Science.gov

Sample records for martian mineral resources

  1. Hydrated Minerals in the Martian Southern Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    Hydrated minerals including sulfates, phyllosilicates, and hydrated silica have been observed on the surface of Mars by the orbital near-infrared spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM [1,2]. Global maps from OMEGA [3,4] show that km-scale and larger exposures of these minerals are scattered widely throughout the planet's low and mid latitudes, but are relatively rare. Yet CRISM has found hundreds to thousands of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate exposures in the highlands of Terra Tyrrhena alone [2], suggesting that smaller exposures may be much more common. To search for such exposures, we have surveyed the browse products from all PDS-released CRISM targeted observations (as of July 2008) across a large fraction of the Southern highlands, including the Noachis, Cimmeria, and Sirenum regions. Sulfates are observed in Noachian-aged terrains in each of these regions, including as far South as -63º latitude, suggesting that sulfate formation may have occurred locally or regionally throughout a large fraction of Martian history. Some of our strongest phyllosilicate detections occur adjacent to inferred chloride-bearing deposits [5] in Terra Sirenum. Also in Sirenum, the D 100 km Columbus crater contains light-toned, hydrated sulfate-bearing layers overlying materials that contain both a kaolin group clay and Fe/Mg-smectite clay, in different locations. However, phyllosilicates do not appear predominantly associated with impact craters in the regions surveyed, in contrast with Terra Tyrrhena [2]. We are currently searching for additional hydrated mineral exposures using CRISM multispectral data, providing further detail on their global distribution and identifying local areas of interest for future focused studies. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard, J. F. et al. (2008) Nature 454, 305-309. [3] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2006) Science 312, 400-404. [4] Poulet, F. et al. (2007) Mars 7, Abs. #3170. [5] Osterloo M. M. et al. (2008) Science 319, 1651-1654.

  2. Hematite Mineralized Bacterial Remnants: Implications for Martian Hematite Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schelble, Rachel T.; Westall, Frances; Allen, Carlton C.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2001-01-01

    Hematite mineralized bacterial remnants in the Gunflint Formation [early Proterozoic] can be used as an analog for potential microfossils in martian iron deposits. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Martian resource locations: Identification and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George; Barker, Donald; Dershowitz, Adam

    2005-04-01

    The identification and utilization of in situ Martian natural resources is the key to enable cost-effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars. This paper presents a powerful software tool for analyzing Martian data from all sources, and for optimizing mission site selection based on resource collocation. This program, called Planetary Resource Optimization and Mapping Tool (PROMT), provides a wide range of analysis and display functions that can be applied to raw data or imagery. Thresholds, contours, custom algorithms, and graphical editing are some of the various methods that can be used to process data. Output maps can be created to identify surface regions on Mars that meet any specific criteria. The use of this tool for analyzing data, generating maps, and collocating features is demonstrated using data from the Mars Global Surveyor and the Odyssey spacecraft. The overall mission design objective is to maximize a combination of scientific return and self-sufficiency based on utilization of local materials. Landing site optimization involves maximizing accessibility to collocated science and resource features within a given mission radius. Mission types are categorized according to duration, energy resources, and in situ resource utilization. Preliminary optimization results are shown for a number of mission scenarios.

  4. Martian Resource Locations - Identification and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamitoff, G.; James, G.; Barker, D.; Dershowitz, A.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical constituents of the Martian environment can be considered as possible material resources. The identification and utilization of these in-situ Martian natural resources is the key to enabling cost- effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars. Also, access to local resources provides an essential safety net for the initial missions. The incident solar radiation, atmosphere, regolith, subsurface materials, polar deposits, and frozen volatiles represent planetary resources that can provide breathable air, water, energy, organic growth media, and building materials. Hence, the characterization and localization of these resources can be viewed as a component of the process of landing/outpost site selection. The locations of early permanent settlements will likely be near the imported and in-situ resources of the initial outposts. Therefore, the initial site selections can have significant long- term ramifications. Although the current information on the location, extent, purity, and ease of extraction of the in-situ resources is limited; this knowledge improves with each electronic bit of information returned from the planet. This paper presents a powerful software tool for the combined organization and analysis of Martian data from all sources. This program, called PROMT (Planetary Resource Optimization and Mapping Tool), is designed to provide a wide range of analysis and display functions that can be applied to raw data or photo- imagery. Thresholds, contours, custom algorithms, and graphical editing are some of the various methods that the user can use to process data. Individual maps can then be created to identify surface regions on Mars that meet specific criteria. For example, regions with possible subsurface ice can be identified and shown graphically by combining and analyzing various gamma ray and neutron emission data sets. Other examples might include regions with high atmospheric pressure, steep slopes, evidence of

  5. Physical and chemical properties of the Martian soil: Review of resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Gooding, James L.; Banin, A.; Clark, Benton C.; Roush, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials are reviewed from the perspective of using these resources to support human settlement. The resource potential of Martian sediments and soils can only be inferred from limited analyses performed by the Viking Landers (VL), from information derived from remote sensing, and from analysis of the SNC meteorites thought to be from Mars. Bulk elemental compositions by the VL inorganic chemical (x ray fluorescence) analysis experiments have been interpreted as evidence for clay minerals (possibly smectites) or mineraloids (palagonite) admixed with sulfate and chloride salts. The materials contained minerals bearing Fe, Ti, Al, Mg and Si. Martian surface materials may be used in many ways. Martian soil, with appropriate preconditioning, can probably be used as a plant growth medium, supplying mechanical support, nutrient elements, and water at optimal conditions to the plants. Loose Martian soils could be used to cover structures and provide radiation shielding for surface habitats. Martian soil could be wetted and formed into abode bricks used for construction. Duricrete bricks, with strength comparable to concrete, can probably be formed using compressed muds made from martian soil.

  6. Rare-Earth minerals in Martian Meteorite NWA 7034/7533: Evidence for Fluid-Rock Interaction in Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Ma, C.; Chen, Y.; Beckett, J.; Guan, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we reported finding of monazite, chevikinite-perrierite and xenotime in the ‘Black Beauty’ meteorite (NWA 7034/7533). Here, we show textural and compositional evidence of these minerals that suggest hydrothermal fluids in martian crust.

  7. Spectroscopy and reactivity of mineral analogs of the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Orenberg, J.; Roush, T.

    1991-01-01

    To answer the question of why life occurred on Earth but not on Mars requires a study of the geochemical and physical aspects of the Martian soil. Some of the best Mars analog mineral models of the soil have been prepared and justified according to known constraints of chemical composition, reflectance spectroscopy, and chemical reactivity. Detailed laboratory reflectance spectra in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared (.30 to 2.5 microns) and the infrared (2.5 to 25 microns) regions have been obtained for the pure candidate minerals and some analog mixtures and compared to Mars reflectance spectra. Modeling of the reflectance spectra from optical constraints determined for the analog minerals has begun and will be interpreted in terms of the effects of particle size variation, component mixing, and soil packing upon remotely sensed reflectance spectra. This has implications not only for Mars, but for other planets and planetoids. The ratio of Fe(II)/Fe(III) in the Martian soil analog materials on spectral reflectance in the visible range has begun, and the results will be evaluated according to conformity with the visible Mars reflectance spectrum. Some initial LR and GEX data have been collected for the mineral samples and their mixtures, which can be compared with the Viking data and interpreted in terms of the redox (Fe(II)/Fe(III) environment.

  8. Implications of abundant hygroscopic minerals in the Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that a significant portion of the Martian surface fines may consist of salts and smectite clays. Salts can form stoichiometric hydrates as well as eutectic solutions with depressed freezing points; clays contain bound water of constitution and adsorb significant quantities of water from the vapor phase. The formation of ice may be suppressed by these minerals in some regions on Mars, and their presence in abundance would imply important consequences for atmospheric and geologic processes and the prospects for exobiology.

  9. Mineral Resources and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

  10. Use of Martian resources in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.; Macelroy, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Possibile crew life support systems for Mars are reviewed, focusing on ways to use Martian resources as life support materials. A system for bioregenerative life support using photosynthetic organisms, known as the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), is examined. The possible use of higher plants or algae to produce oxygen on Mars is investigated. The specific requirements for a CELSS on Mars are considered. The exploitation of water, respiratory gases, and mineral nutrients on Mars is discussed.

  11. Reliable Quantitative Mineral Abundances of the Martian Surface using THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.; Huang, J.; Ryan, A. J.; Christensen, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The following presents a proof of concept that given quality data, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data can be used to derive reliable quantitative mineral abundances of the Martian surface using a limited mineral library. The THEMIS instrument aboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft is a multispectral thermal infrared imager with a spatial resolution of 100 m/pixel. The relatively high spatial resolution along with global coverage makes THEMIS datasets powerful tools for comprehensive fine scale petrologic analyses. However, the spectral resolution of THEMIS is limited to 8 surface sensitive bands between 6.8 and 14.0 μm with an average bandwidth of ~ 1 μm, which complicates atmosphere-surface separation and spectral analysis. This study utilizes the atmospheric correction methods of both Bandfield et al. [2004] and Ryan et al. [2013] joined with the iterative linear deconvolution technique pioneered by Huang et al. [in review] in order to derive fine-scale quantitative mineral abundances of the Martian surface. In general, it can be assumed that surface emissivity combines in a linear fashion in the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths such that the emitted energy is proportional to the areal percentage of the minerals present. TIR spectra are unmixed using a set of linear equations involving an endmember library of lab measured mineral spectra. The number of endmembers allowed in a spectral library are restricted to a quantity of n-1 (where n = the number of spectral bands of an instrument), preserving one band for blackbody. Spectral analysis of THEMIS data is thus allowed only seven endmembers. This study attempts to prove that this limitation does not prohibit the derivation of meaningful spectral analyses from THEMIS data. Our study selects THEMIS stamps from a region of Mars that is well characterized in the TIR by the higher spectral resolution, lower spatial resolution Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument (143 bands at 10 cm-1 sampling and 3

  12. Minerals: the resource gap

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1980-10-01

    US imports of important non-fuel minerals may have contributed to a false sense of security that could have serious economic and defense consequences. Imports account for over 90 percent of the chromite, manganese ore, and cobalt, and 90 percent of the platinum group metals. The primary sources for many of these minerals are the Soviet Union and Africa, a price and supply vulnerability which rivals Middle East oil and of which the American public is unaware. The Soviet shift to a net minerals importer will intensify competition for minerals and could lead to confrontation. The decline in US mineral production is blamed on escalating costs, largely from regulations, that prevent plant and equipment modernization and land withdrawal policies. A strategic stockpile planned for over 90 materials was established in 1939 for defense purposes, but eratic goals and planning as well as economic changes have kept the plan from being implemented. The first steps of an appropriate policy would promote domestic minerals production and open up Federal lands for exploration and development. (DCK)

  13. Recovery of Minerals in Martian Soils Via Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    2001-03-01

    We are investigating the use of supercritical fluids to extract mineral and/or carbonaceous material from Martian surface soils and its igneous crust. Two candidate supercritical fluids are carbon dioxide and water. The Martian atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide (approx. 95.3%) and could therefore provide an in-situ source of carbon dioxide. Water, although present in the Martian atmosphere at only approx. 0.03%, is also a candidate supercritical solvent. Previous work done with supercritical fluids has focused primarily on their solvating properties with organic compounds. Interestingly, the first work reported by Hannay and Hogarth at a meeting of the Royal Society of London in 1879 observed that increasing or decreasing the pressure caused several inorganic salts e.g., cobalt chloride, potassium iodide, and potassium bromide, to dissolve or precipitate in supercritical ethanol. In high-pressure boilers, silica, present in most boiler feed waters, is dissolved in supercritical steam and transported as dissolved silica to the turbine blades. As the pressure is reduced the silica precipitates onto the turbine blades eventually requiring the shutdown of the generator. In supercritical water oxidation processes for waste treatment, dissolved salts present a similar problem. The solubility of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in supercritical water is shown. The solubility curve has a shape characteristic of supercritical systems. At a high pressure (greater than 1750 atmospheres) increasing the temperature results in an increase in solubility of silica, while at low pressures, less than 400 atm., the solubility decreases as temperature increases. There are only a few studies in the literature where supercritical fluids are used in extractive metallurgy. Bolt modified the Mond process in which supercritical carbon monoxide was used to produce nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Tolley and Tester studied the solubility of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in supercritical CO2

  14. Evaporite mineral assemblages in the nakhlite (martian) meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Grady, M. M.

    2000-03-01

    A mineralogical study of the three nakhlite (martian) meteorites has revealed that they contain evaporite mineral assemblages. Lafayette has Ca-siderite and clay minerals (smectite/illite) along fractures within olivine; Governador Valadares contains clay mineral veins in olivine, with siderite, gypsum and anhydrite in interstitial areas; Nakhla has clay and gypsum veins in olivine, with Mg-, Mn-rich siderite, anhydrite and halite in interstitial sites. Minor goethite is also present in the three meteorites. Lafayette siderite has the range of compositions (mol%) CaCO 3 21.6-36.8, MnCO 3 4.2-35.3, MgCO 3 0.1-1.6, FeCO 3 27.4-67.0; Governador Valadares has CaCO 3 3.6-11.1, MnCO 3 1.1-2.1, MgCO 3 9.0-29.2, FeCO 3 64.3-77.8; Nakhla has CaCO 3 0.1-5.7, MnCO 3 1.0-39.9, MgCO 3 2.0-40.9, FeCO 3 23.2-87.0. Trace element abundances for clay, siderite and gypsum are all similar with LREE, Y>HREE, Zr, Nb and La 0.9-95×CI; Y 0.2-2.4×CI. This pattern of abundances reflects the trace element contents of the parent fluid, which in turn were derived through dissolution of LREE-enriched feldspathic mesostasis. The close similarities in silicate petrography and radiometric ages determined by other workers for these olivine clinopyroxenites suggests that the parent rocks were close to one another on Mars and therefore the same fluid may have been responsible for the precipitation of the evaporite mineral assemblages. Lafayette contains the mineral assemblage and siderite composition which are least soluble in water and Nakhla contains the most soluble minerals and carbonate composition. On the basis of our new data we consider a new model of progressive evaporation from a Na-Mg-Fe-Ca-SO 4-Cl-H 2O-HCO 3- acidic brine in an area of enclosed drainage (e.g. crater or low-lying flood plain) on Mars. Partial dissolution of near-surface rocks by the acidic brine released Fe, Mg and trace elements from mesostasis and olivine into the fluid. The Lafayette assemblage was formed where >25

  15. Sequestration of volatiles in the martian crust through hydrated minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Poulet, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Carter, J.

    2011-12-01

    The magnitude and history of volatile reservoirs is a key question in understanding Mars' evolution. The volumes of reservoirs for water through time have been estimated on the basis of morphology (e.g. Carr 1996) and modeling while the volume of active identifiable modern reservoirs such as the polar caps, the near-surface cryosphere, and the atmosphere are reasonably well known. One reservoir that has been hypothesized but not examined is the crust where water would be in the form of hydrous minerals. The OMEGA and CRISM experiments on Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter respectively, have shown that phyllosilicate minerals are commonly observed in the Noachian crust of Mars. Modeling has shown that depending on the location the abundance of clays and phyllosilicates can exceed 50% but more typically is less or absent, particularly in the Hesperian and younger terrains (Poulet 2007). Phyllosilicate-bearing outcrops have been observed in the deepest wall exposures of Valles Marineris (8 km below the rim) and in the central peaks of impact craters as large of 100 km. Modeling suggests that the porosity of the crust in maintained to approximate 8-10 km depth permitting the circulation of water to this depth and formation of phyllosilicate and other hydrated minerals. Based on these and other observations it is evident that at least the top 10 km of the crust can be considered to contain hydrated silicate minerals. These observations also show that phyllosilicates are globally present in Noachian crust. We use altered oceanic crust as an analog for the amount of alteration on Mars. Analyses show that the average volume fraction of hydrous phases in the lower oceanic crust is 10%. Simple calculations show this results in a water content of between 1 - 3%. If the upper 10 km of the martian crust is altered to this extent then a global equivalent thickness (GET) of water of 0.3 to 0.9 km is stored in the crust due to alteration minerals. This is comparable to

  16. Mineral-resource data bases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Data bases are essential for modern scientific research. The new and exciting work being done in the Mineral Resource Program in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) usually begins with the question, "Where are the known deposits?" A mineral-resource data base containing this type of information and more can be useful not just to USGS scientists, but to anyone who needs such data. Users of the data bases from outside the USGS include mining and exploration companies, environmental groups, academia, other Federal Agencies, and the general public. At present, the USGS has two large mineral-resource data bases, MRDS (Mineral Resource Data System) and MAS (Minerals Availability System). MRDS was built and is mamtained by the USGS, and MAS was built and maintained by the Bureau of Mines. In 1996, after the Bureau was abolished, MAS was transferred to the USGS. The two data bases were compiled for different purposes and contain very different mformation. For instance, MAS contains information on costs, details of mining methods, and feasibility studies. MRDS has mineralogical and geologic data that are not contained in MAS. Because they are both mineral-resource data bases, however, they contain some information in common, such as location, name(s) of sites, and commodities present. Both data bases are international in scope, and both are quite large. MRDS contains over 110,000 records, while MAS has over 220,000. One reason that MAS has more records is that it contains information on smelters, mill sites, and fossil fuel sites, as well as mineral- resource sites. The USGS is working to combine the information in both data bases. This is a large undertaking that will require some years to complete. In the interim, information from both data bases will still be available

  17. The Brazilian mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Cassedanne, Jacques Pierre

    1981-04-01

    The activity of the first generation of Brazilian geologists began in the early sixties. Systematic exploration work since then has evidenced some important new mineral reserves in Brazil. The most important examples are the 18 × 10 9 tons of high-grade iron ore (Carajás District), formed by supergene enrichment on iron formations older than 1800 m.y., the 2.5 × 10 9 tons of bauxite and similar reserves of kaolinite as residual enrichment in Cenozoic sediments in the Amazonas Basin (Oriximina, Capim); the potash and magnesium-rich evaporites near Aracajú(Sergipe); the large residual concentrations of phosphate, anatase, pyrochlore and rare earths related to Cretaceous alkaline complexes with carbonatites; and some garnierite and asbestos deposits related to ultramafic rocks in the states of Goiás and Piauí.

  18. Multifunctional Martian habitat composite material synthesized from in situ resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.; Carranza, S.; Pillay, S.

    2010-09-01

    The two primary requirements for a Martian habitat structure include effective radiation shielding against the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) environment and sufficient structural and thermal integrity. To significantly reduce the cost associated with transportation of such materials and structures from earth, it is imperative that such building materials should be synthesized primarily from Martian in situ resources. This paper illustrates the feasibility of such an approach. Experimental results are discussed to demonstrate the synthesis of polyethylene (PE) from a simulated Martian atmosphere and the fabrication of a composite material using simulated Martian regolith with PE as the binding material. The radiation shielding effectiveness of the proposed composites is analyzed using results from radiation transport codes and exposure of the samples to high-energy beams that serve as a terrestrial proxy for the GCR environment. Mechanical and ballistic impact resistance properties of the proposed composite as a function of composition, processing parameters, and thermal variations are also discussed to evaluate the multifunctionality of such in situ synthesized composite materials.

  19. Terrestrial and Martian weathering signatures of xenon components in shergottite mineral separates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Ocker, K. D.; Crowther, S. A.; Burgess, R.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2010-08-01

    Xenon-isotopic ratios, step-heating release patterns, and gas concentrations of mineral separates from Martian shergottites Roberts Massif (RBT) 04262, Dar al Gani (DaG) 489, Shergotty, and Elephant Moraine (EET) 79001 lithology B are reported. Concentrations of Martian atmospheric xenon are similar in mineral separates from all meteorites, but more weathered samples contain more terrestrial atmospheric xenon. The distributions of xenon from the Martian and terrestrial atmospheres among minerals in any one sample are similar, suggesting similarities in the processes by which they were acquired. However, in opaque and maskelynite fractions, Martian atmospheric xenon is released at higher temperatures than terrestrial atmospheric xenon. It is suggested that both Martian and terrestrial atmospheric xenon were initially introduced by weathering (low temperature alteration processes). However, the Martian component was redistributed by shock, accounting for its current residence in more retentive sites. The presence or absence of detectable 129Xe from the Martian atmosphere in mafic minerals may correspond to the extent of crustal contamination of the rock's parent melt. Variable contents of excess 129Xe contrast with previously reported consistent concentrations of excess 40Ar, suggesting distinct sources contributed these gases to the parent magma.

  20. Chemical interactions between the present-day Martian atmosphere and surface minerals: Implications for sample return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald; Fegley, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Thermochemical and photochemical reactions between surface minerals and present-day atmospheric constituents are predicted to produce microscopic effects on the surface of mineral grains. Relevant reactions hypothesized in the literature include conversions of silicates and volcanic glasses to clay minerals, conversion of ferrous to ferric compounds, and formation of carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates. These types of surface-atmosphere weathering of minerals, biological potential of the surface environment, and atmospheric stability in both present and past Martian epochs. It is emphasized that the product of these reactions will be observable and interpretable on the microscopic surface layers of Martian surface rocks using modern techniques with obvious implications for sample return from Mars. Macroscopic products of chemical weathering reactions in past Martian epochs are also expected in Martian surface materials. These products are expected not only as a result of reactions similar to those proceeding today but also due to aqueous reactions in past epochs in which liquid water was putatively present. It may prove very difficult or impossible, however, to determine definitively from the relic macroscopic product alone either the exact weathering process which led to its formation of the identity of its weathering parent mineral. The enormous advantages of studying the Martian chemical weathering by investigating the microscopic products of present-day chemical reactions on sample surfaces are very apparent.

  1. Chemical interactions between the present-day Martian atmosphere and surface minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald; Fegley, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Thermochemical and photochemical reactions between surface minerals and present-day atmospheric constituents are predicted to produce microscopic effects on the surfaces of mineral grains. Relevant reactions hypothesized in the literature include conversions of silicates and volcanic glasses to clay minerals, conversion of ferrous to ferric compounds, and formation of carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates. These types of surface-atmosphere interactions are important for addressing issues such as chemical weathering of minerals, biological potential of the surface environment, and atmospheric stability in both present and past Martian epochs. It is emphasized that the product of these reactions will be observable and interpretable on the microscopic surface layers of Martian surface rocks using modern techniques with obvious implications for sample return from Mars. Macroscopic products of chemical weathering reactions in past Martian epochs are also expected in Martian surface material. These products are expected not only as a result of reactions similar to those proceeding today but also due to aqueous reactions in past epochs in which liquid water was putatively present. It may prove very difficult or impossible however to determine definitively from the relic macroscopic product alone either the exact weathering process which led to its formation or the identity of its weathered parent mineral. The enormous advantages of studying Martian chemical weathering by investigating the microscopic products of present-day chemical reactions on sample surfaces are very apparent.

  2. Evaporites, petroleum and mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melvin, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book illustrates the expanding knowledge of evaporites as important reservoir seals, fluid aquitards, ore-hosting sediments, and economically viable sediments in their own right. Researchers, oil and gas professionals, minerals resource professionals, environmental specialists and others within geology and the other earth sciences shall utilize the information within this book in their understanding of the many recent discoveries and concepts involved in the field of evaporite sedimentology.

  3. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  5. Bacterial mineralization patterns in basaltic aquifers: implications for possible life in martian meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Stevens, T. O.; Taunton, A. E.; Allen, C. C.; Coleman, A.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Romanek, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    To explore the formation and preservation of biogenic features in igneous rocks, we have examined the organisms in experimental basaltic microcosms using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of microorganisms were recognized on the basis of size, morphology, and chemical composition. Some of the organisms mineralized rapidly, whereas others show no evidence of mineralization. Many mineralized cells are hollow and do not contain evidence of microstructure. Filaments, either attached or no longer attached to organisms, are common. Unattached filaments are mineralized and are most likely bacterial appendages (e.g., prosthecae). Features similar in size and morphology to unattached, mineralized filaments are recognized in martian meteorite ALH84001.

  6. Mineral Biomarkers in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Bazylinski, D. A.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Golden, D. C.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Romanek, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of fine-grained magnetite in the Fe-rich rims surrounding carbonate globules in the martian meteorite ALH84001, originally described in , have been proposed as fossil remains of primitive martian organisms. Here we report observations on size and shape distributions of magnetites from ALH84001 and compare them to biogenic and inorganic magnetite crystals of terrestrial origin. While some magnetite morphology is not unequivocally diagnostic for its biogenicity, such as cubodial forms of magnetite, which are common in inorganically formed magnetites, other morphologies of magnetite (parallel-epiped or elongated prismatic and arrowhead forms) are more likely signatures of biogenic activity. Some ALH 84001 magnetite particles described below have unique morphology and length-to-width ratios that are indistinguishable from a variety of terrestrial biogenic magnetite and distinct from all known inorganic forms of magnetite.

  7. Alteration Products and Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    The martian meteorites contain alteration products and secondary minerals that are a critical part of understanding their near-surface histories on both Mars and Earth. In some martian meteorites, suspected martian preterrestrial alteration products can be distinguished from terrestrial weathering effects Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), we are studying natural fracture surfaces of ALH 84001 chips, including samples from both the interior and the exterior of the meteorite. Exterior samples include fusion crust surfaces, which are important in determining the extent of terrestrial weathering of meteorites. The focus of this study is weathering features and secondary minerals other than the distinctive carbonate globules that continue to be studied by many researchers.

  8. Martian Air Separation for In-Situ Resource Utilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacArthur, J. R.; Way, J. D.; Baldwin, R. M.; Mason, L. W.

    2002-01-01

    We will introduce the concept of using synthetic organic and inorganic membranes for the separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The class of applications targeted in this project are known as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU involves the use of resources present on Mars, such as atmospheric gases, a concept that will dramatically reduce the amount of material that must be transferred from Earth to support a mission. ISRU technologies will provide many of the consumables required for a manned mission, such as rocket propellant, water, oxygen and buffer gases. The Martian atmosphere is primarily CO2, and also contains a few percent nitrogen and argon. Martian CO2 is a principal component of several ISRU processes that may be used in a manned Mars mission. For example, the Sabatier/Electrolysis (SE) process reacts atmospheric CO2 with hydrogen to produce methane (fuel), water, and oxygen. Pure gas and mixed gas permeation tests with CO2, Ar, N2, and O2 were performed over the temperature range 243 K to 295 K with a several candidate membrane materials including rubbery polymers (silicone rubber and PEBAX) and supported faujasite zeolite membranes. In experiments with commercially available silicone rubber membranes, the pure gas CO2 permeance (flux/driving force) increases from 460 GPUs to 655 GPUs as the temperature decreases from 295 K to 243 K. A GPU is a commonly used unit of permeance and is defined as 10-6 cm3(STP)/cm2-s-cm Hg. The ideal carbon dioxide/nitrogen separation factor (ratio of pure gas permeances) increases from 7.5 to 17.5 over the same temperature range. However, in mixed gas experiments, the CO2/N2 separation factor was much lower, increasing from 4.5 to 6 as the temperature decreased from 295 K to 243 K. This difference was attributed to plasticization of the rubbery polymer membrane by CO2.

  9. Mineral Resources, Geological Structure and Landform Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results are presented of ERTS-1 investigations of landform surveys, mineral resources, and geological structures. The report covers four areas: (1) mapping investigations; (2) dynamic surface processes and landforms; (3) structural elements; and (4) mineral deposits.

  10. Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, G.T.; Arndt, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS), a digital system that contained 111,955 records on Sept. 1, 1995. Records describe metallic and industrial commodity deposits, mines, prospects, and occurrences in the United States and selected other countries. These records have been created over the years by USGS commodity specialists and through cooperative agreements with geological surveys of U.S. States and other countries. This CD-ROM contains the complete MRDS data base, several subsets of it, and software to allow data retrieval and display. Data retrievals are made by using GSSEARCH, a program that is included on this CD-ROM. Retrievals are made by specifying fields or any combination of the fields that provide information on deposit name, location, commodity, deposit model type, geology, mineral production, reserves, and references. A tutorial is included. Retrieved records may be printed or written to a hard disk file in four different formats: ascii, fixed, comma delimited, and DBASE compatible.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Weird Martian Minerals: Complex Mars Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Complex Mars Surface" included the following reports:A Reappraisal of Adsorbed Superoxide Ion as the Cause Behind the Reactivity of the Martian Soils; Sub-Surface Deposits of Hydrous Silicates or Hydrated Magnesium Sulfates as Hydrogen Reservoirs near the Martian Equator: Plausible or Not?; Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Smectites: The Search for Water on Mars; Aqueous Alteration Pathways for K, Th, and U on Mars; Temperature Dependence of the Moessbauer Fraction in Mars-Analog Minerals; Acid-Sulfate Vapor Reactions with Basaltic Tephra: An Analog for Martian Surface Processes; Iron Oxide Weathering in Sulfuric Acid: Implications for Mars; P/Fe as an Aquamarker for Mars; Stable Isotope Composition of Carbonates Formed in Low-Temperature Terrestrial Environments as Martian Analogs; Can the Phosphate Sorption and Occlusion Properties Help to Elucidate the Genesis of Specular Hematite on the Mars Surface?; Sulfate Salts, Regolith Interactions, and Water Storage in Equatorial Martian Regolith; Potential Pathways to Maghemite in Mars Soils: The Key Role of Phosphate; and Mineralogy, Abundance, and Hydration State of Sulfates and Chlorides at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site.

  12. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  14. Formation of Adsorbed Oxygen Radicals on Minerals at the Martian Surface and the Decomposition of Organic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, A. S.; Kim, S. S.; Freeman, B. A.; Hecht, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    We present experimental evidence that superoxide ions form on mineral grains at the martian surface and show that these adsorbates can explain the unusual reactivity of the soil as well as the apparent absence of organic molecules.

  15. Raman spectroscopic identification of usnic acid in hydrothermal minerals as a potential Martian analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterrothová, Kateřina; Jehlička, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy using 785 nm excitation was tested as a nondestructive method for determining the presence of the potential biomarker, usnic acid, in experimentally prepared mineral matrices. Investigated samples consisting of usnic acid mixed with powdered hydrothermal minerals, gypsum and calcite were studied. Various concentrations of usnic acid in the mineral matrix were studied to determine the detection limits of this biomarker. Usnic acid was mixed with gypsum (respectively, calcite) and covered by a UV-transparent crystal of gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O), thereby creating artificial inclusions similar to those which could be present in Martian minerals. A Raman usnic acid signal at the concentration level as low as 1 g kg -1 was obtained in the powdered mineral matrix and 5 g kg -1 when analyzed through the monocrystal. The number of registered usnic acid key Raman bands was dependent on the particular mineral matrix. If a similar concentration of usnic acid could persist in Martian samples, then Raman spectroscopy will be able to identify it. Obtained results will aid both in situ Raman analyses on Mars and on Earth.

  16. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R; Mark, Darren F; Smith, Caroline L

    2013-01-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth's crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars' history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2.

  17. Stability of Magnesium Sulfate Minerals in Martian Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marion, G. M.; Kargel, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    Viking Lander, Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions to Mars have found abundant sulfur in surface soils and rocks, and the best indications are that magnesium sulfates are among the key hosts. At Meridiani Planum, MgSO4 salts constitute 15 to 40 wt.% of sedimentary rocks. Additional S is hosted by gypsum and jarosite. Reflectance and thermal emission spectroscopy is consistent with the presence of kieserite (MgSO4 H2O) and epsomite (MgSO4*7H2O). Theoretically, the dodecahydrate (MgSO4*12H2O) should also have precipitated. We first examine theoretically which MgSO4 minerals should have precipitated on Mars, and then how dehydration might have altered these minerals.

  18. Continental rifts and mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, K. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Continental rifts are widespread and range in age from the present to 3 b.y. Individual rifts may form parts of complex systems as in E. Africa and the Basin and Range. Rifts have originated in diverse environments such as arc-crests, sites of continental collision, collapsing mountain belts and on continents at rest over the mantle circulation pattern. Continental rift resources can be classified by depth of origin: For example, in the Great Dike, Norilsk and Mwadui magma from the mantle is the host. At shallower depths continental crust partly melted above mafic magma hosts ore (Climax, Henderson). Rift volcanics are linked to local hydrothermal systems and to extensive zeolite deposits (Basin and Range, East Africa). Copper (Zambia, Belt), zinc (Red Dog) and lead ores (Benue) are related to hydrothermal systems which involve hot rock and water flow through both pre-rift basement and sedimentary and volcanic rift fill. Economically significant sediments in rifts include coals (the Gondwana of Inida), marine evaporites (Lou Ann of the Gulf of Mexico) and non-marine evaporites (East Africa). Oil and gas in rifts relate to a variety of source, reservoir and trap relations (North Sea, Libya), but rift-lake sediment sources are important (Sung Liao, Bo Hai, Mina, Cabinda). Some ancient iron ores (Hammersley) may have formed in rift lakes but Algoman ores and greenstone belt mineral deposits in general are linked to oceanic and island arc environments. To the extent that continental environments are represented in such areas as the Archean of the Superior and Slave they are Andean Arc environments which today have locally rifted crests (Ecuador, N. Peru). The Pongola, on Kaapvaal craton may, on the other hand represent the world's oldest preserved, little deformed, continental rift.

  19. Martian magnetic minerals signature detection by Shallow Radar (SHARAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restano, M.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Masdea, A.; Picardi, G.; Seu, R.

    2012-04-01

    Near-global thermal infrared mapping by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Mars Global Surveyor has revealed unique deposits of crystalline gray hematite (a-Fe2O3) exposed at the Martian surface in the Sinus Meridiani region. The material is an in-place, rock stratigraphic sedimentary unit characterized by smooth, friable layers composed primarily of basaltic sediments with 0-20% crystalline gray hematite. Shallow Radar (SHARAD) is a ground penetrating radar (GPR) provided by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and selected by NASA for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission. The goal of this nadir-looking altimeter with synthetic aperture capabilities is to investigate the surface and subsurface of Mars providing data about the crustal composition of the planet. The sounder operates using a 20 MHz carrier and a bandwidth of 10 MHz (from 15 to 25 MHz) to achieve a theoretical vertical resolution of 15 m in free space, maintaining an acceptable penetration capability of approximately 1500 m. Performance of the instrument can however be highly dependent on the operating environment and in particular on the reflectivity of the surface and the subsurface, on the effect of the ionosphere and on the level of clutter echoes, which in turn depend on the surface topography. Laboratory measurements of electrical and magnetic properties of grey hematite at Mars ambient temperatures in the ground penetrating radar frequency range have produced surprisingly strong dielectric relaxations as well as the expected magnetic properties. At the average Mars surface temperature of 213 K hematite has a strong dielectric relaxation near 15 MHz which is strongly temperature dependent. Between day and night this relaxation will move through the frequency range of SHARAD that may be capable of identifying the temperature dependence. Several works regarding the effect that magnetic materials should have on the signal transmitted by ground penetrating radars like SHARAD have been

  20. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R.; Mark, Darren F.; Smith, Caroline L.

    2013-10-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth’s crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars’ history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2.

  1. Crystal-Chemical Analysis Martian Minerals in Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N..; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; DesMarais, D. J.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analyses on scooped soil at Rocknest and on drilled rock fines at Yellowknife Bay (John Klein and Cumberland samples), The Kimberley (Windjana sample), and Pahrump (Confidence Hills sample) in Gale crater, Mars. Samples were analyzed with the Rietveld method to determine the unit-cell parameters and abundance of each observed crystalline phase. Unit-cell parameters were used to estimate compositions of the major crystalline phases using crystal-chemical techniques. These phases include olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene minerals. Comparison of the CheMin sample unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical compositions of the major crystalline phases. Preliminary unit-cell parameters, abundances and compositions of crystalline phases found in Rocknest and Yellowknife Bay samples were reported in. Further instrument calibration, development of 2D-to- 1D pattern conversion corrections, and refinement of corrected data allows presentation of improved compositions for the above samples.

  2. Development of a Martian regolith simulant for in-situ resource utilization testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. N.; Oze, C.; Tang, Y.; O'Loughlin, A.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term human habitation of Mars will require in situ resources for construction and infrastructure development. In order to determine how to utilize in situ resources, such as Martian regolith, these materials need to be synthesized on Earth for testing and development. Here we address the process of synthesizing a targeted Martian simulant (i.e., Gusev Crater regolith near the Columbia Hills region on Mars) in sufficient quantities required for infrastructure development studies using volcanic material obtained from Banks Peninsula, New Zealand. Martian simulant produced via crushing, sieving, washing and blending of basalts and volcanic glass resulted in accurately reproducing material similar in particle size, chemistry and mineralogy to Gusev Crater regolith. Overall, our applied approach to synthesizing Martian regolith will aid in creating suitable quantities of material that can be used for a variety of research applications such as assessing aggregates for use in the production of construction materials.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: tantalum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article offers information on a rare transition metal called tantalum. It says that the blue-gray mineral resource was discovered in 1801 or 1802 and was used for capacitors in 1940. It adds that the tantalite ore and other minerals in the ore should be separated in order to generate concentrates of tantalum. The use of tantalum are also cited.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: potash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  6. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  7. Mineral resources, environmental issues, and land use.

    PubMed

    Hodges, C A

    1995-06-02

    Contrary to predictions from the 1950s through the mid-1980s, persistent shortages of nonfuel minerals have not occurred, despite prodigious consumption, and world reserves have increased. Global availability of raw materials is relevant to policy decisions regarding mineral development and land use. Justification for environmental protection may exceed that for mining a specific ore body. Demand for environmental accountability is rising worldwide, and new technologies are enabling internalization of costs. Mineral-rich developing nations plagued by inefficient state-owned mining enterprises, high population growth rates, and environmental degradation could realize substantial benefit by reforming government policies to encourage foreign investment in resources and by appropriate allocation of mineral rents.

  8. Physical abrasion of mafic minerals and basalt grains: application to Martian aeolian deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornwall, Carin; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Titus, Timothy N.; Schreiber, B. C.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment maturity, or the mineralogical and physical characterization of sediment deposits, has been used to locate sediment source, transport medium and distance, weathering processes, and paleoenvironments on Earth. Mature terrestrial sands are dominated by quartz, which is abundant in source lithologies on Earth and is physically and chemically stable under a wide range of conditions. Immature sands, such as those rich in feldspars or mafic minerals, are composed of grains that are easily physically weathered and highly susceptible to chemical weathering. On Mars, which is predominately mafic in composition, terrestrial standards of sediment maturity are not applicable. In addition, the martian climate today is cold, dry and sediments are likely to be heavily influenced by physical weathering rather than chemical weathering. Due to these large differences in weathering processes and composition, martian sediments require an alternate maturity index. Abrason tests have been conducted on a variety of mafic materials and results suggest that mature martian sediments may be composed of well sorted, well rounded, spherical basalt grains. In addition, any volcanic glass present is likely to persist in a mechanical weathering environment while chemically altered products are likely to be winnowed away. A modified sediment maturity index is proposed that can be used in future studies to constrain sediment source, paleoclimate, mechanisms for sediment production, and surface evolution. This maturity index may also provide details about erosional and sediment transport systems and preservation processes of layered deposits.

  9. Possible magnetic minerals constituents in the Martian crust and microstructures consistent with large remanent magnetizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Michelena, M.; Laughlin, D.; McHenry, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    Please fill in your abstract text. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has played a unique role in the mapping of the Martian magnetic field. Thanks to the results and later data analysis of this mission it is known that Mars does not have a global bipolar magnetic field but that the crust presents areas of great magnetization. This fact is only compatible with a large concentration of highly magnetic minerals (magnetite) with a pinned monodomain magnetization [1, 2]. The next MetNet precursor mission (MMPM) aims to place a net of meteorological stations on the surface of Mars. In the first of them (est. 2014), among other payloads, the Spanish Institute of Aerospace Technology (INTA) has developed a miniaturized vector magnetometer with the goal of measuring the thermomagnetic response of the Martian soil around the lander. The work presented here discusses possible microstructures for the magnetic minerals in the Martian crust. The results presented will be focused on the titanomagnetites series [3] solid solution with compositions of: x (Fe2TiO4) - (1-x) (Fe3O4) with 0.30 < x < 1.00. Thermoremanent curves of the minerals from room temperature to 4 K will be presented since the first objective of the magnetometer is the exhaustive characterization of the thermoremanent curves of the soil in the range of temperatures expected for the sensor: from 143 K up to 293 K and the later analysis for the soil modeling [4]. The final objective is to identify a natural mechanism of the solid solution decomposition capable of yielding a mineral rich in magnetite, monodomain and with the magnetization pinned, that can explain the large magnitude of the magnetic anomalies [5]. 1. M. H. Acuña, J.E.P. Connerney, N.F. Ness, R.P. Lin, D. Mitchell, C.W. Carlson, J. McFadden, K.A. Anderson, H. Rème, C. Mazelle, D. Vignes, P. Wasilewski, and P. Cloutier; Global Distribution of Crustal Magnetism Discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor MAG/ER Experiment. Science 284, 790-793, 1999. 2. G

  10. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  11. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  12. USGS Mineral Resources Program: International Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The USGS is the country's leading earth science organization. Since 1879, USGS scientists have gathered and analyzed data and disseminated the results of their research on the geology, cartography, hydrology, and, more recently biology, of every continent and ocean on Earth. Multidisciplinary research both in the United States and in the international arena has been an important part of the USGS mission. The USGS Mineral Resources Program is the sole Federal agency program that provides high-quality scientific information, objective resource assessments, and unbiased research results on mineral issues

  13. Bulk and Stable Isotopic Compositions of Carbonate Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: No Proof of High Formation Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Romanek, Christopher S.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the origin of carbonate minerals in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is crucial to evaluating the hypothesis that they contain traces of ancient Martian life. Using arguments based on chemical equilibria among carbonates and fluids, an origin at greater than 650 C (inimical to life) has been proposed. However, the bulk and stable isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals are open to multiple interpretations and so lend no particular support to a high-temperature origin. Other methods (possibly less direct) will have to be used to determine the formation temperature of the carbonates in ALH 84001.

