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.

  6. Kinetics of phase transformation in glass forming systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to (1) develop computer models for realistic simulations of nucleation and crystal growth in glasses, which would also have the flexibility to accomodate the different variables related to sample characteristics and experimental conditions, and (2) design and perform nucleation and crystallization experiments using calorimetric measurements, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to verify these models. The variables related to sample characteristics mentioned in (1) above include size of the glass particles, nucleating agents, and the relative concentration of the surface and internal nuclei. A change in any of these variables changes the mode of the transformation (crystallization) kinetics. A variation in experimental conditions includes isothermal and nonisothermal DSC/DTA measurements. This research would lead to develop improved, more realistic methods for analysis of the DSC/DTA peak profiles to determine the kinetic parameters for nucleation and crystal growth as well as to assess the relative merits and demerits of the thermoanalytical models presently used to study the phase transformation in glasses.

  7. Phase transformation and thermoelectric properties of bismuth-telluride nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Wingert, Matthew; Huang, Chun-Wei; Guo, Hua; Shih, Ten-Jen; Suh, Joonki; Wang, Kevin; Wu, Junqiao; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Renkun

    2013-05-01

    Thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention due to the current interest in energy conversion and recent advancements in nano-engineering. A simple approach to synthesize BiTe and Bi2Te3 micro/nanowires was developed by combining solution chemistry reactions and catalyst-free vapor-solid growth. A pathway to transform the as-grown BiTe nanostructures into Bi2Te3 can be identified through the Bi-Te phase diagram. Structural characterization of these products was identified using standard microscopy practices. Meanwhile, thermoelectric properties of individual Bi-Te compound micro/nanowires were determined by the suspended microdevice technique. This approach provides an applicable route to synthesize advanced high performance thermoelectric materials in quantities and can be used for a wide range of low-dimensional structures.Thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention due to the current interest in energy conversion and recent advancements in nano-engineering. A simple approach to synthesize BiTe and Bi2Te3 micro/nanowires was developed by combining solution chemistry reactions and catalyst-free vapor-solid growth. A pathway to transform the as-grown BiTe nanostructures into Bi2Te3 can be identified through the Bi-Te phase diagram. Structural characterization of these products was identified using standard microscopy practices. Meanwhile, thermoelectric properties of individual Bi-Te compound micro/nanowires were determined by the suspended microdevice technique. This approach provides an applicable route to synthesize advanced high performance thermoelectric materials in quantities and can be used for a wide range of low-dimensional structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00876b

  8. Phase transformations in an ascending adiabatic mixed-phase cloud volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.; Korolev, A.

    2015-04-01

    Regimes of liquid-ice coexistence that may form in an adiabatic parcel ascending at constant velocity at freezing temperatures are investigated. Four zones with different microphysical structures succeeding one another along the vertical direction have been established. On the basis of a novel balance equation, analytical expressions are derived to determine the conditions specific for each of these zones. In particular, the necessary and sufficient conditions for formation of liquid water phase within an ascending parcel containing only ice particles are determined. The results are compared to findings reported in earlier studies. The role of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism in the phase transformation is analyzed. The dependence of the phase relaxation time on height in the four zones is investigated on the basis of a novel analytical expression. The results obtained in the study can be instrumental for analysis and interpretation of observed mixed-phase clouds.

  9. Ductility improvement due to martensite α' decomposition in porous Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by selective laser melting for orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Sallica-Leva, E; Caram, R; Jardini, A L; Fogagnolo, J B

    2016-02-01

    Ti-6Al-4V parts obtained by selective laser melting typically have an acicular α' martensitic microstructure whose ductility is low. Thus, post-heat treatments are useful for increasing ductility. In this work, the effects of sub-β-transus heat treatments on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V parts with porous structures are correlated with martensite α' phase decomposition. The precipitation of β phase and the gradual transformation of α' into α phase by the diffusion of excess vanadium from α' to β phase are proposed to be the main events of martensite α' phase decomposition in parts fabricated by selective laser melting. The heat treatment performed at 650°C for 1h produced no microstructural changes, but the samples treated for at the same temperature 2h showed a fine precipitation of β phase along the α' needle boundaries. The heat treatment performed at 800°C for 1 or 2h produced a fine α+β microstructure, in which β phase are present as particles fewer in number and larger in size, when compared with the ones present in the sample heat-treated at 650°C for 2h. Heat-treatment of the parts at 800°C for 2h proved to be the best condition, which improved the ductility of the samples while only slightly reducing their strength.

