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Sample records for maspalomas gran canaria

  1. Long-term analysis of the role of Traganum moquinii plants in the foredune formation of an arid dunefield (Maspalomas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Romero, Leví; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hesp, Patrick A.

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, important environmental changes have been detected in dune systems around the world. Vegetation on the foredune provides stability to the coastal dunefields, capturing and accumulating sediments, which is an important function among other ecosystem services. For this reason, vegetation has been used as an indicator when studying anthropogenic and natural processes in the foredunes, especially when an increase of the vulnerability has been detected. Foredunes of arid dunefields have been little studied. They present significant differences with respect to the foredune of other climatic zones. Traganum moquinii is the predominant plant species in the foredune of arid dunefields around the Canary Islands (including South Morocco, Mauritania and other close archipelagos, like Cape Verde). This bush species plays an important geomorphological role: its interaction with the aeolian sedimentary processes generates nebkhas, shadow dunes and arid parabolic shaped dunes. The objective of this work is to show the morphometric evolution of the foredune of an arid dunefield of the Canary Islands, Maspalomas (Gran Canaria), as well as explaining the function of Traganum moquinii on it. One morphometric variable (number of nebkhas) and six morphologic variables of Traganum moquinii species (density, mean distance between Traganum moquinii individuals, number of Traganum moquinii individuals in line one, mean diameter of Traganum moquinii individuals in line one, mean distance between Traganum moquinii individuals in line one, density Traganum moquinii individuals in line one) have been measured in ten observation plots, from the 1960s to the present, through detailed historical aerial photographs and orthophotos, using GIS. The morphometric changes have been identified, and the variables have been related from statistical analysis to detect the function exerted by Traganum moquinii species in the foredune. The change in the number of nebkhas enables the

  2. The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, P.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Sánchez, F.

    1998-11-01

    The outstanding quality of the Canarian sky, protected by law, makes it feasible to install the largest telescopes in the world at the observatories of the Instituto de Astrofı´sica de Canarias (IAC), which has promoted the design and construction of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The GTC is a high-performance 10-m class telescope to be installed at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (ORM), on the island of La Palma. First light is planned for the end of 2002. The GTC conceptual design was completed in mid-1997. It emphasizes as the main scientific drivers image quality, operational efficiency and reliability. The GTC preliminary design is now proceeding in all aspects of the project. The Spanish and local Canarian Governments are now fully committed to the GTC Project. The scientific drivers are described here, as well as the current technical, managerial, and operational baselines.

  3. MIRADAS for the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Raines, Steven Nicholas; Stelter, Richard Deno; Garner, Alan; Dallilar, Yigit; Ackley, Kendall; Bennett, John Greg; Murphey, Charles H.; Miller, Paola; Tooke, David; Williams, Luke; Chinn, Brian; Mullin, Scott A.; Schofield, Sidney L.; Warner, Craig D.; Varosi, Frank; Zhao, Bo; Eikenberry, Sophia A.; Vega, Claudia; Donoso, Hipatia V.; Sabater, Josep; Gómez, José María.; Torra, Jordi; Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Garzón López, Francisco; Cardiel, Nicolás.; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Galipienzo, Julio; Carrera Astigarraga, Miguel Ángel; Fitzgerald, Greg J.; Prees, Ian; Stolberg, Todd M.; Kornik, Peter A.; Ramaprakash, Anamparambu N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Punnadi, Sujit P.; Hammersley, P.

    2016-08-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, as well as probe arm industrial partner A-V-S (Spain), with more than 45 Science Working Group members in 10 institutions primarily in Spain, Mexico, and the USA. In this paper, we review the overall system design and project status for MIRADAS during its early fabrication phase in 2016.

  4. Global model of the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Lopez-Tarruella, F. Javier; Fernandez Ibarz, Jose M.

    2002-07-01

    During the conceptual design of the GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) it was suggested to develop a Global Model of the behaviour of the GTC system to be used as a tool for the system engineering. This Global Model should be a dynamical simulation capable to predict the pointing, tracking, guiding and image quality of the GTC system in several simulation scenarios depending on the behavior of each subsystem. It was decided to develop the simulation in the Matlab/Simulink« environment. The kernel of the Global Model was a Simulink® model of the telescope mechanics. The model included the structural dynamics, control loops of the main axis (azimuth, elevation and rotators), and load models (wind, gravity, seism). Each component included error sources inherent to it (cogging and ripple on motors, encoding errors, bearing run-out, etc). The model permitted large rotations in elevation axis, which was necessary to test pointing performances. A specific simulation was developed within the project office for the analysis of the image quality of the optical system. It includes polishing defects of the optical surfaces (M1 segments, M2 and M3), low spatial frequency distortions of the optical surfaces (due to fabrication, gravity of instability) and misalignment between the primary mirror segments.

  5. [Prevalence of eating disorders in adolescents from Gran Canaria].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Malé, María Luisa; Bautista Castaño, Inmaculada; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: evaluar la prevalencia de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en estudiantes con edades comprendidas entre los 12 a 20 años mediante medidas estandarizadas. Material y métodos: se seleccionaron al azar un total de 1342 participantes de centros educativos de la isla de Gran Canaria, España. Se empleó un diseño transversal de dos fases que incluía un primer cuestionario de cribado (EAT-40 con el punto de corte establecido en 20) y una entrevista clínica semi-estructurada (EDE). También se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas y el estado ponderal de los alumnos. Resultados: en el año 2013 estudiamos a participantes de 15 centros educativos de Gran Canaria. En la primera fase se halló una prevalencia de riesgo de 27,42% (33% de mujeres, 20,6% de hombres). En la segunda fase, 538 participantes accedieron a ser evaluados mediante entrevista clínica (285 en riesgo, con altas puntuaciones en el EAT; 253 seleccionados del grupo sin riesgo). La prevalencia global de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria fue de 4,11% (5,46% de mujeres, 2,55% de hombres). Empleando los criterios diagnósticos del DSM-IV-TR, la prevalencia para la anorexia nerviosa fue de 0,19%, para la bulimia nerviosa de 0,57% y para el trastorno de la conducta alimentaria no especificado de 3,34%. Conclusiones: la prevalencia diagnóstica de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en Gran Canaria es similar a la del resto de España. Sin embargo, la prevalencia de riesgo de desarrollar dichos trastornos es especialmente elevada en Gran Canaria, teniendo en cuenta los datos de estudios tanto nacionales como internacionales.

  6. MIRADAS for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: system overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, S. S.; Bennett, J. G.; Chinn, B.; Donoso, H. V.; Eikenberry, S. A.; Ettedgui, E.; Fletcher, A.; Frommeyer, Raymond; Garner, A.; Herlevich, M.; Lasso, N.; Miller, P.; Mullin, S.; Murphey, C.; Raines, S. N.; Packham, C.; Schofield, S.; Stelter, R. D.; Varosi, F.; Vega, C.; Warner, C.; Garzón, Francisco; Rosich, J.; Gomez, J. M.; Sabater, J.; Vilar, C.; Torra, J.; Gallego, J.; Cardiel, N.; Eliche, C.; Pascual, S.; Ballester, O.; Illa, J. M.; Jimenez, J.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Galipienzo, J.; Carrera, M. A.; Hammersley, P.; Cuevas, S.

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, as well as probe arm industrial partner A-V-S (Spain). In this paper, we review the overall system design for MIRADAS, as it nears Preliminary Design Review in the autumn of 2012.

  7. Monitoring service for the Gran Telescopio Canarias control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, Manuel; Molgo, Jordi; Macías, Rosa; Ramos, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The Monitoring Service collects, persists and propagates the Telescope and Instrument telemetry, for the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). A new version of the Monitoring Service has been developed in order to improve performance, provide high availability, guarantee fault tolerance and scalability to cope with high volume of data. The architecture is based on a distributed in-memory data store with a Product/Consumer pattern design. The producer generates the data samples. The consumers either persists the samples to a database for further analysis or propagates them to the consoles in the control room to monitorize the state of the whole system.

  8. Influence of Sirocco in tomato production in Gran Canaria Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, G.; Saa, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, J. M.; Díaz, M. C.

    2010-05-01

    Sirocco is a wind that comes from the Southwest of Africa. This wind produces dusty dry conditions (relative moisture lower than 40%) and its duration may last several days. These conditions can accelerate the fruit maturation with adverse effect over the fruit quality which can reduce farm incomes. The objective of this work is to study the influence of Sirocco wind in tomato production in Gran Canaria. For this purpose, the possible effect of Sirocco in tomato production variation were studied in seven agricultural cooperatives using the data supplied by State Agrarian Insurance Body (ENESA) for a period of 14 years. Results showed that a cumulative normal distribution presented the better fitness with the tomato production data.

  9. Status and first results of the Canarias infrared camera experiment (CIRCE) for the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Alan; Stelter, Richard D.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Lasso-Cabrera, Nestor; Raines, Steven N.; Charcos, Miguel; Edwards, Michelle; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Ackley, Kendall; Cenarro, A. Javier; Bennett, John G.; Chinn, Brian; Frommeyer, Raymond; Herlevich, Michael D.; Miller, Paola; Murphey, Charles H.; Packham, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    CIRCE is a near-infrared (1-2.5 micron) imager, polarimeter and low-resolution spectrograph intended as a visitor instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.-4m telescope. It was built largely by graduate students and postdocs, with help from the UF astronomy engineering group, and is funded by the University of Florida and the U.S. National Science Foundation. CIRCE is intended to help fill the gap in time between GTC first light and the arrival of EMIR, and will also provide the following scientific capabilities to compliment EMIR after its arrival: high- resolution imaging, narrowband imaging, high-time-resolution photometry, imaging- and spectro- polarimetry, low-resolution spectroscopy. In this poster, we review the lab testing results for CIRCE from 2013 and describe the instrument status (currently in shipment to GTC).

  10. Folded Cassegrain sets of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Alberto; Sanquirce, Rubén.; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Vizcargüenaga, Alberto; San Vicente, Ander; Fernandez, Esther; Vega, Oscar; Siegel, Benjamín.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) has been recently received two Folded Cassegrain Sets (FC-Sets) composed of an instrument rotator and the corresponding Acquisition and Guiding (AG) optomechanics. IDOM has been the responsible for the design, manufacturing, assembly and commissioning of the two units of FC-Sets. The design combines a compact layout of the mechanical system, enhanced by an innovative cable wrap design, resulting in a smooth and precise movement, whilst guaranteeing good access to important components and maximizing the maintainability. The custom design of the cable wrap as an evolution of the rolling loop type eliminates the need for a cable chain static housing, minimizing weight and impact on the telescope tube. The AG Mechanics provides the required pointing and focusing capabilities in a compact configuration. In January 2010, IDOM is awarded the design and procurement of the two FC-Sets. The final design is approved by GRANTECAN and the fabrication process starts in Nov 2011. The assembly and commissioning of both units are completed in April 2011. Once the Factory Acceptance Tests finishes in Dec 2011, all the elements are delivered to the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM). The Site Acceptance Tests are completed in Feb 2012.

  11. [Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Gran Canaria].

    PubMed

    Bárbara-Bataller, Enrique; Méndez-Suárez, José Luis; Alemán-Sánchez, Carolina; Ramírez-Lorenzo, Teresa; Sosa-Henríquez, Manuel

    To evaluate the epidemiological and clinical trends in acute traumatic spinal cord injuries. A retrospective study was conducted of traumatic spinal cord injury patients in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) from 2000 to 2014. Demographic and spinal injury severity trends were analysed by year of injury grouped into 3 periods: 2000-2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2014. The sample included 141 patients. The mean incidence for the entire period was 12 cases/million/year. There was a decrease in cases in the second and third period. While the male/female ratio was 3.8/1 and was maintained in all periods, the mean patient age increased from 38.8 in 2000-5 to 54.5 years in 2011-4 (P<.05). Falls have been the leading cause of spinal cord injury (48.2%), followed by traffic accidents (37.6%). Falls have increased, especially in the older population. Incomplete tetraplegia has been the most prevalent group (30.5%). A vertebral fracture was suffered by 70.3% of all patients, with 93.2% of them requiring surgery. There has been a decrease in the incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in recent years. The target population has changed, and the older population is currently the most affected. This reality suggests the need to change the local prevention campaigns for spinal cord injury in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Gran Canaria temporary broadband seismic network: an study of the seismicity and Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, Javier; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Martinez-Arevalo, Carmen; Carmona, Enrique; Sanchez, Nieves; Heit, Benjamin; Garcia, Alicia; Martin-Leon, Rosa; Buontempo, Luisa; Yuan, Xiahoui

    2010-05-01

    The present project is a joint effort between different institutions to deploy a dense seismic network at Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands, Spain). The interstation distance is around 20 km. The broadband seismic network is composed of one permanent (Guralp CMG-3T 120 s) and five temporary stations (Guralp CMG-3ESP 60 s). The permanent station is a 120 s Guralp CMG-3T and belongs to the Canary Island Seismic Network, run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) of Spain. The temporary stations are 60 s Guralp CMG-3ESP, provided by the GFZ seismic pool. The deployment was carried out in December 2009. The stations will be recording during two years. The improvement of the seismic network allow us to tackle the following issues: the detection and analysis of any local seismicity of tectonic and/or volcanic origin at Gran Canaria island; to contribute to the understanding of the regional seismicity with special interest in the oceanic channel between Tenerife and Gran Canaria Island in collaboration with a project running a dense temporary seismic network in Tenerife; to study the crustal and upper mantle structure, under Gran Canaria to constrain the crustal structure, the source of the volcanism, and better sample the mantle discontinuities and anisotropy. To study the Earth structure, we use receiver function analysis, ambient seismic noise and SKS anisotropy techniques, This project is part of a long-term research of the crustal and the mantle structure of the Canary Islands, which has started with Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands and will eventually continue with the rest of the archipelago. The origin of the Canary Islands is generally attributed to a broad mantle upwelling under a slow moving plate, resulting in spatially and temporally distributed volcanic activity and a large number of seamounts and islands. A controversial discussion has been going on about the factors that control the evolution of the volcanic edifices, the type of the melting

  13. The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) ready for First Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.; Alvarez Martin, P.

    2006-08-01

    The GTC is a 10.4m telescope being built in La Palma, Spain, by a consortium lead by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC). Other members of the collaboration include Mexico and the University of Florida (US). The telescope is now complete, the main activity currently being the installation of the control system. This will lead to the start of a testing period for the motion of the main telescope axes, after which the first primary mirror segments will be installed on the mirror cell. We expect this to happen by October this year and this will be the prelude to First Light. After First Light a period of commissioning will start, lasting a full year, during which many tests will be done of the telescope, optics, Acquisition and Guiding (A&G) boxes, etc. About four months after First Light, once the A&G boxes have been commissioned and the telescope optics has reached a certain quality level, the first science instrument will be mounted on the telescope for its commissioning. There will be four months for the commissioning of both this first instrument plus further commissioning of the telescope. Finally, eight months after First Light, a second scientific instrument will mounted on the telescope. The simultaneous commissioning of this second new instrument, plus the former instrument and the telescope will follow this. The emphasis in this period will be the operational aspects of the telescope together with these two science instruments. Once this last period is completed the telescope will be ready for science. It will then be open for the community's science proposals. It is expected that this will occur before the end of 2007. In my talk I will describe the current status of the GTC as well as the plans for its commissioning and preparation for science operation.

  14. Distribution and thickness of sedimentary facies in the coastal dune, beach and nearshore sedimentary system at Maspalomas, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontán Bouzas, Angela; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Montoya Montes, Isabel; Barranco Ojeda, Andrés; Albarracín, Silvia; Rey Díaz de Rada, Jorge; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown that most beaches and coastal dune systems of the world are currently eroding but very few have investigated the combined sediment budgets of subaerial and nearshore submarine systems. In the case of the dune field of the Maspalomas Natural Special Reserve (in the south of Gran Canaria), the adjacent Maspalomas and El Inglés beaches and the adjacent submarine platform, the sediment budgets have been severely affected by erosion over the past few decades. The objectives of this study were to investigate the availability of sand within the modern sedimentary system, including the coastal dunes, the beaches and the submerged shelf, but also to assess local sediment sinks. An isopach map generated on the basis of topo-bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles revealed that sediment thickness varies from 0-22 m in the study area. Expanses of relatively low sediment thickness were identified in the south-western sector of the coastal dune field along Maspalomas beach, and in the nearshore region to the south of this beach. These localized sediment-deficit areas earmark Maspalomas beach as the most vulnerable shore strip threatened by erosion. The shallow seismic data also revealed that the submarine platform south of Maspalomas represents a marine terrace cut into an ancient alluvial fan, thus documenting an influence of the geomorphological heritage on the present-day morphodynamics. A side-scan sonar mosaic of this nearshore platform enabled the delimitation of areas covered by rock, boulders and gravel, vegetated sand patches and a mobile sand facies, the latter including ripple and megaripple fields. The megaripple field in a valley close to the talus of the marine terrace has been identified as a major sediment sink of the Maspalomas sedimentary system. It is fed by south-westerly storm-wave events. The sediment deficit in the coastal dune field and along Maspalomas beach can therefore only be explained by a currently faster loss

  15. First results and future plans for the Canarias Infrared Camera Experiment (CIRCE) for the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Alan; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Charcos, Miguel; Dallilar, Yigit; Edwards, Michelle; Lasso-Cabrera, Nestor; Stelter, Richard D.; Marin-Franch, Antonio; Raines, S. Nicholas; Ackley, Kendall; Bennett, John G.; Cenarro, Javier A.; Chinn, Brian; Donoso, Veronica H.; Frommeyer, Raymond; Hanna, Kevin; Herlevich, Michael D.; Julian, Jeff; Miller, Paola; Mullin, Scott; Murphey, Charles H.; Packham, Christopher; Varosi, Frank; Vega, Claudia; Warner, Craig; Ramaprakash, Anamparambu N.; Burse, Mahesh; Punnadi, Sujit; Chordia, Pravinkumar; Gerarts, Andreas; Martín, Héctor de Paz; Calero, María. Martín.; Scarpa, Riccardo; Fernandez Acosta, Sergio; Hernández Sánchez, William Miguel; Siegel, Benjamin; Pérez, Francisco Francisco; Viera Martín, Himar D.; Rodríguez Losada, José A.; Nuñez, Agustín.; Tejero, Álvaro; Martín González, Carlos E.; Rodríguez, César Cabrera; Molgó Sendra, Jordi; Rodriguez, J. Esteban; Fernádez Cáceres, J. Israel; Rodríguez García, Luis A.; Lopez, Manuel Huertas; Dominguez, Raul; Gaggstatter, Tim; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Geier, Stefan; Pessev, Peter; Sarajedini, Ata; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    CIRCE is a near-infrared (1-2.5 micron) imager (including low-resolution spectroscopy and polarimetery) in operation as a visitor instrument on the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.-4m tele scope. It was built largely by graduate students and postdocs, with help from the UF Astronomy engineering group, and is funded by the University of Florida and the U.S. National Science Foundation. CIRCE is helping to fill the gap in time between GTC first light and the arrival of EMIR, and will also provide the following scientific capabilities to compliment EMIR after its arrival: high-resolution imaging, narrowband imaging, high-time-resolution photometry, polarimetry, and low-resolution spectroscopy. There are already scientific results from CIRCE, some of which we will review. Additionally, we will go over the observing modes of CIRCE, including the two additional modes that were added during a service and upgrading run in March 2016.

  16. Dental caries among the pre-Hispanic population from Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Darias, T; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Martín-Rodríguez, E; González-Reimers, E

    2005-11-01

    The island of Gran Canaria was inhabited in pre-Hispanic times by people of North African origin who arrived on the island towards the second half of the first millennium BC. In previous studies, we reported that there are some differences between the coastal inhabitants from Gran Canaria, mainly buried in tumuli, and those from the central mountains, mainly buried in caves. For example, the prevalence of auricular exostoses is higher among the population interred in coastal tumuli when compared with the inland population. This finding may be explained by the practice of marine activities, as supported by chroniclers' reports, by archaeological data, and by bone trace-element analysis, which point to a more intense consumption of marine products by the inhabitants of the coastal regions. Dental caries epidemiology is one of the most important ways in which the diet of past populations can be reconstructed. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and intensity of caries among the pre-Hispanic population of Gran Canaria, in order to increase our knowledge about the dietary habits of these people, and to search for differences among the population buried in caves and that buried in tumuli. We studied a total of 791 individuals. Sex was estimated in 561 cases, and age at death, following Brothwell's criteria, in 549. We found that 66.95% of individuals buried in caves and 58.91% of those buried in tumuli showed at least one carious lesion. The proportion of carious teeth was significantly higher among the population buried in caves (median = 15.71%, interquartile range (IR) = 0-33.33%) than among the population buried in tumuli (median = 6.25%, IR = 0-20%, P = 0.001). Type of burial is the main factor associated with the proportion of carious teeth.These data suggest that the population buried in caves had a different dietary pattern from that of those buried in tumuli. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. Samples from the Jurassic ocean crust beneath Gran Canaria, La Palma and Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Klügel, Andreas; Hansteen, Thor H.; Hoernle, Kaj; van den Bogaard, Paul

    1998-11-01

    Gabbro and minor metabasalt fragments of MORB composition were found on three of the seven Canary Islands. On Gran Canaria, they occur as metamorphosed (greenschist facies) metabasalt and metagabbro clasts in Miocene fanglomerates and sandstones overlying the shield basalts. On Lanzarote and La Palma, MORB gabbros occur as xenoliths in Pleistocene and historic basanite scoria cones and lava flows. The MORB xenoliths are interpreted as fragments of layers 2 and 3 of the underlying Mesozoic oceanic crust, based on mineral compositions (An-rich plagioclase, Ti- and Al-poor clinopyroxene, ± orthopyroxene ± olivine), depleted major and trace element signatures, and Jurassic ages (ca. 180 Ma) determined on single primary plagioclase and secondary amphibole crystals using the 40Ar/ 39Ar laser technique. The Lanzarote gabbros are very mafic (mg# 87 to 89 in clinopyroxene), moderately deformed, and highly depleted. Gran Canaria gabbros are more evolved (mg# 69 to 83 in clinopyroxene) and texturally mostly isotropic. La Palma MORB gabbros have a range of compositions (mg# 68 to 83 in clinopyroxene), some rocks being strongly metasomatized by interaction with basanite magma. The occurrence of MORB fragments on Lanzarote provides definite evidence that oceanic crust beneath the Canary Island archipelago continues at least as far east as the eastern Canary Islands. We postulate that MORB gabbros on Lanzarote which are commonly associated with peridotite xenoliths, represent the base of oceanic layer 3 where gabbros and peridotites were possibly tectonically interleaved. Such tectonic mixing would explain the enigmatic seismic velocities in this area. Gabbro xenoliths from La Palma were derived from within layer 3, probably from wall rock close to magma reservoirs emplaced during the Pleistocene/Holocene growth of La Palma. The Gran Canaria xenoliths are interpreted to represent the metamorphosed layer 2 and upper layer 3. The abundance of lower crustal xenoliths emphasizes

  18. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.

    2017-06-01

    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Acanthamoeba strains from soil samples in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Todd, Cheridah D; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Cabello-Vilchez, Alfonso Martín; González, Ana C; Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; Lindo, John F; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Free-living Amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains that are currently classified in 18 different genotypes, T1-T18. In this study, a survey was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in soil samples collected between 2012 and 2013 in Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Samples were inoculated onto non-nutrient agar (NNA) plates and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Identification of Acanthamoeba strains was based on the morphology of the cyst and trophozoite forms. Subsequently, positive samples were cloned for their molecular characterization at the genotype level by sequencing the DF3 region located in the 18S rDNA gene of Acanthamoeba as previously described. Sequencing results revealed the presence of T2, T5 and T4 genotypes within the studied samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of Acanthamoeba in Gran Canaria Island and the first study at the genotype level in the Canary Islands.

  20. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them.

  1. The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Sánchez, Beatriz; Bringas, Vicente; Espejo, Carlos; Flores, Rubén; Chapa, Oscar; Lara, Gerardo; Chavoya, Armando; Anguiano, Gustavo; Arciniega, Sadot; Dorantes, Ariel; Gonzalez, José L.; Montoya, Juan M.; Toral, Rafael; Hernández, Hugo; Nava, Roberto; Devaney, Nicolas; Castro, Javier; Cavaller, Luis; Farah, Alejandro; Godoy, Javier; Cobos, Francisco; Tejada, Carlos; Garfias, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    In March 2004 was accepted in the site of Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in La Palma Island, Spain, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) for the GTC. During the GTC integration phase, the CI will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes-imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature Wave-front sensing (WFS), and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomia UNAM in Mexico City and the Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) in Queretaro, Qro under a GRANTECAN contract after an international public bid. Some optical components were built by Centro de Investigaciones en Optica (CIO) in Leon Gto and the biggest mechanical parts were manufactured by Vatech in Morelia Mich. In this paper we made a general description of the CI and we relate how this instrument, build under international standards, was entirely made in Mexico.

  2. Landslides as a determining geomorphologicic factor of the Barranco de Tirajana basin, Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, A.; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    The Barranco de Tirajana (BdT) basin is a 35 km 2 depression located in the central-southern part of Gran Canaria, a volcanic island. The important role of mass movements in shaping the BdT basin has been studied during the last decade. The basin's origin has been under discussion since the last century but its erosive genesis is now widely accepted. Both its origin and morphological evolution were directly related to erosive periods during the Quaternary. These produced backward erosion in the ravine and, as a result, a huge number of landslides occurred in the upper basin. From the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene, the basin was enlarged and the material from the landslides was transported through a narrow valley and deposited as an extensive alluvial delta fan on the coast.

  3. The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto Virtual Observatory compliant archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Alacid, José Manuel; Jiménez-Esteban, Francisco; Velasco Trasmonte, Almudena

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and Calar Alto archives are the result of the collaboration agreements between the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, INTA-CSIC)) and two entities: GRANTECAN S.A. and the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). The archives have been developed in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory and are maintained by the Data Archive Unit at CAB. The archives contain both raw and science ready data and have been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) which guarantees a high level of data accessibility and handling. In this paper we describe the main characteristics and functionalities of both archives.

  4. The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto Virtual Observatory Compliant Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alacid, J. M.; Solano, E.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Velasco, A.

    2014-05-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto archives are the result of the collaboration agreements between the Centro de Astrobiología and two entities: GRANTECAN S.A. and the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). The archives have been developed in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory and are maintained by the Data Archive Unit at Centro de Astrobiología. The archives contain both raw and science ready data and have been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which guarantees a high level of data accessibility and handling. In this paper we describe the main characteristics and functionalities of both archives.

  5. Zooplankton biomass and indices of feeding and metabolism in island-generated eddies around Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-León, S.; Almeida, C.; Gómez, M.; Torres, S.; Montero, I.; Portillo-Hahnefeld, A.

    2001-08-01

    Zooplankton biomass and indices of grazing (gut fluorescence), respiration (electron transfer system, ETS), ammonia excretion (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH) and growth (aspartate transcarbamylase, ATC) were studied around the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) during the so-called "late winter bloom". Four size classes (100-200, 200-500, 500-1000 and >1000 μm) were studied to assess the contribution of each size fraction to the mesoscale plankton distribution around the island. Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were observed downstream the island transporting and entraining water rich in chlorophyll. Zooplankton biomass showed a high variability around the island but it was dramatically lower in the core of the cyclonic eddy induced by the island, probably due to the divergent effect produced by the physical structure. A filament of relatively cold-water was also found reaching the island from the upwelling area off northwest Africa. High zooplankton biomass was observed in association with the filament water and in the vicinity of the anticyclonic eddy shed by the island. Specific gut content showed higher values in the boundaries of the cyclonic structures, while ETS and GDH activities where higher windward of the island, in both the cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies depending on the size fraction considered. With the restrictions of using those indices, control of primary production by grazing was 11-22% and up to 41% of the calculated ingestion from the indices of metabolism and growth could be supported by nonpigmented food. Calculated excretion rates could support about 8% of primary production. The low impact of zooplankton on autotrophic production, the low values of the index of growth and the distribution of biomass in relation to the presence of eddies downstream of Gran Canaria suggest that accumulation was the causative mechanism for the presence of high zooplankton biomass leeward of the island.

  6. Geographical structuring of mitochondrial DNA in Chalcides sexlineatus within the island of Gran Canaria

    PubMed Central

    Pestano, J.; Brown, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    The skink Chalcides sexlineatus shows clear north-south ecology-correlated variation in morphology within the island of Gran Canaria. Detailed study of this variation previously supported the hypothesis of in situ differentiation arising through climate-mediated variation in selection pressures. The more recent discovery of substantial within-island mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence divergence suggested an alternative historical vicariance scenario. This paper provides a detailed analysis of geographical structuring in mtDNA, based on a fragment amplified from the 12S rRNA region in 96 individuals. A very clear phylogeographic pattern was detected: three 'deep' lineages were evident corresponding to northern, south-eastern and south-western parts of Gran Canaria with generally low levels of mtDNA introgression. The pattern of among-site differentiation was highly concordant with the pattern of morphological variation. It also provided a close fit to a simple microevolutionary model based on population vicariance during volcanic eruptions known to have occurred during the past 2.8 million years in the north of the island. The minimum number of historical migration events required to explain the mtDNA tree was calculated and a novel randomization test used to show that there were a lower number of putative migrations across the morphology transition zone, relative to migrations within northern and southern zones. Differential adaptation to the two major habitat types and selection against hybrids may explain why the morphology transition zone coincides with the main ecotone and is relatively narrow, respectively.

  7. Fluvial dissection, isostatic uplift, and geomorphological evolution of volcanic islands (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Inmaculada; Silva, Pablo G.; Martín-Betancor, Moises; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco José; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, S.

    2008-11-01

    Digital analysis of torrential gullies ('barrancos') deeply incised into the volcanic Island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) allows us to extract the longitudinal profiles and pre-incision surfaces for individual basins, from which morphometric parameters (length, elevation, area, slope) have been calculated. Other derived parameters, such as ridgeline profiles, maximum incision values, volume removed by fluvial erosion, geophysical relief and isostatic uplift, have also been computed. Based on K/Ar ages for the island, well-constrained incision-uplift rates have been calculated by means of the combination of different methodological approaches commonly used in orogens and large mountain ranges. The geomorphological and morphometric analyses reveal that the island is clearly divided into four environmental quadrants determined by the combination of a couple of key-factors: the age of the volcanic surfaces and the climatic conditions. These factors determine a young sector covered with Plio-Quaternary platform-forming lavas (finished at 1.9-1.5 Ma) evolving under contrasting wet (NE) to dry (SE) climates, and an older sector, conserving the residual surfaces of the Miocene shield building (14.5-8.7 Ma) at the ridgelines, also subjected to wet (NW) and dry (SW) climates. Incision is related to the age zonation of the island. Maximum incisions (< 1200 m) are logically recorded in the older SW sector of the island, but incision rates are directly related to the climatic zonation, with maximum mean values in the wet Northern quadrants (0.18-0.12 mm/yr). The evaluation of the material removed by fluvial erosion for individual basins allows us to assess the consequent theoretical isostatic response in the different sectors of the island. The obtained uplift rates indicate that water availability (by drainage area and elevation) is a relevant controlling factor: the records from the wet Northern sectors show uplift values of between 0.09 and 0.03 mm/yr, whereas in the

  8. Phylogeography of the endangered darkling beetle species of Pimelia endemic to Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Contreras-Días, Hermans G; Moya, Oscar; Oromí, Pedro; Juan, Carlos

    2003-08-01

    Phylogenetic and geographical nested clade analysis (NCA) methods were applied to mitochondrial DNA sequences of Pimelia darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) endemic to Gran Canaria, an island in the Canary archipelago. The three species P. granulicollis, P. estevezi and P. sparsa occur on the island, the latter with three recognized subspecies. Another species, P. fernandezlopezi (endemic to the island of La Gomera) is a close relative of P. granulicollis based on partial Cytochrome Oxidase I mtDNA sequences obtained in a previous study. Some of these beetles are endangered, so phylogeographical structure within species and populations can help to define conservation priorities. A total of about 700 bp of Cytochrome Oxidase II were examined in 18 populations and up to 75 individuals excluding outgroups. Among them, 22 haplotypes were exclusive to P. granulicollis and P. estevezi and 31 were from P. sparsa. Phylogenetic analysis points to the paraphyly of Gran Canarian Pimelia, as the La Gomera P. fernandezlopezi haplotypes are included in them, and reciprocal monophyly of two species groups: one constituted by P. granulicollis, P. estevezi and P. fernandezlopezi (subgenus Aphanaspis), and the other by P. sparsa'sensu lato'. The two species groups show a remarkably high mtDNA divergence. Within P. sparsa, different analyses all reveal a common result, i.e. conflict between current subspecific taxonomic designations and evolutionary units, while P. estevezi and P. fernandezlopezi are very close to P. granulicollis measured at the mtDNA level. Geographical NCA identifies several cases of nonrandom associations between haplotypes and geography that may be caused by allopatric fragmentation of populations with some cases of restriction of gene flow or range expansion. Analyses of molecular variance and geographical NCA allow definition of evolutionary units for conservation purposes in both species-groups and suggest scenarios in which vicariance caused by

  9. Estimated UV doses to psoriasis patients during climate therapy at Gran Canaria in March 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, L. T. N.; Søyland, E.; Krogstad, A. L.

    2008-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving about 2-3% of the Norwegian population. Sun exposure has a positive effect on most psoriasis lesions, but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also causes a direct DNA damage in the skin cells and comprises a carcinogenic potential. UV exposure on the skin causes a local as well as a systemic immune suppressive effect, but the relation between sun exposure and these biological effects is not well known. In March 2006 a study was carried out to investigate possible therapeutic outcome mechanisms in 20 psoriasis patients receiving climate therapy at Gran Canaria. This paper presents estimates of their individual skin UV-doses based on UV measurements and the patients' diaries with information on time spent in the sun. On the first day of exposure the patients received on average 5.1 Standard Erythema Doses (SED: median=4.0 SED, range 2.6-10.3 SED) estimated to the skin. During the 15 days study they received 165.8 SED (range 104.3-210.1 SED). The reduction in PASI score was 72.8% on average, but there was no obvious relation between the improvement and the UV dose. The UV doses were higher than those found from climate therapy studies at other locations. It seems beneficial to use more strict exposure schedules that consider the available UV irradiance, depending on time of the day, time of the year and weather conditions.

  10. Vetting Kepler Planet Candidates with Multi-Color Photometry from the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Knicole; Ford, E. B.

    2011-09-01

    We present multi-color observations of small (super-Earth to Neptune-size) planet candidates recently identified by the Kepler space mission. By applying the unique capabilities of OSIRIS (installed on the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias) for near-simultaneous multi-color photometry, we use the color of Kepler candidates as measured during predicted transit events to reject candidates that are false positives (e.g., a blend with an eclipsing binary in the background or bound to the target star). Our results include the discovery of a background eclipsing binary star (KIC 7025851) near KOI-565 (KIC 7025846). Based on the location of the eclipsing binary ( 15 arcsec from KOI-565), we conclude that the eclipsing binary contaminated the light from KOI-565 to mimic the super-Earth-size transit signal that was detected by Kepler. We also compare the technique of measuring colors in two narrow (2 nm) bandpasses separated by only a few nanometers in wavelength ( 790-794 nm) with measuring colors in two wider (36-58 nm) bandpasses located at bluer ( 666 nm) and redder ( 858 nm) wavelengths. These observations are part of a program to statistically determine the likelihood that planet candidates (e.g., with a given size) ultimately end up being false positives and are complementary to a similar program using warm-Spitzer. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-0802270.

  11. Metallic species in atmospheric particulate matter in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Cancio, J López; Castellano, A Vera; Hernández, M Chaar; Bethencourt, R García; Ortega, E Macías

    2008-12-30

    In this work, we quantified the total, water-soluble and insoluble fractions of 12 metallic species (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and Mn) present in total suspended particulates (TSP) in an urban area with heavy traffic (about 80 000 vehicles/day) of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Experimental measurements were made from July to December 2003 on a total of 42 samples (7 per month). Particulate matter (TSP) was collected in fiber filters and high volume samplers. PM10 levels were estimated assuming the PM10 fraction is about 70% of all TSP. Total fractions was determined gravimetrically. Water-soluble fraction was extracted by sonication. Concentrations of metallic elements were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Temporal changes in the concentrations of the target elements were examined and a multivariate approach used to identify the primary sources for each species. Mean value for TSP is 71.92microg/m3. The water-soluble fraction consisted mainly of Na, Ca, Mg, and K. The insoluble fraction contained higher concentrations of all elements than the soluble except Na. In the water-soluble fraction, Na, K, Ca and Mg were found to come mainly from natural sources; Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu from anthropogenic sources.

  12. Large-scale rheomorphic shear deformation in Miocene peralkaline ignimbrite E, Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leat, Philip T.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    1993-02-01

    the single ignimbrite cooling unit E (average thickness, 28 m; volume, ca. 30 km3) forms the uppermost member of the Miocene Upper Mogán Formation on Gran Canaria. It is strongly chemically zoned from basal, first-erupted comendite (peralkaline rhyolite) to late-erupted trachyte, and, apart from an upper trachytic zone, it is densely welded. E was emplaced onto a surface inclined ca. 2 5° from the source caldera. Detailed mapping of key sections, up to 300 m long, exposed in barranco walls, ca. 10 km from the caldera margin, reveals structures that are interpreted to have been produced by rheomorphic deformation of the ignimbrite along shear zones. The shear zones formed within the lower-viscosity comenditic tuff. Extensional structures include mega-boudinage and ‘decapitated sequences’ and compression resulted in sequence repitition by overthrusting. Mechanisms traditionally thought to be important during rheomorphic deformation of welded tuffs (compaction, lateral creep, folding, vertical density-driven diapirism) cannot account for these features, which reflect lateral (post-compactional) rheomorphic movement locally in excess of 800 m. We suggest the following sequence of events: emplacement of the several flow units; compaction, with little lateral movement; rheomorphic deformation. During and after compaction, layers of secondary porosity developed within the comenditic tuff, possibly where upward escape of gas was prevented by overlying, relatively impermeable layers of densely compacted ignimbrite. These structurally weak layers of high porosity subsequently acted as shear zones.

  13. Public awareness of landslide hazards: the Barranco de Tirajana, Gran Canaria, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmen Solana, M.; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.

    2003-08-01

    When engineering methods are not cost-effective in reducing the danger from landslides, it is crucial that vulnerable communities are aware of the hazards they face and know how to respond in an emergency. Such awareness can best be maintained by a public-information programme designed around a population's existing perception of landslides. As a case study to gauge the awareness of landslide hazards, a survey has been conducted among vulnerable communities in the Barranco de Tirajana (BdT) Basin on Gran Canaria, one of the most active zones of slope movement in the Canary Islands. Results from a formal questionnaire, together with anecdotal evidence, suggest that the communities are generally aware that landslides occur in the Basin and can be dangerous, but that they rarely consider slope movements as a potential hazard to themselves. Consequently, the communities are also uncertain about the most effective response during an emergency. Another result is that there is little pressure on local authorities either to prepare contingency plans in case of major destruction by landslides, or to enforce stricter building codes to reduce the persistent damage caused by creep. Having highlighted the weaknesses in hazard perception, the results of the survey have been used to design an awareness programme for the Basin. They may also be used as a basis for similar initiatives elsewhere.

  14. Eddy and deep chlorophyl maximum response to wind-shear in the lee of Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basterretxea, G.; Barton, E. D.; Tett, P.; Sangrá, P.; Navarro-Perez, E.; Arístegui, J.

    2002-06-01

    The physical and biological properties of the warm wake of Gran Canaria were examined during a survey carried out in June 1998. The sampling region was dominated by the presence of a warm triangular region downwind the island and an anticyclonic eddy spun off the island. Convergent and divergent frontal regions were generated by the wind shear zones extending along either side of the sheltered region of the warm wake. With increasing distance from shore, evidence of convergent/divergent frontal regions weakened, but the influence of the eddy increased. Both structures, frontal regions and the eddy, clearly altered the vertical phytoplankton biomass distribution as indicated by chlorophyll-fluorescence. Downwelling on the convergent boundary moved the 26.2 kg m -3 isopycnal and its associated deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) below the 1% light zone. Upwelling at the divergent boundary not only elevated the DCM with its associated isopycnal but also, because of the increased light levels, allowed a shift in the DCM to higher (deeper) density surfaces (26.4 kg m -3). However, the highest integrated chlorophyll occurred in the central wake.

  15. Structure and emplacement of the Pliocene Roque Nublo debris avalanche deposit, Gran Canaria, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, Klaus W.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    1999-12-01

    Collapse of the flanks of the Pliocene Roque Nublo stratocone on Gran Canaria lead to large debris avalanches that traveled far beyond the coastline with velocities that may have exceeded 100 m/s. The deposits comprised at least 14 km 3 of debris and covered an area of about 180 km 2 in the southern half of the island. The debris-filled deep canyons are largely exhumed at present. Incomplete disintegration, poor fluidization and a good preservation of megablocks are thought to be mainly due to the confinement of the debris avalanche within deep canyons. The rheological behavior of lithologic domains varies with their size, internal strength and relative position within the deposit. The deformation structures indicate that distinct components flowed whereas others slid throughout the transport in a relatively dense mode. The following factors are believed to have been important in generating the Roque Nublo debris avalanche deposit: (1) unusual abundance of pyroclastic flow and other volcaniclastic deposits making up the upper Roque Nublo cone; (2) highly asymmetric basement beneath the cone with a very high southern ridge and a steep erosional southern slope leading to major instabilities; (3) intrusion of dikes and cryptodomes as well as hydrothermal alteration in the crater area further weakening the volcano.

  16. Epidemiological survey of canine heartworm disease on the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands - Spain) between 2000 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Alonso, J A; Carretón, E; Juste, M C; Mellado, I; Morchón, R; Simón, F

    2010-10-11

    Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis is endemic on the island of Gran Canaria. Epidemiological surveys have shown differences in the prevalence of heartworm disease in the canine population of the island between 1989 and 1998. The aim of the present study was to follow-up the prevalence of D. immitis in both the canine population as a whole and the Canarian Warren Hound population on Gran Canaria between 2000 and 2008. Prevalences observed were always significantly higher in the Canarian Warren Hound population than in the entire canine population. A significant decrease in the prevalence (from 30.19% to 19.36%) in the whole population was observed. In the Canarian Warren Hound the prevalence decreased slightly between 2000 and 2007 (40.42-34.65%), rising in 2008 to values higher than those observed at the beginning of follow-up study (41.6%). These changes are mainly attributed to lack of preventive chemotherapy and the prolonged exposure of the Canarian Warren Hound to mosquito bites. As this breed can act as a natural reservoir in Gran Canaria, regular surveillance is needed to detect changes in the epidemiological picture on this island.

  17. Deposition of rheomorphic ignimbrite D (Mogán Formation), Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobberger, Gustav; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    Rheomorphic ignimbrite D (13.4Ma, Upper Mogán Formation on Gran Canaria), a multiple flow-single cooling unit, is divided into four major structural zones that differ in fabric and finite strain of deformed pyroclasts. Their structural characteristics indicate contrasting deformation mechanisms during rheomorphic flow. The zones are: (a) a basal zone (vitrophyre) with pure uniaxial flattening perpendicular to the foliation; (b) an overlying shear zone characterized by asymmetric fabrics and a significantly higher finite strain, with an ellipsoid geometry similar to stretched oblate bodies; (c) a central zone with a finite strain geometry similar to that of the underlying shear zone but without evidence of a rotational strain component; and (d) a slightly deformed to non-deformed top zone where the almost random orientation of subspherical pyroclasts suggests preservation of original, syn-depositional clast shapes. Rheomorphic flow in D is the result of syn- to post-depositional remobilization of a hot pyroclastic flow as shown by kinematic modeling based on: (a) the overall vertical structural zonation suggested by finite strain and fabric analysis; (b) the relation of shear sense to topography; (c) the interrelationship of the calculated vertical cooling progression at the base of the flow (formation of vitrophyre) and the related vertical changes in strain geometry; (d) the complex lithification history; and (e) the consequent mechanisms of deformational flow. Rheomorphic flow was caused by load pressure due to an increase in the vertical accumulation of pyroclastic material on a slope of generally 6-8°. We suggest that every level of newly deposited pyroclastic flow material of D first passed through a welding process that was dominated by compaction (pure flattening) before rheomorphic deformation started.

  18. Comparing heuristic landslide hazard assessment techniques using GIS in the Tirajana basin, Gran Canaria Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barredo, JoséI.; Benavides, Annetty; Hervás, Javier; van Westen, Cees J.

    As part of the EU Environment and Climate Programme's RUNOUT project dealing with the modelling of large-volume landslides, a GIS database was compiled and used to generate mass movement hazard maps at a medium scale (1:25,000) in a high-relief area in central Gran Canaria Island, Spain. The Barranco de Tirajana study area is a 49 km 2 large depression that is semi-oval in plan, 11 km long and 6.5 km wide. Its base presents a very irregular topography and it is almost completely enclosed by large rock scarps, up to 350 m high, with total altitude differences reaching 1600 m from the lowest part of the Barranco de Tirajana river to the upper scarps. The Barranco de Tirajana depression is composed of a series of large landslide masses, derived from gravitational sliding of lava flow and volcanic breccia sequences. The landslides are believed to have originated during intensive erosive periods during the Quaternary, as a consequence of the rapid deepening of the central ravine. These primary large landslide bodies have undergone a number of reactivation episodes, from the Middle Pleistocene to the present, as well as retrogressive enlargement of the depression. Currently the most active processes are rockfalls, and reactivation of the landslide toe areas, due to further undercutting by the streams. In order to evaluate the present mass movement hazard, a GIS-based study was carried out using two different types of knowledge-driven approaches: a direct method and an indirect method. In the direct method very detailed geomorphological mapping was carried out, using uniquely coded polygons, which were evaluated one-by-one by an expert to assess the type and degree of hazard. The indirect method followed an indexing approach. Parameters including slope angle, landslide activity, landslide phases, material, proximity to drainage channels and reservoirs, and land use change were combined using multi-criteria evaluation techniques.

  19. The Barranco de Tirajana basin, Gran Canaria (Spain). A major erosive landform caused by large landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Meco, Joaquín.; Corominas, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    The Barranco de Tirajana (BdT), located on the island of Gran Canaria (Spain), has some specific features that differentiate it from the ravines of other volcanic islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this unusually wide upper basin (35 km 2) has been under discussion over the last century although its erosional origin is nowadays widely accepted. The purpose of this paper is to describe the landslide deposits that appear at the bottom of the basin and to assess their role in the geomorphological evolution of the basin. We suggest that the BdT basin is a major erosional landform initiated by important ravine incision and widened by a large number of landslides. There are 28 large landslides within the BdT basin. The main movements were of rock-slide and debris-slide types, affecting 70% and 25% of the total area, respectively. In addition, modes of displacement were predominantly translational (rock-, debris-, and earth-slides) consisting of 89% of the total, compared to rotations and flows that constitute only 11%. Three main periods of landslide activity have been established in the development of the BdT basin, using geomorphological criteria. Period I includes ancient movements that could have started at about 0.6 Ma or even 2.7 Ma ago and are considered as abandoned landslides. Period II corresponds to old landslides considered as dormant, which occurred within the Middle-Upper Pleistocene. Finally, period III includes recent Upper Pleistocene landslides and Holocene landslides that are still active. We suggest that interglacials in the Canary Islands and NW Africa included humid and wet episodes that could account for the occurrence of periods of landslide activity in the BdT basin.

  20. A seismic waves velocity model for Gran Canaria Island from ambient noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Almendros, Javier; Martínez-Arévalo, Carmen; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Luzón, Francisco; Carmona, Enrique; Martín, Rosa; Sánchez, Nieves

    2014-05-01

    We have analysed continuous ambient seismic noise recorded by a temporary array in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) in order to find a velocity model for the top few kilometers. The SISTEVOTENCAN-IGN seismic array consisted of five broadband stations surrounding a sixth central one placed close to Pico de las Nieves, at the center of the island. The array had a radius of 12-14 km, with interstation distances ranging from 10 to 27 km. This network was operative from December 2009 to November 2011. The Green's functions between the 15 pairs of stations have been estimated in the time domain by stacking cross-correlations of 60-s time windows for the whole recording period (~2 years). The effects of several processing adjustments such as 1-bit normalization and spectral whitening are discussed. We observe significant differences (mainly in amplitude) between causal and acausal parts of the estimated Green's functions, which can be associated to an uneven distribution of the seismic noise sources. The application of a phase-matched filter based on an average dispersion curve allowed the effective reduction of some spurious early arrivals and the selection of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave pulses, making possible an automatic extraction of their group velocities. Then, Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves were retrieved for the set of paths by using frequency-time analysis (FTAN) as well as by following the procedure described by Herrin and Goforth (1977, BSSA) based on the iterative fitting of a phase-matched filter which optimally undisperses the signal. Reliable curves were obtained from 1 s to 6-7 s with group velocities ranging between 1.5 and 2.2 km/s. Some lateral variations in velocity have been detected in spite of the limited spatial coverage and path density, which substantially restricted the resolution. A mean S-wave velocity model has been inverted for this area down to ~3 km.

  1. Reconstructing eroded paleovolcanoes on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, using advanced geomorphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, D.; Yepes, J.; Favalli, M.; Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.; Fornaciai, A.

    2016-01-01

    Original volcanic edifices of two successive stages of Gran Canaria are reconstructed using a geomorphometric analysis of existent or restored paleosurfaces. In the reconstruction, surface fitting was applied preferably to planèzes (i.e. triangular facets of original volcano flanks) and quasi-planar surfaces, QPS (those occurring on planèzes, or scattered, slightly eroded portions derived from original cone surfaces) with the help of red relief image map (RRIM) analysis. Out of the long-lasting, Mid-Miocene to Holocene subaerial evolution of the island, the Late Miocene Fataga volcano and the subsequent, Pliocene Roque Nublo volcanoes were the largest and highest. The eruptive center of Fataga, a composite edifice (12.2-8.8 Ma) that may have grown up excentrically with respect to the previous Tejeda caldera, is well-defined by both two planèzes (named Veneguera-Mogán and Fataga-Tirajana) and QPS remnants. Its calculated original volume, ≤ 1000 km3, is close to the largest stratovolcanoes on Earth. However, its ≥ 3300 m elevation, obtained by exponential fit, may have been significantly lower due to the complex architecture of the summit region, e.g. a caldera responsible for ignimbrite eruptions. Roque Nublo, a 3.7-2.9 Ma stratovolcanic cone, which was superimposed upon the Fataga rocks ≥ 3 km west of the Fataga center, has left no considerable paleosurfaces behind due to heavy postvolcanic erosion. Yet, its remnant formations preserved in a radial pattern unambiguously define its center. Moreover, surface fitting of the outcropping rocks can be corrected taking the erosion rate for the past 3 Ma into account. Such a corrected surface fit points to a regular-shaped, ≥ 3000 m-high cone with a 25 km radius and ca. 940 km3 original volume, also comparable with the dimensions of the largest terrestrial stratovolcanoes.

  2. Observations of three young γ-ray pulsars with the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; Rea, N.; Testa, V.; Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Pierbattista, M.; Shearer, A.; Torres, D. F.; De Oña Wilhelmi, E.

    2016-10-01

    We report the analysis of the first deep optical observations of three isolated γ-ray pulsars detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope: the radio-loud PSR J0248+6021 and PSR J0631+1036, and the radio-quiet PSR J0633+0632. The latter has also been detected in the X-rays. The pulsars are very similar in their spin-down age (τ ˜ 40-60 kyr), spin-down energy (dot{E} ˜ 10^{35} erg s-1), and dipolar surface magnetic field (B ˜ 3-5 × 1012 G). These pulsars are promising targets for multiwavelength observations, since they have been already detected in γ-rays and in radio or X-rays. None of them has been detected yet in the optical band. We observed the three pulsar fields in 2014 with the Spanish 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). We could not find any candidate optical counterpart to the three pulsars close to their most recent radio or Chandra positions down to 3σ limits of g' ˜ 27.3, g' ˜ 27, g' ˜ 27.3 for PSR J0248+6021, J0631+1036, and J0633+0632, respectively. From the inferred optical upper limits and estimated distance and interstellar extinction, we derived limits on the pulsar optical luminosity. We also searched for the X-ray counterpart to PSR J0248+6021 with Chandra but we did not detect the pulsar down to a 3σ flux limit of 5 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 (0.3-10 keV). For all these pulsars, we compared the optical flux upper limits with the extrapolations in the optical domain of the γ-ray spectra and compared their multiwavelength properties with those of other γ-ray pulsars of comparable age.

  3. Optical observations of Swift J1822.3-1606 with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, N.; Mignani, R. P.; Israel, G. L.; Esposi, P.

    2011-07-01

    We observed the field of the new Soft Gamma-ray Repeater (SGR), Swift J1822.3-1606 (Cummings et al., Atel #3488) with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GranTeCan). Images have been taken with the OSIRIS camera, a two-chip CCD with a nominal 7.8'x7.8' arcmin field of view and a pixel size of 0.125". Observations have been taken in the z-Sloan-band on 2011 July 21st (unfortunately in bright lunar time, with a large sky background and a seeing ranging from 1-2.5") with exposure times of 54-108s.

  4. Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Torres-Padrón, Mª Esther; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different commonly used therapeutic classes in seawater samples from coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island. The target compounds include atenolol (antihypertensive), acetaminophen (analgesic), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (antibiotics), carbamazepine (antiepileptic) and ketoprofen and diclofenac (anti-inflammatory). Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of the samples, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of the compounds. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 78.3% to 98.2%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.8%. The detection and quantification limits of the method were in the ranges of 0.1–2.8 and 0.3–9.3 ng·L−1, respectively. The developed method was applied to evaluate the presence of these pharmaceutical compounds in seawater from four outfalls in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) during one year. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found in a large number of samples in a concentration range of 9.0–3551.7 ng·L−1. Low levels of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ketoprofen were found sporadically. PMID:27029304

  5. Groundwater intensive exploitation and mining in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: Hydrogeological, environmental, economic and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Emilio; Cabrera, María Del Carmen; Poncela, Roberto; Puga, Luis-Olavo; Skupien, Elzbieta; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Intensive exploitation and continuous consumption of groundwater reserves (groundwater mining) have been real facts for decades in arid and semiarid areas. A summary of experience in the hydrogeological, economic, social and ethical consequences of groundwater intensive and mining exploitation in Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands, in the Canarian Archipelago, is presented. Groundwater abstraction is less than recharge, but a significant outflow of groundwater to the sea cannot be avoided, especially in Tenerife, due to its younger volcanic coastal formations. Consequently, the intensive aquifer groundwater development by means of wells and water galleries (tunnels) has produced a groundwater reserve depletion of about 2km(3). Should current groundwater abstraction cease, the recovery time to close-to-natural conditions is from decades to one century, except in the mid and high elevations of Tenerife, where this recovery is not possible as aquifer formations will remain permanently drained by the numerous long water galleries. The socio-economic circumstances are complex due to a long standing history of water resources exploitation, successive social changes on each island, and well-established groundwater water trading, with complex relationships that affect water governance and the resulting ethical concerns. Gran Canaria and Tenerife are in an advanced groundwater exploitation stage and have a large water demand. They are good examples that allow drawing guidelines to evaluate groundwater development on other small high islands. After presenting the hydrogeological background, the socio-economic results are discussed to derive general knowledge to guide on water governance.

  6. Analysis of eating disorders among 12-17 year-old adolescents in the island of Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Padorno, C; Scoffier, S; Polifrone, M; Martínez-Patiño, M J; Martínez-Vidal, A; Zagalaz Sánchez, M L

    2010-09-01

    A clinical pathology characterized by disturbances in eating behaviour has been often associated to socio-cultural factors that influence the psychopathology of these disorders. The alarming increase in the number of teenagers with eating disorders underscores the need to promote research on the underlying causes, and to identify high-risk subpopulations in need of effective targeted treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of eating disorders among an adolescent population of both sexes on the island of Gran Canaria. The sample was composed of adolescent boys and girls aged 12 to 17 years old (N=1364) who resided in different municipalities of Gran Canaria. The EAT-40 questionnaire was administered (cut-off point at 30), and body mass index measurements were assessed. The mean BMI for the 1364 subjects was 21.8 Kg/m²; 15% were underweight, and of these at least 1% obtained BMI values below 15 Kg/m². Thus, 13.4% of adolescents were potentially at risk of eating disorders according to the EAT-40 questionnaire. Moreover, the BMI was not significantly correlated to the EAT-40 and was not considered a sufficient parameter to establish the incidence of eating disorders.

  7. Eruption and emplacement of a basaltic welded ignimbrite during caldera formation on Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundt, Armin; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    1995-02-01

    The 14.1 Ma old composite ignimbrite cooling unit P1 (45 km3) on Gran Canaria comprises a lower mixed rhyolite-trachyte tuff, a central rhyolite-basalt mixed tuff, and a slightly rhyolite-contaminated basaltic tuff at the top. The basaltic tuff is compositionally zoned with (a) an upward change in basalt composition to higher MgO content (4.3 5.2 wt.%), (b) variably admixed rhyolite or trachyte (commonly <5 wt.%), and (c) an upward increasing abundance of basaltic and plutonic lithic fragments and cognate cumulate fragments. The basaltic tuff is divided into three structural units: (I) the welded basaltic ignimbrite, which forms the thickest part (c. 95 vol.%) and is the main subject of the present paper; (II) poorly consolidated massive, bomb- and block-rich beds interpreted as phreatomagmatic pyroclastic flow deposits; and (III) various facies of reworked basaltic tuff. Tuff unit I is a basaltic ignimbrite rather than a lava flow because of the absence of top and bottom breccias, radial sheet-like distribution around the central Tejeda caldera, thickening in valleys but also covering higher ground, and local erosion of the underlying P1 ash. A gradual transition from dense rock in the interior to ash at the top of the basaltic ignimbrite reflects a decrease in welding; the shape of the welding profile is typical for emplacement temperatures well above the minimum welding temperature. A similar transition occurs at the base where the ignimbrite was emplaced on cold ground in distal sections. In proximal sections the base is dense where it was emplaced on hot felsic P1 tuff. The intensity of welding, especially at the base, and the presence of spherical particles and of mantled and composite particles formed by accretion and coalescence in a viscous state imply that the flow was a suspension of hot magma droplets. The flow most likely had to be density stratified and highly turbulent to prevent massive coalescence and collapse. Model calculations suggest eruption

  8. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  9. Optical design of FRIDA, the integral-field spectrograph and imager for the AO system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sánchez, Beatriz; Chapa, Oscar; Espejo, Carlos; Flores-Meza, Rubén; Lara, Gerardo; Álvarez, Luis C.; Keiman, Carolina

    2008-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS) capabilities with low, intermediate and high spectral resolutions to operate in the wavelength range 0.9 - 2.5 μm. The integral field unit is based on a monolithic image slicer based on the University of Florida FISICA. Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Rockwell 2K×2K detector. FRIDA will be based at a Nasmyth focus of GTC, behind the GTCAO system. The FRIDA optical design, stray light analysis, tolerance analysis and manufacturing feasibility are described in this contribution.

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment of common booster biocides in surface waters of the harbours of Gran Canaria (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-del Pino, Angelo; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2011-05-01

    The presence of booster biocides in the aquatic environment has been associated with a risk to non-target species due to their proven toxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of common booster biocides in different harbours of the island of Gran Canaria (Spain) and evaluate, by means of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the ecological risk posed by these compounds. With these objectives, a monitoring campaign was conducted between January 2008 and May 2009, collecting a total of 182 seawater samples. Four common booster biocides (TCMTB, diuron, Irgarol 1051 and dichlofluanid) were monitored. Diuron levels ranged between 2.3 and 203 ng/L and Irgarol 1051 between 2.4 and 146.5 ng/L. The ecological risk associated with these levels was always low, however, with probabilities of exceeding the 10th percentile of autotroph toxicity below 3.5%.