  14. Structural and Radiation Shielding Properties of a Martian Habitat Material Synthesized From In-Situ Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Caranza, S.; Bhattacharya, M.; Makel, D. B.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 primary requirements of a Martian habitat structure include sufficient structural integrity and effective radiation shielding. In addition, the capability to synthesize such building materials primarily from in-situ resources would significantly reduce the cost associated with transportation of such materials and structures from earth. To demonstrate the feasibility of such an approach we have fabricated samples in the laboratory using simulated in-situ resources, evaluated radiation shielding effectiveness using radiation transport codes and radiation test data, and conducted mechanical properties testing. In this paper we will present experimental results that demonstrate the synthesis of polyethylene from a simulated Martian atmosphere and the fabrication of a composite material using simulated Martian regolith with polyethylene as the binding material. Results from radiation transport calculations and data from laboratory radiation testing using a 500 MeV/nucleon Fe beam will be discussed. Mechanical properties of the proposed composite as a function of composition and processing parameters will also be presented.

  15. Martian resource utilization. 1: Plant design and transportation selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaloupis, Peter; Nolan, Peter E.; Cutler, Andrew H.

    1992-01-01

    Indigenous Space Materials Utilization (ISMU) provides an opportunity to make Mars exploration mission scenarios more affordable by reducing the initial mass necessary in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Martian propellant production is discussed in terms of simple design and economic tradeoffs. Fuel and oxidizer combinations included are H2/O2, CH4/O2, and CO/O2. Process flow diagrams with power and mass flow requirements are presented for a variety of processes, and some design requirements are derived. Maximum allowable plant masses for single use amortization are included.

  16. Martian resource utilization. 1: Plant design and transportation selection criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloupis, Peter; Nolan, Peter E.; Cutler, Andrew H.

    Indigenous Space Materials Utilization (ISMU) provides an opportunity to make Mars exploration mission scenarios more affordable by reducing the initial mass necessary in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Martian propellant production is discussed in terms of simple design and economic tradeoffs. Fuel and oxidizer combinations included are H2/O2, CH4/O2, and CO/O2. Process flow diagrams with power and mass flow requirements are presented for a variety of processes, and some design requirements are derived. Maximum allowable plant masses for single use amortization are included.

  17. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Detterman, R.L.; Case, J.E.; Church, S.E.; Frisken, J.G.; Wilson, F.H.; Yount, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides background information for the folio of maps that covers the geology, paleontology, geochronology, geochemistry, aeromagnetics, and mineral and energy resources of the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western Karluk quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula. Information on two U.S. Geological Survey miscellaneous investigations series maps and three derivative bulletins that resulted from this investigation are described also.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate rock minerals provide the only significant global resources of phosphorus, which is an essential element for plant and animal nutrition. Phosphate rock is used primarily as a principal component of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, but also to produce elemental phosphorus and animal feed.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program - Science Supporting Mineral Resource Stewardship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The United States is the world's largest user of mineral resources. We use them to build our homes and cities, fertilize our food crops, and create wealth that allows us to buy goods and services. Individuals rarely use nonfuel mineral resources in their natural state - we buy light bulbs, not the silica, soda ash, lime, coal, salt, tungsten, copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc used to convert electricity into light. The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) is the sole Federal source of scientific information and unbiased research on nonfuel mineral potential, production, and consumption, as well as on the environmental effects of minerals. The MRP also provides baseline geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-deposit data used to understand environmental issues related to extraction and use of mineral resources. Understanding how minerals, water, plants, and organisms interact contributes to our understanding of the environment, which is essential for maintaining human and ecosystem health. To support creation of economic and national security policies in a global context, MRP collects and analyzes data on essential mineral commodities from around the world.

  20. Resource Utilization and Site Selection for a Self-Sufficient Martian Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Donald; Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George

    1998-01-01

    As a planet with striking similarities to Earth, Mars is an important focus for scientific research aimed at understanding the processes of planetary evolution and the formation of our solar system. Fortunately, Mars is also a planet with abundant natural resources, including assessible materials that can be used to support human life and to sustain a self-sufficient martian outpost. Resources required include water, breathable air, food, shelter, energy, and fuel. Through a mission design based on in situ resource development, we can establish a permanent outpost on Mars beginning with the first manned mission. This paper examines the potential for supporting the first manned mission with the objective of achieving self-sufficiency through well-understood resource development and a program of rigorous scientific research aimed at extending that capability. We examine the potential for initially extracting critical resources from the martian environment, and discuss the scientific investigations required to identify additional resources in the atmosphere, on the surface, and within the subsurface. We also discuss our current state of knowledge of Mars, technical considerations of resource utilization, and using unmanned missions' data for selecting an optimal site. The primary goal of achieving self-sufficiency on Mars would accelerate the development of human colonization beyond Earth, while providing a robust and permanent martian base from which humans can explore and conduct long-term research on planetary evolution, the solar system, and life itself.

  1. Calculated mineral precipitation upon evaporation of a model Martian groundwater near 0 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debraal, J. D.; Reed, M. H.; Plumlee, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    Previously, the effect of weathering a basalt of Shergotty meteorite composition with pure water buffered at martian atmospheric values of CO2 and O2, to place constraints upon the composition of martian groundwater, and to determine possible equilibrium mineral assemblages was calculated. A revised calculation of the composition of the aqueous phase in the weathering reaction as a function of the amount of basalt titrated into the solution is shown. The concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions increase in the solution from high water/rock ratios (w/r) on the left to low water/rock ratios on the right, until at w/r = 1, where 1 kg of basalt has been titrated, sulfate concentration is 1564 ppm and chloride is 104 ppm. This resulting fluid is dominated by sulfate and sodium, with bicarbonate and chloride at about the same concentration. This solution was evaporated in an attempt to determine if the resulting evaporite can explain the Viking XRF data. The program CHILLER was used to evaporate this solution at 0.1 C.

  2. P21C-2113: Constraining Hesperian Martian PCO2 from Mineral Analysis at Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, Thomas; Haberle, Robert Michael; Blake, David Frederick; Vaniman, David T.; Grotzinger, John P.; Siebach, Kirsten L.; Des Marais, David J.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Sutter, Brad; Fairen, Alberto G.; Mischna, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is an essential atmospheric component in martian climate models that attempt to reconcile a faint young sun with widespread evidence of liquid water at the planet's surface in the Noachian and Early Hesperian. Current estimates of ancient martian CO levels, derived from global inventories of carbon, and orbital detections of Noachian and Early Hesperian clay mineralbearing terrains indicate CO levels that are unable to support warm and wet conditions. These estimates are subject to various sources of uncertainty however. Mineral and contextual sedimentary environmental data collected by the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in Gale Crater provide a more direct means of estimating the atmospheric partial pressure of CO (P ) coinciding with a long-lived lake system in Gale crater at approximately 3.5 Ga. Results from a reaction transport model, which simulates mineralogy observed within the Sheepbed member at Yellowknife Bay by coupling mineral equilibria with carbonate precipitation kinetics and rates of sedimentation, indicate atmospheric levels in the 10's mbar range. At such low P levels, climate models are unable to warm Hesperian Mars anywhere near the freezing point of water and other gases are required to raise atmospheric pressure to prevent lakes from boiling away. Thus, lacustrine features of Gale formed in a cold environment by a mechanism yet to be determined, or the climate models lack an essential component that would serve to elevate surface temperatures, at least temporally and/or locally, on Hesperian Mars. Our results also impose restrictions on the potential role of atmospheric CO in inferred warmer conditions of the Noachian.

  3. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the properties and uses lead as a mineral resource. According to the author, lead is a corrosion-resistant, dense, ductile, and malleable blue-gray metal that has been used by humans for 5,000 years. Lead was first used in decorative, fixtures, roofs, pipes, and windows. The author says that lead is the fifth-most consumed metal based on tonnage after iron, aluminum, copper and zinc.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bray, E. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: fluorspar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Fluorspar, this month’s featured mineral resource commodity, has been widely used in steelmaking since the introduction of basic open-hearth furnace technology in the late 19th century. Its uses have grown and changed over the last 100 years, and now fluorspar’s most important markets are fluorochemicals, aluminum refining and steel. M. Michael Miller, Fluorspar Commodity Specialist for the U.S. Geological Survey, has prepared the following information about fluorspar.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: ferrous slag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The article offers information on mineral resource ferrous slag. Ferrous slag is produced through the addition of materials such as limestone and dolomite to blast and steel furnaces to remove impurities from iron ore and to lower the heat requirements for processes in iron and steel making. It is stated that the method of cooling is important for the market uses and value of ferrous slag. Some types of slag can be used in construction, glass manufacturing and thermal insulation.

  8. 77 FR 56179 - Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Yerington, Nevada....

  9. 77 FR 48495 - Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Yerington, Nevada....

  10. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  11. Mineral resources, economic growth, and world populatic.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D B; Andrews, P W

    1974-07-05

    World population and world income can grow at any likely rate for the next 50 to 75 years, probably for longer, and mineral supplies will continue to keep pace with demand. Not, however, without environmental costs, without affecting Third World development, and, perhaps most important, without ignoring critical questions of power. In what might be termed the revisionist form of the limits to growth thesis, Aurelio Peccei and Alexander King, cofounders of the Club of Rome, seem to be saying that the forecasts of doom themselves are unimportant but they symbolize critical problems of the nature and uses of power in the modern world (30): . . . the Club of Rome is questioning the quality of growth and its distribution around the world. . . . We know that the present structure of the world is obsolete. . . . Both private and state capitalism are stale . . . we have to develop something else. Surely, continually increasing rates of mineral production are symptoms of this obsolete power structure, a result of the fact that, ultimately, population growth and monetary income growth lead to demands for natural resources that necessitate their being found and produced regardless of the implications. Since such higher rates of production are geologically and economically sustainable, we should choose among alternative paths of growth, and hence among alternative rates of mineral resource development, according to what we like or dislike about these implications. The key information will not be found in tables comparing reserves and consumption but in preferences and ethics.

  12. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  13. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, R L; Marshall, J R; White, M R

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end we are investigating methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  14. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Marshall, John R.; White, Melisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end, methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology are investigated. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromotography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  15. Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattman, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

  16. 76 FR 40678 - Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Forest Service Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hawthorne, NV. The committee... meeting will be held July 22, 2011, 9 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mineral...

  17. 76 FR 43259 - Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Forest Service Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hawthorne, NV. The committee... meeting will be held August 10, 2011, 9 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mineral...

  18. 76 FR 29723 - Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Forest Service Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Yerington, NV. The committee... https://fsplaces.fs.fed.us/fsfiles/unit/wo/secure_rural_schools.nsf , by selecting the Lyon-Mineral...

  19. Visible Wavelength Spectroscopy of Ferric Minerals: A Key Tool for Identification of Ancient Martian Aqueous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Bell, J. F., III; Morris, Richard V.

    2000-01-01

    The mineralogic signatures of past aqueous alteration of a basaltic Martian crust may include iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, zeolites, carbonates, phyllosilicates, and silica. The identities, relative abundances, and crystallinities of the phases formed in a particular environment depend on physicochemical conditions. At one extreme, hot spring environments may be characterized by smectite-chlorite to talc-kaolinite silicate assemblages, plus crystalline ferric oxides dominated by hematite. However, most environments, including cold springs, pedogenic layers, and ponded surface water, are expected to deposit iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, carbonates, and smectite-dominated phyllosilicates. A substantial fraction of the ferric iron is expected to occur in nanophase form, with the exact mineralogy strongly influenced by Eh-pH conditions. Detection of these phases has been an objective of a large body of terrestrial telescopic, Mars orbital, and landed spectral investigations and in situ compositional measurements. However, clear identifications of many of these phases is lacking. Neither carbonate nor silica has been unequivocally detected by any method. Although phyllosilicates may occur near the limit of detection by remote sensing, in general they appear to occur in only poorly crystalline form. In contrast, compelling evidence for ferric iron minerals has been gathered by recent telescopic investigations, the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). These data yield two crucial findings: (1) In the global, high spatial resolution TES data set, highly crystalline ferric iron (as coarse-grained 'gray' hematite) has been recognized but with only very limited spatial occurrence and (2) Low-resolution telescopic reflectance spectroscopy, very limited orbital reflectance spectroscopy, and landed multispectral imaging provide strong indications that at least two broad classes of ferric iron minerals

  20. Geological Character and Mineral Resources of South Central Lake Erie.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    AD-A123 085 GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERAND MINERAL RESOURCES OF SOUTH 1/ CENTRAL LAKE ERIE(U) COASTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENT ER FORT E LVOIR VA S d...CHART NATMOAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS-1963-A 1.1 lilt. AR MR 82-9 Geological Character and Mineral Resources of South Central Lake Erie by S. Jeff ress...GEOLOGICAL CHARACTER AND MINERAL RESOURCES Miscellaneous Report OF SOUTH CENTRAL LAKE ERIE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHORI’.) S. CONTRACT

  1. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  2. The Apparent Involvement of ANMEs in Mineral Dependent Methane Oxidation, as an Analog for Possible Martian Methanotrophy

    PubMed Central

    House, Christopher H.; Beal, Emily J.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2011-01-01

    On Earth, marine anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) can be driven by the microbial reduction of sulfate, iron, and manganese. Here, we have further characterized marine sediment incubations to determine if the mineral dependent methane oxidation involves similar microorganisms to those found for sulfate-dependent methane oxidation. Through FISH and FISH-SIMS analyses using 13C and 15N labeled substrates, we find that the most active cells during manganese dependent AOM are primarily mixed and mixed-cluster aggregates of archaea and bacteria. Overall, our control experiment using sulfate showed two active bacterial clusters, two active shell aggregates, one active mixed aggregate, and an active archaeal sarcina, the last of which appeared to take up methane in the absence of a closely-associated bacterial partner. A single example of a shell aggregate appeared to be active in the manganese incubation, along with three mixed aggregates and an archaeal sarcina. These results suggest that the microorganisms (e.g., ANME-2) found active in the manganese-dependent incubations are likely capable of sulfate-dependent AOM. Similar metabolic flexibility for Martian methanotrophs would mean that the same microbial groups could inhabit a diverse set of Martian mineralogical crustal environments. The recently discovered seasonal Martian plumes of methane outgassing could be coupled to the reduction of abundant surface sulfates and extensive metal oxides, providing a feasible metabolism for present and past Mars. In an optimistic scenario Martian methanotrophy consumes much of the periodic methane released supporting on the order of 10,000 microbial cells per cm2 of Martian surface. Alternatively, most of the methane released each year could be oxidized through an abiotic process requiring biological methane oxidation to be more limited. If under this scenario, 1% of this methane flux were oxidized by biology in surface soils or in subsurface aquifers (prior to release), a total

  3. Secondary sulfate mineralization and basaltic chemistry of craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential martian analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doc Richardson, C.; Hinman, Nancy W.; McHenry, Lindsay J.; Michelle Kotler, J.; Knipe, Dawn L.; Scott, Jill R.

    2012-05-01

    Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) basalts offer a reasonable analog to martian basalts, as they have elevated iron concentrations compared to traditional terrestrial analogs. Although secondary sulfate minerals on the evaporitic regions of Mars consist primarily of Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing sulfate minerals, recent orbiter spectroscopic data have suggested Na-sulfate minerals may be present. Secondary minerals in the basaltic caves of COM in southern Idaho are white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and localized mounds on the cave floors. These deposits were examined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (LD-FTICRMS). The secondary mineral assemblages were dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. Based on thermodynamic modeling results, formation of the deposits was attributed to leaching of basalt minerals by meteoritic water followed by evaporation of solutions. Such deposits could form under similar conditions in basaltic caves on Mars, making caves an excellent target for astrobiological investigations.

  4. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  5. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  6. Utilization of on-site resources for regenerative life support systems at Lunar and Martian outposts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Henninger, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    Lunar and martian materials can be processed and used at planetary outposts to reduce the need (and thus the cost) of transportng supplies from Earth. A variety of uses for indigenous, on-site materials have been suggested, including uses as rocket propellants, construction materials, and life support materials. Utilization of on-site resources will supplement Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) that will be needed to regenerate air, water, wastes, and to produce food (e.g., plants) for human consumption during long-duration space missions. Natural materials on the Moon and/or Mars may be used for a variety of RLSS needs including (1) soils or solid-support substrate for plant growth, (2) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (3) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and water, (4) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (5) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. In addition to the regolith, the martian atmosphere will provide additional resources at a Mars outpost, including water, CO2 and other atmospheric gases.

  7. Mineral resources of Elko County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Roscoe Maurice

    1976-01-01

    minerals mined were sedimentary bedded deposits, but mica was mined from pegmatite deposits, and turquoise from both placer and hydrothermal deposits. The largest known reserves of metals (1973) are of porphyry copper in the Dolly Varden district and gold in the Bootstrap district. Reserves of barite also are presumed to be large. The greatest potential for future production of metals, notably copper and gold, appears to be in the known districts or extensions of them and peripheral to deposits that are related to known or concealed plutons and thrust faults. Potential resources in deposits too low in grade to be worked profitably at the present time include all commodities that have been produced and, in addition, known, deposits of beryllium, molybdenum, tin, and phosphorite. Speculative resources in undiscovered deposits may reasonably be predicted to include all known commodities as well as others that are unsuspected. Petroleum may yet be produced from the Elko Formation and geothermal energy from the Ruby Valley and Elko areas.

  8. 76 FR 19030 - Lyon & Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lyon & Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon and Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in...

  9. 78 FR 49446 - Lyon-Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lyon-Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Lyon-Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet...

  10. Rare-earth-element minerals in martian breccia meteorites NWA 7034 and 7533: Implications for fluid-rock interaction in the martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Ma, Chi; Beckett, John R.; Chen, Yang; Guan, Yunbin

    2016-10-01

    low Yb content relative to Gd and Dy in xenotime suggest the possible formation of xenotime as a byproduct of fluid-zircon reactions. On the basis of relatively fresh apatite grains and lithic clasts in the same samples, we propose that the fluid-rock/mineral reactions occurred in the source rocks before their inclusion in NWA 7034 and 7533. Additionally, monazite-bearing apatite and REE-mineral-bearing clasts are possibly derived from different crustal origins. Thus, our results imply the wide-occurrence of hydrothermal fluids in the martian crust at 1 Ga or older, which were probably induced by impacts or large igneous intrusions.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: Vermiculite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  12. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  13. MRPM: three visual basic programs for mineral resource potential mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongliang

    2004-11-01

    A traditional method for mineral resource potential mapping is to superimpose a number of indicator maps, and to combine geological information with or without the use of multivariate statistical models. More recently, GISs have become widely applied in mineral resource assessment and many statistical models for geological information synthesis have been proposed. GIS-based mineral resource potential mapping has facilitated modern mineral resource assessment. As a contribution to publicly available computer software for GIS-based mineral resource assessment, integrated three Visual Basic programs have been developed on MapInfo platform. The programs integrate map patterns using weights of evidence, applied general C-F, and evidence theory models, and generate posterior probability, combined certainty factor, and combined basic probability assignment maps, respectively. The software is demonstrated by a case study based on a real data set.

  14. Mineralization of Bacteria in Terrestrial Basaltic Rocks: Comparison With Possible Biogenic Features in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Stevens, T. O.; Taunton, A. E.; Allen, C. C.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Romanek, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    The identification of biogenic features altered by diagenesis or mineralization is important in determining whether specific features in terrestrial rocks and in meteorites may have a biogenic origin. Unfortunately, few studies have addressed the formation of biogenic features in igneous rocks, which may be important to these phenomena, including the controversy over possible biogenic features in basaltic martian meteorite ALH84001. To explore the presence of biogenic features in igneous rocks, we examined microcosms growing in basaltic small-scale experimental growth chambers or microcosms. Microbial communities were harvested from aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) group and grown in a microcosm containing unweathered basalt chips and groundwater (technique described in. These microcosms simulated natural growth conditions in the deep subsurface of the CRB, which should be a good terrestrial analog for any putative martian subsurface ecosystem that may have once included ALH84001. Here we present new size measurements and photomicrographs comparing the putative martian fossils to biogenic material in the CRB microcosms. The range of size and shapes of the biogenic features on the CRB microcosm chips overlaps with and is similar to those on ALH84001 chips. Although this present work does not provide evidence for the biogenicity of ALH84001 features, we believe that, based on criteria of size, shape, and general morphology, a biogenic interpretation for the ALH84001 features remains plausible.

  15. Mineral resource of the month: Mica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    The mica mineral group includes 34 phyllosilicate minerals, all with a layered, platy texture. The mineral has been known for millennia: Mica was first mined in India about 4,000 years ago, where it was used primarily in medicines. The Mayans used it for decorative effect in stucco to make their temples sparkle in the sun. Today it is used in everything from electrical products to makeup.

  16. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  17. Mineral Resource of the Month: Graphite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald W.

    2008-01-01

    Graphite, a grayish black opaque mineral with a metallic luster, is one of four forms of pure crystalline carbon (the others are carbon nanotubes, diamonds and fullerenes). It is one of the softest minerals and it exhibits perfect basal (one-plane) cleavage. Graphite is the most electrically and thermally conductive of the nonmetals, and it is chemically inert.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Strontium occurs commonly in nature, ranking as the 15th most abundant chemical element on Earth. Only two minerals contain sufficient strontium, however, to be used commercially to produce strontium compounds: Strontianite (strontium carbonate) has a higher strontium content, but celestite (strontium sulfate) is by far the most abundant strontium mineral.

  19. Martian weathering/alteration scenarios from spectral studies of ferric and ferrous minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Adams, John B.; Morris, Richard V.

    1992-01-01

    We review the major aspects of our current knowledge of martian ferric and ferrous mineralogy based on the available ground-based telescopic and spacecraft data. What we know and what we don't know are used to constrain various weathering/alteration models and to identify key future measurements and techniques that can distinguish between these models.

  20. USGS Mineral Resources Program: A National Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Minerals are chemical compounds abundant in the rocks, soil, and water around us and they have a profound impact on the lives of all beings. Naturally occurring minerals define the landscape in which we live. They affect our ecosystems, influence the availability of nutrients that support biota, impact the distribution of vegetation, and may also contribute to contamination of the environment. Minerals are used in fertilizers for farming, in concrete and building materials for construction, in aggregate for roads, in steel for cars and all manner of transportation, and in materials crucial to the communications industry.

  1. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: soda ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kostic, Dennis S.

    2006-01-01

    Soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate, is an alkali chemical that can be refined from the mineral trona and from sodium carbonate-bearing brines. Several chemical processes exist for manufacturing synthetic soda ash.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Vermiculite, a hydrated magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate mineral, has a range of uses that take advantage of its fire resistance, good insulating properties, high liquid absorption capacity, inertness and low density. Most applications for vermiculite use an exfoliated (heat-expanded) form of the mineral. In general, coarser grades of vermiculite are used as loose fill insulation and in horticulture. Finer grades are used in wallboard and plasters and for animal feeds and fertilizers.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Clays represent one of the largest mineral commodities in the world in terms of mineral and rock production and use. Many people, however, do not recognize that clays are used in an amazingly wide variety of applications. Use continues to increase worldwide as populations and their associated needs increase. Robert Virta, clay and shale commodity specialist for the U.S. Geological Survey, has prepared the following information about clays.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: feldspar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on feldspar, a mineral that composes of potassium, sodium, or a fusion of the two, and its various applications. According to estimates by scientists, the mineral is present at 60 percent of the crust of Earth, wherein it is commonly used for making glass and ceramics. Global mining of feldspar was about 20 million metric tons in 2010, wherein Italy, Turkey, and China mine 55 percent of the feldspar worldwide.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: gypsum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    You may not realize it, but the walls of your office are probably made from a mineral: gypsum. Gypsum is an abundant, evaporite-derived sedimentary mineral with deposits located throughout the world. It is often associated with paleoenvironmental lake and marine environments. In its pure form, gypsum consists of calcium sulfate dihydrate, although most crude gypsum naturally occurs in combination with anhydrite, clay, dolomite and/or limestone.

  7. USGS Mineral Resources Program--Supporting Stewardship of America's Natural Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program continues a tradition of Federal leadership in the science of mineral resources that extends back before the beginning of the bureau. The need for information on metallic mineral resources helped lead to the creation of the USGS in 1879. In response to the need to assess large areas of Federal lands in the 20th century, Program scientists developed, tested, and refined tools to support managers making land-use decisions on Federal lands. The refinement of the tools and techniques that have established the USGS as a leader in the world in our ability to conduct mineral resource assessments extends into the 21st century.

  8. Mineral resources: out of the ground...into our daily lives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Dave; Weathers, Judy; Galloway, John

    2001-01-01

    Minerals and mineral resources are a part of our everyday lives. This poster depicts a home and shows the different mineral(s) and mineral materials used to make the various products found in the average home.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: fluorspar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The article features the industrial mineral fluorspar, used in the manufacture of fluorochemicals, aluminum and steel. It defines fluorspar as crude or beneficiated material, mined or milled for the non-metallic mineral fluorite or calcium fluoride. Applications of acid-grade fluorspar in the U.S. are presented, including production of hydrofluoric acid for chemical production of refrigerants such as chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs. World demand for fluorspar decreased with the CFC ban in the 1990s, but recovered with the use of hydrofluorocarbons or HFCs.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  11. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.246 Section 250.246 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the...

  12. Mineral resource of the month: Arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a gray metal rarely encountered as a free element, but is widely distributed in minerals and ores that contain copper, iron and lead. Arsenic is often found in groundwater as a result of the natural weathering of rock and soil.

  13. Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1950-01-01

    The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: kyanite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Kyanite and related minerals are used in making refractories, which are materials that can withstand high-temperature environments, generally in excess of 1,100 degrees Celsius. Refractories form an inner lining to furnaces, kilns and other containers with which molten metals and glass come into contact. Fifty to 70 percent of global refractory consumption is related to the steel industry.

  15. Mineral resource of the month: molybdenum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désire E.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers information about the mineral molybdenum. Sources includes byproduct or coproduct copper-molybdenum deposits in the Western Cordillera of North and South America. Among the uses of molybdenum are stainless steel applications, as an alloy material for manufacturing vessels and as lubricants, pigments or chemicals. Also noted is the role played by molybdenum in renewable energy technology.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: diatomite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the properties and applications of the mineral diatomite. According to the author, diatomite is a soft, friable and very fine-grained siliceous sedimentary rock made of the remains of fossilized diatoms. The author adds that its properties make diatomite very useful as a filtration medium and as a component in cement.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: thorium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on thorium. Thorium is a natural radioactive element that can be found with other minerals. It can be used to generate power, produce light and transmit energy. Thorium has a potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. This element was discovered by Swedish chemist and mineralogist Jóns Jakob Berzelius in 1828.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on mercury, a mineral commodity used in industrial and small-scale gold mining applications. Mercury has been reported to be used for amalgamation with gold since the Roman times. Mercury from cinnabar from Almadén, Spain has been used by Romans and has been continued to be used through the Middle Ages and the Colonial era.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  20. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  1. Mineral resource of the month: lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium, the lightest metallic element, is silvery, white and soft, and highly reactive. It is used most frequently in chemical compounds or traded as mineral concentrates. Its thermal properties make it an ideal component in thermal shock-resistant ceramics, and its electrochemical properties make it an ideal material for several types of batteries.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: barite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Also called barytes, barite forms in various geologic environments and is frequently found with both metallic and nonmetallic minerals. Most barite is produced by open-pit mining techniques, and most crude barite requires some upgrading to meet minimum purity or specific gravity levels.

  3. Micro-Spectroscopy as a Tool for Detecting Micron-Scale Mineral Variations Across a Rock Surface: An Example Using a Thin Section of Martian Meteorite ALH 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, J. Brad; Bishop, Janice L.

    2003-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy is a powerful tool for mineral detection across broad spatial regions. A prototype micro-imaging spectrometer at NASA Ames is tested in this study on a scale of tens to hundreds of microns across rock surfaces. Initial measurements were performed in the visible spectral region on a thin section of martian meteorite ALH 84001.

  4. Bacterial mineralization patterns in basaltic aquifers: Implications for possible life in Martian meteorite ALH84001

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas-Keprta, K.L.; Wentworth, S.J.; Allen, C.C.; McKay, D.S.; Gibson, E.K. Jr.; Stevens, T.O.; Taunton, A.E.; Coleman, A.; Romanek, C.S.

    1998-11-01

    To explore the formation and preservation of biogenic features in igneous rocks, the authors have examined the organisms in experimental basaltic microcosms using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of microorganisms were recognized on the basis of size, morphology, and chemical composition. Some of the organisms mineralized rapidly, whereas others show no evidence of mineralization. Many mineralized cells are hollow and do not contain evidence of microstructure. Filaments, either attached or no longer attached to organisms, are common. Unattached filaments are mineralized and are most likely bacterial appendages (e.g., prosthecae). Features similar in size and morphology to unattached, mineralized filaments are recognized in martial meteorite ALH84001.

  5. Electrostatic Precipitation of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Implications for the Utilization of Resources During Future Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Clements, Judson S.; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Hogue, Michael D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.

    2011-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require the utilization of local resources for oxygen, fuel. and water. The In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project is an active research endeavor at NASA to develop technologies that can enable cost effective ways to live off the land. The extraction of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. composed primarily of carbon dioxide, is one of the most important goals of the Mars ISRU project. The main obstacle is the relatively large amount of dust present in the Martian atmosphere. This dust must be efficiently removed from atmospheric gas intakes for ISRU processing chambers. A common technique to achieve this removal on earth is by electrostatic precipitation, where large electrostatic fields are established in a localized region to precipitate and collect previously charged dust particles. This technique is difficult to adapt to the Martian environment, with an atmospheric pressure of about one-hundredth of the terrestrial atmosphere. At these low pressures. the corona discharges required to implant an electrostatic charge to the particles to be collected is extremely difficult to sustain and the corona easily becomes biopolar. which is unsuitable for particle charging. In this paper, we report on our successful efforts to establish a stable corona under Martian simulated conditions. We also present results on dust collecting efficiencies with an electrostatic precipitator prototype that could be effectively used on a future mission to the red planet

  6. Electrostatic precipitation of dust in the Martian atmosphere: Implications for the utilization of resources during future manned exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, C. I.; Thompson, S. M.; Cox, N. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Williams, B. S.; Hogue, M. D.; Clements, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require the utilization of local resources for oxygen, fuel, and water. The In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project is an active research endeavor at NASA to develop technologies that can enable cost effective ways to live off the land. The extraction of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere, composed primarily of carbon dioxide, is one of the most important goals of the Mars ISRU project. The main obstacle is the relatively large amount of dust present in the Martian atmosphere. This dust must be efficiently removed from atmospheric gas intakes for ISRU processing chambers. A common technique to achieve this removal on earth is by electrostatic precipitation, where large electrostatic fields are established in a localized region to charge, precipitate and collect dust particles. This technique is difficult to adapt to the Martian environment, with an atmospheric pressure of about one-hundredth of the terrestrial atmosphere. At these low pressures, the corona discharges required to implant an electrostatic charge to the particles to be collected is extremely difficult to sustain and the corona easily transitions to a glow/streamer discharge, which is unsuitable for particle charging. In this paper, we report on our successful efforts to establish a stable corona under Martian simulated conditions. We also present results on dust collecting efficiencies with an electrostatic precipitator prototype that could be effectively used on a future mission to the red planet.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: feldspar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The United States is the third leading producer of feldspar worldwide, after Italy and Turkey, according to data published by the U.S. Geological Survey. Foreign analysts indicate that China is also a leading feldspar producer, but official production data are not available. Feldspars are aluminum silicate minerals that contain varying proportions of calcium, potassium and sodium. Usually occurring in igneous rocks, feldspars are estimated to constitute 60 percent of Earth’s crust.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: rhenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2012-01-01

    Rhenium, a silvery-white, heat resistant metal, has increased significantly in importance since its discovery in 1925. First isolated by a team of German chemists studying platinum ore, the mineral was named for the Rhine River. From 1925 until the 1960s, only two metric tons of rhenium were produced worldwide. Since then, its uses have steadily increased, including everything from unleaded gasoline to jet engines, and worldwide annual production now tops 45 metric tons.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: perlite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The article talks about perlite, which is a mineral used as an aggregate for lightweight construction products, filler for paints and horticultural soil blends. Perlite comes from viscous lava, mined and processed to produce lightweight material that competes with pumice, exfoliated vermiculite and expanded clay and shale. It is mined in about 35 countries that include Greece, Japan and the U.S. Other uses include insulation, concrete and plaster aggregate, and stonewashing.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.

    2007-01-01

    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: tungsten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on tungsten. It says that tungsten is a metal found in chemical compounds such as in the scheelite and ore minerals wolframite. It states that tungsten has the highest melting point and it forms a compound as hard as diamond when combined with carbon. It states that tungsten can be used as a substitute for lead in fishing weights, ammunition, and hunting shot. Moreover, China started to export tungsten materials and products instead of tungsten raw materials.

  14. Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Mineral Occurrences and Mineral Resource Assessment for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawiec, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has been investigated over a very long period of time by earth scientists from many disciplines and with diverse objectives in the studies. This publication attempts to apply much of the geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral occurrence information to a single objective focused on producing a mineral resource assessment for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. However, the value of this publication lies not within the results of the mineral resource assessment nor within the interactive PDF files which can be viewed on the screen, but within the geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral occurrence digital map coverages and databases which can be used for their own unique applications. The mineral resource assessment of Puerto Rico represents compilation of several decades of mineral investigations and studies. These investigations have been the joint efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources, and the University of Puerto Rico. This report contains not only the mineral-resource assessment, but also much of the scientific evidence upon which the assessment was based.

  15. Investigating the Martian Gullies for Possible Brine Origin: A Preliminary Search for Evaporite Minerals Using THEMIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Photographs taken by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard the Mars Odyssey (MO) spacecraft have shown the presence of young gullies on Mars. These gullies occur at middle and high latitudes (predominantly in the southern hemisphere) in the walls of both impact craters and canyons. They are thought possibly to be formed by the melting of ground ice, groundwater seepage (possibly as brines), surface runoff, or even liquid CO2, activated sporadically as a result of oscillations in Mars orbit. For this work, the hypothesis of gully formation being related to the outflow of brines will be investigated through the observation and study of spacecraft data. Brine rich fluids expunged from underground onto the walls of canyons and craters would either evaporate or freeze and sublimate. Removal of water from a brine by evaporation or sublimation would cause the solutes to precipitate as evaporite minerals on the canyon and crater walls or at the base of the walls, and possibly on the canyon and crater floors. Hence, the gully sites are ideal target areas to search for evaporites using THEMIS data. The objective of this work is to survey the recently acquired THEMIS data for spectral evidence of evaporite minerals, with a focus on areas of gully formation. Identifying salt mineral residues could provide chemical evidence in support of the brine origin of the Martian gullies.

  16. The study of minerals under simulated planetary conditions: Experiments of hydrated sulphates at environmental conditions of martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Mateo-Martí, E.; Fernández-Remolar, D.

    2007-08-01

    Minerals on planetary surfaces are usually identified comparing remote infrared spectral data to laboratory mineral databases obtained under terrestrial conditions. However, environmental conditions at other planetary surfaces could produce alterations on the standard mineral spectra. Spectroscopic signals of hydrated magnesium, calcium and hydroxlated iron sulphates have been recently detected on surface of Mars. Some experiments using environmental conditions at the martian surface (temperature and pressure ranges; atmospheric composition, including water vapor content; and ultraviolet radiation) of different sulphates have been performed in order to both, constrain the stability of the hydrated phases and detect any possible modification in their spectra. Experiments have been done in a simulation chamber located in Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid. The equipment has been developed for a wide range of simulation conditions, including a range of irradiation sources, and the implementation of analytical techniques, including IR and UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The equipment consists of a main vacuum chamber with dimensions of 50 cm long x 40 cm diameter, a second internal chamber connected by differential pumping with the main one, and a third side chamber for the gases analysis using a mass spectrometer. Chambers pressures are monitorized by different pirani-penning gauges. A liquid nitrogen cooling system is connected to the sample holder, and a gas system allows the mixing of gases and water.

  17. Formation of Carbonate Minerals in Martian Meteorite ALH 84001 from Cool Water Near the Surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonate minerals in the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite are important because they ought to contain information about the chemistry and temperature of the water they formed in. They are also an important part of testing the idea that the meteorite contains evidence of past life on Mars. Hypotheses for the origin of the carbonates are impressively varied. A key test of the ideas is to determine the temperature at which the carbonates formed. Estimates up to now range from a bit below freezing to 700 oC, too big a range to test anything! To address the problem Itay Halevy, Woodward Fischer, and John Eiler (Caltech) used an approach that involves "clumped" isotope thermometry, which makes comparisons among different isotopic compositions of extracted CO2. This allowed the investigators to use the isotopic abundances of both carbon and oxygen. The results indicate that the carbonates formed at 18 ± 4 oC from a shallow subsurface (upper few meters to tens of meters) pool of water that was gradually evaporating. The wet episode did not last long, leading Halevy and his colleagues to conclude that the environment may have been too transient for life to have emerged here from scratch. On the other hand, if life already existed on the Martian surface this wet near-surface environment would have provided a happy home. An impact blasted the Martian home of ALH 84001, causing a transient heating event, perhaps disturbing the isotopic record...or perhaps not because the event was so short. In any case, the clumped isotope thermometry approach seems to have given a good measurement of the temperature at which the carbonate minerals formed.

  18. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.

    2006-01-01

    The ore of mercury, cinnabar, is soft and dark red, and native mercury is one of a few metals that is liquid at room temperatures. Cinnabar from Almaden, Spain, the world’s oldest producing mercury mine, was used during Roman times, and the chemical symbol for mercury (Hg) is from "hydrargyrum," from the Greek word meaning liquid silver. Cinnabar and mercury are associated with some hydrothermal mineral deposits and occur in fine-grained or sedimentary and volcanic rocks near hot springs or volcanic centers. Mercury may be recovered as a byproduct of processing copper, gold, lead-zinc or silver.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  1. Mineral resources, geological structures, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Since March 1973 there has been a shift in ERTS results in geology from the initial show-and-tell stage to a period in which scientific studies predominated, and now to an emphasis on effective applications having economic benefits and clearcut relevance to national needs. Many years will be spent on geological tasks resulting from ERTS alone; reconnaissance mapping in inaccessible regions, map revisions, regional or synoptic analysis of crustal fractures, assessment of dynamic surficial processes, systematic search for mineral wealth, use of sophisticated enhancement techniques, recognition of potential geologic hazards, and many more applications that still need to be defined.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.

    2004-01-01

    As if classified as a top-secret project, the rare earths have been shrouded in secrecy. The principal ore mineral of the group, bastnäsite, rarely appears in the leading mineralogy texts. The long names of the rare-earth elements and some unusual arrangements of letters, many Scandinavian in origin, may have intimidated even those skilled in phonics. Somewhat obscurely labeled, the rare earths are neither rare nor earths (the historical term for oxides). They are a relatively abundant group of metallic elements that occur in nature as nonmetallic compounds and have hundreds of commercial applications.

  3. Chemical modeling constraints on Martian surface mineralogies formed in an early, warm, wet climate, and speculations on the occurrence of phosphate minerals in the Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian; Debraal, Jeffrey D.

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of reports summarizing our chemical modeling studies of water-rock-gas interactions at the martian surface through time. The purpose of these studies is to place constraints on possible mineralogies formed at the martian surface and to model the geochemical implications of martian surficial processes proposed by previous researchers. Plumlee and Ridley summarize geochemical processes that may have occurred as a result of inferred volcano- and impact-driven hydrothermal activity on Mars. DeBraal et al. model the geochemical aspects of water-rock interactions and water evaporation near 0 C, as a prelude to future calculations that will model sub-0 C brine-rock-clathrate interactions under the current martian climate. In this report, we discuss reaction path calculations that model chemical processes that may have occurred at the martian surface in a postulated early, warm, wet climate. We assume a temperature of 25 C in all our calculations. Processes we model here include (1) the reaction of rainwater under various ambient CO2 and O2 pressures with basaltic rocks at the martian surface, (2) the formation of acid rain by volcanic gases such as HCl and SO2, (3) the reactions of acid rain with basaltic surficial materials, and (4) evaporation of waters resulting from rainwater-basalt interactions.

  4. Martian Surface Composition From Multiple Datasets, Part II: Chemical Analysis of Global Mineral Distributions from MGS-TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.; Rogers, D.