  10. Membrane lipid phase transitions and phase organization studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2013-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful yet relatively inexpensive and convenient technique for studying the structure and organization of membrane lipids in their various polymorphic phases. This spectroscopic technique yields information about the conformation and dynamics of all regions of the lipid molecule simultaneously without the necessity of introducing extrinsic probes. In this review, we summarize some relatively recent FTIR spectroscopic studies of the structure and organization primarily of fully hydrated phospholipids in their biologically relevant lamellar crystalline, gel and liquid-crystalline phases, and show that interconversions between these bilayer phases can be accurately monitored by this technique. We also briefly discuss how the structure and organization of potentially biologically relevant nonlamellar micellar or reversed hexagonal lipid phases can be studied and how phase transitions between lamellar and nonlamellar phases, or between various nonlamellar phases, can be followed as well. In addition, we discuss the potential for FTIR spectroscopy to yield fairly high resolution structural information about phospholipid packing in lamellar crystalline or gel phases. Finally, we show that many, but not all of these FTIR approaches can also yield valuable information about lipid-protein interactions in membrane protein- or peptide-containing lipid membrane bilayer model or even in biological membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: FTIR in membrane proteins and peptide studies.

  11. Phase-field modeling of shock-induced α- γ phase transformation of RDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, -; de, Suvranu

    2015-06-01

    A thermodynamically consistent continuum phase field model has been developed to investigate the role of shock-induced α- γ phase transition in the sensitivity of RDX. Dislocations and phase transformations are distinguished and modeled within a crystal plasticity framework. The Landau potential is derived for the finite elastic deformation analysis. The response of the shock loaded RDX crystal is obtained by solving the continuum momentum equation along with phase evolution equation using a Helmholtz free energy functional, which consists of elastic potential energy and local interfacial energy that follows from the Cahn-Hilliard formalism. We observe that the orientations for which there is a resolved shear stress along the slip direction, the material absorbs large shear strain through plastic deformation, allowing it to be less sensitive as less mechanical work is available for temperature rise. Therefore, plastic slip should be associated with greater shear relaxation and, hence, decreased sensitivity. For elastic orientations, large shear stress arises from steric hindrance that may provides much more mechanical work to increase the temperature and hence more sensitive to detonation. Our simulations suggest that the α- γ phase transformation in RDX may be associated with the increased temperature rise and hence the shock sensitivity. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of this work through Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grants N000140810462 and N000141210527 with Dr. Clifford Bedford as the cognizant Program Manager.

  12. A new approach predicting the evolution of laminated nanostructures—martensite in NiTi as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersmann, M.; Antretter, T.; Waitz, T.; Fischer, F. D.

    2017-04-01

    A model for laminated nanostructures, combining classical energy minimization with full-field finite element calculations in a computationally fully automated manner, is set up and used to quantitatively analyse the interaction of grains via self-accommodation of their transformation strains. The well known Koistinenwell established B2–B19’ martensitic phase transformation in nanocrystalline NiTi is treated as an exemplary case to demonstrate our new framework. A systematic search for an optimal energy minimizing transformation path is employed within a full-field model, including crystallographic transformation strains and fully anisotropic elastic constants, by using the Python scripting language. The microstructure is updated based on previous calculation results. The underlying incremental free energy minimization criterion naturally reproduces the transformation kinetics. The sequence of grains subjected to transformation as well as the selection of martensitic variants within the grains are obtained yielding the evolution of the total interface energy as well as the strain energy, dominating our approach.

  13. In-situ determination of austenite and martensite formation in 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bojack, A.; Zhao, L.; Morris, P.F.; Sietsma, J.