  11. Trends in the incidence of hip fracture in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain: 2007-2011 versus 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Sosa, M; Saavedra, P; de Tejada, M J G; Navarro, M; Cabrera, D; Melton, L J

    2015-04-01

    Hip fracture incidence in the Canaries was studied in two 5-year periods (1989-1993 and 2008-2011). The incidence in 2007-2011 was 24 % higher than in 1989, but did not differ between 2007-2011 and 1993. These findings suggest a trend to stabilize the incidence of hip fracture. A dramatic increase in hip fractures between 1988 and 2002 was reported in Northern Spain. We performed the present study in Gran Canaria, the Canary Islands, to compare changes in the incidence of hip fracture between 1989-1993 and 2007-2011. We recorded every osteoporotic hip fracture admitted to any hospital in Gran Canaria in the population 50 years of age or older. In 1989-1993, we collected 1175 hip fractures (72 % women; mean age 78.2 ± 9.9 years), and the total incidence rate was 152.1 cases/100,000 population/year. In 2007-2011, we collected 2222 hip fracture cases (71 % women; mean age 79 ± 9.8 years). The total incidence was 180.9/100,000/year. A Poisson model showed that the incidence of fractures increased by 7.1 % (95 % CI = 3.1 %; 11.8 %) each year in 1989-1993, while there was no statistically significant variation (p = 0.515) during the period 2007-2011. The incidence in 2007-2011 was 24 % higher than in 1989 (first year in the first period) but did not differ between 2007-2011 and 1993 (the last year of the first period). Incidence rates were 76.7 % (95 % CI = 63.9 %; 90.5 %) higher in women than in men, but the female/male ratio remained unchanged. The age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures increased by 7.3 % each year from 1989 to 1993. The proportions of trochanter and cervical fractures were similar in the two time periods, but the mean hospital stay was reduced from 11 days in 1989-1993 to 7 days in 2007-2011. These findings suggest a trend to stabilize the incidence of hip fracture in the Canary Islands due to a decrease in men, while in women, the incidence increased.

  12. GIS methods applied to the degradation of monogenetic volcanic fields: A case study of the Holocene volcanism of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Aulinas, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Gimeno, D.; Guillou, H.; Paris, R.

    2011-11-01

    Modeling of volcanic morphometry provides reliable measurements of parameters that assist in the determination of volcanic landform degradation. Variations of the original morphology enable the understanding of patterns affecting erosion and their development, facilitating the assessment of associated hazards. A total of 24 volcanic Holocene eruptions were identified in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). 87% of these eruptions occurred in a wet environment while the rest happened in a dry environment. 45% of Holocene eruptions are located along short barrancos (S-type, less than 10 km in length), 20% along large barrancos (L-type, 10-17 km in length) and 35% along extra-large barrancos (XL-type, more than 17 km in length). The erosional history of Holocene volcanic edifices is in the first stage of degradation, with a geomorphic signature characterized by a fresh, young cone with a sharp profile and a pristine lava flow. After intensive field work, a careful palaeo-geomorphological reconstruction of the 24 Holocene eruptions of Gran Canaria was conducted in order to obtain the Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) of the pre- and post-eruption terrains. From the difference between these DTMs, the degradation volume and the incision rate were obtained. The denudation of volcanic cones and lava flows is relatively independent both their geographical location and the climatic environment. However, local factors, such as pre-eruption topography and ravine type, have the greatest influence on the erosion of Holocene volcanic materials in Gran Canaria. Although age is a key factor to help understand the morphological evolution of monogenetic volcanic fields, the Gran Canaria Holocene volcanism presented in this paper demonstrates that local and regional factors may determine the lack of correlation between morphometric parameters and age. Consequently, the degree of transformation of the volcanic edifices evolves, in many cases, independently of their age.

  13. Assessment of correlation between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters of volcanic deposits at Bandama Caldera (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Albert; Himi, Mahjoub; Estévez, Esmeralda; Lovera, Raúl; Sendrós, Alexandre; Palacios-Díaz, M. Pino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Cabrera, M. Carmen

    2015-04-01

    The characterization of the preferential areas of water infiltration through the vadose zone is of paramount importance to assess the pollution vulnerability of the underlying aquifers. Nevertheless, geometry and the hydraulic conductivity of each geological unit which constitute the unsaturated zone are difficult to study from traditional techniques (samples from trenches) and normally do not go beyond a meter depth from of the surface. On the other hand, boreholes are expensive and provide only local information not always representative of the whole unsaturated zone. For this reason, geophysical techniques and among them the electrical resistivity tomography method can be applicable in volcanic areas, where basaltic rocks, pyroclastic and volcanic ash-fall deposits have a wide range of values. In order to characterize the subsurface geology below the golf course of Bandama (Gran Canaria Island), irrigated with reclaimed wastewater, a detailed electrical resistivity tomography survey has been carried out. This technique has allowed to define the geometry of the existing geological formations by their high electrical resistivity contrast. Subsequently, in representative outcrops the value of resistivity of each of these lithologies has been measured and simultaneously undisturbed samples have been taken measuring the hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory. Finally a statistical correlation between both variables has been established for evaluating the vulnerability to groundwater pollution at different zones of the golf course.

  14. Occurrence of eight UV filters in beaches of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). An approach to environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Rodríguez, A; Rodrigo Sanz, M; Betancort Rodríguez, J R

    2015-07-01

    Due to the growing concern about human health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the use of UV filters has increased in recent decades. Unfortunately, some common UV filters are bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms and show a potential for estrogenic activity. The aim of the present study is to determine the presence of some UV filters in the coastal waters of six beaches around Gran Canaria Island as consequence of recreational seaside activities. Eight commonly used UV filters: benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octocrylene (OC), octyl-dimethyl-PABA (OD-PABA), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), homosalate (HMS), butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (BMDBM), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), were monitored and, with the exception of OD-PABA, all were detected in the samples collected. 99% of the samples showed some UV filters and concentration levels reached up to 3316.7 ng/L for BP-3. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) approach showed risk quotients (RQ) higher than 10, which means that there is a significant potential for adverse effects, for 4-MBC and EHMC for those samples with highest levels of UV filters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Groundwater salinity and hydrochemical processes in the volcano-sedimentary aquifer of La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Fuentes, Tatiana; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Heredia, Javier; Custodio, Emilio

    2014-06-15

    The origin of the groundwater salinity and hydrochemical conditions of a 44km(2) volcano-sedimentary aquifer in the semi-arid to arid La Aldea Valley (western Gran Canaria, Spain) has been studied, using major physical and chemical components. Current aquifer recharge is mainly the result of irrigation return flows and secondarily that of rainfall infiltration. Graphical, multivariate statistical and modeling tools have been applied in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model and identify the natural and anthropogenic factors controlling groundwater salinity. Groundwater ranges from Na-Cl-HCO3 type for moderate salinity water to Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 type for high salinity water. This is mainly the result of atmospheric airborne salt deposition; silicate weathering, and recharge incorporating irrigation return flows. High evapotranspiration produces significant evapo-concentration leading to relative high groundwater salinity in the area. Under average conditions, about 70% of the water used for intensive agricultural exploitation in the valley comes from three low salinity water runoff storage reservoirs upstream, out of the area, while the remaining 30% derives from groundwater. The main alluvial aquifer behaves as a short turnover time reservoir that adds to the surface waters to complement irrigation water supply in dry periods, when it reaches 70% of irrigation water requirements. The high seasonality and intra-annual variability of water demand for irrigation press on decision making on aquifer use by a large number of aquifer users acting on their own.

  16. Causes of Admission for Raptors to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, Gran Canaria Island, Spain: 2003-13.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A; Orós, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    We report the causes of morbidity of 2,458 free-living raptors admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, during 2003-13. The seasonal cumulative incidences were investigated while considering estimates of the wild populations in the region. These methods were used as a more accurate approach to assess the potential ecologic impact of different causes of morbidity. The most frequently admitted species were the Eurasian Kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus ; 53.0%), the Eurasian Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus canariensis; 28.1%), the Canary Islands Common Buzzard ( Buteo buteo insularum; 8.0%), and the Eurasian Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ; 4.4%). The most frequent causes of admission were trauma (33.8%), orphaned-young birds (21.7%), unknown (18.4%), and metabolic/nutritional disease (11.1%). Local morbidity caused by glue trapping and entanglement in burr bristlegrass (Setaria adhaerens) had prevalences of 5.0% and 1.8%, respectively. The highest number of admissions during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons was observed for the Eurasian Barn Owl and the Barbary Falcon ( Falco pelegrinoides ), respectively, mainly due to trauma of unknown origin.

  17. Gran Telescopio Canarias observations of an overdense region of Lyman α emitters at z = 6.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanchaiworawit, K.; Guzmán, R.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Calvi, R.; Gallego, J.; Herrero, A.; Manrique, A.; Marín-Franch, A.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Aretxaga, I.; Carrasco, E.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of our search near the end of the Reionization Epoch for faint galaxies. This has been done using very deep OSIRIS images obtained at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Our observations focus around two close, massive Lyman α emitters (LAEs) at redshift 6.5, discovered in the SXDS field within a large-scale overdense region. The total GTC observing time in three medium band filters (F883w35, F913w25 and F941w33) is over 34 h covering 7.0 × 8.5 arcmin2 (or ∼30 000 Mpc3 at z = 6.5). In addition to the two spectroscopically confirmed LAEs in the field, we have identified 45 other LAE candidates. The preliminary luminosity function derived from our observations, assuming a spectroscopic confirmation success rate of 2/3 as in previous surveys, suggests this area is about 2 times denser than the general field galaxy population at z = 6.5. If confirmed spectroscopically, our results will imply the discovery of one of the earliest protoclusters in the Universe, which will evolve to resemble the most massive galaxy clusters today.

  18. Occurrence and environmental impact of pharmaceutical residues from conventional and natural wastewater treatment plants in Gran Canaria (Spain).

    PubMed

    Afonso-Olivares, C; Sosa-Ferrera, Z; Santana-Rodríguez, J J

    2017-12-01

    The presence and fate of pharmaceutical residues in environmental samples are of great interest. There is a vast number of studies published regarding their input, presence, effects and risks in ecosystems. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the primary source of input of these contaminants in the environment is from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs). It is therefore essential to evaluate the efficiency of commonly used treatments and the necessity of applying novel purification processes in order to eliminate or reduce the concentration of pharmaceuticals from wastewater or from the effluent of WWTPs. The aim of this work was to quantify twenty-three pharmaceutical compounds in the aqueous phase at different stages of a conventional and a natural WWTP situated in Gran Canaria (Spain). The results indicate concentration levels in the range of 0.004±0.001 to 59.2±11.7μgL(-1) and 0.018±0.001 to 148±14.7μgL(-1) from conventional and natural WWTPs, respectively. Better efficiency was, however, offered by the conventional WWTP with a removal median of 99.7%. In addition, the impact on different aquatic organisms (algae, daphnids and fish) was assessed in terms of risk quotients. The results reveal a possible highly harmful effect towards organisms by gemfibrozil, ibuprofen and ofloxacin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Behaviour of a small sedimentary volcanic aquifer receiving irrigation return flows: La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Fuentes, T.; Heredia, J.; Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    2014-06-01

    In many arid and semi-arid areas, intensive cultivation is practiced despite water commonly being a limiting factor. Often, irrigation water is from local aquifers or imported from out-of-area aquifers and surface reservoirs. Irrigation return flows become a significant local recharge source, but they may deteriorate aquifer water quality. La Aldea valley, located in the western sector of Gran Canaria Island (Atlantic Ocean), is a coastal, half-closed depression in altered, low-permeability volcanics with alluvium in the gullies and scree deposits over a large part of the area. This area is intensively cultivated. Irrigation water comes from reservoirs upstream and is supplemented (average 30 %) by local groundwater; supplementation goes up to 70 % in dry years, in which groundwater reserves are used up to exhaustion if the dry period persists. Thus, La Aldea aquifer is key to the water-supply system, whose recharge is mostly from return irrigation flows and the scarce local rainfall recharge on the scree formations, conveyed to the gully deposits. To quantify the hydrogeological conceptual model and check data coherence, a simplified numerical model has been constructed, which can be used as a tool to help in water management.

  20. Association between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and overweight and obesity in pregnant women in Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Silva-del Valle, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on weight gain and obesity in pregnant women in Gran Canaria. Cross sectional study in 170 pregnant women We measured the adherence to the MD before and during pregnancy by a food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was determined in the first prenatal visit. Appropriate weight gain was calculated according to the recommendations set by the American Institute of Medicine. We established the association between the degree of compliance with the MD and the increase in BMI (regression coefficients [b] and their confidence intervals (CI) ([95% CI]) and weight gain (Odds ratios [OR] and their 95% CI) during pregnancy. Women with a high baseline adherence to the Mediterranean diet gained less weight during pregnancy (b -1.54; CI 95% -2.53 to -0.56) than women with poor adherence. One point increase in the adherence to this diet during pregnancy was associated with an enhanced probability of appropriate weight gain (OR 1.39; CI 95%1.06 to 1.82). A high baseline adherence to the MD may protect against overweight and obesity during pregnancy. Intensifying this habit during gestation can increase the probability of an appropriate weight gain. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013).

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A; Orós, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC) in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process. We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive) in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout), fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission) rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr), the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive. Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis) was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%), followed by Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) (20.09%). The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout) (25.81%), poisoning/intoxication (24.69%), and other traumas (18.14%). The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the 'other traumas' category (58.08%). Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%). The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout) category (99.20%). This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34%) achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation centers for the conservation of seabirds.

  2. Characterization of Exoplanet Atmospheres and Kepler Planet Candidates with Multi-Color Photometry from the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Knicole; Ford, E. B.

    2012-01-01

    With over 180 confirmed transiting exoplanets and NASA's Kepler mission's recent discovery of over 1200 transiting exoplanet candidates, we can conduct detailed investigations into the (i) properties of exoplanet atmospheres and (ii) false positive rates for planet search surveys. To aid these investigations, we developed a novel technique of using the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) installed on the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) to acquire near-simultaneous multi-color photometry of (i) HD 80606b in bandpasses around the potassium (K I) absorption feature, (ii) GJ 1214b in bandpasses around a possible methane absorption feature and (iii) several Kepler planet candidates. For HD 80606b, we measure a significant color change during transit between wavelengths that probe the K I line core and the K I wing, equivalent to a 4.2% change in the apparent planetary radius. We hypothesize that the excess absorption may be due to K I in a high-speed wind being driven from the exoplanet's exosphere. This is one of the first detections of K I in an exoplanet atmosphere. For GJ 1214b, we compare the transit depths measured "on” and "off” a possible methane absorption feature and use our results to help resolve conflicting results from other studies regarding the composition of this super-Earth-size planet's atmosphere. For Kepler candidates, we use the color change during transit to reject candidates that are false positives (e.g., a blend with an eclipsing binary either in the background/foreground or bound to the target star). We target small planets (<6 Earth radii) with short orbital periods (<6 days), since eclipsing binaries can mimic planets in this regime. Our results include identification of two false positives and test recent predictions of the false positive rates for the Kepler sample. This research demonstrates the value of the GTC for exoplanet follow-up.

  3. The emplacement history of a remarkable heterogeneous, chemically zoned, rheomorphic and locally lava-like ignimbrite: 'TL' on Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, Janet M.; Branney, Michael J.

    2002-06-01

    Ignimbrite 'TL' on Gran Canaria is a complex, compositionally zoned rheomorphic tuff, that locally exhibits features previously considered to be diagnostic of lavas. It is made up of two locally overlapping lobes of ignimbrite that were emplaced during a single eruptive episode. The eastern lobe is high-grade, with rheomorphic zones and localised patches that are lava-like. The western lobe is extremely high-grade, more extensively lava-like, and welded to its top surface. Both parts are zoned, with a basal comendite-rich zone grading up, through a mixed zone, into an upper trachyte-rich zone. Lithic contents, and the relative proportions of comendite and trachyte pyroclasts vary with height. Each comendite-rich zone is vitroclastic, whereas each trachyte-rich zone is partly lava-like with local gradations into vitroclastic ignimbrite. Mixed zones are intermediate in character, and locally show compositional banding. Gradational zoning in massive ignimbrite, best seen in lower strain zones, and welding fabrics that are pervasively lineated and oblique to bedding, suggest that deposition was sustained, agglutination was rapid, and rheomorphic deformation began during the sustained deposition. The viscosity and porosity of the agglutinate varied with height because successively deposited pyroclast populations varied in grainsize, composition and temperature. The hot agglutinate continued to compact and shear downslope after the density currents had dissipated, causing further rheomorphic folding, thrusting, attenuation and autobrecciation. The western lobe locally overlies the partly welded top of the eastern lobe, in part because it advanced rheomorphically across it for at least 300 m. Hot-state loading and auto-intrusion occurred due to unstable density layering in the chemically zoned agglutinate. Deformation behaviour changed during cooling and degassing, and because of heat transfer between juxtaposed agglutinates, and localised retention of dissolved volatiles

  4. Post-eruptive alteration of silicic ignimbrites and lavas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: Strontium, neodymium, lead, and oxygen isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Cousens, B.L. ); Spera, F.J. ); Dobson, P.F. )

    1993-02-01

    Isotopic analyses of Miocene comenditic, pantelleritic, and trachyphonolitic ignimbrites and lavas from Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, provide evidence for posteruptive mobility of Rb, Sr, and O. Calculated initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in whole-rock samples from basaltic lavas and feldspar mineral separates from ignimbrites define a magmatic trend in the stratigraphic section, from ratios of 0.70340 at the base of the Mogan Formation to 0.70305 in the lower Fataga Formation. However, calculated apparent initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in hydrated vitrophyre and devitrified matrix separates range from 0.7035 to 0.7090. [delta][sup 18]O ratios in basalts and feldspars vary little, from +5.7 to +6.1, yet range from +6.5 to +15.0 in the ignimbrite matrices. In contrast to the Sr and O isotope ratios, Pb and Nd isotope ratios are identical within analytical error in feldspars and their silicic ignimbrite matrices. Sequential leaching experiments and the oxygen data suggest that low-temperature, posteruptive interaction with meteoric water, perhaps containing a small seawater component, has modified Rb and Sr concentrations in the matrices, such that calculated apparent initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios are not those of the magmas when they were erupted. Mobilization of Rb and Sr must occur significantly after eurption. Nd and Pb isotope systems appear to be unaffected by this process. Therefore, [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios determined by whole rock analysis of silicic rocks from hotspot-type oceanic islands are suspect and should not be incorporated into mantle tracer studies, although analysis of phenocrysts may produce useful data. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The speciation of iron in desert dust collected in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands): Combined chemical, magnetic and optical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro, Francisco J.; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Barrón, Vidal; Gelado, María D.

    Atmospheric dust collected on filters at a coastal site in Gran Canaria has been analysed by a combination of chemical, magnetic and optical methods with the aim of determining the iron speciation. The fraction of total iron as particulate (oxyhydr)oxides, determined by the citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite method, was 0.39 ± 0.11 (mean ± s.d.); the fraction of (oxyhydr)oxide iron in ferrimagnetic form, through analysis of the saturation magnetisation, was 0.053 ± 0.038 (mean ± s.d.); and the fraction of haematite iron with respect to the iron in haematite + goethite form, by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements, was 0.47 ± 0.12 (mean ± s.d.). Consistent with these findings, low temperature in-phase and out-of-phase AC susceptibility measurements reveal also the presence of paramagnetic iron, most likely in silicates with ionic substitution, and indicate that, while magnetite or haematite particles may be present in the dust, their particle size should be very small, as the typical magnetic transitions characteristic of large crystals of these oxides are practically impossible to detect. The comparison of the Fe/Al elemental ratios with typical crustal values indicates that the great majority of captured dust iron has a non-anthropogenic origin. Although no significant correlations have been found between the analysed dust properties and the dust provenance, the obtained magnetic data corresponding to the dust collected at this site may be useful, as a middle step, in future magnetic monitoring studies of the iron biogeochemical cycle.

  6. Saharan dust and the impact on adult and elderly allergic patients: the effect of threshold values in the northern sector of Gran Canaria, Spain.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Inmaculada; Derbyshire, Edward; Carrillo, Teresa; Caballero, Elena; Engelbrecht, Johann P; Romero, Lidia E; Mayer, Pablo L; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Mangas, José

    2017-04-01

    Gran Canaria Island is frequently impacted by Saharan dust, a health hazard of particular concern to the island population and health agencies. Airborne mineral dust has the severest impact on the higher age groups of the population, and those with respiratory conditions; despite that, on average, the ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations fall within international PM guidelines. During 2010 and 2011, an epidemiological survey, in parallel with an air quality study, was conducted at the Dr Negrín hospital in Gran Canaria. This included the quarterly monitoring of outpatients and recording of emergency patients with respiratory diseases, together with the measurement of aerosol, meteorological, and PM-related air quality levels. The finer more toxic particles were collected with PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) aerosol samplers. The filter samples were gravimetrically and chemically analyzed for their elemental, water-soluble ions, carbon, and mineralogical contents. Individual particle morphology was measured by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Statistical analysis of the chemical and clinical data included the analysis of variance and calculation of Spearman correlation coefficients. No statistically significant relations were found between the allergic control group, the emergency room admissions, pulmonary conditions, medication, and elevated Saharan dust levels. However, changing environmental conditions, such as an increase in humidity or a reduction in ambient air temperature made a significant difference to the outcomes recorded on the health statements of the allergic and respiratory illness groups of the Gran Canary population.

  7. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC) in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process. Methods We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive) in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout), fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission) rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr), the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive. Results Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis) was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%), followed by Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) (20.09%). The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout) (25.81%), poisoning/intoxication (24.69%), and other traumas (18.14%). The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the ‘other traumas’ category (58.08%). Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%). The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout) category (99.20%). Conclusions This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34%) achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation

  8. On the generic placement of the narrow-range endemic 'Helix' arguineguinensis Seddon & Aparicio, 1998 from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Neiber, Marco T

    2015-07-03

    The nominal taxon 'Helix' arguineguinensis Seddon & Aparicio, 1998 is a narrow-range endemic from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) known only from few localities in the vicinity of Argüineguin in the south-western part of the island (Mousson, 1874; Wollaston, 1878; Seddon & Aparicio, 1998). The narrow range of the taxon and potential threats to its habitat as a consequence of ongoing urbanisation of the area justify its classification in the category 'critically endangered' of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as proposed by Cuttelod et al. (2011). The species has tentatively been included in the genus Xerotricha Monterosato, 1892 (Bank et al., 2002) or classified as possibly belonging to Monilearia Mousson, 1872 on the basis of general shell morphology (Ibáñez et al., 2006). The genus Monilearia is believed to be closely related to the genera Cochlicella Férussac, 1821 in Férussac, 1821-1822 Prietocella Schileyko & Menkhorst, 1997 and Obelus Hartmann, 1842 in Hartmann (1840-1844) because it shares with these taxa the presence of a vaginal appendage with a peculiar morphology similar to the generalized penial appendix of orthurethran gastropods as described by Schileyko (1984) (Fig. 1). Schileyko (1972) introduced Cochlicellinae as a subfamily of the Hygromiidae. The phylogenetic affinity of this family-level taxon has been variously interpreted (Nordsieck, 1987, 1993; Schileyko, 1991; Schileyko & Menkhorst, 1997; Steinke et al., 2004; Manganelli et al., 2005; Wade et al., 2006, 2007), but recent molecular analyses of Palearctic Helicoidea by Razkin et al. (2015) have lend support to the hypothesis that it represents a tribe (Cochlicellini) within the family Geomitridae as newly delimited by these authors. Diagnostic for the genera in Cochlicellini are details of the anatomy of the vaginal appendage consisting in all anatomically known species of a tubular, comparatively wide section (A1) inserting into the vagina

  9. Geophysical imaging of the lacustrine sediments deposited in the La Calderilla Volcanic Caldera (Gran Canaria Island, Spain) for paleoclimate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Criado, Constantino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Ravazzi, Cesare; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of well-preserved maar structures is important not only for studying the eruptive activity and formation of volcanoes, but also for paleoclimate research, since laminated maar lake sediments may contain very detailed archives of climate and environmental history. Maars are a singular type of volcanic structure generated by explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions as a result of interaction between rising magma and groundwater. This kind of structures are characterised by circular craters, often filled with water and/or lacustrine sediments and surrounded by a ring of pyroclastic deposits.Recently a borehole was drilled at the bottom of La Calderilla volcanic complex which penetrated about 8.7 m in its sedimentary sequence and paleobotanical study has supplied the first evidence of paleoenvironmental evolution during the Holocene on the Gran Canaria Island. This survey, however, did not penetrate into the substrate because the total thickness of the sedimentary fill was unknown. Since the age of formation of La Calderilla volcanic complex based on K/Ar dating is about 85,000 years (Upper Pleistocene), the possibility of its sedimentary fill extends beyond of the Holocene is extremely attractive, since, for example, there are few paleoenvironmental data regarding how much the last glaciation that affected the Canary Islands. In these circumstances, the knowledge of the total thickness of the lacustrine sediments is crucial to design a deeper borehole in the next future. Therefore, the subsurface characterisation provided by geophysics is essential for determining thickness and geometry of the sedimentary filling. Multielectrode ERT method was used to obtain five 2-D resistivity cross-sections into La Calderilla volcanic caldera. An Iris Syscal Pro resistivity system with 48 electrodes connected to a 94 m long cable (2m electrode spacing) in Wenner-Schlumberger configuration for an investigation depth of about 20 m. Data quality (q <2 %).was assessed by

  10. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information and Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015). The e-Learning 2015…

  11. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    PubMed

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  12. Experimental definition of microclimatic conditions based on water transfer and porous media properties for the conservation of prehistoric constructions: Cueva Pintada at Galdar, Gran Canaria, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavente, D.; Cañaveras, J. C.; Cuezva, S.; Laiz, L.; Sanchez-Moral, S.

    2009-02-01

    Microclimatic parameters and natural materials were studied in order to assess conservation of the cave complex at Galdar, Gran Canaria. Based on the microclimatic data, experimental simulations were carried out to quantify water retention capacity and water vapour transport kinetics under continuously changing extreme temperatures and relative humidity values. The behaviour of natural construction materials is greatly influenced by changes in thermo-hygrometric conditions and is linked to pore structure. The host rock has a complex porous media: high porosity and polymodal pore size distribution, where the smallest pores contribute to water condensation, whilst large pores lead to high water absorption rates. The axial compressive strength of the host-rock decreases between 30 and 70% at water saturation. Stuccos covering cave wall paintings are formed by clay minerals, mainly smectites. These clay minerals cover a large specific surface area, which leads to a high capacity for water condensation and retention. It is also shown that neither water condensation nor vapour transport are noticeably modified by the presence of stucco on the host-rock when rapid, highly variable changes occur in environmental conditions if large shrinkage cracks are present. Results show that safe threshold microclimatic conditions can be found below 75% RH in the natural temperature range and that slight variations in temperature and relative humidity do not modify durability properties.

  13. Evaluation of the Presence of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Dissolved and Solid Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Morales, T.; Sosa-Ferrera, Z.; Santana-Rodríguez, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid and solid samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Gran Canaria Island (Spain) have been tested for the presence of compounds with endocrine-disrupting properties. The selected degradation stages were sampled bimonthly from each WWTP over the 12-month period from July 2010 to July 2011. The analytical methods used for the determination of the endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) were based on on-line solid phase extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) coupled to UHPLC-MS/MS. All of the hyphenated methodologies employed in this work showed good recoveries (72–104%) and sensitivities, with LODs lower than 7.0 ng L−1 and 6.3 ng g−1 for the dissolved and solid fractions, respectively. We have also evaluated the estrogenicity of the samples in terms of their estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). The chemical analysis of the selected EDCs revealed fairly low concentrations for both natural and synthetic oestrogens, alkylphenolic compounds, and bisphenol-A in each of the dissolved, particulate, and sludge samples (ng L−1 or ng g−1). However, the estimated estrogenic activity indicated that the majority of samples could represent an important environmental risk, clearly surpassing the threshold to exert deleterious consequences on living beings. PMID:24163820

  14. Evaluation of the presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in dissolved and solid wastewater treatment plant samples of Gran Canaria Island (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vega-Morales, T; Sosa-Ferrera, Z; Santana-Rodríguez, J J

    2013-01-01

    Liquid and solid samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Gran Canaria Island (Spain) have been tested for the presence of compounds with endocrine-disrupting properties. The selected degradation stages were sampled bimonthly from each WWTP over the 12-month period from July 2010 to July 2011. The analytical methods used for the determination of the endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) were based on on-line solid phase extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) coupled to UHPLC-MS/MS. All of the hyphenated methodologies employed in this work showed good recoveries (72-104%) and sensitivities, with LODs lower than 7.0 ng L(-1) and 6.3 ng g(-1) for the dissolved and solid fractions, respectively. We have also evaluated the estrogenicity of the samples in terms of their estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). The chemical analysis of the selected EDCs revealed fairly low concentrations for both natural and synthetic oestrogens, alkylphenolic compounds, and bisphenol-A in each of the dissolved, particulate, and sludge samples (ng L(-1) or ng g(-1)). However, the estimated estrogenic activity indicated that the majority of samples could represent an important environmental risk, clearly surpassing the threshold to exert deleterious consequences on living beings.

  15. The Azuaje travertine: an example of aragonite deposition in a recent volcanic setting, N Gran Canaria Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Berriguete, A.; Alonso-Zarza, A. M.; Cabrera, M. C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.

    2012-11-01

    The Azuaje travertines in the north of Gran Canary Island crop out in the Azuaje Gorge, which is incised into Miocene volcanic breccias of the Roque Nublo Formation. This travertine is interesting because of the scarcity of travertines in the Canary Islands and its close relationship with recent volcanic events. Part of the travertine overlies a lava flow, dated at 2420 ± 40 years BP. The travertine is composed mainly of aragonite in both perched systems on the gorge walls and in gorge bottom deposits parallel to the present stream. Perched systems include deposits from the feeder conduits within the Roque Nublo Formation that spilled out through waterfalls and over barriers. The gorge (valley) bottom system includes barrier and pool deposits. The main laminated facies are composed mostly of large fibrous aragonite crystals, while there are also common micritic and porous microfabrics. Shrubs, coated grains, coated bubbles and rafts are present in many of the deposits. Detailed study of the microfacies shows the presence of sparsely distributed biogenic features. The δ13C values are between + 4.0 and + 11.0‰, and the δ18O values range between - 11.0 and - 2.0‰ VPDB. These δ13C values lie within the range of those of thermogene travertines fed by thermal waters that cooled downstream, as indicated by the increase of the carbon and oxygen isotope values in that direction. The common occurrence of fibrous radial fabrics is interpreted to be due to disequilibrium conditions during aragonite precipitation. Disequilibrium was likely caused by rapid CO2 degassing of the thermal waters that led to a rapid increase in the degree of aragonite saturation. Thus, the morphology of the aragonite crystals and the isotopic composition indicate that the formation of the Azuaje travertine was mostly due to abiogenic processes induced by rapid degassing of thermal waters, linked to the presence of a recent lava flow within the Gorge. In short, the Azuaje travertine shows the

  16. FILTER-INDUCED BIAS IN Lyα EMITTER SURVEYS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN STANDARD AND TUNABLE FILTERS. GRAN TELESCOPIO CANARIAS PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    De Diego, J. A.; De Leo, M. A.; Cepa, J.; Bongiovanni, A.; Verdugo, T.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2013-10-01

    Lyα emitter (LAE) surveys have successfully used the excess in a narrowband filter compared to a nearby broadband image to find candidates. However, the odd spectral energy distribution (SED) of LAEs combined with the instrumental profile has important effects on the properties of the candidate samples extracted from these surveys. We investigate the effect of the bandpass width and the transmission profile of the narrowband filters used for extracting LAE candidates at redshifts z ≅ 6.5 through Monte Carlo simulations, and we present pilot observations to test the performance of tunable filters to find LAEs and other emission-line candidates. We compare the samples obtained using a narrow ideal rectangular filter, the Subaru NB921 narrowband filter, and sweeping across a wavelength range using the ultra-narrow-band tunable filters of the instrument OSIRIS, installed at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We use this instrument for extracting LAE candidates from a small set of real observations. Broadband data from the Subaru, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer databases were used for fitting SEDs to calculate photometric redshifts and to identify interlopers. Narrowband surveys are very efficient in finding LAEs in large sky areas, but the samples obtained are not evenly distributed in redshift along the filter bandpass, and the number of LAEs with equivalent widths <60 Å can be underestimated. These biased results do not appear in samples obtained using ultra-narrow-band tunable filters. However, the field size of tunable filters is restricted because of the variation of the effective wavelength across the image. Thus, narrowband and ultra-narrow-band surveys are complementary strategies to investigate high-redshift LAEs.

  17. Petrogenesis of mixed-magma, high-grade, peralkaline ignimbrite 'TL' (Gran Canaria): diverse styles of mixing in a replenished, zoned magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, Janet M.; Wolff, John

    2003-08-01

    The Miocene (13.4 Ma) high-grade, peralkaline ignimbrite TL on Gran Canaria comprises two overlapping ignimbrite lobes, an eastern lobe which is high-grade, with rheomorphic lithofacies, and a western lobe which is extremely high-grade with lava-like lithofacies. The two lobes were erupted from different vents tapping the same magma chamber during a single eruption; where they overlap the western lobe overlies the eastern lobe [Sumner and Branney (2002) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 115, 109-138]. Three magma compositions are present: comendite, trachyte and benmoreite. Fiamme of intermediate composition also occur and magma mingling during withdrawal produced compositionally banded juvenile clasts. Both ignimbrite lobes consist of mixed and mingled comendite and trachyte plus small mafic globules of benmoreite in the western lobe. The ignimbrite lobes have a broad vertical compositional zonation with a basal dominantly comenditic zone, grading up into a mixed zone with subequal amounts of comendite and trachyte, which passes into an overlying trachyte-dominated zone; the magma chamber is inferred to have been zoned upwards from trachyte to comendite. Major and trace element compositional variations and phenocryst-whole rock relations among comendite and trachyte are scattered in a fashion consistent with mingling of, and exchange of phenocrysts between, liquids that lie along the fractionation path from trachyte to comendite. Intrusion of benmoreite magma into the chamber over a period of several months to years before the eruption produced mafic globules that equilibrated to varying degrees with the lower trachyte magma layer. This replenishment ultimately triggered the eruption. Most of the trachyte-comendite mingling probably occurred during withdrawal and eruption; some certainly took place after ignimbrite deposition, during rheomorphic flow. Magmatically heterogeneous high-grade ignimbrites that experience an episode of non-particulate flow show particularly

  18. Relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal system, Maspalomas, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Espino, Emma Pérez-Chacón

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal dune system, specifically the dune field of Maspalomas (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). The aim is to understand the strategies of colonization and survival that plant communities have developed in slacks that face dune advance. The relationship between plant colonization and dune migration was performed by following Tamarix canariensis and Traganum moquinii plants for several years. Morphological data about each individual as well as the distance of each plant to the dune were measured. A study of the colonization patterns developed by T. moquinii, T. canariensis, Cyperus laevigatus and Launaea arborescens communities was performed by analyzing the evolution of consolidated plant patches and adult plants in relation to the dune advance. This was achieved using digital orthophotos and spatial analysis from geographic information systems. Initiation of plant colonization over transgressive dunes occurs on both wet and dry slacks. The results show that both plant colonization and development of adult plants are largely related to dune mobility. Thus, survival of T. moquinii and T. canariensis plants under dune migration conditions is related to both distance to the dune front and plant height at the moment of burial. Distance from the dune front and plant height increases chance of survival. The dynamics of adult plants is also related to dune displacement rates. Thus, each community has different thresholds of resistance to mobility rates. The T. canariensis community withstands average rates higher than 3 m/year. Its arboreal structure allows this species to grow high enough to resist the advance of the dunes and burial. For the T. moquinii community, the population decreases gradually to eventually disappear when dune mobility rates exceed 4 m/year. The C. laevigatus community develops at dune mobility rates lower than 3 m/year, decreasing its surface

  19. Entheseal changes and sexual division of labor in a North-African population: The case of the pre-Hispanic period of the Gran Canaria Island (11th-15th c. CE).

    PubMed

    Santana-Cabrera, J; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between entheseal changes and sexual division of labor in the pre-Hispanic population of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Ethnohistorical records from the period of contact between Europeans and the Canarian indigenous population provide rich information about the different activities performed by men and women. For this purpose, entheseal changes in a sample of 138 individuals (82 males and 56 females) buried in ten pre-Hispanic cemeteries (11th and 15th centuries cal. CE) were analyzed. Forty-one entheses located in the clavicle, humerus, ulna and radius were analyzed (fibrous and fibro-cartilaginous attachment sites). Entheses were graded using a visual and descriptive standard which summarized the entheseal changes. This method interprets the changes as a sign of robustness on a scale from low to high development and includes enthesopathies. The intra- and inter-observer error of this method was minimal. Sex differences in the degree of robustness, bilateral asymmetry, sexual dimorphism and principal components analyses were tested in this sample. The results indicate significant variance in the entheseal robustness between males and females. They also suggest the impact of certain biomechanical chains (pronosupination, shoulder rotation, etc.) in entheseal changes. These results contribute to an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the sexual division of labor in the pre-Hispanic society of Gran Canaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyroclastic flows and lavas of the Mogan and Fataga formations, Tejeda Volcano, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: mineral chemistry, intensive parameters, and magma chamber evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Spera, Frank J.

    1987-12-01

    The Mogan and Fataga formations on the island of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, represent a sequence of approximately 30 intercalated pyroclastic and lava flows (total volume about 500 km3 dense-rock equivalent) including subalkaline rhyolitic, peralkaline rhyolitic and trachytic pyroclastic flows, nepheline trachyte lavas and a small volume of alkali basaltic lavas and tephra deposits. The eruption of the intermediate to silicic rocks of the Mogan and Fataga formations follows the roughly 4 Ma duration of basaltic shield volcanism. The most common assemblage in the evolved (Mogan and Fataga) rocks is anorthoclase+ edenitic amphibole+ilmenite+magnetite±augite±hypersthene +apatite+pyrrhotite. A few flows also contain plagioclase, biotite, or sphene. Coexisting Fe-Ti oxides yield equilibrium temperatures between 835 and 930° C and logf_{O_2 } between -11.2 and -12.6. The lowermost pyroclastic flow of the Mogan formation is zoned from a rhyolitic base (848° C) to a basaltic top (931° C). Unit P1 has an oxygen isotope feldspar-magnetite temperature (850° C) very close to its Fe-Ti oxide temperature. One of the youngest Mogan flows is zoned from a comendite (836° C) at the base to a comenditic trachyte (899° C) at the top. The Fataga formation pyroclastic flows show only slight compositional zonation, and one flow has the same Fe-Ti oxide compositions at top and base. Calculations using the reaction 1/3 magnetite+SiO2 (melt)=ferrosilite+1/6 O2 indicate total pressures of 1 4 (±3) kb for six of the Mogan flows and one of the Fataga flows. For four of the pyroclastic flows, equilibria involving tremolite-SiO2-diopside-enstatite-H2O and phlogopite-SiO2-sanidine-enstatite-H2O imply water contents of 0.9 to 2.6 (±0.5) wt% andf_{H_2 O} between 80 and 610 bars, which indicates that magma within the Tejeda reservoir was H2O-undersaturated throughout the entire history of Mogan to Fataga volcanism. The fluorine contents of amphibole, biotite, and apatite, and chlorine

  1. Causes of Stranding and Mortality, and Final Disposition of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (1998-2014): A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Orós, Jorge; Montesdeoca, Natalia; Camacho, María; Arencibia, Alberto; Calabuig, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of stranding of 1,860 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted at the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 1998 to 2014, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process to allow meaningful auditing of its quality. Methods Primary causes of morbidity were classified into seven categories: entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics, ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines, trauma, infectious disease, crude oil, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. Final dispositions were calculated as euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), and release (Rr) rates. Time to death (Td) for euthanized and dead turtles, and length of stay for released (Tr) turtles were evaluated. Results The most frequent causes of morbidity were entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics (50.81%), unknown/undetermined (20.37%), and ingestion of hooks (11.88%). The final disposition of the 1,634 loggerhead turtles admitted alive were: Er = 3.37%, Mr = 10.34%, and Rr = 86.29%. Er was significantly higher in the trauma category (18.67%) compared to the other causes of admission. The highest Mr was observed for turtles admitted due to trauma (30.67%). The highest Rr was observed in the crude oil (93.87%) and entanglement (92.38%) categories. The median Tr ranged from 12 days (unknown) to 70 days (trauma). Conclusions This survey is the first large-scale epidemiological study on causes of stranding and mortality of Eastern Atlantic loggerheads and demonstrates that at least 71.72% of turtles stranded due to anthropogenic causes. The high Rr (86.29%) emphasizes the importance of marine rehabilitation centers for conservation purposes. The stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters Td and Tr should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation process of sea turtles in order to allow comparative studies between marine

  2. Causes of Stranding and Mortality, and Final Disposition of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (1998-2014): A Long-Term Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Orós, Jorge; Montesdeoca, Natalia; Camacho, María; Arencibia, Alberto; Calabuig, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of stranding of 1,860 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted at the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 1998 to 2014, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process to allow meaningful auditing of its quality. Primary causes of morbidity were classified into seven categories: entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics, ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines, trauma, infectious disease, crude oil, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. Final dispositions were calculated as euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), and release (Rr) rates. Time to death (Td) for euthanized and dead turtles, and length of stay for released (Tr) turtles were evaluated. The most frequent causes of morbidity were entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics (50.81%), unknown/undetermined (20.37%), and ingestion of hooks (11.88%). The final disposition of the 1,634 loggerhead turtles admitted alive were: Er = 3.37%, Mr = 10.34%, and Rr = 86.29%. Er was significantly higher in the trauma category (18.67%) compared to the other causes of admission. The highest Mr was observed for turtles admitted due to trauma (30.67%). The highest Rr was observed in the crude oil (93.87%) and entanglement (92.38%) categories. The median Tr ranged from 12 days (unknown) to 70 days (trauma). This survey is the first large-scale epidemiological study on causes of stranding and mortality of Eastern Atlantic loggerheads and demonstrates that at least 71.72% of turtles stranded due to anthropogenic causes. The high Rr (86.29%) emphasizes the importance of marine rehabilitation centers for conservation purposes. The stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters Td and Tr should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation process of sea turtles in order to allow comparative studies between marine rehabilitation centers around the world.

  3. Gran Telescopio Canarias Commissioning Instrument Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, Carlos; Cuevas, Salvador; Sanchez, Beatriz; Flores, Ruben; Lara, Gerardo; Farah, Alejandro; Godoy, Javier; Bringas, Vicente; Chavoya, Armando; Dorantes, Ariel; Manuel Montoya, Juan; Rangel, Juan Carlos; Devaney, Nicholas; Castro, Javier; Cavaller, Luis

    2003-02-01

    Under a contract with the GRANTECAN, the Commissioning Instrument is a project developed by a team of Mexican scientists and engineers from the Instrumentation Department of the Astronomy Institute at the UNAM and the CIDESI Engineering Center. This paper will discuss in some detail the final Commissioning Instrument (CI) mechanical design and fabrication. We will also explain the error budget and the barrels design as well as their thermal compensation. The optical design and the control system are discussed in other papers. The CI will just act as a diagnostic tool for image quality verification during the GTC Commissioning Phase. This phase is a quality control process for achieving, verifying, and documenting the performance of each GTC sub-systems. This is a very important step for the telescope life. It will begin on starting day and will last for a year. The CI project started in December 2000. The critical design phase was reviewed in July 2001. The CI manufacturing is currently in progress and most parts are finished. We are now approaching the factory acceptance stage.

  4. A fiber positioner robot for the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, M.; Becerril, S.; Vilar, C.; Arrillaga, X.; Sánchez, J.; Morales, I.; Carrera, M. A.; Prada, F.

    2010-07-01

    Fiber-fed spectrographs dedicated to observing massive portions of the sky are increasingly being more demanded within the astronomical community. For all the fiber-fed instruments, the primordial and common problem is the positioning of the fiber ends, which must match the position of the objects of a target field on the sky. Amongst the different approaches found in the state of the art, actuator arrays are one of the best. Indeed, an actuator array is able to position all the fiber heads simultaneously, thus making the reconfiguration time extremely short and the instrument efficiency high. The SIDE group* at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, together with the industrial company AVS and the University of Barcelona, has been developing an actuator suitable for a large and scalable array. A real-scale prototype has been built and tested in order to validate its innovative design concept, as well as to verify the fulfillment of the mechanical requirements. The present article describes both the concept design and the test procedures and conditions. The main results are shown and a full justification of the validity of the proposed concept is provided.

  5. GRAN experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morakis, J. C.; Cote, C.; Orr, G.; Roach, L.

    1973-01-01

    A global system for search and rescue was studied to reduce the time lost between a mishap and rescue efforts. The sequence of the GRAN concept proceeds as follows: (1) A distress call is initiated by a survivor and consists of the retransmission of Omega tones and a unique identifying code. (2) Signals are frequency translated through the satellite from UHF to SHF. (3) The received signals are processed in real-time using improved skywave correction and lane ambiguity techniques. The results are processed in geographical coordinates, time of day, and unique ID. This information is then relayed to the closest rescue agent. The Omega system is described, and the satellite/GRAN compatibility is discussed. The program plan and schedule are included.

  6. Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) and its Observatories—the OBSERVATORIO DEL TEIDE on Tenerife and the OBSERVATORIO DEL ROQUE DE LOS MUCHACHOS on La Palma—are a Spanish research center open, from 1979, to the international scientific community through its Agreements on Cooperation in Astrophysics. The IAC Observatories in fact form the European Northern Observatory (ENO), in which in...

  7. The Canarias Einstein ring: a newly discovered optical Einstein ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinelli, M.; Simioni, M.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Cassisi, S.; Walker, A. R.; Piotto, G.; Valdes, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of an optical Einstein ring in the Sculptor constellation, IAC J010127-334319, in the vicinity of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. It is an almost complete ring (˜300°) with a diameter of ˜4.5 arcsec. The discovery was made serendipitously from inspecting Dark Energy Camera (DECam) archive imaging data. Confirmation of the object nature has been obtained by deriving spectroscopic redshifts for both components, lens and source, from observations at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) with the spectrograph OSIRIS. The lens, a massive early-type galaxy, has a redshift of z = 0.581, while the source is a starburst galaxy with redshift of z = 1.165. The total enclosed mass that produces the lensing effect has been estimated to be Mtot = (1.86 ± 0.23) × 1012 M⊙.

  8. Control software and user interface for the Canarias Infrared Camera Experiment (CIRCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Franch, Antonio; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Charcos-Llorens, Miguel V.; Edwards, Michelle L.; Varosi, Frank; Hon, David B.; Raines, Steven N.; Warner, Craig D.; Rashkin, David

    2006-06-01

    The Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) is a near-infrared visitor instrument for the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). This document shows CIRCE software. It will have two major functions: instrument control and observatory interface. The instrument control software is based on the UFLIB library, currently used to operate FLAMINGOS-1 and T-ReCS (as well as the CanariCam and FLAMINGOS-2 instruments under development in the University of Florida). The software interface with the telescope will be based on a CORBA server-client architecture. Finally, the user interface will consist of two java-based interfaces for the mechanism/detector control, and for quick look and analysis of data.

  9. The Gran Sasso Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Sasso underground laboratory is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). It is located under the Gran Sasso massif, in central Italy, between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome. It is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world and the most advanced in terms of complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. The scientific program at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS)is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  10. Gran Telescopio Canarias: current status of its optical design and optomechanical support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Lotti; Castro, Javier; Devaney, Nicholas

    1998-08-01

    The conceptual design of the GTC optical system was completed in summer of 1997. It will be a Richey Cretien type telescope with a flat tertiary mirror to feed Nasmyth and folded Cassegrain focal stations. The telescope will have a segmented primary mirror and an entrance pupil area equivalent to a circular aperture of 10 m diameter. The details of its optical- and opto-mechanical design have been chosen to meet the scientific requirements such as excellent image quality in a broad wavelength range (0.3 microns < (lambda) < 15 microns) and maximum operational efficiency. To achieve the required specifications, all optical elements, in particular the primary mirror segments need to be equipped with a high performance opto-mechanical support system. In this paper we present the results of the optical- and opto-mechanical design of the GTC.

  11. Geomorphology of the Arteara Holocene rock-avalanche deposit, Gran Canaria Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes, Jorge; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    Abundant slide deposits cover the southern ravines of Grand Canary. These are mainly volcanic debris avalanches consisting of rock slides and debris slides. The main course of the Fataga ravine is entrenched 600m into the Phonolite Formation. At Arteara an accumulation of large reddish blocks has been characterised covering the right side of the ravine. The deposit has a surface area of 0.565 km2 and has been dated as a Holocene rock avalanche, because of its good state of conservation. The blocks cover a previous relief formed by a rock slide with a surface area of 1.236km2 and thought to be Pleistocene. The whole of the deposit is covered at its head by an active scree sequence. The rock slide deposit varies in thickness from 25m to 100m and has head and foot zones. The flanks are indicated by tributary streams with an arching course and anomalous confluence with the main ravine. Several fragmented rocky wedges can be seen at the head with local tilting against the slope. In addition, an elongated depression has formed coinciding with the fracture through the rocky wedges. This depression is partially masked by the rock avalanche deposits. The slide scar is hidden behind the rocky wedges, coinciding with the col between the Morro Garito and the erosion surface defined at the top of the Phonolite Formation. The foot of the rocky slide is affected by an incipient drainage network at present masked by the rock avalanche. These palaeochannels show the presence of several reactivation episodes that would have broken up the foot of the rock slide into several bodies. There is a mass of broken rock on the northern flank, presumably caused by a rock slide movement. There is a mass of disorganised rock in the central sector of the foot, probably caused by a debris slide-slump movement, as suggested by an elongated depression, the deformation of the layers and a reappearance of the deposit in the distal zone. This second gravitational deposit collided with the opposite side, where some remains can still be recognised. This was later covered by a layer of ordered rubble from the left bank. Blockage of the main course gave rise to an alluvial-torrential plain of boulders and gravels along the section upstream from Arteara. A network of braided channels has developed on this plain. At present, the advance of the rising erosion has cut through the slope deposit and is dismantling the alluvial-torrential plain. The rock avalanche defines an elongated tongue in the direction of flow, of varying thickness (1-15m) and L/H = 2.47 (displacement/total fall=1325m/535m), reappearing at the foot (Hr=15m). In general, the rock avalanche is adapted to the previous slide, although it has small overspill lobes on the lateral flanks. The low angle of friction deduced (=21.47°) agrees with the high mobility estimated from the L/H ratio and is due to the existence of a previous relief defined by the rock slide and the lubrication provided by the ignimbrite. This easily weathered material must have made up the gravel layer over which the lava blocks moved. The rock avalanche deposit varies widely in size and is structured in bands of loose blocks with a bimodal distribution (0.1-3m3; 10.30m3) and low selection. The blocks lie on a layer of loose, flat, angular gravels. The blocks are angular and show numerous signs of impact, including split and fragmented blocks, faces with conchoidal fractures, chipped edges and broken corners. The movement of the rock avalanche would have been a swift, dry granular flow. The avalanche would have had a leap component at the head, turbulent flow in the intermediate corridor and laminar flow in the distal zone. The leap component is identified by the accumulation of blocks in crests transversal to the flow and the presence of megablocks aligned with the flow. The turbulent component is identified by the chaotic accumulation of blocks in the palaeochannels and overspill lobes covering the flanks. The laminar component is identified by the bimodal distribution of blocks as concentric propagation waves. The available data are not sufficient to suggest a link between the rock avalanche and freeze-melt processes. However, evidence from several humid-subtropical episodes in the Quaternary suggests undermining of the scarp and triggering of the previous rock slide. The subsequent variation in the state of tensions on the shelf and the penetrating nature of the thermal retraction diaclases would justify the detachment of an approximately 2.82*106m3 block.

  12. Expansion of the E138A mutation in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, Francisco; Gilarranz, Raúl; Tosco, Tomás; Carrillo, Deyanira; Holguín, África; Santana, Évora; Pérez-Arellano, Jose Luís; Hernández, Michele; Francés, Adela; Cárdenes, Miguel Ángel; Zarzalejos, Jose María; Pena-López, María José

    2016-09-01

    Molecular epidemiology allows us to know local HIV transmission and to design strategies of prevention. We studied 25 HIV newly diagnosed patients with the E138A mutation since the year 2010. Most transmission networks involved young and promiscuous men who have sex with men. Recent infection was only documented in patients grouped into the smaller clusters.

  13. Prescribed Burning and Clear-Cutting Effects on Understory Vegetation in a Pinus canariensis Stand (Gran Canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo, José Ramón; García-Domínguez, Celia; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Grillo, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume), although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied. PMID:25147839

  14. The BOOTES experiment in support of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in the study of the high energy Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Cerón, J. M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; García-Dabó, C. E.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; Páta, P.; Bernas, M.; Jelínek, M.; Hudec, R.; Berná, J. Á.; Gorosabel, J.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    A GTC target of opportunity program (ToO) for gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglows will be a very powerful tool for studying the primitive Universe. Photometry and spectroscopy of GRBs are very suitable for tracing the star formation rate of the Universe at high redshifts (prompt optical and near-infrared observations with the GTC could detect GRBs to z <˜ 17; Castro-Tirado et al., this volume, p. 252; Gorosabel et al., this volume, p. 288). BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System) can very efficiently support a ToO at the GTC through its robotized, extremely fast response capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the ongoing effort to finalize a real time, online, automatic data analysis system for BOOTES. Such a system will be able to provide early, reliable, and accurate GRB positions (confirmed by satellite) to trigger a GTC ToO.

  15. Post-eruptive alteration of silicic ignimbrites and lavas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands - Strontium, neodymium, lead, and oxygen isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cousens, Brian L.; Spera, Frank J.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    1993-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lavas from oceanic islands provides important information about the composition and evolution of the earth's mantle. Isotopic analyses of Miocene comenditic, pantelleritic, and trachyphonolitic ignimbrites and lavas from the Canary islands were performed. Results provide evidence for posteruptive mobility of Rb and Sr during low temperature postemplacement interaction with circulating ground water. Calculated Sr isotope ratios define a magmatic trend in the stratigraph section. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in hydrated vitrophyte and devitrified matrix separates indicate significant posteruptive interaction with meteoric water starting soon after deposition. This process extends patchily through the entire pyroclastic flow and may be ongoing. 87Sr/86Sr ratios determined by whole rock analysis of silicic rocks from oceanic islands are suspect and should not be incorporated into mantle tracer studies. Anorthoclase phenocrysts are resistant to these processes and may produce useful data.

  16. Prescribed burning and clear-cutting effects on understory vegetation in a Pinus canariensis stand (Gran Canaria).

    PubMed

    Arévalo, José Ramón; Fernández-Lugo, Silvia; García-Domínguez, Celia; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Grillo, Federico; Calvo, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume), although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied.

  17. Circadian Rhythm and Stress Response in Droppings of Serinus canaria

    PubMed Central

    Turriani, Maura; Todisco, Gianluca; Montini, Luigi; Berardinelli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Serinus canaria is a widespread domestic ornamental songbird, whose limited knowledge of biology make compelling studies aimed to monitor stress. Here, a commercial enzyme immunoassay was adopted to measure immunoreactive corticosterone (CORT) in single Serinus canaria dropping sample, to monitor the daily fecal excretion of CORT in birds bred singly or in-group and to detect the effect promoted by aviary or small transport cage restraint. A robust daily rhythm of CORT was recorded in animals held on short-day light cycle, independent of bred conditions (single or group), which persisted when space availability was modified in single bred animal (transfer in aviary and transport cages). By contrast, a significant change in CORT excretion was recorded when group bred animals are restrained in a smaller cage. The daily rhythm in CORT excretion in response to manipulation showed the greatest response at the beginning of the light period, followed by the absence of the peak usually recorded at the end of the dark phase. These data indicated that EIA could be used as a reliable noninvasive approach to monitor the stress induced by restraint conditions in Serinus canaria. PMID:28105380

  18. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Mahbubani, Rakhi E-mail: rakhi@cern.ch

    2012-07-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2σ. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a surprising observation for such high energy muons. We do not see this same period in the stratospheric temperature data.

  19. Atoxoplasma spp. infection in captive canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Gutiérrez, J; Sierra, M A; Pedrera, M; Bautista, M J

    2007-02-01

    Clinical signs, histopathological and ultrastructural findings associated with Atoxoplasma spp. natural infection in captive canaries (Serinus canaria) are described. Intracytoplasmic Atoxoplasma-like protozoa were found in the liver and lung. In the liver, protozoa were found in hepatocytes and Kupffer's cells and were associated with granulomatous hepatitis and a marked bile duct hyperplasia. An usual finding was the presence of infected mononuclear cells adhered to the endothelium of the blood vessels in lung. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrastructural examination of reprocessed paraffin-embedded tissues.

  20. A closer look at the Canarias Einstein ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee (), Chien-Hsiu

    2016-11-01

    Following the recently discovery of the Canarias Einstein ring by Bettinelli et al., we present further studies of this system. Searching the DECam data archive, we found i-band images of this system, in additional to the g-, and r-band images presented in Bettinelli et al. Using GALFIT, we are able to model the lens light contribution and derive the lens colour, g - r = 2.27 and r - i = 0.70 mag, indicating that the lens is a luminous red galaxy. After subtracting the lens light, we use LENSVIEW to model the Einstein ring image and obtain an angular Einstein radius of 2.25 arcsec, which translates into an enclosed lens mass of 2.02 × 1012 M⊙ and a velocity dispersion of 460 km s-1, assuming the lens has a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass profile. The best-fitting model yields a total magnification of 10.5 and enables us to derive the un-lensed star formation rate of the source to be ˜8 M⊙ yr-1.

  1. Large Scale Airflow Perturbations and Resultant Dune Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander B.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Beyers, Meiring

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale atmospheric turbulence can have a large impact on the regional wind regime effecting dune environments. Depending on the incident angle of mesoscale airflow, local topographic steering can also alter wind conditions and subsequent aeolian dynamics. This research analyses the influence of large-scale airflow perturbations occurring at the Maspalomas dunefield located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, Spain. These perturbations in turn significantly influence the morphometry and migration rates of barchan dunes, monitored at the study site through time. The main meteorological station on Gran Canaria records highly uni-modal NNE wind conditions; however, simultaneously measured winds are highly variable around the island, showing a high degree of steering. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) were used to identify large-scale airflow perturbations around the island of Gran Canaria during NNE, N, and NNW incident flow directions. Results indicate that approaching surface airflow bifurcates around the island's coastline before converging at the lee coast. Winds in areas located around the islands lateral coast are controlled by these diverging flow patterns, whereas lee-side areas are influenced primarily by the islands upwind canyon topography leading to highly turbulent flow. Characteristic turbulent eddies show a complex wind environment at Maspalomas with winds diverging-converging up to 180° between the eastern and western sections of the dunefield. Multi-directional flow conditions lead to highly altered dune dynamics including the production of temporary slip faces on the stoss slopes, rapid reduction in crest height and slope length, and development of bi-crested dunes. This indicates a distinct bi-modality of airflow conditions that control the geomorphic evolution of the dunefield. Variability in wind conditions is not evident in the long-term meteorological records on the island, indicating the significance of large scale atmospheric steering on

  2. From 1.5 Meters to 10.4 Meters in 20 Years: Technological Evolution at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Development of Infrared Instrumentation for Terrestrial Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicoya, P. G. R.; Cabrera, M. B.; Izquierdo, P. F.; Patrón, J.; Sánchez de La Rosa, V.; Sangines, F. T.

    This paper reviews the evolution of the technical development of infrared instrumentation for terrestrial telescopes at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). The three most representative instruments, CAIN (installed on the 1.5 m Carlos Sánchez Telescope), LIRIS (on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope), and EMIR (on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias) are described and compared. Each project entailed an improvement and a technological advance in relation to its predecessor. Larger optical beams brought larger lenses, larger mechanisms to hold them, stiffer and more massive support structures, and a scale factor upgrade of their cryostats. The evolution of infrared projects has been closely linked to the development of the manufacturing, assembly, integration and verification facilities at the IAC and has also had a strong influence on management techniques. As an indication of the growth in complexity of projects over time, this paper highlights the framework of available human resources, established consortia, timing and costs associated with the three instruments.