    2010-12-01

    Koeppen and Hamilton [2008, JGR-Planets] produced global mineral maps of Mars from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data using a library of mineral and amorphous phase spectra and a linear least squares fitting algorithm. Here we will use known or estimated bulk chemistries of the phases in the Koeppen and Hamilton [2008] spectral library, along with each phase's modeled abundance in the TES data from that work, to calculate effective bulk chemistry for Martian dark regions at a spatial resolution of ~3x6 km. By doing this, we are able to analyze global bulk chemical variation as well as enable direct comparisons between TES data and chemical/elemental abundance maps (e.g., wt.% SiO2) produced using data collected by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer. A second chemical analysis also makes use of the Koeppen and Hamilton [2008] global mineral maps and focuses on the spatial variations in solid solution chemistry among feldspars, pyroxenes, high silica phases (e.g., silica, phyllosilicates, zeolites), and sulfates. Koeppen and Hamilton [2008] demonstrated that there is a range of Mg-Fe olivine compositions on Mars and that there are distinct geographic distributions of those phases, pointing to spatial variations in geologic processes. We use the same methodology to search for correlations between geography (e.g., geologic unit, latitude), elevation, and chemical (solid solution) composition. Preliminary analyses of pyroxene chemical variation reveal that globally, low-Ca pyroxenes are dominated by the clinopyroxene pigeonite and that among orthopyroxenes, Mg-rich phases (enstatite) are virtually never identified and phases with greater proportions of Fe (bronzite and hypersthene) are identified in distinct geographic and/or geologic terrains. Only the distribution of hypersthene (the composition of pyroxene in the Martian meteorite ALH 84001) correlates with the OMEGA-mapped distribution of low-Ca pyroxene suggesting that OMEGA-based maps of high-Ca pyroxene may include

  5. The application of GIS in identifying mineral resources in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekhibi, Soliman; Wadi, Monira; Said, Ali

    2012-04-01

    In any country, natural mineral resources are considered the back-bone for the development of the industry and the country's economical growth. Exploration and mining for mineral ores and manufacturing and marketing these ores will add value to the country's national income. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has an advantage over other information systems because it combines the conventional query operations with the ability to display and analyze spatial data from maps, satellite imagery, and aerial photography. Knowing the importance of mineral ores as a pilar of the economy this paper concentrates on mineral resources in Libya. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used for identifying mineral resources in Libya. Geodatabases were designed and all available information were stored in these geodatabases. The information was collected from scientific researchers, and geological and mining studies. The database also, included the Libyan international boundaries, the administrative boundaries and the oil and gas fields and pipelines, and such maps as geophysical and geological maps. Thus a comprehensive database was created containing all the information available concerning mineral resources in Libya.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

  7. Space Radar Image of Mineral Resources, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of a mineral-rich region in southern China is being used by geologists to identify potential new areas for mineral exploration. The area shown is the vicinity of the city of Zhao Qing, the light blue area along the banks of the River Xi Jiang in the lower left. This is in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong, about 75 kilometers (46 miles) west of Guangzhou (Canton). The largest gold mine in southern China is located in the far upper left of the image along a brightly reflective mountain ridge. Using the radar image as a guide, geologists are tracing the extension of the ridge structure to the east (right) to identify possible mining areas. Radar imaging is especially useful for this purpose because of its sensitivity to subtle topographic structure, even in areas such as these, which have a dense vegetation cover. The Xi Jiang area is one of the most productive mining regions in China, with deposits of tungsten, lead, zinc and gold. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttleEndeavour on April 17, 1994. The image is centered at 37.2 degreesnorth latitude and 112.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 60 kilometers by 38 kilometers (37.2 miles by 23.6 miles) The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earthprogram.

  8. Use of Martian resources in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

    PubMed

    Smernoff, D T; MacElroy, R D

    1989-01-01

    The exploration of Mars has long been considered as a major goal in the exploration of the Solar system. The Space Station Freedom will make such missions feasible because it will provide a site for the assembly and launch of the large vehicles required. Interest in manned visits to Mars often focus on the possibility of collecting information about the origin of that planet, & hence of the solar system, including the Earth. Interest also involves the history of the planet, its past record of geological and fluvial activity, atmospheric and thermal history and surface chemical activity. The latter is of particular interest to exobiologists who would like to seek evidence of pre-biological physical and chemical activity involving organic molecules. Finally, there is interest in the possibility of planetary ecosynthesis, i.e. specific intervention in the evolution of Mars that could result in the development of a second habitable planet in the solar system. The scenarios for visits and the establishment of bases on Mars are being developed now. The intent of this paper is to consider various possibilities for crew life support on Mars and particularly to explore the use of Martian resources as life support materials.

  9. Mineral resources and consumption in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; Singer, Donald A.; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Simpson, R.D.; Toman, M.A.; Ayres, R.U.

    2005-01-01

    Modern societies are highly dependent upon energy and mineral resources to produce and deliver the material goods and even the services of everyday life. Although societies' dependence upon fossil fuels is evident and understood by much of the population, few people are as well informed about their dependence upon a wide variety of nonfuel minerals. This ignorance may result from two interrelated conditions. First, in contrast to fossil fuels, few people directly use nonfuel minerals in recognizable forms because most use is as part of manufactured products. Second, the value of raw ($38 billion) and even processed ($397 billion) nonfuel minerals in the United States in 2002 was small relative to the value the industries that consume these materials contribute to the economy ($1,700 billion). That is, although nonfuel mineral inputs are indispensable to construction and to the manufacture of durable and even nondurable goods (USGS 2003), their value is modest compared with the value of the final products.

  10. Geospatial analysis identifies critical mineral-resource potential in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan; Labay, Keith; Jacques, Katherine; Landowski, Claire

    2017-03-03

    Alaska consists of more than 663,000 square miles (1,717,000 square kilometers) of land—more than a sixth of the total area of the United States—and large tracts of it have not been systematically studied or sampled for mineral-resource potential. Many regions of the State are known to have significant mineral-resource potential, and there are currently six operating mines in the State along with numerous active mineral exploration projects. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys have developed a new geospatial tool that integrates and analyzes publicly available databases of geologic information and estimates the mineral-resource potential for critical minerals, which was recently used to evaluate Alaska. The results of the analyses highlight areas that have known mineral deposits and also reveal areas that were not previously considered to be prospective for these deposit types. These results will inform land management decisions by Federal, State, and private landholders, and will also help guide future exploration activities and scientific investigations in Alaska.

  11. Craters of the Moon National Monument as a Terrestrial Mars Analog: Examination of Mars Analog Phosphate Minerals, Phosphate Mineral Shock-Recovery Experiments, and Phosphate Minerals in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock, C. T.; Hausrath, E.; Tschauner, O. D.; Udry, A.

    2015-12-01

    Martian analogs, meteorites, and data from unmanned missions have greatly advanced our understanding of martian surface and near-surface processes. In particular, terrestrial analogs allow us to investigate Mars-relevant geomorphic, geochemical, petrogenetic, and hydrologic processes, as well as potential habitability. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM), located on the Snake River Plain of Idaho in the United States, represents a valuable phosphate-rich Mars analog, allowing us to examine phosphate minerals, important as volatile indicators and potential nutrient providers, under Mars-relevant conditions. COTM is in an arid to semi-arid environment with sub-freezing lows much of the year. Though wetter than present day Mars (24 - 38 cm MAP) [1], COTM may be analogous to a warmer and wetter past Mars. The area is also the locale of numerous lava flows, a number of which have been dated (2,000 to >18,000 y.b.p.) [2]. The flows have experienced weathering over time and thus represent a chronosequence with application to weathering on Mars. The flows have unusual chemistries, including high average phosphate contents (P2O5 1.75 wt% n=23 flows) [2], close to those in rocks analyzed at Gusev Crater, Mars (P2O5 1.79 wt% n=18 rocks) [3]. The Mars-like high phosphorus contents indicate a potential petrogenetic link and are also of astrobiological interest. Further, current samples of Mars phosphate minerals are limited to meteorites which have been heavily shocked - COTM represents a potential pre-shock and geochemical analog to Mars. We investigated weathering on COTM basalts and shock effects on Mars-relevant phosphate minerals. We used scanning electron microscopy, backscattered electron imagery, and X-Ray analysis/mapping to investigate COTM thin sections. Synchrotron diffraction was used to investigate martian meteorites and laboratory shocked Mars/COTM-relevant minerals for comparison. Results of our investigations indicate porosity development correlates

  12. A strategy for mineral and energy resource independence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired by Landsats 1, 2, and 3, are beginning to provide the information on which an improved mineral and energy resource exploration strategy can be based. Landsat 4 is expected to augment this capability with its higher resolution (30 m) and additional spectral bands in the Thematic Mapper (TM) designed specifically to discriminate clay minerals associated with mineral alteration. In addition, a new global magnetic anomaly map, derived from the recent Magsat mission, has recently been compiled by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and others. Preliminary, extremely small-scale renditions of this map indicate that global coverage is nearly complete and that the map will improve upon a previous one derived from Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) data. Digital processing of the Landsat image data and Magsat geophysical data can be used to create three-dimensional stereoscopic models for which Landsat images provide surface reference to deep structural anomalies. Comparative studies of national Landsat lineament maps, Magsat stereoscopic models, and metallogenic information derived from the Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) inventory of U.S. mineral resources, provide a way of identifying and selecting exploration areas that have mineral resource potential. Landsat images and computer-compatible tapes can provide new and better mosaics and also provide the capability for a closer look at promising sites. ?? 1983.

  13. Mineral resources and land use in Stanislaus County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Dupras, D.L.; Chapman, R.H.; Churchill, R.K. . Div. of Mines and Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Stanislaus County covers portions of 3 geologic provinces: Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada. Each has been exploited for a distinct set of mineral resources, which include sand and gravel, ball and fire clay, placer gold, manganese, chromite, magnesite, mercury, diatomite, building stone, and mineral pigment. Of these, sand and gravel, clay, and diatomite have been the most important commodities produced recently. Sand and gravel, particularly that along the Tuolumne River, is and will continue to be the county's main mineral product; other potentially important areas include alluvial fans along the west side of the Great Valley. Clay and diatomite could resume importance in the future. There is also potential for quartz-rich specialty sands. Although the county is largely rural, it is undergoing one of the highest growth rates in California. Several new residential communities are being proposed in the county, which would have two major effects on mineral resources: (1) large sources of aggregate will be required for construction, and (2) development of residential areas may preclude mining of resources in those areas. Maps of mineral resources produced by this study, will assist decisions on such potential conflicts in land use.

  14. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  15. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The large layered intrusions in southern Africa—the Bushveld Complex and the Great Dyke—are now and will continue to be a major source of the world’s supply of PGE. Mining will not deplete the identified mineral resources and reserves or potential undiscovered mineral resources for many decades; however, in the near-term, PGE supply could be affected by social, environmental, political, and economic factors.

  16. Weathering of Fe-bearing minerals under Martian conditions, investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, C.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Tremel, W.

    2004-09-01

    The surface of Mars is covered by weathered material. Mars' rusty red colour in particular is commonly ascribed to ferric iron-bearing minerals. The planet's surface is generally iron rich. Mössbauer spectroscopy is a powerful tool for quantitative mineralogical analysis of Fe-bearing minerals. Consequently, the miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS II is part of the payload of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", and ESA's ill-fated Mars Express lander "Beagle 2". Both Mars Exploration Rovers are currently conducting successful surface operations on Mars. In this paper, we give a brief insight into mission operations with respect to the reconstruction of local weathering scenarios at the landing sites, which in turn will help to illuminate the climatic history of the planet. Mössbauer spectra obtained in preparation of the mission from the SNC meteorites Nakhla, Dar al Gani 476, and Sayh al Uhaymir, show weathering and other alteration features. Preliminary results of laboratory weathering experiments on Fe-bearing minerals (olivine and pyroxene) show the importance of analysing individual minerals to understand weathering of more complex mineral assemblages like, e.g., basalt.

  17. Short Course Introduction to Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    This is an abbreviated text supplementing the content of three sets of slides used in a short course that has been presented by the author at several workshops. The slides should be viewed in the order of (1) Introduction and models, (2) Delineation and estimation, and (3) Combining estimates and summary. References cited in the slides are listed at the end of this text. The purpose of the three-part form of mineral resource assessments discussed in the accompanying slides is to make unbiased quantitative assessments in a format needed in decision-support systems so that consequences of alternative courses of action can be examined. The three-part form of mineral resource assessments was developed to assist policy makers evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action with respect to land use and mineral-resource development. The audience for three-part assessments is a governmental or industrial policy maker, a manager of exploration, a planner of regional development, or similar decision-maker. Some of the tools and models presented here will be useful for selection of exploration sites, but that is a side benefit, not the goal. To provide unbiased information, we recommend the three-part form of mineral resource assessments where general locations of undiscovered deposits are delineated from a deposit type's geologic setting, frequency distributions of tonnages and grades of well-explored deposits serve as models of grades and tonnages of undiscovered deposits, and number of undiscovered deposits are estimated probabilistically by type. The internally consistent descriptive, grade and tonnage, deposit density, and economic models used in the design of the three-part form of assessments reduce the chances of biased estimates of the undiscovered resources. What and why quantitative resource assessments: The kind of assessment recommended here is founded in decision analysis in order to provide a framework for making decisions concerning mineral

  18. Characterization of the Effects of Precursor Mineralogy on Hematite Spectra: Application to Martian Hematite Mineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotch, Timothy D.; Morris, Richard V.; Sharp, Thomas G.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2003-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument aboard Mars Global Surveyor discovered several isolated deposits of gray, crystalline hematite in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos, and Valles Marineris. A variety of formation mechanisms has been proposed for the martian hematite deposits, including aqueous and nonaqueous processes. Comparison of the average Sinus Meridiani hematite spectrum measured by TES to laboratory emissivity spectra for a variety of naturally occurring hematites shows small but potentially important differences. In particular, the emissivity minimum at 300 and 445/cm in the Sinus Meridiani (SM) spectrum is displaced 10-25/cm to lower frequencies compared to some natural hematite samples. In addition, these bands in the TES data are narrower than the broad bands seen in many natural hematite spectra. These differences may imply that the natural variability of hematite spectra has not been fully characterized, especially with respect to the reaction pathway (precursor mineralogy and temperature of hematite formation) and crystal morphology. Here, we describe the thermal infrared spectral characteristics of several series of synthetic hematite samples derived by direct precipitation, dehydroxylation of fine-grained goethite and the oxidation of magnetite. Several natural hematite sample spectra are also presented for comparison. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Mossbauer spectral analyses of selected samples were performed in order to help determine the causes of the changes seen in the infrared spectra.

  19. Chemistry of the Martian surface - Resources for the manned exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. C.

    It is pointed out that Mars is a bonanza in useable natural resources, while the moon is impoverished. For this reason, on Mars, many materials and equipment will be more economically manufactured on site than transported from earth. A survey of natural resources is conducted, taking into account water, carbon atoms, oxygen atoms, nitrogen atoms, phosphorus atoms, sulfur and chlorine atoms, mineral concentrates, and heavy elements. Questions regarding the processing of raw materials are discussed. Problems of purification are examined along with suitable approaches to manufacturing, and the employment of solar irradiance, geothermal heat, nuclear fission reactors, and wind power as energy sources. The utilization of the obtained products is also considered, giving attention to construction, construction materials, the need for blasting explosives, approaches for producing rocket fuel and rover fuel, and the growing of food on Mars.

  20. MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE ATLANTIC EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.

    1984-01-01

    Potential mineral resources of the Atlantic Exclusive Economic Zone (including the Gulf of Mexico and US Caribbean areas) include petroleum, sand and gravel, phosphorite, placer deposits of heavy mineral sands, ferromanganese nodules, and fresh water. Although major efforts have been made to search for petroleum, the oil and gas resources of the region are well known only in the western Gulf Shelf and more exploration is under way. Heavy-mineral placer deposits, which may be sources of titanium, gold, rare earths, etc. , have been sampled, but the extent and, therefore, economic value of the deposits have not been identified. Sand and gravel, phosphorite, and ferromanganese nodules all are represented by fairly well established deposits, and only modified market conditions would be necessary to cause detailed exploration and mining.

  1. Mineral Expert Discusses Global Scramble for Natural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-11-01

    With the global population boom and more people growing into affluence, there is increasing demand, desire, and competition for minerals, said Vince Mathews during a talk about the global scramble for natural resources on 30 October at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Denver, Colo.

  2. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  3. USGS research on mineral resources, 1985 program and abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krafft, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    The extended abstracts in this volume are summaries of the papers presented orally and as posters in the first V.E. McKelvey Forum on Mineral and Energy Resources, entitled "USGS Research on Mineral Resources-1985." The Forum has been established to improve communication between the USGS and the earth science community by presenting the results of current USGS research on nonrenewable resources in a timely fashion and by providing an opportunity for individuals from other organizations to meet informally with USGS scientists and managers. It is our hope that the McKelvey Forum will help to make USGS programs more responsive to the needs of the earth science community, particularly the mining and petroleum industries, and will foster closer cooperation between organizations and individuals.

  4. Carbon- and Sulfur-bearing Minerals in the Martian Meteorite ALH 84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanek, C. S.; Thomas, K. L.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    1995-09-01

    Unusual carbonate minerals in ALH 84001 [1] provide insights into surficial processes that may have occurred on Mars, but despite detailed geochemical studies [2-4] carbonate petrogenesis has yet to be fully-characterized. High-resolution TEM and SEM analyses were performed on C- and S-bearing mineral grains to better constrain the nature and timing of carbonate mineralization events. Morphological elements: C- and S-bearing minerals in ALH 84001 commonly occur as spheroidal aggregates or fine-grained vug-filling structures. Spheroids are either orange or black, ~150 micrometers (+/- 50 micrometers) in diameter and highly-flattened (10-30 micrometers thick). Orange spheroids have limpid amber-colored cores and white to translucent mantles which are sometimes bound by thin black rims (< 10 micrometers). When viewed under cathodoluminescence, cores are non-luminescent while mantles luminesce a uniform bright-orange color. Black spheroids are less frequently observed; while they are similar in dimension to the orange spheroids they are chemically more heterogeneous. Black irregular aggregates fill residual pore-space between mineral grains. These structures are comprised of extremely fine-grained (< 2 micrometers) material that occasionally forms lenticular stringers up to 50 micrometers in length. Chemistry and Mineralogy: Small grains (30 micrometers dia.) were removed from C- and S-bearing aggregates, microtomed (~100 nm thick) and examined by TEM for imaging, electron diffraction, and elemental analysis. The orange spheroids have cores composed of Fe-Mg-Ca carbonate, with the centers having the highest concentration of Fe (45 mol%) and Ca (15 mol%). The concentration of Mg increases outward to almost pure MgCO3. TEM results support previous analyses of carbonate chemistry [1-4] and clearly indicate that a wide range of Mg-Fe-Ca solid solution exists in carbonate at a scale of ~10 nm. White mantles of the orange spheroids are composed of nearly pure MgCO3 (<5 mol

  5. Techniques and strategies for data integration in mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trautwein, Charles M.; Dwyer, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The Geologic and the National Mapping divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey have been involved formally in cooperative research and development of computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) applied to mineral-resource assessment objectives since 1982. Experience in the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) projects including the Rolla, Missouri; Dillon, Montana; Butte, Montana; and Tonopah, Nevada 1?? ?? 2?? quadrangles, has resulted in the definition of processing requirements for geographically and mineral-resource data that are common to these studies. The diverse formats of data sets collected and compiled for regional mineral-resource assessments necessitate capabilities for digitally encoding and entering data into appropriate tabular, vector, and raster subsystems of the GIS. Although many of the required data sets are either available or can be provided in a digital format suitable for direct entry, their utility is largely dependent on the original intent and consequent preprocessing of the data. In this respect, special care must be taken to ensure the digital data type, encoding, and format will meet assessment objectives. Data processing within the GIS is directed primarily toward the development and application of models that can be used to describe spatially geological, geophysical, and geochemical environments either known or inferred to be associated with specific types of mineral deposits. Consequently, capabilities to analyze spatially, aggregate, and display relations between data sets are principal processing requirements. To facilitate the development of these models within the GIS, interfaces must be developed among vector-, raster-, and tabular-based processing subsystems to reformat resident data sets for comparative analyses and multivariate display of relations.

  6. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  7. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  8. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Marsh, S.P.; Raines, G.L.; Werschky, R.S.; Blakely, R.J.; Hoover, D.B.; McHugh, E.L.; Rumsey, C.M.; Gaps, R.S.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines and prospects to evaluate mineral resources and the potential for mineral resources. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area has a high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in two areas. One area, largely outside the study area, is in the vicinity of the Crater mine in the Last Chance Range, and it has potential for the occurrence of gold in a disseminated deposit in an epithermal environment. The other area is in Marble Canyon in the western part of the study area, and it has high potential for the occurrence of gold placer deposits. Marble Canyon also has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits downstream from the area of high potential. Seven areas, scattered from the Inyo Mountains to the Last Chance Range, have a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and one area that lies astride the border of Death Valley National Monument has a low potential for the occurrence of gold in vein deposits. The southern end of Eureka Valley has a low potential for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits beneath the valley floor. Demonstrated resources of native sulfur exist at the Crater mine but no resource potential was identified nearby in adtacent parts of the study area. 3 figs. (ACR)

  9. A Complex Systems Model Approach to Quantified Mineral Resource Appraisal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.; Fisher, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    For federal and state land management agencies, mineral resource appraisal has evolved from value-based to outcome-based procedures wherein the consequences of resource development are compared with those of other management options. Complex systems modeling is proposed as a general framework in which to build models that can evaluate outcomes. Three frequently used methods of mineral resource appraisal (subjective probabilistic estimates, weights of evidence modeling, and fuzzy logic modeling) are discussed to obtain insight into methods of incorporating complexity into mineral resource appraisal models. Fuzzy logic and weights of evidence are most easily utilized in complex systems models. A fundamental product of new appraisals is the production of reusable, accessible databases and methodologies so that appraisals can easily be repeated with new or refined data. The data are representations of complex systems and must be so regarded if all of their information content is to be utilized. The proposed generalized model framework is applicable to mineral assessment and other geoscience problems. We begin with a (fuzzy) cognitive map using (+1,0,-1) values for the links and evaluate the map for various scenarios to obtain a ranking of the importance of various links. Fieldwork and modeling studies identify important links and help identify unanticipated links. Next, the links are given membership functions in accordance with the data. Finally, processes are associated with the links; ideally, the controlling physical and chemical events and equations are found for each link. After calibration and testing, this complex systems model is used for predictions under various scenarios.

  10. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    PubMed

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  11. Mineral resource appraisal of the Salmon National Forest, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Rick; Close, Terry; McHugh, Ed

    1998-01-01

    The Salmon National Forest administers 1,776,994 net acres of mountainous terrain located in east-central Idaho. Most of the Forest is in Lemhi County; only a small portion falls within Idaho and Valley Counties. Approximately 426,114 acres of the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness extends into the western part of the Forest and mineral entry is severely restricted. Because of its location within the Salmon River drainage, the Forest also is subject to numerous issues surrounding restoration of anadromous fish runs. Mineral production from the Salmon National Forest began during 1866 when placer gold was discovered in Leesburg Basin. Hardrock mining quickly spread throughout the Forest and many deposits containing a wide range of commodities were discovered and developed. Although early records are sketchy, production is estimated to include 940,000 ounces gold, 654,000 ounces silver, 61.9 million pounds copper, 8.9 million pounds lead, 13.9 million pounds cobalt, 208,000 pounds zinc, and 37,000 tons fluorite mill feed. Mineral resources are large, diverse, and occur in many deposit types including exhalative, stockwork, disseminated, vein, replacement, sedimentary, skarn, breccia pipe, porphyry, and placer. The largest cobalt resource in the United States occurs in the Blackbird Mining District. Other resources include gold, silver, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphate, manganese, iron, fluorite, uranium, thorium, rare earth oxides, and barite.

  12. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The level of living that any society can attain is a direct function of the use it makes of all kinds of raw materials (soil, water, metals, nonmetals, etc.), all kinds of energy (both animate and inanimate), and all kinds of human ingenuity; and is an inverse function of the size of the population that must share the collective product. The relation between raw materials, energy and ingenuity is such that use of a large amount of one may offset the need for large amounts of others. The most vital raw materials are water, soil, and construction materials, for these are needed in large quantities and are hard to import. Metals, chemicals, and inanimate energy are necessary for industrialization. The more of these minerals a nation possess, the better, but not nation can hope to be self-sufficient in all of the m and therefore must trade for some essential materials. Jordan’s natural resources have been little explored. The grantitc-metamorphic terrane in the southeastern part of the Kingdom could contain deposits of tungsten, rare earths, feldspar, mica, fluorite etc. and the sedimentary terrane over much of the rest of the county is favorable for the occurrence of oil. Even if none of these minerals is found, however, Jordan’s other mineral resource, if fully explored and developed in the light of modern technology, will support a far higher level of living than her people now enjoy. Very likely she can increase her rainfall by about 10 percent by cloud seeding, and she undeveloped supplies in both surface and ground water that are sufficient to nearly double her usable water supply. Even if she does not have oil or have it in large quantities, she can buy it cheaply from neighboring counties, and in addition has undeveloped sources of hydroelectric power, large reserves of bituminous limestone, large reserves of nuclear power as uranium in phosphate rock, and can use solar and wind power for special purposes. Her large supplies of construction, fertilizer, and

  13. Can multfractals be used for mineral resource appraisal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agterberg, Frits

    2016-04-01

    Various models have been proposed for modeling the worldwide resources of minerals and hydrocarbons. Most of these models assume either a lognormal or a Pareto distribution for the high-value tails of the size-frequency distributions of known deposits and assume that undiscovered deposits would satisfy these statistical models as well. The lognormal size distribution often provides a good fit to all sizes except for the largest deposits. Pareto-type models allow for tails that are thicker than those of the lognormal. With respect to the spatial distribution of the deposits, various statistical discrete frequency distribution models including the Poisson and negative binomial are commonly used. However, these models are based on the assumption that mean point concentration is independent of size of area used for measuring deposit density. Fractal-multifractal point distribution models can provide better results. A good approach to worldwide deposit modeling would consist of (1) quantification of 2-D boundaries of permissive terrains for different types of deposits; (2) assuming that the mineral deposits are spatially distributed as fractals or multifractals; and (3) adopting Pareto-type frequency distributions for the largest mineral deposits. In this paper, examples will be presented of cases in which (a) the fractal/multifractal approach provides better results for spatial distribution of deposits than classical statistical models, and (b) the Pareto is performing better than the lognormal as size distribution model for the largest mineral deposits. In recent years, large worldwide mineral deposit data bases have become available. Statistical analysis of these data confirms the idea that amounts of metals in ore deposits generally satisfy the lognormal model except in their high-value Pareto-type frequency distribution tails.

  14. Mineral resources versus geologic diversity in small areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J. C.; Smith, C. M.

    1992-06-01

    There is a simple linear relationship between geologic diversity ( = the number of rock types — 1) and the mineral-resource diversity ( = the number of commodities produced — 1) which may be used to predict the number of commodities produced from a given number of geologic rock types in a region. In addition it is shown that the geologic and mineral-resource diversities are related positively to size (expressed as log A km 2) of sampling unit. It is of some interest to determine whether these relationships hold for sample units the size of counties. 182 counties from six states, Maine (16), New Hamshire (10), Vermont (14), Pennsylvania (67), Nevada (17), and California (58) are used to investigate these relationships. The regression of geologic diversity ( sg - 1) on size (log A) is positive, linear, and about r2 = 41.0% determining. Similarly, the regression of mineral-resource diversity ( sm - 1) on size (log A) is positive, linear, and r2 = 39.6% determining. The regression of mineral resource on geologic diversity also is similarly linear and positive with r2 = 54% determining. The regression of geologic diversity on size for a larger global population ( n = 413; where sample units are countries and states) is similar to that for the 182 counties with r2 = 48% determining. Evidently, the relationships hold for sample units the size of counties with a similar slope but a smaller intercept. It then is shown that for sample units the size of states and countries (i.e. log A from 3.0 to 6.5) the intercept is about 12. In other words, given a sample unit the size of states or countries with a geologic diversity of zero, the region is geologically homogeneous, one would expect it to produce some 12 commodities; on the other hand if the sample unit is the size of counties with the same value of zero for geologic diversity, then it would likely produce from 3 to 5 commodities.

  15. Hydrogen in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hervig, R.; Irving, T.

    2017-01-01

    Most volatile studies of Mars have targeted its surface via spacecraft and rover data, and have evidenced surficial water in polar caps and the atmosphere, in the presence of river channels, and in the detection of water bearing minerals. The other focus of Martian volatile studies has been on Martian meteorites which are all from its crust. Most of these studies are on hydrous phases like apatite, a late-stage phase, i.e. crystallizing near the end of the differentiation sequence of Martian basalts and cumulates. Moreover, calculating the water content of the magma a phosphate crystallized from is not always possible, and yet is an essential step to estimate how much water was present in a parent magma and its source. Water, however, is primarily dissolved in the interiors of differentiated planets as hydrogen in lattice defects of nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) of the crust and mantle. This hydrogen has tremendous influence, even in trace quantities, on a planet's formation, geodynamics, cooling history and the origin of its volcanism and atmosphere as well as its potential for life. Studies of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous phases of Martian meteorites are rare. Measuring water contents and hydrogen isotopes in well-characterized nominally anhydrous minerals of Martian meteorites is the goal of our study. Our work aims at deciphering what influences the distribution and origin of hydrogen in Martian minerals, such as source, differentiation, degassing and shock.

  16. Mineral resources of the Orejana Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Harney county, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, J.E.; King, H.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Diggles, M.F.; Sawatzky, D.L. ); Benjamin, D.A. )

    1988-01-01

    The Orejana Canyon Wilderness Study Area in south-central Oregon is discussed. It is underlain by Miocene age basalts and interbedded sediments and rhyolite welded tuff. The study area has low mineral resource potential for gold and silver along the Orejana Rim escarpment. There is low mineral resource potential for tin in some exposures of the rhyolite tuff and low potential for oil and gas resources. There are no mining claims or identified mineral resources in the study area.

  17. Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D. ); Swischer, C.C. ); Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L. )

    1989-01-01

    The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area.

  18. Mineral resources of the Santa Rose Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Riverside County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P.; Madden-McGuire, D.J.; Oliver, H.W.; Schreiner, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers 68,051 acres in the Santa Rose Mountains, California. An appraisal of the mineral resources (known) and an assessment of mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of this wilderness study area were made at the request of the US Bureau of Land Management. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys indicate that the study area has high potential for tungsten and marble resources, moderate potential for gold, and no potential for oil, natural gas, and geothermal resources.

  19. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such...

  20. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such...

  1. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such...

  2. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such...

  3. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such...

  4. EBSD analysis of the Shergottite Meteorites: New developments within the technique and their implication on what we know about the preferred orientation of Martian minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, N.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P.; Berlin, J.; Salge, T.; Goran, D.

    2011-12-01

    What we know about the geology and mineralogy of the Martian surface has been characterised by both the use of remote sensing techniques and the analysis of Martian meteorites. Various techniques are employed to conduct these analyses including crystallographic, geochemical and spectral measurements, all of which enable us to infer a geological history for these rocks. Several references have been made to the potential for preferred orientation of crystals within the Shergottites [1] and their implication for the cooling history of the respective magmas on Mars [2]. We have already shown that a preferred orientation of the two pyroxenes, augite and pigeonite, can be seen in the Zagami meteorite using electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis [3]. However, when compared to previous modal studies of the same meteorites [4], it becomes apparent that the current EBSD datasets for Martian meteorites are incomplete. Indexing of some minerals can be hampered by the lack of available matches within library databases for EBSD, or become difficult to resolve between minerals where crystallographic differences between similar minerals fall below the technical limitations of the instrument [3]. Recent advances in EBSD technologies combined with the simultaneous acquisition of energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) however now allow us to determine a more comprehensive set of analyses in a much shorter period of time, fully resolving even similar minerals where areas have been left with no indexing previously [5]. Preliminary investigations suggest that the new technology can successfully index >90% of the sample. The most recent EBSD analyses potentially reveals previously unseen fabrics in the meteorites alongside the EDS hyper-spectral imaging helping to resolve any unknown or questionable phases within them. In this study we will present new data from an investigation using EDS alongside EBSD analysis on 2 Shergottite meteorites, SAU 005 and Zagami, to further resolve

  5. Methanogens and Martian natural resources: Investigations regarding the possibility of biogenic methane on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastain, Brendon Kelly

    Archaeal methanogens were suggested as terrestrial models of possible subsurface martian microbial life prior to the actual detection of methane in Mars' atmosphere. This idea gained even more interest after the methane on Mars was observed. However, the amount of methane detected was very small, and release of methane was localized and episodic. This led some scientists to doubt that an active or ancient biosphere could be the source of the methane. Moreover, even extremophilic methanogens have not been shown to metabolize in conditions exactly analogous to those known to be available on Mars. The following chapters present a realistic and viable mechanism that allows a large or ancient biosphere to be the original source of the observed methane, and they detail experimental work that was done in order to systematically investigate nutritional and conditional variables related to those that might be available in the martian subsurface. The results of the experimental work indicate that some components of Mars' regolith can support methanogenic metabolism without being detrimental to the organisms, and that certain known components of Mars' regolith can promote periods of methanogenic dormancy without being lethal to the methanogens. The results of the experimental studies also show that material known to exist at and near Mars' surface has the potential to supply electrons for biological methanogenesis and that methanogenic metabolism can occur even when artificial media, buffers, and reductants are omitted in order to create more Mars-relevant conditions. These findings may have implications regarding the viability of methanogenic organisms as a source of the observed methane and should assist future efforts to study methanogenic metabolism in conditions exactly analogous to those available in niches on Mars.

  6. Geology and mineral and energy resources, Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico; an interactive computer presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tidball, Ronald R.; Bartsch-Winkler, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) contains a program illustrating the geology and mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, an administrative unit of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in east-central New Mexico. The program enables the user to access information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mining history, metallic and industrial mineral commodities, hydrocarbons, and assessments of the area. The program was created with the display software, SuperCard, version 1.5, by Aldus. The program will run only on a Macintosh personal computer. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with Macintosh HFS standards. The program was developed on a Macintosh II-series computer with system 7.0.1. The program is a compiled, executable form that is nonproprietary and does not require the presence of the SuperCard software.

  7. Shungites: origin and classification of a new carbon mineral resource

    SciTech Connect

    Ivankin, P.F.; Galdobina, L.P.; Kalinin, Yu.K.

    1987-10-01

    The discovery of a new mineral resource in Karelia-shungite- and the confirmation of the finding in the geological literature have a long history. In 1876, local peasants found black stones near the village of Shun'ga, which were taken to be coal and called Olenets anthracite. A discussion began on the nature of this strange anthracite, which did not burn in furnaces. The found of the Karelian geological school, A.A. Inostrantsev, was the first to doubt that Olenets anthracite was really coal, and he named it shungite. Shungites, very unusual, barely combustible high-carbon rocks, have a variety of potential uses. Although details remain obscure, the authors propose a metasomatic origin involving migration and reduction of carbonaceous compounds driven by igneous intrusions. 10 references.

  8. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  9. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  10. Mineral resources of the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lake County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F.; King, H.D.; Gettings, ME.; Conrad, J.E.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Soreghan, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area which has no identified mineral resources, but it has moderate mineral resource potential for soda ash, boron compounds, sodium sulfate, magnesium compounds, salts, potash, bromine, lithium, tungsten, and geothermal energy. The area also has low mineral resource potential for low-grade, high-tonnage, epithermal, hot-spring gold-silver deposits, for magnesium deposits, and for oil and gas.

  11. Mineral and Energy Resources of the Roswell Resource Area, East-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan B.; Donatich, Alessandro J.

    1995-01-01

    The sedimentary formations of the Roswell Resource Area have significant mineral and energy resources. Some of the pre-Pennsylvanian sequences in the Northwestern Shelf of the Permian Basin are oil and gas reservoirs, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Tucumcari Basin are reservoirs of oil and gas as well as source rocks for oil and gas in Triassic rocks. Pre-Permian rocks also contain minor deposits of uranium and vanadium, limestone, and gases. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian rocks include associated gases such as carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen. Permian rocks are mineralized adjacent to the Lincoln County porphyry belt, and include deposits of copper, uranium, manganese, iron, polymetallic veins, and Mississippi-Valley-type lead-zinc. Industrial minerals in Permian rocks include fluorite, barite, potash, halite, polyhalite, gypsum, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone, dolomite, brine deposits (iodine and bromine), aggregate (sand), and dimension stone. Doubly terminated quartz crystals, called 'Pecos diamonds' and collected as mineral specimens, occur in Permian rocks along the Pecos River. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are hosts for copper, uranium, and small quantities of gold-silver-tellurium veins, as well as significant deposits of oil and gas, carbon dioxide, asphalt, coal, and dimension stone. Mesozoic rocks contain limited amounts of limestone, gypsum, petrified wood, and clay. Tertiary rocks host ore deposits commonly associated with intrusive rocks, including platinum-group elements, iron skarns, manganese, uranium and vanadium, molybdenum, polymetallic vein deposits, gold-silver-tellurium veins, and thorium-rare-earth veins. Museum-quality quartz crystals are associated with Tertiary intrusive rocks. Industrial minerals in Tertiary rocks include fluorite, vein- and bedded-barite, caliche, limestone, and aggregate. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments host important placer deposits of gold and titanium, and occurrences of silver and uranium. Important industrial

  12. Mineral resource assessment of selected areas in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada [Chapters A-L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve

    2006-01-01

    During 2004-2006, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mineral resource assessment of selected areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada. The purpose of this study is to provide the BLM with information for land planning and management and, specifically, to determine mineral resource potential in accordance with regulations in 43 CFR 2310, which governs the withdrawal of public lands. The Clark County Conservation of Public Land and Natural Resources Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-282) temporarily withdraws a group of areas designated as Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs) from mineral entry, pending final approval of an application for permanent withdrawal by the BLM. This study provides information about mineral resource potential of the ACECs. Existing information was compiled about the ACECs, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mineral-deposit information. Field examinations of selected areas and mineral occurrences were conducted to determine their geologic setting and mineral potential.

  13. The economics of mining the Martian moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.; Blacic, James D.; Vaniman, David T.

    1987-01-01

    The costs for extracting and shipping volatiles such as water, carbon, and nitrogen that might be found on Phobos and Deimos are estimated. The costs are compared to the cost of shipping the same volatiles from earth, assuming the use of nuclear powered mining facilities and freighters. Mineral resources and possible products from the Martian moons, possible markets for these products, and the costs of transporting these resources to LEO or GEO or to transportation nodal points are examined. Most of the technology needed to mine the moons has already been developed. The need for extraterrestrial sources of propellants for ion propulsion systems and ways in which the mining of the moons would reduce the cost of space operations near earth are discussed. It is concluded that it would be commercially viable to mine the Martian moons, making a profit of at least a 10 percent return on capital.

  14. Chemical Models of Salts in the Martian Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    The martian regolith is rich in ionic salts, which affect its chemical and physical properties, and will affect its resource potential and toxicity. Sulphate, halide, and carbonate salts are expected from theory, chemical analyses, and martian meteorites. A new inference here is that chromate salts may be present and abundant in the regolith. The origin of these salts is not known; they have been ascribed to hydrothermal action, meteoritic contributions, and volcanic aerosols/gases. Low temperature alteration (diagenesis) is a potentially important contributor to regolith salts. Ionic salt minerals in the martian regolith are important tracers of global and local chemical processes on Mars, appear to be important in setting the physical properties (i.e. trafficability) of the martian surface, will likely be important resources for human exploitation, and could possibly present hazards to human health. MECA and other instruments on the MARS 2001 lander are designed to investigate the regolith, so it is appropriate to examine the current knowledge of likely salt mineral in the martian regolith.

  15. Harnessing Water and Resources from Clay Minerals on Mars and Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    Clay minerals provide a source of water, metals, and cations that can be harvested to provide resources for human exploration on Mars, asteroids, etc. Planning how to access these resources from clays could be a vital component of human exploration.

  16. Comparison of Synchrotron MicroXANES Determination of Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe with Moessbauer Values for Clean Mineral Separates of Pyroxene from Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, J. S.; Dyar, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation state of Fe in Martian meteorites is a parameter of great interest and the ability to determine this value in micrometer scale samples is important. Intense, tunable x-ray sources at large synchrotron storage rings are being exploited to examine the Fe K-absorption edge with energy resolution of approx. 1-1.5eV in spots of 10x15 microns on thin sections of a wide variety of materials including several Martian meteorites. Synchrotron microXANES (SmX) spectroscopy is the technique that provides the most flexible capability for investigating Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe. Variation of Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe is manifested as a function of the energy of the pre-edge to the Fe absorption edge produced by the sample. SmX is at present the only technique that can be used with conventional polished thin sections. Data for a broad spectrum of minerals have been produced and indicate that SmX can be used with a large variety of samples types.

  17. 75 FR 13251 - Notice of Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Forest Service Notice of Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA.... L. 106-393, as amended by H.R. 1424 January 3, 2008) the Lolo National Forest's Mineral County..., including the Mineral Independent. Dated: March 3, 2010. Sharon Sweeney, Designated Federal...

  18. 76 FR 7809 - Notice of Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Forest Service Notice of Mineral County Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA.... L. 106-393, as amended by H.R. 1424 January 3, 2008) the Lob National Forest's Mineral County... changed, notice will be posted in local newspapers, including the Mineral Independent. Dated: February...

  19. Mineral resources of the Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tysdal, R.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Peters, T.J.

    1988-06-10

    A mineral-resource survey of the 350-acre Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area (ID-035-077) was made in 1986-87. No identified resources (known) or currently active claims exist within or adjacent to the wilderness study area. There is potential for several types of undiscovered mineral resources within the study area. The southwestern part of the wilderness study area, along the Madison Range fault, is rated as having a moderate energy-resource potential for geothermal water; the remainder of the study area has a low potential for resources of this commodity. A small outcrop of marble in the southernmost part of the study area has a low mineral-resource potential for talc; for talc in marble possibly concealed beneath the study area the mineral-resource potential is rated as unknown. The study area has a low mineral-resource potential for iron in hematite-mineralized amphibolite gneiss, and for gold, silver, and uranium. The area has no mineral-resource potential for phosphate, because the host strata have been eroded; and no resource potential for oil and gas.

  20. New geologic and mineral resource maps, Circum-Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Gryc, G.; Iki, T.R.; Mills, F.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Seven new maps of the Circum-Pacific Region will be available in 1990 and an additional seven color proofs are to be exhibited at the Fifth Circum-Pacific Conference in Honolulu. The printed maps include the Antarctic Geologic Map, the Base, Geographic, and Geodynamic Maps of the recently added Arctic region, a Southwest Quadrant Tectonic Map, and a map with typical geologic cross sections depicting the Andean-Subandean basins of South America, all at a scale of 1:10,000,000. The seventh, the Natural Hazards Map of the Pacific Basin, at a scale of 1:17,000,000, includes information on geologic hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, and historical faulting as well as other natural hazards such as cyclonic storms (frequency and tracks), sea ice, icing of superstructures, wave heights, and tsunamis. Maps in proof stage include energy and resource maps of the Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast Quadrants of the Circum-Pacific region, and the new Geologic Map of the Arctic region, all at a scale of 1:10,000,000. The Circum-Pacific Map Project was initiated in 1973 by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources. Overall supervision and production of the maps is by the US Geological Survey, and distribution is by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. A sixth region, the Arctic, was added in 1988, and two new themes, natural hazards and typical cross sections of petroleum basins, were added recently to the existing eight basic map themes. The Circum-Pacific Map Project will have produced 40 maps by the time of the Conference, and 20 more maps are in various stages of compilation and production.