    2012-09-15

    In-situ analysis of the phase transformations in a 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel (X2CrNiMoV13-5-2) was carried out using a thermo-magnetic technique, dilatometry and high temperature X-ray diffractometry (HT-XRD). A combination of the results obtained by the three applied techniques gives a valuable insight in the phase transformations during the austenitization treatment, including subsequent cooling, of the 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel, where the magnetic technique offers a high accuracy in monitoring the austenite fraction. It was found by dilatometry that the austenite formation during heating takes place in two stages, most likely caused by partitioning of Ni into austenite. The in-situ evolution of the austenite fraction is monitored by high-temperature XRD and dilatometry. The progress of martensite formation during cooling was described with a Koistinen-Marburger relation for the results obtained from the magnetic and dilatometer experiments. Enhanced martensite formation at the sample surface was detected by X-ray diffraction, which is assumed to be due to relaxation of transformation stresses at the sample surface. Due to the high alloy content and high thermodynamic stability of austenite at room temperature, 4 vol.% of austenite was found to be stable at room temperature after the austenitization treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We in-situ analyzed phase transformations and fractions of a 13Cr6Ni2Mo SMSS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher accuracy of the austenite fraction was obtained from magnetic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Austenite formation during heating takes place in two stages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced martensite formation at the sample surface detected by X-ray diffraction.

  14. Realization of multifunctional shape-memory ferromagnets in all-d-metal Heusler phases

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K. Chen, J. H.; Xi, X. K.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Li, Y.; Liu, G. D.; Luo, H. Z.

    2015-07-13

    Heusler ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) normally consist of transition-group d-metals and main-group p-elements. Here, we report the realization of FSMAs in Heusler phases that completely consist of d metals. By introducing the d-metal Ti into NiMn alloys, cubic B2-type Heusler phase is obtained and the martensitic transformation temperature is decreased efficiently. Strong ferromagnetism is established by further doping Co atoms into the B2-type antiferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ti austenite. Based on the magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformations, collective multifunctional properties are observed in Ni(Co)-Mn-Ti alloys. The d metals not only facilitate the formation of B2-type Heusler phases but also establish strong ferromagnetic coupling and offer the possibility to tune the martensitic transformation.

  15. Development and characterization of advanced 9Cr ferritic/martensitic steels for fission and fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroja, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Divakar, R.; Raju, S.; Mohandas, E.; Vijayalakshmi, M.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Raj, Baldev

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents the results on the physical metallurgy studies in 9Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) and Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels. Yttria strengthened ODS alloy was synthesized through several stages, like mechanical milling of alloy powders and yttria, canning and consolidation by hot extrusion. During characterization of the ODS alloy, it was observed that yttria particles possessed an affinity for Ti, a small amount of which was also helpful in refining the dispersoid particles containing mixed Y and Ti oxides. The particle size and their distribution in the ferrite matrix, were studied using Analytical and High Resolution Electron Microscopy at various stages. The results showed a distribution of Y 2O 3 particles predominantly in the size range of 5-20 nm. A Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic steel has also been developed with the replacement of Mo and Nb by W and Ta with strict control on the tramp and trace elements (Mo, Nb, B, Cu, Ni, Al, Co, Ti). The transformation temperatures ( Ac1, Ac3 and Ms) for this steel have been determined and the transformation behavior of the high temperature austenite phase has been studied. The complete phase domain diagram has been generated which is required for optimization of the processing and fabrication schedules for the steel.

  16. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON STRAIN-INDUCED MARTENSITE FORMATION IN TYPE 304L STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Ps Lam, P