  3. DAMA results at Gran Sasso underground lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; d'Angelo, A.; d'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; He, H. L.; Incicchitti, A.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, X. H.; Montecchia, F.; Sheng, X. D.; Wang, R. G.; Ye, Z. P.

    2015-06-01

    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton × yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles are summarized. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI data (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton × yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles) give evidence at 9.3 σ C.L. for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target. The modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112 ± 0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144 ± 7) days and the measured period is (0.998 ± 0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. Some of the perspectives of the presently running DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 are outlined.

  4. [Tryggve Gran--the first Norwegian heroic pilot].

    PubMed

    Albretsen, C S

    2000-06-30

    Tryggve Gran grew up in an affluent family in Bergen, Norway. The German emperor, William II, often visited the families of his friends. Gran became a good skier, hence well prepared for Robert Scott's second expedition to the Antartic in 1910. Gran deeply regretted the Scott-Amundsen competition, and was cut off from the team heading for the South Pole. In 1913, Gran trained in England and France as an air pilot. On 30 July 1914 he became the first pilot to cross the North Sea from Scotland to Norway. He joined the Royal Air Force in 1916 under the pseudonym of Teddy Grant, passing himself off as a Canadian, and received the Military Cross for distinguished war service. During the Second World War, Gran was a member of Quisling's pro-German National Party. A commemorative stamp was issued in 1944 on the 30th anniversary of his North Sea flight, and a meeting held in his honour with Quisling and German officers present. In this article, the author discusses some psychological aspects of Tryggve Gran's choice of tasks and of his politics. Gran lost his father when he was only five and when he was 11 he was sent off to a pension in Switzerland for a year. Strongly ambivalent feelings from the oedipal period and from the latency may later have been released through hazardous activities, certainly with self-destructive aspects. His membership in Quisling's party might be seen in this context.

  5. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

    2014-03-15

    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant.

  6. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, HOPKINS4%EPN GRAN. ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... 'i'\\(!' I t ' , " • L, . , , 4 c .: '0 ',,' (In i . i., I 1, , ' " rJ • Ar In. GRAN:JLES I ' , (If( f l!; u r,' [, Tu An' , ,,\\ I. U , " , , ' I ' ' ~ . ' I', . " ' T \\) T ~, WARNING -. < , , ...

  7. Novel Avian Bornavirus in a Nonpsittacine Species (Canary; Serinus canaria) with Enteric Ganglioneuritis and Encephalitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Weissenböck, Herbert; Sekulin, Karin; Bakonyi, Tamás; Högler, Sandra; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    A canary bird (Serinus canaria) died with nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis of the proventriculus and gizzard and encephalitis, lesions comparable to proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) of psittacine birds. Recently, several genotypes of a novel avian bornavirus have been linked to PDD. In the canary, bornaviral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in both neural and extraneural tissues. The widespread viral dissemination was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed a unique genotype of avian bornavirus. This observation suggests that bornaviruses are natural pathogens of several avian species and that the family Bornaviridae comprises more viral genotypes (or viral species) than previously assumed. PMID:19706702

  8. Novel avian bornavirus in a nonpsittacine species (Canary; Serinus canaria) with enteric ganglioneuritis and encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Weissenböck, Herbert; Sekulin, Karin; Bakonyi, Tamás; Högler, Sandra; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-11-01

    A canary bird (Serinus canaria) died with nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis of the proventriculus and gizzard and encephalitis, lesions comparable to proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) of psittacine birds. Recently, several genotypes of a novel avian bornavirus have been linked to PDD. In the canary, bornaviral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in both neural and extraneural tissues. The widespread viral dissemination was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed a unique genotype of avian bornavirus. This observation suggests that bornaviruses are natural pathogens of several avian species and that the family Bornaviridae comprises more viral genotypes (or viral species) than previously assumed.

  9. Studying Abroad: The Fundacion Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch, James E.

    The Fundacion Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, a large Venezuelan scholarship program that sends students to study in the United States and other countries, is discussed. Information on program objectives, issues, and problems was obtained from work with students at the University of Pittsburgh, the literature, program records, and interviews with…

  10. Fortune and Responsibility in Calderon's "La gran Cenobia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    "La gran Cenobia" deals with the war between Queen Zenobia of Palmyra and the Emperor Aurelian. Calderon de la Barca draws most of his information from historical sources; the dramatist, however, changes history and adapts it to his own dramatic purpose. The theme of Fortune gives unity to the play. Aureliano is portrayed as a tyrant who, to prove…

  11. Gran Sabana fires (SE Venezuela): a paleoecological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Encarni; Rull, Valentí

    2011-11-01

    Fires are among the most important risks for tropical ecosystems in a future climatic change scenario. Recently, paleoecological research has been addressed to discern the role played by fire in neotropical landscapes. However, given the magnitude of the Neotropics, many studies are relegated to infer just local trends. Here we present the compilation of the paleo-fire records developed until now in the southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) with the aim to describe the fire history as well as to infer the possible forcing factors implied. In this sense, southern Gran Sabana has been under fire perturbation since the Lateglacial, with the concomitant effects upon vegetation, and persisted during the Holocene. Around 2000 cal yr BP onwards, the fire activity highly increased promoting the expansion of pre-existing savannas, the decrease of forests and the appearance and establishment of Mauritia palm swamps. The continuous fire incidence registered for several thousands of years has likely promoted the supremacy of treeless savannas upon other vegetation types and the degradation to secondary landscapes. Based on the available evidence, the anthropogenic nature of this high fire activity has been postulated. If so, it could be hypothesized that the timing arrival of Pemón, the present-day indigenous culture in the Gran Sabana, would be ca 2000 cal yr BP onwards, rather than the last centuries, as it has been formerly assumed. The implications of these ancient practices in the area are also discussed for present Gran Sabana landscapes sustainability and future conservation strategies.

  12. Development of the Gran Desierto sand sea, northwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, Grady; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1990-08-01

    Three major eolian sand populations can be recognized in the Gran Desierto sand sea of northwestern Mexico by using spectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper in conjunction with textural and mineralogical studies of surface sands. Each sand population has distinct textural, mineralogic, and spectral properties that can be related to sand-dune morphology and position with reference to source areas and transport paths of the sands. The oldest eolian sediment in the sand sea was derived from the early to middle Pleistocene Colorado River that flowed through the area of the western Gran Desierto. Subsequent inputs of eolian sands came from the area of the present Colorado River valley and the coast south of the sand sea. The spatial and temporal pattern of eolian deposition in the region has been controlled by Quaternary tectonic and climatic changes, resulting in the episodic input and deposition of sand.

  13. Gran Sasso National Laboratory: Outreach and communication activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, R.; Di Giovanni, A.; Galeota, M.; Sebastiani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its fascinating structures, the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) offers huge opportunities for communication and outreach activities conceived for students and general public. A great effort is devoted to the organisation of the "OPEN DAY", in which the scientific staff of Gran Sasso introduces non expert people to the main relevant research topics of the laboratory through interactive demonstrations and particle detectors. In particular, a portable cosmic rays telescope has been realized: the detector is used by LNGS team in pubblic events as well as to promote the scientific activities of the Laboratory. In order to point out the importance of the scientific culture for young people, LNGS is involved in the organisation of several training courses for students and teachers focused on the improvement of the knowledge on modern physics topics. Since May 2008 is operating in Teramo the "Galileium", an interactive museum for physics and astrophysics.

  14. Monopole, astrophysics and cosmic ray observatory at Gran Sasso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarzo, C.; Enriquez, O.; Giglietto, N.; Posa, F.; Attolini, M.; Baldetti, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Grianti, F.; Margiotta, A.; Serra, P.

    1985-01-01

    A new large area detector, MACRO was approved for installation at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The detector will be dedicated to the study of naturally penetrating radiation deep underground. It is designed with the general philosophy of covering the largest possible area with a detector having both sufficient built-in redundancy and use of complementary techniques to study very rare phenomena. The detector capabilities will include monopole investigations significantly below the Parker bound; astrophysics studies of very high energy gamma ray and neutrino point sources; cosmic ray measurements of single and multimuons; and the general observation of rare new forms of matter in the cosmic rays.

  15. Hatching asynchrony aggravates inbreeding depression in a songbird (Serinus canaria): an inbreeding-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Eens, Marcel; Fransen, Erik; Müller, Wendt

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how the intensity of inbreeding depression is influenced by stressful environmental conditions is an important area of enquiry in various fields of biology. In birds, environmental stress during early development is often related to hatching asynchrony; differences in age, and thus size, impose a gradient in conditions ranging from benign (first hatched chick) to harsh (last hatched chick). Here, we compared the effect of hatching order on growth rate in inbred (parents are full siblings) and outbred (parents are unrelated) canary chicks (Serinus canaria). We found that inbreeding depression was more severe under more stressful conditions, being most evident in later hatched chicks. Thus, consideration of inbreeding-environment interactions is of vital importance for our understanding of the biological significance of inbreeding depression and hatching asynchrony. The latter is particularly relevant given that hatching asynchrony is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in many bird species. The exact causes of the observed inbreeding-environment interaction are as yet unknown, but may be related to a decrease in maternal investment in egg contents with laying position (i.e. prehatching environment), or to performance of the chicks during sibling competition and/or their resilience to food shortage (i.e. posthatching environment).

  16. Female signalling to male song in the domestic canary, Serinus canaria

    PubMed Central

    Amy, Mathieu; Salvin, Pauline; Naguib, Marc; Leboucher, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on sexual selection focus on male characteristics such as male song in songbirds. Yet female vocalizations in songbirds are growing in interest among behavioural and evolutionary biologists because these vocalizations can reveal the female's preferences for male traits and may affect male display. This study was designed to test whether male song performance influences the different female signals in the domestic canary (Serinus canaria). Female canaries were exposed to three types of song performance, differing in the repetition rate of sexy syllables. This experiment demonstrates that female birds are engaged in multimodal communication during sexual interaction. The results support the copulation solicitation hypothesis for female-specific trills: these trills were positively correlated and had a similar pattern to the copulation solicitation displays; responses were higher to the songs with higher performance and responses decreased with the repetition of the stimulation. Also, we observed a sensitization effect with the repetition of the song of the highest performance for the simple calls. Simple trills and other calls were more frequent during the broadcast of canary songs compared with the heterospecific control songs. The differential use of female signals in response to different song performance reveals a highly differentiated female signalling system which is discussed in light of the role of female traits to understand sexual selection in a broader perspective. PMID:26064577

  17. Geomorphology of the Gran Sabana, Guayana Shield, southeastern Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Henry O.; Schubert, Carlos

    1990-06-01

    The forms of the Gran Sabana have been developed mainly on rocks of the gently folded Precambrian Roraima Group, a sequence of quartzites and siliceous conglomerates, with intercalated jasper, chert, arkose, siltstone, and shale, locally intruded by diabase dikes and sills. Two planation surfaces are preserved on the Gran Sabana: the Auyán-tepui (2000-2900 m elevation) and the Wonken (900-1200 m) Surfaces, with a speculative Mesozoic initial age; they are still extending. Table mountains dominate the landscape. They comprise pediments, foothills, precipitous scarps hundreds of meters high, a rim, and a flattish summit. The table-mountain topography is controlled by joint systems; water percolates along joints and bedding planes, dissolves the siliceous cement, the quartzite disaggregates, and large blocks are isolated and collapse, accumulating at the foot of the scarps and on top of the table-mountain summits. The percolating water forms large and intricate cave systems, which frequently emerge in the scarp zone as high waterfalls. These mark the lowest level of erosion of the table mountains. Karstic structures are prominent in the summit zone. The evolution of the table-mountain topography has been controlled by a combination of tectonic, structural, stratigraphic, climatic, and temporal factors.

  18. Origin and status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter (DM), neutrinoless double beta decay (2β0ν) and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  19. Origin and Status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-06-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 Km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and nuclear cross section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  20. The Global Rescue Alarm Net (GRAN): Concept and approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, C. L.; Crawford, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The GRAN Experiment is designed to prove a world-wide search and rescue (SAR) system utilizing Omega navigation system signals and geo-synchronous satellites. In order to develop a SAR system, the original NASA Omega Position Locating Equipment (OPLE) experiments have been expanded by the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River. Specifically, a fourth frequency (10.880 KHz) has been added experimentally to two Omega transmitters. This will increase line of position (LOP) ambiguities from 72 nautical miles to 360 nmi apart. Algorithms have been developed to resolve the 360 nmi ambiguities. During September and October 1974, two series of tests were conducted with Lincoln Experimental Satellite 6 (LES-6) to demonstrate the position locating potential of the four-frequency Omega concept.

  1. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Giachero, A.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; C. Nones; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Bravina, L.; Foka, Y.; Kabana, S.

    2015-05-29

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y) will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towards CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.

  2. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    DOE PAGES

    Giachero, A.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; ...

    2015-05-29

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y) will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towardsmore » CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.« less

  3. Magnetochronology and stratigraphy at Gran Dolina section, Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Parés, J M; Pérez-González, A

    1999-01-01

    The Atapuerca Site (Burgos, N. Spain) is an extensive archaeological site which has yielded numerous human fossil remains. The Gran Dolina section, one of the open-air excavations and subject of this study, consists of a sedimentary infilling of 18 m thickness in a gallery originated by karstification of the host Cretaceous limestones. In this paper we present new stratigraphic and paleomagnetic evidence for the age and the sedimentary environment of the karst infilling where the archaeological site is located. Paleomagnetic dating places the hominids (Aurora stratum) in the Matuyama reversed Chron, hence before 780 ka. We also report evidence for a short normal polarity event at the bottom of the section that we speculate as being Jaramillo or Kamikatsura. The early and well-constrained date of the Atapuerca archaeological site, its location in the cul-de-sac we know as Europe, its stratigraphic context, the abundant fossil remains and the stone tool industry make it one of the most important localities for the question of the earliest human occupation in Europe.

  4. The Large Millimeter Telescope -- Gran Telescopio Milimetrico (LMT/GTM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. I.; Schloerb, F. P.; Strom, S.; Carrasco, L.; Cardona, O.; Serrano, A.

    1996-05-01

    The University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electonica (INAOE) of Puebla, Mexico, are involved in a joint project for the design and construction of the Large Millimeter Telescope, or Gran Telescopio Milimetrico. The LMT/GTM is a 50-meter diameter radio telescope with active control systems to maintain high aperture efficiency and pointing accuracy. The observatory will be located at a high altitude site in Mexico with excellent atmospheric transparency at wavelengths near 1mm. By virtue of its nearly 2000 square meter collecting area, the LMT/GTM will be a powerful instrument for many types of observations. Continuum observations from very distant astronomical objects and wide field spectral line mapping from 1 to 3 mm are among the prime scientific goals. LMT/GTM will be capable of operation either as a sensitive receive-only radio astronomical instrument or, when properly equipped, as an interplanetary radar capable of transmitting high power levels at short millimeter wavelengths. Observational scheduling will include a strong commitment of large ``key'' projects, and a substantial fraction of observing time will be open to the U.S. and international communities. The telescope is currently in its major design phase, with construction scheduled to begin in approximately two years and first light in the year 2000.

  5. The underground seismic array of Gran Sasso (UNDERSEIS), central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, R.; Muscente, R.; Tronca, F.; Fischione, C.; Rotella, P.; Abril, M.; Alguacil, G.; Martini, M.; de Cesare, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since early May, 2002, a small aperture seismic array has been installed in the underground Physics Laboratories of Gran Sasso, located near seismic active faults of central Apennines, Italy. This array is presently composed by 21 three-component short period seismic stations (Mark L4C-3D), with average distance 90 m and semi-circular aperture of 400 m x 600 m. It is intersecting a main seismogenic fault where the presence of slow earthquakes has been recently detected through two wide band geodetic laser interferometers. The underground Laboratories are shielded by a limestone rock layer having 1400 m thickness. Each seismometer is linked, through a 24 bits A/D board, to a set of 6 industrial PC via a serial RS-485 standard. The six PC transmit data to a server through an ethernet network. Time syncronization is provided by a Master Oscillator controlled by an atomic clock. Earthworm package is used for data selection and transmission. High quality data have been recorded since May 2002, including local and regional earthquakes. In particular the 31 October, 2002, Molise (Mw=5.8 earthquake) and its aftershocks have been recorded at this array. Array techniques such as polarisation and frequency-slowness analyses with the MUSIC noise algorithm indicate the high performance of this array, as compared to the national seismic network, for identifying the basic source parameters for earthquakes located at distance of few hundreds of km.

  6. Solar neutrinos observed by GALLEX at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmann, P.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Pernicka, E.; Plaga, R.; Rönn, U.; Sann, M.; Schlosser, C.; Wink, R.; Wójcik, M.; von Ammon, R.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Hellriegel, K.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weyrich, F.; Balata, M.; Bellotti, E.; Ferrari, N.; Lalla, H.; Stolarczyk, T.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Pezzoni, S.; Zanotti, L.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Mößbauer, R.; Schanda, U.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Charbit, S.; Cribier, M.; Dupont, G.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Hahn, R. L.; Hartmann, F. X.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1992-07-01

    We have measured the rate of production of 71Ge from 71Ga by solar neutrinos. The target consists of 30.3 t of gallium in the form of 8.13 M aqueous gallium chloride solution (101 t), shielded by ~ 3300 m water equivalent of standard rock in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (Italy). In nearly one year of operation, 14 measurements of the production rate of 71Ge were carried out to give, after corrections for side reactions and other backgrounds, an average value of 83 + 19 (stat.) +/- 8 (syst.) SNU (1σ) due to solar neutrinos. This conclusion constitutes the first observation of solar pp neutrinos. Our result is consistent with the presence of the full pp neutrino flux expected according to the ``standard solar model'' together with a reduced flux of 8B + 7Be neutrinos as observed in the Homestake and Kamiokande experiments. Astrophysical reasons remain as a possible explanation of the solar neutrino problem. On the other hand, if the result is to be interpreted in terms of the MSW effect, it would fix neutrino masses and mixing angles within a very restricted range. This work has been supported by the Office of Nuclear Physics of the US Department of Energy.

  7. Solar neutrinos observed by GALLEX at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmann, P.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Pernicka, E.; Plaga, R.; Rönn, U.; Sann, M.; Schlosser, C.; Wink, R.; Wójcik, M.; von Ammon, R.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Hellriegel, K.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weyrich, F.; Balata, M.; Bellotti, E.; Ferrari, N.; Lalla, H.; Stolarczyk, T.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Pezzoni, S.; Zanotti, L.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Mößbauer, R.; Schanda, U.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Charbit, S.; Cribier, M.; Dupont, G.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Hahn, R. L.; Hartmann, F. X.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1993-04-01

    We have measured the rate of production of 71Ge from 71Ga by solar neutrinos. The target consists of 30.3 t of gallium in the form of 8.13 M aqueous chloride solution (101 t), shielded by ~ 3300 m water equivalent of standard rock in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (Italy). In nearly one year of operation, 14 measurements of the production rate of 71Ge were carried out to give, after corrections for side reactions and other backgrounds, an average value of 83+/-19 (stat.)+/-8 (syst.) SNU (1σ) due to solar neutrinos. This conclusion constitutes the first observation of solar pp neutrinos. Our result is consistent with the presence of the full pp neutrino flux expected according to the ``standard solar model'' together with a reduced flux of 8B+7Be neutrinos as observed in the Homestake and Kamiokande experiments. Astrophysical reasons remain as a possible explanation of the solar neutrino problem. On the other hand, if the result is to be interpreted in terms of the MSW effect, it would fix neutrino masses and mixing angles within a very restricted range.

  8. Innovation in the Harnessing and Transfer of Technology: The Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner de Almea, Ruth

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the background, organization, success, problems, and functions of the Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho Foundation, Caracas, Venezuela, for producing human resources for the harnessing of scientific technology. The fellowship program supports study by students both at home and abroad. (SL)

  9. Innovation in the Harnessing and Transfer of Technology: The Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner de Almea, Ruth

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the background, organization, success, problems, and functions of the Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho Foundation, Caracas, Venezuela, for producing human resources for the harnessing of scientific technology. The fellowship program supports study by students both at home and abroad. (SL)

  10. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby

  11. Isospora serinuse n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-01

    A new species, Isospora serinuse n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) is described from a single domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (subspecies S. c. domestica) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. are spherical or subspherical, 25.5 (24.4-27.0) × 23.5 (22.0-24.8) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.09; and a smooth bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 18.9 (17.8-20.2) × 11.8 (10.6-13.0) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being a small crescent shape and the substieda being indistinct. Each sporocyst with four vermiform sporozoites arranged head to tail. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different sizes that are scattered among the sporozoites. Morphologically, the oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. were different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and two separate regions of subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene (designated COIa and COIb). At the 18S locus, Isospora serinuse n. sp. exhibited 97.5% similarity to Isospora sp. Tokyo from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Japan. At the 28S locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 94.9% similarity to Isospora anthochaerae n. sp. from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) in Australia. At the COIa locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 95.7% similarity to Isospora sospora sp. ex Apodemus flavicollis from a yellow-necked mouse and Isospora gryphoni from an American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) respectively. At the COIb locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 96.7% similarity to an Isospora (iSAT4) from a European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new

  12. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  13. Seasonality in song behaviour revisited: seasonal and annual variants and invariants in the song of the domesticated canary (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Voigt, Cornelia; Leitner, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The song of the domesticated canary (Serinus canaria) is one of the most widely used models to study the neural correlates of behavioural plasticity and the mechanisms of female mate choice. However, only few studies have described the song behaviour in detail and monitored their changes throughout the year, and these data are restricted to the "Waterslager" strain. Here, we studied the song characteristics of the male common domesticated canary at different times of the year, the spring breeding and autumnal non-breeding season, and monitored the birds' songs up to the following breeding season. During breeding, males have increased plasma levels of testosterone, and songs are on average longer and consist of fewer non-repeated syllable types compared to the non-breeding season. When subsequent seasons are compared, song duration and the proportion of non-repeated syllable types change seasonally but not across years. Repertoire size remains constant throughout seasons although syllable types are exchanged. Syllable carry-over is significantly higher from one breeding season to the next than between the breeding and non-breeding season. Further, the repertoire of the breeding season contains more potentially sexually attractive syllable types than that of the non-breeding season. These data show that overall song structure is retained throughout the year while seasonality occurs in the temporal pattern and in repertoire composition.

  14. No contact transmission of avian bornavirus in experimentally infected cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica).

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Brosinski, Katrin; Rinder, Monika; Olbert, Marita; Kaspers, Bernd; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2014-08-06

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed disease of parrots. Distinct ABV lineages were also found in various non-psittacine avian species, such as canaries, but the pathogenic role of ABV in these species is less clear. Despite the wide distribution of ABV in captive parrots and canaries, its mode of transmission is poorly understood: both horizontal transmission via the urofaecal-oral route and vertical transmission are discussed to play a role. In this study we investigated pathology and horizontal transmission of ABV in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), two natural host species commonly used for experimental ABV infections. ABV inoculation resulted in persistent infection of all inoculated animals from both species. ABV-infected cockatiels exhibited PDD-like symptoms, such as neurologic signs or shedding of undigested seeds. In contrast, infected domestic canaries did not develop clinical disease. Interestingly, we did not detect viral RNA in cloacal swabs and organ samples or ABV-specific antibodies in serum samples of contact-exposed sentinel birds from either species at any time during a four months observation period. Our results strongly indicate that horizontal transmission of ABV by direct contact is inefficient in immunocompetent fully fledged domestic canaries and cockatiels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the Gran Desierto, Pinacte Region, Sonora, Mexico, via shuttle imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Mchone, J. F.; Asmerom, Y.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The radar discriminability of geolian features and their geological setting as imaged by the SIR-A experiment is examined. The Gran Desierto and Pincate volcanio field of Sonora, Mexico was used to analyze the radar characteristics of the interplay of aeolian features and volcano terrain. The area in the Gran Desierto covers 4000 sq. km. and contains sand dunes of several forms. The Pincate volcanio field covers more than 2.000 sq. km. and consists primarily of basaltic lavas. Margins of the field, especially on the western and northern sides, include several maar and maar-like craters; thus obtaining information on their radar characteristics for comparison with impact craters.

  16. The Pleistocene site of Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain: a history of the archaeological investigations.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, E; Esteban, M; Nájera, A M; Mosquera, M; Rodríguez, X P; Ollé, A; Sala, R; Vergès, J M; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Ortega, A I

    1999-01-01

    Gran Dolina is part of an archaeological and paleontological complex located in the Sierra de Atapuerca karstic system (Burgos, Spain). The Trinchera del Ferrocarril sites were discovered as a consequence of the construction of a railway for the transport of minerals at the end of the nineteenth century. The systematic excavation of the upper Gran Dolina levels was initiated in 1981. In 1993, a 6 m(2)biostratigraphic survey pit was started, reaching level TD6 in 1994. This level was excavated during four consecutive years, yielding human fossils, identified as Homo antecessor, in association with lithic and faunal remains, dating to more than 0.78 m.y.a.

  17. Quantifying the role of urbanization on airflow perturbations and dunefield evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander B.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Hernández-Calvento, L.

    2017-05-01

    Rapid urban development has been widespread in many arid regions of the world during the Anthropocene. Such development has the potential to affect, and be affected by, local and regional dunefield dynamics. While urban design often includes consideration of the wind regime, the potential impact of construction on the surrounding environment is seldom considered and remains poorly understood. In this study, regional airflow modeling during successive stages of urbanization at Maspalomas, Gran Canaria, Spain, indicates significant and progressive flow perturbations that have altered the adjacent dunefield. Significant modifications to the boundary layer velocity, mean wind directionality, turbulence intensity, and sediment flux potential are attributed to the extension of the evolving urban geometry into the internal boundary layer. Two distinct process/response zones were identified: (1) the urban shadow zone where widespread dune stabilization is attributed to the sheltering effect of the urban area on surface wind velocity; and (2) the acceleration zone where airflow is deflected away from the urbanized area, causing an increase in sediment transport potential and surface erosion. Consistent coherent turbulent structures were identified at landform and dunefield scales: counter-rotating vortices develop in the lee-side flow of dune crests and shedding off the buildings on the downwind edge of the urban area. This study illustrates the direct geomorphic impact of urbanization on aeolian dunefield dynamics, a relationship that has received little previous attention. The study provides a template for investigations of the potential impact of urbanization in arid zones.

  18. (Re)Bordering the Civic Imaginary: Rhetoric, Hybridity, and Citizenship in "La Gran Marcha"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Josue David

    2011-01-01

    Though the drive to limit US citizenship often takes shape through the symbolic and material exclusion of "aliens," immigrants also engage in rhetorical struggles over the limits of the US civic imaginary. This essay examines one such challenge to the bordering logics of US citizenship--"La Gran Marcha", one of the largest…

  19. Analytical Determination of Fluoride Ion Using Gran's Semi-Antilog Plot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhard, Ralph J.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative determination for fluoride ion using a commercially available fluoride electrode is described. The procedure referred to as known-addition is employed with the data processed on Gran's Plot Paper. Background information, experimental procedures, and advantages/disadvantages of the method are discussed. (JN)

  20. Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Waynette

    Gran Quivira is one of three sites that make up Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in present-day New Mexico. A vibrant society, mostly Pueblo Indian and Spanish missions, thrived there until the late 17th century. Today, people encounter only a soothing silence broken by a constant breeze and the chirr of insect wings. This lesson plan is…

  1. (Re)Bordering the Civic Imaginary: Rhetoric, Hybridity, and Citizenship in "La Gran Marcha"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Josue David

    2011-01-01

    Though the drive to limit US citizenship often takes shape through the symbolic and material exclusion of "aliens," immigrants also engage in rhetorical struggles over the limits of the US civic imaginary. This essay examines one such challenge to the bordering logics of US citizenship--"La Gran Marcha", one of the largest…

  2. Analytical Determination of Fluoride Ion Using Gran's Semi-Antilog Plot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhard, Ralph J.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative determination for fluoride ion using a commercially available fluoride electrode is described. The procedure referred to as known-addition is employed with the data processed on Gran's Plot Paper. Background information, experimental procedures, and advantages/disadvantages of the method are discussed. (JN)

  3. 77 FR 37808 - Special Local Regulation; East Tawas Offshore Gran Prix, Tawas Bay; East Tawas, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... intended to ensure safety of life on the navigable waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the East Tawas Offshore Gran Prix boat race. This special local regulation will establish... after publication in the Federal Register. For the same reasons discussed in the preceding paragraph...

  4. Modulation of Haemonchus contortus infection by depletion of γδ(+) T cells in parasite resistant Canaria Hair Breed sheep.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Julia N; Meeusen, Els; Stear, Michael; Rodríguez, Francisco; Piedrafita, David; González, Jorge F

    2017-04-15

    Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) sheep display resistance against the adult stage of the nematode, Haemonchus contortus. Previous studies have suggested significant correlations between γδ(+) T lymphocytes and fecundity of female adult worms, suggesting a novel role in immune modulation by these cells. The largest proportion of γδ(+) T lymphocytes in sheep are the subpopulation of γδ(+)/WC1(+) T cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of γδ(+)⁄WC1(+) T cell depletion via infusion of anti-γδ/WC1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the subsequent immune response of CHB sheep infected with H. contortus. Significantly lower γδ(+) T cell levels in both peripheral blood and in the basal layers of the abomasal tissue resulted following anti-γδ/WC1 mAb infusion of CHB sheep compared to control animals. Worms recovered from the anti-γδ/WC1 mAb treated CHB sheep had significantly longer female worms with correspondingly more eggs in utero than the saline control group. Significant correlations between eosinophils and worm length and fecundity were no longer apparent in the anti-γδ/WC1 mAb treated CHB sheep. These results support the notion that γδ(+) T cells in CHB sheep play a critical role in fecundity regulation (length and eggs in utero) of H. contortus adult female worms, and highlights a new mechanism of modulation by this lymphocyte population, possibly involving eosinophil activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias: 30 years of Research and Communication in Astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, Carmen; Rodriguez, Nayra; Rosenberg, Alfred; Beckman, John Etienne

    2015-08-01

    1985 was a year of inauguration for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). In that year its two observatories, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, on the island of La Palma, (where its 10.4m optical-NIR telescope vies with the world´s major instruments), and the Observatorio del Teide, on the island of Tenerife, as well as its headquarters in La Laguna, Tenerife, were all inaugurated. This young institution has rapidly become the leading research centre for astronomy in Spain and achieved research standards at a European and world level. The 30th anniversary celebrations this year give an opportunity to maximize its already very active outreach programmes. In February two shows, featuring IAC researchers, and with astronomical themes, were shown in the main theatre of the city of La Laguna, and during the year further entertainment, collaborating with Canarian musicians and artists, is planned. Two exhibitions have been designed combining the anniversary with celebrations of the International Year of Light: “Listen to the Universe”, in Tenerife, and “Thirty Journeys around the Sun”, in La Palma, which will be open to the public for most of the year. A new outreach magazine “Parallaxes” will be launched by the IAC, in both paper and digital editions, and will complement the current blog, and news websites of the institute, as well as its communications on Facebook and Twitter. Among the activities being organized in Tenerife will be the formal naming of traffic circles with names of the telescopes at the Observatories. In conjunction with the municipal wine cellars of the local city of Tegueste a new Canarian wine produced by innovative methods and with an astronomical motif on its label, is to be launched during the year. All of these activities are in addition to the somewhat more routine productions of videos on the research lines of the IAC, including exoplanets, solar stellar, and interstellar physics, galaxies, and cosmology.

  6. Aeolian Slipface Processes on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, Carin; Jackson, Derek; Bourke, Mary; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The surface of Mars is dominated by aeolian features and many locations show ripple and dune migration over the past decade with some sediment fluxes comparable to terrestrial dunes. One of the leading goals in investigating aeolian processes on Mars is to explore the boundary conditions of sediment transport, accumulation, and dune mor-phology in relation to wind regime as well as to quantify migration rates and sediment flux. We combine terrestrial field observations, 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and remote sensing data to investigate com-plex, small scale wind patterns and grainflow processes on terrestrial and martian dunes. We aim to constrain grain flow magnitudes and frequencies that occur on slipface slopes of dunes in order to improve estimates of martian dune field migration and sediment flux related to wind velocity and flow patterns. A series of ground-based, high resolution laser scans have been collected in the Maspalomas dune field in Gran Canaria, Spain to investigate grainflow frequency, morphology and slipface advancement. Analysis of these laser scans and simultaneous video recordings have revealed a variety of slipface activity. We identify 6 different grain-flow morphologies including, hourglass shape (classic alcove formation with deposit fan below), superficial flow (thin lenses), narrow trough (vertical lines cm in width), sheet, column (vertical alcove walls), and complex (combi-nation of morphologies triggered simultaneously in the same location). Hourglass grainflow morphologies were the most common and occurred regularly. The superficial and narrow trough morphologies were the second most com-mon and frequently occurred in between large grain flows. Sheet grainflows were rare and unpredictable. These flows involved large portions of the slipface (metres across) and mobilized a substantial amount of sediment in one event. We have compared these grainflow morphologies from Maspalomas to those in martian dune fields and

  7. Earliest humans in Europe: The age of TD6 Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falgueres, Christophe; Bahain, J.-J.; Yokoyama, Y.; Arsuaga, J.L.; Bermudez de Castro, Jose Maria; Carbonell, E.; Bischoff, J.L.; Dolo, J.-M.

    1999-01-01

    Hominid remains found in 1994 from the stratified Gran Dolina karst-filling at the Atapuerca site in NE Spain were dated to somewhat greater than 780 ka based on palaeomagnetic measurements, making these the oldest known hominids in Europe (sensu stricto). We report new ESR and U-series results on teeth from four levels of the Gran Dolina deposit which confirm the palaeomagnetic evidence, and indicate that TD6 (from which the human remains have been recovered) dates to the end of the Early Pleistocene. The results for the other levels are consistent with estimates based mainly on microfaunal evidence, and suggest that TD8, TD10 and TD11 date to the Middle Pleistocene. (C) 1999 Academic Press.

  8. First results from the MACRO (Monopole, Astophysics, Cosmic Ray Observatory) detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Calicchio, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Nappi, E.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; D'Antone, I.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pal, B.; Patrizii, L.; Predieri, F.; Sanzani, G.L.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ficenec, D.; Hazen, E.; Klein, S.; Levin, D.; Marin, A.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Worstell, W.; Barish, B.; Coutu, S.; Hong, J.T.; Liu, G

    1989-01-01

    The MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, Cosmic Ray Observatory) detector which is being installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) is described in detail. The performance of the detector's first supermodule ({approximately}800 m{sup 2}sr), which had its initial data run from February 27 to May 30, 1989, is reported. About 245,000 muon triggers were recorded during this first run. Preliminary results are presented on: the measured vertical muon flux; the detection features of MACRO as a high energy muon and muon neutrino telescope; the measured lateral spread and multiplicity distributions of muon bundles; a search for GUT magnetic monopoles; a search for electron anti-neutrinos from stellar collapses. In addition, there are results obtained in conjunction with the EAS-TOP detector located on top of the Gran Sasso mountain. 24 refs., 22 figs.

  9. Distribución en gran escala de los cúmulos globulares en Fornax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Para analizar los cúmulos globulares azules y rojos de NGC 1399 asociados con NGC 1399 en particular, o si los cúmulos azules representaban un sistema asociado con el cúmulo de Fornax en general, se obtuvieron imágenes CCD de gran formato con el telescopio de 4m del CTIO, en las bandas C y T1. Se describe el método empleado y lo encontrado.

  10. [Gran versus host disease with oral involvement: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Rojas A, Gonzalo; González G, Néstor; Venables G, Cristián; Araos H, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Gran versus Host Disease (GVHD) is a common complication in allogenic bone marrow transplants and in some cases, it involves the oral mucosa. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and timely treatment is essential to prevent local complications which interfere with normal oral functions and facilitate infection spread. We report a 17 years old woman with GVHD associated to lichenoid and ulcerative lesion in the oral mucosa, which responded to the topical administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus ointment.

  11. [Frequency of dermatophytes in a sample of cats in the urban area of Gran Mendoza, Argentina].

    PubMed

    López, María Florencia; Grilli, Diego; Degarbo, Stella; Arenas, Graciela; Telechea, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The cat, considered the main reservoir of Microsporum canis, lives in urban areas, and also plays an important role in the emergence of dermatomycoses. To determine and analyse the frequency of zoonotic dermatophytes in a sample of cats in an urban area of the Gran Mendoza region. The animals selected were household cats and cats less than one year old that came from shelters and kennels from urban areas in the Gran Mendoza region. A total of 45 samples from cats with and without dermatological lesions were analysed. These samples were collected through skin scraping, hair removal and Mackenzie brush, respectively. Direct observation was made with KOH and glycerol after heat exposure. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud and Lactrimel agar slants with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide for 30 days. The frequency of dermatophytes isolated in this preliminary study was 13.3%. There were not statistically significant differences by source, age, sex, race or dermatological condition. Zoonotic dermatophytes were found in 2 household cats out of the 21 that had direct contact with children or the elderly. M. canis was isolated in 83.3% cases. The frequency of isolation of zoonotic dermatophytes in the sample of cats in an urban area of the Gran Mendoza region was 13.3%, a value higher than expected. M. canis was the most isolated species. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  13. Monte Carlo evaluation of the cosmogenic neutron background at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasim, Riznia Jenifa

    The nature of dark matter is conceivably the most interesting enigma in modern science. Evidence for its existence is profound and theoretical astrophysics suggests that dark matter in the universe is dominated by a non-luminous, non-baryonic and non-relativistic matter. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) in the form of neutralinos are the most favored candidate which satisfice all properties of dark matter. Hence the detection of a WIMP will reveal physics beyond the standard model. The current quest for the direct WIMP search is to reach a WIMP-nucleon cross-section of 10-46 cm2 with an optimistic expected event rate of 1/event/ton/100days. Ton scale detectors with low energy thresholds are proposed to reach the expected sensitivity. These detectors need extraordinary low background to make a positive claim of the detection of WIMPs. The ultimate limiting background for present direct WIMP searches is low energy nuclear recoil events produced by the interaction of muon-induced fast neutrons in the detector. Due to very low intensity, the underground muon-induced neutron flux is difficult to measure. In order to precisely understand this background, detailed simulation studies are essential. The focus of this study is to investigate the cosmogenic neutron background at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory and obtain a consistent and complete description of the cosmogenic neutron profile at Gran Sasso depth using the latest FLUKA Monte Carlo code. This study further indicates that FLUKA does not need to include an increase to the neutron multiplicity in order to reproduce the muon-induced neutron background as previously suggested. Darkside-50, a new generation dark matter experiment, is expected to be located at Gran Sasso at the end of 2012. The experiment will insert the detector inside the CTF water tank to which provides a Cherenkov veto facility. This study shows that CTF is very powerful veto for low cosmogenic neutron background.

  14. Development of spatially diverse and complex dune-field patterns: Gran Desierto Dune Field, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beveridge, C.; Kocurek, G.; Ewing, R.C.; Lancaster, N.; Morthekai, P.; Singhvi, A.K.; Mahan, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of dunes within the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico, is both spatially diverse and complex. Identification of the pattern components from remote-sensing images, combined with statistical analysis of their measured parameters demonstrate that the composite pattern consists of separate populations of simple dune patterns. Age-bracketing by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) indicates that the simple patterns represent relatively short-lived aeolian constructional events since ???25 ka. The simple dune patterns consist of: (i) late Pleistocene relict linear dunes; (ii) degraded crescentic dunes formed at ???12 ka; (iii) early Holocene western crescentic dunes; (iv) eastern crescentic dunes emplaced at ???7 ka; and (v) star dunes formed during the last 3 ka. Recognition of the simple patterns and their ages allows for the geomorphic backstripping of the composite pattern. Palaeowind reconstructions, based upon the rule of gross bedform-normal transport, are largely in agreement with regional proxy data. The sediment state over time for the Gran Desierto is one in which the sediment supply for aeolian constructional events is derived from previously stored sediment (Ancestral Colorado River sediment), and contemporaneous influx from the lower Colorado River valley and coastal influx from the Bahia del Adair inlet. Aeolian constructional events are triggered by climatic shifts to greater aridity, changes in the wind regime, and the development of a sediment supply. The rate of geomorphic change within the Gran Desierto is significantly greater than the rate of subsidence and burial of the accumulation surface upon which it rests. ?? 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation 2006 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  15. Recent results and perspectives of ββ decay experiments with crystal scintillators at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R.

    2013-12-30

    Crystal scintillators offer important tools to investigate ββ decay modes in various isotopes with a well known technology and the possibility of enrichment of the material in specific isotopes. Large efforts to develop and use highly radiopure dedicated detectors are carried out at Gran Sasso by the DAMA-Kiev collaboration. These efforts have allowed the investigation of many types of decay modes in several isotopes and the improvement of the existing limits or the set of new ones. A short summary on main aspects is given in this paper.

  16. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto - Evidence from Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Grady; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.

    1990-01-01

    Mesoscale mapping of spatial variations in sand composition of the Gran Desierto (Sonora, Mexico) was carried out on multispectral Landsat TM images of this region, making it possible to examine the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. Compositions determined from remote imagery were found to agree well with samples from selected areas. The sand populations delineated were used to describe the sediment source areas, transport paths, and deposition sites. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations aver large areas that were not readily apparent in the field data.

  17. The ICARUS T600 Experiment in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, J.; Cieślik, K.; Dąbrowska, A.; Holeczek, J.; Kiełczewska, D.; Kochanek, I.; Kozłowski, T.; Łagoda, J.; Mania, S.; Mijakowski, P.; Palczewski, T. J.; Posiadała, M.; Przewłocki, P.; Rondio, E.; Sobczyk, J.; Stefan, D.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Wąchała, T.; Zalewska, A.

    2009-11-01

    With a mass of about 600 tons of Liquid Argon (LAr), the ICARUS T600 detector is the biggest, up to now, LAr Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Following its successful test run, on the Earth surface, in Pavia (Italy) in 2001, the detector is now very close to start data taking in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The main features of the LAr TPC technique, together with a short discussion of some of the ICARUS T600 test run results, are presented in this paper.

  18. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto - Evidence from Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Grady; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.

    1990-01-01

    Mesoscale mapping of spatial variations in sand composition of the Gran Desierto (Sonora, Mexico) was carried out on multispectral Landsat TM images of this region, making it possible to examine the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. Compositions determined from remote imagery were found to agree well with samples from selected areas. The sand populations delineated were used to describe the sediment source areas, transport paths, and deposition sites. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations aver large areas that were not readily apparent in the field data.

  19. Vertical muon intensity measured with MACRO at the Gran Sasso laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Castellano, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Celio, P.; Chiarella, V.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; de Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; de Marzo, C.; de Mitri, I.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J. T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, R.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittelbrunn, M.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicoló, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N. D.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Rainó, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sartogo, F.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlé, G.; Tassoni, F.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.

    1995-10-01

    The vertical underground muon intensity has been measured in the slant depth range 3200-7000 hg cm-2 (standard rock) with the completed lower part of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso laboratory, using a large sample of data. These observations are used to compute the surface muon flux and the primary ``all-nucleon'' spectrum. An analysis of systematic uncertainties introduced by the interaction models in the atmosphere and the underground propagation of muons is presented. A comparison of our results with published data is also presented.

  20. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  1. Vertical muon intensity measured with MACRO at the Gran Sasso laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Castellano, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Celio, P.; Chiarella, V.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, R.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittelbrunn, M.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.D.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sartogo, F.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Tassoni, F.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R. |||[California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 ...

    1995-10-01

    The vertical underground muon intensity has been measured in the slant depth range 3200--7000 hg cm{sup {minus}2} (standard rock) with the completed lower part of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso laboratory, using a large sample of data. These observations are used to compute the surface muon flux and the primary ``all-nucleon`` spectrum. An analysis of systematic uncertainties introduced by the interaction models in the atmosphere and the underground propagation of muons is presented. A comparison of our results with published data is also presented.

  2. An analysis of texture, timbre, and rhythm in relation to form in Magnus Lindberg's "Gran Duo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Brian Thomas

    Gran Duo (1999-2000) by Magnus Lindberg (b. 1958) is the result of a commission by Sir Simon Rattle, former conductor of the City of Birmingham (England) Symphony Orchestra, and the Royal Festival Hall to commemorate the third millennium. Composed for twenty-four woodwinds and brass, Lindberg divides the woodwind and brass families into eight characters that serve as participants in an attentive twenty-minute conversation. The document includes biographical information about the composition to further understand Lindberg's writing style. The composer's use of computer-assisted composition techniques inspires an alternative structural analysis of Gran Duo. Spectral graphs provide a supplementary tool for score study assisting with the verification of formal structural elements. A tempo chart allows the conductor to easily identify form and tempo relationships between each of the nineteen sections throughout the five-movement composition. In order to reveal character areas and their relation to the structure of the work, the analysis of texture, timbre, and rhythm reveal the formal structure of the composition, which reflects a conversation between the brass and woodwinds in this setting for wind instruments.

  3. Structure and metamorphism of the Gran Paradiso massif, western Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, F. M.; Vissers, R. L. M.; Lamb, W. M.

    2002-05-01

    The pressure-temperature-time trajectory and structural history of high-pressure rocks presently exposed in the Gran Paradiso massif provide constraints on the processes that caused their thermal evolution and exhumation. High-pressure metamorphism of the rocks is found to have culminated at temperatures around 525 °C and pressures of 12 to 14 kbar. After high-pressure metamorphism, the rocks cooled during initial decompression, while undergoing top-to-the-west shear on chlorite-bearing shear bands and larger scale shear zones. Biotite-bearing shear bands and larger shear zones related to top-to-the-east deformation affected the Gran Paradiso massif during reheating to temperatures of around 550 °C at 6 to 7 kbar. Further exhumation occurred at relatively high temperatures. A potentially viable explanation of the observed stage of reheating before final cooling and exhumation is breakoff of a subducting slab in the upper mantle, allowing advective heat transfer to the base of the crust. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00410-001-0357-6.

  4. Operation and performance of the ICARUS T600 cryogenic plant at Gran Sasso underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, M.; Aprili, P.; Baibussinov, B.; Boffelli, F.; Bubak, A.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieślik, K.; Cline, D. B.; Cocco, A. G.; Dabrowska, A.; Dermenev, A.; Disdier, J. M.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Ivashkin, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Lagoda, J.; Mania, S.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P. R.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Stefan, D.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Torti, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H. G.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zani, A.; Zaremba, K.

    2015-12-01

    ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber is the first large mass electronic detector of a new generation able to combine the imaging capabilities of the old bubble chambers with an excellent calorimetric energy measurement. After the three months demonstration run on surface in Pavia during 2001, the T600 cryogenic plant was significantly revised, in terms of reliability and safety, in view of its long term operation in an underground environment. The T600 detector was activated in Hall B of the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory during spring 2010, where it was operated without interruption for about three years, taking data exposed to the CERN to Gran Sasso long baseline neutrino beam (CNGS) and cosmic rays. In this paper the T600 cryogenic plant is described in detail together with the commissioning procedures that lead to the successful operation of the detector shortly after the end of the filling with liquid argon. Overall plant performance and stability during the underground run are discussed. Finally, the decommissioning procedures, carried out about six months after the end of the CNGS neutrino beam operation, are reported.

  5. Evaluation of effects (symptoms and palatability) after ingestion of "Gran Soleil" in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gasbarrini, G; Gallo, A; Nicoletti, M; Montalto, M; Addolorato, G

    2008-01-01

    A good digestion is essential to maintain a healthy status. It is known that physiological digestive processes could be improved by the ingestion of some medicinal plants, while specific foods can facilitate the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Moreover, sensory properties of food seem to also influence digestion. We assessed the influence on physiological digestive processes of two Gran Soleil (GS) products containing a mixture of digestive plant extracts, citrus juices and liquors. We evaluated, in 10 healthy volunteers, the eventual occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms after their ingestion and measured their palatability. Ingestion of GS did not cause significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Moreover, the palatability median score shows a good appreciation of the products. In conclusion, it is possible to suppose that a product with a good palatability, able to support and maintain a good digestive condition, derives from the mixture of digestive herbs, citrus juices, liquor and other ingredients.

  6. Glacial changes and glacier mass balance at Gran Campo Nevado, Chile during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Schnirch, M.; Kilian, R.; Acuña, C.; Casassa, G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the framework of the program Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) a glacier inventory of the Peninsula Muñoz Gamero in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S) has been generated using aerial photopgrahy and Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The Peninsula is partly covered by the ice cap of the Gran Campo Nevado (GCN), including several outlet glaciers plus some minor glaciers and firn fields. All together the ice covered areas sum up to 260 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonia Icefield and the Strait of Magallan. Its almost unique location in a zone affected year-round by the westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the west-wind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. A digital elevation model (DEM) was created for the area, using aerial imagery from 1942, 1984, and 1998 and a Chilean topographic map (1: 100 000). All information was incorporated into a GIS together with satellite imagery from 1986 and 2001. Delineation of glacier inflow from the central plateau of Gran Campo Nevado was accomplished using an automatic module for watershed delineation within the GIS. The GIS served to outline the extent of the present glaciation of the peninsula, as well as to evaluate the derived historic information. The comparison of historic and recent imagery reveals a dramatic glacier retreat during the last 60 years. Some of the outlet glaciers lost more than 20% of their total area during this period. In February and March 2000 a automatic weather station (AWS) was run on a nameless outlet glacier, inofficially Glaciar Lengua, of the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap. From the computed energy balance, it was possible to derive degree-day factors for the Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby AWS at fjord coast (Bahia Bahamondes) we computed ablation for the summer seasons of 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. Ablation at 450 m a.s.l. sums up to about 7 m in 1999/2000, 5.5 m in 2000

  7. New paleoseismological data from the Gran Sasso d'Italia area (central Apennines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P.; Galadini, F.; Moro, M.; Giraudi, C.

    2002-04-01

    Paleoseismological analyses along the Campo Imperatore normal fault (CIF) in the Gran Sasso massif, which is an area characterized by the absence of significant historical earthquakes, highlight the occurrence of surface faulting after the 5th-3rd cent. BC and around the 6th-5th millenium BC. These ages agree with those reported by Giraudi and Frezzotti [1995] on the western tip of the CIF, thus suggesting the possible entire rupture of the 30-km-long CIF during M~7 events. These data contribute to the re-evaluation of the seismic hazard of a large surrounding area, including the city of L'Aquila (~100.000 inhabitants), which is located 20 km from the CIF, in the hangingwall side.

  8. Gator: a low-background counting facility at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A. D.; Askin, A.; Angle, J.; Aprile, E.; Bruch, T.; Kish, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Manalaysay, A.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Schumann, M.

    2011-08-01

    A low-background germanium spectrometer has been installed and is being operated in an ultra-low background shield (the Gator facility) at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy (LNGS). With an integrated rate of ~ 0.16 events/min in the energy range between 100-2700 keV, the background is comparable to those of the world's most sensitive germanium detectors. After a detailed description of the facility, its background sources as well as the calibration and efficiency measurements are introduced. Two independent analysis methods are described and compared using examples from selected sample measurements. The Gator facility is used to screen materials for XENON, GERDA, and in the context of next-generation astroparticle physics facilities such as DARWIN.

  9. First experimental results at the gran sasso laboratory on cold nuclear fusion in titanium electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, A.; Bruschi, M.; Capponi, M.; De Castro, S.; Marconi, U.; Moroni, C.; Piccinini, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Trombini, A.; Vitale, A.; Zoccoli, A.; Czirr, J. B.; Jensen, G. L.; Jones, S. E.; Palmer, E. P.

    1990-06-01

    We present here the first results obtained at the Gran Sasso Laboratory on the neutron emission following the electrolytic infusion of deuterons into titanium electrodes. The measurements were carried out under a 4000-m water equivalent rock thickness, i.e., in an extremely reduced cosmic-radiation background. The neutrons were detected by proton-recoil liquid scintillation detectors, allowing a huge reduction of the local gamma-ray background. The results obtained provide a neutron emission rate comparable in size to the one recently reported by Jones et al. in an electrolysis experiment performed with a different apparatus in ordinary laboratory conditions. They provide more evidence in favor of low-level cold nuclear fusions in metals.

  10. Deep underground rotation measurements: GINGERino ring laser gyroscope in Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Bosi, Filippo; Carelli, Giorgio; Cuccato, Davide; De Luca, Gaetano; Di Virgilio, Angela; Gebauer, André; Maccioni, Enrico; Ortolan, Antonello; Porzio, Alberto; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Simonelli, Andreino; Terreni, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    GINGERino is a large frame laser gyroscope investigating the ground motion in the most inner part of the underground international laboratory of the Gran Sasso, in central Italy. It consists of a square ring laser with a 3.6 m side. Several days of continuous measurements have been collected, with the apparatus running unattended. The power spectral density in the seismic bandwidth is at the level of 10-10 (rad/s) /√{Hz} . A maximum resolution of 30 prad/s is obtained with an integration time of few hundred seconds. The ring laser routinely detects seismic rotations induced by both regional earthquakes and teleseisms. A broadband seismic station is installed on the same structure of the gyroscope. First analysis of the correlation between the rotational and the translational signal is presented.

  11. Seasonal variations of the rate of multiple-muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronga, F.

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that the rate of cosmic ray muons depends on the atmospheric temperature, and that for events with a single muon the peak of the rate is in summer, in underground laboratories in the northern hemisphere. In 2015 the MINOS experiment, in USA, found that, for small distances between the multiple-muons, the rate of multiple-muons peaks in the winter and that the amplitude of the modulation is smaller than in the case of a single muon. I have done a re-analysis of data of the past MACRO experiment. The result is that under Gran Sasso the rate of multiple-muons at small distances peaks in the summer. This difference with MINOS could be explained by differences in the atmospheric temperature due to latitude. This results could be of interest for dark matter experiments looking to dark matter seasonal modulation due to the Earth's motion.

  12. Upgrading of automobile shredder residue via innovative granulation process 'ReGran'.

    PubMed

    Holthaus, Philip; Kappes, Moritz; Krumm, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Stricter regulatory requirements concerning end-of-life vehicles and rising disposal costs necessitate new ways for automobile shredder residue utilisation. The shredder granulate and fibres, produced by the VW-SICON-Process, have a high energy content of more than 20 MJ kg(-1), which makes energy recovery an interesting possibility. Shredder fibres have a low bulk density of 60 kg m(-3), which prevents efficient storing and utilisation as a refuse-derived fuel. By mixing fibres with plastic-rich shredder granulate and heating the mixture, defined granules can be produced. With this 'ReGran' process, the bulk density can be enhanced by a factor of seven by embedding shredder fibres in the partially melted plastic mass. A minimum of 26-33 wt% granulate is necessary to create enough melted plastic. The process temperature should be between 240 °C and 250 °C to assure fast melting while preventing extensive outgassing. A rotational frequency of the mixing tool of 1000 r min(-1) during heating and mixing ensures a homogenous composition of the granules. During cooling, lower rotational frequencies generate bigger granules with particles sizes of up to 60 mm at 300 r min(-1). To keep outgassing to a minimum, it is suggested to melt shredder granulate first and then add shredder fibres. Adding coal, wood or tyre fluff as a third component reduces chlorine levels to less than 1 wt%. The best results can be achieved with tyre fluff. In combination with the VW-SICON-Process, ReGran produces a solid recovered fuel or 'design fuel' tailored to the requirements of specific thermal processes.

  13. 77 FR 47522 - Special Local Regulation; Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix, St. Clair River; Port Huron, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    .... This action is necessary and intended to ensure safety of life on the navigable waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix boat race. This special local... exists for making this rule effective less than 30 days after publication in the Federal Register. For...

  14. You know what? I'm happy. Cognitive bias is not related to personality but is induced by pair-housing in canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Lalot, Mathilde; Ung, Davy; Péron, Franck; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Bovet, Dalila

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cognitive bias could constitute a novel and valid measure of animal welfare. Although interest for a link between personality and cognition is growing, no study to date investigated whether a cognitive bias might be related to the personality of the individuals. We trained 43 domestic canaries (Serinus canaria) to discriminate between two sides of a test cage, each side being associated with a different value (attractive or aversive food in a dish). During the test phase, the dish was placed at intermediate locations, representing ambiguous information. Results show evidence of an "optimistic" bias (flying faster to the dish at the ambiguous location) in birds housed in pairs, compared to birds housed singly, suggesting an influence of social context (living conditions) on canaries' emotions when tested individually. We also studied six traits of individuals' personality and found that aggressiveness, neophobia, one sociability index and obstinacy were repeatable across social context and/or day-light schedule, whereas the other sociability index, boldness and locomotion were not. No correlation between the birds' optimism and any of their personality traits was found, suggesting that cognitive bias may be a matter of social context rather than of individual personality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genesis and evolution of a curved mountain front: paleomagnetic and geological evidence from the Gran Sasso range (central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Fabio; Adamoli, Leo; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Florindo, Fabio

    2003-02-01

    The Gran Sasso range is a striking salient formed by two roughly rectilinear E-W and N-S limbs. In the past ˜90° counterclockwise (CCW) rotations from the eastern Gran Sasso were reported [Tectonophysics 215 (1992) 335], suggesting west-east increase of rotation-related northward shortening along the E-W limb. In this paper, we report on paleomagnetic data from Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary dykes and strata cropping out at Corno Grande (central part of the E-W Gran Sasso limb), the highest summit of the Apennine belt. Predominant northwestward paleomagnetic declinations (in the normal polarity state) from both sedimentary dykes and strata are observed. When compared to the expected declination values for the Adriatic foreland, our data document no thrusting-related rotation at Corno Grande. The overall paleomagnetic data set coupled with the available geological information shows that the Gran Sasso arc is in fact a composite structure, formed by an unrotated-low shortening western (E-W trending) limb and a strongly CCW rotated eastern salient. Late Messinian and post-early Pliocene shortening episodes documented along the Gran Sasso front indicate that belt building and arc formation occurred during two distinct episodes. We suggest that the southern part of a late Messinian N-S front was reactivated during early-middle Pliocene time, forming a tight range salient due to CCW rotations and differential along-front shortening rates. The formation of a northward displacing bulge in an overall NW-SE chain is likely a consequence of the collision between the Latium-Abruzzi and Apulian carbonate platforms during northeastward propagation of the Apennine wedge, inducing lateral northward extrusion of Latium-Abruzzi carbonates towards ductile basinal sediment areas.

  16. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano

    PubMed Central

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D.; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in “deforestation havens.” We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation “hot spot” in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching. PMID:27035995

  17. Early Pleistocene human humeri from the Gran Dolina-TD6 site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez-García, Laura; Martinón-Torres, María; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Martín-Francés, Laura; Modesto, Mario; Carbonell, Eudald

    2012-04-01

    In this report, we present a morphometric comparative study of two Early Pleistocene humeri recovered from the TD6 level of the Gran Dolina cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. ATD6-121 belongs to a child between 4 and 6 years old, whereas ATD6-148 corresponds to an adult. ATD6-148 exhibits the typical pattern of the genus Homo, but it also shows a large olecranon fossa and very thin medial and lateral pillars (also present in ATD6-121), sharing these features with European Middle Pleistocene hominins, Neandertals, and the Bodo Middle Pleistocene humerus. The morphology of the distal epiphysis, together with a few dental traits, suggests a phylogenetic relationship between the TD6 hominins and the Neandertal lineage. Given the older geochronological age of these hominins (ca. 900 ka), which is far from the age estimated by palaeogenetic studies for the population divergence of modern humans and Neandertals (ca. 400 ka), we suggest that this suite of derived "Neandertal" features appeared early in the evolution of the genus Homo. Thus, these features are not "Neandertal" apomorphies but traits which appeared in an ancestral and polymorphic population during the Early Pleistocene. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, Grady; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.

    1990-09-01

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combining thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  19. New interpretation of the Gran Dolina-TD6 bearing Homo antecessor deposits through sedimentological analysis.