  1. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; guide to information contained in the folio of geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Medfra Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William Wallace; Moll, E.J.; King, Harley D.

    1984-01-01

    The Medfra quadrangle in west-central Alaska was investigated by a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists to assess its mineral resources. This Circular is intended to serve as a guide to a folio of 13 separate Open-File Reports covering various aspects of these investigations, including geology, bedrock and stream-sediment geochemistry, potassium-argon dating, Landsat imagery, mineral occurrences, aeromagnetic interpretation, and mineral-resource assessment. This Circular presents a complete reference list of these reports and a summary of the important results of each of the investigations.

  2. ESRI applications of GIS technology: Mineral resource development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derrenbacher, W.

    1981-01-01

    The application of geographic information systems technology to large scale regional assessment related to mineral resource development, identifying candidate sites for related industry, and evaluating sites for waste disposal is discussed. Efforts to develop data bases were conducted at scales ranging from 1:3,000,000 to 1:25,000. In several instances, broad screening was conducted for large areas at a very general scale with more detailed studies subsequently undertaken in promising areas windowed out of the generalized data base. Increasingly, the systems which are developed are structured as the spatial framework for the long-term collection, storage, referencing, and retrieval of vast amounts of data about large regions. Typically, the reconnaissance data base for a large region is structured at 1:250,000 scale, data bases for smaller areas being structured at 1:25,000, 1:50,000 or 1:63,360. An integrated data base for the coterminous US was implemented at a scale of 1:3,000,000 for two separate efforts.

  3. 30 CFR 550.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and...

  4. 30 CFR 550.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and...

  5. 30 CFR 550.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and...

  6. Nonfuel mineral resources in the United States-Mexico border region; a progress report on information available from the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Page, N.J.; Staude, J.G.; Bolm, K.S.; Carbonaro, M.M.; Gray, Floyd; Long, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The exploitation of minerals has played a significant role in population growth and development of the U.S.Mexico border region. Recent proposed changes in regulations related to mining in the United States and changes in mining and investment regulations in Mexico have led to increased mineral exploration and development in Mexico, especially in the border region. As a preliminary step in the study of the mineral industry of this area, the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI) of the U.S. Geological Survey has compiled mine and occurrence data for nonfuel minerals in the border region. Analysis of this information indicates that a wide variety of metallic and industrial mineral commodities are present which can be used in agriculture, infrastructure, environmental improvement, and other industries. Therefore, mining will continue to play a significant role in the economy of this region.

  7. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  8. Undiscovered Locatable Mineral Resources in the Bay Resource Management Plan Area, Southwestern Alaska: A Probabilistic Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, J.M.; Light, T.D.; Drew, L.J.; Wilson, F.H.; Miller, M.L.; Saltus, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Bay Resource Management Plan (RMP) area in southwestern Alaska, north and northeast of Bristol Bay contains significant potential for undiscovered locatable mineral resources of base and precious metals, in addition to metallic mineral deposits that are already known. A quantitative probabilistic assessment has identified 24 tracts of land that are permissive for 17 mineral deposit model types likely to be explored for within the next 15 years in this region. Commodities we discuss in this report that have potential to occur in the Bay RMP area are Ag, Au, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Pb, Sn, W, Zn, and platinum-group elements. Geoscience data for the region are sufficient to make quantitative estimates of the number of undiscovered deposits only for porphyry copper, epithermal vein, copper skarn, iron skarn, hot-spring mercury, placer gold, and placer platinum-deposit models. A description of a group of shallow- to intermediate-level intrusion-related gold deposits is combined with grade and tonnage data from 13 deposits of this type to provide a quantitative estimate of undiscovered deposits of this new type. We estimate that significant resources of Ag, Au, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Pt occur in the Bay Resource Management Plan area in these deposit types. At the 10th percentile probability level, the Bay RMP area is estimated to contain 10,067 metric tons silver, 1,485 metric tons gold, 12.66 million metric tons copper, 560 million metric tons iron, 8,100 metric tons mercury, 500,000 metric tons molybdenum, 150 metric tons lead, and 17 metric tons of platinum in undiscovered deposits of the eight quantified deposit types. At the 90th percentile probability level, the Bay RMP area is estimated to contain 89 metric tons silver, 14 metric tons gold, 911,215 metric tons copper, 330,000 metric tons iron, 1 metric ton mercury, 8,600 metric tons molybdenum and 1 metric ton platinum in undiscovered deposits of the eight deposit types. Other commodities, which may occur in the

  9. Interactive computer methods for generating mineral-resource maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James Alfred; Crosby, A.S.; Huffman, T.E.; Clark, A.L.; Mason, G.T.; Bascle, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Inasmuch as maps are a basic tool of geologists, the U.S. Geological Survey's CRIB (Computerized Resources Information Bank) was constructed so that the data it contains can be used to generate mineral-resource maps. However, by the standard methods used-batch processing and off-line plotting-the production of a finished map commonly takes 2-3 weeks. To produce computer-generated maps more rapidly, cheaply, and easily, and also to provide an effective demonstration tool, we have devised two related methods for plotting maps as alternatives to conventional batch methods. These methods are: 1. Quick-Plot, an interactive program whose output appears on a CRT (cathode-ray-tube) device, and 2. The Interactive CAM (Cartographic Automatic Mapping system), which combines batch and interactive runs. The output of the Interactive CAM system is final compilation (not camera-ready) paper copy. Both methods are designed to use data from the CRIB file in conjunction with a map-plotting program. Quick-Plot retrieves a user-selected subset of data from the CRIB file, immediately produces an image of the desired area on a CRT device, and plots data points according to a limited set of user-selected symbols. This method is useful for immediate evaluation of the map and for demonstrating how trial maps can be made quickly. The Interactive CAM system links the output of an interactive CRIB retrieval to a modified version of the CAM program, which runs in the batch mode and stores plotting instructions on a disk, rather than on a tape. The disk can be accessed by a CRT, and, thus, the user can view and evaluate the map output on a CRT immediately after a batch run, without waiting 1-3 days for an off-line plot. The user can, therefore, do most of the layout and design work in a relatively short time by use of the CRT, before generating a plot tape and having the map plotted on an off-line plotter.

  10. Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources-another view on criticality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmer, F.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Generally investigations of criticality capture the supply risks on one hand and on the other hand the impact on the economy, the vulnerability to supply disruptions. The classification is a relative one and the analyses are always only a snapshot of a dynamic system: in the seventies of the last century chromium was generally considered the most critical metal. Today others are considered far more critical. These are especially the rare earth and the platinum group elements. Regardless in which direction technology develops these elements together with the steel alloy and electronic metal elements will most probably be the decisive elements to produce the high-tech products necessary for the well-being of Europe in the 21st century. These elements- often in small quantities- have a high economic lever effect. In a new research programme of the German Ministry of Education and Research they have been termed, therefore: economic-strategic raw materials. This paper will concentrate not so much on the critical materials as such, but on the factors critical in the background, critical to produce them: water, energy and the social acceptance of mining —the license to operate. From the point of sustainable management of mineral resources an important question with regard to critical aspects is also, how fast and to what extent mankind is able to reactivate the secondary materials in the technosphere to replace resource requirements from the geosphere under the limiting factors to minimize the environmental impact and energy needs. There will always be losses which have to be compensated from the geosphere (thermodynamical impossibility of a 100% closed loop, losses due to different redox potential, losses due to dispersal effects like wear and corrosion), however losses occurring today due to low scrap values can be minimized by better technology. Developments are well under way to replace more and more relative proportions of the major metal needs by material from the

  11. Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; Frost, Thomas P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2016-08-19

    Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and accompanying data releases are the products of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The assessment was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of some 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The need for this assessment arose from the decision by the Secretary of the Interior to pursue the protection of large tracts of contiguous habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. One component of the Department of the Interior plan to protect the habitat areas includes withdrawing selected lands from future exploration and development of mineral and energy resources, including copper, gold, silver, rare earth elements, and other commodities used in the U.S. economy. The assessment evaluates the potential for locatable minerals such as gold, copper, and lithium and describes the nature and occurrence of leaseable and salable minerals for seven Sagebrush Focal Areas and additional lands in Nevada (“Nevada additions”) delineated by BLM. Supporting data are available in a series of USGS data releases describing mineral occurrences (the USGS Mineral Deposit Database or “USMIN”), oil and gas production and well status, previous mineral-resource assessments that covered parts of the areas studied, and a compilation of mineral-use cases based on data provided by BLM, as well as results of the locatable mineral-resource assessment in a geographic information system. The present assessment of mineral-resource potential will contribute to a better understanding of the economic and environmental trade-offs that would result from closing approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands to mineral entry.

  12. Mineral Resources of the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Jachens, Robert C.; Miller, Robert J.; Turner, Robert L.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Pitkin, James A.; Keith, William J.; Mariano, John; Jones, Stephanie L.; Korzeb, Stanley L.

    1986-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 113,500 acres of the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-028/029) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the area studied is referred to as the 'wilderness study area' or 'study area'; any reference to the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested. This study area is located in west-central Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys to appraise the identified mineral resources (known) and assess the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the study area. fieldwork for this report was carried out largely in 1986-1989. There is a 1-million short ton indicated subeconomic resource of clinoptilolite-mordenite zeolite and an additional inferred resource of 2 million short tons near McHeffy Butte, approximately 2 miles west of the study area. A perlite deposit in the southeast corner of the study area contains an inferred subeconomic resource totaling 13 million short tons. An inferred subeconomic resource of gold in 225 short tons of quartz having a grade of 0.01 8 troy ounces per short ton is present at the Cook mine, 0.5 miles west of the study area. The northwestern part of the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area has high mineral resource potential for gold and silver. The south-central part of the study area has one area of moderate and one area north of this south-central part has low mineral resource potential for gold and silver in and near Warm Springs Canyon; the mineral resource potential for gold is also moderate in three small areas in the southern part and one area in the northeastern part of the study area. The mineral resource potential for zeolite is high for the area surrounding the McHeffy Butte prospect and for one area in the southern part of the study area. Two

  13. In Situ Resource-Based Lunar and Martian Habitat Structures Development at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodiford, Melanie P.; Fiske, Michael R.; McGregory, Walter; Pope, Regina D.

    2005-01-01

    As the nation prepares to return to the Moon and subsequently to Mars, it is apparent that the viability of long duration visits with appropriate radiation shielding/crew protection, hinges on the development of habitat structures, preferably in advance of a manned landing, and preferably utilizing in-situ resources. A relatively large number of habitat structure configurations can be developed from a relatively small set of in-situ resource-based construction products, including, blocks, raw regolith, reinforced concrete, and glass products. A much larger group of habitat designs can be developed when "imported" material are brought from Earth, including thin films and liners, and foldable, or expandable metal structures. These, and other technologies have been identified, and subjected to a rigorous trade study evaluation with respect to exploration and other performance criteria. In this paper, results of this trade study will be presented, as well as various habitat structure design concepts and concepts for construction automation. Results of initial tests aimed at concrete, block and glass production using Lunar regolith simulants will also be presented. Key issues and concerns will be discussed, as well as design concepts for a Lunar environment testbed to be developed at MSFC's Microgravity Development Laboratory. (MDL).

  14. In-situ Resource-based Lunar and Martian Habitat Structures Development at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodiford, Melanie P.; Burks, Kevin H.; Fiske, Michael R.; Strong, Janet D.; McGregor, Walter

    2005-01-01

    As the nation prepares to return to the Moon and subsequently to Mars, it is apparent that the viability of long duration visits with appropriate radiation shielding/crew protection, hinges on the development of habitat structures, preferably in advance of a manned landing, and preferably utilizing in-situ resources. A relatively large number of habitat structure configurations can be developed from a relatively small set of in-situ resource-based construction products, including, blocks, raw regolith, reinforced concrete, and glass products. A much larger group of habitat designs can be developed when "imported" material are brought from Earth, including thin films and liners, and foldable, or expandable metal structures. These, and other technologies have been identified, and subjected to a rigorous trade study evaluation with respect to exploration and other performance criteria. In this paper, results of this trade study will be presented, as well as various habitat structure design concepts and concepts for construction automation. Results of initial tests aimed at concrete, block and glass production using Lunar regolith simulants will also be presented. Key issues and concerns will be discussed, as well as design concepts for a Lunar environment testbed to be developed at MSFC's Microgravity Development Laboratory (MDL).

  15. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  16. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  17. Geology and mineral resources of the Port Moller region, western Alaska Peninsula, Aleutian arc: A section in USGS research on mineral resources - 1989: Program and abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; White, Willis H.; Detterman, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Port Moller, Stepovak Bay, and Simeonof Island quadrangles was begun under the auspices of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) in 1983 . Two important mineral deposits are located in the Port Moller quadrangle; the Pyramid prospect is the largest copper porphyry system in the Aleutian Arc, and the Apollo Mine is the only gold mine to reach production status in the Aleutian Arc.

  18. Maps showing metallic mineral resources of the Bendeleben and Solomon quadrangles, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Bruce M.; Till, Alison B.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the potential for metallic mineral resources in the Bendeleben and Solomon quadrangles, central Seward Peninsul, Alaska (fig. 1), and was prepared as part of the AMRAP (Alaska Mineral Resources Appraisal Program) studies for these quadrangles, which were begun in 1981.  Geologic mapping during this study (TILL and others, 1986) included the southern part of the Kotzebue quadrangle.  However, stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples were not collected in that area, and the mineral resources of the southern part of the Kotzebue quadrangle are not assessed in this report.

  19. Three archives of the U. S. Geological Survey's Western Mineral Resources Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolm, Karen Sue; Frank, David G.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2000-01-01

    The Western Mineral Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has three archives, which hold unpublished or difficult-to-obtain records and literature. The Technical Data Unit in Anchorage, Alaska, holds maps, field notes, and other records of the USGS work in Alaska. The USGS Field Office in Spokane, Washington, houses the more than 5,000 files from Federal government exploration programs that contracted to fund exploration for some commodities from 1950 until 1974. The Latin American Archive in Tucson, Arizona, holds material on Latin American mineral resources collected by the Center for Inter-American MineralResources Investigations.

  20. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    8217 AD-AI13 146 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 B/7 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN AGOITI--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED E-TR...50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY SEVEN ADDITIONAL VALLEYS NEVADA/UTAH SITING AREA VOLUME IV 4Prepared for: U. S. Department of the Air Force Ballistic...VALLEY MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEfV STUDY AREA OXJNOARY SEPT. 26, 1960 I MX SITING INVESTIGATION 27 FEDC t97 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE I ik 320’- 36 37 4

  1. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    AO-AI13 14𔃾 ERTEC WESTERN INC LONG BEACH CA F/6 7/4 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN ADDITI-ETC(U) JUN Al F04704-80-C-OGO6...DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC ocT :g 70A -- ~’ .9 ’I K ii I / "~1 - i~ / . . ..1’ ~ ~- .. ~ ~1 I E-TR-50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY...144 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 7/4 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY. SEVEN AOOITI-ETCIU) JUN 81 FON7O-80-C-0006

  2. The Problem of Technical Progress and Mineral Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukashev, Konstantin I.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the estimates of known potential reserves of the major raw materials, future sources therof, the geological and technological problems associated with these, the manufacture of artifical minerals, and international cooperation in this sphere. (Author/GS)

  3. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    Preface The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way? Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on 'Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development' at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18-19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development. The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  4. Mineral resource assessment of the Dillon 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert Carl; Trautwein, C.M.; Ruppel, E.T.; Hanna, W.F.; Rowan, L.C.; Loen, J.S.; Berger, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Dillon 1°x2° quadrangle in southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho was investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) to determine its mineral resource potential. An interdisciplinary study was made of geology, geochemistry, geophysics (gravity and aeromagnetics), remote sensing, and mineral deposits. The results of those studies, as well as mineral resource assessment of numerous mineraldeposit types, are published separately as a folio of maps. This report summarizes the studies, provides background information on them, and presents a selected bibliography relevant to the geology and mineral resources of the quadrangle. The quadrangle contains large resources of gold and substantial resources of talc and chlorite, all of which were being mined in the 1980's and early 1990's. Submarginal resources of molybdenum, copper, tungsten, and iron range from moderately large to large. Other commodities that may be present in significant amounts are chromite, lead, zinc, silver, barite, zeolite minerals, and various nonmetallic metamorphic minerals.

  5. Mineral resources of the Rockhouse Wilderness Study Area, Kern and Tulare Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Peters, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Rockhouse Wilderness Study Area has an identified inferred marginal economic resource of turquoise at the Blue Gem prospect and has six areas of mineral resource potential. There is potential for undiscovered resources of the following commodities: turquoise (high, moderate, and low potential); tungsten and molybdenum (moderate); and barite, silver, arsenic, lead, antimony, and zinc (low). Host rocks for the minerals are Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith and Paleozoic and (or) Mesozoic metamorphic roof-remnant rocks. The area has no geothermal energy or oil and gas resource potential.

  6. Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Frisken, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A.; Munts, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy resources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

  7. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  8. Quantifying and communicating the uncertainty of mineral resource evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Katy; Marchant, Ben; Mankelow, Joseph; Deady, Eimear

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional subsurface models are increasingly being used to assess the value of sand and gravel mineral deposits. Planners might use this information to decide when deposits should be protected from new developments. The models are generally based on interpretations of relatively sparse boreholes and are therefore uncertain. This uncertainty propagates into the predictions of the value of the deposit and must be quantified and communicated to planners in a manner which permits informed decision-making. We discuss these issues in relation to a 60 km by 40 km study area in the south of England. We use the interpretations of 630 boreholes to build statistical models of the subsurface. Mineral deposit categories are defined in terms of the ratio of mineral depth to overburden depth and the proportion of fine particles within the mineral. We use a linear model of coregionalization to model the spatial distribution of these parameters. Furthermore, we use stochastic simulation methods to produce maps of the probability of each category of mineral deposit occurring at each location in the study area. These maps indicate where deposits of suitable sand and gravel might be expected to occur. However, they are only telling us the probability that if a borehole was to be drilled at a location that its contents would satisfy the criteria of each mineral category. Planners require information for areas much larger than a single borehole. Therefore, we demonstrate how the model can be up-scaled to a 1 km2 site. We again use a stochastic simulation method to produce box-whisker plots which illustrate the proportions of gravels, sands, fine sands and fine material that are predicted to occur in the region and the uncertainty associated with the predictions.

  9. Wilderness mineral potential: Assessment of mineral-resource potential in U.S. Forest Service lands studied in 1964-1984: Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, S.P.; Kropschot, S.J.; Dickinson, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    This introduction contains some basic concepts about mineral resources and mineral-resource potential to try to make the book more useful to those who are not familiar with the fields of earth science and mineral-resource assessments. The legislation dealing with the wilderness program is reviewed briefly, because this evolving legislation has imparted a continuing and changing influence on the mineral-resource surveys. The introduction concludes with a description of the publications of the Geological Survey that report in greater detail the results of the joint wilderness studies by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines.

  10. Martian soil color variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Rocks and soils on the surface are thought to be composed of minerals similar to those found on Earth's surface. One of the most important tools for recognizing these minerals is the spectrum of sunlight reflected by them. At the visible and near-infrared light wavelengths measured by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), the most important coloring materials in the Martian surface are iron minerals. There are two broad classes of iron minerals. Minerals which occur in igneous rocks (such as pyroxene) have a relatively flat spectrum and they reflect only a small amount of light; they are said to have a low reflectance. Ferric iron minerals, which occur as weathering products, reflect longer-wavelength light and absorb short-wavelength light, hence their very red color. The relative brightnesses of Martian surface materials in IMP's different wavelength filter is a powerful tool for recognizing the iron minerals present.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Mineral resource of the month: zirconium and hafnium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are grouped in the same family as titanium on the periodic table. The two elements commonly occur in oxide and silicate minerals and have significant economic importance in everything from ink, ceramics and golf shoes to nuclear fuel rods.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  13. Assessment of mineral resource tracts in the Chugach National Forest, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.

    2000-01-01

    Locatable minerals have been produced from the Chugach National Forest (CNF) for nearly 100 years. Past gold production has come from the Kenai Peninsula and the Girdwood, Port Wells, and Valdez areas. Copper and by-product gold and silver have been produced from mines at Ellamar, on Latouche Island, and near Valdez. Many of the past-producing properties were not mined out and contain significant inferred reserves of gold, copper, lead, zinc, and silver. This report outlines mineral resource areas (tracts) that contain both identified and undiscovered mineral resources. These tracts were drawn on the basis of one or more of the following criteria: (1) geochemical anomalies, (2) favorable geologic units, (3) presence of mines, prospects or mineral occurrences, and (4) geophysical anomalies. Bliss (1989) used six mineral deposit models to describe the types of deposits known from the CNF. Of these deposit types, only four are sufficiently known and defined in the CNF to be suitable for consideration in outlining and ranking of mineral resource tracts; these deposit types are: (1) Cyprus-type massive sulfide, (2) Chugach-type low-sulfide goldquartz veins, (3) placer gold, and (4) polymetallic vein. The U.S. Bureau of Mines indicated that most of the inferred mineral reserves in the CNF would not be economic to produce under current prices. Small-scale placer gold operations are a possible exception. Other known resources that have recorded past production (oil, coal, rock, sand, and gravel) are not addressed in this report.

  14. Wilderness study area, mineral resources of the Sleeping Giant, Lewis and Clark County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Tysdal, G.; Reynold, M.W.; Carlson, R.R.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Rowan, L.C. ); Peters, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    A Mineral resource survey was conducted in 1987 by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the Sleeping Giant Wilderness Study Area (MT-075-111) in Lewis and Clark County, Montana. The only economic resource in the study area is an inferred 1.35-million-ton reserve of decorative stone (slate); a small gold placer resource is subeconomic. A high resource potential for decorative slate exists directly adjacent to the area of identified slate resource and in the northeastern part of the study area. The rest of the study area has a low potential for decorative slate. The westernmost part of the study area has a moderate resource potential for copper and associated silver in state-bound deposits in green beds and limestone; potential is low in the rest of the study are. The study area has a low resource potential for sapphires in placer deposits, gold in placer deposits (exclusive of subeconomic resource mentioned above), phosphate in the Spokane Formation, diatomite in lake deposits, uranium, oil, gas, geothermal energy, and no resource potential for phosphate in the Phosphoria Formation.

  15. A review of mineral resources in Malawi: With special reference to aluminium variation in mineral deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.

    2007-03-01

    The lithology of Malawi is characterized by Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks which form part of the polyphase East African Orogen. Rift-related sedimentation and igneous activity during the late Paleozoic (Karoo System) and the late Mesozoic (Chilwa Province) have produced a great variety of rocks that underwent strong chemical weathering and erosion when the entire region received its final shape by peneplanation and fluvial incision during the Cenozoic under (sub)tropical climatic conditions. Aluminum is a dominating element in minerals (e.g., corundum, kyanite, beryl, gibbsite) in this region. Some minerals were concentrated in deposits bound to Al-enriched host rocks (zircon, pyrochlore, eudialyte, uranium minerals) with high A/CNK ratios, whereas others, e.g., asbestos, chalcedony, monazite, kaolinite, ilmenite and garnet have host rocks of a low A/CNK ratio. Aluminum was used to categorize these various mineral deposits. The abundance of aluminum and accumulations of Nb, Zr, Ti, REE, Sr and Ba point for some mineralisations to similar subcrustal carbonatite-forming systems that were operative during periods of the Precambrian and the Mesozoic in Malawi. Aluminum variation does not only reflect differentiation in the various igneous rock series but it is also visible in the sedimentary realm during transport and weathering. In context with other elements such as Ti and P, Al provides an opportunity to reveal chemical relationships between rocks and mineral deposits. Spinel and Al-enriched silicate minerals can be used as pathfinder minerals in the stream sediments to guide the exploration geologist to non-metallic deposits.

  16. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north.

  17. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: cultured quartz crystal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article presents information on cultured quartz crystals, a mineral used in mobile phones, computers, clocks and other devices controlled by digital circuits. Cultured quartz, which is synthetically produced in large pressurized vessels known as autoclaves, is useful in electronic circuits for precise filtration, frequency control and timing for consumer and military use. Several ingredients are used in producing cultured quartz, including seed crystals, lascas, a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, lithium salts and deionized water.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: platinum group metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on platinum group metals (PGMs) and their properties. According to the author, PGMs, which include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium, are among the rarest mineral commodities in the Earth's crust. PGMs are primarily used as catalytic converters that clean harmful exhaust from vehicle engines. They are also used in the chemical industry as catalysts in the production of nitric acid and in the petroleum refining industry.

  20. Mineral resource potential map of the Kalmiopsis Wilderness, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Miller, Michael S.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Blakely, Richard J.; Lipin, Bruce R.; Foose, Michael P.; Gray, Floyd

    1982-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and the Joint conference Report on Senate Bill 4, 88th Congress, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been conducting mineral surveys of wilderness and primitive areas. Areas officially designated as "wilderness," wild," or "canoe" when the act was passed were incorporated into the National Wilderness Preservation System, and some of them are presently being studied. The act provided that areas under consideration for wilderness designation should be studied for suitability for incorporation into the Wilderness System. The mineral surveys constitute one aspect of the suitability studies. The act directs that the results of such surveys are to be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of the Kalmiopsis Wilderness, Siskiyou National Forest, Josephine and Curry Counties, Oregon. The area was established as a wilderness by Public Law 88-577, September 1964.

  1. Mineral resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shawe, D.R.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; Wernicke, B.P.; Axer, G.J.; Barton, H.N.; Day, G.W. ); Rains, R.L. )

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted investigations to appraise the identified resources and to assess the potential for undiscovered resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, southeastern Nevada. There are no identified resources in or near the study area; however, there are no occurrences of commercial-grade limestones and sand gravel. The study area has high mineral resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, silver, and (or) gold in its southern part and copper, lead, zinc, silver, gold, arsenic, and (or) antimony in its northern part. Part of the study area has moderate mineral resource potential for antimony. Two areas in the central part of the study area have moderate mineral resource potential for molybdenum, tungsten, and (or) tin. The study area has moderate energy resource potential for oil and gas, except for areas of low potential where significant hydrothermal activity has occurred. It has low mineral and energy resource potential for manganese, barite, vermiculite, coal, and geothermal energy.

  2. Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Friskin, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A. ); Munts, S.R. )

    1988-01-01

    The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy sources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

  3. Geologic, aeromagnetic and mineral resource potential maps of the Whisker Lake Wilderness, Florence County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in the Nicolet National Forest, Florence County, northeastern Wisconsin, was evaluated in 1982. The bedrock consists of recrystallized and deformed volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Early Proterozoic age. Sand and gravel are the only identified resources in the Whisker Lake Wilderness. However, the area is somewhat isolated from current markets and both commodities are abundant regionally. The wilderness also has low potential for peat in swampy lowlands. The southwestern part of the wilderness has a low to moderate mineral resource potential for stratabound massive-sulfide (copper-zinc-lead) deposits.

  4. Potential mineral resources, Payette National Forest, Idaho: description and probabilistic estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Johnson, Bruce R.; Cookro, Theresa M.; Lund, Karen; Watts, Kenneth C.; King, Harley D.; Kleinkopf, Merlin D.; Pitkin, James A.; Sanchez, J. David; Causey, J. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The Payette National Forest (PNF), in west-central Idaho, is geologically diverse and contains a wide variety of mineral resources. Mineral deposit types are grouped into locatable, leasable, and salable categories. The PNF has substantial past production and identified resources of locatable commodities, including gold, silver, copper, zinc, tungsten, antimony, mercury, and opal. Minor lignitic coal is the only leasable mineral resource known to be present in the PNF. Resources of salable commodities in the PNF include sand-and-gravel, basalt for crushed-rock aggregate, and minor gypsum. Locatable mineral resources are geographically divided between eastern and western parts of the PNF. The western PNF lies west of the Riggins-to-Cascade highway (US 95 - Idaho 55), and the eastern PNF is east of that highway. The western and eastern parts of the PNF are geologically distinctive and have different types of locatable mineral deposits, so their locatable mineral resources are described separately. Within the western and eastern parts of the PNF, locatable deposit types generally are described in order of decreasing geologic age. An expert panel delineated tracts considered geologically permissive and (or) favorable for the occurrence of undiscovered mineral deposits of types that are known to be present within or near the PNF. The panel also estimated probabilities for undiscovered deposits, and used numerical simulation, based on tonnage-grade distribution models, to derive estimates of in-situ metals contained. These estimates are summarized in terms of mean and median measures of central tendency. Most grade and tonnage distributions appear to be log-normal, with the median lower than the mean. Inasmuch as the mean is influenced by the largest deposits in the model tonnage-grade distribution, the median provides a lower measure of central tendency and a more conservative estimation of undiscovered resources.

  5. Martian Environment Electrostatic Precipitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougall, Michael Owen

    2016-01-01

    As part of the planned manned mission to Mars, NASA has noticed that shipping oxygen as a part of life support to keep the astronauts alive continuously is overly expensive, and impractical. As such, noting that the Martian atmosphere is 95.37% CO2, NASA chemists noted that one could obtain oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. The plan, as part of a larger ISRU (in-situ resource utilization) initiative, would extract water from the regolith, or the Martian soil which can be electrolyzed by solar panel produced voltage into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can then be used in the Sabatier reaction with carbon dioxide to produce methane and water producing a net reaction that does not lose water and outputs methane and oxygen for use as rocket fuel and breathing.

  6. Mineral resources of the Raymond Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln county, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, K.; Evans, J.P.; Hill, R.H.; Bankey, V.; Lane, E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the Raymond Mountain Wilderness Study Area which encompasses most of the Sublette Range of western Lincoln County, Wyo. The study area consists of upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that form part of the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah overthrust belt. There are no identified mineral or energy resources in the wilderness study area. The study area has moderate energy resource potential for oil and gas. Mineral resource potential for vanadium and phosphate is low because the Phosphoria Formation is deeply buried beneath the wilderness study area and contains unweathered units having low P{sub 2}O{sub 5} values. The mineral resource potential for coal, other metals, including uranium, high-purity limestone or dolostone, and geothermal energy is low.

  7. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patashova, T.

    2009-04-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. I would like present the work wherein discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying most popular resources calculating methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages, their availability subject to deposits‘genetic types.

  8. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis.

  9. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  10. Mineral resource of the month: natural and synthetic zeolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic rocks containing natural zeolites — hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that contain alkaline and alkaline-earth metals — have been mined worldwide for more than 1,000 years for use as cements and building stone. For centuries, people thought natural zeolites occurred only in small amounts inside cavities of volcanic rock. But in the 1950s and early 1960s, large zeolite deposits were discovered in volcanic tuffs in the western United States and in marine tuffs in Italy and Japan. And since then, similar deposits have been found around the world, from Hungary to Cuba to New Zealand. The discovery of these larger deposits made commercial mining of natural zeolite possible.

  11. Mineral resources of the Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    du Bray, E.A.; Bankey, V.; Hill, R.H.; Ryan, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area is about 20 mi east-southeast of Encampment in Carbon County, Wyoming. This study area is underlain by middle Proterozoic gabbro, granite, and hornblende gneiss, which is locally cut by pegmatite dikes. There are no identified resources and no potential for undiscovered energy resources in this study area. Resource potential for all undiscovered metallic commodities and for industrial mineral is low.

  12. The mineral resources of the Mount Wrangell district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, W.C.; Schrader, F.C.

    1903-01-01

    The Tenth Census, taken in 1880, gives the number of white inhabitants of the Territory of Alaska as 430. In the decade from 1880 to 1890 this number had increased to 4,298, and in the following decade, that between 1890 and 1900, a further increase to 30,493 is recorded. The Director of the Mint in his report for 1891 gives the value of the yield of the Territory in precious metals as $772,197. By 1900 these figures were increased to $8,265,772. These statistics of the growth in population and in mineral output of Alaska serve as an index to the general increase in the importance and· commercial value of the Territory as an integral part of the domain of the United States. The larger part of this growth began with the discovery, late in the autumn of 1896, of the placer deposits of Klondike River in Canadian Yukon territory. Soon after this discovery there was a great influx of prospectors, miners, and, business men to all parts of Alaska, but particularly to the regions tributary to the Yukon, and with this increase in population came a proportional increase in transportation facilities and business interests.

  13. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Nabesna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Griscom, Andrew; Marsh, S.P.; Singer, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Nabesna quadrangle in south-central Alaska is the first of the l:250,000-scale Alaskan quadrangles to be investigated by an interdisciplinary research team in order to furnish a mineral resource assessment of the State. The assessment of the 17,600-km 2 16,800-mi21 quadrangle is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and satellite imagery. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, diagrams, and accompanying discussions. This report provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource assessment. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the Nabesna quadrangle.

  14. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; guide to information about the geology and mineral resources of the Ketchikan and Prince Rupert quadrangles, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berg, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    The Ketchikan and Prince Rupert 1-degree by 2-degree quadrangles, which encompass about 16,000 km2 at the south tip of southeastern Alaska, have been investigated by integrated field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat data interpretation to determine their mineral-resource potential. Mineral deposits in the study area have been mined or prospected intermittently since about 1900, and production of small tonnages of ores containing gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten has been recorded. Extensive exploration and development currently (1981) is underway at a molybdenum prospect about 65 km east of Ketchikan. Our mineral-resource assessment indicates that the area contains potentially significant amounts of those metallic commodities, as well as of molybdenum, iron, antimony, and barite. The results of these studies have been published in a folio of maps accompanied by descriptive texts, diagrams, tables, and pertinent references. The present report serves as a guide to these investigations, provides relevant background information, and integrates the component maps and reports. It also describes revisions to the geology based on studies completed since the folio was published and includes a list of specific and general references on the geology and mineral deposits of the study area.

  15. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream sediments for mineral resources from the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Beyth, M.; McInteer, C.; Broxton, D.E.; Bolivar, S.L.; Luke, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Craig quadrangle, Colorado, to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic or other important commercial mineral resources. A few areas for favorable uranium mineralization are suggested for parts of the Wyoming Basin, Park Range, and Gore Range. Six potential source rocks for uranium are postulated based on factor score mapping. Vanadium in stream sediments is suggested as a pathfinder for carnotite-type mineralization. A probable northwest trend of lead-zinc-copper mineralization associated with Tertiary intrusions is suggested. A few locations are mapped where copper is associated with cobalt. Concentrations of placer sands containing rare earth elements, probably of commercial value, are indicated for parts of the Sand Wash Basin.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    With many diverse uses, industrial sand and gravel, also known as silica sand, is one of the most important nonmetallic minerals in the world. Industrial sand and gravel is a mining industry term used for sands that have a very high percentage of silicon dioxide, or greater than 95 percent quartz. Deposits of industrial sand and gravel can be found virtually everywhere on Earth, but are less widespread than deposits of common construction sand and gravel. Industrial sand and gravel is distinctive in grain size, hardness, inertness and resistance to high temperature and chemical action. Beverage containers, fiberglass insulation, fiber-optic cables and light bulbs are just some of today’s many products produced from industrial sand and gravel.

  17. Isotopic Evidence for a Martian Regolith Component in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Sutton, S.

    2009-01-01

    Noble gas measurements in gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses in EET79001 shergottite showed that their elemental and isotopic composition is similar to that of the Martian atmosphere [1-3]. The GRIM glasses contain large amounts of Martian atmospheric gases. Those measurements further suggested that the Kr isotopic composition of Martian atmosphere is approximately similar to that of solar Kr. The (80)Kr(sub n) - (80)Kr(sub M) mixing ratio in the Martian atmosphere reported here is approximately 3%. These neutron-capture reactions presumably occurred in the glass-precursor regolith materials containing Sm- and Br- bearing mineral phases near the EET79001/ Shergotty sites on Mars. The irradiated materials were mobilized into host rock voids either during shock-melting or possibly by earlier aeolian / fluvial activity.

  18. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patašova, Tatjana; Jurgaitis, Algirdas

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. The present work discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying old methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of the triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages.

  19. USGS Mineral Resources Program; national maps and datasets for research and land planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, S.W.; Stoeser, D.B.; Ludington, S.D.; Wilson, F.H.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, the Nation’s leader in producing and maintaining earth science data, serves as an advisor to Congress, the Department of the Interior, and many other Federal and State agencies. Nationwide datasets that are easily available and of high quality are critical for addressing a wide range of land-planning, resource, and environmental issues. Four types of digital databases (geological, geophysical, geochemical, and mineral occurrence) are being compiled and upgraded by the Mineral Resources Program on regional and national scales to meet these needs. Where existing data are incomplete, new data are being collected to ensure national coverage. Maps and analyses produced from these databases provide basic information essential for mineral resource assessments and environmental studies, as well as fundamental information for regional and national land-use studies. Maps and analyses produced from the databases are instrumental to ongoing basic research, such as the identification of mineral deposit origins, determination of regional background values of chemical elements with known environmental impact, and study of the relationships between toxic elements or mining practices to human health. As datasets are completed or revised, the information is made available through a variety of media, including the Internet. Much of the available information is the result of cooperative activities with State and other Federal agencies. The upgraded Mineral Resources Program datasets make geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and mineral occurrence information at the state, regional, and national scales available to members of Congress, State and Federal government agencies, researchers in academia, and the general public. The status of the Mineral Resources Program datasets is outlined below.

  20. Fractionated (Martian) Noble Gases — EFA, Experiments and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Barnes, G.; Bridges, J. C.; Bullock, M. A.; Chavez, C. L.; Filiberto, J.; Herrmann, S.; Hicks, L. J.; Kelley, S. P.; Miller, M. A.; Moore, J. M.; Ott, U.; Smith, H. D.; Steer, E. D.; Swindle, T. D.; Treiman, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    Noble gases are tracers for physical processes, including adsorption, dissolution and secondary mineral formation. We examine the Martian fractionated atmosphere through literature, terrestrial analogs and experiments.

  1. Central Colorado Assessment Project - Application of integrated geologic, geochemical, biologic, and mineral resource studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Church, S.E.; Caine, J.S.; Schmidt, T.S.; deWitt, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative studies by USDA Forest Service, National Park Service supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP), and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs (NCGMP) contributed to the mineral-resource assessment and included regional geologic mapping at the scale 1:100,000, collection and geochemical studies of stream sediments, surface water, and bedrock samples, macroinvertebrate and biofilm studies in the riparian environment, remote-sensing studies, and geochronology. Geoscience information available as GIS layers has improved understanding of the distribution of metallic, industrial, and aggregate resources, location of areas that have potential for their discovery or development, helped to understand the relation of tectonics, magmatism, and paleohydrology to the genesis of the metal deposits in the region, and provided insight on the geochemical and environmental effects that historical mining and natural, mineralized rock exposures have on surface water, ground water, and aquatic life.

  2. Treasure hunt of mineral resources: a serious game in a virtual world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniello, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    This posterdescribes a geoscience activities on mineral resources for students of 14-18 years old. The activities are created as a treasure hunt of mineral resources, students must pass test and solve questions, search mineral in different environments: near a volcanos, in the river, in a lake, in a cave, under the sea and on a mountain. The activity is created using a virtual environment a virtual world built with a software, Opensim, a opensource software. In this virtual world every student as avatar, a virtual rapresentation of himself, search information, objects, mineral as in a serious game, a digital serious game. In the serious game buit as a treasure hunt, students interact with environment in a learning by doing, and they interact with other students in a cooperative learning and a collaborative environment. In the hunt there is a challenge that student must overcome: understanding what is a mineral resource collecting data on mineral analyzing environments where they are created so the students can improve motivation and learn, and improve scientific skills.

  3. Evaluation of the use of mineral resource assessments in Federal land-use decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the content, timeliness, and influence of mineral resource assessments developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Mines (BoM) for wilderness withdrawal and other management decisions by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) indicates that significant improvements can be made. The USFS has completed most of its land management plans with very limited geologic input and does not plan to modify them until the mid 1990's. BLM is instituting review procedures for land-use decisions made prior to availability of USGS/BoM mineral assessments. Terminology characterizing mineral potentials (low, medium, high) needs further clarification for assured consideration by BLM land managers who do not usually have geologic backgrounds. Presently, there is no frame of reference for land managers to use in comparing the relative importance of mineral potential and other types of resource values when making a land-use decision. The BoM should characterize the significance of potentially strategic mineral commodities in the assessment reports as background for readers. USGS Bulletin 1638, a mineral assessment of the San Isabel National Forest, Colorado, is an important step in making mineral potential information more assimilatable.

  4. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  5. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  6. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  7. Mineral resource potential map of the Gee Creek Wilderness, Polk and Monroe counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Behum, Paul T.

    1983-01-01

    The major rock types in the wilderness area consist of sandstone, shale, and conglomerate of the Chilhowee Group of Cambrian and Cambrian(?) age. Faulting appears to have controlled the location of minor subeconomic iron deposits, but no potential mineral resources were detected by the present survey. Shales, useful for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, useful for crushed stone or sand, have little economic interest because these rock types are common throughout the region and are found closer to potential markets. The possibility of natural gas occurring in untested rocks structurally beneath the Chilhowee strata cannot be discounted. No potential was found for any other mineral resource.

  8. Mineral resources of the Borah Peak Wilderness Study Area, Custer county, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.B.; Janecke, S.U.; Skipp, B.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; McCafferty, A.E.; Barton, H.N.; Miller, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Borah Peak (ID-047-004) Wilderness Study Area and an adjacent tract recommended as suitable for wilderness on the western flank of the Lost River Range in east-central Idaho. An investigation of these areas indicates that they have no known economic mineral resources. They do have occurrences of sand and gravel, dolostone (a source of magnesium metal), limestone, and silica. The areas have low mineral resource potential for barite, all metals, geothermal energy, and oil and gas.