    2008-12-11

    Unstable austenitic stainless steels undergo a strain-induced martensite transformation. The effect of hydrogen on this transformation is not well understood. Some researchers believe that hydrogen makes the transformation to martensite more difficult because hydrogen is an austenite stabilizer. Others believe that hydrogen has little or no effect at all on the transformation and claim that the transformation is simply a function of strain and temperature. Still other researchers believe that hydrogen should increase the ability of the metal to transform due to hydrogen-enhanced dislocation mobility and slip planarity. While the role of hydrogen on the martensite transformation is still debated, it has been experimentally verified that this transformation does occur in hydrogen-charged materials. What is the effect of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen embrittlement? Martensite near crack-tips or other highly strained regions could provide much higher hydrogen diffusivity and allow for quicker hydrogen concentration. Martensite may be more intrinsically brittle than austenite and has been shown to be severely embrittled by hydrogen. However, it does not appear to be a necessary condition for embrittlement since Type 21-6-9 stainless steel is more stable than Type 304L stainless steel but susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the effect of hydrogen on strain-induced martensite formation in Type 304L stainless steel was investigated by monitoring the formation of martensite during tensile tests of as-received and hydrogen-charged samples and metallographically examining specimens from interrupted tensile tests after increasing levels of strain. The effect of hydrogen on the fracture mechanisms was also studied by examining the fracture features of as-received and hydrogen-charged specimens and relating them to the stress-strain behavior.

  17. A dilatometric study of the continuous heating transformations in maraging 300 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A. G.; Reis, D. A. P.; Abdalla, A. J.; Otubo, J.; Sandim, H. R. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Dilatometric study in maraging 300 steel was carried out to study the effect of heating rate on precipitation of intermetallic phases and martensite to austenite transformation. Solution annealed material were subjected to controlled heating-holding-cooling cycles. The martensite to austenite transformation splits into two steps at lower heating rates. The first step enhanced by slow heating rate, occurs through a diffusion process, while the second step, enhanced by a fast heating rate, occurs though a shear process. The extent of precipitation decreases with heating rate, suggesting that precipitation occurs primarily by a diffusional process.

  18. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Observations During Subcritical Heat Treatments of a High-Chromium Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karantzalis, A. E.; Lekatou, A.; Kapoglou, A.; Mavros, H.; Dracopoulos, V.

    2012-06-01

    In this study, Cr white iron of 18.23 wt.% was subjected to a series of subcritical heat treatments. At both temperatures of 350 and 450 °C, no precipitation of secondary carbides was observed, and the overall microstructure resembles to that of the as-cast condition. At 550 °C, hardness values increased slightly compared to the as-cast values. No evidence of secondary carbide formation was observed. At 650 and 750 °C, extensive-to-complete transformation to pearlite-ferrite structures has occurred. Some evidence of secondary carbide precipitation especially for prolonged treatment periods was not adequate to obstruct the hardness decrease due to the dominating effect of pearlitic-ferritic formation. At 850 °C, secondary carbide precipitation and martensite formation lead to high hardness values.

  19. Structure and properties of low-carbon martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, L. M.; Simonov, Yu. N.

    1999-08-01

    Sudies begun in the 1960s under the guidance of R. I. Éntin at the Institute of Metal Physics of the Bardin Central Research Institute of Ferrous Metals have shown that high stability of low-carbon austenite in both the "normal"2 and bainite regions can be provided at a specific proportion of carbon and the alloying elements. The starting temperature of martensite transformation M 5 remains at 300-400°C. This makes it possible to obtain in steels the structure of lath martensite in large cross sections by air cooling. These low-carbon martensite steels (LCMS) possess a favorable combination of mechanical properties and a number of technological advantages even in the quenched state, which widens their range of application in industry. In recent years several new groups of LCMS have been created.

  20. Dynamic observation of phase transformation behaviors in indium(III) selenide nanowire based phase change memory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Ting, Yi-Hsin; Lu, Kuo-Chang; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2014-09-23

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) has been extensively investigated for its potential applications in next-generation nonvolatile memory. In this study, indium(III) selenide (In2Se3) was selected due to its high resistivity ratio and lower programming current. Au/In2Se3-nanowire/Au phase change memory devices were fabricated and measured systematically in an in situ transmission electron microscope to perform a RESET/SET process under pulsed and dc voltage swept mode, respectively. During the switching, we observed the dynamic evolution of the phase transformation process. The switching behavior resulted from crystalline/amorphous change and revealed that a long pulse width would induce the amorphous or polycrystalline state by different pulse amplitudes, supporting the improvement of the writing speed, retention, and endurance of PCRAM.