    PubMed

    Campaña, I; Pérez-González, A; Benito-Calvo, A; Rosell, J; Blasco, R; de Castro, J M Bermúdez; Carbonell, E; Arsuaga, J L

    2016-10-07

    Gran Dolina is a cavity infilled by at least 25 m of Pleistocene sediments. This sequence contains the TD6 stratigraphic unit, whose records include around 170 hominin bones that have allowed the definition of a new species, Homo antecessor. This fossil accumulation was studied as a single assemblage and interpreted as a succession of several human home bases. We propose a complete stratigraphic context and sedimentological interpretation for TD6, analyzing the relationships between the sedimentary facies, the clasts and archaeo-palaeontological remains. The TD6 unit has been divided into three sub-units and 13 layers. Nine sedimentary facies have been defined. Hominin remains appear related to three different sedimentary facies: debris flow facies, channel facies and floodplain facies. They show three kinds of distribution: first a group of scattered fossils, then a group with layers of fossils in fluvial facies, and third a group with a layer of fossils in mixed fluvial and gravity flow facies. The results of this work suggest that some of these hominin remains accumulated in the cave by geological processes, coming from the adjacent slope above the cave or the cave entry, as the palaeogeography and sedimentary characteristics of these allochthonous facies suggest.

  20. Disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Villarroel, Richard; Uhart, Marcela M; Karesh, William B

    2004-01-01

    Samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia, were collected during June-August 1999. All 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. Gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus and four Leptospira interrogans serovars, with questionable results for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes 1 and 2. No antibodies were detected to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Babesia odocoilei, bluetongue virus (serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17), bovine viral diarrhea virus, Brucella abortus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and parainfluenza-3 virus. Sixty-four percent (7/11) of the deer had endoparasites. Amblyomma spp. ticks were found on seven deer, flies of the family Hippoboscidae on six deer, and lice on six deer.

  1. New interpretation of the Gran Dolina-TD6 bearing Homo antecessor deposits through sedimentological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Campaña, I.; Pérez-González, A.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Rosell, J.; Blasco, R.; de Castro, J. M. Bermúdez; Carbonell, E.; Arsuaga, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Gran Dolina is a cavity infilled by at least 25 m of Pleistocene sediments. This sequence contains the TD6 stratigraphic unit, whose records include around 170 hominin bones that have allowed the definition of a new species, Homo antecessor. This fossil accumulation was studied as a single assemblage and interpreted as a succession of several human home bases. We propose a complete stratigraphic context and sedimentological interpretation for TD6, analyzing the relationships between the sedimentary facies, the clasts and archaeo-palaeontological remains. The TD6 unit has been divided into three sub-units and 13 layers. Nine sedimentary facies have been defined. Hominin remains appear related to three different sedimentary facies: debris flow facies, channel facies and floodplain facies. They show three kinds of distribution: first a group of scattered fossils, then a group with layers of fossils in fluvial facies, and third a group with a layer of fossils in mixed fluvial and gravity flow facies. The results of this work suggest that some of these hominin remains accumulated in the cave by geological processes, coming from the adjacent slope above the cave or the cave entry, as the palaeogeography and sedimentary characteristics of these allochthonous facies suggest. PMID:27713562

  2. Hand and foot remains from the Gran Dolina Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, C; Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M

    1999-01-01

    We report here the study of the 22 hand and foot remains from the Early Pleistocene level TD6 of the Gran Dolina site at Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) recovered from 1994 to 1996. These remains are paratypes of Homo antecessor. All of the elements are briefly described and compared with other fossil hominids. The capitate has a constricted neck, well developed head, strong attachment for the ligamentum interosseum trapezoid-capitate, a palmarly placed trapezoid facet with a distinctive small dorsal trapezoid facet, a highly curved and oblique orientation of the second metacarpal facet, and a transversally oriented dorsodistal border. A hamate with a moderately projecting and lightly built hamulus; an inferred reduced styloid process on the third metacarpal base; a wide second metacarpal head; and middle phalanges with well marked insertions for the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and wide heads. The morphology and dimensions of the pedal remains from TD6 are very similar to modern humans; but the base, proximal articular surface and shafts of the proximal hallucal phalanges are more rounded and the midshaft of the proximal toe phalanx is wider.

  3. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano.

    PubMed

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F

    2016-04-12

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in "deforestation havens." We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation "hot spot" in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching.

  4. Sustainability of vector control strategies in the Gran Chaco Region: current challenges and possible approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability has become a focal point of the international agenda. At the heart of its range of distribution in the Gran Chaco Region, the elimination of Triatoma infestans has failed, even in areas subject to intensive professional vector control efforts. Chagas disease control programs traditionally have been composed of two divorced entities: a vector control program in charge of routine field operations (bug detection and insecticide spraying) and a disease control program in charge of screening blood donors, diagnosis, etiologic treatment and providing medical care to chronic patients. The challenge of sustainable suppression of bug infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission can be met through integrated disease management, in which vector control is combined with active case detection and treatment to increase impact, cost-effectiveness and public acceptance in resource-limited settings. Multi-stakeholder involvement may add sustainability and resilience to the surveillance system. Chagas vector control and disease management must remain a regional effort within the frame of sustainable development rather than being viewed exclusively as a matter of health pertinent to the health sector. Sustained and continuous coordination between governments, agencies, control programs, academia and the affected communities is critical. PMID:19753458

  5. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, G.; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P.R. ); Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. )

    1990-09-10

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combing thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  6. Monopole search below the Parker limit with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, G.

    1985-01-01

    The MACRO detector approved for the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy will be the first capable of performing a definitive search for super-massive grand unified theory (GUT) monopoles at a level significantly below the Parker flux limit of 10 to the minus 15th power square centimeters Sr(-1) 5(-1). GUT monopoles will move at very low velocities (V approx. 0.001 c) relative to the Earth and a multifaceted detection technique is required to assume their unambiguous identification. Calculations of scintillator response to slow monopoles and measurements of scintillation efficiency for low energy protons have shown that bare monopoles and electrically charged monopoles moving at velocities as low as 5 x .0001 c will produce detectable scintillation signals. The time-of-flight between two thick (25 cm) liquid scintillation layers separated by 4.3m will be used in conjunction with waveform digitization of signals of extended duration in each thick scintillator to provide a redundant signature for slow penetrating particles. Limited streamer tubes filled with He and n-pentane will detect bare monopoles with velocities as low as 1 x 0.0001 c by exploiting monopole induced level mixing and the Penning effect.

  7. New interpretation of the Gran Dolina-TD6 bearing Homo antecessor deposits through sedimentological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campaña, I.; Pérez-González, A.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Rosell, J.; Blasco, R.; de Castro, J. M. Bermúdez; Carbonell, E.; Arsuaga, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    Gran Dolina is a cavity infilled by at least 25 m of Pleistocene sediments. This sequence contains the TD6 stratigraphic unit, whose records include around 170 hominin bones that have allowed the definition of a new species, Homo antecessor. This fossil accumulation was studied as a single assemblage and interpreted as a succession of several human home bases. We propose a complete stratigraphic context and sedimentological interpretation for TD6, analyzing the relationships between the sedimentary facies, the clasts and archaeo-palaeontological remains. The TD6 unit has been divided into three sub-units and 13 layers. Nine sedimentary facies have been defined. Hominin remains appear related to three different sedimentary facies: debris flow facies, channel facies and floodplain facies. They show three kinds of distribution: first a group of scattered fossils, then a group with layers of fossils in fluvial facies, and third a group with a layer of fossils in mixed fluvial and gravity flow facies. The results of this work suggest that some of these hominin remains accumulated in the cave by geological processes, coming from the adjacent slope above the cave or the cave entry, as the palaeogeography and sedimentary characteristics of these allochthonous facies suggest.

  8. Sustainable management of the Gran Chaco of South America: Ecological promise and economic constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, E.H.; Huszar, P.C.

    1999-10-01

    The vast plain known as the Gran Chaco is a natural region of more than 1--3 million square kilometers, the second largest natural biome in south America, with only the Amazon region being larger. It extends over parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and, marginally, Brazil. The original landscape of the region was mostly a park land with patches of hardwoods intermingled with grasslands. Increasing human encroachment, largely by poor campesinos, with associated overgrazing, excessive timber harvesting, charcoal production and over-exploitation of wildlife, is transforming the region into a dense and unproductive shrub land and is contributing to increasing rural poverty. A management system for the sustainable use of the Chaco has been developed based on a multiple-species ranching system that includes beef, timber, charcoal and wildlife production. An evaluation of the management system finds that it is capable of protecting and enhancing the resource base, while providing higher economic returns in a sustainable manner. However, high initial costs, as well as a divergence between the best interests of campersinos and society, jeopardize the feasibility of the managed system.

  9. The Impact of Urbanization on the Regional Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that impact the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial impact on both the regional airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient regional airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the impact of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on regional flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and

  10. The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquafredda, R.; Adam, T.; Agafonova, N.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Ambrosio, M.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Arrabito, L.; Aufranc, C.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Baussan, E.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Biaré, D.; Bick, D.; Blin, S.; Borer, K.; Boucrot, J.; Boutigny, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugière, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Campagne, J. E.; Carlus, B.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Damet, J.; de La Taille, C.; DeLellis, G.; Déclais, Y.; Descombes, T.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dick, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, O.; Elsener, K.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Fanin, C.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Fournier, L.; Franceschi, A.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V. I.; Galkin, V. A.; Gallet, R.; Gardien, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Gaudiot, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Girerd, C.; Goellnitz, C.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Gschwendtner, E.; Guerin, C.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hagner, C.; Hamane, T.; Hara, T.; Hauger, M.; Hess, M.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Incurvati, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Khovansky, N.; Kimura, M.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Kolev, D.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kreslo, I.; Krumstein, Z.; Kutsenov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Laktineh, I.; Lavy, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, T. D.; LeFlour, T.; Lenkeit, J.; Lewis, J.; Lieunard, S.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Meddahi, M.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Meschini, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Monacelli, P.; Monteiro, I.; Moreau, F.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Mugnier, P.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Napolitano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Nozdrin, A.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Orlandi, D.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pellegrino, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Raux, L.; Repellin, J. P.; Rescigno, R.; Rizhikov, D.; Roganova, T.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sadovski, A.; Sanelli, C.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Schütz, H. U.; Schuler, J.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Serrano, J.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Sugonyaev, V.; Takahashi, S.; Talochkin, V.; Tenti, M.; Tereschenko, V.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tsenov, R.; Tufanli, S.; Ugolino, U.; Ushida, N.; Van Beek, G.; Verguilov, V.; Viant, T.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Waelchli, T.; Weber, M.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C. S.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2009-04-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment has been designed to prove the appearance of ντ in a nearly pure νμ beam (CNGS) produced at CERN and detected in the underground Hall C of the Gran Sasso Laboratory, 730 km away from the source. In OPERA, τ leptons resulting from the interaction of ντ are produced in target units called bricks made of nuclear emulsion films interleaved with lead plates. The OPERA target contains 150000 of such bricks, for a total mass of 1.25 kton, arranged into walls interleaved with plastic scintillator strips. The detector is split into two identical supermodules, each supermodule containing a target section followed by a magnetic spectrometer for momentum and charge measurement of penetrating particles. Real time information from the scintillators and the spectrometers provide the identification of the bricks where the neutrino interactions occurred. The candidate bricks are extracted from the walls and, after X-ray marking and an exposure to cosmic rays for alignment, their emulsion films are developed and sent to the emulsion scanning laboratories to perform the accurate scan of the event. In this paper, we review the design and construction of the detector and of its related infrastructures, and report on some technical performances of the various components. The construction of the detector started in 2003 and it was completed in Summer 2008. The experiment is presently in the data taking phase. The whole sequence of operations has proven to be successful, from triggering to brick selection, development, scanning and event analysis.

  11. Use of Uas in a High Mountain Landscape: the Case of Gran Sommetta Rock Glacier (ao)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Delaloye, R.; Diotri, F.; Forlani, G.; Fornari, M.; Morra di Cella, U.; Pogliotti, P.; Roncella, R.; Santise, M.

    2015-08-01

    Photogrammetry has been used since long time to periodically control the evolution of landslides, either from aerial images as well as from ground. Landslides control and monitoring systems face a large variety of cases and situations: in hardly accessible environments, like glacial areas and high mountain locations, it is not simple finding a survey method and a measurement control system, which are capable to reliably assess, with low costs, the expected displacement and its accuracy. For this reason, the behaviour of these events presents the geologists and the surveyor each time with different challenges. The use of UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) represents, in this context, a recent and valid option to perform the data acquisition both in safety and quickly, avoiding hazards and risks for the operators while at the same time containing the costs. The paper presents an innovative monitoring system based on UAS-photogrammetry, GNSS survey and DSM change detection techniques to evaluate the Gran Sommetta rock glacier surface movements over the period 2012-2014. Since 2012, the surface movements of the glacier are monitored by ARPAVdA (a regional environmental protection agency) as a case study for the impact of climate change on high-mountain infrastructures. In such scenarios, in fact, a low-cost monitoring activity can provide important data to improve our knowledge about glacier dynamics connected to climate changes and to prevent risks in anthropic Alps areas. To evaluate the displacements of the rock glacier different techniques were proposed: the most reliable uses the orthophoto of the area and rely on a manual identification of corresponding features performed by a trained operator. To further limit the costs and improve the density of displacement information two automatic procedures were developed as well.

  12. Analysis of Population Substructure in Two Sympatric Populations of Gran Chaco, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sevini, Federica; Yao, Daniele Yang; Lomartire, Laura; Barbieri, Annalaura; Vianello, Dario; Ferri, Gianmarco; Moretti, Edgardo; Dasso, Maria Cristina; Garagnani, Paolo; Pettener, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Zelda Alice

    2013-01-01

    Sub-population structure and intricate kinship dynamics might introduce biases in molecular anthropology studies and could invalidate the efforts to understand diseases in highly admixed populations. In order to clarify the previously observed distribution pattern and morbidity of Chagas disease in Gran Chaco, Argentina, we studied two populations (Wichí and Criollos) recruited following an innovative bio-cultural model considering their complex cultural interactions. By reconstructing the genetic background and the structure of these two culturally different populations, the pattern of admixture, the correspondence between genealogical and genetic relationships, this integrated perspective had the power to validate data and to link the gap usually relying on a singular discipline. Although Wichí and Criollos share the same area, these sympatric populations are differentiated from the genetic point of view as revealed by Non Recombinant Y Chromosome genotyping resulting in significantly high Fst values and in a lower genetic variability in the Wichí population. Surprisingly, the Amerindian and the European components emerged with comparable amounts (20%) among Criollos and Wichí respectively. The detailed analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that the two populations have as much as 87% of private haplotypes. Moreover, from the maternal perspective, despite a common Amerindian origin, an Andean and an Amazonian component emerged in Criollos and in Wichí respectively. Our approach allowed us to highlight that quite frequently there is a discrepancy between self-reported and genetic kinship. Indeed, if self-reported identity and kinship are usually utilized in population genetics as a reliable proxy for genetic identity and parental relationship, in our model populations appear to be the result not only and not simply of the genetic background but also of complex cultural determinants. This integrated approach paves the way to a rigorous reconstruction of

  13. Search for double beta decay with HPGe detectors at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkvorets, Oleg

    2008-12-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is practically the only way to establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino mass and its decay rate provides a probe of an effective neutrino mass. Double beta experiments are long-running underground experiments with specific challenges concerning the background reduction and the long term stability. These problems are addressed in this work for the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM), GENIUS Test Facility (TF) and GERDA experiments. The HdM experiment collected data with enriched 76Ge high purity (HPGe) detectors from 1990 to 2003. An improved analysis of HdM data is presented, exploiting new calibration and spectral shape measurements with the HdM detectors. GENIUS-TF was a test-facility that verified the feasibility of using bare germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen. The first year results of this experiment are discussed. The GERDA experiment has been designed to further increase the sensitivity by operating bare germanium detectors in a high purity cryogenic liquid, which simultaneously serves as a shielding against background and as a cooling media. In the preparatory stage of GERDA, an external background gamma flux measurement was done at the experimental site in the Hall A of the Gran Sasso laboratory. The characterization of the enriched detectors from the HdM and IGEX experiments was performed in the underground detector laboratory for the GERDA collaboration. Long term stability measurements of a bare HPGe detector in liquid argon were carried out. Based on these measurements, the first lower limit on the half-life of neutrinoless double electron capture of 36Ar was established to be 1.85*10^18 years at 68% C.L.

  14. Multidimensional spatial characterization of plant invasions in 'El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar' Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Flores, Erick

    Invasive species are considered an agent of ecological change with more significant effects than global warming. Exotic plant invasions threaten biodiversity and ecosystem viability worldwide. Their effects in the Sonoran Desert ecosystems are a growing concern among ecologists and land managers. We hypothesized that highly dynamic desert environments are unstable, therefore more vulnerable to invasion by exotic plant species. To test this hypothesis we used a multidimensional approach to assess the spatial distribution of two exotic species: Brassica tournefortii (Saharan mustard) and Schismus arabicus (Arabian grass), in a portion of 'El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar' Biosphere Reserve (PBR) in northwestern Sonora, Mexico. This approach combined genetic algorithms, geographic information systems, field methods, statistical analysis, and remote sensing modeling at multiple spatial and temporal scales to predict and test the current and potential distribution of the invasives over dynamic landscapes. Predicted probability of invasion was influenced strongly by human factors: Road networks were the strongest predictors of presence, revealing the potential importance of humans as vectors of invasiveness. Dynamic landscapes, associated mostly with vegetation losses, were detected spectrally in the eastern portion of the study area, very likely associated with past agricultural and current grazing activity. Combined models of high probability for invasion by B. tournefortii and S. arabicus over dynamic landscapes were tested against confirmed locations of the invasives and land cover types associated with invasion. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the study and suggest that more dynamic landscapes are more prone to invasion by these two exotic plants in the PBR. B. tournefortii was found associated mostly with landscapes occupied by microphyllous desert scrub and grassland, as well as sarcocaulescent desert scrub. S. arabicus was found more abundantly in the

  15. Reversing song behavior phenotype: Testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Madison, Farrah N; Rouse, Melvin L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-05-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males, and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8 weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12 mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12 mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound-attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1 week or 3 weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females; however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels, suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reversing song behavior phenotype: testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Farrah N.; Rouse, Melvin L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-01-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8 weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12 mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12 mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1 week or 3 weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels a suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. PMID:25260250

  17. Assessing automated image analysis of sand grain shape to identify sedimentary facies, Gran Dolina archaeological site (Burgos, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campaña, I.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Pérez-González, A.; Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Carbonell, E.

    2016-12-01

    Gran Dolina is a cave (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) infilled by a 25 m thick sedimentary record, divided into 12 lithostratigraphic units that have been separated into 19 sedimentary facies containing Early and Middle Pleistocene hominin remains. In this paper, an automated image analysis method has been used to study the shape of the sedimentary particles. Since particle shape is interpreted as the result of sedimentary transport and sediment source, this study can provide valuable data about the sedimentological mechanism of sequence formation. The shape of the sand fraction in 73 samples from Gran Dolina site and Sierra de Atapuerca was analyzed using the Malvern Morphologi G3, an advanced particle characterization tool. In this first complete test, we used this method to the published sequence of Gran Dolina, defined previously through field work observations and geochemical and textural analysis. The results indicate that this image analysis method allows differentiation of the sedimentary facies, providing objective tools to identify weathered layers and measure the textural maturity of the sediments. Channel facies have the highest values of circularity and convexity, showing the highest textural maturity of particles. On the other hand, terra rossa and debris flow samples show similar values, with the lowest particle maturity.

  18. Morphosedimentary expression of the Giant Pock Mark structure known as the "Gran Burato" (Transitional Zone, Galicia continental margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Angel Enrique; Rubio, Belén; Rey, Daniel; Mohamed, Kais; Alvarez, Paula; Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Bernabeu, Ana; Druet, Maria; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the sedimentary environment and other sedimentological features of the Transitional Zone of the Galicia continental margin, in the vicinity of the giant pock -mark structure known as the Gran Burato. The area is characterized by marginal platforms and a horst-graben system controlled by NW-SE oriented normal faults. In this zone, three giant pockmark structures, one of them known as the Gran Burato, were reported as associated to large-scale fluid escapes. The study area is located on the Transitional Zone (TZ) of the Galicia passive continental margin, which extends from Cape Finisterre (43o N) in the North to around 40oN in the South. This margin shows a complex structural configuration, which is reflected in the seabed, owing to tectonic movements from Mesozoic rifting phases and Eocene compression (Pyrennean Orogeny). Sedimentological, geochemical and physical properties analysis and 14C AMS-dating of a 4 m piston core extracted in the vicinity of the Gran Burato complemented by multibeam and TOPAS surveys allowed characterizing of the sedimentary environment in the study area. The interpretation of these data showed that the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the area controlled by the activity of fluid dynamics.

  19. Test of the validity of the spin statistics with X-ray spectroscopy - VIP2 at LNGS Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Johann; VIP2 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We are experimentally investigating possible violations of standard quantum mechanics predictions in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. We test with high precision the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the collapse of the wave function (collapse models). We present our method of searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) for electrons, through the search for ``anomalous'' X-ray transitions in copper atoms, produced by ``fresh'' electrons (brought inside the copper bar by circulating current) which can have the probability to undergo Pauli-forbidden transition to the 1 s level already occupied by two electrons and we describe the VIP2 (VIolation of PEP) experiment under data taking at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. In this talk the new VIP2 setup installed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory will be presented. The goal of VIP2 is to test the PEP for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to a limit in the probability that PEP is violated at the level of 10E-31. We show preliminary experimental results and discuss implications of a possible violation. Supported by the Austrian Science Fund (project P25529-N20.

  20. Tectono-sedimentary evolution and new sections across the western Gran Sasso d'Italia (Central Apennines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Bernoulli, Daniel; Doglioni, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    During Jurassic-Cretaceous times, the area of the central Apennines was part of a large, Bahamian-type carbonate platform-basin system, whereby the area of the Gran Sasso was situated between the carbonate platform of Latium and the Abruzzi in the west and the deep basinal area of Marche-Umbria to the east. This transitional area experienced 1. Early Jurassic rifting of the Adriatic margin, leading to the opening of the Ligurian branch of Tethys; 2. prolonged thermal subsidence of the carbonate-platform slope and base-of-slope in the Jurassic-Cretaceous; 3. decollement along Triassic evaporites, thrusting and folding during the Neogene formation of the arc of Gran Sasso and 4. post-nappe normal faulting persisting to this date. Mapping of the western part of the E-W-trending ridge of the Gran Sasso d'Italia has yielded the following results: 1 - The early Jurassic rifting event led to the segmentation of the platform slope into structural highs (Corno Grande and Acqua San Franco) and basins (Pizzo d'Intermesoli, M. Corvo) as suggested by the pronounced differences in thickness of the early-middle Liassic syn-rift sediments (Corniola Formation). Whereas the Acqua San Franco structural high in the west was buried during the Toarcian, the Corno Grande high in the east persisted throughout Mesozoic times at least into the early Tertiary. The longevity and possible tectonic reactivation of the submarine topography, inherited from early Liassic rifting, persisted way into Jurassic-Middle Miocene as suggested by the pronounced differences in thickness of the Jurassic base-of-slope (Corno Piccolo Formation) and Oligocene to Miocene distal ramp sediments, and sequences punctuated by stratigraphic gaps on the highs. 2 - During the Tertiary orogeny of the Apennines, the inherited Mesozoic structures evolved into N-S trending transfer zones between the individual thrusts and folds over- and underthrusting the more external Laga unit. The axis of the frontal anticline and the

  1. The neurological work of Artur Galcerán i Granés (1850-1919).

    PubMed

    Arboix, A; Fabregas, M G

    2011-05-01

    To analyze the neurological work of Artur Galcerán i Granés (Girona 1850-Barcelona 1919) founder of the Society of Psychiatry and Neurology of Barcelona in 1911. We performed a literature search using MEDLINE from the keywords"Galceran Granés" and "Society of Psychiatry and Neurology of Barcelona", using the doctoral thesis of M. G. Fabregas Camps: "History of Neurology in Catalonia. From 1882 to 1949 ", and original historical bibliographical sources of the Library of the Academy of Sciences Mèdiques de Catalunya i Balears. Artur Galcerán i Granés was a disciple of the school of psychiatry of Dr. Joan Giné i Partagàs. His highlighting neurological work was: 1) "Some static and dynamic inferences about the brain, which may serve to clarify the concept of localization", 2) "Treatment of epilepsy" and 3) "Neuropathology and General Psychiatry". He was editor of "Archivos de Terapeútica de las enfermedades nerviosas y mentales" and "Anales de la Sociedad de Psiquiatría y Neurología". He was director of the mental asylum in Sant Boi of Llobregat and Pere Mata of Reus. In 1911 he founded the first Catalan and Spanish neurological society in Barcelona. The neurological work of Artur Galcerán i Granes is remarkable and significant. He was the founder of the first Catalan and Spanish neurological society: The Society of Psychiatry and Neurology of Barcelona in 1911, the forerunner of the Catalan Society of Neurology. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Kdr mutations in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco are distributed in two differentiated foci: Implications for pyrethroid resistance management.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Ivana; Capriotti, Natalia; Fronza, Georgina; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Ons, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides, have been associated with the resistance in Triatoma infestans, an important vector of Chagas' disease. Hence, the sustainability of vector control programs requires the implementation of resistance management strategies. We determined the sensitivity of the molecular assays previously designed for early resistance detection to be used in pooled samples from a wide area of the endemic region, and validated them for their routine use in control campaigns for the monitoring of insecticide resistance in T. infestans. Consequently, we used these methods to examine the distribution of resistance-associated mutations in the sodium channel gene in populations of T. infestans from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco. The PASA and REA assays tested proved sensitive enough to detect kdr SNPs in pooled samples, indicating these assays are suitable for routine screening in insecticide resistance surveillance. Two geographically differentiated foci were detected in T. infestans populations from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco, with populations on the Bolivian-Argentinean border carrying L1014F mutation, and those from the Argentinean Chaco carrying L925I mutation. In all highly resistant populations analyzed, one of both kdr mutations was present, and toxicological assays determined that all pyrethroid resistant populations analyzed herein were sensitive to fenitrothion. The principal cause of pyrethroid resistance in T. infestans from the Gran Chaco ecoregion is kdr mutations in the sodium channel. Different levels of resistance occur in different populations carrying identical mutation, suggesting the existence of contributory mechanisms.

  3. High Precision U/Pb Geochronology of Eocene-Miocene South American Land Mammal Ages at Gran Barranca, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. E.; Kohn, M. J.; Madden, R. H.; Strömberg, C. E.; Carlini, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Constraining the ages and duration of Cenozoic South American Land Mammal Ages (SALMAs) has been based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and magnetic polarity stratigraphy. At Gran Barranca (68.7°W, 45.7°S) - South America’s most important site and sequence for constraining SALMAs -uncertainties of ~ 1 Myr persist. To better constrain the ages of mammalian and plant assemblages and stable isotope stratigraphies, we employed high-precision (±50 kyr) single-crystal zircon U/Pb dating. These results generally confirm previous chronologies, but change the timing or duration of some SALMAs at Gran Barranca by 0.5-1 Myr. We collected 23 tuffs from six members of the Sarmiento Formation that contain 7 successive formally recognized SALMAs spanning the middle Eocene through the early Miocene. These strata include the type faunas for the Barrancan, Mustersan and Colhuehuapian SALMAs. Zircons were separated and chemically treated using standard techniques, spiked with EARTHTIME ET535, and analyzed for U-Pb ratios at Boise State University. Simpson’s Y, a prominent marker tuff within the Barrancan SALMA, yielded a date of ˜40.0 Ma. The Rosado Tuff, in the Rosado Member, contains Mustersan SALMA age mammals and yields a date of ˜38.3 Ma. Two tuffs in the Lower Puesto Almendra Member (Bed 10 and the Kay Tuff, stratigraphically above a Mustersan SALMA mammal assemblage) yielded ages of ˜37.0 and ˜36.9 Ma respectively. The Big Mammal Tuff at the base of the Colhuehuapian SALMA is ˜20.9 Ma, and the MMZ24.5 Tuff between the Colhuehuapian and Pinturan SALMAs is ˜19.1 Ma. Together with published magnetostratigraphy, these U/Pb dates have the following implications: (a) The known duration of the Barrancan SALMA is shortened by ~ 1 Myr and spans 40.5-39.0 Ma, (b) The Mustersan SALMA at Gran Barranca is between ˜38.3 and ˜37.0 Ma, (c) The Colhuehuapian SALMA must fall between ˜20.9 and ˜19.8 Ma, and (d) the fossil levels referred to the Pinturan SALMA are bracketed between ˜19.1 and

  4. The Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition in Cova Gran (Catalunya, Spain) and the extinction of Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Jorge; Mora, Rafael; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The excavations carried out in Cova Gran de Santa Linya (Southeastern PrePyrenees, Catalunya, Spain) have unearthed a new archaeological sequence attributable to the Middle Palaeoloithic/Upper Palaeolithic (MP/UP) transition. This article presents data on the stratigraphy, archaeology, and (14)C AMS dates of three Early Upper Palaeolithic and four Late Middle Palaeolithic levels excavated in Cova Gran. All these archaeological levels fall within the 34-32 ka time span, the temporal frame in which major events of Neanderthal extinction took place. The earliest Early Upper Palaeolithic (497D) and the latest Middle Palaeolithic (S1B) levels in Cova Gran are separated by a sterile gap and permit pinpointing the time period in which the Mousterian disappeared from Northeastern Spain. Technological differences between the Early Upper Palaeolithic and Late Middle Palaeolithic industries in Cova Gran support a cultural rupture between the two periods. A series of 12 (14)C AMS dates prompts reflections on the validity of reconstructions based on radiocarbon data. Thus, results from excavations in Cova Gran lead us to discuss the scenarios relating the MP/UP transition in the Iberian Peninsula, a region considered a refuge of late Neanderthal populations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Canary Islands (Spain): Their Importance in NATO’s Strategy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-22

    reader to appreciate the value of this region. The archipelago, which is called in Spanish ISLAS CANARIAS , is situated in the North Atlantic Ocean...considered to be divided into two groups of * islands. One is the eastern islands, made up of Gran Canaria , Lanzarote and Fuerteventura and the other...Alegranza, Montana Clara, Roque del Este, Roque del 6 -Lmm ,.. . Oeste and Isla de Lobos. The main and most populated islands are Gran Canaria in the

  6. Further measurements on electrolytic cold fusion with D sub 2 O and palladium at Gran Sasso Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A. ); Pace, S.; Polichetti, B. . Ist. di Fisica); Saggese, A.; Liberatori, L. ); DiStefano, V.; Marini, P. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on several experiments performed at the Gran Sasso Laboratory on an 0.8-cm-diam {times} 5-cm-long, hyperpure, high-temperature vacuum-annealed palladium rod used as a cathode for electrolytic infusion of D{sub 2}O and 0.1 M LiOH with regular additions of gaseous CO{sub 2} at a current density of 60 mA/cm{sup 2}. In the very low background radiation environment, several gamma bursts lasting up to 15 min were detected whose intensity, in terms of cold fusion, was {gt}10{sup {minus} 20} fusion/(deuteron pair {center dot} s). Under normal background conditions, none of these burst signals would have been detected with statistical significance. The shape and intensity of these signals are quite similar to those detected previously.

  7. Chagas' disease in Aboriginal and Creole communities from the Gran Chaco Region of Argentina: Seroprevalence and molecular parasitological characterization.

    PubMed

    Lucero, R H; Brusés, B L; Cura, C I; Formichelli, L B; Juiz, N; Fernández, G J; Bisio, M; Deluca, G D; Besuschio, S; Hernández, D O; Schijman, A G

    2016-07-01

    Most indigenous ethnias from Northern Argentina live in rural areas of "the Gran Chaco" region, where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic. Serological and parasitological features have been poorly characterized in Aboriginal populations and scarce information exist regarding relevant T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) and parasitic loads. This study was focused to characterize T. cruzi infection in Qom, Mocoit, Pit'laxá and Wichi ethnias (N=604) and Creole communities (N=257) inhabiting rural villages from two highly endemic provinces of the Argentinean Gran Chaco. DNA extracted using Hexadecyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide reagent from peripheral blood samples was used for conventional PCR targeted to parasite kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) and identification of DTUs using nuclear genomic markers. In kDNA-PCR positive samples from three rural Aboriginal communities of "Monte Impenetrable Chaqueño", minicircle signatures were characterized by Low stringency single primer-PCR and parasitic loads calculated using Real-Time PCR. Seroprevalence was higher in Aboriginal (47.98%) than in Creole (27.23%) rural communities (Chi square, p=4.e(-8)). A low seroprevalence (4.3%) was detected in a Qom settlement at the suburbs of Resistencia city (Fisher Exact test, p=2.e(-21)).The kDNA-PCR positivity was 42.15% in Aboriginal communities and 65.71% in Creole populations (Chi square, p=5.e(-4)). Among Aboriginal communities kDNA-PCR positivity was heterogeneous (Chi square, p=1.e(-4)). Highest kDNA-PCR positivity (79%) was detected in the Qom community of Colonia Aborigen and the lowest PCR positivity in two different surveys at the Wichi community of Misión Nueva Pompeya (33.3% in 2010 and 20.8% in 2014). TcV (or TcII/V/VI) was predominant in both Aboriginal and Creole communities, in agreement with DTU distribution reported for the region. Besides, two subjects were infected with TcVI, one with TcI and four presented mixed infections of TcV plus TcII/VI. Most minicircle signatures

  8. First results from the DarkSide-50 dark matter experiment at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

    DOE PAGES

    Agnes, P.

    2015-03-11

    We report the first results of DarkSide-50, a direct search for dark matter operating in the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and searching for the rare nuclear recoils possibly induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The dark matter detector is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber with a (46.4 ± 0.7) kg active mass, operated inside a 30 t organic liquid scintillator neutron veto, which is in turn installed at the center of a 1 kt water Cherenkov veto for the residual flux of cosmic rays. We report here the null results of a dark matter searchmore » for a (1422 ± 67) kg d exposure with an atmospheric argon fill. As a result, this is the most sensitive dark matter search performed with an argon target, corresponding to a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 6.1×10-44 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 100 Gev/c2.« less

  9. Morphometric Wings Similarity among Sylvatic and Domestic Populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from the Gran Chaco Region of Paraguay.

    PubMed

    de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Gómez, Ana; Cecere, María Carla; Rolón, Miriam; Gómez, María Celeste Vega; Villalba, Cesia

    2017-08-01

    Despite sustained efforts for eliminating Triatoma infestans, reinfestation still persists in large part of the endemic area of Chagas disease from the Gran Chaco region. Sylvatic T. infestans populations seem to threat success of control programs of domestic T. infestans. In this study, we analyze whether T. infestans collected after a community-wide spraying were survivors or were immigrants from elsewhere using geometric morphometric tools. We used 101 right wings of female T. infestans captured before and after intervention program carried out in 12 de Junio and Casuarina, villages from Paraguayan Chaco, and in Puerto Casado during presprayed collection. There were no significant differences in wing size of domestic T. infestans between pre- and postspraying populations, and between domestic and sylvatic ones. When shape variables originating from postintervention individuals from 12 de Junio were introduced one by one into a discriminant analysis, the greatest weight (53%) was allocated to the sylvatic group. Furthermore, from the prespraying population, 25% were reallocated as postintervention individuals. Only 11% of the insects were reassigned to other groups Puerto Casado and Casuarina. These results suggest that postspraying individuals appear to have different origins. Half of the postspraying individuals from 12 de Junio were similar to the sylvatic ones and 25% of these were similar to those captured in the prespraying period. This remarkable morphometric wings similarity between sylvatic and domestic populations is new evidence suggesting that they could be highly related to each other in the Paraguayan Chaco; human-fed bugs from sylvatic area also support this.

  10. New foot remains from the Gran Dolina-TD6 Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pablos, Adrián; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and describes new foot fossils from the species Homo antecessor, found in level TD6 of the site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These new fossils consist of an almost complete left talus (ATD6-95) and the proximal three-quarters of a right fourth metatarsal (ATD6-124). The talus ATD6-95 is tentatively assigned to Hominin 10 of the TD6 sample, an adult male specimen with which the second metatarsal ATD6-70+107 (already published) is also tentatively associated. Analysis of these fossils and other postcranial remains has made possible to estimate a stature similar to those of the specimens from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). The morphology of the TD6 metatarsals does not differ significantly from that of modern humans, Neanderthals and the specimens from Sima de los Huesos. Talus ATD6-95, however, differs from the rest of the comparative samples in being long and high, having a long and wide trochlea, and displaying a proportionally short neck. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Infestation of rural houses by Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in southern area of Gran Chaco in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Porcasi, X; Catalá, S S; Hrellac, H; Scavuzzo, M C; Gorla, D E

    2006-09-01

    The impact of control activities against Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in South America has a marked contrast within and outside the Gran Chaco region. Development of a geographic information system, as part of an improvement in control program activities, allowed analysis of the spatial pattern of house infestations by T. infestans before and after house spraying with deltamethrin in the San Martin Department (an arid Chaco region of central Argentina). The overall peridomestic infestation index decreased from 48.2 to 28.2% after insecticide application. House infestation was spatially clustered in regions with low or high infestation levels that were located east and southwest of the department, respectively. This pattern was detected both before and after the insecticide application. Three environmental variables calculated from a temporal series of MODIS imagery (average of night temperature, maximum of day temperature, and temporal variation of vegetation index) were capable of correctly discriminating 96% of the places belonging to either high or low house infestation observed after the insecticide application.

  12. The large millimeter telescope/el Gran Telescopio Milimétrico: a new instrument for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Irvine, William M; Carramiñana, Alberto; Carrasco, Luis; Schloerb, F Peter

    2003-12-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica in Mexico and the University of Massachusetts in the U.S.A. are collaborating to build the world's largest radio telescope that operates at short millimeter wavelengths. This facility, known as the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) or el Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (GTM), is being sited at an altitude of 4600 m on Volcan Sierra Negra in the Mexican state of Puebla. The telescope will be a fully steerable dish with a diameter of 50 m and a surface consisting of 180 panels that are actively adjusted under computer control to correct for deformations due to gravity and temperature gradients. Instruments will include focal plane arrays to image both continuum and spectral line emission from celestial sources. The LMT/GTM will be an extremely powerful facility for studies encompassing almost all areas of astronomy, including astrobiology. In particular, the high sensitivity, angular resolution, and mapping speed will enable detailed investigations of the organic chemistry of interstellar molecular clouds, protoplanetary disks, and comets.

  13. New structures for goat corrals to control peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, David Eladio; Abrahan, Luciana; Hernández, María Laura; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo Américo; Carrizo, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia Susana

    2013-01-01

    Goat production is an important economic activity for rural communities in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Goat corrals are important for the survival of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans. This study evaluated the impact of modifying the traditional structure of goat corrals on T. infestans populations and goat productivity in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja). Thirty-nine experimental corrals were constructed and 57 traditional corrals were used as controls. We evaluated the infestations of the control and experimental corrals for five years following construction of the structures. The results showed that the new structures did not prevent the colonization, although it enhanced the detection of infestation at low densities of T. infestans. No significant difference was found in T. infestans population abundance between control and experimental corrals, probably because of the different detectability in the two types of structures, especially among the small nymphs. Although goat productivity average was higher in experimental than in control corrals, no significant difference was found because of high variability. The new structures can be used as a complement to promote the development of rural communities. Acceptability and adoption of the new corrals by the owners was high, as the enclosures offered better protection for the goats, increased growth of kids and facilitated herd handling. PMID:23778656

  14. New structures for goat corrals to control peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gorla, David Eladio; Abrahan, Luciana; Hernández, María Laura; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo Américo; Carrizo, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia Susana

    2013-05-01

    Goat production is an important economic activity for rural communities in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Goat corrals are important for the survival of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans. This study evaluated the impact of modifying the traditional structure of goat corrals on T. infestans populations and goat productivity in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja). Thirty-nine experimental corrals were constructed and 57 traditional corrals were used as controls. We evaluated the infestations of the control and experimental corrals for five years following construction of the structures. The results showed that the new structures did not prevent the colonization, although it enhanced the detection of infestation at low densities of T. infestans. No significant difference was found in T. infestans population abundance between control and experimental corrals, probably because of the different detectability in the two types of structures, especially among the small nymphs. Although goat productivity average was higher in experimental than in control corrals, no significant difference was found because of high variability. The new structures can be used as a complement to promote the development of rural communities. Acceptability and adoption of the new corrals by the owners was high, as the enclosures offered better protection for the goats, increased growth of kids and facilitated herd handling.

  15. Exploring the association between Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural communities and environmental changes in the southern Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mariana Laura; Hoyos, Laura; Cabido, Marcelo; Catalá, Silvia Susana; Gorla, David Eladio

    2012-03-01

    The association between land use and land cover changes between 1979-2004 in a 2.26-million-hectare area south of the Gran Chaco region and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural communities was analysed. The extent of cultural land, open and closed forests and shrubland up to 3,000 m around rural communities in the north, northwest and west of the province of Córdoba was estimated using Landsat satellite imagery. The T. cruzi prevalence was estimated with a cross-sectional serological survey conducted in the rural communities. The land cover showed the same patterns in the 1979, 1999 and 2004 satellite imagery in both the northwest and west regions, with shrinking regions of cultured land and expanding closed forests away from the community. The closed forests and agricultural land coverage in the north region showed the same trend as in the northwest and west regions in 1979 but not in 1999 or 2004. In the latter two years, the coverage remote from the communities was either constant or changed in opposite ways from that of the northwest and west regions. The changes in closed forests and cultured vegetation alone did not have a significant, direct relationship with the occurrence of rural communities with at least one person infected by T. cruzi. This study suggests that the overall decrease in the prevalence of T. cruzi is a consequence of a combined effect of vector control activities and changes in land use and land cover.

  16. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and vector control activities in rural communities of the southern Gran Chaco (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mariana Laura; Moretti, Edgardo; Basso, Beatriz; Céspedes, Maria Frias; Catalá, Silvia S; Gorla, David E

    2010-03-01

    We compared age-related seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with history of vector control interventions and social and ecological changes in three historically endemic departments of Cordoba province, Argentina, covering an area of 42,600 km(2) of the Gran Chaco region. Using a cross sectional design, blood samples of 5240 people between 6 months and 40 years of age, living in 192 rural communities were analyzed to detect T. cruzi infection using ELISA tests, and confirmed with indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and indirect haemoagglutination. Overall seroprevalence was 5.4%, 7.9% and 7.5% in the north, northwest and west studied areas (average for all areas 6.95%). Seroprevalence for T cruzi increased with population age, especially in age classes older than 15 years of age. Communities of the north and west areas showed 0.59% seroprevalence for T. cruzi in children below 15 years of age, whereas children of the same age in the northwest region showed a seroprevalence of 3.08%. Comparative analyses indicate that vector control activities and land use changes during the last decades are the most likely causes of the overall reduction of T. cruzi prevalence. Results suggest that the vectorial transmission of T. cruzi has been strongly reduced and probably interrupted in the north and west areas, but it is still active in the northwestern rural settlements of Córdoba province. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Muscle mass, muscle strength, and other functionality components in institutionalized older adults from Gran Caracas-Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Murillo, J A P; Rodríguez, N G; Hernández H de Valera, Y M; Hernández, R A; Herrera, H A

    2007-01-01

    The present study has as objective to describe behavior of the different components of functionality and muscular mass, in institutionalized older people. Because levels of muscular mass have been associated with reduced levels of force, activity, functionality, depression of the immune function and increase of the morbidity and mortality risk. Were evaluated 152 elderly people older than 60 years old, men and women, of 14 geriatric centers of the Gran Caracas. Anthropometrical variable was measured to value the muscular mass and the body mass index. It was evaluated: hand isometric force, walking time 4.88 m and getting up of a seat. Descriptive statistic was carried out for all the variables, t of Student, Anova and Scheffé. It was observed that 80 years older elderly as well as, women present higher levels of disability, performed motor activities (to walk and to get up of a seat and a impair in physical conditions (lean mass and muscular strength) that interfere with functional status.

  18. First results from the DarkSide-50 dark matter experiment at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Agnes, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Deo, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kurlej, A.; Li, P. X.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Okounkova, M.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Papp, L.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-04-01

    We report the first results of DarkSide-50, a direct search for dark matter operating in the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and searching for the rare nuclear recoils possibly induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The dark matter detector is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber with a (46.4±0.7) kg active mass, operated inside a 30 t organic liquid scintillator neutron veto, which is in turn installed at the center of a 1 kt water Cherenkov veto for the residual flux of cosmic rays. We report here the null results of a dark matter search for a View the MathML source exposure with an atmospheric argon fill. This is the most sensitive dark matter search performed with an argon target, corresponding to a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 6.1×10-44 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 100 Gev/c2

  19. Dating deformation in the Gran Paradiso Massif (NW Italian Alps): Implications for the exhumation of high-pressure rocks in a collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon; Menegon, Luca; Glodny, Johannes; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Ring, Uwe; Massironi, Matteo; Thiede, David; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2012-07-01

    The Gran Paradiso massif, situated in the internal part of the Western Italian Alps, records a complex tectono-metamorphic history involving high-pressure metamorphism and subsequent exhumation during retrograde metamorphism. The exact timing of deformation and, consequently, the geodynamic evolution of this part of the Western Alps is still debated and is addressed here by the application of Rb/Sr geochronology, 40Ar/39Ar step heating and 40Ar/39Ar total fusion dating techniques. Geochronological results are presented from shear zone samples in the core of the Gran Paradiso massif (Piantonetto Valley), and in the area closer to the contact with the overlying Piedmont ophiolitic domain (south and southwest of Pont Valsavarenche). The shear zones operated during crustal thinning and exhumation of the Gran Paradiso massif. 40Ar/39Ar step heating results from shear zones in the Piantonetto Valley show acceptable plateau ages that are interpreted to represent two events of mica growth. Similar ages, and an additional younger age cluster, are recognised in the 40Ar/39Ar total fusion analyses, indicating that specific cleavage domains operated at 39.2 ± 0.2, 36.5 ± 0.6 and 33.3 ± 0.4 Ma. P-T pseudosections show a progressive decrease in metamorphic conditions during deformation, suggesting that the age of incipient exhumation and the related deformation in the Piantonetto Valley is equal to or older than 39.2 ± 0.2 Ma. In the Pont area, the last increments of deformation in a top-to-W shear zone postdate 36.6 ± 0.6 Ma (Rb/Sr mineral data), whereas the present-day top-to-W contact of the Gran Paradiso massif with the overlying Piedmont domain is dated at 41.2 ± 1.1 Ma (Rb/Sr multi-mineral isochron age). We propose a model that considers exhumation of the Gran Paradiso nappe at 41-34 Ma. During this period, the nappe was coupled with the Zermatt-Saas zone, forming an extruding wedge. The kinematics associated with this wedge involved top-to-W shearing within the Gran

  20. Reproductive phenology of 233 species from four herbaceous–shrubby communities in the Gran Sabana Plateau of Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Nelson; Briceño, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Herbaceous–shrubby communities in the Gran Sabana (Great Savanna) Plateau of Venezuela grow under non-zonal conditions. We speculated that this would produce specific patterns of reproductive phenology within these different soil–climate–vegetation associations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the reproductive phenology patterns of four herbaceous–shrubby communities are determined by climate, plant life-forms and soil properties. Methodology The reproductive phenology of 233 plant species of the Gran Sabana Plateau of the Venezuelan Guayana Highlands was studied taking into account their life-forms (i.e. trees, shrubs, climbers, annual herbs, perennial herbs, epiphytes and parasites/hemiparasites) in four herbaceous–shrubby communities: (i) shrubland, (ii) secondary bush, (iii) savanna and (iv) broad-leaved meadow. Patterns of flowering, and occurrence of unripe fruit and ripe fruit were studied at two levels of intensity for 24 months within a 5-year span. Two phenological records for each month of the year and between two and four replicates for each community type were made. Randomly selected 2–3 ha plots were used. General phenological patterns were established using <25% of the plants of each species in each plot to give the total duration of each phenological phase. High-intensity phenological patterns were established using >25% of individuals in each plot to establish times of high abundance of flowers, and presence of unripe fruit and/or ripe fruit on individual plants. This generated phenological peaks for each species. Principal results Non-seasonality of general flowering and unripe fruiting in each of the four communities was related to non-seasonal flowering and unripe fruiting patterns in the plant life-forms studied and to low variation in precipitation throughout the year. Flowering activity in the shrubland and broad-leaved meadow peaked twice. The bush community had only one flowering peak while the

  1. Influence of a component of solar irradiance on radon signals at 1 km depth, Gran Sasso, Italy.

    PubMed

    Steinitz, G; Piatibratova, O; Gazit-Yaari, N

    2013-11-08

    Exploratory monitoring of radon is conducted at one location in the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Measurements (15-min resolution) are performed over a time span of ca 600 days in the air of the surrounding calcareous country rock. Using both α- and γ-ray detectors, systematic and recurring radon signals are recorded. Two primary signal types are determined: (i) non-periodic multi-day (MD) signals lasting 2-10 days and (ii) daily radon (DR) signals-which are of a periodic nature exhibiting a primary 24-h cycle (θ=0.48). The local ancillary environmental conditions (pressure, temperature) seem not to affect radon in air monitored at the site. Long-term patterns of daytime measurements are different from the pattern of night-time measurements indicating a day-night modulation of γ-radiation from radon in air. The phenomenology of the MD and DR signals is similar to situations encountered at other locations where radon is monitored with a high time resolution in geogas at upper crustal levels. In accordance with recent field and experimental results, it is suggested that a component of solar irradiance is affecting the radiation from radon in air, and this influence is further modulated by the diurnal rotation of the Earth. The occurrence of these radon signals in the 1 km deep low-radiation underground geological environment of LNGS provides new information on the time variation of the local radiation environment. The observations and results place the LNGS facility as a high-priority location for performing advanced investigations of these geophysical phenomena.

  2. Influence of a component of solar irradiance on radon signals at 1 km depth, Gran Sasso, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Gazit-Yaari, N.

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory monitoring of radon is conducted at one location in the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Measurements (15-min resolution) are performed over a time span of ca 600 days in the air of the surrounding calcareous country rock. Using both α- and γ-ray detectors, systematic and recurring radon signals are recorded. Two primary signal types are determined: (i) non-periodic multi-day (MD) signals lasting 2–10 days and (ii) daily radon (DR) signals—which are of a periodic nature exhibiting a primary 24-h cycle (θ=0.48). The local ancillary environmental conditions (pressure, temperature) seem not to affect radon in air monitored at the site. Long-term patterns of daytime measurements are different from the pattern of night-time measurements indicating a day–night modulation of γ-radiation from radon in air. The phenomenology of the MD and DR signals is similar to situations encountered at other locations where radon is monitored with a high time resolution in geogas at upper crustal levels. In accordance with recent field and experimental results, it is suggested that a component of solar irradiance is affecting the radiation from radon in air, and this influence is further modulated by the diurnal rotation of the Earth. The occurrence of these radon signals in the 1 km deep low-radiation underground geological environment of LNGS provides new information on the time variation of the local radiation environment. The observations and results place the LNGS facility as a high-priority location for performing advanced investigations of these geophysical phenomena. PMID:24204189

  3. Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in the Gran chaco, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Cuéllar, Rosa Leny; Karesh, William B

    2005-12-01

    Bolivia has a total of 47 species of Psittacidae, seven of which have been identified in our study site, the semiarid Gran Chaco of the Isoso. One species, the blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva), is frequently captured by local Isoseño Guaraní Indians for exploitation on the national and international market. These birds are often temporarily housed in small villages under unhygienic conditions with poultry and other domestic species. On occasion, these parrots escape back to the wild. Additionally, many of these birds are kept as pets or are used to lure wild. parrots within slingshot range for subsequent capture. In this study, we evaluated the health status, including the level of exposure to selected infectious agents, in the wild-caught captive birds and free-ranging birds. Physical examinations were performed, and blood was collected, from 54 live birds (20 captive and 34 free-ranging). Feces were collected from 15 birds (seven captive and eight free-ranging). Necropsies were also performed on four recently dead wild-caught birds. On serologic testing, no birds were found to have antibodies to avian influenza virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Marek's disease virus, paramyxovirus-1, paramyxovirus-2, paramyxovirus-3, polyomavirus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Positive antibody titers were found for psittacine herpesvirus (8/44, 18.2%), Aspergillus spp. (3/51, 5.9%), and Salmonella pullorum (33/49, 67.3%). All three of the birds that tested antibody positive for Aspergillus spp. were captive, whereas six of the eight and 15 of the 33 birds that tested positive for psittacine herpesvirus and S. pullorum, respectively, were wild.

  4. Early Pleistocene hominin deciduous teeth from the Homo antecessor Gran Dolina-TD6 bearing level (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Martín-Francés, Laura; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; Modesto-Mata, Mario; García-Campos, Cecilia; Wu, Xiujie; Xing, Song; Liu, Wu

    2017-07-01

    During the last 13 years, the late Early Pleistocene Gran Dolina-TD6-2 level (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded an additional sample of 26 dental specimens attributed to Homo antecessor. In this report, we present a descriptive and comparative study of the six deciduous teeth. We provide external and internal morphological descriptions following classical terminology, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the teeth. The internal morphology was described by means of micro-CT technique. The TD6 deciduous teeth preserve primitive features regarding the Homo clade, such as the presence of styles in lower and upper canines and developed anterior and posterior foveae in the dm2 . However, other features related to the complexity of the crown morphology (e.g., cingulum) are not present in this sample. Furthermore, the great reduction of the talonid of the dm1 s is also noteworthy. Despite the limited comparative evidence, the presence of a remarkably well-developed tuberculum molare in the dm(1) and dm1 s from TD6 can be also considered a derived feature in the genus Homo. The TD6 hominins exhibit dental dimensions similar to those of other Pleistocene hominins. The dm1 s are buccolingually elongated and the buccolingual diameter of ATD6-93 is the largest recorded so far in the Homo fossil record. This study expands the list of plesiomorphic features of H. antecessor, and provides some information on the evolutionary status of this species. However, the identification of some advanced traits evinces a step towards the derived morphology of European Pleistocene teeth. The study of the deciduous dentition confirms the mosaic pattern of H. antecessor morphology revealed in previous studies of this hominin sample. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sedimentology and Mangetic Properties of the Late Eocene - Early Oligocene Vera Member, Sarmiento Formation at Gran Barranca, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkin, P. A.; Davies-Vollum, K.; Stromberg, C. A.; Dunn, R. E.; Madden, R.; Re, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Vera Member of the Sarmiento Formation at Gran Barranca, Argentina represents one of the few continuous terrestrial records of environmental change across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) from the Southern Hemisphere. The Vera Member consists dominantly of sediment in the sand- to silt- size range (median grain size > approximately 10 μm), previously interpreted as pyroclastic deposits interspersed with weakly developed paleosols, deposited within a channel. New grain size data from the Vera Member reveal several intervals of relatively fine-grained sediment (median grain size <10 μm). Magnetic susceptibility varies with a pattern nearly opposite that of median grain size, with the fine-grained intervals characterized by susceptibility slightly above average (> 5 × 10-7 m3/kg), and coarse-grained material characterized by low susceptibilities (< 5 × 10-7 m3/kg). Hysteresis and isothermal remanence acquisition experiments suggest that the susceptibility variations are controlled both by variations in paramagnetic and ferromagnetic mineralogy. More precisely, multi-component coercivity spectra are consistent with at least three remanence carriers: a magnetically hard phase (median Bc ~200 mT) and at least two softer phases (both with median Bc <30 mT). The concentration of these phases varies throughout the section. The high-susceptibility, fine-grained material is consistent with windblown material, possibly volcanic ash. The low-susceptibility, coarser material may indicate leaching during periods between airfall events. There is no evidence of a change in leaching or the deposition of windblown material throughout the Vera Member.

  6. Predicting Gran alkalinity and calcium concentrations in river waters over a national scale using a novel modification to the G-BASH model.

    PubMed

    Cresser, Malcolm S; Ahmed, Nayan; Smart, Richard P; Arowolo, Toyin; Calver, Louise J; Chapman, Pippa J

    2006-09-01

    Monthly stream water calcium and Gran alkalinity concentration data from 11 sub-catchments of the Nether Beck in the English Lake District have been used to appraise the transferability of the Scottish, River Dee-based G-BASH model. Readily available riparian zone geochemistry and flow paths were used initially to predict minimum and mean stream water concentrations at the Nether Beck, based on calibration equations from the River Dee catchment data. Predicted values significantly exceeded observed values. Differences in runoff between the two areas, leading to a dilution effect in the Nether Beck, explained most of the difference between observed and predicted values. Greater acid deposition in the Lake District also reduced stream water Gran alkalinity concentrations in that area. If regional differences in precipitation, evapotranspiration and pollutant deposition are incorporated into the model, it may then be used reliably to predict catchment susceptibility to acidification over a wide regional (national) scale.

  7. Geographical Variation of Deltamethrin Susceptibility of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Argentina With Emphasis on a Resistant Focus in the Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Fronza, G; Toloza, A C; Picollo, M I; Spillmann, C; Mougabure-Cueto, G A

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important parasitic infections in Latin America. The main vector of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi in America is Triatoma infestans, a blood-sucking triatomine bug who is widely distributed in the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Control programs in endemic countries are focused in the elimination of triatomine vectors with pyrethroid insecticides. However, chemical control has failed in the Gran Chaco over the last two decades because of several factors. Previous studies have reported the evolution of different levels of resistance to deltamethrin in Tri. infestans Recently, very high resistance has been found in the central area of the Argentine Gran Chaco. However, the origin and the extension of this remarkably resistant focus remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the geographical variation of deltamethrin susceptibility of Tri. infestans in different endemic provinces of Argentina, with emphasis in the center of the Argentine Gran Chaco ecoregion where this main vector has not been reduced. Populations of Mendoza, San Juan, Santiago del Estero, and Tucumán provinces were all susceptible. Resistant populations were only detected in the province of Chaco, where a mosaic resistant focus was described at the Güemes Department. It was characterized into three pyrethroid resistance categories: susceptible, low, and highly resistant populations. We found the populations with the highest resistance levels to deltamethrin, with resistant ratios over 1000. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Endemic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Indian populations of the Gran Chaco territory of South America: performance of diagnostic assays and epidemiological features.

    PubMed

    Basombrio, M A; Segovia, A; Peralta Ramos, M; Esteban, E; Stumpf, R; Jurgensen, P; Winkler, M A; Sayre, K; Ferrer, J F

    1999-01-01

    The relative specificities and sensitivities of several serological assays for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection were estimated in Indian populations of Argentina and Paraguay. The results obtained with the assays, which proved to be most reliable, were used to study the distribution of the parasite in these populations. Serological evidence of T. cruzi infection was demonstrated in 256 (37.7%) of 679 Indians living in relatively small and isolated communities in the Salta province of northern Argentina and in western Paraguay, regions that are part of the tropical territory called Gran Chaco. In contrast, none of the 94 Indians examined in south-western Argentina was positive. Infection in the Gran Chaco Indians increased with age and clustered in families. Marked differences in seroprevalence were observed between the 16 Indian communities examined in Gran Chaco. These differences seem to be associated both with the risk of transmission from the sylvatic reservoirs of the parasite and with the frequency with which vector-spraying campaigns have been implemented.