  9. Mineral resources of the Scorpion Wilderness study area, Garfield and Kane counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Jones, J.L.; Kilburn, J.E.; Cady, J.W.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L. ); Lane, M.E.; Corbetta, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Scorpion Wilderness Study Area which covers 14,978 acres in south- central Utah in Garfield and Kane counties. No mining claims or oil and gas leases or lease applications extend inside this study-area boundary. Demonstrated subeconomic resources of less than 30,000 tons of gypsum are in this study area. The mineral resource potential is low for undiscovered gypsum in the Carmel Formation, for undiscovered uranium in the Chinle Formation in the subsurface, and for undiscovered metals other than uranium. The energy resource potential is low for geothermal resources and is moderate for oil, gas, and carbon dioxide.

  10. Mineral resources of the Petaca Pinta wilderness study area, Cibola County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, C.H.; Nowlan, G.A.; Bankey, V.; Hannigan, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the Petaca Pinta Wilderness Study Area in west-central New Mexico (11,688 acres) which is a small mesa with near-vertical 300-ft cliffs of Jurassic-age and Cretaceous-age sandstone overlying Triassic-age shale that forms steep slopes. This study area contains no identified metallic mineral resources but has inferred subeconomic resources of sandstone and sand. This study area has a low resource potential for undiscovered deposits of metals, including uranium, and has a moderate resource potential for the occurrence of oil and gas.

  11. Mineral Resources of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J. Thomas; Plouff, Donald; McDonnell, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Morey (NV-060-191) and Fandango (NV-060-190) Wilderness Study Areas are located in the northern Hot Creek Range about 25 mi north of Warm Springs, Nev. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 46,300 acres of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas were studied. In this report, the area studied is referred to as 'the wilderness study area', or simply 'the study area'. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys were conducted by the USGS and the USBM in 1984 to appraise the identified mineral resources and to assess the mineral resource potential of the study areas. These studies indicate that there are small identified resources of zinc, lead, and silver at the Lead Pipe property in the Fandango Wilderness Study Area, several areas of high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in the Fandango study area, small areas of low and moderate potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Fandango study area, areas of moderate and high potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Morey study area, and an area of low potential for copper, molybdenum, and tin in the Morey study area. Both study areas have low resource potential for petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and geothermal energy.

  12. Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    At the request of the US Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and laboratory studies were conducted by the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A search of US Bureau of Land Management, State, and County records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of this study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of this area precludes much usage of this material. About two-thirds of this study area is under lease for oil and gas. This entire study area has a moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and a low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

  13. Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and labortory studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. A search of U.S. Bureau of Land Management, State, and county records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of the area precludes much usage of the material. About two-thirds of the study area is under lease for oil and gas. The entire study area has moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

  14. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, D.M.; Renaud, K.M.; Drew, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C 1 (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110. 8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C 2 (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P 2 (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C 2 and P 2 resources are 1,659. 1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P 2 resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology (outside the USA).

  15. Mineral Resources of the Mount Nutt Wilderness Study Area, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Jachens, Robert C.; Miller, Robert J.; Turner, Robert L.; Livo, Eric K.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Mariano, John; Almquist, Carl L.

    1990-01-01

    The Mount Nutt Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-024) is located in the Black Mountains about 15 mi west of Kingman, Arizona. At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 27,210 acres of the wilderness study area was evaluated for mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as the 'wilderness study area' or simply 'the study area'; any reference to the Mount Nutt Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area (27,210 acres) for which a mineral survey was requested. The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys to assess the identified mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the study area. Fieldwork for this report was carried out in 1987 and 1988. A gold resource totaling at least 56,000 troy oz has been identified at two sites in Secret Pass Canyon, less than 0.5 mi north of the study area. No other metallic mineral resources were identified inside the study area. An area near the center of the study area contains fire agate, a gem stone. On the basis of tonnage, site accessibility, and current production methods, this area is considered an indicated subeconomic fire-agate resource for the foreseeable future. Sand and gravel are present in the study area. An area surrounding the Tincup mine and including a small portion of the extreme north-central part of the study area has high potential for gold and low potential for silver, lead, and mercury. Three areas in the extreme northwestern, north-central, and southwestern parts of the study area have moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, lead, and mercury. A small area near the known fire-agate resource in the south-central part of the study area has low potential for fire agate. Large areas in the eastern and central parts of the study area have low potential for perlite and zeolite resources

  16. Mineral resources of the Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, M.I.; Patterson, C.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Schreiner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Study Area in Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties, Colorado, contains flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Triassic to Cretaceous age underlain by Proterozoic crystalline rocks. Investigations by the US Geological Survey and US Bureau of Mines revealed that the wilderness study area has low mineral resource potential for metals, including uranium, oil and gas, coal, and geothermal energy. No identified resources are present.

  17. Agenda, extended abstracts, and bibliographies for a workshop on Deposit modeling, mineral resources assessment, and their role in sustainable development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2002-01-01

    Global demand for mineral resources continues to increase because of increasing global population and the desire and efforts to improve living standards worldwide. The ability to meet this growing demand for minerals is affected by the concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and resource development require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to land-use, resource, and environmental management worldwide. This, in turn, requires unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The purpose of the IGC workshop is to review the state-of-the-art in mineral-deposit modeling and quantitative resource assessment and to examine their role in the sustainability of mineral use. The workshop will address such questions as: Which of the available mineral-deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral-exploration information? How can mineral-resource assessments be used to address economic and environmental issues? Presentations will include overviews of assessment methods used in previous national and other small-scale assessments of large regions as well as resulting assessment products and their uses.

  18. Early organic evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Schidlowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Early Organic Evolution is the proceedings of the ninth Alfred Wegener Conference, the final meeting of IGCP Project 157 held in Germany in 1988. Over the past 15 years, Project 157 has promoted the blending of organic geochemistry, economic geology, and evolutionary biology. This IGCP publication covers a diverse set of topics and truly reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field of early organic evolution. In the second and largest section, seventeen papers on organic matter in ancient sediments discuss the chemical analysis of early sediments, gas, and oil. The reader is treated to a review of carbon isotope chemistry and a [delta][sup 13]C walk through the past 3.8 billion years, and even deeper yet into the mantle. Following this is a series of papers carefully describing elemental, isotopic, and organic geochemical (particularly biomarker) data from ancient sediments found throughout the earth. This section ends very strongly with the paper by Fowler on the influence of a single alga on Ordovician oils and rocks from Canada. He first gives a detailed account of the considerable chemical and microscopic evidence showing that minimally reworked Gloeocapsomorpha prisca is the main contributor of organic matter to the oil and rock and then goes on to discuss the nature of the organism. In general, this book reviews information presented in other places, but still serves as a good resource for those interested in the evolution of the Earth.

  19. Spatial database for a global assessment of undiscovered copper resources: Chapter Z in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dicken, Connie L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Parks, Heather L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2016-07-13

    As part of the first-ever U.S. Geological Survey global assessment of undiscovered copper resources, data common to several regional spatial databases published by the U.S. Geological Survey, including one report from Finland and one from Greenland, were standardized, updated, and compiled into a global copper resource database. This integrated collection of spatial databases provides location, geologic and mineral resource data, and source references for deposits, significant prospects, and areas permissive for undiscovered deposits of both porphyry copper and sediment-hosted copper. The copper resource database allows for efficient modeling on a global scale in a geographic information system (GIS) and is provided in an Esri ArcGIS file geodatabase format.

  20. Lunar mineral feedstocks from rocks and soils: X-ray digital imaging in resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Higgins, Stefan J.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences between lunar basalts and soils and quantitative comparison of rock-derived and soil-derived ilmenite concentrates. It is concluded that x-ray digital-imaging characterization of lunar raw materials provides a quantitative comparison that is unattainable by traditional petrographic techniques. These data are necessary for accurately determining mineral distributions of soil and crushed rock material. Application of these techniques will provide an important link to choosing the best raw material for mineral beneficiation.

  1. Spatial databases of the Humboldt Basin mineral resource assessment, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Moyer, Lorre A.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the origin, generation, and format of tract map databases for deposit types that accompany the metallic mineral resource assessment for the Humboldt River Basin, northern Nevada, (Wallace and others, 2004, Chapter 2). The deposit types include pluton-related polymetallic, sedimentary rock-hosted Au-Ag, and epithermal Au-Ag. The tract maps constitute only part of the assessment, which also includes new research and data for northern Nevada, discussions on land classification, and interpretation of the assessment maps. The purpose of the assessment was to identify areas that may have a greater favorability for undiscovered metallic mineral deposits, provide analysis of the mineral-resource favorability, and present the assessment of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas in a digital format using a Geographic Information System (GIS).

  2. Databases, data integration, and expert systems: new directions in mineral resource assessment and mineral exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCammon, Richard B.; Ramani, Raja V.; Mozumdar, Bijoy K.; Samaddar, Arun B.

    1994-01-01

    Overcoming future difficulties in searching for ore deposits deeper in the earth's crust will require closer attention to the collection and analysis of more diverse types of data and to more efficient use of current computer technologies. Computer technologies of greatest interest include methods of storage and retrieval of resource information, methods for integrating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data, and the introduction of advanced computer technologies such as expert systems, multivariate techniques, and neural networks. Much experience has been gained in the past few years in applying these technologies. More experience is needed if they are to be implemented for everyday use in future assessments and exploration.

  3. A Proposal for Precambrian Mineral Resource Evaluation in Minnesota Utilizing ERTS Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of Minnesota. These rock units hold promise for potential mineral resources as do important ore deposits found in similar rocks to the north in Canada. The research planned involves the discrimination of rock types to show their aerial extent and an interpretation of the structural relationships between and within the various rock units.

  4. Mineral resource potential map of the Rock Pile Mountain Wilderness Study area, Madison County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Erickson, Ralph L.; Ellis, Clarence

    1982-01-01

    Neither the Precambrlan volcanic rocks nor the Cambrlan sedimentary rocks contain any detectable evidence of economic mineralization. The area has no potential for coal resources, an unfavorable potential for oil and gas, and no known potential for geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks might be suitable for use as crushed stone, but similar rocks occur abundantly in more favorable locations elsewhere.

  5. Preliminary publications Book 1 from Project on Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis and Tectonics of Northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ariunbileg, Sodov; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Bulgatov, Alexander N.; Chimed, Noosoi; Deikunenko, Aleksey V.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Diggles, Michael F.; Distanov, Elimir G.; Dorjgotov, Dangindorjiin; Gerel, Ochir; Gordienko, Ivan V.; Gotovsuren, Ayurzana; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Koch, Richard D.; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Orolmaa, Demberel; Oxman, Vladimir S.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Popeko, Ludmila I.; Prokopiev, Andrey V.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Sotnikov, Vitaliy I.; Sudo, Sadahisa; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tret'yakov, Felix F.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Ye, Mao; Zadgenizov, Alexander P.

    1999-01-01

    This report consists of preliminary data tables, maps, and interpretative articles compiled in late 1997 and early 1998 for a new project on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, North-eastern China, South Korea, and Japan).

  6. Space technology in the discovery and development of mineral and energy resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology, applied to the discovery and extraction of mineral and energy resources, is summarized. Orbital remote sensing for geological purposes has been widely applied through the use of LANDSAT satellites. These techniques also have been of value for protection against environmental hazards and for a better understanding of crustal structure.

  7. Mineral resources potential map of the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area, Inyo and Tulare counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    There are five areas with mineral resource potential and one area with geothermal energy potential in the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area. The area south of Summit Meadows and the area south of Hogback Creek have moderate resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum in small skarn deposits. The area between Summit meadow and Hogback Creek and the area from south of Jackass Meadows to northwest of Granite Knob have low mineral resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum. The area south of and including Walker Creek has low mineral resource potential for lead and zinc. The area including and surrounding Monache Mountain has high geothermal energy resource potential.

  8. Mineral resource potential map of the Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.; Esparza, Leon E.; Rumsey, Clayton M.

    1982-01-01

    The Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WSA 050-0229), Clark County, Nevada, has a high potential for mineral deposits of calcium borates and lithium. The known and potential mineral deposits are concentrated in the east-central and south-central parts of the study area (see map). Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolite) are present in some tuff beds throughout much of the study area, and this resource potential is probably moderate to high. Stream-sediment sampling suggests that the Muddy Mountains area has little potential for mineral deposits of metals (other than lithium). Clay minerals are mined at one locality in the (!rea (see map). Building stone and silica sand have moderate to low potential in some places. Oil and gas potential within the study area is low, but complete evaluation of its potential is not possible without drilling.

  9. Mineral resource assessment of pegmatite minerals in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; D'Agostino, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and on the distribution of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences reported in the literature. This report is an assessment of the minerals associated with mica pegmatites in the Greenville quadrangle. It is based on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1989), on field studies conducted from 1952 to 1962 by the USGS for the Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA) and the concurrent examination of many of the known mica mines and prospects in Georgia, and on the published geologic literature and an unpublished report by K.H. Teague on file with the South Carolina Development Board, Division of Geology, in Columbia, S.C.

  10. Mineral resources potential map of the Lost Cove and Harper Creek Roadless Areas, Avery and Caldwell counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, T.M.; Ross, R.B.; Whitlow, J.W.; Griffitts, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mineral resources having low to moderate potential are gold and minerals of thorium, beryllium, niobium, and copper. Stone has a low economic potential; lead, molybdenum, and titanium have low resource potential. These conclusions are based on results of prospect examination, radiometric survey, geochemical survey of stream sediments, saprolite, and bedrock.

  11. Preliminary publications book 2 from project on mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Bounaeva, Tatiana M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This is the Web version of a CD-ROM publication. This report consists of summary major compilations and syntheses accomplished in the six-year project through April 2003 for the study on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan). The major scientific goals and benefits of the project are to: (1) provide a comprehensive international data base on the mineral resources of the region that is the first, extensive knowledge available in English; (2) provide major new interpretations of the origin and crustal evolution of mineralizing systems and their host rocks, thereby enabling enhanced, broad-scale tectonic reconstructions and interpretations; and (3) promote trade and scientific and technical exchanges between the North America and Northeast Asia. Data from the project are providing sound scientific data and interpretations for commercial firms, governmental agencies, universities, and individuals that are developing new ventures and studies in the project area, and for land-use planning studies that deal with both mineral potential issues. Northeast Asia has vast potential for known and undiscovered mineral deposits; however, little information existed in English in the West until publication of products from this project. Consequently, data and interpretations from the project are providing basic knowledge for major scientific, commercial, national, and international endeavors by other interested individuals and groups.

  12. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  13. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2016-11-14

    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.

  14. Mineral resources of the East Fork High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Washoe and Humboldt counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ach, Jay A.; Plouff, Donald; Turner, R.L.; Schmauch, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The part of the East Fork High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area (CA-020-914/NV-020-006A) included in this study encompasses 33,460 acres in the northwestern part of Nevada. Throughout this report, "wilderness study area" and "study area" refertothe 33,460 acres for which mineral surveys were requested. The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted geological, geophysical, and geochemical surveys to assess the mineral resources (known) and the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the study area. Fieldwork for this report was carried out in 1985 and 1986. No mines, significant prospects, or mining claims are located inside the study area, and no identified resources were found. The wilderness study area has moderate mineral resource potential for gold, silver, and mercury and for zeolite minerals. A low potential also exists for geothermal energy resources, and potential for oil and gas is unknown.

  15. Mineral resources and resource potential map of the Pyramid Peak Roadless Area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calzia, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Geologic and geochemical data indicate that the study area has high resource potential for marble, and moderate resource potential for epithermal gold deposits and tungsten skarns. The Desert Divide Group and the Palm Canyon Complex contain large resources of marble quarried for Portland cement and for construction applications. Gold occurs in quartz veins and pegmatites in the Desert Divide Group and the Penrod Quartz Monzonite. Skarns in the Desert Divide Group contain scheelite and anomalous concentrations of arsenic and beryllium. Thin layers of tremolite asbestos along low-angle thrust faults occur outside of the study area.

  16. Terrestrial Biomarkers for Early Life on Earth as Analogs for Possible Martian Life Forms: Examples of Minerally Replaced Bacteria and Biofilms From the 3.5 - 3.3-Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; deWit, M. J.; Dann, J.; Gerneke, D.; deRonde, C. E. J.

    1998-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and especially martian life hinges on a variety of methods used to identify vestiges of what we could recognize as life, including chemical signatures, morphological fossils, and biogenic precipitates. Although the possibility of extant life on Mars (subsurface) is being considered, most exploration efforts may be directed toward the search for fossil life. Geomorphological evidence points to a warmer and wetter Mars early on in its history, a scenario that encourages comparison with the early Earth. For this reason, study of the early terrestrial life forms and environment in which they lived may provide clues as to how to search for extinct martian life. As a contribution to the early Archean database of terrestrial microfossils, we present new data on morphological fossils from the 3.5-3.3-Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. This study underlines the variety of fossil types already present in some of the oldest, best-preserved terrestrial sediments, ranging from minerally replaced bacteria and bacteria molds of vaRious morphologies (coccoid, coccobacillus, bacillus) to minerally replaced biofilm. Biofilm or extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is produced by bacteria and appears to be more readily fossilisable than bacteria themselves. The BGB fossils occur in shallow water to subaerial sediments interbedded with volcanic lavas, the whole being deposited on oceanic crust. Penecontemporaneous silicification of sediments and volcanics resulted in the chertification of the rocks, which were later subjected to low-grade metamorphism (lower greenschist).

  17. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  18. Mineral resources of the Sweetwater Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Hill, R.H.; Kulik, D.M.; Scott, D.C.; Hausel, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    The combined investigations of the US Geological Survey, the US Bureau of Mines, and the Geological Survey of Wyoming have identified gold resources in a lode-type gold vein west of the Sweetwater Canyon Wilderness Study Area in the adjacent Lewiston mining district. Extensions of this vein into the study area may contain 20,000 tons of gold resources; however, subsurface sampling is needed to determine if such resources are present in the study area. A high resource potential for placer-type gold deposits and a low resource potential for placer-type tin and tungsten deposits in the Quaternary gravels along the Sweetwater River and Strawberry Creek exists. In the Precambrian greenstone rocks of the western part of the study area, there is a high mineral resource potential for lode-type gold and a low resource potential for lode-type tin and tungsten deposits. In the Precambrian granitoid rocks of the eastern part of the study area, a low potential for lode-type tin and tungsten exists, and in the entire study area, a low resource potential for uranium exists. There is no resource potential for oil, gas, or geothermal energy in the entire study area.

  19. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Circle quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura; Menzie, W.D.; Cady, J.W.; Simpson, S.L.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wilson, F.H.; Tripp, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    overall gravity and local gravity lows over exposed granitic plutons. It is hypothesized that magnetic chlorite schist infolded with nonmagnetic quartzite and schist account for east-northeast-trending magnetic highs that approximately parallel the regional strike of the most prominent foliation in the metamorphic rocks. North of the Tintina fault zone, the Circle Volcanics are characterized by high gravity and east-west-trending magnetic highs. The Tintina fault zone has an intense magnetic high near the western margin of the Circle quadrangle overlying the magnetic granodiorite of the Victoria Mountain pluton. A magnetic high near Circle Hot Springs is less intense, but broader, and could reflect a buried magnetic pluton similar to that of the Victoria Mountain pluton. Computer-enhanced Landsat images of the Circle quadrangle show trends and patterns of concentrations of linear features. Features trending northeast-southwest predominate throughout the quadrangle; northwest-southeast-trending linear features are found mostly south of the Tintina fault zone. High concentrations of linear features were not found to correspond to areas of known mineralization in any consistent or significant way that could presently be used in locating areas of mineralization. Geochemical and mineralogical studies of stream sediment and heavy-mineral concentrates from the Circle quadrangle identify areas of anomalous concentrations of metallic elements, including gold, silver, tin, tungsten, lead, antimony, zinc, thorium, uranium, and beryllium. The data delineate areas of known mineral occurrences and areas that may contain undiscovered mineral resources. To date, placer gold has been the only significant metallic mineral resource from the Circle quadrangle, but the general geologic setting, especially the presence of post-orogenic plutons, is similar to that of regions that contain tin greisen deposits, tungsten skarn deposits, lode gold deposits in metasedimentary roc

  20. The effect of butyrate concentration on hydrogen production via photofermentation for use in a Martian habitat resource recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jackson Z.; Klaus, David M.; Maness, Pin-Ching; Spear, John R.

    2007-10-01

    Biological hydrogen production from waste biomass has both terrestrial and Martian advanced life support applications. Several forms of this process exist, but one process, indirect biophotolysis, is suitable for a potential Mars mission. This process is two-stage, combining a dark fermentation of starch or sugars with photofermentation of the remaining waste organic acids to produce hydrogen gas. Since butyrate is expected as one of the major inputs into photofermentation from the first stage, Rhodobacter sphaeroides SCJ, a photoheterotrophic purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium was examined for its potential in hydrogen production at 10–100 mM butyrate concentrations. As butyrate levels increased, hydrogen production increased up to 25 mM butyrate, and then decreased and ceased by 100 mM. Additionally, lag phase increased with butyrate concentration, possibly indicating substrate inhibition. Maximal substrate conversion efficiency was 8.0%; maximal light efficiency was 0.89%; and maximal hydrogen production rate was 7.7 μmol/(mg cdwh) (173 μL/ (mg cdwh)).These are generally lower than values reported in the literature.

  1. Martian Colors Provide Clues About Martian Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of Mars taken in visible and infrared light detail a rich geologic history and provide further evidence for water-bearing minerals on the planet's surface.

    LEFT

    This 'true-color' image of Mars shows the planet as it would look to human eyes. It is clearly more Earth-toned than usually depicted in other astronomical images, including earlier Hubble pictures. The slightly bluer shade along the edges of the disk is due to atmospheric hazes and wispy water ice clouds (like cirrus clouds) in the early morning and late evening Martian sky. The yellowish-pink color of the northern polar cap indicates the presence of small iron-bearing dust particles. These particles are covering or are suspended in the air above the blue-white water ice and carbon dioxide ice, which make up the polar cap.

    Accurate colors are needed to determine the composition and mineralogy of Mars. This can tell how water has influenced the formation of rocks and minerals found on Mars today, as well as the distribution and abundance of ice and subsurface liquid water. Confirmation of the presence of certain oxidized (rusted) minerals (processed by heat or water action) would imply the possibility of different, perhaps much more Earth-like, past Martian climate periods. Because the smallest features visible in this image are only about 14 miles (22 km) across, Hubble can track small-scale variations in the distribution of minerals that do not follow global trends. The image was generated from three separate Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images acquired at wavelengths of 410, 502, and 673 nanometers, in March 1997.

    RIGHT

    A false-color picture taken in infrared light reveals features that cannot be seen in visible light. Hubble's unique infrared view pinpoints variations in the abundance and distribution of unknown water-bearing minerals on the planet. While it has been known for decades that small amounts of water-bearing minerals exist on the planet

  2. MARTIAN COLORS PROVIDE CLUES ABOUT MARTIAN WATER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of Mars taken in visible and infrared light detail a rich geologic history and provide further evidence for water-bearing minerals on the planet's surface. LEFT This 'true-color' image of Mars shows the planet as it would look to human eyes. It is clearly more earth-toned than usually depicted in other astronomical images, including earlier Hubble pictures. The slightly bluer shade along the edges of the disk is due to atmospheric hazes and wispy water ice clouds (like cirrus clouds) in the early morning and late evening Martian sky. The yellowish-pink color of the northern polar cap indicates the presence of small iron-bearing dust particles. These particles are covering or are suspended in the air above the blue-white water ice and carbon dioxide ice, which make up the polar cap. Accurate colors are needed to determine the composition and mineralogy of Mars. This can tell how water has influenced the formation of rocks and minerals found on Mars today, as well as the distribution and abundance of ice and subsurface liquid water. Confirmation of the presence of certain oxidized (rusted) minerals (processed by heat or water action) would imply the possibility of different, perhaps much more Earth-like, past Martian climate periods. Because the smallest features visible in this image are only about 14 miles (22 km) across, Hubble can track small-scale variations in the distribution of minerals that do not follow global trends. The image was generated from three separate Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images acquired at wavelengths of 410, 502, and 673 nanometers, in March 1997. RIGHT A false-color picture taken in infrared light reveals features that cannot be seen in visible light. Hubble's unique infrared view pinpoints variations in the abundance and distribution of unknown water-bearing minerals on the planet. While it has been known for decades that small amounts of water-bearing minerals exist on the planet's surface, the

  3. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  4. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic field data acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite is used to construct a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly map for the U.S. midcontinent. This aids in interpretation of gross crustal geology (structure, lithologic composition, resource potential) of the region. Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks are investigated and assessed, to help in evaluation and modelling of crustal magnetization sources and depth to the Curie-temperature isotherm.

  5. Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the area studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study area' or simply 'the study area'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study area is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study area. An area surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the extreme northwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The area surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and all but the southwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large area around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study areas, to

  6. The West Virginia mineral lands program: Statewide GIS resource evaluation and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Neidig, C.A.; Fedorko, N.; Maki, E.; Elmes, G.

    1996-09-01

    In 1995, the West Virginia legislature enacted H.B. 2222 that provided a mandate and funding for a statewide evaluation of mineral resources, specifically coal, to promote a more open and equitable means to assess the taxable value of mineral holdings by West Virginia property owners. Written into the legislation was an appropriation for the initial development of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to integrate the work. Designated as the Mineral Lands Mapping Program, the lead agencies are the VIV Geological and Economic Survey, the WV Department of Tax and Revenue, and the State GIS Technical Support Center at West Virginia University. The complex topography and geology of West Virginia require that large volumes of two- and three-dimensional spatial data be created to support the identification, mapping, and evaluation of coal resources for improved tax assessment of land parcels. The political and economic context of the project, data requirements and sources, inputs and digital conversion procedures, adoption of metadata and data standards, geological base mapping, coal resource modeling methods, tax parcel reconciliation, and integration of the various data sets are all important issues for this program.

  7. In Situ identification of mineral resources with an X-ray-optical "Hand-Lens" instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Koppel, L.; Bratton, C.; Metzger, E.; Hecht, M.

    1997-01-01

    The recognition of material resources on a planetary surface requires exploration strategies not dissimilar to those employed by early field geologists who searched for ore deposits primarily from surface clues. In order to determine the location of mineral ores or other materials, it will be necessary to characterize host terranes at regional or subregional scales. This requires geographically broad surveys in which statistically significant numbers of samples are rapidly scanned from a roving platform. To enable broad-scale, yet power-conservative planetary-surface exploration, we are developing an instrument that combines x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and optical capabilities; the instrument can be deployed at the end of a rover's robotic arm, without the need for sample capture or preparation. The instrument provides XRD data for identification of mineral species and lithological types; diffractometry of minerals is conducted by ascertaining the characteristic lattice parameters or "d-spacings" of mineral compounds. D-spacings of 1.4 to 25 angstroms can be determined to include the large molecular structures of hydrated minerals such as clays. The XRF data will identify elements ranging from carbon (Atomic Number = 6) to elements as heavy as barium (Atomic Number = 56).

  8. Quantitative estimation of undiscovered mineral resources - a case study of US Forest Service Wilderness tracts in the Pacific Mountain system.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The need by land managers and planners for more quantitative measures of mineral values has prompted scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey to test a probabilistic method of mineral resource assessment on a portion of the wilderness lands that have been studied during the past 20 years. A quantitative estimate of undiscovered mineral resources is made by linking the techniques of subjective estimation, geologic mineral deposit models, and Monte Carlo simulation. The study considers 91 U.S. Forest Service wilderness tracts in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. -from Authors

  9. Mineral Resources of the Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Study Area, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, Clay M.; Hassemer, Jerry R.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Pitkin, James A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    The Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-037/043), for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of land Management, encompasses 40,118 acres in northwestern Arizona. Fieldwork was carried out in 1986-88 by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey to appraise the identified (known) resources and assess the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the wilderness study area. Within the Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Study Area are 14 private parcels of land totaling 1,315 acres. The Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Study Area, including the 14 private parcels of land, is herein referred to as the 'wilderness study area' or the 'study area'. The Boriana, Antler, and Copper World mines lie near the east boundary of the study area. The Boriana mine was a major tungsten-producing mine of the United States during World War II. The Antler and Copper World mines produced relatively small amounts of copper and zinc prior to 1970. Copper and zinc were mined within 100 ft of the study area at the Antler mine. The Antler mine contains subeconomic resources of 350,000 to 400,000 short tons of copper-zinc ore; a minimum of 2,000 short tons, at grades of 1 to 4 percent copper and 1 to 2 percent zinc, lie within the study area. No other mineral resources were identified within the study area. Four small tracts in the eastern part and one in the central part of the study area have high resource potential for copper, zinc, and minor lead, silver, and gold in massive sulfide deposits. A large central tract and two eastern tracts have moderate resource potential for the same metals. An eastern and a western tract within the wilderness study area have high resource potential for tungsten, copper, and combinations of beryllium, gold, silver, arsenic, bismuth, molybdenum, tin, indium, thorium, niobium, yttrium, lanthanum, scandium, tantalum, rhenium, lead, zinc, and iron in granite-related tungsten-polymetallic vein deposits. Most of the rest of the study area

  10. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  11. Martian Fingerprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows patterned ground on the martian northern plains. The circular features are buried meteor impact craters; the small dark dots associated with them are boulders. The dark feature at left center is a wind streak.

    Location near: 75.1oN, 303.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  12. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W. ); Close, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits.

  13. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  14. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  15. Phosphates and Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes tests for exobiological examination of samples prior to obtaining martian rocks of known provenance via future sample-return missions. If we assume that all of the secondary minerals in martian meteorite ET79001 were indeed cogenetic and originate from Mars, we list conclusions that can be drawn that are of exobiological interest. This work serves as a preamble for the subsequent work listed below.

  16. Mineral resource potential map of the Savannah Roadless Area, Liberty County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Schmidt, Walter; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    The Savannah Roadless Area is underlain by sedimentary rocks having low potential for oil and gas and minerals. The low potential for oil or gas notwithstanding, the possibilities for discovery cannot be ruled out because the area and nearby lands have not been thoroughly explored. No minerals have been mined within the Savannah Roadless Area, and the only production nearby has been the digging of clayey sand used in stabilizing U.S. Forest Service roads. Fuller's earth, quartz sand and gravel, clayey sand, and common clay presently are produced elsewhere in the region, and limestone and peat have been produced in the past. No clay suitable for structural clay products or fuller's earth is present in the roadless area; however, a bed of quartz sand and gravel of excellent quality was penetrated at a depth interval of 37-50 ft by one drill hole. Although this bed is coarser grained-and therefore is more suitable for many uses-than the sand deposits worked elsewhere in the Big Bend region, its mineral resource potential is reduced by the thickness of overburden above it and by its distance from markets in population centers. The Apalachicola National Forest has been explored for phosphate and reconnoitered for heavy minerals, but no valuable deposits of either have been found.

  17. Mineral resource potential map of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-217), San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Obi, Curtis M.; Powell, Robert E.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Griscom, Andrew; Sabine, Charles; Cwick, Gary J.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, together with a review of historical mining and prospecting activities, suggests that most of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area has low potential for the discovery of all types of mineral and energy resources-including precious and base metals, building stone and aggregate, fossil fuels, radioactive-mineral resources, and geothermal resources. Low-grade mineralization has been documented in one small area near Rattlesnake Canyon, and this area has low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of precious and base metals. Thorium and uranium enrichment have been documented in two small areas in the eastern part of the wilderness study area; these two areas have low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of radioactive-mineral resources.

  18. Mineral-Resource Assessment of Northern Nye County, Nevada - A Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; John, David A.; Muntean, John L.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Castor, Stephen B.; Henry, Christopher D.; Wintzer, Niki; Cline, Jean S.; Simon, Adam C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), which is a part of the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), have completed the first year of data collection and analysis in preparation for a new mineral- and energy-resource assessment of northern Nye County, Nevada. This report provides information about work completed before October 1, 2009. Existing data are being compiled, including geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral-deposit information. Field studies are underway, which are primarily designed to address issues raised during the review of existing information. In addition, new geochemical studies are in progress, including reanalyzing existing stream-sediment samples with modern methods, and analyzing metalliferous black shales.

  19. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  20. Mineral resources of the Cranberry Wilderness Study Area, Webster and Pocahontas Counties, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, C.R. Jr.; Windolph, J.F. Jr.; Mory, P.C.; Harrison, D.K.; Cameron, C.C.; Grosz, A.E.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Lesure, F.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Cranberry Wilderness Study Area comprises 14,702 ha in the Monongahela National Forest, Webster and Pocahontas Counties, east-central West Virginia. The area is in the Yew Mountains of the Appalachian Plateaus and is at the eastern edge of the central Appalachian coal fields. Cranberry Glades, a peatland of botanical interest, lies at the southern end of the study area. All surface rights in the area are held by the US Forest Service; nearly 90% of the mineral rights are privately owned or subordinate to the surface rights. Bituminous coal of coking quality is the most economically important mineral resource in the Cranberry Wilderness Study Area. Estimated resources in beds 35 cm thick or more are about 100 million metric tons in nine coal beds. Most measured-indicated coal, 70 cm thick or more (reserve base), is in a 7-km-wide east-west trending belt extending across the center of the study area. The estimated reserve base is 34,179 thousand metric tons. Estimated reserves in seven of the coal beds total 16,830 thousand metric tons and are recoverable by underground mining methods. Other mineral resources, all of which have a low potential for development in the study area, include peat, shale, and clay suitable for building brick and lightweight aggregate, sandstone for low-quality glass sand, and sandstone suitable for construction material. Evidence derived from drilling indicates little possibility for oil and gas in the study area. No evidence of economic metallic deposits was found during this investigation.

  1. Mineral resource assessment map of the Big Gum Swamp Roadless Area, Columbia and Baker counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, J.B.; Cameron, C.C.; Patterson, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The geology of the Big Cum Swamp Roadless Area, which is discussed briefly in this report, is covered in somewhat more detail in a report by Patterson, Cathcart, Cameron, and Schruben (1984). The mineral resource potential is quite similar to that in the Natural Area Roadless Area outlined by Cathcart, Patterson and Crandall (1983). The Natural Area, which is east of the eastern boundary of the Big Gum Swamp (fig. 1), also was designated a Wilderness Study Area by Public Law 98-430, September 28, 1984.

  2. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resource maps of the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Church, S.E.; Frisken, J.G.; Wilson, F.H.; Yount, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular, in conjunction with a companion folio of MF-series maps, two I-series geologic maps, and three bulletins, represents the results of integrated field and laboratory studies on the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, paleontology, geochronology, and mineral resources of the quadrangles. These studies were undertaken to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. Each map contains descriptive text, explanatory material, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides background information for the mineral resource assessment map (MF-1539-1) and integrates the component M F- and I-series maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  3. Sandstone copper assessment of the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan: Chapter R in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cossette, Pamela M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Wallis, John C.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative mineral resource assessment has been completed that (1) delineates one 49,714 km2 tract permissive for undiscovered, sandstone subtype, sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits, and (2) provides probabilistic estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits and probable amounts of copper resource contained in those deposits. The permissive tract delineated in this assessment encompasses no previously known sandstone subtype, sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. However, this assessment estimates (with 30 percent probability) that a mean of nine undiscovered sandstone subtype copper deposits may be present in the Teniz Basin and could contain a mean total of 8.9 million metric tons of copper and 7,500 metric tons of silver.

  4. Mineral Resources of the Antelope Wilderness Study Area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardyman, Richard F.; Poole, Forrest G.; Kleinhampl, Frank J.; Turner, Robert L.; Plouff, Donald; Duval, Joe S.; Johnson, Fredrick L.; Benjamin, David A.

    1987-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of land Management, 83,100 acres of the Antelope Wilderness Study Area (NV-4)60-231/241) was studied. In this report the studied area is called the 'wilderness study area', or simply the 'study area.' No identified mineral or energy resources occur within the study area. The southern part of the area has moderate mineral resource potential for undiscovered gold and silver, and the Woodruff Formation in the southern part of the area has high resource potential for undiscovered vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and silver (fig. 1). This assessment is based on field geochemical studies in 1984 and 1985 by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and field geochemical studies and geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1984 and 1985. The remainder of the study area has low resource potential for undiscovered gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, tin, and molybdenum. The study area also has low resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Antelope Wilderness Study Area is about midway between Tonopah and Eureka, Nev., in the northern Hot Creek Range and southern Antelope Range of central Nevada. It is accessible by unimproved dirt roads extending 20 mi (miles) north from U.S. Highway 6 and 40 mi south from U.S. Highway 50 (fig. 2). Most of the study area consists of rugged mountainous terrain having approximately 2,600 ft (feet) of relief. The mountain range is a block tilted gently to the east and bounded on both sides by normal faults that dip steeply to moderately west and have major displacements. Most of the study area is underlain by a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks that predominantly consist of silicic ash-flow tuff, the Windous Butte Formation. Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic (see geologic time chart in appendix) marine sediments occur along the southern margin of the study area, and lower Paleozoic rocks are exposed in the northeast corner. The areas of exposed Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks along the southern

  5. Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1983-01-01

    The area having moderate potential for base-metal resources forms a small zone in the eastern part of the recommended wilderness (A5-187). Within this zone, evidence provided by stream-sediment geochemistry suggests that crystalline bedrocks in several drainages contain concentrations of metallic elements. Because the terrain is inaccessible and covered with dense brush, most of the bedrock in the specific drainages containing the geochemical anomalies could not be examined. Thus, although we infer that mineral occurrences exist in the drainage basins, we have little data on which to base an estimate of their extent and quality. Locally, the crystalline rocks probably contain hydrothermal veins or disseminated occurrences where lead, copper, molybdenum, tin, cobalt, bismuth, and arsenic have been concentrated. However, the geochemical anomalies for these metals are small, and the stream drainages also are relatively small. Therefore, the inferred occurrences of metallic minerals probably are small scale, scattered, and low grade. There is only low probability that the inferred mineral occurrences are large scale.

  6. Estimation of undiscovered deposits in quantitative mineral resource assessments-examples from Venezuela and Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessments used by the United States Geological Survey are based on deposit models. These assessments consist of three parts: (1) selecting appropriate deposit models and delineating on maps areas permissive for each type of deposit; (2) constructing a grade-tonnage model for each deposit model; and (3) estimating the number of undiscovered deposits of each type. In this article, I focus on the estimation of undiscovered deposits using two methods: the deposit density method and the target counting method. In the deposit density method, estimates are made by analogy with well-explored areas that are geologically similar to the study area and that contain a known density of deposits per unit area. The deposit density method is useful for regions where there is little or no data. This method was used to estimate undiscovered low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in Venezuela. Estimates can also be made by counting targets such as mineral occurrences, geophysical or geochemical anomalies, or exploration "plays" and by assigning to each target a probability that it represents an undiscovered deposit that is a member of the grade-tonnage distribution. This method is useful in areas where detailed geological, geophysical, geochemical, and mineral occurrence data exist. Using this method, porphyry copper-gold deposits were estimated in Puerto Rico. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The database of known deposits, significant prospects, and prospects includes an inventory of mineral resources in two known porphyry copper deposits, as well as key characteristics derived from available exploration reports for 70 significant porphyry copper prospects and 86 other prospects. Resource and exploration and development activity are updated with information current through February 2013.

  8. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  9. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    One implication of the economic filter results for undiscovered copper resources is that global copper supply will continue to be dominated by production from a small number of giant deposits. This domination of resource supply by a small number of producers may increase in the future, because an increasing proportion of new deposit discoveries are likely to occur in remote areas and be concealed deep beneath covering rock and sediments. Extensive mineral exploration activity will be required to meet future resource demand, because these deposits will be harder to find and more costly to mine than near-surface deposits located in more accessible areas. Relatively few of the new deposit discoveries in these high-cost settings will have sufficient tonnage and grade characteristics to assure positive economic returns on development and exploration costs.

  10. Mineral resources of the Trinity River tributary area in Texas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weissenborn, A. E.

    1946-01-01

    In March 1945 Colonel George R. Goethels, Chief of the Civil Works Division of the Corps of Engineers, requested the Director of the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, to prepare a report on the mineral resource of the area that, according to economic studies made by the Corps of Engineers, would be affected by the canalization of the Trinity River to Fort Worth. As a consequence, the staff of the Geological Survey's Regional Office in Rolla, Mo., was assigned the task of preparing the desired information. A. E. Weissenborn, acting Regional Geologist, called on Major H. R. Norman, Division Engineer of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, and discussed with him the purpose, scope, and form of the proposed report. Following this discussion, Dr. John T. Lonsdale, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas, at Mr. Weissenborn's request, agreed that the Bureau of Economic Geology should participate in the preparation of the report. My. Weissenborn also called on Robert H. Dott, Director of the Oklahoma State Geological Survey at Norman, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey was unable to participate in writing the report, but was very helpful in supplying published and unpublished or out-of-print information on the mineral resources of Oklahoma.

  11. Mineral resources of high-tech metals in Russia: State of the art and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Seven main ore-forming systems—porphyry and epithermal; orogenic related to granitic intrusions; magmatic ultramafic; volcanic-hosted massive sulfide and volcanic-sedimentary; sedimentary basins; related to alkaline magmatic activity; and placers and weathering mantles—are sources of high-tech critical metals. The following promising types of ore deposits containing high-tech critical metals as by-products are recognized: Cu-Mo porphyry, Fe-Cu-Au and Pb-Zn skarn, base-metal epithermal, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, base-metal stratiform, various tin deposits, and placers containing rare metals including REE. The mineral resources of critical metals in Russia are compared with those known in other countries. The contents of high-tech critical metals in ores of some noble-metal deposits of the Russian Northeast are reported. It is shown that the subsurface of Russia possesses considerable mineral resource potential for hightech critical metals, which allows new enterprises to be created or production of operating enterprises to increase.

  12. Mineral resources accounting: A technique formonitoring the Philippine mining industry for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Teodoro M.; Zaratan, May L.

    Mining which extracts exhaustible mineral resources has been condemned by certain sectors as promoting social inequity and underdevelopment. This is so because once a tonne of copper, say, is mined it is forever lost to the future generation. Such perception translates into policies that are usually disadvantageous or even hostile to the industry. Despite this adverse criticism, recent developments in natural resources accounting indicate that mining can truly contribute to the sustainable economic development of a society. True worth of mining in economic development can be assessed and monitored on a continuing basis through an appropriate system of natural accounts (SNA). If the industry is found deficient, such SNA can also point out how the industry can be made to constribute to sustainable growth. The prevailing SNA is criticized as having failed to capture the adverse effects on the welfare of society of producing a nonrenewable resource such as minerals. For instance, the production of copper for a particular year registers an increase in gross national product equivalent to its monetary value. However, the concomitant depletion of the country's natural wealth due to such production is nowhere recorded in the SNA. This faulty accounting gives rise to policies that result in nonsustainable economic growth. In order to address the preceding problem, this paper presents an accounting formula applicable to any nonrenewable resource whereby revenue is decomposed into income and capital components. To achieve sustainable economic growth, it states that the capital component must be invested to generate future incomes. However, investments need not be confined to the same sector. Application of the accounting scheme to the Philippine copper and gold sectors during the 1980-1990 period leads to the following conclusions: (a) by and large, gold and copper mining operations have indeed contributed positively to national income, contrary to allegations of certain

  13. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  14. Weathering of Martian Evaporites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Geology and industrial mineral resources of the Macon-Gordon Kaolin District, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buie, Bennett Frank; Hetrick, J.H.; Patterson, S.H.; Neeley, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Macon-Gordon kaolin district is about 80 miles (130 km) southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. It extends across the boundary between, and includes parts of, the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. The rocks in the Piedmont are mainly intensely folded sericite schist and granite gneiss containing irregular masses of amphibolite and feldspathic biotite gneiss and scattered igneous intrusive rocks. Most of the crystalline rocks are thought to be of Paleozoic age, but some of the intrusive rocks may be younger. The crystalline rocks are cut by a major unconformity and are overlain by sedimentary formations ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene. The valuable kaolin deposits occur in the Cretaceous beds, undivided, and in the Huber Formation which is of Paleocene to middle Eocene age. The resources of kaolin in the district are estimated in millions of metric tons as follows: reserves, 100; subeconomic resources, 700 to 900; undiscovered resources, probably 700 to 1,000. In addition to kaolin, the leading mineral commodity mined in the district, crushed stone and sand are now being produced, and fuller's earth and a minor amount of limestone were formerly produced. The crushed stone is quarried from igneous rocks in the Piedmont province. The sand is washed from the Cretaceous beds, undivided. The fuller's earth was mined from the Twiggs Clay Member of the Barnwell Formation, and limestone was dug from the Tivola Limestone.

  16. The study of the undiscovered mineral resources of the Tongass National Forest and adjacent lands, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Drew, L.J.; Ludington, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The quantitative probabilistic assessment of the undiscovered mineral resources of the 17.1-million-acre Tongass National Forest (the largest in the United States) and its adjacent lands is a nonaggregated, mineral-resource-tract-oriented assessment designed for land-planning purposes. As such, it includes the renewed use of gross-in-place values (GIPV's) in dollars of the estimated amounts of metal contained in the undiscovered resources as a measure for land-use planning. Southeastern Alaska is geologically complex and contains a wide variety of known mineral deposits, some of which have produced important amounts of metals during the past 100 years. Regional geological, economic geological, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral exploration history information for the region was integrated to define 124 tracts likely to contain undiscovered mineral resources. Some tracts were judged to contain more than one type of mineral deposit. Each type of deposit may contain one or more metallic elements of economic interest. For tracts where information was sufficient, the minimum number of as-yet-undiscovered deposits of each type was estimated at probability levels of 0.95, 0.90, 0.50, 0.10, and 0.05. The undiscovered mineral resources of the individual tracts were estimated using the U.S. Geological Survey's MARK3 mineral-resource endowment simulator; those estimates were used to calculate GIPV's for the individual tracts. Those GIPV's were aggregated to estimate the value of the undiscovered mineral resources of southeastern Alaska. The aggregated GIPV of the estimates is $40.9 billion. Analysis of this study indicates that (1) there is only a crude positive correlation between the size of individual tracts and their mean GIPV's: and (2) the number of mineral-deposit types in a tract does not dominate the GIPV's of the tracts, but the inferred presence of synorogenic-synvolcanic nickel-copper, porphyry copper skarn-related, iron skarn, and porphyry copper

  17. Mineral resource potential map of the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho County, Idaho, and Missoula and Ravalli counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toth, Margo I.; Coxe, Berton W.; Zilka, Nicholas T.; Hamilton, Michael M.

    1983-01-01

    Mineral resource studies by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S, Geological Survey indicate that five areas within the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness have mineral resource potential. Regional studies suggest that three granitic plutons within the wildemess, the Running Creek pluton on the southwestern border of the wildemess, the Painted Rocks pluton on the southern border of the wildemess, and the Whistling Pig pluton in the west-central portion of the wildemess, have low potential for molybdenite deposits, but detailed surface investigations failed to recognize a deposit. Placer deposits in the Elk Summit area on the north side of the wildemess contain subeconomic resources of niobium- (columbium-) bearing ilmenite. A vein on the northeast side of the wildemess at t~e Cliff mine at Saint Joseph Peak contains subeconomic silver-copper-lead resources. The wilderness has no known potential for oil and gas, coal, geothermal resources, or other energy-related commodities.

  18. Water retention of selected microorganisms and Martian soil simulants under close to Martian environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, J.; Bauermeister, A.; Feyh, N.; de Vera, J.-P.; Rettberg, P.; Flemming, H.-C.; Szewzyk, U.

    2014-08-01

    Based on the latest knowledge about microorganisms resistant towards extreme conditions on Earth and results of new complex models on the development of the Martian atmosphere we quantitatively examined the water-bearing properties of selected extremophiles and simulated Martian regolith components and their interaction with water vapor under close to Martian environmental conditions. Three different species of microorganisms have been chosen and prepared for our study: Deinococcus geothermalis, Leptothrix sp. OT_B_406, and Xanthoria elegans. Further, two mineral mixtures representing the early and the late Martian surface as well as montmorillonite as a single component of phyllosilicatic minerals, typical for the Noachian period on Mars, were selected. The thermal mass loss of the minerals and bacteria-samples was measured by thermoanalysis. The hydration and dehydration properties were determined under close to Martian environmental conditions by sorption isotherm measurements using a McBain-Bakr quartz spring balance. It was possible to determine the total water content of the materials as well as the reversibly bound water fraction as function of the atmospheres humidity by means of these methods. Our results are important for the evaluation of future space mission outcomes including astrobiological aspects and can support the modeling of the atmosphere/surface interaction by showing the influence on the water inventory of the upper most layer of the Martian surface.

  19. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  20. Investigations in Martian Sedimentology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate and discuss the Martian surface. This report was done in specific tasks. The tasks were: characterization of Martian fluids and chemical sediments; mass wasting and ground collapse in terrains of volatile-rich deposits; Mars Rover terrestrial field investigations; Mars Pathfinder operations support; and Martian subsurface water instrument.

  1. Geologic map and mineral-resources summary of the Baldwin Gap Quadrangle, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    This summary accompanies the geologic map of the Baldwin Gap quadrangle, which is bounded by 36/sup 0/22'30'' and 36/sup 0/30' N. Latitude and by 81/sup 0/37'30'' and 81/sup 0/45' W. Longitude. Mineral resources that are known to have been mined are sand and gravel from floodplain deposits, mica and feldspar from several small pegmatite bodies, and marble from a small area in the south-central part of the quadrangle. Iron has been prospected at several places. Stone, likely suitable for various construction purposes, is present at many places as are saprolite deposits that may be used for earth fill. Several minor pyrite occurrences were noted. All the quarries, pits, and prospects discussed in this report were either abandoned or inactive.

  2. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,

    2016-10-04

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.

  3. Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Carey, J. W.; Fialips, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.

  4. Geology and Mineral Resources of the East Mojave National Scenic Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.

    2007-01-01

    resources in the EMNSA only to currently known types of deposits and to regionally representative tonnages for such deposits would undoubtedly yield small estimates for volumes of many metals that might be exploited. Metals from most newly discovered, base- and ferrous-metal deposits of the types presently known in the EMNSA probably would be insignificant from the standpoint of national needs. For example, copper from a newly discovered skarn deposit in the EMNSA would have roughly a 25 percent chance of being in excess of approximately 10,000 tonnes contained Cu, if the grade-and-tonnage distribution curves of Jones and Menzie (1986b) for copper skarns are applicable to copper skarn in the EMNSA. Most copper in the United States is produced in the Southwest from much larger open-pit operations than those associated with the typical copper skarn; the former operations exploit large-tonnage porphyry-type systems. Historically, the EMNSA has been the site of minor production of many metals from a large number of sites. Since 1985, however, a small number of sites in the EMNSA whose gold production and reserves are much greater than that of the preceding discoveries have been developed (see U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1990a). Nonetheless, widespread distribution of numerous types of deposits (including copper skarn, lead-zinc skarn, tin-tungsten skarn, polymetallic vein, gold-silver quartz-pyrite vein, low-fluorine porphyry molybdenum, gold breccia pipe, and volcanic-hosted gold) that are petrogenetically associated with igneous rock in many parts of the EMNSA is indicative of a metallogenic environment that may be the site of future discoveries of mineral-deposit types that are not now recognized by the exploration community. The science, art, and, yes, even luck of exploration procedures continually evolve, and this evolution is one of the most important aspects of currently employed methods of exploration (Bailly, 1981; Hutchinson and Grauch, 1991).

  5. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.

    1970-01-01

    are being explored and sampled at the present time (1969). A little lead has been mined and smelted in the past but operations were on a very small scale and of short duration. Small amounts of lead, zinc, and copper minerals accompany dolomite replacement of Cretaceous limestone in a few scattered places, and several promising prospects are being investigated by means of trenches and drilling. One magnetite and several hematite prospects were examined but none offers any potential for economic development. Thick beds of gypsum in Lower Cretaceous limestone on Mesa de Los Santos, south of Bucaramanga are being quarried from outcrops for use in cement manufacture. The deposit was discovered shortly before the present project began, and although its extent beneath overlying strata is not yet determined by drilling, it appears to be in a small evaporite basin of about three kilometers in radius. Reserves of gypsum are large, but future development will have to be by underground mining. Outcrops of Cretaceous limestone of high purity are widespread and are more than adequate to meet all demands, which at present are for cement and calcined lime, road construction material, and to a small extent for agricultural lime and polished decorative stone. Upper Paleozoic limestone of the Diamante Formation crops out in a few places; it has been used near Bucaramanga for cement manufacture. Marble is present in several localities of the Santander massif in Lower Paleozoic and Devonian rocks. Impurities, fractures, and solution cavities render most of it unsuitable for decorative purposes, but selected parts are used in floor tile and terrazo. Recrystallized limestone of the Diamante Formation in the same area, usually referred to as marble, is of uniform high purity throughout a thick and uninterrupted section, and offers a good source of limestone raw material. A little is now used for agricultural lime. The potential of this resource has not been fully evalua

  6. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  7. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  8. The use of mineral crystals as bio-markers in the search for life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E. S.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that minerals resulting from biologically controlled mineralization processes be utilized as biomarkers because of their favorable qualities. Universal signatures of life (biomarkers) are discussed in terms of their terrestrial forms and hypothetical Martian counterparts including organics, suites of specific inorganic and organic compounds, and isotopic ratios. It is emphasized that minerals produced under biologic control have morphological and isotopic compositions that are not found in their abiotic counterparts. Other biomarkers are not necessarily indicative of biological origin and are therefore unreliable resources for scientific study. Mineral crystals are also stable over long geological periods, and the minerals from Martian fluvial features can therefore be employed to search for fossils and biomarkers of early biological activity.

  9. Geology and mineral resources of central Antioquia Department (Zone IIA), Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Alvarez A., Jairo; Rico H., Hector

    1973-01-01

    This report summarizes the geology of an area of some 6000 square kilometers in the northern part of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The area, in north-central Department of Antioquia, was mapped between 1964 and 1968 as part of the Inventario Minero Nacional (IMN) project. Mineral resources are summarized within a larger area, designated as subzone ILK of IMN Zone If, which comprises almost 22,000 sq. kin, including the area mapped geologically by IMN and additional areas mapped by other agencies. The oldest formation is a micaceous paragneiss of early Paleozoic or possibly late Precambrian age. A thick geosynclinal sedimentary series accumulated during the Paleozoic Era and became regionally metamorphosed to greenschist (locally amphibolite) facies during the Permian or early Triassic; these schists and gneisses are designated collectively as the Valdivia Group. The Permian(?) orogenic episode included intrusion of concordant syntectonic plutons, mostly of tonalitic composition. Rocks of unequivocal Triassic or Jurassic age are not recognized. The Cretaceous is well represented by both igneous and sedimentary assemblages. Eugeosynclinal alpine ophiolites comprising submarine basalt flows and numerous intrusions of gabbro and serpentinite are prominent in the Lower Cretaceous, together with flysch composed of marine shale and lesser sandstone and conglomerate. The Upper Cretaceous is represented along the west border of the mapped area by submarine basalt flows and pyroclastic rocks, locally Interbedded with fine-grained clastic sedimentary beds, and lenses of dark laminated chert, at least part of which is radiolarian. The Late Cretaceous was marked by an orogenic event that profoundly folded and faulted all rocks and in the Central Cordillera caused low-grade metamorphism, the overprint of which is hardly observable in pre-Cretaceous rocks elsewhere. The Late Cretaceous orogeny culminated with discordant intrusion of the epizonal tonalitic

  10. Martian settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1987-01-01

    The rationale for a manned Mars mission and the establishment of a base is divided into three areas: science, resource utilization, and strategic issues. The effects of a Mars mission on the objectives of near-term NASA programs, and the applications of these programs to a Mars mission are examined. The use of extraterrestrial resources to supply space settlements and thereby reduce transportation costs is studied; the development of systems for extraterrestrial materials processing will need to be researched. The possibility of a joint U.S./Soviet Mars mission is discussed by the symposium participants.

  11. Effects of Palagonitic Dust Coatings on Thermal Emission Spectra of Rocks and Minerals: Implications for Mineralogical Characterization of the Martian Surface by MGS-TES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R.; Christensen, P.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal emission measurements on dust-coated rocks and minerals show that a 300 5m thick layer is required to mask emission from the substrate and that non-linear effects are present. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Mineral profiling of local pig-feeds and pigs reared under resource driven production system to reduce porcine mineral deficiency in subtropical hill ecosystem of Northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Ramesh, T

    2009-04-01

    The present study assessed the mineral status of pigs fed with local feed resources. The commonly used plants for feeding pigs and blood serum samples from Hampshire, Large White Yorkshire and indigenous pigs were analyzed for total protein, albumin and cholesterol levels. Processed plant and serum samples were also analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, cobalt, manganese, iron and zinc. The incidence and extent of mineral deficiency in pigs was quantified. No significant difference was observed in total protein and albumin levels between any two breed/types of pigs, however the Indigenous pigs showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher cholesterol level compared to other two breeds. Among different plants, Spilanthus sp had majority of macro and micro nutrients in high levels. Regarding incidence of mineral deficiency in pigs, it was observed that 90, 67.1, 61.4, 48.6, 95.7% of the pigs were deficient in calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium and potassium. An interesting finding was that all the pigs (100%) utilized in the study were deficient in zinc. From this study, it was inferred that there are good numbers of potential source of mineral that might be used more economically to improve the mineral availability to pigs.

  13. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  14. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Regional exploration for deposits of heavy-mineral sands can utilize the analyses of stream sediment samples for Ti, Hf, the rare earth elements, Th, and U, and geophysical surveys, particularly radiometric (gamma-ray spectrometry for K, U, and Th) and magnetic methods. Geophysical anomalies may be small, and surveys are generally more successful when conducted close to sources of interest.

  15. Titanium mineral resources of the western U.S.: an update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Force, Eric R.; Creely, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen deposits or districts in the western U.S. have been examined in which titaniummineral resources have been reported or implied. These deposits are of the following general types (in probable order of importance): 1) Cretaceous shoreline placer deposits, 2) silica-sand deposits of California, 3) fluvial monazite placers of Idaho, 4) anorthositerelated deposits, and 5) clay and bauxite deposits of the northwestern U.S. Relative to previous reports, this one shows some greater and some lesser resources (table 1). In any case, titanium-mineral resources of the western U.S. (west of 103° longitude) remain modest at world scale except as unconventional (especially perovskite) and by-product (especially porphyry) resources. Some deposits, however, have enhanced value to the titanium explorationist for the geologic relations they illustrate. Among the new conclusions are: a) Loci of Cretaceous shoreline placers form linear patterns, nested as a function of age, that can be traced for thousands of kilometers, permitting focused exploration in whole new mountain ranges. b) Medial hematite-ilmenite solid-solution, which is highly magnetic, is a major carrier of TiO2 values in the Cretaceous deposits of Wyoming. This phase was previously thought to be relatively rare. c) Regressive shoreline placer deposits in indurated Cretaceous sequences expose intricate facies relations, such as the construction of shoreface sequences by long-shore drift over tidal-channel fill, without much loss of paleogeographic information. d) Due to deep weathering, virtually every Eocene sediment that accumulated in the Ione basin at the foot of the Sierra Nevada has economic value, permitting recovery of altered ilmenite and zircon along with silica, clay, coal, and gold. Ilmenite is most abundant in newly recognized shoreline sands. e) Upper Tertiary fluvial placers of Idaho formed in and filled fault-bounded basins and thus are far more voluminous than deposits in the modern valley system

  16. Metamorphism in the Martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, Harry Y.; Labotka, Theodore C.; Viviano-Beck, Christina E.

    2015-04-01

    Compositions of basaltic and ultramafic rocks analyzed by Mars rovers and occurring as Martian meteorites allow predictions of metamorphic mineral assemblages that would form under various thermophysical conditions. Key minerals identified by remote sensing roughly constrain temperatures and pressures in the Martian crust. We use a traditional metamorphic approach (phase diagrams) to assess low-grade/hydrothermal equilibrium assemblages. Basaltic rocks should produce chlorite + actinolite + albite + silica, accompanied by laumontite, pumpellyite, prehnite, or serpentine/talc. Only prehnite-bearing assemblages have been spectrally identified on Mars, although laumontite and pumpellyite have spectra similar to other uncharacterized zeolites and phyllosilicates. Ultramafic rocks are predicted to produce serpentine, talc, and magnesite, all of which have been detected spectrally on Mars. Mineral assemblages in both basaltic and ultramafic rocks constrain fluid compositions to be H2O-rich and CO2-poor. We confirm the hypothesis that low-grade/hydrothermal metamorphism affected the Noachian crust on Mars, which has been excavated in large craters. We estimate the geothermal gradient (>20 °C km-1) required to produce the observed assemblages. This gradient is higher than that estimated from radiogenic heat-producing elements in the crust, suggesting extra heating by regional hydrothermal activity.

  17. 78 FR 77155 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate, and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... coal bed gas) or renewable energy resources (e.g., wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal). Mineral... Bureau of Indian Affairs Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate, and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and...: The Secretary of the Interior, through the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development...

  18. Mineral resources of the Marble Canyon Wilderness Study Area, White Pine County, Nevada, and Millard County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F.; Nowlan, G.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; Marcus, S.M. ); Kness, R.F. )

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on the Marble Canyon Wilderness Study Area that has large inferred subeconomic resources of ordinary limestone and marble. This area of faulted and metamorphosed Paleozoic to Quaternary rocks has zones within it of high and moderate mineral resource potential for limestone and marble, moderate and low potential for barite, and low potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, molybdenum, beryllium, and fluorite. The entire study area has moderate potential for oil and gas and low potential for geothermal energy resources.

  19. Basic concepts in three-part quantitative assessments of undiscovered mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1975, mineral resource assessments have been made for over 27 areas covering 5??106 km2 at various scales using what is now called the three-part form of quantitative assessment. In these assessments, (1) areas are delineated according to the types of deposits permitted by the geology,(2) the amount of metal and some ore characteristics are estimated using grade and tonnage models, and (3) the number of undiscovered deposits of each type is estimated. Permissive boundaries are drawn for one or more deposit types such that the probability of a deposit lying outside the boundary is negligible, that is, less than 1 in 100,000 to 1,000,000. Grade and tonnage models combined with estimates of the number of deposits are the fundamental means of translating geologists' resource assessments into a language that economists can use. Estimates of the number of deposits explicitly represent the probability (or degree of belief) that some fixed but unknown number of undiscovered deposits exist in the delineated tracts. Estimates are by deposit type and must be consistent with the grade and tonnage model. Other guidelines for these estimates include (1) frequency of deposits from well-explored areas, (2) local deposit extrapolations, (3) counting and assigning probabilities to anomalies and occurrences, (4) process constraints, (5) relative frequencies of related deposit types, and (6) area spatial limits. In most cases, estimates are made subjectively, as they are in meteorology, gambling, and geologic interpretations. In three-part assessments, the estimates are internally consistent because delineated tracts are consistent with descriptive models, grade and tonnage models are consistent with descriptive models, as well as with known deposits in the area, and estimates of number of deposits are consistent with grade and tonnage models. All available information is used in the assessment, and uncertainty is explicitly represented. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  20. The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado - A Potential Source of Several Uncommon Mineral Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    A similar version of this slide show was presented on three occasions during 2008: two times to local chapters of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME), as part of SME's Henry Krumb lecture series, and the third time at the Northwest Mining Association's 114th Annual Meeting, held December 1-5, 2008, in Sparks (Reno), Nevada. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the diverse and uncommon mineral resources associated with carbonatites and associated alkaline igneous rocks. Most of these deposit types have not been studied by the USGS during the last 25 years, and many of these mineral resources have important applications in modern technology. The author chose to begin this study at Iron Hill in southwestern Colorado because it is the site of a classic carbonatite complex, which is thought to host the largest known resources of titanium and niobium in the United States.

  1. Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Shawe, D.R.; Lee, G.K.; Hanna, W.F. ); Jeske, R.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone and sand and gravel have no unique qualities but could have limited local use for road metal or other construction purposes. However, similar materials are abundant outside the study areas. The three study areas have moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, including uranium and thorium, coal, and geothermal energy.

  2. Mars Observer Mission: Mapping the Martian World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Mars Observer Mission is highlighted in this video overview of the mission objectives and planning. Using previous photography and computer graphics and simulation, the main objectives of the 687 day (one Martian year) consecutive orbit by the Mars Observer Satellite around Mars are explained. Dr. Arden Albee, the project scientist, speaks about the pole-to-pole mapping of the Martian surface topography, the planned relief maps, the chemical and mineral composition analysis, the gravity fields analysis, and the proposed search for any Mars magnetic fields.

  3. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Silver City 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Houser, B.B.; Watts, K.C.; Klein, D.P.; Sharp, W.N.; Drewes, Harald; Hedlund, D.C.; Raines, G.L.; Hassemer, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Silver City 1 ? x 2 ? quadrangle, consisting of about 20,650 km2 in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, has been investigated by a multidisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. The results of this investigation are in a folio of 21 maps that contain detailed information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral deposits, and potential mineral resources of the quadrangle. This Circular provides background information on the various studies and integrates the component maps. It contains an extensive selected bibliography pertinent to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle. The quadrangle has produced more than $3.5 billion in mineral products since about 1850 and contains significant resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, iron, manganese-iron, zeolite minerals, and possibly tin and tungsten.

  4. An Electrostatic Precipitator System for the Martian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, C. I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Phillips, J. R., III; Clements, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions to Mars will require the development of technologies for the utilization of the planet's own resources for the production of commodities. However, the Martian atmosphere contains large amounts of dust. The extraction of commodities from this atmosphere requires prior removal of this dust. We report on our development of an electrostatic precipitator able to collect Martian simulated dust particles in atmospheric conditions approaching those of Mars. Extensive experiments with an initial prototype in a simulated Martian atmosphere showed efficiencies of 99%. The design of a second prototype with aerosolized Martian simulated dust in a flow-through is described. Keywords: Space applications, electrostatic precipitator, particle control, particle charging

  5. Mineral resource potential map of the James River Face Wilderness, Bedford and Rockbridge counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C. Erwin; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1982-01-01

    The rocks in the James River Face Wilderness are shales and quartzites that overlie a meta-igneous basement. They are folded into a large southwestward-plunging anticline that is cut off on the east and south by an extensive thrust fault that brings old basement rocks over the younger sedimentary rocks. Geochemical studies of stream sediments, soils, and rocks do not reveal any unusually high metal concentrations, but a large resource of metallurgical-grade quartzite and shale suitable for structural clay products and lightweight aggregate is in the wilderness. Antietam (Erwin) Quartzite has been quarried at three sites in the wilderness as raw material for silicon used in the manufacture of ferrosilicon. Other uses included crushed rock for concrete aggregate, road metal, and railroad ballast, and sand for cement and mortar. Potential uses include ganister for silica brick and specialty sands such as filter and furnace sand. Firing tests on samples of shale from the Harpers (Hampton) Formation show that it could be used for the manufacture of brick and as lightweight aggregate. Of marginal economic interest are heavy-mineral layers in the basal Unicoi (Weverton) Formation.

  6. Digital analytical data from mineral resource assessments of national forest lands in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boleneus, D.E.; Chase, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive reconnaissance assessments of the mineral resource potential of the Colville and Okanogan National Forests in northeastern Washington were conducted during 1979-1982 by a private consultant A.R. Grant, under contract with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. These forests occupy large parts of Pend Oreille, Stevens, Ferry, and Okanogan counties, and smaller parts of Whatcom, Skagit, and Chelan counties adjoining Okanogan County in the Cascades. Sampled terrain also included the Kaniksu National Forest in Pend Oreille County and one stream bed of the Kaniksu in adjacent Bonner County, Idaho. Two unpublished reports resulting from the assessments (Grant, 1982a,b) list a total of 3,927 analyses of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, tungsten, and uranium content of stream sediment and bedrock samples collected at widely dispersed sites in the three National Forests. This report makes this important body of work available in digital form on diskettes, to enhance manipulations with computer spreadsheets, geographic information systems (GIS), and digital spatial analyses. This will allow for utilization of data by modern day explorationists and by the general geodata user community.

  7. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposit model: Chapter M in Mineral deposit model for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Cox, Dennis P.; Bliss, James D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    This report contains a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper (SSC) deposits that supersedes the model of Cox and others (2003). This model is for use in assessments of mineral resource potential. SSC deposits are the second most important sources of copper in the world behind porphyry copper deposits. Around 20 percent of the copper in the world is produced from this class of deposits. They are also the most important sources of cobalt in the world, and they are fourth among classes of ore deposits in production of silver. SSC deposits are the basis of the economies of three countries: Democratic Republic of Congo, Poland, and Zambia. This report provides a description of the key features of SSC deposits; it identifies their tectonic-sedimentary environments; it illustrates geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics of SSC deposits; it reviews and evaluates hypotheses on how these deposits formed; it presents exploration and assessment guides; and it lists some gaps in our knowledge about the SSC deposits. A summary follows that provides overviews of many subjects concerning SSC deposits.

  8. Map showing mineral resource potential of the Paiute Instant (Primitive) Study Area, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villalobos, Hector A.; Hamm, Louis W.

    1981-01-01

    Several areas in the Paiute Instant Study Area are judged to have at best a low mineral potential. These include areas of copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silver, tungsten, and zinc mineralization, as well as occurrences of dumortierite, beryllium, arsenic, barium, gypsum, gem minerals, sand, gravel, and limestone. The metallic deposits and dumortieri te, beryllium, and arsenic occur over small surface areas. Significant production has not resulted from mining activity in mineralized areas. Sand, gravel, limestone, gem minerals, gypsum, and barium occurrences are far from major markets. Currently, there are no active mining operations in the study area.

  9. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Clackamas and Hood River Counties, Oregon. Summary report and map

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for near-surface mineral resources in the Mount Hood Wilderness is low. Geochemical data suggest two areas of weak epithermal mineralization in the Zigzag Mountain part of the wilderness: (1) the Lost Creek-Burnt Lake-Cast Creek-Short Creek area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver mineralization occurs; and (2) the Lady Creek-Laurel Hill area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has associated propylitic alteration resulting in some porphyry-type copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc mineralization. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F, 120/sup 0/C) hot-water systems in the wilderness is moderate to high. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) and two parts have been included in geothermal lease areas. Rock and gravel sources are present within the wilderness; however, quantities of similar and more accessible deposits are available outside the wilderness. Deposits outside the wilderness are large enough to supply local demand in the foreseeable future.

  10. Evidence for a Wet, Reduced Martian Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Mackwell, S. J.; Seaman, S. J.; Marchand, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxygen fugacity and hydrogen content of the source regions of martian meteorites is of paramount importance in constraining phase equilibria, crystallization sequences, and geodynamic processes of the martian interior, as well as models of the planet's evolution. To date, these interpretations have been hindered by the paucity in SNC meteorites of Fe-Ti oxides used in conventional oxybarometry, and by the presence of secondary alteration products that make it impossible to quantify primary hydrogen abundances in SNC minerals and melts based on whole rock samples. We present here the first transmission FTIR spectra of individual mineral grains from SNC meteorites, and interpret those results along with Mossbauer data on mineral separates from the same meteorites. Our goal is to quantify the amount of water and the oxygen fugacity present in the source regions for the rocks comprising the meteorites.

  11. Potential of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 for in situ resource utilization from basalt by determining the molecular micro-mineral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byloos, Bo; Van Houdt, Rob; Boon, Nico; Leys, Natalie

    In order to maintain a persistent human presence in space, materials must either be provided from Earth or generated from material already present in space, in a process referred to as 'in situ resource utilization (ISRU)'. Microorganisms can biomine useful elements from extra-terrestrial materials for use as nutrients in a life support system or to aid in the creation of soil. To effectively use bacteria in an ISRU process more needs to be known about the molecular mechanisms behind microbe-mineral interaction and the influence of microgravity and radiation that affect bioleaching. The aim of this research project is to define the microbe-mineral interactions on basalt, which is a major constituent of Lunar or Martian regolith, the mechanisms that are important in bioleaching and how this process will be altered by space flight conditions. In particular, the research will be focussed on the determination of the genes and proteins involved in the biosynthesis of metallophores and exopolysaccharides (EPS), and biofilm formation. Iron, copper and phosphate uptake mechanisms are investigated in detail because these have been shown to be essential for life and bacteria are faced with limitation of these nutrients in the environment. In this study the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is used to study these interactions. C. metallidurans CH34 is a soil bacterium which is resistant to up to 20 different heavy metal ions. Its behaviour in space has already been determined with earlier flight experiments to the ISS. It was recently discovered that C. metallidurans forms a biofilm and is capable of leaching calcium, magnesium and iron from basalt to sustain its growth First, C. metallidurans was grown in conditions with and without basalt, iron, copper and phosphate and the production of EPS and metallophores was examined. The iron, copper and phosphate concentrations which are limiting and optimal to allow C. metallidurans cell proliferation could be determined as

  12. Summary mineral resource appraisal of the Richfield 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Thomas August; Morris, Hal T.

    1987-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Richfield 1? x 2? quadrangle, Utah, has been appraised using geological, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing techniques. These studies have led to many publications giving basic data and interpretations; of these, a series of 18 maps at 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 scales summarizing aspects of the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and remote sensing is designated the CUSMAP (Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program) folio. This circular uses the data shown on these maps to appraise the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. The oldest rocks exposed in the Richfield quadrangle are small patches of Early Proterozoic (1.7 billion years old) gneiss and schist on the west side of the Mineral Mountains. These rocks presumably formed the basement on which many thousands of meters of Late Proterozoic, Paleozoic, and lower Mesozoic sedimentary strata were deposited. These rocks were deformed during the Late Cretaceous Sevier orogeny when Precambrian and Paleozoic strata in the western part of the quadrangle were thrust relatively eastward across Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata in the eastern part of the quadrangle. Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary highlands above the overthrust belt were eroded and much of the debris was deposited in broad basins east of the belt. Volcanism in Oligocene and earliest Miocene time formed an east-northeast-trending belt of calcalkalic volcanoes across the southern half of the quadrangle. In early Miocene time, the composition of the volcanic rocks changed to a bimodal assemblage of mafic rocks and high-silica alkali rhyolite that has been erupted episodically ever since. Syngenetic mineral resources developed during formation of both sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These include limestone and dolomite, silica-rich sandstone, metalliferous black shale, evaporite deposits, zeolite deposits, pumice, cinders and scoria, and evaporitic or diagenetic deposits in playa environments. Most

  13. In Situ Identification of Mineral Resources with an X-Ray-Optical "Hands-Lens" Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Koppel, L.; Bratton, C.; Metzger, E.; Hecht, M.

    1999-09-01

    The recognition of material resources on a planetary surface requires exploration strategies not dissimilar to those employed by early field geologists who searched for ore deposits primarily from surface clues. In order to determine the location of mineral ores or other materials, it will be necessary to characterize host terranes at regional or subregional scales. This requires geographically broad surveys in which statistically significant numbers of samples are rapidly scanned from a roving platform. To enable broad-scale, yet power-conservative planetary-surface exploration, we are developing an instrument that combines x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and optical capabilities; the instrument can be deployed at the end of a rover's robotic arm, without the need for sample capture or preparation. The instrument provides XRD data for identification of mineral species and lithological types; diffractometry of minerals is conducted by ascertaining the characteristic lattice parameters or "d-spacings" of mineral compounds. D-spacings of 1.4 to 25 angstroms can be determined to include the large molecular structures of hydrated minerals such as clays. The XRF data will identify elements ranging from carbon (Atomic Number = 6) to elements as heavy as barium (Atomic Number = 56). While a sample is being x-rayed, the instrument simultaneously acquires an optical image of the sample surface at magnifications from lx to at least 50x (200x being feasible, depending on the sample surface). We believe that imaging the sample is extremely important as corroborative sample-identification data (the need for this capability having been illustrated by the experience of the Pathfinder rover). Very few geologists would rely on instrument data for sample identification without having seen the sample. Visual inspection provides critical recognition data such as texture, crystallinity, granularity, porosity, vesicularity, color, lustre, opacity, and

  14. In Situ Identification of Mineral Resources with an X-Ray-Optical "Hands-Lens" Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Koppel, L.; Bratton, C.; Metzger, E.; Hecht, M.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition of material resources on a planetary surface requires exploration strategies not dissimilar to those employed by early field geologists who searched for ore deposits primarily from surface clues. In order to determine the location of mineral ores or other materials, it will be necessary to characterize host terranes at regional or subregional scales. This requires geographically broad surveys in which statistically significant numbers of samples are rapidly scanned from a roving platform. To enable broad-scale, yet power-conservative planetary-surface exploration, we are developing an instrument that combines x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and optical capabilities; the instrument can be deployed at the end of a rover's robotic arm, without the need for sample capture or preparation. The instrument provides XRD data for identification of mineral species and lithological types; diffractometry of minerals is conducted by ascertaining the characteristic lattice parameters or "d-spacings" of mineral compounds. D-spacings of 1.4 to 25 angstroms can be determined to include the large molecular structures of hydrated minerals such as clays. The XRF data will identify elements ranging from carbon (Atomic Number = 6) to elements as heavy as barium (Atomic Number = 56). While a sample is being x-rayed, the instrument simultaneously acquires an optical image of the sample surface at magnifications from lx to at least 50x (200x being feasible, depending on the sample surface). We believe that imaging the sample is extremely important as corroborative sample-identification data (the need for this capability having been illustrated by the experience of the Pathfinder rover). Very few geologists would rely on instrument data for sample identification without having seen the sample. Visual inspection provides critical recognition data such as texture, crystallinity, granularity, porosity, vesicularity, color, lustre, opacity, and

  15. Chemical evolution of the early Martian hydrosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the early Martian hydrosphere is discussed. The early Martian ocean can be modeled as a body of relatively pure water in equilibrium with a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. The chemical weathering of lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and impact melt sheets would have the effect of neutralizing the acidity of the juvenile water. As calcium and other cations are added to the water by chemical weathering, they are quickly removed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate and other minerals, forming a deposit of limestone beneath the surface of the ocean. As the atmospheric carbon dioxide pressure and the temperature decrease, the Martian ocean would be completely frozen. Given the scenario for the chemical evolution of the northern lowland plains of Mars, it should be possible to draw a few conclusions about the expected mineralogy and geomorphology of this regions.

  16. Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Extension, North Carolina: Chapter in Wilderness mineral potential: assessment of mineral-resource potential in U.S. Forest Service lands studied in 1964-1984: Volume II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Williams, Bradford B.

    1984-01-01

    Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and the adjoining Craggy Mountain Extension consist of more than 4 sq mi of steep wooded slopes on the west side of Great Craggy Mountain in the Blue Ridge of western North Carolina. A mineral-resource survey of the area done between 1976 and 1979 found no evidence fore metallic mineral resources. Kyanite, garnet, and building stone are the only mineral resources in the study area, but large quantities of similar material are available outside the study area. Natural gas may possibly be present at great depth, but until some deep drilling is done in or near no estimate of the gas potential can be made.

  17. Mineral resource potential map of the Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area, northern Georgia and southeastern Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gair, Jacob E.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1982-01-01

    The Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area have minor occurrences of metallic minerals, but no known resource potential for such minerals in the forseeable future, judging by available data, and only a very minor potential for stone for aggregate, road construction, and similar nondimension use. The rocks of the Ducktown massive sulfide district to the northeast do not appear to extend into the study area, and geochemical data derived from samples of rock, soil, and alluvium do not reveal any anomalously high concentrations of trace elements that could be representative of hidden mineral deposits. Sedimentary rocks underlying the metamorphic rocks exposed at the surface have an unknown potential for hydrocarbons in the form of natural gas. No reasonable estimate of the potential can be made until some test drilling is done in the area.

  18. Mineral resource assessment of the Iron River 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, William F.

    1983-01-01

    The Iron River 1? x 2? quadrangle contains identified resources of copper and iron. Copper-rich shale beds in the north part of the quadrangle contain 12.2 billion pounds (5.5 billion kilograms) of copper in well-studied deposits including 9.2 billion pounds (4.2 billion kilograms) that are economically minable by 1980 standards. At least several billion pounds of copper probably exist in other parts of the same shale beds, but not enough data are available to measure the amount. A small amount, about 250 million pounds (113 million kilograms), of native copper is known to remain in one abandoned mine, and additional but unknown amounts remain in other abandoned mines. About 13.25 billion tons (12.02 billion metric tons) of banded iron-formation averaging roughly 30 percent iron are known within 500 feet (152.4 meters) of the surface in the Gogebic, Marquette, and Iron River-Crystal Falls districts. A small percentage of that might someday be minable as taconite, but none is now believed to be economic. Some higher grade iron concentrations exist in the same iron-formations. Such material was the basis of former mining of iron in the region, but a poor market for such ore and depletion of many deposits have led to the decline of iron mining in the quadrangle. Iron mines of the quadrangle were not being worked in 1980. Many parts of the quadrangle contain belts of favorable host rocks for mineral deposits. Although deposits are not known in these belts, undiscovered deposits of copper, zinc, lead, silver, uranium, phosphate, nickel, chromium, platinum, gold, and diamonds could exist.

  19. Mineral resource potential map of the Pecos Wilderness, Santa Fe, San Miguel, Mora, Rio Arriba, and Taos counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Lane, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    This map is based on geologic and geochemical studies and mine and prospect investigations that were done principally in 1977 and 1979-80 (U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Bureau of Mines, and New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, 1980; Lane, 1980; Moench and Robertson, 1980; Moench, Robertson, and Sutley, 1980; Moench and Erickson, 1980; Moench, Grambling, and Robertson, 1988; Moench, Sutley, and Erickson, 1988; Erickson, Sutley, and Moench, 1986). An aeromagnetic survey covering almost all of the Pecos Wilderness was flown in 1970. The resulting aeromagnetic map was published by Moench and others (1980) and interpreted in that report by Lindreth Cordell. Cordell found no correlation between magnetic features and geologic terraines having mineral resource potential.

  20. Maps showing industrial mineral resources of the Joplin 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisafe, David A.; Rueff, Ardel W.

    1991-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Joplin 1° X 2° quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri prepared under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Other publications in this folio to date include U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2125-A (Erickson and others, 1990). Additional maps showing various geologic aspects of the Joplin quadrangle will be published as U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps bearing this same serial number with different letter suffixes (MF-2125-C, -D, and so on). The industrial mineral resources of the Joplin 1° X 2° quadrangle are crushed stone, dimension stone, clay and shale, construction sand and gravel (including chat, or chert-rich tailings from metal mines), and asphaltic sandstone. At present only crushed stone, clay and shale, and construction sand and gravel are of economic importance; the remainder are considered hypothetical resources. The value of industrial mineral production during 1987, the most recent year of complete data as supplied by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, was nearly $25,600,000. In terms of finished products such as cement and brick, the value is several times that amount. Figure 1 shows the annual value of industrial mineral production within the quadrangle from 1960 through 1987.

  1. Geologic, geochemical and mineral resource potential map of the Piney Creek Wilderness, Stone and Barry counties, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Erickson, Ralph L.; Thomson, Kenneth C.; Ellis, Clarence

    1982-01-01

    There is no evidence of significant metallic-mineral deposits in the rock units that are exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but there may be some potential for mineral deposits of two different types at depths from 400ft (120 m) to more than 2,100 ft (640 m) below the surface. Analyses of rock samples from a drill hole 15 mi (24 km) south of the area showed anomalous amounts of several metals in the Derby-Doerun (usage of the Missouri Geological Survey), Potosi, and Eminence Dolomites, which suggests that these units as well as the subsurface Ordovician carbonate units may have a potential for zinc-lead mineralization in the wilderness. Also, a high-amplitude magnetic anomaly along the northwest side of the wilderness suggests a potential for a small to moderate-sized magnetite (iron ore) deposit in the Precambrian basement rocks at a depth of at least 2,100 ft (640 m) below the surface, probably at least partly outside the boundary of the wilderness. In both cases the significance of the potential cannot be evaluated without deep drilling. In the case of the possible magnetite deposit, drilling should be preceded by a detailed magnetic survey to delineate the anomaly more clearly. The wilderness has little potential for resources of industrial minerals because they are readily available elsewhere in the region, and no known potential for energy resources.