  9. Preliminary Inventory of geomorphosites along The Great Málaga Path (Gran Senda de Málaga).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Ferre-Bueno, Emilio; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2016-04-01

    Reynard (2004) defined a geomorphological landscape as a portion of the geomorphological context that is viewed, perceived, (and sometimes ex- ploited) by Man and, when perceived by humans and characterised by certain attributes, it may be considered a wider geomorphosite (Reynard and Panizza, 2005) or a complex of geomorphosites inside of which single geomorphosites can be individuated. Moreover, single geomorphosites belong to a landscape system that is dynamic, and thus the comprehension of a geomorphosite mechanism requires good observations, measurements and quantifications of processes (Reynard 2004). Since 1990s, interest on geomorphosite studies has increased, especially, due to their educational. The aim of this study is to present a preliminary inventory of the main geomorphosites that can be found along the Great Málaga Path (or Gran Senda de Málaga). This route, developed by the Government of Malaga Province, is a pioneer in Andalusia route incorporating the territorial and environmental range of an entire province, integrating it into a journey that stimulates interest in natural spaces. One of the main attractions is crossing most of the more important sites from the geomorphological point of view in the Province of Málaga. In this study, some of them are inventoried in order to highlight their importance and improve their knowledge from educational and touristic purposes. The methodology follows that proposed by the Spanish Geological and Mining Institute (IGME, 2014). References IGME, 2014. Documento metodológico para la elaboración del inventario español de lugares de interés geológico (IELIG). Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid, España, pp. 64. Pelfini, M., Bollati, I. 2014. Landforms and geomorphosites ongoing changes: concepts and implications for geoheritage promotion. Quaestiones Geographicae, 33-1: 131-143. Reynard E., 2004. Géotopes, géo(morpho)sites et paysag- es géomorphologiques. In: E. Reynard, J.P. Pralong (eds

  10. Martian aeolian slipface dynamics: 3D airflow modelling and sediment surface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, Carin; Jackson, Derek; Bourke, Mary; Cooper, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    In December 2015, the Curiosity rover relayed images of the Namib dune slipface in Gale Crater and presented a unique opportunity for direct comparison to terrestrial aeolian dynamics. These images delivered critical ground truth data of martian aeolian dynamics improving morphometric studies of slipface grainflow activity and aeolian modelling. The Namib dune slipface images reveal many comparable grainflow morphologies to that of terrestrial slipfaces suggesting similar mechanisms for sediment transportation and dune migration. However, much is still unknown about the specifics of martian dune migration including possible 'seasonality' of activity, the contribution of actively migrating ripples to sediment redistribution, and estimates of sediment volume moved annually. One of the leading goals in investigating aeolian processes on Mars is to explore the boundary conditions of sediment transport, accumulation, and dune morphology in relation to wind regime as well as to quantify migration rates and sediment flux. We plan to address these goals by combining terrestrial field observations, 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and remote sensing data. Complex, small scale wind patterns and grainflow processes on terrestrial and martian dunes will be investigated to constrain grain flow magnitudes and frequencies that occur on slipface slopes of dunes to improve estimates of martian dune field migration and sediment flux related to wind velocity and flow patterns. Using CFD modelling, we will investigate the interaction between wind velocity, flow patterns and sediment transport at the bedform scale using real wind data collected on Mars to provide a way to examine potential triggers of processes on slipface slopes of dunes. A series of ground-based, high resolution laser scans have been collected in the Maspalomas dune field in Gran Canaria, Spain to investigate grainflow frequency, morphology and slipface advancement. Analysis of these laser scans and

  11. Long-term climate record inferred from early-middle Pleistocene amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages at the Gran Dolina Cave, Atapuerca, Spain.

    PubMed

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2009-01-01

    The Gran Dolina cave site is famous for having delivered some of the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe (Homo antecessor, ca. 960 ka). Moreover, the evidence of lithic industries throughout the long vertical section suggests occupation on the part of hominins from the latest early Pleistocene (levels TD3/4, TD5, and TD6) to the late middle Pleistocene (level TD10). The Gran Dolina Sondeo Sur (TDS) has furnished a great number of small-vertebrate remains; among them some 40,000 bones are attributed to amphibians and squamates. Although they do not differ specifically from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, the overlap of their current distribution areas (= mutual climatic range method) in Spain can provide mean annual temperatures (MAT), the mean temperatures of the coldest (MTC) and warmest (MTW) months, and mean annual precipitation (MAP) estimations for each sub-level, and their change can be studied throughout the sequence. Results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during hominin occupation the MAT (10-13 degrees C) was always slightly warmer than at present in the vicinity of the Gran Dolina Cave, and the MAP (800-1000mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. Climatic differences between "glacial" and "interglacial" phases are poorly marked. Summer temperatures (MTW) show stronger oscillations than winter temperatures (MTC), but seasonality remains almost unchanged throughout the sequence. These results are compared with those for large mammals, small mammals, and pollen analysis, giving a scenario for the palaeoclimatic conditions that occurred during the early to middle Pleistocene in Atapuerca, and hence a scenario for the hominins that once lived in the Sierra de Atapuerca.

  12. L925I Mutation in the Para-Type Sodium Channel Is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco Region

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Natalia; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando; Ons, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas' disease is an important public health concern in Latin America. Despite intensive vector control efforts using pyrethroid insecticides, the elimination of Triatoma infestans has failed in the Gran Chaco, an ecoregion that extends over Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil. The voltage-gated sodium channel is the target site of pyrethroid insecticides. Point mutations in domain II region of the channel have been implicated in pyrethroid resistance of several insect species. Methods and Findings In the present paper, we identify L925I, a new pyrethroid resistance-conferring mutation in T. infestans. This mutation has been found only in hemipterans. In T. infestans, L925I mutation occurs in a resistant population from the Gran Chaco region and is associated with inefficiency in the control campaigns. We also describe a method to detect L925I mutation in individuals from the field. Conclusions and Significance The findings have important implications in the implementation of strategies for resistance management and in the rational design of campaigns for the control of Chagas' disease transmission. PMID:24466362

  13. L925I mutation in the Para-type sodium channel is associated with pyrethroid resistance in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco region.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Natalia; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando; Ons, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Chagas' disease is an important public health concern in Latin America. Despite intensive vector control efforts using pyrethroid insecticides, the elimination of Triatoma infestans has failed in the Gran Chaco, an ecoregion that extends over Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil. The voltage-gated sodium channel is the target site of pyrethroid insecticides. Point mutations in domain II region of the channel have been implicated in pyrethroid resistance of several insect species. In the present paper, we identify L925I, a new pyrethroid resistance-conferring mutation in T. infestans. This mutation has been found only in hemipterans. In T. infestans, L925I mutation occurs in a resistant population from the Gran Chaco region and is associated with inefficiency in the control campaigns. We also describe a method to detect L925I mutation in individuals from the field. The findings have important implications in the implementation of strategies for resistance management and in the rational design of campaigns for the control of Chagas' disease transmission.

  14. Burning, fire prevention and landscape productions among the Pemon, Gran Sabana, Venezuela: toward an intercultural approach to wildland fire management in Neotropical Savannas.

    PubMed

    Sletto, Bjørn; Rodriguez, Iokiñe

    2013-01-30

    Wildland fire management in savanna landscapes increasingly incorporates indigenous knowledge to pursue strategies of controlled, prescriptive burning to control fuel loads. However, such participatory approaches are fraught with challenges because of contrasting views on the role of fire and the practices of prescribed burning between indigenous and state fire managers. Also, indigenous and state systems of knowledge and meanings associated with fire are not monolithic but instead characterized by conflicts and inconsistencies, which require new, communicative strategies in order to develop successful, intercultural approaches to fire management. This paper is based on long-term research on indigenous Pemon social constructs, rules and regulations regarding fire use, and traditional system of prescribed burning in the Gran Sabana, Venezuela. The authors review factors that act as constraints against successful intercultural fire management in the Gran Sabana, including conflicting perspectives on fire use within state agencies and in indigenous communities, and propose strategies for research and communicative planning to guide future efforts for more participatory and effective fire management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forest-savanna- morichal dynamics in relation to fire and human occupation in the southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) during the last millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Encarni; Rull, Valentí; Stansell, Nathan D.; Abbott, Mark B.; Nogué, Sandra; Bird, Broxton W.; Díaz, Wilmer A.

    2011-11-01

    The southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) holds a particular type of neotropical savanna characterized by the local occurrence of morichales ( Mauritia palm swamps) , in a climate apparently more suitable for rain forests. We present a paleoecological analysis of the last millennia of Lake Chonita (4°39'N-61°0'W, 884 m elevation), based on biological and physico-chemical proxies. Savannas dominated the region during the last millennia, but a significant vegetation replacement occurred in recent times. The site was covered by a treeless savanna with nearby rainforests from 3640 to 2180 cal yr BP. Water levels were higher than today until about 2800 cal yr BP. Forests retreated since about 2180 cal yr BP onwards, likely influenced by a higher fire incidence that facilitated a dramatic expansion of morichales. The simultaneous appearance of charcoal particles and Mauritia pollen around 2000 cal yr BP supports the potential pyrophilous nature of this palm and the importance of fire for its recent expansion. The whole picture suggests human settlements similar to today - in which fire is an essential element - since around 2000 yr ago. Therefore, present-day southern Gran Sabana landscapes seem to have been the result of the synergy between biogeographical, climatic and anthropogenic factors, mostly fire.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi diversity in the Gran Chaco: mixed infections and differential host distribution of TcV and TcVI.

    PubMed

    Monje-Rumi, María M; Brandán, Cecilia Pérez; Ragone, Paula G; Tomasini, Nicolás; Lauthier, Juan J; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Cimino, Rubén O; Orellana, Viviana; Basombrío, Miguel A; Diosque, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    The transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Gran Chaco are complex networks involving domestic and wild components, whose interrelationships are not well understood. Knowing the circuit of transmission of the different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi in the complex environment of the Chaco region is relevant to understanding how the different components (reservoirs, vectors, ecotopes) interact. In the present study we identified the DTUs infecting humans and dogs in two rural areas of the Gran Chaco in Argentina, using molecular methods which avoid parasite culture. Blood samples of humans and dogs were typified by PCR-DNA blotting and hybridization assays with five specific DNA probes (TcI, TcII, TcIII, TcV and TcVI). PCR analyses were performed on seropositive human and dog samples and showed the presence of T. cruzi DNA in 41.7% (98/235) and 53% (35/66) samples, respectively. The identification of infective DTUs was determined in 83.6% (82/98) and 91.4% (32/35) in human and dog samples, respectively. Single infections (36.7% - 36/98) and a previously not detected high proportion of mixed infections (47.9% - 47/98) were found. In a 15.3% (15/98) of samples the infecting DTU was not identified. Among the single infections TcV was the most prevalent DTU (30.6% - 30/98) in human samples; while TcVI (42.8% - 15/35) showed the highest prevalence in dog samples. TcV/TcVI was the most prevalent mixed infection in humans (32.6% - 32/98); and TcI/TcVI (14.3% - 5/35) in dogs. Significant associations between TcV with humans and TcVI with dogs were detected. For the first time, the presence of TcIII was detected in humans from this region. The occurrence of one human infected whit TcIII (a principally wild DTU) could be suggested the emergence of this, in domestic cycles in the Gran Chaco. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Langerhans cell histiocytosis or tuberculosis on a medieval child (Oppidum de la Granède, Millau, France - 10th-11th centuries AD).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Antony; Saint-Pierre, Christophe; Naji, Stephan; Panuel, Michel; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, a skeleton of a 1 - 2.5-year-old child radiocarbon dated from the 10th - 11th century AD was discovered on the oppidum of La Granède (Millau, France). It presents multiple cranial osteolytic lesions having punched-out or geographical map-like aspects associated with sequestrum and costal osteitis. A multi 3D digital approach (CT, μCT and virtual reconstruction) enabled us to refine the description and identify the diploic origin of the lytic process. Furthermore, precise observation of the extent of the lesions and associated reorganization of the skeletal micro-structure were possible. From these convergent pieces of evidence, the differential diagnosis led to three possibilities: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, tuberculosis, or Langerhans cell histiocytosis and tuberculosis.

  18. Health assessment of free-ranging three-banded (Tolypeutes matacus) and nine-banded (Dasypus novemcinctus) armadillos in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Fiorello, Christine V; Manharth, Ann L; Robbins, Richard G; Karesh, William B

    2009-06-01

    The Gran Chaco, Bolivia, has a total of seven species of armadillos with the three-banded (Tolypeutes matacus) and nine-banded (Dasypus novemcinctus) the most commonly hunted by the local Isoseño-Guarani people. Armadillos are known carriers of zoonotic pathogens, including Mycobacterium leprae, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trypanosoma cruzi; thus human handling and consumption of these species may have a significant public health impact. A health assessment that included physical examinations, hematology, plasma biochemical analyses, levels of exposure to selected infectious agents, and endoparasite and ectoparasite identification was performed on nine-banded and three-banded armadillos in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia. Based on clinical findings, the general health of these armadillos was rated as good. However, many of the nine-banded armadillos (64%) had abrasions and wounds, probably related to the capture method. The blood value results from a subset of these armadillos are presented as baseline values for free-ranging populations of both these species in Bolivia. Serologic antibody tests for M. leprae were negative in three-banded (n = 8) and nine-banded (n = 2) armadillos. Three-banded armadillos were antibody positive for Eastern equine encephalitis virus (8/8; 100%) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (5/8; 62.5%). Two of 12 (16.7%) three-banded armadillos tested were antigen positive for Dirofilaria immitis. Nine-banded armadillos were antibody positive for T. gondii (3/9; 33.3%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (5/8; 62.5%), and T. cruzi (2/9; 22.2%). Two of eight (25%) nine-banded armadillos were antigen positive for D. immitis. A number of endo- and ectoparasites were identified in/on both species of armadillos. Results from this study support the possibility that the handling and consumption of these species by the local Isoseño-Guarani people may have a public health impact.

  19. Susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans of the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; D'Avila, Grasielle Caldas Pessoa; Orellana, Ana Lineth Garcia; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Noireau, François; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2014-11-14

    The persistence of Triatoma infestans and the continuous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Inter-Andean Valleys and in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia are of great significance. Coincidentally, it is in these regions the reach of the vector control strategies is limited, and reports of T. infestans resistance to insecticides, including in wild populations, have been issued. This study aims to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans from Bolivia, in order to better understand the extent of this relevant problem. Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in nine, wild and domestic, populations of T. infestans from the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μL) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with PROBIT version 2, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR). Qualitative tests were also performed. Three wild T. infestans dark morph samples of Chaco from the Santa Cruz Department were susceptible to deltamethrin with RR50 of <2, and 100% mortality to the diagnostic dose (DD); however, two domestic populations from the same region were less susceptible than the susceptibility reference lineage (RR50 of 4.21 and 5.04 respectively and 93% DD). The domestic population of Villa Montes from the Chaco of the Tarija Department presented high levels of resistance (RR50 of 129.12 and 0% DD). Moreover, the domestic populations from the Valleys of the Cochabamba Department presented resistance (RR50 of 8.49 and 62% DD), the wild populations were less susceptible than SRL and T. infestans dark morph populations (RR50 < 5). The elimination of T. infestans with pyrethroid insecticides in Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, and its drastic reduction in large parts of Paraguay and Argentina, clearly indicates that pyrethroid resistance was very

  20. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2014-09-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.

  1. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa.

  2. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa. PMID:28127235

  3. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level. PMID:25141281

  4. Dolines in Sierra de Quemado and their relationship with the development of the Gran Caverna de Santo Tomàs, Vinales, Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan Gonzalez, Hermes; Diaz Guanche, Carlos; Aldana Vilas, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Dolines are the most representative landforms of karst territories, and have a very significant development in the tropical karst. In the Sierra de los Órganos (West Cuba), the doline development in size and depth has been taken in consideration in several papers, especially after the classic works of Herbert Lehman in the 50's. Recent studies have revealed that horizontal and vertical development of doline is conditioned by tectonics, their spatial location, and is strongly controlled by the local base level. In the Sierra de Quemado, about 30 dolines were recognized with a remarkable variability in shape, size and depth. They are mainly collapsed dolines with different deepening phases, clearly marking the various evolutionary stages of the system, and working as individual entities to control the surface erosion, notably influencing the configuration of the main karst system such as the Gran Caverna de Santo Tomás. Collapse dolines originate as a consequence of the loss of mass, due to speleogenetic processes and the likely fall of the roofs of caves that developed below the dolines. The successive evolution of dolines often took place for the proximity of a cave (active or not), evolving parallelly. When doline deepening reached this level, the retraction of the walls began, which also had an influence on the hypodermic cavities observed in the dolines, and on some foot-caves ("marginal caves" or "füsshölen") that acted as important recharge points. Instability of part of the slope will cause its final collapse. Vertical jointing and faulting, together with the high values in the angles of internal friction, thoroughly contribute to the process of slope recession. Because of their different phases and evolutionary stages, the ranges in the morphometric values of dolines are high: some dolines have dimensions similar to "Tiankeng", with more than 100 metres in diameter and depth. As a rule, the different deepening phases that mark the evolutionary stages of

  5. The role of carnivores and their relationship to hominin settlements in the TD6-2 level from Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladié, Palmira; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Huguet, Rosa; Cáceres, Isabel; Díez, Carlos; Vallverdú, Josep; Canals, Antoni; Soto, María; Santander, Boris; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-06-01

    Pleistocene level TD6-2 of the Gran Dolina site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) is the result of anthropogenic accumulation. Hominin groups occupied the cave as a home base, where they brought in, butchered and consumed the carcasses of ungulates and other hominins. In this paper, we reassess the role of carnivores in the formation and/or modification of the assemblage. We employed different methods to explore the scenario in which the TD6-2 assemblage was formed: (1) identifying the actor responsible for tooth marks; (2) determining the frequency of carnivore tooth marks and their distribution; (3) identifying the co-occurrence of modifications (butchering marks and carnivore tooth marks); (4) calculating the percentage of change and the epiphysis to shaft ratio. Carnivore tooth marks are scarce, as is the co-occurrence of hominin and carnivore modifications. However, not all tooth marks have been attributed to a particular agent due to the high equifinality between human and carnivore tooth marks. For these reasons, the frequency of tooth marks and the co-occurrence of modifications have been of little help in interpreting the role of carnivores. Axial skeletal remains and the epiphyses of the long bones are in large part missing. The percentage of change and the epiphysis to shaft ratio suggest moderate carnivore ravaging activity. Our data indicate that the role of carnivores in TD6-2 seems to have had an impact on the original assemblage after hominins had extracted a large amount of nutrients from the carcasses. Cannibalized hominin remains showed no carnivore tooth marks and have a greater presence of low survival bones compared to ungulate remains. These findings point to a different taphonomic history suggesting that TD6-2 represents a succession of settlements having different characteristics.

  6. Virtual reconstruction of the Early Pleistocene mandible ATD6-96 from Gran Dolina-TD6-2 (Sierra De Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martín-Francés, Laura; Modesto-Mata, Mario; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; Martinón-Torres, María; García-Campos, Cecilia; Carretero, José Miguel

    2016-04-01

    In this report, we present a further study of the late Early Pleistocene ATD6-96 human mandible, recovered from the TD6-2 level of the Gran Dolina cave site (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) and attributed to Homo antecessor. ATD6-96 consists of a left half of a gracile mandible of an adult individual with the premolars and molars in place that is broken at the level of the lateral incisor-canine septum. The present analysis is based on a virtual reconstruction of the whole mandible by means of computed tomography (CT). We have reconstructed the symphysis using information from a modern human sample, as well as from a wide sample composed of several Homo specimens. This research has allowed us to record new variables with taxonomic and phylogenetic interest. We have estimated the length/width index of the alveolar arcade, as well as the percentage of the arcade length with regard to the total length. The latter confirms that ATD6-96 shares with all African and Asian Homo species a primitive structural pattern, as it was established in previous studies. In constrast, the length/width index of the alveolar arcade in the H. antecessor specimen is close to the mean values of Neandertals and the Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos hominins. H. antecessor is derived regarding the shape of the mandibular alveolar arcade within the genus Homo and points to an early divergence from contemporaneous African populations. Our results also ratify the affinities of H. antecessor with Neanderthals, although the precise relationship with this lineage needs further research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mauritia flexuosa palm swamp communities: natural or human-made? A palynological study of the Gran Sabana region (northern South America) within a neotropical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Montoya, Encarni

    2014-09-01

    Mauritia flexuosa L.f. is one of the more widely distributed neotropical palms and is intensively used by humans. This palm can grow in tropical rainforests or can develop a particular type of virtually monospecific communities restricted to warm and wet lowlands of the Orinoco and Amazon basins. It has been proposed that, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Mauritia swamp communities were restricted to the core of the Amazon basin from where they expanded favoured by the Holocene warmer and wetter climates. It has also been suggested that some of these palm communities might have been the result of human dispersal during the last millennia. Here, we evaluate both hypotheses using the case study of the Venezuelan Gran Sabana (GS) region, where the M. flexuosa swamp communities (locally called morichales) are common and well developed. The morichales did not reach the GS until the last 2000 years, as manifested by sudden increases of Mauritia pollen parallelled by similar trends in charcoal particles as proxies for fire. During the last two millennia, the situation was very similar to the present, characterised by extensive burning practices affecting savannas and savanna-forest ecotones but rarely morichales (selective burning). This strongly suggests that human activities could have been responsible for the penetration of the morichales to the GS. A meta-analysis of the available records of Mauritia pollen across northern South America shows that this palm has been present in the region since at least the last four glacial cycles. During the LGM, Mauritia was likely restricted to few but widespread sites of favourable microclimatic conditions (microrefugia) from where the palm expanded during the Holocene. During the last 2000 years, Mauritia underwent a remarkable expansion in northern South America, which includes the GS. It is proposed that humans could have played a role in this regional expansion of Mauritia communities.

  8. Human predatory behavior and the social implications of communal hunting based on evidence from the TD10.2 bison bone bed at Gran Dolina (Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Saladié, Palmira; Ollé, Andreu; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2017-04-01

    Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language. Late and Middle Paleolithic faunal assemblages in Europe have produced convincing evidence of communal hunting of large ungulates allowing for the formation of hypotheses concerning the skills of Neanderthals anatomically modern humans as social predators. However, the emergence of this cooperative behavior is not currently understood. Here, faunal analysis, based on traditional/long-established zooarcheological methods, of nearly 25,000 faunal remains from the "bison bone bed" layer of the TD10.2 sub-unit at Gran Dolina, Atapuerca (Spain) is presented. In addition, other datasets related to the archeo-stratigraphy, paleo-landscape, paleo-environmental proxies, lithic assemblage, and ethno-archeological information of communal hunting have been considered in order to adopt a holistic approach to an investigation of the subsistence strategies developed during deposition of the archeological remains. The results indicate a monospecific assemblage heavily dominated by axial bison elements. The abundance of anthropogenic modifications and the anatomical profile are in concordance with early primary access to carcasses and the development of systematic butchering focused on the exploitation of meat and fat for transportation of high-yield elements to somewhere out of the cave. Together with a catastrophic and seasonal mortality pattern

  9. "Dynamic Geodiversity" of glacial environments: new techniques for monitoring landscape variations on Alpine areas. Examples from the Gran Paradiso National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotto, Stefania; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Mortara, Giovanni; Baroni, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The importance of keeping memory of past morpho-climatic events is particular evident in recently deglaciated areas. The survival of glaciers is now very uncertain, due to climate changes and related effects occurring in the last decades. In the Western Alps, many glaciers are now extinct or show a dramatic reduction of area and thickness. Permafrost and periglacial areas are also responding promptly to climate changes as glaciers do, but they are not good "visual" indicators of climate changes, because they are not easily recognizable. Indeed, Italian glacial elements are constantly monitored by the Italian Glaciological Committe (CGI) in the last two centuries. The volunteers of CGI constantly monitor variations of glacier snout position of a great majority of Italian glaciers. CGI is not only a very important source of historical documentation and information, but also a very important scientific reference of the studies conducted in glacial areas. Particularly, thanks to CGI, it was created an inventory of Italian glaciers was created. Anyway, due to recent rapid changes, it is difficult to quickly update the inventory, also considering the difficulty of reaching alpine high mountain areas. The recent use of Geomatics in geological and geomorphological studies can be applied to evaluate landform changes in glacial and periglacial areas. The combination of remote sensing and on field techniques (i.e. aerial photogrammetry, GPS, Terrestrial photogrammetry, satellite images and LiDaR) provides constant monitoring of landform changes and updating inventories. The Gran Paradiso National Park (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Regions, Western Italian Alps) represents an excellent example of conservation of geodiversity. Many key-elements of the high mountain landscape are present here: glaciers, glacial cirques, rock glaciers, moraines (not only from Holocene, but also from Little Ice Age, of XVI-XIX centuries), steepled peaks, rock walls, roche moutonnée, ravines, debris

  10. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Atmospheric and Oceanic Processes in the Vicinity of an Island Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    the uniquely wind-driven origin of the Philippine dipole eddies. By contrast, in other volcanic island regions of the world (including the Hawaiian...Aristegui, and F. Herrera. 2000. Lee region of Gran Canaria . Journal of Geophysical Research 105(C7):17,173–17,193. Chang, C.-P., Z. Wang, and H...Gran Canaria ). Geophysical Research Letters 36, L14605, doi:10.1029/2008GL037010. Pullen, J., J.D. Doyle, P. May, C. Chavanne, P. Flament, and R.A

  12. The Proton, Helium and CNO Fluxes at Eo ≅ 100 TeV from the EAS-TOP (Cherenkov) and MACRO (TeV Muon) Data at the Gran Sasso Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, Mario E.; EAS-TOP; MACRO Collaborations

    2003-07-01

    The cosmic ray primary proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the energy range 80-300 TeV are studied by means of the EAS-TOP and MACRO detectors at the National Gran Sasso Lab oratories. As direct results of the measurement, the "p+He" flux, at Eo = 80 TeV, and the "p+He+CNO" one, at Eo = 250 TeV, are obtained: Jp+H e (80 TeV) = (1.8±0.4)·10-6m-2 s-1 sr-1 TeV-1 , and Jp+H e+C N O (250 TeV) = (1.1 ± 0.3) · 10-7 m-2 s-1 sr-1 TeV-1 . By using the existing measurements of the proton spectrum we obtain for the relative weights of the three components at 250 TeV: Jp : JH e : JC N O = (0.20 ± 0.08) : (0.58 ± 0.19) : (0.22 ± 0.17).

  13. A circular model for song motor control in Serinus canaria

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Rodrigo G.; Trevisan, Marcos A.; Amador, Ana; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2015-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is controlled by a network of nuclei distributed across several brain regions, which drives respiratory and vocal motor systems to generate sound. We built a model for birdsong production, whose variables are the average activities of different neural populations within these nuclei of the song system. We focus on the predictions of respiratory patterns of song, because these can be easily measured and therefore provide a validation for the model. We test the hypothesis that it is possible to construct a model in which (1) the activity of an expiratory related (ER) neural population fits the observed pressure patterns used by canaries during singing, and (2) a higher forebrain neural population, HVC, is sparsely active, simultaneously with significant motor instances of the pressure patterns. We show that in order to achieve these two requirements, the ER neural population needs to receive two inputs: a direct one, and its copy after being processed by other areas of the song system. The model is capable of reproducing the measured respiratory patterns and makes specific predictions on the timing of HVC activity during their production. These results suggest that vocal production is controlled by a circular network rather than by a simple top-down architecture. PMID:25904860

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: QSO eHAQ0111+0641 spectra (Fynbo+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krogager, J.-K.; Heintz, K. E.; Geier, S.; Moller, P.; Noterdaeme, P.; Christensen, L.; Ledoux, C.; Jakobsson, P.

    2017-09-01

    eHAQ0111+0641 was observed with the OSIRIS instrument at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) as part of a larger sample of candidate red quasars. We secured spectroscopy with OSIRIS and a range of grisms to better constrain the spectral energy distribution, metal lines, and hydrogen Lyα line. (2 data files).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  16. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  17. English in Class and on the Go: Multimodal U-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Sánchez, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to analyse different ubiquitous learning (u-Learning) platforms used when learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) as part of the Modern Languages Degree at the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC). The combination of face-to-face lessons with multimedia content and digital mediated learning allows today's native…

  18. Virtual Classroom for Business Planning Formulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio, J.; Rubio-Royo, E.; Ocon, A.

    One of the most promising possibilities of the World Wide Web resides in its potential to support distance education. In 1996, the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria developed the "INNOVA Project" in order to promote Web-based training and learning. As a result, the Virtual Classroom Interface (IVA) was created. Several software…

  19. A General Approach to Nonrigid Registration: Decoupled Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Juan Ruiz-Alzola Dep. Señales y Comunicaciones . Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SPAIN Dep. Teorı́a de la Señal,Universidad de... Visualization in Biomedical Computing, 1994, vol. 2359, pp. 191–204. [13] W. Wells et al., “Multimodal volume registration by max- imization of mutual

  20. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  1. Learning Indicators of a Foreign Language in Spanish Public University. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cáceres-Lorenzo, M-Teresa; Salas-Pascual, Marcos; Afonzo-de-Tovar, Isabel-Cristina; Vera-Cazorla, M-Jesús; Santana-Alvarado, Yaiza; Santana-Quintana, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates 292 postgraduate students of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), through a Likert-scale questionnaire. This inquiry was about private, educational actions and learning valuation of a foreign language and its relation with the learning of one or several foreign languages. The analysis of…

  2. MEGARA optical design: the new integral field unit and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Sánchez-Blanco, Ernesto; Carrasco, Esperanza; Gil de Paz, Armando; Páez, Gonzalo; Pérez, Ana; Gallego, Jesús; Sánchez, Francisco; Vílchez, José M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe the optical design of MEGARA, the future optical Integral Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). MEGARA is being built by a Consortium of public research institutions led by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM, Spain) that also includes INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and UPM (Spain).

  3. MAXI J1807+132: GTC spectroscopy reveals a LMXB-like optical spectrum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Darias, T.; Jimenez-Ibarra, F.; Mata Sanchez, D.; Armas Padilla, M.; Casares, J.; Charles, P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Following the recent detection of the new X-ray transient MAXI J1807+132 and its optical counterpart (ATEL #10208, #10215, #10216, #10217) we performed spectroscopic observations with the OSIRIS spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) 10.4m telescope located in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain.

  4. A Tool for the Administration and Management of University Profile Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulchand, Jacques; Rodriguez, Jorge; Chattah, Ana C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a management tool that helps to achieve the objectives of the plan for info-tech systems and communications of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria for the 2003-2006 period. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology used in this case is nothing if not practical. The chosen tool involved…

  5. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  6. Environmental availability, behavioural diversity and diet: a zooarchaeological approach from the TD10-1 sublevel of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) and Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Fernández Peris, Josep; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2013-06-01

    The suggestion that the Neanderthal linage hominids had predominantly rich diet in meat derived from large game is progressing towards views which propose a higher nutritional diversity, at least in some regions. These postulates situate hominids as the knower of their natural surroundings and make them capable of selecting within the range of resources available in their landscapes. Using a zooarchaeological approach, the taxonomical representation in an anthropogenic site could indicate both the environment diversity that human groups can exploit and the decisions that they make when selecting prey. The Optimal Foraging theory is a basic decision model that is ideally applied within a larger framework of constraining conditions such as differential prey distributions, food-consumer imbalances and/or competition, among others. Nevertheless, if this theory is applied to human behaviour, uncontrolled variables could exist and substantially alter some predictions. These variables may not always be related to the need to optimise the resources; additionally, they can respond to the questions related to nutritional ecology, cultural standards or social relationships conditioned by ecological or technological factors. Environmental and socio-cultural aspects invite us to reflect on the characteristics that delimit the pre-Upper Palaeolithic diet and its correct assessment in relation to the availability of prey in the environment and the human behavioural parameters. In this study, we present data from several levels of Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain, MIS 9-5e) and a sample from the TD10-1 sublevel of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain, MIS 9). Both sites have been interpreted as habitat places and allow us to infer the high plasticity of human groups with respect to methods and techniques of acquisition and use of a diverse spectrum of prey. Environmental availability, duration and type of settlement seem to significantly influence the taxonomical

  7. Digital Newsletters And Educational Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.; Concepción Anguita, M.; Domènech, A.; Zelman, N. R.; Ventura, L.

    The popularization of science, as a part of Culture, has and continues to be a constant concern for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), reflected in important actions, such as public outreach campaigns at educational institutions, open days at the Observatories, courses and conferences, exhibits, cooperation with publishing companies and awards, educational programmes, printed (IAC Noticias) and online newsletters, online scientific outreach, radio programmes (“Canarias Innova”) and attention to the media, besides the public outreach and communication of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and several special activities related to astronomical phenomena like eclipses, transits, comets or meteor showers. This poster introduces the digital newsletters GTC Digital and Caosyciencia, as well as the educational projects Educating in the Cosmos (Cosmoeduca) and Odyssey in Space-Time.

  8. Redshift of the Extreme BL Lac 3FGL J0909.0+2310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa-González, D.; Coutiño de León, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; Carramiñana, A.; Aretxaga, I.; Becerra González, J.; Furniss, A.; Terlevich, E.; Vega, O.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; León Tavares, J.; Longinotti, A. L.; Terlevich, R.

    2017-07-01

    3FGL J0909.0+2310 is a strong γ-ray source observed with the Fermi satellite. Its position in the sky and it's flux above 10 GeV makes it a good candidate to be observed with HAWC, the next generation of TeV observatories. We make use of the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph mounted on the 10-m Gran Telescopio Canarias to obtain the redshift of this interesting source.

  9. Winds, Eddies and Flow through Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    driven origin of the Philippine dipole eddies. By contrast, in other volcanic island regions of the world (including the Hawaiian, Cabo Verde, and... volcanic island regions of the world. By contrast in the Hawaiian, Cabo Verde and Canary Islands, the driving mechanism in the eddy dynamics is...J. Aristegui, and F. Herrera (2000), Lee region of Gran Canaria , J. Geophys. Res., 105(C7), 17173-17193. Chang, C.-P., Z. Wang, and H. Hendon

  10. First records of Hippocampus algiricus in the Canary Islands (north-east Atlantic Ocean) with an observation of hybridization with Hippocampus hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Otero-Ferrer, F; Herrera, R; López, A; Socorro, J; Molina, L; Bouza, C

    2015-10-01

    Morphometric and genetic analyses confirmed the first records of the West African seahorse Hippocampus algiricus at Gran Canaria Island (north-east Atlantic Ocean), and also the first evidence of interspecific hybridization in seahorses. These results provide additional data on the distribution of H. algiricus that may help to establish future conservation strategies, and uncover a new potential sympatric scenario between H. algiricus and Hippocampus hippocampus.

  11. The GTC Scientific Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.

    2005-12-01

    Since the early stages of the GTC project, the need of a scientific archive was already identified as an important tool for the scientific exploitation of the data. In this work, the conceptual design and the main functionalities of the Scientific Data Archive of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GSA) are described. The system will be developed, implemented and maintained at the Laboratorio de Astrofísica Espacial y Física Fundamental (LAEFF).

  12. Swift J1822.3-1606: Optical spectroscopy of the counterpart candidates from the 10.4m GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Munoz-Darias, T.

    2011-07-01

    We have performed optical spectroscopy of the two objects (S1 and S2; ATEL #3496, #3502) present within the Swift/XRT error circle of the Soft Gamma-ray Repeater (SGR) candidate, Swift J1822.3-1606 (ATEL #3488, #3489, #3490, #3491, #3493, #3501, #3503). Observations were performed on July 20, 2011 using the OSIRIS spectrograph at the 10.4m Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) telescope in La Palma, Spain.

  13. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae) on the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F.

    2017-01-01

    Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat). The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote) and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife), this west–east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago. PMID:28713419

  14. The dynamics of genetic and morphological variation on volcanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Gübitz, Thomas; Thorpe, Roger S; Malhotra, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Oceanic archipelagos of volcanic origin have been important in the study of evolution because they provide repeated natural experiments allowing rigorous tests of evolutionary hypotheses. Ongoing volcanism on these islands may, however, affect the evolutionary diversification of species. Analysis of population structure and phylogeographic patterns in island populations can provide insight into evolutionary dynamics on volcanic islands. We analysed genetic and morphological variation in the gecko Tarentola boettgeri on the island of Gran Canaria and compared it with Tarentola delalandii on Tenerife, a neighbouring volcanic island of similar age but distinctly different geological past. Intraspecific divergence of mitochondrial haplotypes indicates long-term persistence of Tarentola on each island, with a phylogeographic signal left by older volcanic events. More recent volcanic eruptions (approximately 0.2 million years ago on Tenerife, approximately 2.2 million years ago on Gran Canaria) have left a signature of population expansion in the population genetic structure, the strength of which depends on the time since the last major volcanic eruption on each island. While these stochastic events have left traces in morphological variation in Tenerife, in Gran Canaria geographical variation was solely associated with environmental variables. This suggests that historically caused patterns in morphology may be overwritten by natural selection within 2 million years. PMID:15870037

  15. Triatominae in furnariid nests of the Argentine Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Marti, G A; Echeverria, M G; Waleckx, E; Susevich, M L; Balsalobre, A; Gorla, D E

    2014-06-01

    Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) are bloodsucking insects involved in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, an important public health problem in Latin America. The triatomine species found in sylvatic habitats generally play a limited epidemiological role compared to domestic species, but they may act as a reinfestation source of dwellings after insecticide spraying and have to be carefully considered in control strategies of Chagas disease transmission. The objectives of this work were to carry out a survey of the sylvatic triatomine species colonizing Furnariidae nests in a typical area of the Chaco region of Argentina during the winter and to study the parasites and natural enemies associated with the collected triatomines. Sixty-three triatomine specimens were collected from Furnariidae nests (Coryphistera alaudina and Phacellodomus sibilatrix) randomly selected within the study area. Fifty-four were identified as Psammolestes coreodes, seven as Triatoma platensis, and two as Triatoma infestans. Specimens of T. infestans and T. platensis were found in one nest. The first finding of instar nymphs of T. infestans x T. platensis in a sylvatic habitat is reported. For the first time, sylvatic collected specimens of T. platensis were found infected by T. cruzi. Triatoma virus was found in one Ps. coreodes specimen. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. Concurrent atypical diffused tuberculosis and macrorhabdosis in a canary (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Seyed Ahmad; Haddad-Marandi, Mohammad Reza; Arabkhazaeli, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    A dead canary from a mixed species zoological garden was presented for diagnostic necropsy. Cachexia with prominent atrophy of pectoral muscles, yellowish brown discoloration of the liver and kidney, dark brown to black intestinal contents and moderate proventricular dilatation with some degree of catarrhal gastritis were the significant macroscopic findings. Parenchymatous organs like the liver, the spleen, the lung and the kidneys were extremely affected by massive diffuse necrosis and heavy infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, histopathologically. Many giant bacilli resembling Macrorrhabdus ornithogaster were seen microscopically in the wet smear of the isthmus mucosa. Ghost-like unstained bacilli were revealed in the Giemsa stained contact smears of the liver and spleen. No typical mycobacterial granulomatous lesion was found in different tissues, but in Ziehl-Neelsen stained thin layer histologic sections from the liver, spleen, lung and kidney, numerous acid fast organisms were diffusely distributed. The case was diagnosed an atypical avian tuberculosis with concurrent macrorhabdosis. Mycobacterium sp. are capable of giving rise to a progressive disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Cases of avian tuberculosis might be overlooked for lack of pathognomonic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis. PMID:25992258

  17. Innovative individuals are not always the best demonstrators: feeding innovation and social transmission in Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Cadieu, Nicole; Fruchard, Stéphane; Cadieu, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-22

    Feeding innovation occurs when individuals choose a novel, unknown type of food and/or acquire new feeding skills. Here we studied feeding innovation and social transmission of the new feeding habit in canaries. Adult canaries eat a wide variety of seeds but avoid larger ones such as those of sunflowers. We determined whether adults of both sexes are equally prone to innovate when confronted with sunflower seeds and whether free-interactions facilitate transmission of the new feeding habit in a sex-dependent manner. First we determined which sex was more innovative, i.e., was more successful at husking and eating the novel seeds. Males were clearly more innovative than females. Due to this, experienced males served as model for either male or female observers in three different conditions (free interaction with a demonstrator, visual interaction with a demonstrator placed behind a transparent wall and access to seeds in the presence of a non-demonstrating bird). During free interactions, the new feeding habit was only transmitted to females. In contrast, transmission of seed handling to male observers only occurred if demonstrator and observer were separated by the transparent wall. Indeed, aggressive behaviors between males prevented social transmission during free interactions. Finally, we studied the influence of the less innovative females in feeding-habit transmission. First, we obtained female demonstrators by making them freely interact with male demonstrators. Once they acquired innovative responses to sunflower seeds we studied feeding-habit transmission towards male and female observers. Observers of both sexes learned during free interactions with female demonstrators. No aggressive behavior occurred. Males were also able to learn after visual interactions with the female demonstrator. Our results show that the most innovative individuals (males) are not always the best demonstrators, and that social relationship and sex are crucial factors for the spread of a new feeding habit among canaries. These factors determine the kind of interaction between individuals and the time spent together, thus affecting the transmission of novel habits within the population.

  18. Avian bornaviruses are widely distributed in canary birds (Serinus canaria f. domestica).

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Rinder, Monika; Stein, Malte; Höper, Dirk; Kaspers, Bernd; Brosinski, Katrin; Horie, Masayuki; Schmidt, Volker; Legler, Marko; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2013-08-30

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) was identified in 2008 as the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacine birds. In addition, ABV variants were detected in wild waterfowl and in a canary bird. PDD-like diseases were also reported in various other avian species, but it remains unknown whether ABV is involved. In this study we detected ABV in 12 of 30 tested canary bird flocks (40%), indicating a wide distribution of ABV in captive canary birds in Germany. Sequence analysis identified several distinct ABV genotypes which differ markedly from the genotypes present in psittacine birds. Some canaries naturally infected with ABV exhibited gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms which resembled PDD in psittacines, while others did not show signs of disease. Canaries experimentally inoculated with ABV developed infections of the brain and various other organs. The experimentally infected canaries transmitted the virus to sentinel birds kept in the same aviary, but did not show any clinical signs during a five month observation period. Embryonated eggs originating from ABV-infected hens contained ABV-specific RNA, but virus could not be re-isolated from embryonic tissue. These results indicate that ABV is widely distributed in canary birds and due to its association to clinical signs should be considered as a potential pathogen of this species. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Concurrent atypical diffused tuberculosis and macrorhabdosis in a canary (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Madani, Seyed Ahmad; Haddad-Marandi, Mohammad Reza; Arabkhazaeli, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    A dead canary from a mixed species zoological garden was presented for diagnostic necropsy. Cachexia with prominent atrophy of pectoral muscles, yellowish brown discoloration of the liver and kidney, dark brown to black intestinal contents and moderate proventricular dilatation with some degree of catarrhal gastritis were the significant macroscopic findings. Parenchymatous organs like the liver, the spleen, the lung and the kidneys were extremely affected by massive diffuse necrosis and heavy infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, histopathologically. Many giant bacilli resembling Macrorrhabdus ornithogaster were seen microscopically in the wet smear of the isthmus mucosa. Ghost-like unstained bacilli were revealed in the Giemsa stained contact smears of the liver and spleen. No typical mycobacterial granulomatous lesion was found in different tissues, but in Ziehl-Neelsen stained thin layer histologic sections from the liver, spleen, lung and kidney, numerous acid fast organisms were diffusely distributed. The case was diagnosed an atypical avian tuberculosis with concurrent macrorhabdosis. Mycobacterium sp. are capable of giving rise to a progressive disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Cases of avian tuberculosis might be overlooked for lack of pathognomonic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis.

  20. An integrated model for motor control of song in Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rodrigo Gogui; Amador, Ana; Mindlin, Gabriel B

    2016-12-08

    Birdsong is a learned motor behavior controlled by an interconnected structure of neural nuclei. This pathway is bilaterally organized, with anatomically indistinguishable structures in each brain hemisphere. In this work, we present a computational model whose variables are the average activities of different neural nuclei of the song system of oscine birds. Two of the variables are linked to the air sac pressure and the tension of the labia during canary song production. We show that these time dependent gestures are capable of driving a model of the vocal organ to synthesize realistic canary like songs.

  1. The puzzling case of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934: flaring optical emission during quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglio, M. C.; Campana, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Papitto, A.; Burderi, L.; Di Salvo, T.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.

    2017-04-01

    We present an optical (gri) study during quiescence of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 performed with the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in August 2014. Although the source was in quiescence at the time of our observations, it showed a strong optical flaring activity, more pronounced in bluer filters (i.e. the g-band). After subtracting the flares, we tentatively recovered a sinusoidal modulation at the system orbital period in all bands, even when a significant phase shift with respect to an irradiated star, typical of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars, was detected. We conclude that the observed flaring could be a manifestation of the presence of an accretion disc in the system. The observed light curve variability could be explained by the presence of a superhump, which might be another proof of the formation of an accretion disc. In particular, the disc at the time of our observations was probably preparing the new outburst of the source, which occurred a few months later, in 2015. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma.

  2. MIRADAS: The Multi-Object R=22K Near-IR Spectropolarimeter for the 10.4-meter GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; MIRADAS Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS), a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=22,000 over the 1-2.5µm bandpass, is being developed by an international consosrtium for the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, as well as industrial partners in the US and Europe. MIRADAS completed its Final Design Review in mid-2015, and is currently undergoing fabrication, with planned first light in 2018/2019. In this paper, we review the overall science drivers and system design for MIRADAS, including key technologies such as cryogenic robotic probe arms, macroslicer mini-IFUs, full Stokes polarimetry, and a highly flexible observing configuration.

  3. Multi-wavelength Observations of Fast Infrared Flares from V404 Cygni in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallilar, Yigit; Casella, Piergiorgio; Marsh, Tom; Gandhi, Poshak; Fender, Rob; Littlefair, Stuart; Eikenberry, Steve; Garner, Alan; Stelter, Deno; Dhillon, Vik; Mooley, Kunal

    2016-07-01

    We used the fast photometry mode of our new Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) on the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias to observe V404 Cyg, a stellar mass black hole binary, on June 25, 2015 during its 2015 outburst. CIRCE provided 10Hz sampling in the Ks-band (2.2 microns) In addition, we obtained simultaneous multi wavelength data from our collaborators: three GHz radio bands from the AMI telescope and three optical/UV bands (u', g', r') from ULTRACAM on the William Herschel 4.2-meter telescope. We identify fast (1-second) IR flares with optical counterparts of varying strength/color, which we argue arise from a relativistic jet outflow. These observations provide important constraints on the emission processes and physical conditions in the jet forming region in V404 Cygni. We will discuss these results as well as their implications for relativistic jet formation around stellar-mass black holes.

  4. Multi-wavelength Observations of Fast Infrared Flares from V404 Cygni in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Dallilar, Yigit; Garner, Alan; Deno Stelter, R.; Gandhi, Poshak; Dhillon, Vik; Littlefair, Stuart; Marsh, Thomas; Fender, Rob P.; Mooley, Kunal

    2016-04-01

    We used the fast photometry mode of our new Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) on the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias to observe V404 Cyg, a stellar mass black hole binary, on June 25, 2015 during its 2015 outburst. CIRCE provided 10Hz sampling in the Ks-band (2.2 microns) In addition, we obtained simultaneous multi wavelength data from our collaborators: three GHz radio bands from the AMI telescope and three optical/UV bands (u', g', r') from ULTRACAM on the William Herschel 4.2-meter telescope. We identify fast (1-second) IR flares with optical counterparts of varying strength/color, which we argue arise from a relativistic jet outflow. These observations provide important constraints on the emission processes and physical conditions in the jet forming region in V404 Cygni. We will discuss these results as well as their implications for relativistic jet formation around stellar-mass black holes.

  5. MIRADAS - The Next-Generation Near-Infrared Spectrograph for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, S. S.

    2013-05-01

    We describe the Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) being developed by the MIRADAS Consortium institutions (including the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México) for the Gran Telescopio Canarias. MIRADAS is the most powerful astronomical instrument of its kind ever envisioned. The combination of the collecting area of GTC and the multi-object mid-resolution near-infrared spectra provided by MIRADAS make its capabilities unparalleled for addressing some of the leading scientific challenges of the coming decades, with an observing efficiency more than an order of magnitude greater than current capabilities for 10-meter-class telescopes. We briefly review the science drivers for the instrument, the basic design features, and the current status of the instrument development.

  6. Tracking colonization and diversification of insect lineages on islands: mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Tarphius canariensis (Coleoptera: Colydiidae) on the Canary Islands.

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, B C; Oromí, P; Hewitt, G M

    2000-01-01

    The genus Tarphius Erichson (Coleoptera: Colydiidae) is represented by 29 species on the Canary Islands. The majority are rare, single-island endemics intimately associated with the monteverde (laurel forest and fayal-brezal). The Tarphius canariensis complex is by far the most abundant and geographically wide-spread, occurring on Gran Canaria, Tenerife and La Palma. Eighty-seven individuals from the T. canariensis complex were sequenced for 444 bp of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI), 597 bp of the COII gene and the intervening tRNA(leu) gene. A neighbour-joining analysis of maximum-likelihood distances put La Palma as a single monophyletic clade of haplotypes occurring within a larger clade comprising all Tenerife haplotypes. Gran Canarian haplotypes were also monophyletic occurring on a separate lineage. Using a combination of the phylogeographic pattern for T. canariensis, geological data, biogeography of the remaining species and estimated divergence times, we proposed a Tenerifean origin in the old Teno massif and independent colonizations from here to north-eastern Tenerife (Anaga), Gran Canaria and La Palma. New methods of estimating diversification rates using branching times were applied to each island fauna. All islands exhibited a gradually decreasing rate of genetic diversification similar to that seen for Brachyderes rugatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from the Canary Islands. PMID:11413633

  7. High genetic diversity and population structure in the endangered Canarian endemic Ruta oreojasme (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Meloni, Marilena; Reid, Andrea; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Soto, Moisés; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Conti, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Insular species are expected to have low genetic diversity, for their populations are often small and isolated, and characterized by restricted gene flow and increased incidence of inbreeding. However, empirical results do not always match this expectation. For example, population genetic analyses of several Canarian endemics, based mainly on allozymes, show levels of genetic diversity exceptionally high for insular species. To investigate whether genetic variation in rare species endemic to Canary Islands is low, as predicted by theoretical expectations, or high, as documented in some previous studies, we analysed genetic diversity of the endangered Ruta oreojasme, a rare endemic of the island of Gran Canaria, using microsatellite markers, which are more variable than allozymes. Our analyses identified very high levels of genetic diversity (A = 7.625, P = 0.984, H o = 0.558, H e = 0.687) for R. oreojasme. Even though the distribution of the species is restricted to the South of Gran Canaria, only one population shows low genetic diversity, isolation and signs of a recent bottleneck/founder event. Some intrinsic characteristics of R. oreojasme (hermaphroditism, proterandry and polyploidy), the relative climatic stability of the Canarian archipelago during Quaternary glacials/interglacials, the size of most populations (thousands of individuals), its age, and the relative proximity of the archipelago to the mainland might have contributed to the high diversity that characterises this endemic. As expected, given the marked topographic complexity of Gran Canaria, we found marked genetic structure in R. oreojasme populations. Our results support the observation that Canarian endemics are characterised by unexpectedly high genetic diversity and provides important insights for potential applications to the conservation of R. oreojasme.

  8. Performance of MEGARA spectrograph optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Izazaga, R.; de la Luz Hurtado, J.; Pérez, C.; Granados, F.; Aguirre, D.; Percino, E.; Reyes, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias, J.

    2016-08-01

    MEGARA is the new IFU and multiobject spectrograph for Gran Telescopio Canarias. The spectograph will offer spectral resolution Rfwhm 6,000, 12,000 and 18,700. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system has been manufactured in Mexico. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms. All these elements are very large and complex, with very efficient antireflection coatings. Here the optical performance of MEGARA collimator and camera lenses and the field lens is presented.

  9. TEM characterisation and interpretation of fabric and structural degree of order in microcrystalline SiO2 phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, C.; Miehe, G.; Fuess, H.

    2002-03-01

    Representative samples of the two fabric varieties of microcrystalline quartz, chalcedony and quartzine, from agates of different origin were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both varieties contain lamellar admixtures of the SiO2 mineral moganite. The transitions from quartz to moganite within the fabric differ in a characteristic way. Whereas in quartzine the gradient between the structures is steep, the transition is more continuous in chalcedony. The morphology of moganite in chalcedony and quartzine is determined by the (101)-face; in pure moganite from Gran Canaria it is governed by the (110)-face.

  10. FRIDA: diffraction-limited imaging and integral-field spectroscopy for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Alan M.; Acosta-Pulido, José A.; Álvarez-Núñez, Luis C.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Cardiel, Nicolás.; Cardona, Salvador; Chapa, Oscar; Díaz García, José Javier; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Espejo, Carlos; Flores-Meza, Rubén. A.; Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Gallego, Jesús; Garcés Medina, José Leonardo; Garzón López, Francisco; Hammersley, Peter; Keiman, Carolina; Lara, Gerardo; López, José Alberto; López, Pablo L.; Lucero, Diana; Moreno Arce, Heidy; Pascual Ramirez, Sergio; Patrón Recio, Jesús; Prieto, Almudena; Rodríguez, Alberto José; Marco de la Rosa, José; Sánchez, Beatriz; Uribe, Jorge A.; Váldez Berriozabal, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    FRIDA is a diffraction-limited imager and integral-field spectrometer that is being built for the adaptive-optics focus of the Gran Telescopio Canarias. In imaging mode FRIDA will provide scales of 0.010, 0.020 and 0.040 arcsec/pixel and in IFS mode spectral resolutions of 1500, 4000 and 30,000. FRIDA is starting systems integration and is scheduled to complete fully integrated system tests at the laboratory by the end of 2017 and to be delivered to GTC shortly thereafter. In this contribution we present a summary of its design, fabrication, current status and potential scientific applications.

  11. Observational Evidence for a Galaxy Overdensity/Protocluster at z=6.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, R.; Chanchaiworawit, K.,; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Calvi, R.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Manrique, A.; Marín-Franch, A.; Gallego, J.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Herrero, A.

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of our search near the end of the Reionization Epoch for faint galaxies around two close, massive Lyman-α emitters (LAEs) at redshift 6.5, discovered in the SXDS field, using very deep OSIRIS images and spectroscopy obtained at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The luminosity function of these LAEs shows that this area is about 1.5 times denser than the general field galaxy population at z = 6.5. Our results implies the discovery of one of the earliest protoclusters in the Universe, which will evolve to resemble the most massive galaxy clusters today.

  12. The GTC scientific archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, R.; Solano, E.

    2011-11-01

    At present, data management in telescopes ofclass 8-10 meters is very inefficient. The Gran Telescopio Canarias(GTC) scientific archive that is being developed by the Centro deAstrobiología (CAB) in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatoryis aimed at avoiding this situation, providing the telescope with anarchive accessible via internet, guaranteeing the accessibility,efficiency, visibility and data security demanded by a telescope of itsentity. The GTC archive will also be adapted to the standards defined bythe International Virtual Observatory, maximizing the visibility of thedata produced by the telescope. The main characteristics of the GTCscientific archive are described in this poster.

  13. Rapid Test for Identification of a Highly Transmissible Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strain of Sub-Saharan Origin

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Henar; Gavín, Patricia; Hernández-Febles, Melissa; Campos-Herrero, María Isolina; Copado, Rodolfo; Cañas, Fernando; Kremer, Kristin; Caminero, José Antonio; Martín, Carlos; Samper, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    The development of a rapid test to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing isolates and specifically strain GC1237, coming from a sub-Saharan country, is needed due to its alarming wide spread on Gran Canaria Island (Spain). A rapid test that detects IS6110 present between dnaA and dnaN in the Beijing strains and in a specific site for GC1237 (Rv2180c) has been developed. This test would be a useful tool in the surveillance of subsequent cases. PMID:22116140

  14. GTC Science Operations and Instrumentation Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2017-03-01

    The 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS came into operation in 2009, and now we can clearly state without any doubt that we have in our hands an extraordinary tool to produce science with all its capabilities and functionalities operating under specs. This contribution summarizes the current status of the night operation of the telescope and describe GTC short- and medium- term instrumentation plan, that will make possible to provide access up to five different instruments to the users community from middle 2017, largely enhancing the scientific return from the telescope.

  15. The GTC Public Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alacid, J. Manuel; Solano, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) archive is operational since November 2011. The archive, maintained by the Data Archive Unit at CAB in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory project, provides access to both raw and science ready data and has been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) to guarantee a high level of data accessibility and handling. In this presentation I will describe the main capabilities the GTC archive offers to the community, in terms of functionalities and data collections, to carry out an efficient scientific exploitation of GTC data.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectra of IPHAS symbiotic stars (Rodriguez-Flores+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Flores, E. R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Mampaso, A.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Munari, U.; Greimel, R.; Rubio-Diez, M. M.; Santander-Garcia, M.

    2014-04-01

    We obtained spectra for 18 candidate symbiotic stars in May, June, and December 2012 at the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain). The OSIRIS instrument was used in its long-slit mode. The combination of grism R1000B and a slit width of 1" provides a spectral dispersion of 2.1Å per (binned x2) pixel, a resolution of 7Å, and a spectral coverage from 3650 to 7850Å. Exposure times ranged between 100s and 800s, depending of the magnitude of each object. (2 data files).

  17. Data Reduction Pipeline for EMIR, the Near-IR Multi-Object Spectrograph for GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, S.; Gallego, J.; Cardiel, N.; Zamorano, J.; Gorgas, F. J.; García-Dabó, C. E.; Gil de Paz, A.

    2006-07-01

    EMIR is a near-infrared wide-field camera and multi-object spectrograph being built for the 10.4m Spanish telescope (Gran Telescopio Canarias, GTC) at La Palma Observatory. The Data Reduction Pipeline, which is being designed and built by the EMIR Universidad Complutense de Madrid group, will be optimized for handling and reducing near-infrared data acquired with EMIR. Both reduced data and associated error frames will be delivered to the end-users as a final product.

  18. GUAIX: The UCM Group of Extragalactic Astrophysics and Astronomical Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Cardiel, N.; Zamorano, J.; Gorgas, J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Pascual, S.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Guzmán, R.; Barro, G.; Díaz, C.; Espino, N.; Izquierdo, J.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Toloba, E.; Villar, V.; Abelleira, M.

    We present a short summary of the activities developed by GUAIX, the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) Group of Extragalactic Astrophysics and Astronomical Instrumentation. At present we are focused in the development of data reduction pipelines for several future instruments for the Spanish 10m GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias). The careful treatment of the random error propagation throughout the data reduction is one of the main improvements of those pipelines. The first hardware development leaded by the GUAIX group will be FISIR, a fully-cryogenic (optimized for the K band) tunable filter in the near-infrared, to be installed within CIRCE, a near-IR camera for GTC.

  19. A Fully GTC-Compliant Pipeline for the Direct Imaging Mode of EMIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, S.; Gallego, J.; Cardiel, N.

    EMIR is a near-infrared wide-field camera and multi-object spectrograph being built for the 10.4m Spanish telescope (Gran Telescopio Canarias, GTC) at La Palma Observatory. The Data Factory Pipeline (DFP) will be optimized for handling and reducing near-infrared data acquired with EMIR. Both reduced data and associated error frames will be delivered to the end-users as a final product. The DFP is being designed and built by the EMIR Universidad Complutense de Madrid group.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and sequential colonization of Canary Islands by darkling beetles of the genus Pimelia (Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Juan, C; Oromi, P; Hewitt, G M

    1995-08-22

    Fifteen species of the darkling beetle genus Pimelia (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) have been sequenced for a 365 b.p. portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene. Thirteen of these are endemic species inhibiting the Canarian archipelago in the Atlantic and the other two are continental conspecifics. This data set has been phylogenetically analysed by maximum parsimony and distance approaches and the resulting trees used to deduce sequential interisland colonization. This suggests patterns compatible with the geological dating of the islands, but with increasing uncertainty when older events are considered. A colonization sequence from Fuerteventura to Tenerife followed by Tenerife to Gran Canarian and La Gomera, and from the latter to La Palma and then to El Hierro is proposed for the genus. A relatively recent secondary colonization from Gran Canaria to Gomera is deduced.

  1. Los grandes telescopios ópticos e infrarrojos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.

    Recientemente se han puesto en funcionamiento telescopios de 8 y 10 metros de diámetro de su espejo primario que están significando un gran avance en las capacidades observacionales de la Astronomía moderna. Igualmente en nuestro país se está construyendo el Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) que situará a la Astronomía española en la vanguardia de esta disciplina. En mi charla hablaré de las oportunidades observacionales que suponen estos grandes telescopios para la Astronomía moderna. Hablaré del GTC y del esfuerzo español por ser actores principales del desarrollo de la Astronomía moderna. Por último, mostraré brevemente los proyectos futuros de grandes telescopios que se están proponiendo a ambos lados del Atlántico.