  2. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    market for certain clays and result in commercial exploitation. P 5.3.4.5 Pegmatite Minerals Feldspar, beryl, and mica are the economically important...pegma- P tite minerals in Nevada; however, no production from pegmatites is known in the study area. Since pegmatites are not common in the study area

  3. Mineral resource potential map of the Troublesome Roadless Area, McCreary County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigleo, W.R.; Randall, A. H.; Ross, R.B.; Hammack, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Possible uses for sandstone units include silica sand, construction sand, and dimension stone. Shale may be suitable for structural clay products. Commercial quantities of oil and gas may be present at shallow depth in rocks of Mississippian age. A stream-sediment geochemical survey failed to recognize anomalies that would suggest mineralization, and the metallic mineral potential of the study area appears limited.

  4. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Big Delta Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura; Albert, N.R.D.; Griscom, Andrew; Hessin, T.D.; Menzie, W.D.; Turner, D.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    The geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery of the Big Delta quadrangle, 16,335 km 2 in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska, were investigated, and maps and reports were prepared by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral potential. The quadrangle is dominantly a complex terrane of greenschist- to amphibolitefacies metamorphic rocks that have been intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary dioritic to granitic rocks and are overlain by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Serpentinized peridotite and associated greenstone, graywacke, and chert crop out in some places. The quadrangle is bisected by the northeastward-trending Shaw Creek fault, which, on the basis of aeromagnetic interpretation and geologic data, is postulated to have left-lateral offset of as much as 48 km. On the northwest side of the Shaw Creek fault, metamorphic rock units have a northwesterly regional trend, and the oldest rocks could be Precambrian in age. Gneiss and schist in the southwestern part of the quadrangle are derived from both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, some of which may be as old as Precambrian. Other rock units, which include calcareous schist and thin-layered marble, black quartzite, semischist, and cataclastic rocks, are considered to be of probable Paleozoic age, although no fossils have yet been found in these rocks. Radiolarians and conodonts in chert associated with greenstone and ultramafic rocks indicate that the chert is of Permian age. Potassium-argon ages on igneous rocks of the Big Delta quadrangle fall into two groups: those with biotite, muscovite, hornblende, and sanidine ages between 50 to 69 m.y.; and those with biotite, hornblende, and sanidine ages between 88 to 105 m.y. The younger of these two groups appears to indicate the time of a plutonic event marked by intrusion of mostly small, isolated plutons, including hypabyssal stocks, and the eruption of silicic volcanic rocks. Most of the plutons are

  5. Martian Volatiles and Isotopic Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.

    1997-01-01

    Data on martian volatiles gathered from Viking atmosphere measurements, modest groundbased spectra, shock-implanted atmospheric gases in martian (SNC) meteorites, trapped mantle gases in martian meteorites, and volatile-rich solid phases in martian meteorites, are presented. Atmospheric volatiles, surface volatiles, and isotopic chronologies are discussed, along with energetic particle interactions.

  6. Hydrogen isotopic composition of the Martian mantle inferred from the newest Martian meteorite fall, Tissint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, P.; Hervig, R.; Wadhwa, M.; Garvie, L. A. J.; Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition of planetary reservoirs can provide key constraints on the origin and history of water on planets. The sources of water and the hydrological evolution of Mars may be inferred from the hydrogen isotopic compositions of mineral phases in Martian meteorites, which are currently the only samples of Mars available for Earth-based laboratory investigations. Previous studies have shown that δD values in minerals in the Martian meteorites span a large range of -250 to +6000‰. The highest hydrogen isotope ratios likely represent a Martian atmospheric component: either interaction with a reservoir in equilibrium with the Martian atmosphere (such as crustal water), or direct incorporation of the Martian atmosphere due to shock processes. The lowest δD values may represent those of the Martian mantle, but it has also been suggested that these values may represent terrestrial contamination in Martian meteorites. Here we report the hydrogen isotopic compositions and water contents of a variety of phases (merrillites, maskelynites, olivines, and an olivine-hosted melt inclusion) in Tissint, the latest Martian meteorite fall that was minimally exposed to the terrestrial environment. We compared traditional sample preparation techniques with anhydrous sample preparation methods, to evaluate their effects on hydrogen isotopes, and find that for severely shocked meteorites like Tissint, the traditional sample preparation techniques increase water content and alter the D/H ratios toward more terrestrial-like values. In the anhydrously prepared Tissint sample, we see a large range of δD values, most likely resulting from a combination of processes including magmatic degassing, secondary alteration by crustal fluids, shock-related fractionation, and implantation of Martian atmosphere. Based on these data, our best estimate of the δD value for the Martian depleted mantle is -116 ± 94‰, which is the lowest value measured in a phase in the

  7. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil similar JSC-1 in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. Characterization of the precursor molecules and efforts to further concentrate and hydrolyze the products to obtain gel materials will be presented for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  8. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SiO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2,7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil simular in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. The elemental composition and structure of the precursor molecules were characterized. Further concentration and hydrolysis of the products was performed to obtain gel materials for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  9. Managing large energy and mineral resources (EMR) projects in challenging environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanmeka, Arpamart

    The viability of energy mineral resources (EMR) construction projects is contingent upon the state of the world economic climate. Oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada exemplify large EMR projects that are highly sensitive to fluctuations in the world market. Alberta EMR projects are constrained by high fixed production costs and are also widely recognized as one of the most challenging construction projects to successfully deliver due to impacts from extreme weather conditions, remote locations and issues with labor availability amongst others. As indicated in many studies, these hardships strain the industry's ability to execute work efficiently, resulting in declining productivity and mounting cost and schedule overruns. Therefore, to enhance the competitiveness of Alberta EMR projects, project teams are targeting effective management strategies to enhance project performance and productivity by countering the uniquely challenging environment in Alberta. The main purpose of this research is to develop industry wide benchmarking tailored to the specific constraints and challenges of Alberta. Results support quantitative assessments and identify the root causes of project performance and ineffective field productivity problems in the heavy industry sector capital projects. Customized metrics produced from the data collected through a web-based survey instrument were used to quantitatively assess project performance in the following dimensions: cost, schedule, change, rework, safety, engineering and construction productivity and construction practices. The system enables the industry to measure project performance more accurately, get meaningful comparisons, while establishing credible norms specific to Alberta projects. Data analysis to identify the root cause of performance problems was conducted. The analysis of Alberta projects substantiated lessons of previous studies to create an improved awareness of the abilities of Alberta-based companies to manage their

  10. Coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands; Global significance and US resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Bedinger, George M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient and modern coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands (HMS) are the principal source of several heavy industrial minerals, with mining and processing operations on every continent except Antarctica. For example, HMS deposits are the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, obtained from the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2) and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). HMS deposits are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4), from which zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is obtained for uses mostly in refractory products. Sometimes monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is recovered as a byproduct mineral, sought for its rare earth elements and thorium (Ault and others, 2016; Sengupta and Van Gosen, 2016; Van Gosen and Tulsidas, 2016). 

  11. Remote sensing exploration for metallic mineral resources in central Baja California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensor data (primarily LANDSAT) was analyzed by photogeologic and computer-assisted enhancement techniques to evaluate the metallic mineral potential of Baja California. Overlays were prepared at 1:1,000,000 and 1:500,000 and included known geologic relationships and mineral occurrences, lineament, drainage and structural patterns, tonal anomalies, and enhancement results. Computer-assisted enhancement and classification of the test sites was performed using the IMAGE 100 system to identify subtle tonal anomalies thought related to mineralization using known sites as analysis guides. Mineral potential maps of Baja California were generated from these analyses and the ten highest priority targets visited. Preliminary assay results (atomic absorption analysis) for the samples recovered showed moderate to high geochemical anomalies for Copper (10 of 12 samples), Zinc (3 of 12 samples) and Lead (4 of 12 samples).

  12. Mineral resources of the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Grand county, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, R.P.; Gaccetta, J.D.; Kulik, D.M.; Kreidler, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas in the Book and Roan Cliffs in Grand Country, Utah, approximately 12 miles west of the Colorado state line. The wilderness study areas consist of a series of deep, stair-step-sided canyons and high ridges eroded into the flatlying sedimentary rocks of the Book Cliffs. Demonstrated coal reserves totaling 22,060,800 short tons and demonstrated subeconomic coal resources totaling 39,180,000 short tons are in the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. Also, inferred subeconomic coal resources totaling 143,954,000 short tons are within the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. No known deposits of industrial minerals are in any of the study area. All three of the wilderness study areas have a high resource potential for undiscovered deposits of coal and for undiscovered oil and gas.

  13. Timber, Minerals, and Social Change: An Exploratory Test of Two Resource-Dependent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machlis, Gary E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Tests relationship between local resource production and social systems in two natural resource industry communities: one timber-dependent, the other mining-dependent. Data collected for 13 resource-production indicators and 15 social-change indicators. Confirms hypothesis that social change is associated with the production level of local…

  14. Mineral resource assessment of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; D'Agostino, John P.; Gottfried, David

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and on the distribution of mines, prospects and mineral occurrences reported in the literature. This report is an assessment of the mineral resources associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Greenville quadrangle. It is based on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1987, 1989), on geochemistry of rock samples collected for this and other studies, on data available for known mines and prospects, and on the published geologic literature.

  15. Geophysical and geochemical data from the area of the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, southwestern Alaska: Contributions to assessment techniques for concealed mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Smith, S.M.; Giles, S.A.; Granitto, Matthew; Eppinger, R.G.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Shah, A.K.; Kelley, K.D.; Fey, D.L.; Minsley, B.J.; Brown, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey began a multidisciplinary study in southwest Alaska to investigate the setting and detectability of mineral deposits in concealed volcanic and glacial terranes. The study area hosts the world-class Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, and through collaboration with the Pebble Limited Partnership, a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations was carried out in proximity to the deposit. The deposit is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-mineralization volcanic rocks. The discovery of mineral resources beneath cover is becoming more important because most of the mineral resources at the surface have already been discovered. Research is needed to identify ways in which to assess for concealed mineral resources. This report presents the uninterpreted geophysical measurements and geochemical and mineralogical analytical data from samples collected during the summer field seasons from 2007 to 2010, and makes the data available in a single Geographic Information System (GIS) database.

  16. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  17. Explanation of fields used in the Alaska Resource Data File of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    Descriptions of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences in the Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF) are published for individual U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000 scale quadrangles in Alaska (see accompanying map) and are available for downloading from USGS World Wide Web site: http://www-rnrs-ak.wr.usgs.gov/ardf.These descriptions are divided into a number of fields which describe features of each mine, prospect, or mineral occurrence. These descriptions were complied from published literature and from unpublished reports and data from industry, the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey and other sources. Compilation of this database is an ongoing process and each report is essentially a progress report. The authors of the individual quadrangle reports would appreciate any corrections or additional information that users may be able to contribute.

  18. Resources for a lunar base: Rocks, minerals, and soil of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    The rocks and minerals of the Moon will be included among the raw materials used to construct a lunar base. The lunar regolith, the fragmental material present on the surface of the Moon, is composed mostly of disaggregated rocks and minerals, but also includes glassy fragments fused together by meteorite impacts. The finer fraction of the regolith (i.e., less than 1 cm) is informally referred to as soil. The soil is probably the most important portion of the regolith for use at a lunar base. For example, soil can be used as insulation against cosmic rays, for lunar ceramics and abodes, or for growing plants. The soil contains abundant solar-wind-implanted elements as well as various minerals, particularly oxide phases, that are of potential economic importance. For example, these components of the soil are sources of oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel, helium for nuclear energy, and metals such as Fe, Al, Si, and Ti.

  19. Mineral resource potential map of the Bell Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Iron County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Erickson, Ralph L.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1982-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and the Joint Conference Report on Senate Bill 4, 88th Congress, the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Mines have been conducting mineral surveys of wilderness and primitive areas. Areas officially designated as "wilderness," "wild," or "canoe" when the Act was passed were incorporated into the National Wilderness Preservation System, and some of them are presently being studied. The Act provided that areas under consideration for wilderness designation should be studied for suitability for incorporation into the Wilderness System. The mineral surveys constitute one aspect of the suitability studies. This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of some national forest lands in the Bell Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Iron County, Missouri.

  20. Resources for a lunar base: Rocks, minerals, and soil of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-09-01

    The rocks and minerals of the Moon will be included among the raw materials used to construct a lunar base. The lunar regolith, the fragmental material present on the surface of the Moon, is composed mostly of disaggregated rocks and minerals, but also includes glassy fragments fused together by meteorite impacts. The finer fraction of the regolith (i.e., less than 1 cm) is informally referred to as soil. The soil is probably the most important portion of the regolith for use at a lunar base. For example, soil can be used as insulation against cosmic rays, for lunar ceramics and abodes, or for growing plants. The soil contains abundant solar-wind-implanted elements as well as various minerals, particularly oxide phases, that are of potential economic importance. For example, these components of the soil are sources of oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel, helium for nuclear energy, and metals such as Fe, Al, Si, and Ti.

  1. Mars Mineral Spectroscopy Web Site: A Resource for Remote Planetary Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.; Griswold, J. L.; Hanify, K. M.; Rothstein, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A web site dedicated to Mars Mineral Spectroscopy has been established at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/go/mars. Its goal is to provide an easily accessible data set of Mossbauer spectra of minerals collected over a range of temperatures, to provide suitable analog spectra for data acquired on remote surfaces such as Mars. Complementing these data (eventually) will be both reflectance FTIR data, collected at Brown University's RELAB facility, and Raman spectra to be collected by Jill Pasteris at Washington University St. Louis. Through our Education link, we provide information for those wishing to learn about how Mossbauer and other types of spectroscopy work. Our emphasis is to study only well-characterized mineral samples that represent typical rock-forming occurrences such as might exist on Mars and other terrestrial bodies in our solar system.

  2. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  3. Analyzing legacy U.S. Geological Survey geochemical databases using GIS: applications for a national mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Granitto, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This report emphasizes geographic information system analysis and the display of data stored in the legacy U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Database for use in mineral resource investigations. Geochemical analyses of soils, stream sediments, and rocks that are archived in the National Geochemical Database provide an extensive data source for investigating geochemical anomalies. A study area in the Egan Range of east-central Nevada was used to develop a geographic information system analysis methodology for two different geochemical datasets involving detailed (Bureau of Land Management Wilderness) and reconnaissance-scale (National Uranium Resource Evaluation) investigations. ArcGIS was used to analyze and thematically map geochemical information at point locations. Watershed-boundary datasets served as a geographic reference to relate potentially anomalous sample sites with hydrologic unit codes at varying scales. The National Hydrography Dataset was analyzed with Hydrography Event Management and ArcGIS Utility Network Analyst tools to delineate potential sediment-sample provenance along a stream network. These tools can be used to track potential upstream-sediment-contributing areas to a sample site. This methodology identifies geochemically anomalous sample sites, watersheds, and streams that could help focus mineral resource investigations in the field.

  4. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  5. Mineral resources of the Bobcat Draw Badlands Wilderness Study Area, Bir Horn and Washakie Counties, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.B.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Bobcat Draw Wilderness Study Area is in the Bighorn Basin about 45 mi west of Worland, Wyoming, and is underlain by early Tertiary sedimentary rocks. No resources were identified in this study area, which lacks mines or prospects, but is mostly under lease for oil and gas. This study area has a high potential for oil and gas and for subeconomic resources of coal and a moderate potential for a deep-seated geothermal energy resource. The resource potential for oil shale and metals, including uranium, is low.

  6. Identification of geostructures of continental crust, particularly as they relate to mineral-resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gryc, G. (Principal Investigator); Lathram, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    The authors have identified the following significant results. As a precursor to the ERTS-1 investigation, the spatial relationship of geostructures seen on Nimbus IDCS photographs to the distribution of mineralized areas in Alaska and western Canada was analyzed to determine the possible metallogenic significance of the geostructures. In Canada, mercury and porphyry molybdenum deposits are closely associated with strong northwest-trending fault systems; the development of mineralized regions seems related to major crustal zones or fractures trending southwestward across the Cordillera from the Precambrian shield. In Alaska, comparison of the northeast- and northwest-trending set of possible crustal structures shown on the Nimbus photo, with the distribution of known mineral deposits suggests a similar relationship. The mineralized region of massive sulfides in Prince William Sound and upper Copper River areas and of porphyry coppers in the Nabesna area forms a broad northeast-trending belt possibly related to the Minto Arch on the Shield. The belt of metalliferous deposits in the western Alaska Range follows a comparable northeast trend. Mercury deposits, suggested by many to be fault-controlled, together with most tin and tungsten deposits, occupy a northeast-trending belt between the Bristol Bay-Mackenzie Bay linear and extensions of a linear along the lower Yukon River. This belt intersects the northwest-trending Canadian belt of similar deposits in the Fairbanks area.

  7. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  8. Identification of geostructures of continental crust particularly as they relate to mineral resource evaluation. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gryc, G. (Principal Investigator); Lathram, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New mineral deposits have recently been discovered in eastern Alaska through application of a hypothesis very similar to one developed in interpretation of Nimbus and ERTS-1 imagery in this investigation, that mineral deposits may be spatially related to a set of crustal linears. The discovery affirms the validity of this hypothesis and provides an additional exploration rationale to the mineral industry. A regional lineation in lakes near Umiat in northern Alaska, suspected to reflect structures in basement and suggesting areas of possible potential for new petroleum exploration, is found to cover a much larger area than previously suspected east of the Colville River, increasing the area of interest. Further application of this same imagery exists in that environmental scars to the tundra resulting from previous ground exploration, if of large size, can be recognized and their natural revegetation monitored by use of ERTS imagery. New geologic data obtained from ERTS-1 images of lowland areas of western northern Alaska facilitates assessing the petroleum potential of this area. Use of the images in field mapping permitted extrapolation of field observations. Mosaics of ERTS-1 images have provided additional data on regional linear sets and on other regional fault trends possibly related to mineralized areas.

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the Clear Lake Roadless Area, Leon County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendry, Charles W.; Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.; Sweeney, John W.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for finding valuable mineral deposits or oil and gas in the Clear Lake Roadless Area is low. However, the area and nearby lands have not been thoroughly tested for oil and gas, and the possibilities for discovery cannot be ruled out. 

  10. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Mineral resource potential of the Granite Chief Wilderness Study Area, Placer County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.; Cather, Eric E.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1982-01-01

    Substantial deposits of sand, gravel, and glacial till suitable for construction materials occur within the area, but their inaccessibility and remoteness from major markets preclude their being classified as a resource. No potential for oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources was identified.

  12. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Coal seams as much as several meters in aggregate thickness crop out in Tertiary rocks in the Geographic Harbor area. Since these coal beds occur within withdrawn Federal lands, there has been no incentive to evaluate them as coal resources. Given different land accessibility and a local market, these beds could constitute a small marketable coal resource.

  13. Chemical Weathering Records of Martian Soils Preserved in the Martian Meteorite EET79001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Impact-melt glasses, rich in Martian atmospheric gases, contain Martian soil fines (MSF) mixed with other coarse-grained regolith fractions which are produced during impact bombardment on Mars surface. An important characteristic of the MSF fraction is the simultaneous enrichment of felsic component accompanied by the depletion of mafic component relative to the host phase in these glasses. In addition, these glasses yield large sulfur abundances due to the occurrence of secondary mineral phases such as sulfates produced during acid-sulfate weathering of the regolith material near the Martian surface. Sulfurous gases released into atmosphere by volcanoes on Mars are oxidized to H2SO4 which deposit back on the surface of Mars as aerosol particles. Depending on the water availability, sulfuric acids dissolve into solutions which aggressively decompose the Fe-Mg silicates in the Martian regolith. During chemical weathering, structural elements such as Fe, Mg and Ca (among others) are released into the transgressing solutions. These solutions leach away the soluble components of Mg, Ca and Na, leaving behind insoluble iron as Fe3(+) hydroxysulfate mixed with poorly crystalline hydroxide- precipitates under oxidizing conditions. In this study, we focus on the elemental distribution of FeO and SO3 in the glass veins of EET79001, 507 sample, determined by Electron Microprobe and FE SEM measurements at JSC. This glass sample is an aliquot of a bigger glass inclusion ,104 analysed by where large concentrations of Martian atmospheric noble gases are found.

  14. The temperature of formation of carbonate in Martian meteorite ALH84001: constraints from cation diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hutcheon, I D; Kent, A; Phinney, D L; Ryerson, F J

    1999-08-13

    An important test of the hypothesis that Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains fossil remnants of an ancient Martian biota is the thermal history of the carbonate rosettes associated with the proposed biomarkers. If carbonates formed at temperatures over {approximately} 110 C (the limit for terrestrial life), it is unlikely that these minerals are associated with a terrestrial-like biota.

  15. Mineral-resource assessments in Alaska; background information to accompany maps and reports about the geology and undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the Mount Katmai Quadrangle and adjacent parts of the Naknek and Afognak quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Church, S.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geologic and geochemical field studies were carded out from 1983 to 1987 in the Mount Katmai l?x2 ? quadrangle and adjoining region, at the northeast end of the Alaska Peninsula. The region is nearly entirely within Katmai National Park and Preserve and has had almost no mineral production, so prior to this study there were few data by which to assess the mineral potential of the region. This report describes the folio of publications that have resulted from the study: geologic maps, geochemical results, fossil identifications, radiometric rock ages, and an assessment of the undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the region. The Katmai region is inferred to potentially have three types of undiscovered mineral deposits: porphyry copper (molybdenum), precious-metal vein, and hot-springs gold. These deposit types occur elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar geologic units. Evidence suggesting their occurrence in the Katmai region is the presence of trace amounts of metals typically associated with these kinds of deposits in bedrock of certain tracts and in sediments of streams draining those tracts. Magma to provide heat, fractures to provide pathways for mineralizing fluids, and altered rock are required by genetic models of these deposit types. Such features do occur in the Katmai tracts. Confirmation of any mineral deposit in the Katmai region requires detailed follow-up sampling and acquisition of subsurface information, which is beyond the scope of this study. However, producing porphyry deposits are unknown elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar rocks, so if any such deposits occur in the Katmai region, they are likely to be few in number. Conversely, vein deposits are typically small in size so there may be several of such deposits. The properties and thermal history of the sedimentary rocks that could serve as reservoirs for oil or gas are unfavorable in adjacent regions. Thus the potential of the Katmai region for producible quantities of

  16. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Trexler, D. W.; Bruns, D. L.; Nicolais, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Topography was found to be the most important factor defining folds on ERTS-1 imagery of northwestern Colorado; tonal variations caused by rock reflectance and vegetation type and density are the next most important factors. Photo-linears mapped on ERTS-1 imagery of central Colorado correlate well with ground-measured joint and fracture trends. In addition, photo-linears have been successfully used to determine the location and distribution of metallic mineral deposits in the Colorado Mineral Belt. True color composites are best for general geologic analysis and false color composites prepared with positive/negative masks are useful for enhancing local geologic phenomena. During geologic analysis of any given area, ERTS-1 imagery from several different dates should be studied.

  17. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  18. Resource characterization for uranium mineralization in the Montrose 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.; Balog, S.H.; Weaver, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    A data-classification scheme was developed to detect potential uranium mineralization in the Montrose 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, Colorado. The methodology developed is a rapid and efficient method of resource evaluation on a reconnaissance scale. The necessary techniques were developed and refined to digitize, integrate, and register various large geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets for the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado, using a grid resolution of 1 km. All data sets for the Montrose quadrangle were registered to the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The data sets include hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses for 23 elements, uranium-to-thorium ratios, airborne geophysical survey data, the locations of 90 uranium occurrences, and a geologic map (scale 1:250 000). Geochemical samples were collected from 3965 locations in the 19 200 km/sup 2/ quadrangle; aerial data were collected on flight lines flown with 3 to 5 km spacings. These data sets were smoothed by universal kriging and interpolated to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid (each grid block is 1 km/sup 2/). A mylar transparency of the geologic map was prepared and digitized. All possible combinations of three, for all data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. Subsets of data were further examined for selected test areas. A classification scheme for uranium mineralization, based on selected test areas in the Cochetopa uranium district, is presented. Areas favorable for uranium mineralization, based on this scheme, were identified and are discussed.

  19. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    Geoenvironmental concerns are generally low because of low volumes of sulfide minerals. Most deposits are marginally acid-generating to non-acid-generating with drainage waters being near-neutral pH because of the acid generating potential of pyrite being partially buffered by late-stage calcite-bearing veins. The low ore content results in a waste:ore ratio of nearly 1:1 and large tailings piles from the open-pit method of mining.

  20. Mineral resource potential map of the Mokelumne Wilderness and contiguous roadless areas, central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Chaffee, Maurice A.; Federspiel, Francis E.; McHugh, Edward L.; Cather, Eric E.; Scott, Douglas F.; Rumsey, Clayton M.

    1982-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and the Joint Conference Report on Senate Bill 4, 88th Congress, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been conducting mineral surveys of wilderness and primitive areas. Areas officially designated as "wilderness," "wild," or "canoe" when the act was passed were incorporated into the National Wilderness Preservation System, and some of them are presently being studied. The act provided that areas under consideration for wilderness designation should be studied for suitability for incorporation into the Wilderness System. The mineral surveys constitute one aspect of suitability studies. The act directs that the results of such surveys are to be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of the Mokelumne Wilderness, El Dorado National Forest, Amador, Calaveras and Alpine Counties, California and Caples Creek, Raymond Peak, and Tragedy-Elephants Back Roadless Areas, Alpine, Amador, Ca 1 aver as, and El Dorado Counties, California. The Mokelumne Wilderness was established by Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964, the Roadless Areas were classified as further planning areas during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, 1979. 

  1. Mineral resource potential map of the John Muir Wilderness, Fresno, Inyo, Madera, and Mono counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Bray, E.A.; Dellinger, D.A.; Diggles, M.F.; Oliver, H.W.; Johnson, F.L.; Thurber, H.K.; Morris, R.W.; Perers, T.J.; Lindsey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and the Joint Conference Report on Senate Bill 4, 88th Congress, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been conducting mineral surveys of wilderness and primitive areas. Areas officially designated as "wilderness," "wild," or "canoe" when the act was passed were incorporated into the National Wilderness Preservation System, and some of them are presently being studied. The act provided that areas under consideration for wilderness designation should be studied for suitability for incorporation into the Wilderness System. The mineral surveys constitute one aspect of the suitability studies. The act directs that the results of such surveys are to be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of the John Muir Wilderness, Inyo and Sierra National Forests, Fresno, lnyo, Madera, and Mono Counties, California. The area was established as a wilderness by Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964.

  2. Mineral resources of the Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tysdal, R.G. ); Peters, T.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The authors report on the 350-acre Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area in the southern part of the Madison Range. Fremont County, Idaho, and is about 17 miles north of the hamlet of Islan Park. The southwestern part of the wilderness study area, along the Madison Range Fault, is rated as having a moderate energy resource potential for geothermal water, and the remainder of the study area has a low potential for this resource.

  3. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake roadless areas Plumas, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.; Clynne, M.A.; Cook, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas indicate no potential for metallic or non-metallic mineral resources in the areas and no potential for coal or petroleum energy resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area is subject to non-competitive geothermal lease applications. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park, which contains extensive areas of fumaroles, hot springs, and hydrothermally altered rock; voluminous silicic volcanism occurred here during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. Geochemical data and geological interpretation indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Morgan and Growler Hot Springs (immediately west of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area) are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, substantial geothermal resources are likely to be discovered in Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and cannot be ruled out for Heart Lake Roadless Area.

  4. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and mineral resources maps of the Butte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Trautwein, C.M.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Butte 1?x2 ? quadrangle in west-central Montana was investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). These investigations included geologic mapping, geochemical surveys, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, examinations of mineral deposits, and specialized geochronologic and remote-sensing studies. The data collected during these studies were compiled, combined with available published and unpublished data, analyzed, and used in a mineral-resource assessment of the quadrangle. The results, including data, interpretations, and mineral-resource assessments for nine types of mineral deposits, are published separately as a folio of maps. These maps are accompanied by figures, tables, and explanatory text. This circular provides background information on the Butte quadrangle, summarizes the studies and published maps, and lists a selected bibliography of references pertinent to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral resources of the quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, which includes the world-famous Butte mining district, has a long history of mineral production. Many mining districts within the quadrangle have produced large quantities of many commodities; the most important in dollar value of production were copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, and phosphate. At present, mines at several locations produce copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, lead, zinc, and phosphate. Exploration, mainly for gold, has indicated the presence of other mineral deposits that may be exploited in the future. The results of the investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that many areas of the quadrangle are highly favorable for the occurrence of additional undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, and other metals in several deposit types.

  5. A Revised Martian Magnetic Time Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, B.; Thébault, E.; Milbury, C.; Hood, L. L.; Mangold, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Martian magnetic field has a lithospheric origin. It is the result of successive processes which magnetized magnetic minerals while a dynamo was active, and then demagnetized these minerals after dynamo cessation. The largest impact basins (Hellas, Argyre and Utopia), the northern plains or the large volcanic provinces are not magnetized. This has been interpreted as a proof that the Martian dynamo was not active when these events took place, about 4 Gyrs ago (from the craters). However, recent studies showed that Noachian and Hesperian terrains can not be differentiated by their magnetic signatures, while younger Amazonian units are clearly less magnetized. Similarly, Apollinaris Patera, a shield volcano located close to the equator, and Lucus Planum, a nearby large-scale volcanic plateau, have associated magnetic signatures. The same observations can be made above Lowell and Antoniadi impact craters. All these structures have surface ages younger than 3.8 Gyrs. In this study, we therefore re-examine MGS dataset. We carefully select the measurements in order to isolate the spatial variations from the temporal ones. We then compare the observed magnetic field directly above these volcanoes or basins to the one measured in their vicinity. We conclude that the dynamo was most likely active when they were formed, between 3.7 and 3.8 Gyrs ago. The conditions which protected the Martian atmosphere may thus have persisted up to that time. This later dynamo cessation might also explain the abrupt change in water activity around that epoch.

  6. The Germanium Dichotomy in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humayun, M.; Yang, S.; Righter, K.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Germanium is a moderately volatile and siderophile element that follows silicon in its compatibility during partial melting of planetary mantles. Despite its obvious usefulness in planetary geochemistry germanium is not analyzed routinely, with there being only three prior studies reporting germanium abundances in Martian meteorites. The broad range (1-3 ppm) observed in Martian igneous rocks is in stark contrast to the narrow range of germanium observed in terrestrial basalts (1.5 plus or minus 0.1 ppm). The germanium data from these studies indicates that nakhlites contain 2-3 ppm germanium, while shergottites contain approximately 1 ppm germanium, a dichotomy with important implications for core formation models. There have been no reliable germanium abundances on chassignites. The ancient meteoritic breccia, NWA 7533 (and paired meteorites) contains numerous clasts, some pristine and some impact melt rocks, that are being studied individually. Because germanium is depleted in the Martian crust relative to chondritic impactors, it has proven useful as an indicator of meteoritic contamination of impact melt clasts in NWA 7533. The germanium/silicon ratio can be applied to minerals that might not partition nickel and iridium, like feldspars. We report germanium in minerals from the 3 known chassignites, 2 nakhlites and 5 shergottites by LAICP- MS using a method optimized for precise germanium analysis.

  7. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Slowakiewicz, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a global, evaporite-related potash deposits and occurrences database and a potash tracts database. Chapter 1 summarizes potash resource history and use. Chapter 2 describes a global potash deposits and occurrences database, which contains more than 900 site records. Chapter 3 describes a potash tracts database, which contains 84 tracts with geology permissive for the presence of evaporite-hosted potash resources, including areas with active evaporite-related potash production, areas with known mineralization that has not been quantified or exploited, and areas with potential for undiscovered potash resources. Chapter 4 describes geographic information system (GIS) data files that include (1) potash deposits and occurrences data, (2) potash tract data, (3) reference databases for potash deposit and tract data, and (4) representative graphics of geologic features related to potash tracts and deposits. Summary descriptive models for stratabound potash-bearing salt and halokinetic potash-bearing salt are included in appendixes A and B, respectively. A glossary of salt- and potash-related terms is contained in appendix C and a list of database abbreviations is given in appendix D. Appendix E describes GIS data files, and appendix F is a guide to using the geodatabase.

  8. Geology and Mineral Resources of the North Absaroka Wilderness and Vicinity, Park County, Wyoming, with Sections on Mineralization of the Sunlight Mining Region and Geology and Mineralization of the Cooke City Mining District, and a Section on Aeromagnetic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Willis H.; Prostka, Harold J.; Williams, Frank E.; Elliott, James E.; Peterson, Donald L.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The North Absaroka Wilderness is approximately 560 square miles (1,450 km 2 ) of rugged scenic mountainous terrain that adjoins the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming. The area was studied during 1970, 1971, and 1972 by personnel of the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate its mineral-resource potential as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. This evaluation is based on a search of the literature courthouse and production records, geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey. The North Absaroka Wilderness is underlain almost entirely by andesitic and basaltic volcanic rocks of Eocene age. These volcanics rest on deformed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and, locally, of Mesozoic age that are exposed at places along the northern and eastern edges of the wilderness. Dikes and other igneous intrusive bodies cut both the volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A nearly flat detachment fault, the Heart Mountain fault, and a related steep break-away fault have displaced middle and upper Paleozoic rocks and some of the older part of the volcanic sequence to the southeast. A much greater thickness of volcanic rocks was found to be involved in Heart Mountain faulting than had previously been recognized; however, most of the volcanic rocks and many of the intrusives were emplaced after Heart Mountain faulting. Local folding and high-angle faulting in mid-Eocene time have deformed all but the youngest part of the volcanic sequence in the southeastern part of the wilderness. This deformation is interpreted as the last pulse of Laramide orogeny. The results of this study indicate that the mineral-resource potential of the wilderness is minimal. Bentonite, petroleum, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced in the surrounding region from rocks that underlie the volcanic rocks

  9. Martian Dust Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuray, Monica; Houston, Karrie; Lorentson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Martian Dust Simulator (MDS) was designed to investigate the contamination effects of Martian soil and rock on the performance and function of flight-like microvalves and flight-like filters located within the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. The SAM instrument suite, which houses over fifty percent of the science payload, is located on-board the Mars exploration rover. The mission objective of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover is to determine the past, present, and future habitability of Mars. It will serve as a robot geologist, traveling the Mars surface for a period of one Martian year (equivalent to two earth years). The microvalves were designed as a conduit to control the flow of Martian gas to the science instruments. If exposed to particle sizes greater than half a micron, both the science instruments and science equipment, including forty-seven microvalves, could experience performance degradation. As a result, filters were used at various gas inlets to protect flight hardware from particulate degradation. Additionally, the filters serve as the only interface between the Martian environment and the mechanisms within SAM. The MDS operates at 7 Torr (0.135 psi) with a gas flow rate of 0 to 20 m/s. Iron (III) Oxide was the only dust particle specimen used, although several others were initially considered (i.e. JSC-Mars-1, Corundum Powder (Al2O3), Hydrated Sulfate, and Belville (Basalt)). The overarching goal of the MDS is to demonstrate that the Mars exploration program is adequately designed and prepared for the Martian mission environment.

  10. Microbiological Remediation of Martian Soil for Future Terraformation of the Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasashvili, M. V.; Aleksidze, N. G.

    2010-04-01

    Earth mineral matrixes have been mixed in proportions to prepare simulated martian soil. Experiments were conducted to detect microbes that could be suitable for future Terraformation of planet Mars. Growth of plant cover on Mars has been discussed.

  11. Martian Meteorite Ages and Implications for Martian Cratering History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2006-01-01

    New radiometrically determined ages of Martian meteorites add to the growing number with crystallization ages < 1.4 Ga. The observation of mainly geologically young ages for the Martian meteorites, the only exception being the 4.5 Ga ALH84001 [1], is paradoxical when viewed in context of a Martian surface thought to be mostly much older as inferred from the surface density of meteorite craters [2]. There appears to be at least a twofold difference between the observed ages of Martian meteorites and their expected ages as inferred from the ages of Martian surfaces obtained from crater densities.

  12. Maps showing mineral resource potential of the Virgin Mountains Instant Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard K.; Carlson, Robert R.; Federspiel, Francis E.; Huffsmith, James D.

    1981-01-01

    The Virgin Mountains Instant Study Area contains about 30,000 acres (12,000 ha) in southeastern Nevada. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (P.L. 94-579), the U.S. Bureau of Mines examined mines, prospects, and mineralized zones, and the U.S. Geological Survey made regional geologic, geophysical, and geochemical investigations. Tungsten and sheet mica have been produced from the study area, and oil and gas lease applications have been filed on 20,300 acres (8,200 ha). Sixteen mining claims are presently held. 

  13. Mineral resources of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.S.U.; Yeend, W.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Gese, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), California Desert Conservation Area, Imperial County, California. The potential for undiscovered base and precious metals, and sand and gravel within the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area is low. The study area has a moderate potential for geothermal energy. One small sand-free area between the Coachella Canal and the west edge of the dune field would probably be the only feasible exploration site for geothermal energy. The study area has a moderate to high potential for the occurrence of undiscovered gas/condensate within the underlying rocks. 21 refs.

  14. Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature

    PubMed Central

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  15. Mineral resource dilemma: how to balance the interests of government, local communities and abiotic nature.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-08-25

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights.

  16. Mineral resources of the Ragged Top Wilderness study area, Pima County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, G.A.; Peterson, J.A.; Pitkin, Hanna, W.F. ); Kreidler, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Ragged Top Wilderness Study Area in Arizona which contains Proterozoic granite and sedimentary rocks, Cretaceous volcanic rocks and granodiorite porphyry, and Tertiary rhyolite. Part of the Silver Bell Caldera is included in this study area. No metallic resources were identified. The southwest corner has a high and a moderate resource potential for gold, silver, lead, vanadium, barite, molybdenum, copper, and zinc in vein deposits. The east side has a low resource potential for these elements. Parts of this study area have a moderate potential for copper, silver, gold, and molybdenum in porphyry copper deposits, a low potential for uranium deposits in sedimentary rocks, and a low potential for thorium, rare-earth elements, quartz, feldspar, and mica in granite.

  17. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment results, presented in tables and graphs, show mean expected amounts of metal and rock in undiscovered deposits at different quantile levels, as well as the arithmetic mean for each tract. This assessment estimated a mean of 39 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the assessed permissive tracts on the Tibetan Plateau. This represents nearly four times the number of known deposits (11) already discovered. Predicted mean (arithmetic) resources that could be associated with the undiscovered deposits are about 145,000,000 t of copper and about 4,900 t of gold, as well as byproduct molybdenum and silver. Reliable reports of the identified resources in the 11 known deposits total about 27,000,000 t of copper and about 800 t of gold. Therefore, based on the assessments of undiscovered Tibetan Plateau resources in this report, about six times as much copper may occur in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits as has been identified to date.

  18. Martian Surface Beneath Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an image of the Martian surface beneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  20. Mining the air - Resources of other worlds may reduce mission costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    It is proposed that the mining of resources on another planet to support operations there and also to provide a means for the return trip to earth provides a less expensive way to send humans beyond low earth orbit to live on the moon and to explore Mars. Since a large fraction of any chemical propellant combination is the oxidizer that burns with the fuel to generate the rocket jet, and for life support, the generation of oxygen from any of its atmospheric or mineral compounds is a valuable capability. Such materials include the lunar minerals ilmenite and anorthite, Martian permafrost, water ice at the Martian poles, and atmospheric carbon dioxide on Mars. The possibilities of developing such technologies are discussed and the prospects of developing building materials for such facilities from local resources are considered. The role of the Space Engineering Research Center at the University of Arizona in exploring the use of local planetary resources is noted.

  1. Mineral resource assessment of rare-earth elements, thorium, titanium, and uranium in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Curtin, Gary C.; Daniels, David L.; Jackson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and the presence of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences from the literature. This report is an assessment of the rare-earth elements (REE), thorium, titanium, and uranium resources in the Greenville quadrangle and is based on heavy mineral concentrates collected in 1951-54 by the USGS (Overstreet and others, 1968; Caldwell and White, 1973; Cuppels and White, 1973); on the results of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sampling program (Ferguson, 1978, 1979); on analyses of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate samples (Jackson and Moore, 1992, G.C Cullin, USGS, unpub. data, 1992) on maps showing aerial gamma radiation in the Greenville quadrangle (D.L. Daniels, USGS, unpub. data, 1992); and on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1987, 1989).

  2. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Choteau 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean

    1981-01-01

    The Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle in northwest Montana was studied by an interdisciplinary research team in order to appraise its mineral resource and hydrocarbon potential The appraisal is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource appraisal. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle.

  3. Implications of modelled radioactivity measurements along coastal Odisha, Eastern India for heavy mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, S.; Agrahari, S.; Guin, R.; Sengupta, D.

    2017-01-01

    A radioelemental assemblage assessment of two beaches of Odisha is performed for the first time. The radiation is measured in two ways, both on field with the help of a hand held environmental survey meter and in the laboratory, where the concentrations of radionuclide's 238U, 232Th and 4K have been determined with the help of High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). Mineralogical analysis of selected samples has been performed with the help of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF). A marked difference between the concentration of Uranium (274 Bq kg-1) and Thorium (2489 Bq kg-1) is observed and discussed based on the geology of the area. The placer deposits showing an enrichment of thorium can be an important source of nuclear fuel for the thorium based nuclear reactors. The ratio of thorium and uranium concentrations gives us an idea about the coastal processes associated with the beach. Statistical analysis of the data shows a positive correlation between 238U and 232Th and a strong negative correlation is indicated between 4 K and 238U, 232Th. A cross plot between the equivalent thorium and the equivalent uranium and the equivalent thorium and potassium, represents the nature of deposition and its association with the heavy mineral along with the radioactive elements. Heavy minerals exhibit an increasing trend towards Northeast-Southwest along the south eastern coast of India.

  4. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. ); Kreidler, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  5. Mineral resource potential map of the Fossil Ridge Wilderness Study Area, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Stoneman, R.J.; Clark, J.R.; Kluender, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Areas that immediately adjoin the Fossil Ridge Wilderness Study Area have a high potential for molybdenum in large deposits, lead in medium-size deposits, and zinc -in small- to medium-size deposits. Depending on the extraction of base metals, parts of the adjoining areas could have a low resource potential for bismuth and cadmium as byproducts in medium-size deposits.

  6. Mineral resource potential map of the Pyramid Roadless Area, El Dorado County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Chaffee, Maurice A.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1983-01-01

    Studies show., there is low potential for small deposits of gold, silver, and base metals in the Pyramid Roadless Area. There are two uranium claims (Cliff Ridge mining claims) located within the roadless area, but samples from this site showed no uranium. There are no indications of geothermal resources, coal, oil, or gas.

  7. Moessbauer Spectroscopy on the Martian Surface: Constraints on Interpretation of MER Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    Moessbauer spectrometers will be used on martian landers and rovers to identify and quantify relative amounts of Fe-bearing minerals, as well as to determine their Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratios, allowing more realistic modeling of martian mineralogy and evolution. However, derivation of mineral modes, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratios, and phase identification via Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) does have limitations. We discuss here the exciting potential of MS for remote planetary exploration, as well as constraints on interpretation of remote Moessbauer data.

  8. Differential Bacterial Colonization of Volcanic Minerals in Deep Thermal Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Popa, R.; Fisk, M. R.; Nielsen, M.; Wheat, G.; Jannasch, H.; Fisher, A.; Sievert, S.

    2010-04-01

    There are reports of microbial weathering patterns in volcanic glass and minerals of both terrestrial and Martian origin. Volcanic minerals are colonized differentially in subsurface hydrothermal environments by a variety of physiological types.

  9. GIS application in mineral resource analysis—A case study of offshore marine placer gold at Nome, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Chen, Gang; Li, Hui; Luo, Huayang; Huang, Scott L.

    2007-06-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has been applied to analyze the offshore marine placer gold deposits at Nome, Alaska. Two geodatabases, namely Integrated Geodatabase (IG) and Regularized 2.5D Geodatabase (R2.5DG), were created to store and integrate digital data sets in heterogeneous formats. The IG served as a data warehouse and used to manage various geological data, such as borehole, bedrock geology, surficial geology, and geochemical data. The R2.5DG was generated based on the IG and could be used for gold resource estimate at any given spatial domain. Information on placer gold deposits can be updated, queried, visualized, and analyzed by making use of these geodatabases. Ore body boundaries, gold distribution, and the resource estimation at various cutoff grades can be calculated in a timely manner. Based on the enhanced GIS architecture, a web-based GIS ( http://uaf-db.uaf.edu/website/) was developed to facilitate remote users to access the offshore marine placer gold data. Users can integrate local data sources with remote data sources for query, visualization and analysis via a web browser. The GIS architecture developed in this project can be readily adapted to mineral resource management in other areas of the state.

  10. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas.

  11. MinUrals: Mineral resources of the Urals -- origin, development, and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistel, J. M.; Minurals Team

    2003-04-01

    The MinUrals project (supported by the European Commission under the 5th F.P.- INCO2 - contract ICA2-CT-2000-10011) is focusing on the South Urals mining sector, in order to improve local socio-economic conditions, through: 1) The reinterpretation of the geodynamics of South Urals and of the different types of ore deposits and the development of tools for mineral exploration (new geophysical and geochemical technology). The convergence setting and the formation of arc, fore-arc and back-arc systems explain the volcano-sedimentary and structural features. This geodynamic setting largely controls the distribution and characteristics of the different types of mineralisation; 2) The evaluation of local mining-related risks to the environment, with a development of methodologies for assessing and reducing the environmental impact and localizing areas of high metal potential/low environmental constraints. Three pilote sites were investigated: Sibay and Uchaly (with mining installations), and Karabash (with mining installations and smelter); 3) The implementation of a Geographical Information System taking into account the mineral potential and the environmental constraints that, through data ranking and combining the key parameters of the areas with high metal potential and environmental constraints, will enable the production of a Mineral Potential and Environmental Constraints Map of the South Urals; 4) The elaboration of recommendations for a suitable environmentally-aware mining-industry legislation, based on a comparison with the European legislation, to be adressed to the Commission on the demarcation of powers and subjects between the federal government, governments of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local authorities. More information can be found on the project web sites [http://minurals.brgm.fr] or [http://www.nhm.ac.uk/mineralogy/minurals/minurals.htm] or [http://www.anrb.ru/geol/MinUrals] or [http://minurals.ilmeny.ac.ru] MinUrals Team (*): Aug

  12. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  13. Identification of Geostructures of the Continental Crust Particularly as They Relate to Mineral Resource Evaluation. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathram, E. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A pattern of very old geostructures was recognized, reflecting structures in the crust. This pattern is not peculiar to Alaska, but can be recognized throughout the northern cordillera. A new metallogenic hypothesis for Alaska was developed, based on the relationship of space image linears to known mineral deposits. Using image linear analysis, regional geologic features were also recognized; these features may be used to guide in the location of undiscovered oil and/or gas accumulations in northern Alaska. The effectiveness of ERTS data in enhancing medium and small scale mapping was demonstrated. ERTS data were also used to recognize and monitor the state of large scale vehicular scars on Arctic tundra.

  14. Timeline of Martian Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2011-05-01

    A recent study of Martian volcanism presents a timeline of the last major eruptions from 20 large volcanoes, based on the relative ages of caldera surfaces determined by crater counting. Stuart Robbins, Gaetano Di Achille, and Brian Hynek (University of Colorado) counted craters on high-resolution images from the the Context Camera (CTX) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to date individual calderas, or terraces within calderas, on the 20 major Martian volcanoes. Based on their timeline and mapping, rates and durations of eruptions and transitions from explosive to effusive activity varied from volcano to volcano. The work confirms previous findings by others that volcanism was continuous throughout Martian geologic history until about one to two hundred million years ago, the final volcanic events were not synchronous across the planet, and the latest large-scale caldera activity ended about 150 million years ago in the Tharsis province. This timing correlates well with the crystallization ages (~165-170 million years) determined for the youngest basaltic Martian meteorites.

  15. Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex, Gunnison County, CO - A potential source of several uncommon mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, B. S.; Lowers, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex is a 31-kM2 (12-sq mile) alkalic intrusion located about 35 km (22 miles) south-southwest of Gunnison, CO. The intrusion has been well studied and described because of its classic petrology and architecture ofa carbonatite-alkalic complex. The complex is also noteworthy because it contains enrichments of titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), vanadium and deposits of vermiculite and nepheline syenite. In particular, the complex is thought to host the largest titanium and niobium resources in the United States, although neither has been developed. It may be economic to extract multiple resources from this complex with a well-coordinated mine and mill plan.

  16. The mineralogic evolution of the Martian surface through time: Implications from chemical reaction path modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ridley, W. I.; Debraal, J. D.; Reed, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reaction path calculations were used to model the minerals that might have formed at or near the Martian surface as a result of volcano or meteorite impact driven hydrothermal systems; weathering at the Martian surface during an early warm, wet climate; and near-zero or sub-zero C brine-regolith reactions in the current cold climate. Although the chemical reaction path calculations carried out do not define the exact mineralogical evolution of the Martian surface over time, they do place valuable geochemical constraints on the types of minerals that formed from an aqueous phase under various surficial and geochemically complex conditions.

  17. Overview with methods and procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey mineral-resource assessment of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming: Chapter A in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Frost, Thomas P.

    2016-08-19

    This report, chapter A of Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089, provides an overview of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The report also describes the methods, procedures, and voluminous fundamental reference information used throughout the assessment. Data from several major publicly available databases and other published sources were used to develop an understanding of the locatable, leaseable, and salable mineral resources of this vast area. This report describes the geologic, mineral-occurrence, geochemical, geophysical, remote-sensing, and Bureau of Land Management mineral-case-status data used for the assessment, along with the methods for evaluating locatable mineral-resource potential. The report also discusses energy-resource data (oil and gas, coal, and geothermal) used in the assessment. Appendixes include summary descriptive mineral-deposit models that provide the criteria necessary to assess for the pertinent locatable minerals and market-demand commodity profiles for locatable mineral commodities relevant to the project. Datasets used in the assessment are available as USGS data releases.

  18. The Conterminous United States Mineral-Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folios of geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Harrison 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Missouri and Arkansas, and the Joplin 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle Kansas and Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.

    1997-01-01

    The Harrison 1 deg X 2 deg quadrangle in southwestern Missouri and northwestern Arkansas and the Joplin 1 deg X 2 deg quadrangle in southeastern Kansas and southwestern Missouri were studied under the Conterminous United States Mineral-Resource Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Map publications in the CUSMAP folios included bedrock geology, subsurface geochemistry, geophysics, subsurface stratigraphy and lithofacies, and potential resources of metallic and industrial minerals and coal. This report summarizes the contents of those publications and related studies.

  19. Mineral, Energy, and Fertilizer Resources of the North Coast of Peru: Perspective from the Santa Rita B Archaeological Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Kent, Jonathan D.; Willett, Jason C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Rita B archaeological site is in the Chao Valley, approximately 65 km southeast of Trujillo, northern Peru. Location of Santa Rita B at the emergence of several drainages from the Andean cordillera is an important factor in the almost continuous occupation of the site over the past 3,000 years. Mineral resources are abundant throughout the Andes; however, the north coast of Peru was an important center for pre-Columbian mining, metallurgy, and craftsmanship. Success of the Chavin, Moche, Chimu, and other north coast cultures is directly related to the availability and exploitation of mineral and energy resources that include: gold (?silver), as electrum, mainly from placers, and copper from local oxide and carbonate occurrences and from sulfides related to copper porphyry occurrences in the cordillera. An alloy of these three metals is referred to as tumbaga, which is the primary material for Andean metalcraft. Anthracite was used for mirrors by north coast cultures and is available near Rio Chicama, Rio Santa, and east of Santa Rita B. These outcrops are a part of the Alto Chicama, Peru's largest coalfield, which extends from Rio Chicama, in the north, for 200 km southward to Rio Santa. Charcoal from the algorrobo tree and llama dung are considered to be the common pre-Columbian energy sources for cooking and metalwork; however, availability and the higher heat content of anthracite indicate that it was used in metallurgical applications. Bitumen is available from petroleum seeps near Talara, north of the study area, and may have been used as glue or as cement. Hematite, goethite, limonite, and manganese oxides from clay-altered volcanic rock may have provided color and material for ceramics. Guano from the Islas Gua?apes, Chinchas, and Ballestas was used as fertilizer for cotton and other crops.

  20. Light Lithophile Elements in Natural and Experimental Phases in Martian Basalts: Implications for the Degassing of Water from Martian Magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herd, C. D. K.; Treiman, A. H.; McKay, G. A.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    Lentz et al. argued that zoning trends in light lithophile elements (LLE) in pyroxene in Shergotty and Zagami are evidence for the degassing of magmatic water. We tested this inference by obtaining: additional LLE analyses of Shergotty and Zagami pyroxene; analyses of Pasamonte pyroxene; and silicate and phosphate partition coefficients for B and Li for martian magma and mineral compositions.

  1. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    This assessment estimates that 15 undiscovered deposits contain an arithmetic mean of ~21 million metric tons or more of copper in four tracts, in addition to the 24 known porphyry copper deposits that contain identified resources of ~16 million metric tons of copper. In addition to copper, the mean expected amount of undiscovered byproduct gold predicted by the simulation is ~1,500 metric tons. The probability associated with these arithmetic means is on the order of 30 percent. Median expected amounts of metals predicted by the simulations may be ~50 percent lower than mean estimates.

  2. Geology and Mineral Resources of the East Mojave National Scenic Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.

    2007-01-01

    The rocks of the East Mojave National Scenic Area (EMNSA) record a history of dynamic geologic events that span more than 1,800 million years (m.y.). These geologic events contributed significantly to development of the spectacular vistas and panoramas present in the area today. The oldest rocks underlie much of the northern part of the EMNSA. These rocks were subjected to extreme pressures and temperatures deep in the Earth's crust about 1,700 million years ago (Ma). They were subsequently intruded by granitic magmas from about 1,695 to 1,650 Ma, by additional granitic magmas at about 1,400 Ma and, later, at about 1,100 Ma, by iron-rich magmas that crystallized to form dark igneous rocks termed diabase. Unusual potassium- and magnesium-rich rocks, emplaced at about 1,400 Ma, crop out in a few places within and near the EMNSA. Their distinctive composition results from very small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite that was highly enriched in incompatible trace elements. At Mountain Pass, just outside the northeast boundary of the EMNSA, the potassium- and magnesium-rich rocks are accompanied by a rare type of carbonatite, an igneous rock composed of carbonate minerals, that contains high-grade rare earth element mineralization. Subsequent to these igneous-dominated events, sedimentary strata began to be deposited at about 1,000 Ma; mostly sandstone and shale were deposited initially in marine and, less commonly, in continental environments along the west edge of the core of the North American continent. Sedimentation eventually culminated in the widespread deposition of thick marine limestones from about 400 to about 245 Ma. These limestones represent a continental-shelf environment where shallow-water limestone formed to the east and deeper water limestone formed to the west. The end of the formation of these sedimentary deposits probably was caused by uplift of the shelf, which marked the beginning of a long period of tectonic upheaval. At about 170

  3. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Prost, G. L.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Spoelhof, R. W.; Thigpen, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Discovery of three major north-trending, throughgoing faults in the Front Range, previously mapped only as isolated segments, demonstrates the utility of space photography and may lead to reinterpretation of the Front Range tectonic style. Faulting and alteration appear to be the most useful indicators of mineralization in central Colorado. These phenomena appear on Skylab photography as tonal lineaments and color anomalies. Twenty-three lineaments have been mapped in the San Juan Mountains, the longest of which is 156 km long. Twelve lineaments intersect or are tangent to calderas. Intrusive domes are aligned along lineaments, but calderas appear to occur at the intersections of major lineaments. Lineaments can be recognized on some EREP passes but not on other passes over the same area. The difference is attributed to solar elevation effects. Bedding attitudes can be photogeologically estimated down to surprisingly low dips, on the order of + or - 1-2 deg, and attitudes can be subdivided easily into quantitative groups. The primary application of Skylab photography to geologic mapping in montane areas is clearly limited to regional mapping at scales smaller than 1:24,000.

  4. GeoCube: A 3D mineral resources quantitative prediction and assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruixi; Wang, Gongwen; Carranza, Emmanuel John Muico

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a software system (GeoCube) for three dimensional (3D) extraction and integration of exploration criteria from spatial data. The software system contains four key modules: (1) Import and Export, supporting many formats from commercial 3D geological modeling software and offering various export options; (2) pre-process, containing basic statistics and fractal/multi-fractal methods (concentration-volume (C-V) fractal method) for extraction of exploration criteria from spatial data (i.e., separation of geological, geochemical and geophysical anomalies from background values in 3D space); (3) assessment, supporting five data-driven integration methods (viz., information entropy, logistic regression, ordinary weights of evidence, weighted weights of evidence, boost weights of evidence) for integration of exploration criteria; and (4) post-process, for classifying integration outcomes into several levels based on mineralization potentiality. The Nanihu Mo (W) camp (5.0 km×4.0 km×2.7 km) of the Luanchuan region was used as a case study. The results show that GeoCube can enhance the use of 3D geological modeling to store, retrieve, process, display, analyze and integrate exploration criteria. Furthermore, it was found that the ordinary weights of evidence, boost weights of evidence and logistic regression methods showed superior performance as integration tools for exploration targeting in this case study.

  5. Geology and mineral resources of the Mud Springs Ranch Quadrangle, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roehler, Henry W.

    1979-01-01

    The Mud Springs Ranch quadrangle occupies an area of 56 mF (square miles) on the southeast flank of the Rock Springs uplift in southwestern Wyoming. The climate is arid and windy. The landscape is mostly poorly vegetated and consists of north-trending ridges and valleys that are dissected by dry drainages. Sedimentary rocks exposed in the quadrangle are 5,400 ft (feet) thick and are mostly gray sandstone, siltstone, and shale, gray and brown carbonaceous shale, and thin beds of coal. They compose the Blair, Rock Springs, Ericson, Almond, and Lewis Formations of Cretaceous age and the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. The structure is mostly homoclinal, having southeast dips of 5?-12? in the northern part of the quadrangle, but minor plunging folds and one small fault are present in the southern part of the quadrangle. Three coal beds in the Fort Union Formation and 15 coal beds in the Almond Formation exceed 2.5 ft in thickness, are under less than 3,000 ft of overburden, and are potentially minable. Geographic stratigraphic, and resource data are present for each bed of minable coal. The total minable coal resources are estimated to be about 283 million short tons. Nine coal and rock samples from outcrops were analyzed to determine their quality and chemical composition. Four dry oil and gas test wells have been drilled within the quadrangle area, but structurally controlled stratigraphic-trap prospects remain untested.

  6. Martian soil component in impact glasses in a Martian meteorite.

    PubMed

    Rao, M N; Borg, L E; McKay, D S; Wentworth, S J

    1999-11-01

    Chemical compositions of impact melt glass veins, called Lithology C (Lith C) in Martian meteorite EET79001 were determined by electron microprobe analysis. A large enrichment of S, and significant enrichments of Al, Ca, and Na were observed in Lith C glass compared to Lithology A (Lith A). The S enrichment is due to mixing of plagioclase- enriched Lith A material with Martian soil, either prior to or during impact on Mars. A mixture of 87% Lith A, 7% plagioclase, and 6% Martian soil reproduces the average elemental abundances observed in Lith C. Shock melting of such a mixture of plagioclase-enriched, fine-grained Lith A host rock and Martian soil could yield large excesses of S (observed in this study) and Martian atmospheric noble gases (found by Bogard et al., 1983) in Lith C. These mixing proportions can be used to constrain the elemental abundance of phosphorus in Martian soil.

  7. Evaluation of LANDSAT-2 (ERTS) images applied to geologic structures and mineral resources of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work with the Image 100 clearly demonstrates that radiance values of LANDSAT data can be used for correlation of geologic formations across international boundaries. The Totora Formation of the Corocoro Group of Tertiary age was traced from known outcrops near Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, along the south side of Lake Titicaca westward into Peru where the same rocks are considered to be Cretaceous in age. This inconsistency suggests: (1) that a review of this formation is needed by joint geological surveys of both countries to determine similarities, differences, and the true age; (2) that recognition of the extension of the copper-bearing Totora Formation of Bolivia into Peru may provide Peru with a new target for exploration. Equal radiance maps made by use of the Image 100 system show as many as eight different units within salar deposits (salt flats) of the Bolivian Altiplano. Standard film processed images show them as nearly uniform areas of white because of lack of dynamic range in film products. The Image 100 system, therefore, appears to be of great assistance in subdividing the salt flats on the basis of moisture distribution, surface roughness, and distribution of windblown materials. Field work is needed to determine these relationships to mineral composition and distribution. Images representing seasonal changes should also improve the accuracy of such maps. Radiance values of alteration zones related to the occurrence of porphyry copper ores were measured at the San Juan del Abra deposit of northern Chile using the Image 100 system. The extent to which these same values may be used to detect similar alteration zones in other areas has not yet been tested.

  8. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  9. The mineral resources of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Columbia (Zone I)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tschanz, Charles McFarland; Jimeno V., Andres; Cruz, Jaime B.

    1970-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada de Santa Maria on the north coast of Colombia is an isolated triangular mountain area that reaches altitudes of almost 19,000 feet. The exceedingly complex geology is shown on the 1:200,000 geologic map. Despite five major periods of granitic intrusion, three major periods of metamorphism, and extensive volcanic eruptions, metallic deposits are small and widely scattered. Sulfide deposits of significant economic value appear to be absent. Many small copper deposits, of chalcocite, cuprite, malachite, and azurite are found in epidotized rock in Mesozoic redbeds and intercalated volcanic rocks, but their economic potential is very small. Deposits of other common base metals appear to be absent. The most important metallic deposits may prove to be unusual bimineralic apatite-ilmenite deposits associated with gneissic anorthosite. The known magnetite deposits are too small to be exploited commercially. Primary gold deposits have not been identified and the placer deposits are uneconomic and very small. The largest and most important deposits are nonmetallic. Enormous reserves of limestone are suitable for cement manufacture and some high-purity limestone is suitable for the most exacting chemical uses. Small deposits of talc-tremolite could be exploited locally for ceramic use. The important noncoking bituminous coal deposits in the Cerrej6n area are excluded from this study. Other nonmetallic resources include igneous dimension stone in a variety of colors and textures, and agricultural dolomite. There probably are important undeveloped ground water resources on the slopes of the wide Rancheria and Cesar valleys, which separate the Sierra Nevada from the Serrania de Persia.

  10. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  11. Unusual Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Morris, R.V.; Graff, T.; Agresti, D.; Martin, A.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2012-03-26

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite. Morris et al. proposed that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stabilities of FeO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in terrestrial magmas. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas, we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First, we determine the FeO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents of super- and sub-liquidus glasses from a shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar to 4 GPa, and variable fO{sub 2}. Second, we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO{sub 2} in a shergottite bulk composition.

  12. Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Martin, A.; Pando, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2011-01-01

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite [1]. Morris et al. [1] propose that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks [2,3]. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stability of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas [4,5]. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition. Second, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of the same shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar and variable fO2 at 1250 C, and at variable pressure. These two goals will help define not only magnetite stability, but pyroxene-melt equilibria that are also dependent upon fO2.

  13. Unusual Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T.; Agresti, D.; Martin, A.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite. Morris et al. proposed that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stabilities of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas, we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of super- and sub-liquidus glasses from a shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar to 4 GPa, and variable fO2. Second, we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition.

  14. Contrasting Martian Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this interesting view of martian topography just below the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills' on sol 208 (Aug. 2, 2004). The view is looking southwest. The rover's wheel tracks show the contrast between soft martian soil and the harder 'Clovis' rock outcrop, which scientists are now studying.

    The angle of the horizon indicates the tilt of the rover to be about 20 degrees. On the horizon is a small peak informally named 'Grissom Hill,' about 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away. To the right of the peak is the edge of a 2-kilometer-wide (1.2-mile-wide) crater. A few weeks ago, Spirit stopped to conduct scientific studies of rocks in 'Hank's Hollow,' located on the right side of the image approximately one-third of the way down from the top. This photo was taken with Spirit's right rear hazard-avoidance camera.

  15. A Martian acoustic anemometer.

    PubMed

    Banfield, Don; Schindel, David W; Tarr, Steve; Dissly, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    An acoustic anemometer for use on Mars has been developed. To understand the processes that control the interaction between surface and atmosphere on Mars, not only the mean winds, but also the turbulent boundary layer, the fluxes of momentum, heat and molecular constituents between surface and atmosphere must be measured. Terrestrially this is done with acoustic anemometers, but the low density atmosphere on Mars makes it challenging to adapt such an instrument for use on Mars. This has been achieved using capacitive transducers and pulse compression, and was successfully demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon (simulating the Martian environment) and in a dedicated Mars Wind Tunnel facility. This instrument achieves a measurement accuracy of ∼5 cm/s with an update rate of >20 Hz under Martian conditions.

  16. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric J.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of

  17. Martian polar geological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple arcs of rugged mountains and adjacent plains on the surface of Mars were examined. These features, located in the southern polar region were photographed by Mariner 9. Comparisons are made with characteristics of a lunar basin and mare; Mare imbrium in particular. The martian feature is interpreted to have originated in the same way as its lunar analog- by volcanic flooding of a large impact basin. Key data and methodology leading to this conclusion are cited.

  18. Compilation of Mineral Resource Data for Mississippi Valley-Type and Clastic-Dominated Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Leach, David L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains a global compilation of the mineral resource data for sediment-hosted lead-zinc (SH Pb-Zn) deposits. Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits are historically the most significant sources of lead and zinc, and are mined throughout the world. The most important SH Pb-Zn deposits are hosted in clastic-dominated sedimentary rock sequences (CD Pb-Zn) that are traditionally called sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, and those in carbonate-dominated sequences that are known as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits. In this report, we do not include sandstone-Pb, sandstone-hosted Pb, or Pb-Zn vein districts such as those in Freiberg, Germany, or Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, because these deposits probably represent different deposit types (Leach and others, 2005). We do not include fracture-controlled deposits in which fluorite is dominant and barite typically abundant (for example, Central Kentucky; Hansonburg, N. Mex.) or the stratabound fluorite-rich, but also lead- and zinc-bearing deposits, such as those in southern Illinois, which are considered a genetic variant of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits (Leach and Sangster, 1993). This report updates the Pb, Zn, copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) grade and tonnage data in Leach and others (2005), which itself was based on efforts in the Canadian Geological Survey World Minerals Geoscience Database Project (contributions of D.F. Sangster to Sinclair and others, 1999). New geological or geochronological data, classifications of the tectonic environment in which the deposits formed, and key references to the geology of the deposits are presented in our report. Data for 121 CD deposits, 113 MVT deposits, and 6 unclassified deposits that were previously classified as either SEDEX or MVT in the Leach and others (2005) compilation, are given in appendix table A1. In some cases, mineral resource data were available only for total district resources, but not for individual mines within the district. For these

  19. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be found on the web, through local libraries, your health care provider, and the yellow pages under "social service organizations." AIDS - resources Alcoholism - resources Allergy - resources ...

  20. Quantitative assessment of mineral resources with an application to petroleum geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harff, Jan; Davis, J.C.; Olea, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The probability of occurrence of natural resources, such as petroleum deposits, can be assessed by a combination of multivariate statistical and geostatistical techniques. The area of study is partitioned into regions that are as homogeneous as possible internally while simultaneously as distinct as possible. Fisher's discriminant criterion is used to select geological variables that best distinguish productive from nonproductive localities, based on a sample of previously drilled exploratory wells. On the basis of these geological variables, each wildcat well is assigned to the production class (dry or producer in the two-class case) for which the Mahalanobis' distance from the observation to the class centroid is a minimum. Universal kriging is used to interpolate values of the Mahalanobis' distances to all locations not yet drilled. The probability that an undrilled locality belongs to the productive class can be found, using the kriging estimation variances to assess the probability of misclassification. Finally, Bayes' relationship can be used to determine the probability that an undrilled location will be a discovery, regardless of the production class in which it is placed. The method is illustrated with a study of oil prospects in the Lansing/Kansas City interval of western Kansas, using geological variables derived from well logs. ?? 1992 Oxford University Press.

  1. Micro-spectroscopic investigation of selenium-bearing minerals from the Western US Phosphate Resource Area

    PubMed Central

    Ryser, Amy L; Strawn, Daniel G; Marcus, Matthew A; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L; Gunter, Mickey E; Möller, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Mining activities in the US Western Phosphate Resource Area (WPRA) have released Se into the environment. Selenium has several different oxidation states and species, each having varying degrees of solubility, reactivity, and bioavailability. In this study we are investigating the speciation of Se in mine-waste rocks. Selenium speciation was determined using bulk and micro-x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), as well as micro-x-ray fluorescence mapping. Rocks used for bulk-XAS were ground into fine powders. Shale used for micro-XAS was broken along depositional planes to expose unweathered surfaces. The near edge region of the XAS spectra (XANES) for the bulk rock samples revealed multiple oxidation states, with peaks indicative of Se(-II), Se(IV), and Se(+VI) species. Micro-XANES analysis of the shale indicated that three unique Se-bearing species were present. Using the XANES data together with ab initio fitting of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure region of the micro-XAS data (micro-EXAFS) the three Se-bearing species were identified as dzharkenite, a di-selenide carbon compound, and Se-substituted pyrite. Results from this research will allow for a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of Se in the WPRA.

  2. The martian surface.

    PubMed

    Opik, E J

    1966-07-15

    With the scarcity of factual data and the difficulty of applying crucial tests, many of the properties of the Martian surface remain a mystery; the planet may become a source of great surprises in the future. In the following, the conclusions are enumerated more or less in the order of their reliability, the more certain ones first, conjectures or ambiguous interpretations coming last. Even if they prove to be wrong, they may serve as a stimulus for further investigation. Impact craters on Mars, from collisions with nearby asteroids and other stray bodies, were predicted 16 years ago (5-7) and are now verified by the Mariner IV pictures. The kink in the frequency curve of Martian crater diameters indicates that those larger than 20 kilometers could have survived aeolian erosion since the "beginning." They indicate an erosion rate 30 times slower than that in terrestrial deserts and 70 times faster than micrometeorite erosion on the moon. The observed number, per unit area, of Martian craters larger than 20 kilometers exceeds 4 times that calculated from the statistical theory of interplanetary collisions with the present population of stray bodies and for a time interval of 4500 million years, even when allowance is made for the depletion of the Martian group of asteroids, which were more numerous in the past. This, and the low eroded rims of the Martian craters suggest that many of the craters have survived almost since the formation of the crust. Therefore, Mars could not have possessed a dense atmosphere for any length of time. If there was abundant water for the first 100 million years or so, before it escaped it could have occurred only in the solid state as ice and snow, with but traces of vapor in the atmosphere, on account of the low temperature caused by the high reflectivity of clouds and snow. For Martian life there is thus the dilemma: with water, it is too cold; without, too dry. The crater density on Mars, though twice that in lunar maria, is much

  3. A Compilation of Spatial Digital Databases for Selected U.S. Geological Survey Nonfuel Mineral Resource Assessments for Parts of Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Mary H.; Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Kayser, Helen Z.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Wilson, Anna B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Trautwein, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    This report compiles selected results from 13 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral resource assessment studies conducted in Idaho and Montana into consistent spatial databases that can be used in a geographic information system. The 183 spatial databases represent areas of mineral potential delineated in these studies and include attributes on mineral deposit type, level of mineral potential, certainty, and a reference. The assessments were conducted for five 1? x 2? quadrangles (Butte, Challis, Choteau, Dillon, and Wallace), several U.S. Forest Service (USFS) National Forests (including Challis, Custer, Gallatin, Helena, and Payette), and one Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Resource Area (Dillon). The data contained in the spatial databases are based on published information: no new interpretations are made. This digital compilation is part of an ongoing effort to provide mineral resource information formatted for use in spatial analysis. In particular, this is one of several reports prepared to address USFS needs for science information as forest management plans are revised in the Northern Rocky Mountains.

  4. Mineral resource management of the Outer Continental Shelf : leasing procedures, evaluation of resources, and supervision of production operations on leased lands of the Outer Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Maurice V.; John, C.B.; Kelly, R.F.; LaPointe, A.E.; Meurer, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    An important function of the Geological Survey is the evaluation and management of the mineral resources of the Outer Continental Shelf, particularly with respect to oil and gas, salt, and sulfur. Production of oil and gas from the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States has increased substantially over the past 20 years and represents an increasing percentage of total United States production. As discovery of major onshore production of oil and gas has become more difficult, the search has moved into the surrounding waters where submerged sedimentary formations are conducive to the accumulation of oil and gas. Increased energy demands of recent years have accelerated the pace of offshore operations with a corresponding improvement in technology as exploration and development have proceeded farther from shore and into deeper water. While improved technology and enforcement of more stringent regulations have made offshore operations safer, it is unrealistic to believe that completely accident-free operations can ever be achieved. Only slightly more than six percent of the world's continental terrace is adjacent to the United States, but less than one percent has been explored for oil and gas. Since the lead time for the development of offshore oil and gas resources can be as much as a decade, they do not provide an immediate energy supply but should be viewed in the light of a near-term source with a potential of becoming a medium-range source of supply pending the development of alternative energy sources. Revenues from the Outer Continental Shelf are deposited to the general fund of the United States Treasury. A major portion of these funds is allocated to the Land and Water Conservation Fund, the largest Federal grant-in-aid program of assistance to States, counties, and cities for the acquisition and development of public parks, open space, and recreation lands and water.

  5. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Gennady

    2013-04-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  6. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.

    1984-01-01

    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  7. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  8. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Project; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Reno 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stewart, John H.; Hendricks, J.D.; Rowan, L.C.; Plouff, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in west-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The assessment is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, reports, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  9. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Medford 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.; Blakely, R.J.; Johnson, M.G.; Page, N.J.; Peterson, J.A.; Singer, D.A.; Whittington, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in southern Oregon and northern California was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  10. Mineral resource potential map of the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jocelyn A.; Caress, Mary E.; Denton, David K.; Spear, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Although ultramafic terranes such as that underlying the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas may contain chromite, nickel, platinum-group metals, cobalt, and asbestos, there are no significant identified concentrations of these resources within the roadless areas. Platinum-group metals were sought but not detected in stream-sediment concentrates, although this does not rule out their possible occurrence. Nickel and cobalt did not occur in anomalous amounts although slightly higher nickel values in the northern part of the Mount Eddy Roadless Area may indicate low-grade mineralization within small dunite bodies, if the nickel occurs in sulfide phases rather than in olivine. The region has been examined on the surface for chromite and asbestos. Although both minerals are ubiquitous there is probably only a low potential for asbestos on the basis of the small size of veins at the surface. Only a few small areas of chromite were noted in the Mount Eddy Roadless Area; without subsurface data, however, any dunite body must be considered to have potential for chromite. The geochemical data for boron, barium, and mercury plus abundant quartz veining in gabbro and hornblende diorite suggest pervasive hydrothermal alteration, which could have formed mercury or vein gold deposits. Sand and gravel deposits occur in the Castle Crags Roadless Area but they cannot compete with superior deposits closer to markets. At a borrow pit northwest of the Mount Eddy Roadless Area, sheared serpentinite is quarried for road metal; similar rock occurs in the roadless area; however, better material is more readily available elsewhere.

  11. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  12. Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah: Chapter E in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Anna B.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Yager, Douglas B.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming and Bear River Watershed, Wyoming and Utah, SFAs.

  13. Composition of Simulated Martian Brines and Implications for the Origin of Martian Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, M. A.; Moore, J. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    We report on laboratory experiments that have produced dilute brines under controlled conditions meant to simulate past and present Mars. We allowed an SNC-derived mineral mix to react with pure water under a simulated present-Mars atmosphere for seven months. We then subjected the same mineral mix to a similar aqueous environment for one year, but with a simulated Mars atmosphere that contained the added gases SO2, HCl and NO2. The addition of acidic gases was designed to mimic the effects of volcanic gases that may have been present in the martian atmosphere during periods of increased volcanic activity. The experiments were performed at one bar and at two different temperatures in order to simulate subsurface conditions where liquid water and rock are likely to interact on Mars. The dominant cations dissolved in the solutions we produced were Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+) and Na(+), while the major anions are dissolved C, F(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). Typical solution pH was 4.2 to 6.0 for experiments run with a Mars analog atmosphere, and 3.6-5.0 for experiments with acidic gases added. Abundance patterns of elements in the synthetic sulfate-chloride brines produced under acidic conditions were distinctly unlike those of terrestrial ocean water, terrestrial continental waters, and those measured in the martian fines at the Mars Pathfinder and Viking 1 and 2 landing sites. In particular, the S/Cl ratio in these experiments was about 200, compared with an average value of approx. 5 in martian fines. In contrast, abundance patterns of elements in the brines produced under a present day Mars analog atmosphere were quite similar to those measured in the martian fines at the Mars Pathfinder and Viking 1 and 2 landing sites. This suggests that salts present in the martian regolith may have formed over time as a result of the interaction of surface or subsurface liquid water with basalts in the presence of a martian atmosphere similar in composition to that of today, rather than

  14. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  15. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for vein and replacement deposits of base and precious metals, barite, and fluorspar, Dillon 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Trautwein, C.M.; Berger, B.R.; Hanna, W.F.; Jenson, S.K.; Loen, J.S.; Moll, S.H.; Purdy, T.L.; Rowan, L.C.; Ruppel, E.T.; Segal, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report is one of several that assess the mineral resources in the Dillon quadrangle. For the purpose of the assessment, the deposits that are known in the quadrangle, or suspected to be present from a knowledge of the geologic setting, have been grouped into 30 deposit types on the basis of the mineralogy or commodity in the ore and the structural or depositional setting of the deposit. The emphasis in these assessment reports is on metallic minerals, but some important nonmetallic minerals are also considered. Fossil fuels are beyond the scope of this investigation, phosphate and uranium have been investigated previously (Swanson, 1970; Wodzicki and Krason, 1981 ), and certain nonmetallic minerals, including bulk commodities such as sand and gravel, are in large supply and thus are not considered. The mineral resource assessment discussed in this report concentrates on a single deposit type (of the total of 30 types) that we call "vein and replacement deposits of base and precious metals." Base and precious metals produced from such deposits are copper, lead, zinc, gold, and silver. Vein deposits of barite and fluorspar are also discussed, but because they seem to be of minor importance, they are treated briefly. Vein and replacement deposits of base and precious metals are classified as a single deposit type rather than as numerous possible subordinate types that might be distinguished on the basis of mineralogy, metal content, or other factors, because the characteristics of the ore, the ore bodies, and the structural setting are not sufficiently well known to yield a consistent detailed classification for the entire quadrangle. Furthermore, the criteria used here to explain the localization of deposits are too general to allow discrimination among subordinate types at a scale of 1 :250,000 or smaller. In assessing mineral resources, we have adopted a general philosophy similar to that of Harrison and others ( 1986). We attempt to identify parts of the

  16. Physicochemical properties of concentrated Martian surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, Nicholas J.; McLennan, Scott M.; Lamb, Michael P.; Grotzinger, John P.

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the processes controlling chemical sedimentation is an important step in deciphering paleoclimatic conditions from the rock records preserved on both Earth and Mars. Clear evidence for subaqueous sedimentation at Meridiani Planum, widespread saline mineral deposits in the Valles Marineris region, and the possible role of saline waters in forming recent geomorphologic features all underscore the need to understand the physical properties of highly concentrated solutions on Mars in addition to, and as a function of, their distinct chemistry. Using thermodynamic models predicting saline mineral solubility, we generate likely brine compositions ranging from bicarbonate-dominated to sulfate-dominated and predict their saline mineralogy. For each brine composition, we then estimate a number of thermal, transport, and colligative properties using established models that have been developed for highly concentrated multicomponent electrolyte solutions. The available experimental data and theoretical models that allow estimation of these physicochemical properties encompass, for the most part, much of the anticipated variation in chemistry for likely Martian brines. These estimates allow significant progress in building a detailed analysis of physical sedimentation at the ancient Martian surface and allow more accurate predictions of thermal behavior and the diffusive transport of matter through chemically distinct solutions under comparatively nonstandard conditions.

  17. Spatial Databases of Geological, Geophysical, and Mineral Resource Data Relevant to Sandstone-Hosted Copper Deposits in Central Kazakhstan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syusyura, Boris; Box, Stephen E.; Wallis, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Central Kazakhstan is host to one of the world's giant sandstone-hosted copper deposits, the Dzhezkazgan deposit, and several similar, smaller deposits. The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the potential for other, undiscovered deposits of this type in the surrounding region of central Kazakhstan. As part of this effort, Syusyura compiled and partially translated an array of mostly unpublished geologic, geophysical, and mineral resource data for this region in digital format from the archives of the former Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (of which Kazakhstan was one of the member republics until its dissolution in 1991), as well as from later archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan or of the Kazakhstan consulting firm Mining Economic Consulting (MEC). These digital data are primarily map-based displays of information that were transmitted either in ESRI ArcGIS, georeferenced format, or non-georeferenced map image files. Box and Wallis reviewed all the data, translated Cyrillic text where necessary, inspected the maps for consistency, georeferenced the unprojected map images, and reorganized the data into the filename and folder structure of this publication.

  18. A Pb isotopic resolution to the Martian meteorite age paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, J. J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Snape, J. F.; Kielman, R. B.; Bland, P. A.; Benedix, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the chronology and quantifying various geochemical reservoirs on planetary bodies is fundamental to understanding planetary accretion, differentiation, and global mass transfer. The Pb isotope compositions of individual minerals in the Martian meteorite Chassigny have been measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). These measurements indicate that Chassigny has mixed with a Martian reservoir that evolved with a long-term 238U/204Pb (μ) value ∼ two times higher than those inferred from studies of all other Martian meteorites except 4.428 Ga clasts in NWA7533. Any significant mixing between this and an unradiogenic reservoir produces ambiguous trends in Pb isotope variation diagrams. The trend defined by our new Chassigny data can be used to calculate a crystallization age for Chassigny of 4.526 ± 0.027 Ga (2σ) that is clearly in error as it conflicts with all other isotope systems, which yield a widely accepted age of 1.39 Ga. Similar, trends have also been observed in the Shergottites and have been used to calculate a >4 Ga age or, alternatively, attributed to terrestrial contamination. Our new Chassigny data, however, argue that the radiogenic component is Martian, mixing occurred on the surface of Mars, and is therefore likely present in virtually every Martian meteorite. The presence of this radiogenic reservoir on Mars resolves the paradox between Pb isotope data and all other radiogenic isotope systems in Martian meteorites. Importantly, Chassigny and the Shergottites are likely derived from the northern hemisphere of Mars, while NWA 7533 originated from the Southern hemisphere, implying that the U-rich reservoir, which most likely represents some form of crust, must be widespread. The significant age difference between SNC meteorites and NWA 7533 is also consistent with an absence of tectonic recycling throughout Martian history.

  19. Experimental Petrology of the Basaltic Shergottite Yamato 980459: Implications for the Thermal Structure of the Martian Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, H. A.; Musselwhite, D. S.; Kiefer, W.; Treiman, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Yamato 980459 (Y98) is an olivine-phyric basaltic shergottite composed of 48% pyroxene, 26% olivine, 25% mesostasis, and 1% other minerals. Unlike the other Martian basalts, it contains no plagioclase. Olivine in Y98 is the most magnesian of all Martian meteorites. Thus Y98 is believed to be the most primitive and its composition may be the closest to a primary or direct melt of the Martian mantle. As such, it provides a very useful probe of the mineralogy and depth of its mantle source region. Toward this end, we are conducting crystallization experiments on a synthetic Y98 composition at Martian mantle pressures and temperatures.

  20. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.