  2. Influence of a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern on Body Fat Distribution: Results of the PREDIMED-Canarias Intervention Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Díaz-Benítez, Elena María; Ruano-Rodríguez, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Míguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2016-08-01

    To assess the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MeDiet) on anthropometric and body composition parameters in one of the centers of the PREDIMED randomized dietary trial. 351 Canarian free-living subjects aged 55 to 80 years, with type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 3 different dietary interventions: MeDiet + extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MeDiet + nuts (walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts), or a control low-fat diet. Total energy intake was ad libitum. Measures included changes in anthropometric measures (weight, body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]), body fat distribution, energy, and nutrient intake after 1 year. Body composition (percentage of total body fat [%TBF], total fat mass [TFM], free fat mass [FFM], percentage of truncal fat [%TrF], truncal fat mass [TrFM]) and total body water (TBW) were estimated by octapolar electrical impedance analysis. Paired t tests were conducted to assess within-group changes. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to assess the effect of the dietary intervention on the percentage change in anthropometric variables, body composition, and dietary intake profile. All pairwise comparisons that were statistically significant in ANOVA were subsequently adjusted using the Benjamini-Hochberg test, which penalizes for multiple comparisons. After 1 year of intervention, significant within-group reductions in all anthropometric variables were observed for the MeDiet + EVOO and the control group. The MeDiet + nuts group exhibited a significant reduction in WC and TBW. The control group showed a significant increase in %TBF and a reduction in TBW. The control group showed a significant increase in the percentage of total body fat and a reduction in TBW. However, we did not find any between-group significant difference in anthropometric or body composition changes. Mediterranean diets enriched with EVOO or specific mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts) that contain approximately 40% total fat can be alternative options to low-fat diets for weight maintenance regimes in older overweight or obese adults.

  3. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey. V. A spectrally-resolved Rayleigh scattering slope in GJ 3470b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Guenther, E. W.; Pallé, E.; Nortmann, L.; Nowak, G.; Kunz, S.; Parviainen, H.; Murgas, F.

    2017-04-01

    Aims: As a sub-Uranus-mass low-density planet, GJ 3470b has been found to show a flat featureless transmission spectrum in the infrared and a tentative Rayleigh scattering slope in the optical. We conducted an optical transmission spectroscopy project to assess the impacts of stellar activity and to determine whether or not GJ 3470b hosts a hydrogen-rich gas envelop. Methods: We observed three transits with the low-resolution Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and one transit with the high-resolution Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope. Results: From the high-resolution data, we find that the difference of the Ca ii H+K lines in- and out-of-transit is only 0.67 ± 0.22%, and determine a magnetic filling factor of about 10-15%. From the low-resolution data, we present the first optical transmission spectrum in the 435-755 nm band, which shows a slope consistent with Rayleigh scattering. Conclusions: After exploring the potential impacts of stellar activity in our observations, we confirm that Rayleigh scattering in an extended hydrogen-helium atmosphere is currently the best explanation. Further high-precision observations that simultaneously cover optical and infrared bands are required to answer whether or not clouds and hazes exist at high-altitude. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, on the island of La Palma, as well as observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile in program 096.C-0258(A).

  4. Chemical Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Substructures of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xuan; García-Benito, Rubén; Guerrero, Martín A.; Liu, Xiaowei; Yuan, Haibo; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Bing

    2015-12-01

    We present deep spectroscopy of planetary nebulae (PNe) that are associated with the substructures of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The spectra were obtained with the Optical System for Imaging and low-intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrograph on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Seven targets were selected for the observations, three in the Northern Spur and four associated with the Giant Stream. The most distant target in our sample, with a rectified galactocentric distance ≥slant 100 kpc, was the first PN discovered in the outer streams of M31. The [O iii] λ4363 auroral line is well detected in the spectra of all targets, enabling electron temperature determination. Ionic abundances are derived based on the [O iii] temperatures, and elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon are estimated. The relatively low N/O and He/H ratios, as well as abundance ratios of α-elements, indicate that our target PNe might belong to populations as old as ∼2 Gyr. Our PN sample, including the current seven and the previous three observed by Fang et al., have rather homogeneous oxygen abundances. The study of abundances and the spatial and kinematical properties of our sample leads to the tempting conclusion that their progenitors might belong to the same stellar population, which hints at a possibility that the Northern Spur and the Giant Stream have the same origin. This may be explained by the stellar orbit proposed by Merrett et al. Judging from the position and kinematics, we emphasize that M32 might be responsible for the two substructures. Deep spectroscopy of PNe in M32 will help to assess this hypothesis. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias, installed at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma. These observations are associated with program No. GTC55-14B.

  5. Deep Optical Observations of Unusual Neutron Star Calvera with the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibanov, Yury; Danilenko, Andrey; Zharikov, Sergey; Shternin, Peter; Zyuzin, Dima

    2016-11-01

    Calvera is an unusual, isolated neutron star with a pure thermal X-ray spectrum typical of central compact objects in supernova remnants. On the other hand, its rotation period and spin-down rate are typical of ordinary rotation-powered pulsars. It was discovered and studied through X-rays, and has not yet been detected in other spectral domains. We present deep optical imaging of the Calvera field, obtained with the Gran Telescopio Canarias, in the g\\prime and i\\prime bands. Within the vicinity of ≈ 1\\prime\\prime of Calvera, we detected two point-like objects that were invisible at previous shallow observations. However, accurate astrometry showed that neither of them can be identified with the pulsar. We put new upper limits of g\\prime \\gt 27.87 and i\\prime \\gt 26.84 on its optical brightness. We also reanalyzed all available archival X-ray data on Calvera. Comparison of the Calvera thermal emission parameters and upper limits on optical and non-thermal X-ray emission with respective data on rotation-powered pulsars shows that Calvera might belong to the class of ordinary middle-aged pulsars, if we assume that its distance is in the range of 1.5-5 kpc. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, on the island of La Palma, program GTC1-14AMEX.

  6. Air pollution and mortality in the Canary Islands: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    López-Villarrubia, Elena; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Peral, Nieves

    2010-02-12

    The island factor of the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, along with their proximity to Africa and their meteorology, create a particular setting that influences the air quality of these cities and provides researchers an opportunity to analyze the acute effects of air-pollutants on daily mortality. From 2000 to 2004, the relationship between daily changes in PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone levels and daily total mortality and mortality due to respiratory and heart diseases were assessed using Generalized Additive Poisson models controlled for potential confounders. The lag effect (up to five days) as well as the concurrent and previous day averages and distributed lag models were all estimated. Single and two pollutant models were also constructed. Daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were found to be associated with an increase in respiratory mortality in Santa Cruz de Tenerife and with increased heart disease mortality in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, thus indicating an association between daily ozone levels and mortality from heart diseases. The effects spread over five successive days. SO2 was the only air pollutant significantly related with total mortality (lag 0). There is a short-term association between current exposure levels to air pollution and mortality (total as well as that due specifically to heart and respiratory diseases) in both cities. Risk coefficients were higher for respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, showing a delayed effect over several days.

  7. Using the Global Positioning System to monitor dynamic ground deformation networks on potentially active landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Jane L.

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has many advantages over conventional surveying for landslide disaster prevention and mitigation. Once an initial baseline network of ground markers has been positioned, the re-occupation of survey stations determines ground deformation. This verifies both the boundary of the landslide block and ground surface changes. These changes may take the form of either slow to moderate creep, or massive structural failure. Creep may occur as a precursor to slope failure, either within (i) fresh slopes that do not show any evidence of past collapse, (ii) the existing active landslides and (iii) areas adjacent to existing collapses. Networks are measured using rapid static GPS. The method, which enables many survey stations to be measured in a short time, provides a quick means for determining the three-dimensional map of the ground surface (of the landslide). A study in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, established an initial baseline network within the Barranco de Tirajana, a basin on Gran Canaria that contains evidence of both ancient and recent landslides. Reoccupation of the network using rapid static GPS revealed a field accuracy of approximately 10 mm; the data indicated that the most recent landslide is currently stable.

  8. Discovery of a Very Bright and Intrinsically Very Luminous, Strongly Lensed Lyα Emitting Galaxy at z = 2.82 in the BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques-Chaves, Rui; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Shu, Yiping; Martínez-Navajas, Paloma I.; Bolton, Adam S.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Oguri, Masamune; Zheng, Zheng; Mao, Shude; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Cornachione, Matthew A.; Brownstein, Joel R.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of a very bright (r = 20.16), highly magnified, and yet intrinsically very luminous Lyα emitter (LAE) at z=2.82. This system comprises four images in the observer plane with a maximum separation of ∼ 6\\prime\\prime and it is lensed by a z=0.55 massive early-type galaxy. It was initially identified in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Emission-Line Lens Survey for GALaxy-Lyα EmitteR sYstems survey, and follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations using the Gran Telescopio Canarias and William Herschel Telescope confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A lens model using a singular isothermal ellipsoid in an external shear field reproduces the main features of the system quite well, yielding an Einstein radius of 2.″95 ± 0.″10, and a total magnification factor for the LAE of 8.8 ± 0.4. This LAE is one of the brightest and most luminous galaxy–galaxy strong lenses known. We present initial imaging and spectroscopy showing the basic physical and morphological properties of this lensed system. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and William Herschel Telescope (WHT), in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC, under Directors Discretionary Time (DDT programs IDs: GTC2016-054 and DDT2016-077).

  9. Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of the right tibia in the prehispanic population of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Santolaria-Fernández, F

    2000-02-28

    This study has been performed in order to define standards usable to determine the sex of prehispanic individuals from the Canary Islands from their skeletal remains. Osteometric information at the right tibia was obtained from 59 complete skeletons from Gran Canaria, housed in the Museo Canario (Las Palmas), 45 males and 14 females (this constitutes the totality of complete prehispanic skeletons known from Gran Canaria). The parameters measured were: tibial length, proximal and distal epiphyseal breadth, transverse and anteroposterior diameter, perimeter at the nutrition foramen levels and minimum shaft perimeter. These parameters were subjected to different SPSS discriminant function analysis, combining all of them, or only the proximal or distal ones, without tibial length, etc., in order to obtain functions usable even if only bone fragments are available. Transverse diameter, proximal epiphyseal breadth and minimum shaft perimeter showed the highest discriminant power. The functions obtained showed high average accuracies, ranging from 94.9 to 98.3%, with female accuracies of 100%. The functions obtained were further applied to a test prehispanic population (ten males and ten females) from El Hierro. Overall accuracies of the functions when applied to this population ranged from 65 to 94.7%, with female accuracies ranging 80% to 100%.

  10. Mantacaprella macaronensis, a new genus and species of Caprellidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Canary Islands and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Maite, Vázquez-Luis; José M, Guerra-García; Susana, Carvalho; Lydia Png-Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Mantacaprella macaronensis new genus, new species, is described based on specimens collected from Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Mantacaprella is close to the genera Parambus, Pseudolirius, Propodalirius and Paracaprella, but can be distinguished by the combination of the following characteristics: pereopods 3, 4 and 5 two-articulate; pereopods 6 and 7 six-articulate; mandibular molar present and palp absent; male abdomen with a pair of well-developed appendages. The new species has been found living in Cymodocea nodosa meadows and Caulerpa prolifera beds from 8.8 to 14.6 m depth in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), and in natural rocky and artificial habitats (shipwrecks) at 25 m in Sal Island (Cape Verde). Even though the new species is one of the dominant amphipods inhabiting meadows of Cymodocea nodosa in Gran Canaria and in Cape Verde, it had not been described so far. This reflects the lack of knowledge on Macaronesian invertebrates, such as amphipods, and the need of further taxonomical studies to better characterise the whole biodiversity of this region and to design adequate programmes of management and conservation.

  11. Double {beta} experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Belli, P.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yurchenko, S. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; and others

    2011-12-16

    A search for double beta decay of {sup 64,70}Zn, {sup 180,186}W was carried out by using low background ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators, while a CeCl{sub 3} scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2{beta} processes in {sup 136,138,142}Ce. A search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 96,104}Ru, {sup 156,158}Dy, {sup 190,198}Pt and study of 2{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the first excited 0{sup +} level of {sup 100}Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe {gamma} spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators from enriched {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate {sup 96,104}Ru and {sup 116}Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2{beta} processes in {sup 106}Cd is in preparation.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VVV Survey outer bulge RRab stars (Gran+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, F.; Minniti, D.; Saito, R. K.; Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Elorrieta, F.; Eyheramendy, S.; Jordan, A.

    2016-09-01

    The VVV Survey is a public ESO near-IR survey that is mapping the inner Milky Way, including the inner halo, the bulge and an adjacent section of the disk with the VISTA 4m telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Minniti et al., 2010NewA...15..433M). In this analysis we used data covering more than ~47 sq deg in the outer bulge (-10.0°<~l<~+10.7° and -10.3°<~b<~-8.0°). This area corresponds to the VVV tiles b201 through b228, obtained between April 2010 and August 2014 with 60-62 epochs in all the selected tiles. We use aperture photometry applied to the stacked images known as tiles, provided by the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit (CASU) and setting the minimum number of epochs per star analyzed to 30 in order to achieve a better frequency analysis and avoid gaps in the light curves. (2 data files).

  13. The Computer Bulletin Board. Modified Gran Plots of Very Weak Acids on a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, F. T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two applications of computer technology to chemistry instruction: the use of a spreadsheet program to analyze acid-base titration curves and the use of database software to catalog stockroom inventories. (CW)

  14. The Global Rescue Alarm Net (GRAN) experiment. [application of OMEGA Position Location Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morakis, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The OMEGA Position Location Experiment (OPLE) was performed in 1967 by the Goddard Space Flight Center in order to demonstrate a position location and data collection system. OMEGA navigation signals were received at a remote site and retransmitted via a synchronous satellite to a ground processing center where data collecting and position determination were performed. Recent technological advances have made it possible to develop an Advanced OPLE System towards a global search and rescue application. This application generated some new problem areas such as the OMEGA lane ambiguity, random access, location accuracy, real-time processing, and size and weight of the Search and Rescue Communications (SARCOM). This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of instantaneous alarm and position location by using a relatively inexpensive, battery operated, three-pound package.

  15. [Exogoninae (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from the Mexican Caribbean region with a key for the Gran Caribbean species].

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Ramírez, J D; Salazar-Vallejo, S I

    2001-03-01

    This paper identifies the Exogoninae (Syllidae) from the Mexican Caribbean coasts and includes a key to identify all the species recorded from the Grand Caribbean Sea. The classification of the family and the composition of Exogoninae are briefly examined; the correct names of the subfamilies are Syllinae Grube, 1850, Eusyllinae Malaquin, 1893, Autolytinae Malaquin, 1893 and Exogoninae Langerhans, 1879. Exogoninae includes Anguillosyllis Day, 1963, Brania de Quatrefages, 1866, Braniella Hartman, 1963, Exogone Ørsted, 1845, Exogonella Hartman, 1961, Exogonoides Day, 1963, Parapionosyllis Fauvel, 1923, Psammosyllis Westheide, 1990, Spermosyllis Claparède, 1864, and Sphaerosyllis Claparède, 1863. Pseudexogone Augener, 1922, formerly included in the group, is not a syllid; it belongs to Pilargidae. We collected 814 specimens belonging to 3 genera, 3 subgenera and 13 species as Brania (4), Exogone (4) and Sphaerosyllis (5); five new species are described: Brania russelli n. sp, Brania uebelackerae n. sp, Brania westheidei n. sp., Exogone (Exogone) bondi n. sp. and Exogone (Parexogone) sanmartini n. sp. For each species, selected references, diagnostic features, observations on morphological variability, distribution and illustrations are provided; new species also have an english diagnosis. Most abundant species were B. uebelackerae n. sp. (295), S. taylori Perkins (169), E. (E.) dispar Webster (76), and E. (E.) bondi n sp. (72).

  16. Status of the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso. [Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The design of the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment is described, and the results achieved by the running of its first supermodule are summarized. Searches for magnetic monopoles and point sources of downward muons resulted in no detections. One upward moving muon was seen along with abundant data on muon bundles.

  17. Pinacate-gran Desierto Region, Mexico: SIR-A Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P.; Greeley, R.; Mchone, J.; Asmerom, Y.; Barnett, S.

    1984-01-01

    Radar images (SIR-A) from the Columbia space shuttle were used to assess the radar returns of terrain shaped by volcanic, aeolian, and fluvial processes in northwest Sonora. Field studies and photointerpretation show that sand dunes are poorly imaged by SIR-A, in contrast to SEASAT, evidently a consequence of the greater SIR-A incidence angle; star dunes are visible only as small bright spots representing merging arms at dune apices which may act as corner reflectors. Desert grasses and bushes (approx. 2 m high) have little effect on radar brightness. Only larger trees with woody trunks approx. 0.5 m across are effective radar reflectors; their presence contributes to radar bright zones along some arroyos. The radar brightness of lava flows decreases with surface roughness and presence of mantling windblown sediments and weathering products; however, old uplifted (faulted) flows are of equal brightness to fresh, unmantled aa flows. Maar craters display circular patterns of varying radar brightness which represent a combination of geometry, slope, and distribution of surface materials. Some radar bright rings in the Pinacates resemble craters on radar but are observed to be playas encircled by trees.

  18. Pesticide impact study in the peri-urban horticultural area of Gran La Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mac Loughlin, Tomás M; Peluso, Leticia; Marino, Damián J G

    2017-11-15

    Vegetable production systems are characterized by intense pesticide use, yet the effects on the surrounding environment are largely unknown and need to be studied. Given this knowledge gap, the objective of this work is to determine the impact of horticulture on a representative watercourse by conducting an integrated study of the occurrence and concentration of pesticides in bottom sediments and their relation to lethal and sublethal effects on benthic fauna. Two sampling campaigns were conducted during seasons of low and high pesticide application in five sites along the Carnaval creek, located in the peri-urban area of La Plata City (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The samples were tested for 36 pesticide compounds by GC-MS and LC-MS, and whole-sediment laboratory toxicity tests were performed using the native amphipod Hyalella curvispina. The results showed a general but variable distribution in the concentrations detected along the stream. For each sampling campaign (first/second), the total pesticide loads, measured as the sum of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, were 1080/2329, 3715/88, and 367/5ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Lethal and sublethal effects were observed in both sampling campaigns. In order to correlate both sets of results, data were assessed by multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis. The observed toxicity was considered to be mainly due to insecticides; thus, horticultural practices have an impact on nearby watercourses and can potentially endanger the benthic fauna. This is the first study in Argentina to assess the impact of pesticides on aquatic environments close to horticultural production areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Search for stellar collapse with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is viewed that in stellar evolution stars in the range of 8 to 12 solar masses evolve gradually as increasingly heavier nuclei are produced and then consumed in a series of exothermic thermonuclear processes ultimately leading to the formation of a core composed almost entirely of nickel and iron. When the mass of this hot iron-nickel core reaches the critical value of approximately 1.4 solar masses, electron degeneracy pressure is no longer able to support the outer layers of the star and a collapse process begins. Since the core has exhausted its thermonuclear fuel, further stages of thermonuclear burning cannot prevent a runaway collapse. As the density reaches 10 to the 10th power gm sub/cm at a temperature near 10 to the 10th power k, most of the heavy nuclei are dissociated into free nucleons and electron capture on free protons leads to a decrease in the degeneracy pressure and further acceleration of the collapse process. Although this general picture has received substantial confirmation over the past two decades with the discovery of radio pulsars (neutron stars), X-ray pulsars (accreting binary neutron stars) and Cyg X-1 (probably an accreting black hole), an actual neutrino burst is not yet convincingly detected.

  20. Status of the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso. [Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The design of the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment is described, and the results achieved by the running of its first supermodule are summarized. Searches for magnetic monopoles and point sources of downward muons resulted in no detections. One upward moving muon was seen along with abundant data on muon bundles.

  1. The Sky Among the Toba of Western Formosa (Gran Chaco, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Cecilia Paula

    Based on the Toba Indians' interpretation of the Pleiades (Dapíchi), the Moon (ÁwoGoik), and the Milky Way (Máñik, Nágaik or Lakawáhegem), we postulate a fluid and constant interaction between the sky and everyday life. Therefore, the change and continuity in their lifestyle may also be traced in the interpretations of the celestial space.

  2. New findings of insecticide resistance in Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) from the Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Germano, M D; Roca Acevedo, G; Mougabure Cueto, G A; Toloza, A C; Vassena, C V; Picollo, M I

    2010-11-01

    Chagas disease is a major health concern in Latin America, and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) is responsible for the majority of cases of Chagas disease in the continent. After the discovery of deltamethrin highly resistant populations in the neighboring areas to Yacuiba (Bolivia) and Salvador Mazza (Argentina), we studied T. infestans populations north and southward, with the aim of describing the range of the resistant area. In addition, tests were conducted to describe the susceptibility to fipronil in deltamethrin-resistant populations. Tarija populations were highly resistant to deltamethrin, showing that the resistant area is greater than previously reported. Argentinean and Paraguayan populations were susceptible or presented moderate to low levels of deltamethrin resistance. Resistance to fipronil was found in Bolivian populations, although this insecticide was effective against Argentinean populations. This study shows that the Argentinean and Paraguayan populations are currently under successful control with deltamethrin. However, continuous resistance monitoring is necessary. We found that fipronil is a viable option for Argentina, whereas the resistance found in Bolivia implies that new formulations are needed to control T. infestans in Bolivia. Further research is required to find new alternatives of control in those areas that are currently suffering from high infestation rates.

  3. Dominicanas entre La Gran Manzana y Quisqueya: Family, Schooling, and Language Learning in a Transnational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a one-year qualitative research study, this article explores the transnational lives and experiences of three young women and their little sisters in New York with close ties to the Dominican Republic. Using ethnographic research methods--life history interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and document analysis, I examine…

  4. Dominicanas entre La Gran Manzana y Quisqueya: Family, Schooling, and Language Learning in a Transnational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a one-year qualitative research study, this article explores the transnational lives and experiences of three young women and their little sisters in New York with close ties to the Dominican Republic. Using ethnographic research methods--life history interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and document analysis, I examine…

  5. Ergonomic analysis in the bagging of gran equipment: unsuitability of the work stations.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Suzi; Lemos, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    This analysis was performed in the industry for bagging grain (granular urea) nitrogen fertilizer factory in order to raise the causes of accidents on the operators. Data collection through direct observation and interviews done with the managers and operators have identified the causes of accidents. The results show an evident fact: the working conditions of bagging grain cause embarrassment to the employee, as well as the emergence of pathophysiology due to overload, then the problems of work organization involving mainly equipment, tools and accessories inadequate. At the end of this work are related suggestions, which has as its goal the reduction or even elimination of accidents involving operators bagging grain.

  6. MIRADAS control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Garzón Lopez, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This paper shows an overview of the MIRADAS control software, which follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GTC Control System (GCS). The MIRADAS Control System is based on a distributed architecture according to a component model where every subsystem is selfcontained. The GCS is a distributed environment written in object oriented C++, which runs components in different computers, using CORBA middleware for communications. Each MIRADAS observing mode, including engineering, monitoring and calibration modes, will have its own predefined sequence, which are executed in the GCS Sequencer. These sequences will have the ability of communicating with other telescope subsystems.

  7. Uncovering the host galaxy of the γ-ray-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy FBQS J1644+2619

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Capetti, A.; Raiteri, C. M.; Baldi, R. D.; Orienti, M.; Ramos Almeida, C.

    2017-07-01

    The discovery of γ-ray emission from radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies has questioned the need for large black hole masses ( ≳ 108 M⊙) to launch relativistic jets. We present near-infrared data of the γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 FBQS J1644+2619 that were collected using the camera CIRCE (Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment) at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias to investigate the structural properties of its host galaxy and to infer the black hole mass. The 2D surface brightness profile is modelled by the combination of a nuclear and a bulge component with a Sérsic profile with index n = 3.7, indicative of an elliptical galaxy. The structural parameters of the host are consistent with the correlations of effective radius and surface brightness against absolute magnitude measured for elliptical galaxies. From the bulge luminosity, we estimated a black hole mass of (2.1 ± 0.2) × 108 M⊙, consistent with the values characterizing radio-loud active galactic nuclei.

  8. OSIRIS camera barrel optomechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Alejandro; Tejada, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jesus; Cobos, Francisco J.; Sanchez, Beatriz; Fuentes, Javier; Ruiz, Elfego

    2004-09-01

    A Camera Barrel, located in the OSIRIS imager/spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), is described in this article. The barrel design has been developed by the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Mexico (IA-UNAM), in collaboration with the Institute for Astrophysics of Canarias (IAC), Spain. The barrel is being manufactured by the Engineering Center for Industrial Development (CIDESI) at Queretaro, Mexico. The Camera Barrel includes a set of eight lenses (three doublets and two singlets), with their respective supports and cells, as well as two subsystems: the Focusing Unit, which is a mechanism that modifies the first doublet relative position; and the Passive Displacement Unit (PDU), which uses the third doublet as thermal compensator to maintain the camera focal length and image quality when the ambient temperature changes. This article includes a brief description of the scientific instrument; describes the design criteria related with performance justification; and summarizes the specifications related with misalignment errors and generated stresses. The Camera Barrel components are described and analytical calculations, FEA simulations and error budgets are also included.

  9. Fast IR photometry of V404 Cyg in outburst with CIRCE/GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallilar, Yigit; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Garner, Alan; Stelter, Richard D.; Gandhi, Poshak; Hardy, Liam K.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Littlefair, Stuart; Fender, Rob; Mooley, Kunal P.

    2016-01-01

    We used the fast photometry mode of the Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) on the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias to observe V404 Cyg, a stellar mass black hole binary, on June 25th for about one and a half hour during its 2015 outburst. CIRCE provided 10Hz sampling in the Ks-band (2.2 microns) In addition, we obtained simultaneous multi wavelength data from our collaborators: three GHz radio bands from the AMI telescope and two optical bands (g'-r') from ULTRACAM on the William Herschel 4.2-meter telescope. We extract spectral indices from the three radio bands and an optical-to-infrared color index from infrared and optical lightcurves. With a positive and increasing radio spectral index, we have identified an infrared outburst about 30 minutes with a clear self absorbed synchrotron ejection event. We further investigate the correlation between spectral indexes and multi wavelength flux measurements to understand evolution of ejection event. We also report on very fast IR flares and their correlation with optical events.

  10. Spectroscopy of 10 γ-Ray BL Lac Objects at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiano, Simona; Landoni, Marco; Falomo, Renato; Treves, Aldo; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    We present optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio of 10 BL Lac objects detected at GeV energies by the Fermi satellite (3FGL catalog), which previous observations suggested are at relatively high redshift. The new observations, obtained at the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, allowed us to find the redshift for J0814.5+2943 (z = 0.703), and we can set a spectroscopic lower limit for J0008.0+4713 (z > 1.659) and J1107.7+0222 (z > 1.0735) on the basis of Mg ii intervening absorption features. In addition we confirm the redshifts for J0505.5+0416 (z = 0.423) and J1450+5200 (z > 2.470). Finally we contradict the previous z estimates for five objects (J0049.7+0237, J0243.5+7119, J0802.0+1005, J1109.4+2411, and J2116.1+3339).

  11. Ultra-deep imaging of nearby galaxy outskirts from the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Ignacio

    2017-03-01

    We show how present-day 10 meter class telescopes can provide broadband imaging 1.5-2 mag deeper than most previous results within a reasonable amount of time ( ~ 8h on source integration). We illustrate the ability of the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) telescope to produce imaging with a limiting surface brightness of 31.5 mag/arcsec2 (3σ in 10 × 10 arcsec boxes). We explore the stellar halos of nearby galaxies obtaining surface brightness radial profiles down to μ r ~ 33 mag/arcsec2. This depth is similar to that obtained using star counts techniques of Local Group galaxies, but is achieved at a distance where this technique is unfeasible.

  12. GTC/OSIRIS Transmission spectroscopy of the short period planet WASP-43b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgas, F.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Nortmann, L.; Hoyer, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2013-09-01

    Of the several extrasolar planets discovered to date, only a few of them have orbital periods of less than a day. Such planets are interesting candidates to study tidal effects and, in the case of short period Hot Jupiters, they offer an excellent oportunity to detect and study their atmosphere due to their generally large atmospheric scale heights. We used Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) instrument OSIRIS to obtain long-slit spectra in the optical range (520-1040 nm) of the planetary host star WASP-43 (and a reference star) during a transit event. We integrated the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves and fitted transit models in order to obtain the star-to-planet radius ratio RP/RS across wavelength.

  13. Rheomorphism of welded tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Wright, J. V.

    1981-05-01

    Peralkaline welded tuffs from the islands of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, and Pantelleria, Italy, show abundant evidence for post-depositional flow. It is demonstrated that rheomorphism, or secondary mass flowage, can occur in welded tuffs of ignimbrite and air-fall origin. The presence of a linear fabric is taken as the diagnostic criterion for the recognition of the process. Deposition on a slope is an essential condition for the development of rheomorphism after compaction and welding. Internal structures produced during rheomorphic flow can be studied by the methods of structural geology and show similar dispositions to comparable features in sedimentary slump sheets. It is shown that secondary flowage can occur in welded tuffs emplaced on gentle slopes, provided that the apparent viscosity of the magma is sufficiently low. Compositional factors favor the development of rheomorphism in densely welded tuffs of peralkaline type.

  14. [Historical compendium of physical activity and sport].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis Pablo

    2004-01-01

    The Historical Compendium of Physical Activity and Sport analyses, from a scientific perspective, past events in the array of tasks or manoeuvres comprising body movement, in a setting of human liberty and creative capacity. Sport is examined as a result of the evolution of games and in a context of these games. This book contemplates sports, whose selection criteria have included specific features of their individual or team qualities, or combat or opposition characteristics, or those related to their artistic features or to instrumentation or adaptation, or other connotations. 1st authors are 36 professors, from the universities of Barcelona, (Central), Granada, Jaen, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, León, Madrid (Complutense), Málaga, Murcia, Oviedo, País Vasco, Salamanca, Valencia and Zaragoza.

  15. UV doses and skin effects during psoriasis climate therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Hernandez-Palacios, Julio; Lilleeng, Mila; Nilsen, Lill Tove; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common autoimmune disease with inflammatory symptoms affecting skin and joints. One way of dealing with psoriasis is by controlled solar UV exposure treatment. However, this treatment should be optimized to get the best possible treatment effect and to limit negative side effects such as erythema and an increased risk of skin cancer. In this study 24 patients at Valle Marina Treatment Center in Gran Canaria were monitored throughout a treatment period of three weeks starting at the beginning of November. The total UV dose to the location was monitored by UV-meters placed on the roof of the treatment centere, and the patients wore individual film dosimeters throughout the treatment period. Skin parameters were accessed by reflection spectroscopy (400-850nm). This paper presents preliminary findings from the skin measurements in the visible part of the spectrum, such as blood oxygenation, erythema and melanin indexes. Reflection spectroscopy was found to be a good tool for such treatment monitoring.

  16. Design and testing of AR coatings for MEGARA optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, R.; Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Pompa, O.; Sanchez-Blanco, E.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the antireflection coatings of the optical elements of MEGARA, the new integral field and multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias. We describe the methodology for optimizing the solutions. We also present the results of the final deposited coatings. The main optics require broadband coatings in the range from 370 nm to 980 nm for different materials with a mean R<1.3% at specific angles of incidence in each surface. For each material a specific arrangement of thicknesses of the same eight layers were produced and tested. For the spectrograph pupil elements four layer coatings were designed and produced R<0.3%. The design of main optics and pupil elements coatings have been shared between INAOE and CIO. The coating depositions have been performed at CIO in the Integrity 39 Denton Vacuum Deposition System. The main optics final coatings fulfill MEGARA requirements.

  17. Automatization of the guiding process in the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molgo, J.; Álvarez, C.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Huertas, M.; Macías, R.; Guerra, D.; Ramos, F.; Gaggstatter, T.; Brito, H.; de Paz, H.

    2016-07-01

    The "Gran Telescopio Canarias" (GTC) is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). The GTC Control System (GCS) is continuously evolving to enhance the operational efficiency. In this work we present the new GCS subsystem to automatize the guiding setup process, both for Fast Guiding and for Slow Guiding. A set of restrictions (including vignetting and photometric computations) is used to select the stars appropriate for guiding, and a merit function is used to choose the best one. Then, the system computes the optical configuration that fits best the selected star, automatically performs the guide star acquisition process and it closes the guide loop.

  18. Clinical characteristics associated with illness perception in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Astrid K; Robinson, Hilde S; Langeland, Eva; Larsen, Marie H; Krogstad, Anne-Lene; Moum, Torbjørn

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of illness perception may aid the identification of groups of patients with a higher risk of coping poorly with the demands of their illness. This study aims to investigate associations between illness perception, clinical characteristics, patient knowledge, quality of life and subjective health in persons with psoriasis. The present study was based on cross-sectional data from patients awaiting climate therapy in Gran Canaria. We included 254 eligible patients (74%) who completed a questionnaire including the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Psoriasis Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Dermatological Life Quality Index. Disease severity was measured using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Several statistically significant associations between clinical characteristics, knowledge and various illness perception dimensions were found. Illness perception was also significantly related to disease-specific quality of life and subjective health. These findings contradict previous findings, which suggested that objective disease factors are not relevant to illness perception in psoriasis.

  19. Chemical characterisation of african dust transported to Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado, M. D.; López, P.; Prieto, S.; Collado, C.; Hernández, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    African dust pulses have important effects on the climate conditions and the marine biogeochemistry in the Canary Region. Aerosol samples have been collected at three stations on Gran Canaria Island (Taliarte at sea level, Tafira 269 m a.s.l. and Pico de la Gorra 1930 m a.s.l.) during 2000-2008. Elemental characterisation of the collected mineral aerosol and back trajectories of the air masses are used to distinguish regional African sources of dust. Dust aerosol samples from North Sahara (Morocco, North Algeria and Tunisia), West and Central Sahara (20°-30°N, 18°W-50°E) and Sahel (0°-20°N, 18°W-50°E) have shown different Ca/Ti, Al/Ti and Fe/Al ratios. Ti appears as a better tracer element of specific source of dust than Fe, probably due to a less mineral alteration during the atmospheric transport.

  20. GTC Optical Spectroscopy of TeV Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiano, Simona; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Landoni, M.; Scarpa, R.; Righi, C.

    2016-10-01

    We carried out an extensive spectroscopic campaign of blazars of unknown or uncertain redshift which are either detected in the TeV band by Cherenkov telescopes or good candidate as TeV emitters. We used the OSIRIS spectrograph at the Gran Telescopio of Canarias (GTC) at La Palma to secure high signal-to-noise ratio spectra at intermediate resolution in the range 3800-10000 Ang. These observations allow us to confirm the blazar classification, to find new redshift and/or to set stringent lower limits. The results are discussed in the context of emission modeling of TeV sources and are of importance for the characterization of the Extragalactic Background Light.

  1. FISICA: The Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Raines, S. Nicholas; Julian, J.; Gruel, N.; Boreman, Glenn; Hoffmann, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Greg; Myrick, Bruce; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R ˜ 1300 spectra over a 16 × 33″ field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-m telescope, or a 6 × 12″ field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-m telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design, fabrication, laboratory test results, and on-telescope performance for FISICA.

  2. Assembly and tests of the GTC 10m telescope mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaller, Lluís; Siegel, Benjamin

    2006-06-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) is a 10m segmented mirror telescope that is under construction at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (Spain; that is expected to have first light during 2006. The telescope mechanics is comprised of the telescope structure, bearings, motors, encoders, brakes, cable wraps and counterweights and also the Nasmyth instrument rotators and the tertiary mirror drives. The structure of the telescope was assembled at site between 2003 and 2005 and the rest of the systems are being assembled and tested during 2005 and 2006. This paper presents the process of the assembly of the telescope mechanics, the problems presented and the lessons learned during it, and the results of the tests performed.

  3. The performances of the GTC secondary mirror drive unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalta, Joan M.; Ariño, Joan; Canchado, Manuel; Geijo, Enric M.; Molins, Albert; Tomàs, Albert; Zago, Lorenzo

    2004-09-01

    This paper summarizes the main aspects of the design and qualification test results of the secondary mirror mechanism for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The design of the M2DS consists of a two stage mechanism, a hexapod for alignment using six linear actuators and a compensated tilt/chop stage with three voice coils taking its base on the hexapod mobile plate. The system has been tested after servos adjustment and calibration and the latest results are presented, which illustrate the quality and accuracy of this mechanism in both alignment and chop performances. Finally, the results and experiences are summarized in order to provide useful information for new developments of such systems.

  4. Spectroscopy of globular clusters in the outer halo of M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannajak, Chutipong; Sarajedini, Ata

    2017-01-01

    We present integrated spectroscopy of two globular clusters and two globular cluster candidates in the central region of the dynamically active M81 group of galaxies. These spectra were obtained from the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The target clusters are located in the halo between M81, M82, and NGC3077, which contains a significant amount of young stars and HI gas as a result of interactions between these galaxies. The spectra of the target clusters show spectral features of globular clusters, confirming their globular cluster nature. One of the two clusters is located 400 kpc away from M81, making it the most isolated globular cluster in the local universe. However, the origin of these clusters is still largely a mystery. We use their spectra to study their kinematics, ages, and metallicities to better understand the impact of galaxy interactions on the process of galaxy formation and evolution.

  5. Investigating the physical and geometrical properties of the dusty torus in QSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Paredes, M.; González-Martín, O.; Aretxaga, I.; Alonso-Herrero, A.

    2017-07-01

    Usining mid-IR high angular resolution (0.3 arcsec) data from CanariCam on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS we study the mid-IR nuclear emission of a nearby (z<0.1) sample of QSOs. The QSOs are selected with N-band flux (fN>0.02 Jy) and hard X-ray flux (fX(2-10 keV)>1043 erg s-1). From the analysis of this data we find that the mid-IR emission is unresolved at scales of a few hundred of pc. We use unresolved emission at H-band (e.g., Veilleux et al. 2009b) and the IRS-Spitzer spectrum (e.g., Schweitzer et al. 2006) to build near- to mid-IR unresolved spectral energy distribution (SEDs).

  6. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Girart, J. M.; Hernanz, M.; Jordi, C.

    This volume documents the contributions presented at the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (Sociedad Española de Astronomía, SEA). The event bought together 301 participants who presented 161 contributed talks and 120 posters, the greatest numbers up to now. The fact that most exciting items of the current astronomical research were addressed in the meeting proofs the good health of the SEA, a consolidated organization founded fifteen years ago in Barcelona. Two plenary sessions of the meeting were devoted to the approved entrance of Spain as a full member of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and to the imminent first light of the greatest telescope in the world, the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias), milestones that will certainly lead the Spanish Astronomy in the next future. Link: http://www.springer.com/west/home?SGWID=4-102-22-173725709-0&changeHeader=true

  7. Mid-IR characterization of substellar companions with CanariCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjar, V. J. S.; Gauza, B.; Rebolo, R.; Álvarez, C.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Labadie, L.

    2015-09-01

    The direct detection of extrasolar planets is the only technique that leads to the most complete characterization of their physical properties. Here, we report on mid-IR observations of five directly imaged substellar companions (DF Tau B, FU Tau B, κ And b, GJ 758 B, and GJ 504 b) obtained with the Si-2 filter (8.7 µm) in the CanariCam instrument mounted on the 10-m Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC). We show the detection of FU Tau B, and we set upper limits of 11.5-12.0 mag in the 8.7 µm band for the other substellar targets. These data are useful to constrain their effective temperature and the presence of mid-IR flux excesses that may be due to surrounding disks.

  8. Phylogeography and seed dispersal in islands: the case of Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis (Polygonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, María; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is an endemic taxon to Macaronesia with diaspore polymorphism. The origin and colonizing route of this taxon in Macaronesia was studied using molecular data and information on diaspore types. Methods Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used in 260 plants from 22 populations of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis, four from the Madeiran archipelago and 18 from the Canary archipelago. Diaspore production was analysed in 9–50 plants from each population used for AFLP analysis. One hundred and one plants from the Madeiran archipelago and 375 plants from the Canary Islands were studied. For each plant the type of diaspore produced was recorded. Key Results Overall populations had low genetic diversity but they showed a geographical pattern of genetic diversity that was higher in the older eastern islands than in the younger western ones. Two types of dispersible diaspores were found: in the eastern Canary islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria), plants produced exclusively long-dispersible diaspores, whereas in the western Canary islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro) and the Madeiran archipelago plants produced exclusively short-dispersible diaspores. Genetically, the studied populations fell into four main island groups: Lanzarote–Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife–El Hierro and La Gomera–Madeira archipelago. Conclusions A Moroccan origin of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is hypothesized with a colonization route from the eastern to the western islands. In addition, at least one gene flow event from La Gomera to the Madeiran archipelago has taken place. During the colonization process the type of dispersible diaspore changed so that dispersability decreased in populations of the westernmost islands. PMID:23267005

  9. Phylogeography and seed dispersal in islands: the case of Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis (Polygonaceae).

    PubMed

    Talavera, María; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Ortiz, Pedro L; Arista, Montserrat

    2013-02-01

    Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is an endemic taxon to Macaronesia with diaspore polymorphism. The origin and colonizing route of this taxon in Macaronesia was studied using molecular data and information on diaspore types. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used in 260 plants from 22 populations of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis, four from the Madeiran archipelago and 18 from the Canary archipelago. Diaspore production was analysed in 9-50 plants from each population used for AFLP analysis. One hundred and one plants from the Madeiran archipelago and 375 plants from the Canary Islands were studied. For each plant the type of diaspore produced was recorded. Overall populations had low genetic diversity but they showed a geographical pattern of genetic diversity that was higher in the older eastern islands than in the younger western ones. Two types of dispersible diaspores were found: in the eastern Canary islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria), plants produced exclusively long-dispersible diaspores, whereas in the western Canary islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro) and the Madeiran archipelago plants produced exclusively short-dispersible diaspores. Genetically, the studied populations fell into four main island groups: Lanzarote-Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife-El Hierro and La Gomera-Madeira archipelago. A Moroccan origin of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is hypothesized with a colonization route from the eastern to the western islands. In addition, at least one gene flow event from La Gomera to the Madeiran archipelago has taken place. During the colonization process the type of dispersible diaspore changed so that dispersability decreased in populations of the westernmost islands.

  10. Air pollution and mortality in the Canary Islands: a time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The island factor of the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, along with their proximity to Africa and their meteorology, create a particular setting that influences the air quality of these cities and provides researchers an opportunity to analyze the acute effects of air-pollutants on daily mortality. Methods From 2000 to 2004, the relationship between daily changes in PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone levels and daily total mortality and mortality due to respiratory and heart diseases were assessed using Generalized Additive Poisson models controlled for potential confounders. The lag effect (up to five days) as well as the concurrent and previous day averages and distributed lag models were all estimated. Single and two pollutant models were also constructed. Results Daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were found to be associated with an increase in respiratory mortality in Santa Cruz de Tenerife and with increased heart disease mortality in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, thus indicating an association between daily ozone levels and mortality from heart diseases. The effects spread over five successive days. SO2 was the only air pollutant significantly related with total mortality (lag 0). Conclusions There is a short-term association between current exposure levels to air pollution and mortality (total as well as that due specifically to heart and respiratory diseases) in both cities. Risk coefficients were higher for respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, showing a delayed effect over several days. PMID:20152037

  11. Habitat suitability-density relationship in an endangered woodland species: the case of the Blue Chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki).

    PubMed

    Carrascal, Luis M; Moreno, Ángel C; Delgado, Alejandro; Suárez, Víctor; Trujillo, Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding constraints to the distribution of threatened species may help to ascertain whether there are other suitable sectors for reducing the risks associated with species that are recorded in only one protected locality, and to inform about the suitability of other areas for reintroduction or translocation programs. We studied the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki), a habitat specialist endemic of the Canary Islands restricted to the pine forest of Inagua, the only area where the species has been naturally present as a regular breeder in the last 25 years. A suitability distribution model using occurrences with demographic relevance (i.e., nest locations of successful breeding attempts analysed using boosted classification trees) was built considering orographic, climatic and habitat structure predictors. By means of a standardized survey program we monitored the yearly abundance of the species in 100 sectors since the declaration of Inagua as a Strict Nature Reserve in 1994. The variables with the highest relative importance in blue chaffinch habitat preferences were pine height, tree cover, altitude, and rainfall during the driest trimester (July-September). The observed local abundance of the blue chaffinch in Inagua (survey data) was significantly correlated with habitat suitability derived from modelling the location of successful nesting attempts (using linear and quantile regressions). The outcomes of the habitat suitability model were used to quantify the suitability of other natural, historic, pine forests of Gran Canaria. Tamadaba is the forest with most suitable woodland patches for the species. We estimated a population size of 195-430 blue chaffinches in Inagua since 2011 (95% CI), the smallest population size of a woodland passerine in the Western Palearctic. Habitat suitability obtained from modelling the location of successful breeding attempts is a good surrogate of the observed local abundance during the reproductive season

  12. Paleosecular variation of the earth magnetic field at the Canary Islands over the last 15 ka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Laj, C. E.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wandres, C.

    2014-12-01

    To improve the knowledge of secular variation of the geomagnetic field in southwestern Europe, 38 lava flows were investigated in Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). One flow is an historical one (1706 AD) and 28 flows are dated by radiocarbon between 1550 AD and about 13200 BC. Nine other flows are not dated but they have stratigraphic links with the other flows. Thermomagnetic curves, unblocking temperatures and coercivities suggest that the main carrier of the remanent magnetization is titanomagnetite with various Titanium contents and in the pseudo-single domain range as an average grain size. Paleomagnetic directions were obtained by thermal demagnetization on more than 400 specimens and alternating field demagnetization on about 150 twin specimens. The original Thellier and Thellier method was applied for each of the 400 cores and, with PICRIT-03, allowed to determine absolute paleointensity values. Combined with the data previously published for the last 500 years, this new dataset is the first long PSV record available for the Canary Islands. Comparison with model predictions indicates that, on the long-term, models account for most of the data but during short time intervals, more variable paleomagnetic directions and intensities suggest a faster variability of the earth magnetic field than predicted by the models. In particular, around 600 BC and 1200 BC, very high paleointensity values (~ 150 ZAm^2) are consistent with data obtained previously in Portugal, Azores, Hawaii and Israel. Also, around 4650 BC, variability in paleomagnetic directions could reflect short-term changes of the geomagnetic field. These paleomagnetic results are consistent with the field derived stratigraphic position of the undated sites and confirm that the eruption rate of the Gran Canaria volcanic system was high around 600 BC, 1000 BC and 4650 BC.

  13. Mapping natural radioactivity of soils in the eastern Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Arnedo, M A; Rubiano, J G; Alonso, H; Tejera, A; González, A; González, J; Gil, J M; Rodríguez, R; Martel, P; Bolivar, J P

    2017-01-01

    The Canary Islands archipielago (Spain) comprises seven main volcanic islands and several islets that form a chain extending for around 500 km across the eastern Atlantic, between latitudes 27°N and 30°N, with its eastern edge only 100 km from the NW African coast. The administrative province of Las Palmas comprises the three eastern Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria). An extensive study of terrestrial gamma dose rates in surface soils has been carried out to cover the entire territory of the province (4093 km(2)). The average outdoor gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above ground is 73 nGyh(-1) at Gran Canaria, 32 nGyh(-1) at Fuerteventura, and 25 nGyh(-1) at Lanzarote. To complete the radiological characterization of this volcanic area, 350 soil samples at 0-5 cm depth were collected to cover all the geologic typologies of the islands. These samples were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry to determine the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The average values obtained were 25.2 Bq/kg, 28.9 Bq/kg, and 384.4 Bq/kg, respectively. Maps of terrestrial gamma activity, effective dose, and activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K for the region have been developed through the use of geostatistical interpolation techniques. These maps are in accord with the geology of the islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gray transits of WD 1145+017 over the visible band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R.; Rappaport, S.; Deeg, H. J.; Palle, E.

    2016-05-01

    We have observed several relatively deep transits of the white dwarf WD 1145+017 with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in the wavelength range 480 to 920 nm. The observations covered approximately one hour on 2016 January 18 and two hours on 2016 January 20. There was variable extinction of the white dwarf during much of that time, but this extinction was punctuated by four sharp transits with depths ranging from 25% to 40%. The spectrum was dispersed with a grism and the flux data were ultimately summed into four bands centered at 0.53, 0.62, 0.71, and 0.84 μm. After careful normalization, we find that the flux light curves in all four bands are consistently the same, including through the deepest dips. We use these results to compute Ångström exponents, α, for the particles responsible for the extinction and find |⟨ α ⟩| ≲ 0.06, assuming that the extinction is relatively optically thin. We use the complex indices of refraction for common minerals to set constraints on the median sizes of possible dust grains and find that particle sizes ≲0.5 μm can be excluded for most common minerals. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), on the island of La Palma at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC, and with the IAC80 telescope on the island of Tenerife at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide of the IAC, under Director's discretionary time.

  15. Lesions targeted to the anterior forebrain disrupt vocal variability associated with testosterone-induced sensorimotor song development in adult female canaries, Serinus canaria

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Melvin L.; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    Learned communication is a trait observed in a limited number of vertebrates such as humans but also songbirds (i.e. species in the suborder passeri sometimes called oscines). Robust male-biased sex-differences in song development and production have been observed in several songbird species. However, in some of these species treating adult females with testosterone (T) induces neuro-behavioral changes such that females become more male-like in brain and behavior. T-treatment in these adult females seems to stimulate sensorimotor song development to facilitate song masculinization. In male songbirds it is known that the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) plays a modulatory role during song development. LMAN is androgen sensitive and may be a key target of a T-induced recapitulation of a developmental process in adult females. We tested this hypothesis. Adult female canaries were given either a chemical lesion of LMAN or a control sham-surgery. Prior to surgery birds were individually housed for two-weeks in sound-attenuated chambers to record baseline vocal behavior. Post-surgery birds were given one-week to recover before subcutaneous implantation with silastic capsules filled with crystalline-T. Birds remained on treatment for three-weeks (behavioral recordings continued throughout). Birds with a lesion to LMAN had less variability in their song compared to controls. The diversity of syllable and phrase type(s) was greater in sham controls as compared to birds with LMAN lesions. Birds did not differ in song rate. These data suggest that the sustention and conclusion of T-induced sensorimotor song development in adult female canaries requires an intact LMAN. PMID:25864444

  16. A new L5 brown dwarf member of the Hyades cluster with chromospheric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Garrido, A.; Lodieu, N.; Rebolo, R.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Our aim is to identify brown dwarf members of the nearby Hyades open star cluster to determine the photometric and spectroscopic properties of brown dwarfs at moderately old ages and extend the knowledge of the substellar mass function of the cluster. Methods: We cross-matched the 2MASS and AllWISE public catalogues and measured proper motions to identify low-mass stars and brown dwarf candidates in an area of radius eight degrees around the central region of the Hyades cluster. We identified objects with photometry and proper motions consistent with cluster membership. For the faintest (J = 17.2 mag) most promising astrometric and photometric low-mass candidate 2MASS J04183483+2131275, with a membership probability of 94.5%, we obtained low-resolution (R = 300-1000) and intermediate-resolution (R = 2500) spectroscopy with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Results: From the low-resolution spectra we determined a L5.0 ± 0.5 spectral type, consistent with the available photometry. In the intermediate dispersion spectrum we detected Hα in emission (marginally resolved with a full width half maximum of 2.8 Å) and determined a log (LHα/Lbol) = -6.0 dex. From Hα we obtained a radial velocity of 38.0 ± 2.9 km s-1, which combined with the proper motion leads to space velocities which are fully consistent with membership in the Hyades cluster. We also report a detection in the H2 band by the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. Using evolutionary models we determine from the available photometry of the object a mass in the range 0.039-0.055 M⊙. Brown dwarfs with masses below 0.055 M⊙ should fully preserve its initial lithium content, and indeed the spectrum at 6708 Å may show a feature consistent with lithium preservation; however, a higher S/N is needed to confirm this point. Conclusions: We have identified a new high-probability L5 brown dwarf member of the Hyades cluster. This is the first relatively old L5 brown dwarf with a well-determined age (500-700 Myr

  17. Trade-offs between cattle production and bird conservation in an agricultural frontier of the Gran Chaco of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Matias E; Gavin, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Intensification of food production in tropical landscapes in the absence of land-use planning can pose a major threat to biological diversity. Decisions on whether to spatially integrate or segregate lands for production and conservation depend in part on the functional relations between biological diversity and agricultural productivity. We measured diversity, density, and species composition of birds along a gradient of production intensification on an agricultural frontier of the Argentine Chaco, where dry tropical forests are cleared for cattle production. Bird species diversity in intact forests was higher than in any type of cattle-production system. Bird species richness decreased nonlinearly as cattle yield increased. Intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems, those in which forest understory is selectively cleared to grow pastures of non-native plants beneath the tree canopy, produced 80% of the mean cattle yield obtained in pastures on cleared areas and were occupied by 70-90% of the number of bird species present in the nearest forest fragments. Densities of >50% of bird species were significantly lower in open pastures than in silvopastoral systems. Therefore, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems may have the greatest potential to sustain cattle yield and conserve a large percentage of bird species. However, compared with low-intensity production systems, in which forest structure and extent were intact, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems supported significantly fewer forest-restricted bird species and fewer frugivorous birds. These data suggest that the integration of production and conservation through intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems combined with the protection of forest fragments may be required to maintain cattle yield, bird diversity, and conservation of forest-restricted species in this agricultural frontier.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of background characteristics of a HPGe detector operating underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Breier, R; Laubenstein, M; Povinec, P P

    2017-08-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of background components of an ultra-low background high purity germanium (HPGe) detector operating in a deep underground laboratory was carried out. The results show that the background of the HPGe detector is about two orders of magnitude higher than the MC prediction when accounting only for cosmic-ray induced background. The difference is due to natural radioactivity in the parts surrounding the Ge detector. To get reasonable agreement between MC simulations and the experiment, a contamination in the parts surrounding the Ge crystal from (40)K, (208)Tl and (214)Bi of 0.1mBqkg(-1) was required to include in the simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solving Guzman's Problem: "An Other" Narrative of "La Gran Familia Puertorriquena" in Judith Ortiz Cofer's "The Line of the Sun"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, John V.

    2009-01-01

    The first half of Judith Ortiz Cofer's novel "The Line of the Sun" (1989) narrates events that take place in the small fictional town of Salud, Puerto Rico, during the 1940s and 50s. In the second part of the novel, starting with chapter six, the readers see how two characters from the first half, Rafael and Ramona, and their young…

  20. Solving Guzman's Problem: "An Other" Narrative of "La Gran Familia Puertorriquena" in Judith Ortiz Cofer's "The Line of the Sun"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, John V.

    2009-01-01

    The first half of Judith Ortiz Cofer's novel "The Line of the Sun" (1989) narrates events that take place in the small fictional town of Salud, Puerto Rico, during the 1940s and 50s. In the second part of the novel, starting with chapter six, the readers see how two characters from the first half, Rafael and Ramona, and their young…

  1. Checking the REGCAN95 and REGCAN00 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, A.; Martin, M.

    2003-04-01

    The geodetic network in the Canary Islands (REGCAN95) is made up of 296 point, 92 of them were observed by GPS. These belong to the REGENTE network of the Iberian Peninsula. The link between the Peninsula and the Islands was made with only a point, the EUREF station Maspalomas (MAS1), so it is possible that a error in the direction, and therefore a rotation in REGCAN95 network. We try to check this aspect, we have taken observations GPS of 12 hours in three points of REGCAN95, one of them Maspalomas, and we have given coordinates and calculated the degree of accuracy of them from stations (Rabat, San Fernando and Ponta Delgada) of the ITRF network. In this way we can control the existence of some deformation in the nowadays position of the local network. The REGCAN95 coordinates are ITRF93.

  2. Characterization of the actuator of EMIR configurable slit unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mato Martínez, A.; Núñez Cagigal, M.; Barreto Cabrera, M.; Garzón López, F.; Patrón, J.; Teuwen, M.

    2016-07-01

    EMIR1,2 (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infra-Rojo) is a wide field multi-object spectrograph already installed in the Nasmyth focus of GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias). It operates in the near-infrared (NIR), in the wavelength range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and it will include several mechanism working in cryogenic conditions. A key component of EMIR is the CSU (Configurable Slit Unit), which is a robotic cryo-mechanism used to generate a multi-slit configuration and a long slit on EMIR focal plane when working in spectroscopic mode. The system has 110 sliding bars which can be configured at cryogenic working temperature to create up to 55 slits with a high position accuracy and repeatability. The movement of the bars is performed by an actuator which allows reaching a relatively high speed for the coarse movement and controllable steps up to 2 microns for the fine positioning. This subsystem has been designed and manufactured by the Dutch company Janssen Precision Engineering (JPE) and the Spanish company NTE-SENER. Afterwards, it was thoroughly verified at the IAC (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias) facilities. In this paper, the CSU will be briefly described. One of the more important parts of the CSU is the actuators, which move the bars by means of a stick-slip effect. A set of tests designed for characterizing and improving the robustness and performance of the actuators will be presented. Finally, an overview of the current CSU performance will be presented.

  3. New ultra metal-poor stars from SDSS: follow-up GTC medium-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, D. S.; Allende Prieto, C.; González Hernández, J. I.; Rebolo, R.; Caffau, E.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The first generation of stars formed in the Galaxy left behind the chemical signatures of their nucleosynthesis in the interstellar medium, visible today in the atmospheres of low-mass stars that formed afterwards. Sampling the chemistry of those low-mass provides insight into the first stars. Aims: We aim to increase the samples of stars with extremely low metal abundances, identifying ultra metal-poor stars from spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Achieving this goal involves deriving reliable metallicities and carbon abundances from such spectra. Methods: We carry out follow-up observations of faint, V > 19, metal-poor candidates selected from SDSS spectroscopy and observed with the Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at GTC. The SDSS and follow-up OSIRIS spectra were analyzed using the FERRE code to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicities and carbon abundances. In addition, a well-known extremely metal-poor star has been included in our sample to calibrate the analysis methodology. Results: We observed and analyzed five metal-poor candidates from modest-quality SDSS spectra. All stars in our sample have been confirmed as extremely metal-poor stars, in the [Fe/H] < -3.3 regime. We report the recognition of J173403+644632, a carbon-enhanced ultra metal-poor dwarf star with [Fe/H] = -4.3 and [C/Fe] = + 3.1. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, on the island of La Palma. Programme ID GTC2E-16A and ID GTC65-16B.

  4. EMIR at the GTC: results on the commissioning at the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, F.; Castro, N.; Insausti, M.; Manjavacas, E.; Miluzio, M.; Hammersley, Peter; Cardiel, N.; Pascual, S.; González-Fernández, C.; Molgó, J.; Barreto, M.; Fernández, P.; Joven, E.; López, P.; Mato, A.; Moreno, H.; Núñez, M.; Patrón, J.; Rosich, J.; Vega, N.

    2016-08-01

    We report the results on the EMIR1 (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infra-Rojo) performances after the commissioning period of the instrument at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). EMIR is one of the first common user instruments for the GTC, the 10 meter telescope operating at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). EMIR is primarily designed to be operated as a MOS in the K band, but offers a wide range of observing modes, including imaging and spectroscopy, both long slit and multiobject, in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 μm. The development and fabrication of EMIR is funded by GRANTECAN and the Plan Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofísica (National Plan for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Spain). After an extensive and intensive period of system verification at the IAC, EMIR was shipped to the GTC on May 2016 for its integration at the Nasmyth platform. Once in the observatory, several tests were conducted to ensure the functionality of EMIR at the telescope, in particular that of the ECS (EMIR Control System) which has to be fully embedded into the GCS (GTC Control System) so as to become an integral part of it. During the commissioning, the main capabilities of EMIR and its combined operation with the GTC are tested and the ECS are modified to its final form. This contribution reports on the details of the EMIR operation at the GTC obtained so far, on the first commissioning period.

  5. EMIR: first results of the commissioning at the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, F.; Castro, N.; Insausti, M.; Manjavacas, E.; Miluzzio, M.; Hammersley, P.; Cardiel, N.; Pascual, S.; González-Fernández, C.; Molgó, J.; Barreto, M.; Fernández, P.; Joven, E.; López, P.; Mato, A.; Moreno, H.; Núnez, M.; Patrón, J.; Rosich, J.; Vega, N.

    2017-03-01

    We report the results on the EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infra-Rojo) performances after the first two commissioning periods of the instrument at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). EMIR is one of the first common user instruments for the GTC, the 10 meter telescope operating at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). EMIR is primarily designed to be operated as a MOS in the K band, but offers a wide range of observing modes, including imaging and spectroscopy, both long slit and multi-object, in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 μm. The development and fabrication of EMIR is funded by GRANTECAN and the Plan Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofísica (National Plan for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Spain). EMIR was shipped to the GTC on May 2016 for its integration at the Nasmyth platform. Once in the observatory, several tests were conducted to ensure the functionality of EMIR at the telescope, in particular that of the ECS (EMIR Control System) which has to be fully embedded into the GCS (GTC Control System) so as to become an integral part of it. During the commissioning, the main capabilities of EMIR and its combined operation with the GTC are tested and the ECS are modified to its final form. This contribution summarises the EMIR operation at the GTC as it has been tested so far, on the first two commissioning periods.

  6. Diffuse CO2 degassing studies to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, F.; Perez, N. M.; García-Merino, M.; Padron, E.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Cótchico, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Canary Islands, owing to their recent volcanism, are the only Spanish territory with potential high enthalpy geothermal resources. The final goal of geothermal exploration in a specific area is to locate and define the size, shape, structure of hidden geothermal resources, and determine their characteristics (fluid type, temperature, chemical composition an ability to produce energy). At those areas where there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system) the geochemical methods for geothermal exploration must include soil gas surveys. This is the case of five mining licenses for geothermal exploration in the Canay Islands, four in Tenerife and one in Gran Canaria Island. We report herein the results of diffuse CO2 emission studies in the five mining licenses during 2011-2014. The primary objective of the study was to sort the possible geothermal potential of these five mining licenses, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the areas with highest geothermal potential for future exploration works. The criterion used to sort the different areas was the contribution of volcano-hydrothermal CO2 in the degassing at each study area. Several hundreds of measurements of diffuse CO2 emission, soil CO2 concentration and isotopic composition were performed at each study area. Based in three different endmembers (biogenic, atmospheric and deep-seated CO2) with different CO2 concentrations (100, 0.04 and 100% respectively) and isotopic compositions (-20, -8 and -3 per mil vs. VPDB respectively) a mass balance to distinguish the different contribution of each endmember in the soil CO2 at each sampling site was made. The percentage of the volcano-hydrothermal contribution in the current diffuse CO2 degassing was in the range 2-19%.The Abeque mining license, that comprises part of the north-west volcanic rift of Tenerife, seemed to show the highest geothermal

  7. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Martínez, Javier; Ferraguti, Martina; Morales-de la Nuez, Antonio; Castro, Noemí; Figuerola, Jordi

    2012-07-24

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i) to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii) to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV) bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife) were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST). The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that both haplotypes belong to Culicoides obsoletus, a

  8. The dark nature of GRB 130528A and its host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Bremer, M.; Winters, J. M.; Gorosabel, J.; Guziy, S.; Pandey, S. B.; Jelínek, M.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Sokolov, Ilya V.; Orekhova, N. V.; Moskvitin, A. S.; Tello, J. C.; Cunniffe, R.; Lara-Gil, O.; Oates, S. R.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Bai, J.; Fan, Y.; Wang, C.; Park, I. H.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We study the dark nature of GRB 130528A through multi-wavelength observations and conclude that the main reason for the optical darkness is local extinction inside of the host galaxy. Methods: Automatic observations were performed at the Burst Optical Observer and Transient Exploring System (BOOTES)-4/MET robotic telescope. We also triggered target of opportunity (ToO) observations at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC + OSIRIS). The host galaxy photometric observations in optical to near-infrared (nIR) wavelengths were achieved through large ground-based aperture telescopes, such as 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT), 6 m Bolshoi Teleskop Alt-azimutalnyi (BTA) telescope, and 2 m Liverpool Telescope (LT). Based on these observations, spectral energy distributions (SED) for the host galaxy and afterglow were constructed. Results: Thanks to millimetre (mm) observations at PdBI, we confirm the presence of a mm source within the XRT error circle that faded over the course of our observations and identify the host galaxy. However, we do not find any credible optical source within early observations with BOOTES-4/MET and 1.5 m OSN telescopes. Spectroscopic observation of this galaxy by GTC showed a single faint emission line that likely corresponds to [OII] 3727 Å at a redshift of 1.250 ± 0.001, implying a star formation rate (M⊙/yr) > 6.18 M⊙/yr without correcting for dust extinction. The probable line-of-sight extinction towards GRB 130528A is revealed through analysis of the afterglow SED, resulting in a value of A^GRBV≥ 0.9 at the rest frame; this is comparable to extinction levels found among other dark GRBs. The SED of the host galaxy is explained well (χ2/d.o.f. = 0.564) by a luminous (MB = -21.16), low-extinction (AV = 0, rest frame), and aged (2.6 Gyr) stellar population. We can explain this apparent contradiction in global and

  9. Felsic volcanism in a basic shield (El Hierro, Canary Islands). Implications in terms of volcanic hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Meletlidis, Stavros; Galindo Jiménez, Inés

    2014-05-01

    El Hierro, the southwesternmost and smallest island of the Canary Archipelago, is a complex basaltic shield volcano characterized by mainly effusive volcanism with both Strombolian and Hawaiian activity. Explosive felsic volcanism is not a common feature of the archipelago and, so far, it has only been reported on the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, where it has been responsible for the formation of large central volcanic complexes. The presence of felsic rocks on the other islands of the archipelago and specifically on El Hierro is mostly restricted to subvolcanic intrusions and a few lava flows, generally associated with the oldest parts of the islands. We hereby report the presence of a trachytic pumice deposit on the island of El Hierro, referred to here as the Malpaso Member. A detailed stratigraphic, lithological, and sedimentological study was carried out on the deposits of this explosive episode of felsic composition, which is the only one found on the Canary Islands apart from those of Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Four different subunits were identified on the basis of their lithological and granulometrical characteristics. The products of the eruption correspond to a single eruptive event and cover an area of about 13 km2. This deposit originated from a base-surge-type explosive eruption with a subsequent radial emplacement of dilute PDC currents, was emplaced from the vent that would have been located in a similar position to the volcano of Tanganasoga. The low vesicularity of juvenile fragments and the morphological characteristics of the fine particles, as well as the high proportion of lithic fragments and the ash-rich nature of the deposit, suggest that magma/water interaction controlled the dynamics of the eruption. This study demonstrates that magmas from El Hierro could have the potential for producing an explosive eruption, in an environment in which the majority of the eruptions are basaltic and effusive in nature. Bearing in mind

  10. Habitat suitability—density relationship in an endangered woodland species: the case of the Blue Chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Ángel C.; Delgado, Alejandro; Suárez, Víctor; Trujillo, Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding constraints to the distribution of threatened species may help to ascertain whether there are other suitable sectors for reducing the risks associated with species that are recorded in only one protected locality, and to inform about the suitability of other areas for reintroduction or translocation programs. Methods We studied the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki), a habitat specialist endemic of the Canary Islands restricted to the pine forest of Inagua, the only area where the species has been naturally present as a regular breeder in the last 25 years. A suitability distribution model using occurrences with demographic relevance (i.e., nest locations of successful breeding attempts analysed using boosted classification trees) was built considering orographic, climatic and habitat structure predictors. By means of a standardized survey program we monitored the yearly abundance of the species in 100 sectors since the declaration of Inagua as a Strict Nature Reserve in 1994. Results The variables with the highest relative importance in blue chaffinch habitat preferences were pine height, tree cover, altitude, and rainfall during the driest trimester (July–September). The observed local abundance of the blue chaffinch in Inagua (survey data) was significantly correlated with habitat suitability derived from modelling the location of successful nesting attempts (using linear and quantile regressions). The outcomes of the habitat suitability model were used to quantify the suitability of other natural, historic, pine forests of Gran Canaria. Tamadaba is the forest with most suitable woodland patches for the species. We estimated a population size of 195–430 blue chaffinches in Inagua since 2011 (95% CI), the smallest population size of a woodland passerine in the Western Palearctic. Discussion Habitat suitability obtained from modelling the location of successful breeding attempts is a good surrogate of the observed local

  11. Paleosecular variation of the earth magnetic field at the Canary Islands over the last 15 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Laj, C.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wandres, C.; Guillou, H.

    2015-02-01

    We report on new paleomagnetic directions obtained from 38 lava flows located at Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). One flow is a historical one (1706 AD) and 28 other flows are dated by radiocarbon between 1550 AD and about 13 200 BC. Nine other flows are not dated but they have stratigraphic links with the other flows. Thermomagnetic curves, unblocking temperatures and coercivities suggest that the main carrier of the remanent magnetization is titanomagnetite with various titanium contents in the pseudo-single domain range. Paleodirections were obtained by thermal and alternating field demagnetization on more than 400 specimens. The two youngest flows yield directions well consistent with the data previously published from the Canary Islands but only covering the last 500 yr. Comparison with model predictions indicates that the models account on the long-term for most of the data. However, on short-term scale, a better agreement is observed with the archeomagnetic-based model predictions (ARCH3K and SHA.DIF.14k). Two time intervals (between 25 BC and 85 AD and around 600-700 BC), however, are characterized by more variable paleomagnetic directions, suggesting that the variability of the earth magnetic field was faster than predicted by the models. On a wider geographical scale, a rather good consistency is observed between the Canarian dataset and those from Northern Africa, Spain and Azores. Field information is well consistent with paleomagnetic information for the undated sites and they both confirm that the eruption rate of the Gran Canaria volcanic system was high around 600 BC, 1000 BC and 4650 BC. Refined ages could be obtained for two of the undated sites using archeomagnetic dating. Combined with the data previously published for the last 500 yr, this new dataset is the first long PSV record available for the Canary Islands, significantly contributing to the archeomagnetic/paleomagnetic database at latitudes lower than 30°N. Improvement

  12. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i) to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii) to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV) bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife) were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST). Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that both haplotypes belong to

  13. Lithospheric response to volcanic loading by the Canary Islands: constraints from seismic reflection data in their flexural moat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, J. S.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-12-01

    We use multichannel seismic reflection profiles to determine the seismic stratigraphy of the flexural moat that flanks the Canary Islands. The moat stratigraphy has been divided into 5 units on the basis of internal character and correlation of distinctive reflections. The deepest units, I and II, which well-ties indicate are Eocene and older, thicken towards the east suggesting they are the consequence of sediment loading at the Moroccan continental margin. Units III, IV and V, which are Oligocene and younger and highly reflective, thicken concentrically around individual islands suggesting they are dominantly the result of volcanic loading. Distinct stratigraphic patterns of onlap at the base and offlap at the top of individual flexural units are seen on the across-moat profiles but they were not easily identified on our limited along-moat profiles. The thickness of the upper three units is in accord with the predictions of flexural loading models. Moreover, a model in which the volcanoes that make up the Canary Islands progressively load the underlying lithosphere from east to west generally accounts for the thickness variations that are observed in the region of individual islands. We date the shield building stages of the Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria and La Gomera as Oligocene to Early Miocene, that of Tenerife as Middle Miocene to Late Miocene and those of La Palma and El Hierro as Pliocene to Quaternary. The best overall fit to stratigraphic data in the northern moat is for an elastic thickness of the lithosphere, T e , of 35km, which is similar to the 30-40km which would be expected for Oligocene and Neogene loading of Jurassic oceanic lithosphere. There is evidence that a contribution from the margin is required to explain the divergence of Units III, IV and V along the Moroccan margin. Detailed modelling of an along-strike seismic profile of the moat north of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, however, suggests that flexure due to island loading fully explains the

  14. A retrospective description of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72) in a free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) and its accidental transmission to yellow canaries (Serinus canaria Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Hönicke, A

    2005-01-01

    A haemagglutinating virus was isolated in summer 1972 from a single free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) in embryonated chicken eggs. Additional cases of morbidity or mortality were not observed in the area were the sick siskin was found. The virus was characterized as an avian influenza A virus of the subtype H7N1 and designated H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72. The virus induced following experimental inoculation of chicken embryos a high rate mortality (mean death time approximately 24 hours), formed plaques in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures without addition of trypsin and has an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.80. Therefore, this virus is considered as a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Canaries (Serinus canarius Linnaeus, 1758), that were housed in the same room with the siskin were accidentially exposed by contact to the sick siskin which resulted in virus transmission followed by conjunctivitis, apathy, anorexia and a high rate mortality.

  15. Transmission spectroscopy of the inflated exo-Saturn HAT-P-19b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallonn, M.; von Essen, C.; Weingrill, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Ribas, I.; Carroll, T. A.; Herrero, E.; Granzer, T.; Claret, A.; Schwope, A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Transiting highly inflated giant planets offer the possibility of characterizing their atmospheres. A fraction of the starlight passes through the high-altitude layers of the planetary atmosphere during transit. The resulting absorption is expected to be wavelength dependent for cloud-free atmospheres with an amplitude of up to 10-3 of the stellar flux, while a high-altitude cloud deck would cause a gray opacity. Aims: We observed the Saturn-mass and Jupiter-sized exoplanet HAT-P-19b to refine its transit parameters and ephemeris as well as to shed first light on its transmission spectrum. We monitored the host star over one year to quantify its flux variability and to correct the transmission spectrum for a slope caused by starspots. Methods: A transit of HAT-P-19b was observed spectroscopically with OSIRIS at the Gran Telescopio Canarias in January 2012. The spectra of the target and the comparison star covered the wavelength range from 5600 to 7600 Å. One high-precision differential light curve was created by integrating the entire spectral flux. This white-light curve was used to derive absolute transit parameters. Furthermore, a set of light curves over wavelength was formed by a flux integration in 41 wavelength channels of 50 Å width. We analyzed these spectral light curves for chromatic variations of transit depth. Results: The transit fit of the combined white-light curve yields a refined value of the planet-to-star radius ratio of 0.1390 ± 0.0012 and an inclination of 88.89 ± 0.32 deg. After a re-analysis of published data, we refine the orbital period to 4.0087844 ± 0.0000015 days. We obtain a flat transmission spectrum without significant additional absorption at any wavelength or any slope. However, our accuracy is not sufficient to significantly rule out the presence of a pressure-broadened sodium feature. Our photometric monitoring campaign allowed for an estimate of the stellar rotation period of 35.5 ± 2.5 days and an improved age

  16. From the Big Bang to the life in the primitive seas. (Spanish Title: Desde la Gran Explosión hasta la vida en los mares primitivos)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, S. B.

    Man has always wondered about the origins of humanity, life, and the world around him. The Earth crust is a vast and natural archive, and its rocks represent the pages of the most documented events in the geological past. These rocks hold large amounts of information about the Earth history, whose age is estimated to be 4,600 million years. Historical Geology seeks to bring together the knowledge of the origin of the Universe as well as the origin of Earth as a member of the Solar System. The Big Bang theory supposes that the Universe began with a huge explosion. In the Earth's history it is possible to differentiate the biological events from the physical ones. The physical events are geographical and environmental transformations. The biological events are related to life on Earth. There are evidences of biological processes back to 3,500 million years ago. At the beginning, the conditions on Earth were catastrophic and unstable. At this stage, the first signs of life were the molecules that started to take energy from the sunlight and the chemical products. It was not a simple accumulation of gradual biological forms, but was accompanied by episodic innovations that allowed increasing complexity and greater use of ecospace. Some of these innovations are shown by certain groups of primitive arthropods adapted to live in oxygen-poor, deep marine environments. These arthropods have been found in 500 million-year-old rocks in northwestern Argentina (provinces of Jujuy and La Rioja), indicating the presence of oxygen-poor seas in that region.

  17. Geochemistry of surface and subsurface waters in quartz-sandstones: significance for the geomorphic evolution of tepui table mountains (Gran Sabana, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecchia, Marco; Sauro, Francesco; Piccini, Leonardo; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Tisato, Nicola; Lira, Jesus; Vergara, Freddy

    2014-04-01

    In situ measurements of discharge, pH, electric conductivity (EC), temperature, and SiO2 content have been carried out during five expeditions in the last 20 years on the summit plateaus, inside caves and along the rivers of the surrounding lowlands of three tepui massifs in Venezuela (Auyan, Roraima, and Chimanta). Additionally, detailed chemical analyses were performed on waters sampled in a newly discovered extensive quartz-sandstone cave system on the Auyan Tepui. Rock samples of the quartz-sandstone bedrock from different locations have been analysed to obtain their chemical composition with a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. These data show that the majority of silica present in surface and subsurface water comes from dissolution of quartz and only in minor amount from hydrolysis of other silicate minerals. Probably the presence of a hardened crust of iron hydroxides limits the dissolution of silica on the top surface of tepuis. Dissolution in the subsurface, instead, is more significant and causes, in the long term, the “arenisation” of the quartz-sandstone and its subsequent removal by mechanical erosion. On the other hand, waters flowing on the arkosic rock outcropping on the lowland below the tepuis obtain their high dissolved silica content mainly from hydrolysis of silicates. The morphological evolution of these table mountains appears thus to be controlled mainly by the underground weathering of the quartz-sandstone, with the opening of deep fractures (grietas) and the collapse of large underground horizontal cave systems. Scarp retreat, instead, seems to be related to the higher weathering rate of the more arkosic formations underlying the quartz-sandstones.

  18. Temporal Changes in Forest Contexts at Multiple Extents: Three Decades of Fragmentation in the Gran Chaco (1979-2010), Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Frate, Ludovico; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Cabido, Marcelo; Hoyos, Laura; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The context in which a forest exists strongly influences its function and sustainability. Unveiling the multi-scale nature of forest fragmentation context is crucial to understand how human activities affect the spatial patterns of forests across a range of scales. However, this issue remains almost unexplored in subtropical ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed temporal changes (1979–2010) in forest contexts in the Argentinean dry Chaco at multiple extents. We classified forests over the last three decades based on forest context amount (Pf) and structural connectivity (Pff), which were measured using a moving window approach fixed at eight different extents (from local, ~ 6 ha, to regional, ~ 8300 ha). Specific multi-scale forest context profiles (for the years 1979 and 2010) were defined by projecting Pf vs. Pff mean values and were compared across spatial extents. The distributions of Pf across scales were described by scalograms and their shapes over time were compared. The amount of agricultural land and rangelands across the scales were also analyzed. The dry Chaco has undergone an intensive process of fragmentation, resulting in a shift from landscapes dominated by forests with gaps of rangelands to landscapes where small forest patches are embedded in agricultural lands. Multi-scale fragmentation analysis depicted landscapes in which local exploitation, which perforates forest cover, occurs alongside extensive forest clearings, reducing forests to small and isolated patches surrounded by agricultural lands. In addition, the temporal diminution of Pf’s variability along with the increment of the mean slope of the Pf ‘s scalograms, indicate a simplification of the spatial pattern of forest over time. The observed changes have most likely been the result of the interplay between human activities and environmental constraints, which have shaped the spatial patterns of forests across scales. Based on our results, strategies for the conservation and sustainable management of the dry Chaco should take into account both the context of each habitat location and the scales over which a forest pattern might be preserved, altered or restored. PMID:26630387

  19. Energy balance in the ablation zone during the summer season at the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap in the Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christoph; Kilian, Rolf; Glaser, Michael

    2007-10-01

    The energy balance and ablation of Glaciar Lengua were investigated during the austral summer of 1999/2000. Glaciar Lengua is located in Patagonia, in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S), within an extremely maritime climate. The aim of this study was to gain insight into current energy fluxes at this location and to evaluate how the energy fluxes depend on meteorological variables. From February to April 2000 an automated weather station was operated on Glaciar Lengua. Ablation was measured repeatedly at stakes during the same period. The point energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulation. The effective roughness length was adjusted in order to calibrate the model to the measured ablation. It was revealed that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance adding 54% of the energy available for melt. Net radiation contributes only 35% to the overall energy balance. Minor contributors are the latent heat flux (7%) and the heat flux by precipitation (4%). The net radiation shows little variance from day to day. Cross-correlations of the daily mean values of the energy fluxes derived from the energy balance model and meteorological variables reveal that air temperature and wind speed are the key factors controlling the summer energy balance in the ablation area. Melt derived from a multiple regression model based on these two variables correlates with computed melt with a correlation coefficient of 0.92. From the measured ablation, a summer-time degree-day factor of 7.6 mm·°C - 1 was derived for the ablation area.

  20. Temporal Changes in Forest Contexts at Multiple Extents: Three Decades of Fragmentation in the Gran Chaco (1979-2010), Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frate, Ludovico; Acosta, Alicia T R; Cabido, Marcelo; Hoyos, Laura; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The context in which a forest exists strongly influences its function and sustainability. Unveiling the multi-scale nature of forest fragmentation context is crucial to understand how human activities affect the spatial patterns of forests across a range of scales. However, this issue remains almost unexplored in subtropical ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed temporal changes (1979-2010) in forest contexts in the Argentinean dry Chaco at multiple extents. We classified forests over the last three decades based on forest context amount (Pf) and structural connectivity (Pff), which were measured using a moving window approach fixed at eight different extents (from local, ~ 6 ha, to regional, ~ 8300 ha). Specific multi-scale forest context profiles (for the years 1979 and 2010) were defined by projecting Pf vs. Pff mean values and were compared across spatial extents. The distributions of Pf across scales were described by scalograms and their shapes over time were compared. The amount of agricultural land and rangelands across the scales were also analyzed. The dry Chaco has undergone an intensive process of fragmentation, resulting in a shift from landscapes dominated by forests with gaps of rangelands to landscapes where small forest patches are embedded in agricultural lands. Multi-scale fragmentation analysis depicted landscapes in which local exploitation, which perforates forest cover, occurs alongside extensive forest clearings, reducing forests to small and isolated patches surrounded by agricultural lands. In addition, the temporal diminution of Pf's variability along with the increment of the mean slope of the Pf 's scalograms, indicate a simplification of the spatial pattern of forest over time. The observed changes have most likely been the result of the interplay between human activities and environmental constraints, which have shaped the spatial patterns of forests across scales. Based on our results, strategies for the conservation and sustainable management of the dry Chaco should take into account both the context of each habitat location and the scales over which a forest pattern might be preserved, altered or restored.

  1. How Satisfied Are Parents of Students in Dual Language Education Programs?: "Me Parece Maravillosa La Gran Oportunidad Que Le Estan Dando a Estos Ninos"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Ruth, Tenley

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 724 families of students at eight dual language schools in the southwest United States that focused on parents' satisfaction with their child's academic skills and with program characteristics is reported. Results are explored for parental language, parental education level, program model type, grade level of the child, and years the…

  2. Results of ultra-low level 71ge counting for application in the Gallex-solar neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Huebner, M.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Schneider, K.; Schlotz, R.

    1985-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the Ultra-Low-Level Counting System for the Gallex solar neutrino experiment is capable of measuring the expected solar up silon-flux to plus or minus 12% during two years of operation.

  3. Phenotypic diversity of Triatoma infestans at the microgeographic level in the Gran Chaco of Argentina and the Andean valleys of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Abrahan, L; Hernández, L; Gorla, D; Catalá, S

    2008-07-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The phenotype of the species varies at different geographic scales. The objective of this study was to compare the antennal phenotype of spatially close T. infestans populations and to evaluate its usefulness as a marker of exchange of individuals between populations. The antennal phenotype of 190 T. infestans from Argentina and Bolivia was analyzed using uni- and multivariate techniques. This study shows heterogeneity of the antennal phenotypes of closely related T. infestans populations living in different habitats. Specimens collected in a goat corral and a rabbit cage in La Rioja (Argentina) were dissimilar to the specimens collected in the nearby intradomestic environment. Similarly, specimens from peridomestic corrals in Cochabamba (Bolivia) were different from the intradomestic and sylvatic specimens, indicating some degree of isolation between these populations. In contrast, T. infestans collected in chicken coops and the intradomestic environment were similar, in all studied regions, suggesting a frequent exchange of individuals between the two habitats and/or because of the similarity of the habitat due to the presence of chickens in the intradomestic environment. We propose that each habitat affects in a particular mode the insect morphology and these changes could be used to identify recolonizing T. infestans. These results support the hypothesis of different degrees of isolation between intradomestic and peridomestic habitats. Within this context, special attention should be given to chicken coops and other close peridomestic structures in relation to the recolonization process of domestic habitats by T. infestans.

  4. How Satisfied Are Parents of Students in Dual Language Education Programs?: "Me Parece Maravillosa La Gran Oportunidad Que Le Estan Dando a Estos Ninos"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Ruth, Tenley

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 724 families of students at eight dual language schools in the southwest United States that focused on parents' satisfaction with their child's academic skills and with program characteristics is reported. Results are explored for parental language, parental education level, program model type, grade level of the child, and years the…

  5. Biological behavior of different Trypanosoma cruzi isolates circulating in an endemic area for Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ragone, Paula G; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Padilla, Angel M; Monje Rumi, Mercedes; Lauthier, Juan J; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Tomasini, Nicolás; Cimino, Ruben O; Romero, Nélida M; Portelli, Marcela; Nasser, Julio R; Basombrío, Miguel A; Diosque, Patricio

    2012-09-01

    The biological behavior of the different Trypanosoma cruzi strains is still unclear and the importance of exploring the relevance of these differences in natural isolates is of great significance. Herein we describe the biological behavior of four T. cruzi isolates circulating sympatrically in a restricted geographic area in Argentina endemic for Chagas Disease. These isolates were characterized as belonging to the Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) TcI, TcIII, TcV and TcVI as shown by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing. In order to study the natural behavior of the different isolates and to preserve their natural properties, we developed a vector transmission model that allows their maintenance in the laboratory. The model consisted of serial passages of these parasites between insect vectors and mice. Vector-derived parasite forms were then inoculated in C57BL/6J mice and number of parasite in peripheral blood, serological response and histological damage in acute and chronic phases of the infection were measured. Parasites from DTUs TcI, TcIII and TcVI were detected by direct fresh blood examination, while TcV parasites could only be detected by Polimerase Chain Reaction. No significant difference in the anti-T. cruzi antibody response was found during the chronic phase of infection, except for mice infected with TcV parasites where no antibodies could be detected. Histological sections showed that TcI isolate produced more damage in skeletal muscle while TcVI induced more inflammation in the heart. This work shows differential biological behavior among different parasite isolates obtained from the same cycle of transmission, permitting the opportunity to formulate future hypotheses of clinical and epidemiological importance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Compositional HJ-Biplot-A New Approach to Identifying the Links among Bioactive Compounds of Tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Molina Pérez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Espinosa Borreguero, Francisco; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación

    2016-11-02

    Tomatoes have been described as a functional food because of their particular composition of different bioactive compounds. In this study, the proximate composition, minerals and trace elements, and antioxidant compounds were determined in two tomato cultivars (Mariana and Dunkan) that were grown in Gran Canaria (Spain) either conventionally or hydroponically. Although compositional data of this type require being subjected to the specific statistical techniques of compositional analysis, this approach has not usually been considered in this context. In the present case, a compositional Mann-Whitney U test of the data showed significant differences for each factor (cultivar and cultivation system) in several of the compositional variables studied. For the differences between cultivars, these parameters were the protein, Mg, lycopene, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and fumaric acid contents. For the differences between cultivation systems, they were mainly those of the mineral and trace elements group. Although one-year data are insufficient to make clear relationship among compounds because more repetitions in several localities and years are necessary, the compositional HJ-biplot (in which the links provide estimates of the linear relationship among variables) results agreed with other scientific results about linear relationship among some compounds analyzed.

  7. Fatty Acid Profile of Neutral and Polar Lipid Fraction of Wild Eggs and Hatchlings from Wild and Captive Reared Broodstock of Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Estefanell, Juan; Mesa-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ramírez, Besay; La Barbera, Antonio; Socorro, Juan; Hernandez-Cruz, Carmen María; Izquierdo, María Soledad

    2017-01-01

    The culture of Octopus vulgaris is constrained by unsolved problems in paralarvae rearing, mainly associated to the unknown nutritional requirements of this species in early stages. In this article we studied the fatty acid profile (total, neutral, and polar lipid fractions) in wild eggs and wild hatchlings, collected in Gran Canaria (SW) (Spain) with artificial dens, in comparison to hatchlings obtained in captivity from broodstock fed on trash fish species. Total lipids were 11.5-13.5% dw, with the polar fraction representing a 70.6-75.5% of total lipid, with lower values in wild hatchling in comparison with captive ones. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the main component in neutral and polar fatty acid profile in all samples, underlying its importance in this species. Decreasing levels of saturates and arachidonic acid (ARA) from wild eggs to hatchlings, mainly associated to the polar fraction, suggest their use during embryonic development. In hatchlings, increasing levels of oleic acid in the neutral fraction and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the polar fraction, suggests their importance in hatchlings quality. Wild hatchlings showed in the polar fraction higher oleic acid and ARA, and lower DHA/ARA and EPA/ARA ratios in comparison with captive hatchlings, suggesting a difference in paralarvae nutritional status. These results suggest the importance of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), oleic acid, and ARA, presented in the adequate lipid fraction, in the diet of broodstock and paralarvae of O. vulgaris.

  8. Wind Forecasting Based on the HARMONIE Model and Adaptive Finite Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Albert; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar, José María; Montero, Gustavo; Hortal, Mariano; Calvo, Javier; Cascón, José Manuel; Montenegro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new method for wind field forecasting over complex terrain. The main idea is to use the predictions of the HARMONIE meso-scale model as the input data for an adaptive finite element mass-consistent wind model. The HARMONIE results (obtained with a maximum resolution of about 1 km) are refined in a local scale (about a few metres). An interface between both models is implemented in such a way that the initial wind field is obtained by a suitable interpolation of the HARMONIE results. Genetic algorithms are used to calibrate some parameters of the local wind field model in accordance to the HARMONIE data. In addition, measured data are considered to improve the reliability of the simulations. An automatic tetrahedral mesh generator, based on the meccano method, is applied to adapt the discretization to complex terrains. The main characteristic of the framework is a minimal user intervention. The final goal is to validate our model in several realistic applications on Gran Canaria island, Spain, with some experimental data obtained by the AEMET in their meteorological stations. The source code of the mass-consistent wind model is available online at http://www.dca.iusiani.ulpgc.es/Wind3D/.

  9. Regeneration in a mixed stand of native Pinus canariensis and introduced Pinus pinea species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, José Ramón; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Pascual, Marcos Salas

    2005-09-01

    The main objective of our study is to determine whether regeneration of Pinus pinea (an exotic species) is spreading within a Pinus canariensis (native species) stand. The study area is located in the Natural Park of Tamadaba, 1400 m asl., in the NW of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands). Stems and regeneration of P. canariensis and P. pinea were mapped in five randomly selected plots where both species were planted together around 45 years ago. Densities and basal areas of both species were also recorded. P. canariensis demonstrated a greater ability to disperse than P. pinea. The two species showed different spatial patterns, with P. pinea tending toward a more aggregate spatial distribution of individuals than P. canariensis. Bivariate spatial relationships showed no difference from a random spatial distribution, indicating the lack of any pattern of aggregation or rejection between the species. These results indicated that P. pinea has not spread because it is less able to disperse (strongly barochorus) than P. canariensis (barochorus and anemochorus). Given that the future ability of P. pinea to disperse cannot be predicted, eradication of this species, together with additional plantings of P. canariensis in open areas, is proposed to restore the P. canariensis stand.

  10. A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewaters using ultra-high-performace liquid chromatography with DAD detection.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2015-03-01

    A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction (DLLMME) method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using Diode Array Detector (DAD) detector was developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical compounds of different nature in wastewaters. A micellar solution of a surfactant, polidocanol, as extraction solvent (100 μL) and chloroform as dispersive solvent (200 μL) were used to extract and preconcentrate the target analytes. Samples were heated above critical temperature and the cloudy solution was centrifuged. After removing the chloroform, the reduced volume of surfactant was then injected in the UHPLC system. In order to obtain high extraction efficiency, the parameters affecting the liquid-phase microextraction, such as time and temperature extraction, ionic strength and surfactant and organic solvent volume, were optimized using an experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, this procedure allows enrichment factors of up to 47-fold. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 µg/L for the different pharmaceuticals. Relative standard deviations were <26% for all compounds. The procedure was applied to samples from final effluent collected from wastewater treatment plants in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain), and two compounds were measured at 67 and 113 µg/L in one of them.

  11. Compositional study of asteroids in the Erigone collisional family using visible spectroscopy at the 10.4 m GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morate, David; de León, Julia; De Prá, Mário; Licandro, Javier; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Campins, Humberto; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; Alí-Lagoa, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Two primitive near-Earth asteroids, (101955) Bennu and (162173) Ryugu, will be visited by a spacecraft with the aim of returning samples back to Earth. Since these objects are believed to originate in the inner main belt primitive collisional families (Erigone, Polana, Clarissa, and Sulamitis) or in the background of asteroids outside these families, the characterization of these primitive populations will enhance the scientific return of the missions. The main goal of this work is to shed light on the composition of the Erigone collisional family by means of visible spectroscopy. Asteroid (163) Erigone has been classified as a primitive object, and we expect the members of this family to be consistent with the spectral type of the parent body. We have obtained visible spectra (0.5-0.9 μm) for 101 members of the Erigone family, using the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We found that 87% of the objects have typically primitive visible spectra consistent with that of (163) Erigone. In addition, we found that a significant fraction of these objects (~50%) present evidence of aqueous alteration.

  12. Wolf-Rayet stars in M81: detection and characterization using GTC/OSIRIS spectra and HST/ACS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-González, V. M. A.; Mayya, Y. D.; Rosa-González, D.

    2016-08-01

    We here report the properties of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in 14 locations in the nearby spiral galaxy M81. These locations were found serendipitously while analysing the slit spectra of a sample of ˜150 star-forming complexes, taken using the long-slit and multiobject spectroscopic modes of the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Colours and magnitudes of the identified point sources in the Hubble Space Telescope images compare well with those of individual W-R stars in the Milky Way. Using templates of individual W-R stars, we infer that the objects responsible for the observed W-R features are single stars in 12 locations, comprising of three WNLs, three WNEs, two WCEs and four transitional WN/C types. In diagrams involving bump luminosities and the width of the bumps, the W-R stars of the same sub-class group together, with the transitional stars occupying locations intermediate between the WNE and WCE groups, as expected from the evolutionary models. However, the observed number of 4 transitional stars out of our sample of 14 is statistically high as compared to the 4 per cent expected in stellar evolutionary models.

  13. Breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life, adiposity rebound and overweight/obesity at 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Estévez-González, M D; Santana Del Pino, A; Henríquez-Sánchez, P; Peña-Quintana, L; Saavedra-Santana, P

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether breastfeeding protects the child from obesity is a still debated issue; however, the relationship between early adiposity rebound and higher risk of obesity is well known. This study was aimed at evaluating whether breastfeeding (without formula supplement) during the first 6 months of life delays the time of adiposity rebound and consequently reduces the rates of obesity at the age of 8. This retrospective cohort study included 1812 children born in Gran Canaria in 2004, with follow-up until they were 8 years of age. Anthropometrical data had been taken during routine visits to the doctor and were extracted from medical record databases. Only children with breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life (173 children) and children without breastfeeding (192 children) were included. Children with mixed feeding and children whose data were not available were excluded. No body mass index (BMI) differences were found between children with breastfeeding (17.7) or without breastfeeding (17.3) during the first 6 months of life. The percentages of children with normal weight, overweight and obesity were similar in both groups, as well as the age of adiposity rebound breastfeeding 3.61 years; formula 3.64 years). Early adiposity rebound was associated with increased BMI at the age of 8, both in male and female children. Breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was not demonstrated to delay the age of the adiposity rebound, in our study.

  14. FRIDA integral field unit manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system (GTCAO). FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on the University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. The FRIDA IFU is of the slicer type; conformed mainly by 3 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors and an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. Including two insertion mirrors the IFU holds 96 metal mirrors. All the mirrors have been manufactured by diamond turning techniques on monolithic blocks of aluminum 6061-T6 coated by a Nickel alloy. Except for the Schwarzschild relay and the insertion mirrors, 92 mirrors were manufactured by Corning in Keene NH, USA. The different blocks and mirrors are mounted on an opto-mechanical support that ensures the image quality and integrity of the complete IFU. In this work advances on the manufacturing of the FRIDA IFU components are described. Furthermore, the mirror blocks individual verification tests and are also described.

  15. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  16. Sediment-quality assessment using the polychaete Arenicola marina: contamination, bioavailability, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gómez, Julia; Viguri, Javier R; Luque, Angel; Vale, Carlos; Martín-Díaz, M Laura; DelValls, T Angel

    2011-11-01

    The sediment quality of Cádiz Bay, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (LPGC) Port, Santander Bay, Algeciras Bay, and Huelva Estuary (Spain) was evaluated by analysing a battery of biochemical biomarkers-activities of biotranformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD], dibenzylflourescein dealkylase [DBF], and glutathione S-transferase [GST]; activity of antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase [GR]; and lipid peroxidation [LPO]-in the polychaete Arenicola marina after laboratory sediment exposure. Huelva Estuary polychaetes showed significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced LPO, GST, and EROD activities compared with control lugworms related to metals and presumably polychlorinated biphenyls. EROD activity significant (p < 0.05) induction was associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after Santander Bay sediment exposure. Nickel appeared to significantly (p < 0.05) induce GR activity and LPO in LPGC Port sediment-exposed organisms. DBF activity significantly (p < 0.05) increased in polychaetes exposed to sediments from sewage-contaminated areas. A. marina was sensitive at the biochemical level. Integration of sediment characterization and biomarker results allowed the identification of polluted sites as well as the cause of possible sediment toxicity.

  17. Reappraisal of the extinction of Canariomys bravoi, the giant rat from Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Galván, Bertila; Navarro, Juan Francisco

    2014-06-01

    All the Quaternary endemic rodents of the Canary Islands are currently extinct. The Lava Mouse Malpaisomys insularis inhabited the easternmost islands, whereas the giant rats Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani lived in the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, respectively. Bones of C. bravoi have appeared in archaeological sites together with shellfish and butchery remains. Traditionally, they have been considered as an evidence of the sporadic consumption of C. bravoi by the aboriginal people, in some instances as recently as the time of the first European contact (14th century AD). Accordingly, the extinction of C. bravoi has been linked to the European colonization of Tenerife. The plausibility of this extinction date has been explored through new radiocarbon dates obtained on selected C. bravoi bones and through a reappraisal of the published dates. Our analysis allowed us to establish an earlier last documented occurrence age for C. bravoi, prior to the third century cal BC, much earlier than previously assumed. The analysis of formerly published 14C dates of archaeological remains from Tenerife shows that samples with confidence intervals (95.54%) that are older or overlap with the last documented record of C. bravoi were performed on materials with large sources of error (such as wood, charcoal or bulk ash-sediments). Conversely, the new radiocarbon dates and analyses presented herein are in agreement with the occurrence of an earlier rapid extinction linked to the first human presence on the island.

  18. Testing the AGN unification model in the infrared. First results with GTC/CanariCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Almeida, C.

    2015-05-01

    The unified model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) accounts for a variety of observational differences in terms of viewing geometry alone. However, from the fitting of high spatial resolution infrared (IR) data with clumpy torus models, it has been hinted that the immediate dusty surroundings of Type-1 and 2 Seyfert nuclei might be intrinsically different in terms of covering factor (torus width and number of clouds). Moreover, these torus covering factors also showed variations among objects belonging to the same type, in contradiction with simple unification. Interestingly, these intrinsic differences in Seyfert tori could explain, for example, the lack of broad optical lines in the polarized spectra of about half of the brightest Seyfert 2 galaxies. On the other hand, recent IR interferometry studies have revealed that, in at least four Seyfert galaxies, the mid-IR emission is elongated in the polar direction. These results are difficult to reconcile with unified models, which claim that the bulk of the mid-IR emission comes from the torus. In this invited contribution I summarize the latest results on high angular resolution IR studies of AGN, which constitute a crucial test for AGN unification. These results include those from the mid-infrared instrument CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), which are starting to be published by the CanariCam AGN team, Los Piratas (https://sites.google.com/site/piratasrelatedpublications).

  19. Observations of the interaction between near-inertial waves and mesoscale eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Marrero, Antonio; Sangrá, Pablo; Caldeira, Rui; Aguiar-González, Borja; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel

    2014-05-01

    Trajectories of eight drifters dragged below the surface mixed layer and current meter data from a mooring are used to analyse the interaction between near-inertial waves and mesoscale eddies. Drifters were deployed within eddies generated downstream of Canary and Madeira islands between 1998 and 2007. The mooring was installed in the passage of cyclonic eddies induced by Gran Canaria island during 2006. Rotatory wavelet analysis of Lagrangian velocities shows a clear relationship between the near-inertial waves' intrinsic frequencies and the eddy angular velocities. The results reveal that near-inertial waves reach a minimum frequency of half the planetary vorticity (f/2) in the inner core of young anticyclonic eddies rotating with its maximum absolute angular speed of f/2. The highest amplitudes of the observed inertial motions are also found within anticyclonic eddies evidencing the trapping of inertial waves. Finally, the analysis of the current meter series show frequency fluctuations of the near-inertial currents in the upper 500 meters that are related to the passage of cyclonic eddies. These fluctuations appear to be consistent with the variation of the background vorticity produced by the eddies.

  20. An observation planning algorithm applied to multi-objective astronomical observations and its simulation in COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic sky surveys are now booming, such as LAMOST already built by China, BIGBOSS project put forward by the U.S. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) telescope developed by the United States, Mexico and Spain. They all use or will use this approach and each fiber can be moved within a certain area for one astrology target, so observation planning is particularly important for this Sky Surveys. One observation planning algorithm used in multi-objective astronomical observations is developed. It can avoid the collision and interference between the fiber positioning units in the focal plane during the observation in one field of view, and the interested objects can be ovserved in a limited round with the maximize efficiency. Also, the observation simulation can be made for wide field of view through multi-FOV observation. After the observation planning is built ,the simulation is made in COSMOS field using GTC telescope. Interested galaxies, stars and high-redshift LBG galaxies are selected after the removal of the mask area, which may be bright stars. Then 9 FOV simulation is completed and observation efficiency and fiber utilization ratio for every round are given. Otherwise,allocating a certain number of fibers for background sky, giving different weights for different objects and how to move the FOV to improve the overall observation efficiency are discussed.

  1. Improving the automatic wavelength calibration of EMIR spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiel, N.; Pascual, S.; Picazo, P.; Gallego, J.; Garzón, F.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; González-Fernández, C.; Hammersley, P.; Insausti, M.; Manjavacas, E.; Miluzio, M.

    2017-03-01

    EMIR, the near-infrared camera-spectrograph operating in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths 0.9-2.5μm, is being commissioned at the Nasmyth focus of the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. One of the most outstanding capabilities of EMIR will be its multi-object spectroscopic mode which, with the help of a robotic reconfigurable slit system, will allow to take around 53 spectra simultaneously. A data reduction pipeline, PyEmir, based on Python, is being developed in order to facilitate the automatic reduction of EMIR data taken in both imaging and spectroscopy mode. Focusing on the reduction of spectroscopic data, some critical manipulations include the geometric distortion correction and the wavelength calibration. Although usually these reductions steps are carried out separately, it is important to realise that these kind of manipulations involve data rebinning and interpolation, which in addition unavoidably lead to the increase of error correlation and to resolution degradation. In order to minimise these effects, it is possible to incorporate those data manipulations as a single geometric transformation. This approach is being used in the development of PyEmir. For this purpose, the geometric transformations available in the Python package Scikit-image are being used. This work was funded by the Spanish Programa Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofísica under grant AYA2013-46724-P.

  2. Development of a sensitive determination method for benzotriazole UV stabilizers in enviromental water samples with stir bar sorption extraction and liquid desorption prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; del Toro-Moreno, Adrián; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-07-01

    Benzotriazole UV stabilizers are emerging compounds used in personal care products and can enter surface water after passing through wastewater treatment plants without being removed. Because these analytes are strongly hydrophobic, there is an environmental risk of accumulation in solid matrices and magnification through the trophic chain. In this work, a method based on stir bar sorption extraction with liquid desorption is presented for the extraction of benzotriazole UV stabilizers from water samples. Stir bar sorptive extraction was combined with ultra-high performance LC with MS/MS detection. All important factors affecting the stir bar sorptive extraction procedure are discussed, and the optimized method was applied to seawater and wastewater samples from Gran Canaria Island, providing good selectivity and sensitivity with LODs and limits of quantification in the range of 18.4-55.1 and 61.5-184 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries between 68.4-92.2% were achieved for the more polar compounds, whereas the recoveries were lower for the two less polar compounds, most likely due to their strong absorption into the polydimethylsiloxane stir bar phase that does not allows the complete desorption. The repeatability studies gave RSDs of between 6.45 and 12.6% for all compounds in the real samples.

  3. Observations of the planetary nebula RWT 152 with OSIRIS/GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Olguín, L.; Solano, E.; Ulla, A.

    2016-11-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few known planetary nebulae with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter Hα imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152 obtained with OSIRIS/GTC (Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy/Gran Telescopio Canarias) with the goal of analysing its properties. The Hα image reveals a bipolar nebula with a bright equatorial region and multiple bubbles in the main lobes. A faint circular halo surrounds the main nebula. The nebular spectra reveal a very low excitation nebula with weak emission lines from H+, He+ and double-ionized metals, and absence of emission lines from neutral and single-ionized metals, except for an extremely faint [N II] λ6584 emission line. These spectra may be explained if RWT 152 is a density-bounded planetary nebula. Low nebular chemical abundances of S, O, Ar, N and Ne are obtained in RWT 152, which, together with the derived high peculiar velocity (˜ 92-131 km s-1), indicate that this object is a halo planetary nebula. The available data are consistent with RWT 152 evolving from a low-mass progenitor (˜1 M⊙) formed in a metal-poor environment.

  4. The Compositional HJ-Biplot—A New Approach to Identifying the Links among Bioactive Compounds of Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Molina Pérez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena M.; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Espinosa Borreguero, Francisco; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación

    2016-01-01

    Tomatoes have been described as a functional food because of their particular composition of different bioactive compounds. In this study, the proximate composition, minerals and trace elements, and antioxidant compounds were determined in two tomato cultivars (Mariana and Dunkan) that were grown in Gran Canaria (Spain) either conventionally or hydroponically. Although compositional data of this type require being subjected to the specific statistical techniques of compositional analysis, this approach has not usually been considered in this context. In the present case, a compositional Mann–Whitney U test of the data showed significant differences for each factor (cultivar and cultivation system) in several of the compositional variables studied. For the differences between cultivars, these parameters were the protein, Mg, lycopene, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and fumaric acid contents. For the differences between cultivation systems, they were mainly those of the mineral and trace elements group. Although one-year data are insufficient to make clear relationship among compounds because more repetitions in several localities and years are necessary, the compositional HJ-biplot (in which the links provide estimates of the linear relationship among variables) results agreed with other scientific results about linear relationship among some compounds analyzed. PMID:27827839

  5. Morphological and molecular study of the cyanobiont-bearing dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata from the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic).

    PubMed

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The presence of the benthic dinophysoid dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata has been reported in the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic) in live field observations and on fixed macroalgal samples from intertidal ponds (26 sampling sites from El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote islands). In vivo Sinophysis cells were typically pale pink colored. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed a small characteristic narrow hypothecal cut that matched the original description of S. canaliculata. SSU rRNA gene (rDNA) nuclear phylogeny showed that S. canaliculata is closely related to S. microcephalus. Sinophysis specimens displayed cyanobacterial endosymbionts with orange autofluorescence from phycoerythrins. SSU rDNA analyses of the cyanobionts nearly matched a former sequence obtained from S. canaliculata in the Pacific Ocean (Japan). S. canaliculata survived up to 5 months in the original seawater samples. During that period cyanobionts were always present and maintained their orange autofluorescence, although the pink color gradually vanished (<1 month) in most individuals. Molecular similarity of Sinophysis cyanobionts from the Canary Islands and Japanese waters suggest a deterministic relationship, likely a temporary maintenance inside their host via some specific grazing system. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Synthetic polarimetric spectra from stellar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipe, T.; Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2017-02-01

    Stellar prominences detected in rapidly rotating stars serve as probes of the magnetism in the corona of cool stars. We have synthesized the temporal evolution of the Stokes profiles generated in the He I 10 830 and 5876 Å triplets during the rotation of a prominence around a star. The synthesis was performed with the HAZEL code using a cloud model in which the prominence is characterized by a slab located at a fixed latitude and height. It accounts for the scattering polarization and Zeeman and Hanle effects. Several cases with different prominence magnetic field strengths and orientations have been analysed. The results show an emission feature that drifts across the profile while the prominence is out of the stellar disc. When the prominence eclipses the star, the intensity profile shows an absorption. The scattering induced by the prominence generates linear polarization signals in Stokes Q and U profiles, which are modified by the Hanle effect when a magnetic field is present. Due to the Zeeman effect, Stokes V profiles show a signal with very low amplitude when the magnetic field along the line of sight is different from zero. The estimated linear polarization signals could potentially be detected with the future spectropolarimeter Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph, to be attached to Gran Telescopio Canarias telescope.

  7. Anatomy of small-scale mixing along a Northeast Atlantic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Elena; Dijkstra, Henk A.; van der Woerd, Hans; Brussaard, Corina

    2010-05-01

    The study of turbulence occurring at the smallest scales, in the energy dissipation range, is required when evaluating interrelations between turbulent mixing and phytoplankton distribution. To derive microturbulent parameters, microstructure profiler surveys, consisting in high resolution temperature, salinity or velocity vertical profiles have been performed in localized regions of the open ocean. However, they are very localized and based on few datasets, difficult to extrapolate to other regions due to the dependence on the local background conditions. During the STRATIPHYT-I cruise (July-August 2009) from Las Palmas (Gran Canaria) to Reykjavik (Iceland), high resolution measurements of both turbulent mixing (with a Self Contained Autonomous Micro Profiler, SCAMP) and phytoplankton have been carried out in the top 100 m of the ocean. With these data, the gradient from a more stratified, warmer surface water tropical environment to a less stratified subpolar ocean environment is covered. Adding up a total of 15 stations and 148 profiles, it constitutes the most extensive dataset of directly derived vertical mixing coefficients in a latitudinal transect of the Northeast Atlantic. In the presentation, the focus is on the explanation of the changes in turbulent mixing along the cruise section, recalling in its latitudinal gradient and presenting parameters that can further help to evaluate effects in the phytoplankton distribution. Side issues such as the encountered disagreement between heat and density eddy diffusivities and an analysis of the main source of instabilities through GOTM model and an internal wave analysis, are also treated in detail.

  8. Phylogeography of pipistrelle-like bats within the Canary Islands, based on mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pestano, J; Brown, R P; Suárez, N M; Fajardo, S

    2003-01-01

    Evolution of three Canary Island Vespertilionid bat species, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Pipistrellus maderensis, and Hypsugo savii was studied by comparison of approximately 1 kbp of mtDNA (from cytochrome b and 16S rRNA genes) between islands. mtDNA reveals that both P. kuhlii and P. maderensis exist in sympatry on Tenerife (and possibly other islands). Their morphological similarity explains why their co-occurrence had not been detected previously. Levels of sequence divergence are quite low within P. maderensis. Haplotypes were either identical or separated by /=12 mutational steps) indicating colonization of the latter from the former sometime during the last approximately 1.2 Ma, with low subsequent gene flow. Unlike P. maderensis the El Hierro population alone appears to represent an ESU. The H. savii haplotypes detected in Gran Canaria and Tenerife are identical or separated by 1 mutational step.

  9. The Splitting of Double-component Active Asteroid P/2016 J1 (PANSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F. J.; Novaković, B.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Bolin, Bryce; Jedicke, Robert; Gladman, Brett J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Vereš, Peter; Chambers, Kenneth; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Flewelling, Heather; Huber, Mark; Schunová-Lilly, Eva; Magnier, Eugene; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher; Weryk, Robert; Farnocchia, Davide; Micheli, Marco

    2017-03-01

    We present deep imaging observations, orbital dynamics, and dust-tail model analyses of the double-component asteroid P/2016 J1 (J1-A and J1-B). The observations were acquired at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) from mid-March to late July of 2016. A statistical analysis of backward-in-time integrations of the orbits of a large sample of clone objects of P/2016 J1-A and J1-B shows that the minimum separation between them occurred most likely ∼2300 days prior to the current perihelion passage, i.e., during the previous orbit near perihelion. This closest approach was probably linked to a fragmentation event of their parent body. Monte Carlo dust-tail models show that those two components became active simultaneously ∼250 days before the current perihelion, with comparable maximum loss rates of ∼0.7 and ∼0.5 kg s‑1, and total ejected masses of 8 × 106 and 6 × 106 kg for fragments J1-A and J1-B, respectively. Consequently, the fragmentation event and the present dust activity are unrelated. The simultaneous activation times of the two components and the fact that the activity lasted 6–9 months or longer, strongly indicate ice sublimation as the most likely mechanism involved in the dust emission process.

  10. GO-IRS: GTC Optical Intermediate-Resolution Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Ge, J.; Moles, M.; Alfaro, E.; Montes, D.; Jing, Y. P.; Chu, J.; González, A. H.; Wang, T. G.; Hao, L.

    2011-11-01

    GO-IRS stands for "GTC Optical Intermediate Resolution Spectrograph". It is the answer of a big team of over 100 experienced researchers and engineersin the United States, China and Spain to the recent call for new instrumentationfor the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. The GO-IRS main facts are: 1000 MOS fibres in a 15 arcmin circular field of view; 4 x 400 IFU fibres in the central 2 arcmin; two channels: blue Δλ = 0.37 - 0.60 μ m) and red (Δλ = 0.60 - 1.00 μ m); R= 20k, 10k, 5k (red), 2k (blue) and intermediate spectral resolutions; and use of telescope-proof technology (e.g. LAMOST, MARVELS). The GO-IRS Science Team is developing three design reference cases on near-fieldcosmology in the Milky Way, kinematics and abundances in galaxies of the LocalGroup and of the local Universe, and astrophysical properties and clustering ofdistant galaxies at z=1-4. We open our GO-IRS Science Team to all Spanish astronomers interested in workingwith us. Visit our URL at http://marvels.astro.ufl.edu/GO-IRS

  11. Persistent Infection by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain That Was Theorized To Have Advantageous Properties, as It Was Responsible for a Massive Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Lago, Laura; Navarro, Yurena; Montilla, Pedro; Comas, Iñaki; Herranz, Marta; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos; Ruiz Serrano, María Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The strains involved in tuberculosis outbreaks are considered highly virulent and transmissible. We analyzed the case of a patient in Madrid, Spain, who was persistently infected over an 8-year period by the same Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. The strain was responsible for a severe outbreak on Gran Canaria Island. The case provides us with a unique opportunity to challenge our assumptions about M. tuberculosis Beijing strains. No clinical/radiological findings consistent with a virulent strain were documented, and the in vitro growth rate of the strain in macrophages was only moderate. No secondary cases stemming from this prolonged active case were detected in the host population. The strain did not acquire resistance mutations, despite constant treatment interruptions, and it remained extremely stable, as demonstrated by the lack of single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP)-based differences between the sequential isolates. Our data suggest that the general assumption about M. tuberculosis Beijing strains having advantageous properties (in terms of virulence, transmissibility, and the tendency to acquire mutations and resistance) is not always accurate. PMID:26269618

  12. Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2003-08-01

    Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical remote sensing to map landslides and their evolution; (2) analytical, numerical, and cellular automata models for the emplacement of sturzstroms and debris flows; (3) a brittle-failure model for forecasting catastrophic slope failure; (4) new strategies for integrating large-area Global Positioning System (GPS) arrays with local geodetic monitoring networks; (5) methods for raising public awareness of landslide hazards; and (6) Geographic Information System (GIS)-based databases for the test areas. The results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary studies of landslide hazards, combining subjects as diverse as geology and geomorphology, remote sensing, geodesy, fluid dynamics, and social profiling. They have also identified key goals for an improved understanding of the physical processes that govern landslide collapse and runout, as well as for designing strategies for raising public awareness of landslide hazards and for implementing appropriate land management policies for reducing landslide risk.

  13. Association between the p.Thr1406Asn polymorphism of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 gene and necrotizing enterocolitis: A prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Moonen, Rob M.; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Huizing, Maurice J.; González-Luis, Gema E.; Mosca, Fabio; Villamor, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The p.Thr1406Asn (rs1047891) polymorphism of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) gene has been linked to functional consequences affecting the downstream availability of the nitric oxide precursor L-arginine. L-arginine concentrations are decreased in preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In this multicenter prospective study, we investigated the association of the p.Thr1406Asn polymorphism with NEC in 477 preterm infants (36 cases of NEC) from 4 European neonatal intensive care units (Maastricht, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Mantova, and Milan). Allele and genotype frequencies of the p.Thr1406Asn polymorphism did not significantly differ between the infants with and without NEC. In contrast, the minor A-allele was significantly less frequent in the group of 64 infants with the combined outcome NEC or death before 34 weeks of corrected gestational age than in the infants without the outcome (0.20 vs. 0.31, P = 0.03). In addition, a significant negative association of the A-allele with the combined outcome NEC or death was found using the dominant (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 0.54, 95% CI 0.29–0.99) and the additive (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36–0.93) genetic models. In conclusion, our study provides further evidence that a functional variant of the CPS1 gene may contribute to NEC susceptibility. PMID:27833157

  14. Kinematic modeling and path planning for MIRADAS arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, Josep; Gómez, José María.; López, Manuel; Torra, Jordi; Raines, Steven N.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a near-infrared (NIR) multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). It can simultaneously observe multiple targets selected by 20 identical deployable probe arms with pickoff mirror optics. The bases of the arms are fixed to the multiplexing system (MXS) plate, a circular platform, and arranged in a circular layout with minimum separation between elements of the arms. This document presents the MXS prototype P2a, a full-scale, fully operational prototype of a MIRADAS probe arm. This planar closed-loop mechanism compared to other previous designs offers some advantages specially in terms of stability and from the point of view of optics. Unfortunately, these benefits come at the expense of a more complicated kinematics and an unintuitive arm motion. Furthermore, the cryogenic motor controllers used in prototyping impose severe restrictions in path planing. They negatively impact in the slice of pie approach, a collision-avoidance patrolling strategy that can gives good results in other scenarios. This study is a starting point to define collision-free trajectory algorithms for the 20 probe arms of MIRADAS.

  15. Imaging the Elusive H-poor Gas in the High adf Planetary Nebula NGC 6778

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    We present the first direct image of the high-metallicity gas component in a planetary nebula (NGC 6778), taken with the OSIRIS Blue Tunable Filter centered on the O ii λ4649+50 Å optical recombination lines (ORLs) at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We show that the emission of these faint O ii ORLs is concentrated in the central parts of the planetary nebula and is not spatially coincident either with emission coming from the bright [O iii] λ5007 Å collisionally excited line (CEL) or the bright Hα recombination line. From monochromatic emission line maps taken with VIMOS at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find that the spatial distribution of the emission from the auroral [O iii] λ4363 line resembles that of the O ii ORLs but differs from nebular [O iii] λ5007 CEL distribution, implying a temperature gradient inside the planetary nebula. The centrally peaked distribution of the O ii emission and the differences with the [O iii] and H i emission profiles are consistent with the presence of an H-poor gas whose origin may be linked to the binarity of the central star. However, determination of the spatial distribution of the ORLs and CELs in other PNe and a comparison of their dynamics are needed to further constrain the geometry and ejection mechanism of the metal-rich (H-poor) component and hence, understand the origin of the abundance discrepancy problem in PNe.

  16. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n. from the island of Rhodes (Greece), revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae)

    PubMed Central

    Davolos, Domenico; Matthaeis, Elvira De; Latella, Leonardo; Vonk, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new Cryptorchestia species, Cryptorchestia ruffoi Latella & Vonk, sp. n. from the island of Rhodes in south-eastern Greece, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. Morphological analysis and DNA sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear protein-coding genes indicated that this species is related to Cryptorchestia cavimana (Cyprus) and Cryptorchestia garbinii (Mediterranean regions, with a recent northward expansion). Results supported a genetic separation between the Cryptorchestia species of the east Mediterranean regions and those of the northeast Atlantic volcanic islands examined in this study (Cryptorchestia canariensis, Cryptorchestia gomeri, Cryptorchestia guancha, and Cryptorchestia stocki from the Canary islands, Cryptorchestia monticola from Madeira, and Cryptorchestia chevreuxi from the Azores). The Mediterranean and Atlantic Cryptorchestia species appear to be also morphologically distinct. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n., Cryptorchestia cavimana, Cryptorchestia garbinii, and Cryptorchestia kosswigi (Turkish coast) clearly have a small lobe on the male gnathopod 1 merus. This character was the main diagnostic difference between Cryptorchestia (sensu Lowry, 2013) and Orchestia. However, among the six northeast Atlantic island Cryptorchestia species only Cryptorchestia stocki has a small lobe on the merus of gnathopod 1. Reduction or loss of the lobe in the Atlantic Island species cannot be ruled out; however, molecular phylogenetic analysis leads us to presume that this lobe independently evolved between the east Mediterranean Cryptorchestia species and Cryptorchestia stocki from Gran Canaria. PMID:28331390

  17. Spectral multiplexing using stacked volume-phase holographic gratings - I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanutta, A.; Landoni, M.; Riva, M.; Bianco, A.

    2017-08-01

    Many focal-reducer spectrographs, currently available at state-of-the-art telescopes facilities, would benefit from a simple refurbishing that could increase both the resolution and spectral range in order to cope with the progressively challenging scientific requirements, but, in order to make this update appealing, it should minimize the changes in the existing structure of the instrument. In the past, many authors proposed solutions based on stacking subsequently layers of dispersive elements and recording multiple spectra in one shot (multiplexing). Although this idea is promising, it brings several drawbacks and complexities that prevent the straightforward integration of such a device in a spectrograph. Fortunately, nowadays, the situation has changed dramatically, thanks to the successful experience achieved through photopolymeric holographic films, used to fabricate common volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs). Thanks to the various advantages made available by these materials in this context, we propose an innovative solution to design a stacked multiplexed VPHG that is able to secure efficiently different spectra in a single shot. This allows us to increase resolution and spectral range enabling astronomers to greatly economize their awarded time at the telescope. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of our solution, both in terms of expected performance and feasibility, supposing the upgrade of the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS).

  18. Spatio-temporal variability in the GDH activity to ammonium excretion ratio in epipelagic marine zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Packard, T. T.; Maldonado, F.; Gómez, M.

    2016-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities have been widely used in oceanographic research as an index of in situ NH4+ excretion rates (RNH4+) in zooplankton. Here we study the variability in the relationship between the enzymatic rates and the actual rates measured in epipelagic marine zooplankton between several marine ecosystems. Although both measures were significantly correlated across zooplankton assemblages, the regression models yielded different GDH/RNH4+ ratios across ecosystems. Accordingly, the error of a general equation increased up to ±42.5 % when regressing all our data together. Aside from possible interspecific differences, some of the variability was explained by the unequal allometric relation that each rate maintained with protein. Scaling exponents were 1.38 for GDH activities and 0.87 for RNH4+, which would induce uncertainties in the GDH/RNH4+ ratios when organisms with different sizes were considered. Nevertheless, the main factor causing divergence between GDH activities and RNH4+ was the potential prey availability. We compared the excretory metabolism of the zooplankton community at different productivity periods in waters off Gran Canaria, and observed an important decrease in the RNH4+ during stratification. A similar decrease was found in the internal pool of glutamate, which may be critical in the regulation of in vivo rates. Strengthening our knowledge of the relationship between GDH activities and the RNH4+ will lead to more meaningful predictions of phytoplankton regeneration and community nitrogen fluxes across large spatial scales.

  19. Kinematics and trajectory generation for MIRADAS arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, J.; Gómez, J. M.; Torra, J.; López, M.; Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a NIR multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The instrument has a multiplexing system (MXS) that enables the simultaneous observation of twenty objects located within its field of view. These user selected targets are acquired by twenty deployable robotic probe arms with pickoff mirror optics operating at cryogenic temperatures. The MIRADAS probe arm is a close-loop mechanism designed with optics simplicity in mind, presenting good stability when it is operated upside down. Calculating optimum collision-free trajectories requires a good knowledge of the MIRADAS arm behavior based on its geometry and its mechanical constraints. This study introduces a geometric model for the two degree-of-freedom (DoF) mechanism, including solutions for the forward and inverse kinematics problem. The concepts of zone-of-avoidance (ZoA), workspace and envelope of MIRADAS arm are presented and studied. Finally, the paper proposes two different patrolling approaches that can be exploited when planning trajectories.

  20. Target allocation and prioritized motion planning for MIRADAS probe arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, Josep; Riera-Ledesma, Jorge; Torres, Santiago; Garzón, Francisco; Torra, Jordi; Gómez, José M.

    2016-07-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph for the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias. The instrument has 12 pickoff mirror optics on cryogenic probe arms, enabling it to concurrently observe up to 12 user-defined objects located in its field-of-view. In this paper, a method to compute collision-free trajectories for the arms of MIRADAS is presented. We propose a sequential approach that has two stages: target to arm assignment and motion planning. For the former, we present a model based on linear programming that allocates targets according to their associated priorities. The model is constrained by two matrices specifying the targets' reachability and the incompatibilities among each pair of feasible target-arm pairs. This model has been implemented and experiments show that it is able to determine assignments in less than a second. Regarding the second step, we present a prioritized approach which uses sampled-based roadmaps containing a variety of paths. The motions along a given path are coordinated with the help of a depth-first search algorithm. Paths are sequentially explored according to how promising they are and those not leading to a solution are skipped. This motion planning approach has been implemented considering real probe arm geometries and joint velocities. Experimental results show that the method achieves good performance in scenarios presenting two different types of conflicts.

  1. Polarized mid-infrared synchrotron emission in the core of Cygnus A

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.; Tadhunter, C.; Mason, R.; Perlman, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Levenson, N. A.; Álvarez, C. A.; Ramírez, E. A.; Telesco, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present high-angular (∼0.''4) resolution mid-infrared (MIR) polarimetric observations in the 8.7 μm and 11.6 μm filters of Cygnus A using CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. A highly polarized nucleus is observed with a degree of polarization of 11% ± 3% and 12% ± 3% and a position angle of polarization of 27° ± 8° and 35° ± 8° in a 0.''38 (∼380 pc) aperture for each filter. The observed rising of the polarized flux density with increasing wavelength is consistent with synchrotron radiation from the parsec-scale jet close to the core of Cygnus A. Based on our polarization model, the synchrotron emission from the parsec-scale jet is estimated to be 14% and 17% of the total flux density in the 8.7 μm and 11.6 μm filters, respectively. A blackbody component with a characteristic temperature of 220 K accounts for >75% of the observed MIR total flux density. The blackbody emission arises from a combination of (1) dust emission in the torus; and (2) diffuse dust emission around the nuclear region, but the contributions of the two components cannot be well-constrained in these observations.

  2. The Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation (C3R2) Survey: Survey Overview and Data Release 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel C.; Stern, Daniel K.; Cohen, Judith G.; Capak, Peter L.; Rhodes, Jason D.; Castander, Francisco J.; Paltani, Stéphane

    2017-06-01

    A key goal of the Stage IV dark energy experiments Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST is to measure the growth of structure with cosmic time from weak lensing analysis over large regions of the sky. Weak lensing cosmology will be challenging: in addition to highly accurate galaxy shape measurements, statistically robust and accurate photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for billions of faint galaxies will be needed in order to reconstruct the three-dimensional matter distribution. Here we present an overview of and initial results from the Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation (C3R2) survey, which is designed specifically to calibrate the empirical galaxy color-redshift relation to the Euclid depth. These redshifts will also be important for the calibrations of LSST and WFIRST. The C3R2 survey is obtaining multiplexed observations with Keck (DEIMOS, LRIS, and MOSFIRE), the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; OSIRIS), and the Very Large Telescope (VLT; FORS2 and KMOS) of a targeted sample of galaxies that are most important for the redshift calibration. We focus spectroscopic efforts on undersampled regions of galaxy color space identified in previous work in order to minimize the number of spectroscopic redshifts needed to map the color-redshift relation to the required accuracy. We present the C3R2 survey strategy and initial results, including the 1283 high-confidence redshifts obtained in the 2016A semester and released as Data Release 1.

  3. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-01-01

    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species. PMID:27681300

  4. Kinematic model for Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain): Geodynamic interpretation in the Nubian plate context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Carmona, J.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Pérez-Peña, A.; Ortiz, R.; García, A.

    2010-12-01

    Establishment of a geodetic network in Tenerife is the starting point for the use of GPS and other precise geodetic techniques in the support of the study of kinematics and their relation with island volcanic activity. This paper is focused on the characterization of volcanotectonic activity of Tenerife, to determine the geodynamic framework for volcanic surveillance. TEGETEIDE network, set up in 2005 and re-observed each year, is composed of seven GNSS-GPS stations scattered throughout the island. A horizontal deformation model is presented in order to explain the observed island displacement pattern in the geodynamic context of the Nubian plate. According to the models obtained, the most important geologic structures, such as the volcanic rifts and the caldera, determine the current deformation pattern of Tenerife. The geodynamics of the most stable areas of the island behave similarly to that observed from the permanent GNSS-GPS reference stations located in La Palma and Gran Canaria Islands. Anomalous geodynamic behaviour has been detected in two zones of Tenerife, which configure an NW-SE axis crossing the central sector of the island, related with the volcanotectonic activity of the island and its surroundings.

  5. Accretion and outflow in the proplyd-like objects near Cygnus OB2

    SciTech Connect

    Guarcello, M. G.; Drake, J. J.; Wright, N. J.; García-Alvarez, D.; Kraemer, K. E.

    2014-09-20

    Cygnus OB2 is the most massive association within 2 kpc from the Sun, hosting hundreds of massive stars, thousands of young low mass members, and some sights of active star formation in the surrounding cloud. Recently, 10 photoevaporating proplyd-like objects with tadpole-shaped morphology were discovered in the outskirts of the OB association, approximately 6-14 pc away from its center. The classification of these objects is ambiguous, being either evaporating residuals of the parental cloud that are hosting a protostar inside or disk-bearing stars with an evaporating disk, such as the evaporating proplyds observed in the Trapezium Cluster in Orion. In this paper, we present a study based on low-resolution optical spectroscopic observations made with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy, mounted on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, of two of these protostars. The spectrum of one of the objects shows evidence of accretion but not of outflows. In the latter object, the spectra show several emission lines indicating the presence of an actively accreting disk with outflow. We present estimates of the mass loss rate and the accretion rate from the disk, showing that the former exceeds the latter as observed in other known objects with evaporating disks. We also show evidence of a strong variability in the integrated flux observed in these objects as well as in the accretion and outflow diagnostics.

  6. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and visually evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    López-Méndez, P; Sosa-Henríquez, M; Ruiz-Pérez, Á

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship between serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and visually evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), residents in the south zone of Gran Canaria. The study included 49 patients with MS, on whom 25-OH-vitamin D was determined, along with VEP, and a neurological examination to determine incapacity. Clinical variables, such as a history of optic neuritis were recorded. The mean value of 25-OH-vitamin D of the patients was 28.1±9.5ng/ml. The VEP latency was 119.1±23.2ms and the amplitude, 8.5±4.4 μV. Patients with a higher 25-OH-vitamin D had a greater number of outbreaks in the year prior to the study (P=.049), and those with vitamin D deficiency and previous optic neuritis showed no reduction in the amplitude of the VEP (P=.006). Patients with vitamin D deficiency have lower clinical activity of the MS and show no axonal involvement in VEP after having suffered optic neuritis. These relationships, although statistically significant, do not seem clinically plausible, thus new studies are needed to try and confirm this possible relationship. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Voltammetric Determination of Ni and Co in Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Melian, Jose Alberto; Dona-Rodriguez, Jose Miguel; Hernandez-Brito, Joaquin; Perez Pena, Jesus

    1997-12-01

    Stripping voltammetry has attracted considerable attention for the determination of trace and ultratrace metals. This is mainly due to its high sensitivity and low cost of instrumentation. In adsorptive stripping voltammetry an organometallic complex is formed by the addition of a suitable ligand to the sample. The complex is adsorbed onto the Hg-drop by the application of the proper adsorption potential (more positive than E1/2) and solution stirring. After an adsorption period a cathodic (negative going) potential scan is applied and the metal concentration is calculated by the standard addition method. Nickel is found in natural waters at nM levels and is closely related with phosphates and silicates. Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12 and occurs in natural waters at concentration about 0.1 nM. We propose the voltammetric analysis of these elements by adsorptive stripping voltammetry as an introductory laboratory experiment for advanced chemistry or for chemical or environmental engineering students. The experiment has been proven to be very suitable for the laboratory part of the instrumental analysis course at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain). In general, about 70% of the students have obtained good agreement (less than 10% of difference) between their results and the expected ones. Two hours is enough for the overall instrumental performance and the preparation of Ni and Co standards.

  8. On the redshifts of the BL Lac 3FGL J0909.0+2310 and its close companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa-González, D.; Coutiño de León, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; Carramiñana, A.; Aretxaga, I.; Becerra González, J.; Furniss, A.; Terlevich, E.; Vega, O.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; León Tavares, J.; Longinotti, A. L.; Terlevich, R.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the redshift of the BL Lac object 3FGL J0909.0+2310 based on observations obtained with the OSIRIS Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) mounted on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. A redshift of 0.432 ± 0.002 was obtained by the identification of three absorption features (Ca II K&H and the G band) detected in the spectrum of the BL Lac host galaxy. The closest object to the BL Lac at an angular separation of 3.8 arcsec (∼21 kpc at this distance) has a similar redshift of 0.431 ± 0.002. This companion galaxy could be the most likely cause of the nuclear activity as postulated by studies based on more extended data sets and cosmological models. MOS allows us to study the object's neighbourhood within a field of view of approximately 7 × 2 arcmin2 and we find two small groups of galaxies at redshifts 0.28 and 0.39 which are probably not related to the activity of 3FGL J0909.0+2310.

  9. Cryogenic tests of bimetallic diamond-turned mirrors for the FRIDA integral field unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Curtis; Eikenberry, Stephen; Cuevas Cardona, Salvador; Chapa, Oscar; Espejo, Carlos; Keiman, Carolina; Sanchez, Beatriz

    2008-07-01

    We describe diamond-turned material tests for the integral field unit (IFU) for the FRIDA instrument (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias). FRIDA is closely based on the design of the successful FISICA cryogenic infrared image slicing device, which used "monolithic" mirror arrays, diamond turned into single pieces of metal. FRIDA, however, will require better roughness characteristics than the 15nm RMS of FISICA to avoid light scatter in FRIDA's shorter wavelength limit (900nm). Al 6061 seems to be limited to this roughness level by its silicate inclusions so some new combination of materials that are compatible with FRIDA's Al 6061 structure must be found. To this end, we have tested six diamond-turned mirrors with different materials and different platings. We used the Zygo interferometer facility at IA-UNAM to do warm and cold profile measurements of the mirrors to investigate possible bimetallic deformation effects. We present a detailed comparison of the various performance characteristics of the test mirrors.

  10. FISICA: the Florida imager slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Gregory; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and on-sky performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. Finally, we present performance results from observations with FISICA at the KPNO 4-m telescope and comparisons of FISICA performance to other available IFUs on 4-m to 8-m-class telescopes.

  11. FISICA: the Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul E.; Hull-Allen, C. Gregory; Hoffman, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. We also discuss plans for first-light observations on the KPNO 4-meter telescope in July 2004.

  12. Frida integral field unit opto-mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Bringas, Vicente; Corrales, Adi; Espejo, Carlos; Lucero, Diana; Rodriguez, Alberto; Sánchez, Beatriz; Uribe, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system. FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. FRIDA IFU is conformed mainly by 3 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors and an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. Including two insertion mirrors the IFU holds 96 metal mirrors. Each block or individual mirror is attached on its own mechanical mounting. In order to study beam interferences with mechanical parts, ghosts and scattered light, an iterative optical-mechanical modeling was developed. In this work this iterative modeling is described including pictures showing actual ray tracing on the opto-mechanical components.

  13. Microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    PubMed

    De la Fe, C; Assunção, P; Antunes, T; Rosales, R S; Poveda, J B

    2005-09-01

    In this work, we report a microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. undertaken between 2001 and 2002 in 28 goat herds in Gran Canaria, Spain, an area where contagious agalactia is endemic. All herds were randomly selected and represented approximately 15.5% of the total goat population of the island. A variable number of milk, articular and auricular swab samples were collected from each flock and cultured in specific mycoplasma culture media. There was a total of 38.5% positive flocks from which 37 mycoplasma isolates were obtained. In contrast with previous data obtained in Spain, our results showed that the large colony variant of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm LC) was the most commonly isolated agent associated with contagious agalactia. This species was isolated from 90% of the positive herds and accounted for 54.1% of all isolations. M. agalactiae was isolated from 40% of the positive herds (27% of all isolations) and in six herds M. arginini was isolated (18.7% of all isolations). No M. capricolum or M. putrefaciens strains were isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 milk samples, 15 ear canals swabs and one articular sample. The association of several species was reported in several herds. These results are at variance with previous serological studies, which indicated a higher disease prevalence, and suggest that it could be necessary to use detection techniques such PCR to confirm the existence of contagious agalactia in goats.

  14. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey. II. An overly large Rayleigh-like feature for exoplanet TrES-3b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviainen, H.; Pallé, E.; Nortmann, L.; Nowak, G.; Iro, N.; Murgas, F.; Aigrain, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We search for Rayleigh scattering and K and Na absorption signatures from the atmosphere of TrES-3b using ground-based transmission spectroscopy covering the wavelength range from 530 to 950 nm as observed with the OSIRIS instrument at the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. Methods: Our analysis is based on a Bayesian approach where the light curves covering a set of given passbands are fitted jointly with PHOENIX-calculated stellar limb darkening profiles. The analysis is carried out assuming both white and red noise that is temporally correlated, with two approaches (Gaussian processes and divide-by-white) to account for the red noise. Results: An initial analysis reveals a transmission spectrum that shows a strong Rayleigh-like increase in extinction towards the blue end of the spectrum, and enhanced extinction around the K I resonance doublet near 767 nm. However, the signal amplitudes are significantly larger than expected from theoretical considerations. A detailed analysis reveals that the K I-like feature is entirely due to variability in the telluric O2 absorption, but the Rayleigh-like feature remains unexplained. The light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A114

  15. Determination of toxic metals, trace and essentials, and macronutrients in Sarpa salpa and Chelon labrosus: risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Aridani; Gutiérrez, Angel J; Lozano, Gonzalo; González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen; Caballero, José M; Hardisson, Arturo; Revert, Consuelo

    2017-03-10

    Due to increased environmental pollution, monitoring of contaminants in the environment and marine organisms is a fundamental tool for assessing the existence of risk from their consumption to human health. The levels of toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Al), trace and essential metals (B, Ba, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, and Zn), and macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg, Na) in two species of fish for human consumption were quantified in the present study. Eighty samples of muscle tissue and 80 samples of liver tissue belonging to two species of Osteichthyes fish; Sarpa salpa and Chelon labrosus were analyzed. The studied specimens were caught on the northern coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) with fishing rods. As they caught from the shore, they are suitable samples for assessing the toxic levels of representative species caught by local amateur fishermen. The results show that both species are fit for human consumption since they have toxic levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Al) which are below the maximum established levels; however, the toxic levels of the liver samples are several orders of magnitude higher than the muscle samples, so we discourage their regular consumption. The risk assessment indicated that the two species of fish are safe for the average consumer; however, if the livers of these species are consumed, there could be risks because they exceed the PTWI for Pb and the TWI for Cd.

  16. [Assessment of nutritional quality in healthy pregnant women of the Canary Islands, Spain].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ramírez-García, Octavio; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-10-31

    To describe the composition of the diet of healthy pregnant women of the Canary Islands and to estimate the nutritional quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Cross-sectional study based on 103 women aged 18-40 years, who gave birth at the University Hospital Materno-Infantil of Gran Canaria. Food consumption and macro and micronutrient intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire used in the Canary Island Nutrition Survey (ENCA) and the HEI was calculated. This index includes 10 components and the maximum possible score of the index is 100 points. The score of the index was 54.9. This result remains below the optimum score of > or =80, which is considered a diet of good quality of pregnant women in our study population. The average score of the first 5 components of the index showed that cereal consumption was below the daily portions recommended for pregnant women, whereas vegetables, fruit, milk and meat consumption surpassed the recommendations. A significant number of pregnant women did not reach the 50% of the recommendations for iron, folate and vitamin D intake (36.9, 26.2 and 38.8% respectively). At least 30% of the population exceeded 200% of the recommendations for proteins, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, vitamin C and vitamin A. Dietary advice for improving the diet quality during pregnancy and the supplementation of mainly iron and folate are necessary.

  17. Polishing techniques for MEGARA pupil elements optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izazaga, R.; Carrasco, E.; Aguirre, D.; Salas, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias, J.; Arroyo, J. M.; Hernández, M.; López, N.; López, V.; Quechol, J. T.; Salazar, M. F.; Carballo, C.; Cruz, E.; Arriaga, J.; De la Luz, J. A.; Huepa, A.; Jaimes, G. L.; Reyes, J.

    2016-07-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias.. It will offer RFWHM 6,000, 12,000 and 18,700 for the low- , mid- and high-resolution, respectively in the wavelength range 3650-9700Å. .The dispersive elements are volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings, sandwiched between two flat Fused Silica windows of high optical precision in large apertures. The design, based in VPHs in combination with Ohara PBM2Y prisms allows to keep the collimator and camera angle fixed. Seventy three optical elements are being built in Mexico at INAOE and CIO. For the low resolution modes, the VPHs windows specifications in irregularity is 1 fringe in 210mm x 170mm and 0.5 fringe in 190mm x 160mm. for a window thickness of 25 mm. For the medium and high resolution modes the irregularity specification is 2 fringes in 220mm x 180mm and 1 fringe in 205mm x 160mm, for a window thickness of 20mm. In this work we present a description of the polishing techniques developed at INAOE optical workshop to fabricate the 36 Fused Silica windows and 24 PBM2Y prisms that allows us to achieve such demanding specifications. We include the processes of mounting, cutting, blocking, polishing and testing.

  18. Three-dimensional inverse modelling of magnetic anomaly sources based on a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Arnoso, José

    2016-04-01

    We present a modelling method to estimate the 3-D geometry and location of homogeneously magnetized sources from magnetic anomaly data. As input information, the procedure needs the parameters defining the magnetization vector (intensity, inclination and declination) and the Earth's magnetic field direction. When these two vectors are expected to be different in direction, we propose to estimate the magnetization direction from the magnetic map. Then, using this information, we apply an inversion approach based on a genetic algorithm which finds the geometry of the sources by seeking the optimum solution from an initial population of models in successive iterations through an evolutionary process. The evolution consists of three genetic operators (selection, crossover and mutation), which act on each generation, and a smoothing operator, which looks for the best fit to the observed data and a solution consisting of plausible compact sources. The method allows the use of non-gridded, non-planar and inaccurate anomaly data and non-regular subsurface partitions. In addition, neither constraints for the depth to the top of the sources nor an initial model are necessary, although previous models can be incorporated into the process. We show the results of a test using two complex synthetic anomalies to demonstrate the efficiency of our inversion method. The application to real data is illustrated with aeromagnetic data of the volcanic island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

  19. Formation of composite pyroclasts by welding inside a lithic-rich mafic eruption column (Los Marteles Caldera, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrionandia, F.; Carracedo Sánchez, M.; Arostegui, J.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    The tuff ring of the Los Marteles phreatomagmatic maar (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands) includes a particular unit that comprises abundant composite spheroidal clasts. However, these clasts differ from cored clasts elsewhere that consist of erupted lithic pyroclasts with an adhering rim of coherent chilled magma. The composite clasts here studied range from lapilli to bombs, and are cored or concentrically banded. Among the welded components, several types of primary clasts are discerned that include: (i) juvenile clasts, resultant of the magma inertial fragmentation, and (ii) cognate or accessory lithic clasts. Juvenile clasts include glass spheres (nano- and microachneliths) and crystals. Lithic clasts include lava fragments, scoriae and olivine xenocrysts. Primary clasts are interpreted to have been produced by the explosion of a partially crystallized mafic (SiO2 ≈ 50-55%) magma that erupted into a maar, filled-up with scoriae plus lava fragments. The explosion would have originated as a dense and turbulent gas thrust into which the repeated collisions of melt droplets with solid clasts generated droplet-coated crystals, lithic clasts and single glass spheres. We interpret the cored and concentrically banded pyroclasts to be made of coalesced and/or agglutinated particles coated with a melt rim to the rest of the components. These composite clasts developed spheroidal shapes during transport within a violent Strombolian eruption column due to spin effect and, finally, landed in solid state.

  20. Deep blank-field catalogue for medium- and large-sized telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Esteban, F. M.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Cardiel, N.; Alacid, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The observation of blank fields, defined as regions of the sky that are devoid of stars down to a given threshold magnitude, constitutes one of the most relevant calibration procedures required for the proper reduction of astronomical data obtained following typical observing strategies. In this work, we have used Delaunay triangulation to search for deep blank fields throughout the whole sky, with a minimum size of 10 arcmin in diameter and an increasing threshold magnitude from 15 to 18 in the R band of the USNO-B Catalog of the United States Naval Observatory. The result is a catalogue with the deepest blank fields known so far. A short sample of these regions has been tested with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and it has been shown to be extremely useful for medium- and large-sized telescopes. Because some of the regions found could also be suitable for new extragalactic studies, we have estimated the galactic extinction in the direction of each deep blank field. This catalogue is accessible through the virtual observatory tool TESELA, and the user can retrieve - and visualize using ALADIN - the deep blank fields available near a given position in the sky.

  1. SmartPort: A Platform for Sensor Data Monitoring in a Seaport Based on FIWARE.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pablo; Santana, José Miguel; Ortega, Sebastián; Trujillo, Agustín; Suárez, José Pablo; Domínguez, Conrado; Santana, Jaisiel; Sánchez, Alejandro

    2016-03-22

    Seaport monitoring and management is a significant research area, in which infrastructure automatically collects big data sets that lead the organization in its multiple activities. Thus, this problem is heavily related to the fields of data acquisition, transfer, storage, big data analysis and information visualization. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria port is a good example of how a seaport generates big data volumes through a network of sensors. They are placed on meteorological stations and maritime buoys, registering environmental parameters. Likewise, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) registers several dynamic parameters about the tracked vessels. However, such an amount of data is useless without a system that enables a meaningful visualization and helps make decisions. In this work, we present SmartPort, a platform that offers a distributed architecture for the collection of the port sensors' data and a rich Internet application that allows the user to explore the geolocated data. The presented SmartPort tool is a representative, promising and inspiring approach to manage and develop a smart system. It covers a demanding need for big data analysis and visualization utilities for managing complex infrastructures, such as a seaport.

  2. Development and application of a microwave-assisted extraction and LC/MS/MS methodology to the determination of antifouling booster biocides in sea mullets (Mugil cephalus) organisms.

    PubMed

    Franco-Barrios, Alejandro; Torres-Padrón, María Esther; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for the extraction, preconcentration, and determination of two commonly used booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron, in samples of muscle and liver tissues from Mugil cephalus by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by SPE for the preconcentration and cleanup step, coupled with LC/MS/MS. The optimum conditions for MAE were established as power 200 W and irradiation time 4 min. Using these conditions, the LOD was 0.13 ng/g for diuron and 0.10 ng/g for Irgarol 1051. The recoveries calculated at three concentration levels (0.5, 5, and 50 ng/g) were greater than 74%. Repeatability was less than 7.5% and reproducibility less than 12.7%. The optimized method was used to monitor these compounds in M. cephalus from different harbors of Gran Canaria Island. The samples were collected bimonthly and processed following the optimized method. High levels of Irgarol 1051 (6.9 +/- 1.03 ng/g) were found in the liver, while diuron was undetected. However, diuron was found in the muscle (1.41 +/- 0.45 ng/g). The proposed sentinel organism could be used in tropical and subtropical regions to continuously biomonitor for booster biocides over long periods of time. This technique could be a useful tool for improving the management of ocean and coastal waters.

  3. Spectrally Resolved Intensities of Ultra-Dense Hot Aluminum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, J. M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Angelo, P.; Dalimier, E.; Schott, R.; Mancini, R.

    2008-10-22

    We present a first study of spectroscopic determination of electron temperature and density spatial profiles of aluminum K-shell line emission spectra from laser-shocked aluminum experiments performed at LULI. The radiation emitted by the aluminum plasma was dispersed with an ultra-high resolution spectrograph ({lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx_equal}6000). From the recorded films one can extract a set of time-integrated emission lineouts associated with the corresponding spatial region of the plasma. The observed spectra include the Ly{alpha}, He{beta}, He{gamma}, Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} line emissions and their associated He- and Li-like satellites thus covering a photon energy range from 1700 eV to 2400 eV approximately. The data analysis rely on the ABAKO/RAPCAL computational package, which has been recently developed at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and takes into account non-equilibrium collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes and radiation transport calculations.

  4. [Influence of promotional material on hand hygiene in the safety culture of a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Molina-Cabrillana, J; Dorta-Hung, M E; Otero Sanz, L; Henández Vera, J R; Martín-Rodríguez, M M; García de Carlos, P

    2016-06-01

    In order to increase safety culture about hand hygiene by means of messages and reminders about its importance in preventing nosocomial infections, we developed a new set of materials in the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil of Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, constitued by two centres with 450 beds each and acredited for medical internal residents training. We hired a well-known caricaturist, who adapted the messages to the local way of speaking, by using characters that used to appear in his artwork in the local newspaper. Also, we continued to work with other graphic design professionals. We monitored adherence and consumption of products for hand rubbing. We noted an increase in both indicators in the following months after the implementation of this strategy. Moreover, we revised the infrastructures for hand hygiene, and were able to demonstrate improvements in most of the patient care areas. The material was well accepted by professionals, patients and visitors. No other interventions were made, so we think improvements can be attributable to this strategy in our setting.

  5. Nuclear 11.3 μm PAH emission in local active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Esquej, P.; Roche, P. F.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Hönig, S. F.; González-Martín, O.; Aretxaga, I.; Mason, R. E.; Packham, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Colina, L.; Alvarez, C.; Telesco, C. M.

    2014-09-01

    We present Gran Telescopio CANARIAS CanariCam 8.7 μm imaging and 7.5-13 μm spectroscopy of six local systems known to host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and have nuclear star formation. Our main goal is to investigate whether the molecules responsible for the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature are destroyed in the close vicinity of an AGN. We detect 11.3 μm PAH feature emission in the nuclear regions of the galaxies as well as extended PAH emission over a few hundred parsecs. The equivalent width (EW) of the feature shows a minimum at the nucleus but increases with increasing radial distances, reaching typical star-forming values a few hundred parsecs away from the nucleus. The reduced nuclear EWs are interpreted as due to increased dilution from the AGN continuum rather than destruction of the PAH molecules. We conclude that at least those molecules responsible for the 11.3 μm PAH feature survive in the nuclear environments as close as 10 pc from the AGN and for Seyfert-like AGN luminosities. We propose that material in the dusty tori, nuclear gas discs, and/or host galaxies of AGN is likely to provide the column densities necessary to protect the PAH molecules from the AGN radiation field.

  6. Constraints on the evolutionary mechanisms of massive galaxies since z ∼ 1 from their velocity dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Balcells, M.; Trujillo, I.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Tapia, T.; Cardiel, N.; Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Hempel, A.; Martín-Navarro, I.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Sánchez-Bláquez, P.

    2015-10-01

    Several authors have reported that the dynamical masses of massive compact galaxies (M* ≳ 1011 M⊙, re ∼ 1 kpc), computed as Mdyn = 5.0 σe2 re/G, are lower than their stellar masses M*. In a previous study from our group, the discrepancy is interpreted as a breakdown of the assumption of homology that underlie the Mdyn determinations. Here, we present new spectroscopy of six redshift z ≈ 1.0 massive compact ellipticals from the Extended Groth Strip, obtained with the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We obtain velocity dispersions in the range 161-340 km s-1. As found by previous studies of massive compact galaxies, our velocity dispersions are lower than the virial expectation, and all of our galaxies show Mdyn < M* (assuming a Salpeter initial mass function). Adding data from the literature, we build a sample covering a range of stellar masses and compactness in a narrow redshift range z ≈ 1.0. This allows us to exclude systematic effects on the data and evolutionary effects on the galaxy population, which could have affected previous studies. We confirm that mass discrepancy scales with galaxy compactness. We use the stellar mass plane (M*, σe, re) populated by our sample to constrain a generic evolution mechanism. We find that the simulations of the growth of massive ellipticals due to mergers agree with our constraints and discard the assumption of homology.

  7. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ˜ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  8. No evidence for large-scale outflows in the extended ionized halo of ULIRG Mrk273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, R. A. W.; Zaurín, J. Rodríguez; Tadhunter, C. N.; Rose, M.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Spoon, H.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.

    2016-06-01

    We present deep new Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) narrow-band images and William Herschel Telescope (WHT) long-slit spectroscopy of the merging system Mrk273 that show a spectacular extended halo of warm ionized gas out to a radius of ˜45 kpc from the system nucleus. Outside of the immediate nuclear regions (r > 6 kpc), there is no evidence for kinematic disturbance in the ionized gas: in the extended regions covered by our spectroscopic slits the emission lines are relatively narrow (full width at half-maximum, FWHM ≲ 350 km s-1) and velocity shifts small (|ΔV| ≲ 250 km s-1). This is despite the presence of powerful near-nuclear outflows (FWHM > 1000 km s-1; |ΔV| > 400 km s-1; r < 6 kpc). Diagnostic ratio plots are fully consistent with Seyfert 2 photoionization to the NE of the nuclear region, however to the SW the plots are more consistent with low-velocity radiative shock models. The kinematics of the ionized gas, combined with the fact that the main structures are aligned with low-surface-brightness tidal continuum features, are consistent with the idea that the ionized halo represents tidal debris left over from a possible triple-merger event, rather than a reservoir of outflowing gas.

  9. THE DUST ENVIRONMENT OF MAIN-BELT COMET P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.

    2013-06-20

    The Main-Belt Comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) has been imaged using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope at six epochs in the period from 2012 November to 2013 February, with the aim of monitoring its dust environment. The dust tails' brightness and morphology are best interpreted in terms of a model of sustained dust emission spanning four to six months. The total dust mass ejected is estimated at {approx}6-25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} kg. We assume a time-independent power-law size distribution function, with particles in the micrometer to centimeter size range. Based on the quality of the fits to the isophote fields, an anisotropic emission pattern is favored against an isotropic one, in which the particle ejection is concentrated toward high latitudes ({+-}45 Degree-Sign to {+-}90 Degree-Sign ) in a high-obliquity object (I = 80 Degree-Sign ). This seasonally driven ejection behavior, along with the modeled particle ejection velocities, are in remarkable agreement to those we found for P/2010 R2 (La Sagra).

  10. MEGARA, the Next Generation Optical MOS and IFU for GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Iglesias, J.; Sánchez, F.; Vílchez, J.; García Vargas, M.; Andrés, P.; Arrillaga, X.; Avilés, J.; Bonache, J.; Carrera, M.; Castillo, A.; Castillo, E.; Cedazo, R.; Dormido, J.; Eliche Moral, C.; Esteban, S.; Ferrusca, D.; González, E.; Lefort, B.; López, J.; Maldonado, M.; Marino, R.; Martínez, I.; Morales, I.; Mujica, E.; Páez, G.; Pascual, S.; Pérez, A.; Sánchez, A.; Sánchez, E.; Tolloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; Zamorano, J.; Aguerri, A.; Barrado, D.; Bertone, E.; Cardiel, N.; Cava, A.; Cenarro, A.; Chávez, M.; García, M.; González Delgado, R.; Guichard, J.; Guzmán, R.; Herrero, A.; Huélamo, N.; Hughes, D.; Jiménez, J.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Mayya, D.; Méndez Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Muñoz Tuñón, C.; Peimbert, M.; Pérez González, P.; Pérez Montero, E.; Rodríguez, M.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Rodríguez, L.; Rosa, D.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sarajedini, A.; Silich, S.; Simón Díaz; S.; Tenorio Tagle, G.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Torres-Peimbert, S.; Trujillo, I.; Tsamis, Y.; Vega, O.; Villar, V.

    2016-10-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new optical spectrograph for the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). Once installed at GTC by the end of 2016, MEGARA will provide both Integral Field Unit and Multi-Object Spectroscopy capabilities covering a field-of-view of 12.5×11.3 arcsec2 and 3.5×3.5 arcmin2, respectively. The MEGARA spectrograph will yield spectral resolutions in the range R=6,000-18,700 across the entire optical window with superb image quality and throughput, thanks to the use of state-of-the-art optical fibers, pupil elements (VPHs) and CCD detector. In this contribution we provide a brief description of the status of the instrument construction and of the science that our Science Team is aiming to pursue with MEGARA, with special emphasis on potential synergies with the future Multi-Object Spectrograph for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), WEAVE.

  11. Spectroscopy of Planetary Nebulae at the Bright End of the Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rilinger, Anneliese; Kwitter, Karen B.; Balick, Bruce; Corradi, R. L. M.; Galera Rosillo, Rebeca; Jacoby, George H.; Shaw, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained spectra of 8 luminous planetary nebulae (PNe) in M31 and 4 in the Large Magellanic Cloud with the goal of understanding their properties and those of their progenitor stars. These PNe are at or near the M* region (the most luminous PNe) in their respective galaxies. M31 PNe were observed at the Gran Telescopio Canarias using the OSIRIS spectrograph; LMC PNe were observed with the FORS2 spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Line intensities were measured in IRAF. Using our n-level atom program, ELSA (Johnson, et.al, 2006, Planetary Nebulae in our Galaxy and Beyond, 234, 439), we determined temperature, density, and elemental abundances for each nebula. We then modeled the nebulae and central stars with Cloudy (Ferland, et al. 1998, PASP, 110, 761). We plan to use these models of the central stars to estimate the masses and ages of the progenitor stars. We hope to discover whether the progenitor stars of M* PNe exhibit consistently different characteristics from those of other PNe progenitors.

  12. GTC/CanariCam observations of (99942) Apophis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, J.; Müller, T.; Alvarez, C.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Delbo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (99942) Apophis is one of the most remarkable near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in terms of impact hazard. A good determination of its surface thermal inertia is very important in order to evaluate the Yarkovsky effect on its orbital evolution. Aims: We present thermal infrared observations obtained on January 29, 2013, with CanariCam mid-infrared camera/spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) using the Si2-8.7, Si6-12.5, and Q1-17.65 filters with the aim of deriving Apophis' diameter (D), geometric albedo (pV), and thermal inertia (Γ). Methods: We performed a detailed thermophysical model analysis of the GTC data combined with previously published thermal data obtained using Herschel Space Observatory PACS instrument at 70, 100, and 160 μm. Results: The thermophysical model fit of the data favors low surface roughness solutions (within a range of roughness slope angles rms between 0.1 and 0.5), and constrains the effective diameter, visible geometric albedo, and thermal inertia of Apophis to be Deff = 380-393 m, pV = 0.24-0.33 (assuming absolute magnitude H = 19.09 ± 0.19) and Γ = 50-500 Jm-2-0.5 K-1, respectively.

  13. Visible spectra of (474640) 2004 VN112-2013 RF98 with OSIRIS at the 10.4 m GTC: evidence for binary dissociation near aphelion among the extreme trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2017-05-01

    The existence of significant anisotropies in the distributions of the directions of perihelia and orbital poles of the known extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs) has been used to claim that trans-Plutonian planets may exist. Among the known ETNOs, the pair (474640) 2004 VN112-2013 RF98 stands out. Their orbital poles and the directions of their perihelia and their velocities at perihelion/aphelion are separated by a few degrees, but orbital similarity does not necessarily imply common physical origin. In an attempt to unravel their physical nature, visible spectroscopy of both targets was obtained using the OSIRIS camera-spectrograph at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). From the spectral analysis, we find that 474640-2013 RF98 have similar spectral slopes (12 versus 15 per cent/0.1 μm), very different from Sedna's but compatible with those of (148209) 2000 CR105 and 2012 VP113. These five ETNOs belong to the group of seven linked to the Planet Nine hypothesis. A dynamical pathway consistent with these findings is dissociation of a binary asteroid during a close encounter with a planet and we confirm its plausibility using N-body simulations. We thus conclude that both the dynamical and spectroscopic properties of 474640-2013 RF98 favour a genetic link and their current orbits suggest that the pair was kicked by a perturber near aphelion.

  14. Corticomedular index of the right tibia in the diagnosis of osteopenia in prehistoric skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Arnay-De-La-Rosa, M; Santolaria-Fernandez, F; Castilla-Garcia, A

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the diagnostic accuracy of the corticomedular index obtained at the midpoint of the shaft of right tibia as an indicator of osteopenia in a prehistoric sample composed of 133 individuals. Osteopenia was assessed by a histomorphometrical measure of trabecular bone volume (TBV) in an undecalcified bone section of a small part of the proximal epiphysis to: Mild, moderate, and severe osteopenia were defined as TBV values less than 17.5%, 15%, and 12.5%, respectively. The corticomedular index (CI) was determined on X-ray films of the tibiae. Mean TBV of the sample was 17.93 ± 4.97%, it was moderately correlated with CI (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). CI values under 0.20 showed high specificity in the diagnosis of all degrees of osteopenia, whereas CI values under 0.275 showed relatively high sensitivity (90.4%) in the diagnosis of severe osteopenia. These methods were then prospectively applied in a further sample of 41 right tibiae also from a prehistoric sample of Gran Canaria. The results were similar to those in the larger sample. Thus, CI may be a useful tool in detecting osteopenia in earlier populations. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10:37-44, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Thermal Emission Photometry of Deep Impact Flyby Target (163249) 2002 GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Reddy, V.; Vilas, F.; 2002 GT Observing Team

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (163249) 2002 GT is now the target of a Deep Impact spacecraft flyby in Jan. 2020 (see Pittichova et al., this volume, for details of the flyby and observing campaign). Thermal emission photometry of 2002 GT was obtained from NIRI on Gemini-North in the L' and M' filters, which are centered at 3.76 and 4.68 microns respectively. J- and K-band reflectance photometry was also acquired in support of the thermal observations. The full JKL'M' set was acquired on UT 2013-Jun-13 at a solar phase angle of 53 degrees. A further set of photometry in J, K, and L' only was carried out on 2013-Jun-19 at a phase angle of 65 degrees. High water vapor conditions at Mauna Kea during this period unfortunately prevented acquisition of a second set of M' measurements. In addition, N-band photometry of 2002 GT was conducted on 2013-Jun-10 from CanariCam at the 10-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias using a beta version of the moving object guiding system. Data were acquired in three filters between 8.7 and 12.5 microns, although the limitations of the guiding are complicating the analysis. (We note that N-band observing was not offered by either Gemini or IRTF during this apparition.) Data analysis is ongoing and results will be discussed. We appreciate the efforts of the Gemini and GTC staff in support of these observing programs.

  16. Diffuse Helium and Hydrogen Degassing to Reveal Hidden Geothermal Resources in Oceanic Volcanic Islands: The Canarian Archipelago Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Dionis, Samara; López, Gabriel; Marrero, Rayco; Padilla, Germán D.; Barrancos, José; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2015-05-01

    We report herein the results of soil gas geochemistry studies, focused mainly on nonreactive and/or highly mobile gases such as He and H2, in five mining licenses at Tenerife and Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, during 2011-2014. The primary objective was to sort the possible geothermal potential of these five mining licenses, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the areas with highest geothermal potential for future exploration works. By combining the overall information obtained by the statistical-graphical analysis of the soil He and H2 data, the spatial distribution of soil gas concentrations and the analysis of selected chemical ratios of the soil gas to evaluate the influence of deep-seating degassing, two of the five mining licenses ( Garehagua and Abeque, both located in Tenerife Island) seemed to show the highest geothermal potential. These results will be useful for future implementation and development of geothermal energy in the Canaries, the only Spanish territory with potential high-enthalpy geothermal resources, thus the most promising area for high-enthalpy geothermal installations.

  17. Dust Loss from Activated Asteroid P/2015 X6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Pozuelos, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present observations and dust tail models of activated asteroid P/2015 X6 from deep imaging data acquired at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) from 2015 mid-December to 2016 late January. The results of the modeling indicate that the asteroid has undergone sustained dust loss over a period of two months or longer. The dust parameters, derived from multidimensional fits of the available images, are compatible with either ice sublimation or rotational instability processes. An impulsive event, as might be associated with an impact with another body, is less likely. A power-law distribution of particles, with minimum and maximum radii of 1 μm and 1 cm and a power index of -3.3, is found to be consistent with the observations. Depending on the model of ejection velocity adopted, the particle velocities are found to be in the range of 0.3-10 m s-1. The activation time was between 18 and 26 days before discovery. The total mass ejected from that time to the most recent observation is in the range 5-9 × 106 kg. No dust features giving indication of past activity earlier than the activation time have been observed.

  18. Measuring geomorphological vulnerability on beaches using a set of indicators (GVI): A tool for management.

    PubMed

    Peña-Alonso, Carolina; Fraile-Jurado, Pablo; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Pérez-Chacón, Emma; Ariza, Eduard

    2017-09-06

    A system of indicators has been developed to evaluate beach geomorphological vulnerability (GVI) through: intrinsic susceptibility, the agents that model them, and their ability to remain stable over time. The method is applied to 34 beaches on the island of Gran Canaria (Spain) that experience different levels and conditions of human occupation, marine incidence, landforms and sediments, and spatial evolution that have been recorded since 1960. In contrast with other studies, the analysis of these dimensions (and their relationships) allows a diagnosis of the geomorphology of the beaches with an integrated approach. The results illustrate the numerous causes that generate geomorphological vulnerability, such as wave intensity, the presence of dikes or breakwaters, coastline variations, the absence of foredunes and embryonic dunes, the width of the intertidal zone, or the absence of beachrocks or lavic stones outcropping onto the shore. These variables combine and operate differently in five defined groups of beaches with different management needs. The most vulnerable ones were those with strong marine incidence, which require maintenance of their landforms in order to guarantee their stability. The opposite situation is found in beaches with little impact from anthropic and marine components. These beaches are less vulnerable since they have moderate susceptibility and high resilience. Their management requirements consist of soft measures since they have a strong geomorphological robustness. In this context, the proposed indicator system is a potentially relevant contribution to the management of beaches, especially for those that are under threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrated thermo-structural model to design a polarimeter for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Varano, I.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.; Laux, U.

    2016-07-01

    The GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias), with an equivalent aperture of 10.4 m, effective focal length of 169.9 m, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos , in La Palma, Canary Islands, will host on its Cassegrain focus the GRAPE polarimeter (GRAntecan PolarimEter). At such focus the plate scale is 1.21 arcsec/mm and the unvignetted FOV 8 arcmin. The instrument will provide full Stokes polarimetry in the spectral range 380-1500 nm, feeding simultaneously up to two spectrographs. At the moment an interface to HORS (High Optical Resolution Spectrograph) is being defined, located on the Nasmyth platform, it has a FWHM resolving power of about 25,000 (5 pixel) within a spectral range of 400-680 nm. The rotator and instrumental flanges for the Cassegrain focus are currently under definition. Hereafter I present the state of art of the mechanical design of the polarimeter, whose strategy is based on an integrated model of Zemax design into ANSYS FEM static and dynamic analyses with thermal loads applied, in order to retrieve tip-tilt, decentering errors and other significant parameters to be looped back to the Zemax model. In such a way it is possible to compare and refine the results achieved through the tolerance analysis.

  20. The effect of upwelling filaments and island-induced eddies on indices of feeding, respiration and growth in copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yebra, L.; Hernández-León, S.; Almeida, C.; Bécognée, P.; Rodríguez, J. M.

    2004-08-01

    Vertical (0-200 m) and horizontal distribution of two calanoid copepod species, Scolecithrix danae and Scottocalanus sp., were studied in relation to physical structures in the transition zone off Northwest Africa during the summer of 1999. Zooplankton biomass and indices of feeding (gut fluorescence, GF), respiration (electron transfer system activity, ETS) and structural growth (aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases activity, AARS) were assessed across (1) upwelling filaments, (2) a cyclonic eddy and (3) three anticyclonic island-induced eddies in the waters south of the Canary Islands. Hydrography was an important influence on the populations studied, enhancing their development by advecting chlorophyll enriched cold waters towards the open ocean. S. danae had highest rates in anticyclonic eddies at the limit of the upwelled waters. However, GF was more than two-fold higher inside the filaments than in the surrounding waters. Scottocalanus sp. occurred only inside the upwelling area and within upwelling filaments that advected them toward oceanic waters. The frontal zone south of Gran Canaria showed the highest AARS activities for both species.

  1. Bone cadmium and lead in the ancient population from El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Galindo-Martín, L; Santolaria-Fernández, F

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in 63 bone samples of the prehispanic population of the island El Hierro, comparing them with the values obtained on 98 prehispanic samples from Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, and La Palma, all of them in the Canary Islands, and with eight modern samples who served as controls. Prehispanic individuals from El Hierro showed the lowest bone Pb values of all the archipelago (0.72+/-1.01 mg/kg), significantly different (F=6.9, p<0.001) from the values obtained for the population of other islands such as Tenerife (4.87+/-5.36 mg/kg) or Fuerteventura (4.45+/-7.85 mg/kg) and also from those of the modern population (30.53+/-14.62 mg/kg). On the other hand, bone Cd, although slightly lower in the ancient population groups, was not significantly different when compared with the modern one. In addition, no differences were observed in bone Cd among the ancient population of the different islands. Bone lead but not cadmium kept an inverse significant relationship with the distance of the burial site both to south Spain (r=-0.31) and Atlantic Morocco (r=-0.28, p<0.001 in both cases).

  2. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-09-29

    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species.

  3. ON THE DUST ENVIRONMENT OF MAIN-BELT COMET 313 P/Gibbs

    SciTech Connect

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.

    2015-06-10

    We present observations carried out using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias and an interpretative model of the dust environment of activated asteroid 313 P/Gibbs. We discuss three different models relating to different values of the dust parameters, i.e., dust loss rate, maximum and minimum sizes of particles, power index of the size distribution, and emission pattern. The best model corresponds to an isotropic emission of particles which started on August 1. The sizes of grains were in the range of 0.1−2000 μm, with velocities for 100 μm particles between 0.4−1.9 m s{sup −1}, with a dust production rate in the range of 0.2−0.8 kg s{sup −1}. The dust tails’ brightnesses and morphologies are best interpreted in terms of a model of sustained and low dust emission driven by water-ice sublimation, spanning since 2014 August 1, and triggered by a short impulsive event. This event produced an emission of small particles of about 0.1 μm with velocities of ∼4 m s{sup −1}. From our model we deduce that the activity of this main-belt comet continued for at least four months since activation.

  4. Intermittent dust mass loss from activated asteroid P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.

    2014-02-01

    We present observations and models of the dust environment of activated asteroid P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS). The object displayed a complex morphology during the observations, with the presence of multiple tails. We combined our own observations, all made with instrumentation attached to the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias on La Palma, with previously published Hubble Space Telescope images to build a model aimed at fitting all the observations. Altogether, the data cover a full three month period of observations which can be explained by intermittent dust loss. The most plausible scenario is that of an asteroid rotating with the spinning axis oriented perpendicular to the orbit plane and losing mass from the equatorial region, consistent with rotational break-up. Assuming that the ejection velocity of the particles (v ∼ 0.02-0.05 m s{sup –1}) corresponds to the escape velocity, the object diameter is constrained to ∼30-130 m for bulk densities 3000-1000 kg m{sup –3}.

  5. Finite element analysis accuracy of the GTC commissioning instrument structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Alejandro; Godoy, Javier; Velazquez, F.; Espejo, Carlos; Cuevas, Salvador; Bringas, Vicente; Manzo, A.; del Llano, L.; Sanchez, J. L.; Chavoya, Armando; Devaney, Nicholas; Castro, Javier; Cavaller, Luis

    2003-02-01

    Under a contract with the GRANTECAN, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) is a project developed by a team of Mexican scientists and engineers from the Instrumentation Department of the Astronomy Institute at the UNAM and the CIDESI Engineering Center. The CI will verify the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) performance during the commissioning phase between First Light and Day One. The design phase is now completed and the project is currently in the manufacturing phase. The CI main goal is to measure the telescope image quality. To obtain a stable high resolution image, the mechanical structures should be as rigid as possible. This paper describes the several steps of the conceptual design and the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for the CI mechanical structures. A variety of models were proposed. The FEA was useful to evaluate the displacements, shape modes, weight, and thermal expansions of each model. A set of indicators were compared with decision matrixes. The best performance models were subjected to a re-optimization stage. By applying the same decision method, a CI Structure Model was proposed. The FEA results complied with all the instruments specifications. Displacements values and vibration frequencies are reported.

  6. Integration and characterization of the cryogenic system of MEGARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Cisneros G., M. E.; Velázquez, M.; Zenteno H., J. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Sánchez-Moreno, F. C.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2016-08-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit and Multi-Object Spectrograph designed for the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias) 10.4m telescope in La Palma, it is expected that the spectrograph will be delivered to GTC towards the end of 2016. MEGARA includes an open cycle cryostat which harbors the scientific CCD of the instrument at an operating temperature of 153 K, this cryogenic system has been designed and integrated by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Early this year the cryostat has finished its fabrication and now it is on AIV phases, in this paper we report the cryostat CCD-head and dewar back integration, vacuum and cryogenic test results are also reported. The final integration of the cryostat with the other components of the instrument is taking place at LICA lab at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

  7. Emergent littoral deposits in the eastern Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, Joaquin; Stearns, Charles E.

    1981-03-01

    K-Ar ages ( A. Abdel-Monem, P. D. Watkins, and P. W. Gast, 1971, American Journal of Science271, 490-521; this paper) and revised paleontological determinations ( J. Meco, 1977, "Los Strombus neogenos y cuatenarios del Atlantico euroafricano", Las Palmas, Ediciones del Excmo. Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria) show that "Quaternary" ( R. Crofts, 1967, Quaternaria 9, 247-260; G. Lecointre, K. J. Tinkler, and G. Richards, 1967, Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia Proceedings119, 325-344) littoral deposits on Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are early Pliocene and late Pleistocene. Early and middle Pleistocene strand lines are not represented. Early Pliocene littoral and marine deposits contain a characteristic fossil assemblage: Strombus coronatus, Nerità emiliana, Gryphaea virleti, Patella cf. intermedia, and Rothpletzia rudista. Differences in elevation record differential post-Pliocene uplift of the coastal platforms on which they lie. Late Pleistocene beach deposits at low elevations belong to two groups, an older with Strombus bubonius and a younger without. Differences in elevation of early Pliocene littoral deposits are reflected by differences in elevation of late Pleistocene beach deposits nearby.

  8. VELOCITY DISPERSIONS AND STELLAR POPULATIONS OF THE MOST COMPACT AND MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT {approx}1

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Manso, Jesus; Guzman, Rafael; Barro, Guillermo; Cardiel, Nicolas; Gallego, Jesus; Cenarro, Javier; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; Hempel, Angela; Prieto, Mercedes

    2011-09-10

    We present Gran-Telescopio-Canarias/OSIRIS optical spectra of four of the most compact and massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Groth Strip Survey at redshift z {approx} 1, with effective radii R{sub e} = 0.5-2.4 kpc and photometric stellar masses M{sub *} = (1.2-4) x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. We find that these galaxies have velocity dispersions {sigma} = 156-236 km s{sup -1}. The spectra are well fitted by single stellar population models with approximately 1 Gyr of age and solar metallicity. We find that (1) the dynamical masses of these galaxies are systematically smaller by a factor of {approx}6 than the published stellar masses using BRIJK photometry, and (2) when estimating stellar masses as 0.7x M{sub dyn}, a combination of passive luminosity fading with mass/size growth due to minor mergers can plausibly evolve our objects to match the properties of the local population of ETGs.

  9. Determination of steroid hormones in fish tissues by microwave-assisted extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2017-12-15

    Steroid hormones produce adverse effects on biota as well as bioaccumulation in fish and seafood, making it necessary to develop methodologies to evaluate these compounds in samples related to the food chain. This work presents an analytical method for evaluating 15 steroid hormones in fish tissue. It is based on microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MAE-SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). The proposed method shows appropriate detection limits (0.14-49.0ngg(-1)), recoveries in the range of 50% and good repeatability. After optimization, the method was applied to different tissues from two small fishes of the Canary Islands that constitute an important level of the food web (Boops boops and Sphoeroides marmoratus) and were exposed to the outfall of the Las Palmas de Gran Canaria wastewater treatment plant. The concentrations of eight detected compounds ranged from below the quantification limits to 3.95μgg(-1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intra-annual variation in habitat choice by an endemic woodpecker: Implications for forest management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Muñoz, Pascual Gil

    2009-09-01

    The Canary Islands great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major canariensis is an endemic bird restricted to the Pinus canariensis forests of Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Classification tree models were applied to explore the relationship of the occurrence of this picid and habitat variables between two contrasting periods (breeding vs. non-breeding seasons) and for the entire annual cycle. During the reproductive period the availability of mature trees (DBH > 60 cm), and snags (dead trees), for nesting and roosting, characterize the breeding territory. Outside the breeding season the choice of locations was driven by a tree cover larger than 28.5% and the presence of trees taller than 8.5 m on average, a pattern explained by the availability of pine seeds in the cones of well-developed canopies, and less so by predation risk. Overall, during the annual cycle, well-developed canopy sites influenced the presence of this picidae (tree cover > 38%) and on more open sites (<38%) the presence of mature trees (DBH> 60 cm) became the second most important predictor of occurrence. We suggest that food abundance and availability could be the ultimate factor explaining the intra-annual variation observed, with the availability of snags being an important factor during nesting. In the range of this endemic, we recommend selective cuts in pine plantations, to allow the trees to set seed and improve their crops, minimizing the elimination of snags, and killing some large pine trees if the priority is to expand the distributional range of the woodpecker.

  11. The optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Russell, D. M.; Guziy, S.; Gorosabel, J.; Casares, J.; Armas Padilla, M.; Charles, P. A.; Fender, R. P.; Belloni, T. M.; Lewis, F.; Motta, S.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Thöne, C. C.

    2013-06-01

    We present a 30-day monitoring campaign of the optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745-26, starting only 19 min after the discovery of the source. We observe the system peaking at i' ˜ 17.6 on day six (MJD 561 92) to then decay at a rate of ˜0.04 mag d-1. We show that the optical peak occurs at least 3 d later than the hard X-ray (15-50 keV) flux peak. Our measurements result in an outburst amplitude greater than 4.3 mag, which favours an orbital period ≲21 h and a companion star with a spectral type later than ˜A0. Spectroscopic observations taken with the Gran Telescopio de Canarias 10.4 m telescope reveal a broad (full width at half-maximum ˜1100 km s-1), double-peaked Hα emission line from which we constrain the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the donor to be K2 > 250 km s-1. The breadth of the line and the observed optical and X-ray fluxes suggest that Swift J1745-26 is a new black hole candidate located closer than ˜7 kpc.

  12. Ecological divergence combined with ancient allopatry in lizard populations from a small volcanic island.

    PubMed

    Suárez, N M; Pestano, J; Brown, R P

    2014-10-01

    Population divergence and speciation are often explained by geographical isolation, but may also be possible under high gene flow due to strong ecology-related differences in selection pressures. This study combines coalescent analyses of genetic data (11 microsatellite loci and 1 Kbp of mtDNA) and ecological modelling to examine the relative contributions of isolation and ecology to incipient speciation in the scincid lizard Chalcides sexlineatus within the volcanic island of Gran Canaria. Bayesian multispecies coalescent dating of within-island genetic divergence of northern and southern populations showed correspondence with the timing of volcanic activity in the north of the island 1.5-3.0 Ma ago. Coalescent estimates of demographic changes reveal historical size increases in northern populations, consistent with expansions from a volcanic refuge. Nevertheless, ecological divergence is also supported. First, the two morphs showed non-equivalence of ecological niches and species distribution modelling associated the northern morph with mesic habitat types and the southern morph with xeric habitat types. It seems likely that the colour morphs are associated with different antipredator strategies in the different habitats. Second, coalescent estimation of gene copy migration (based on microsatellites and mtDNA) suggest high rates from northern to southern morphs demonstrating the strength of ecology-mediated selection pressures that maintain the divergent southern morph. Together, these findings underline the complexity of the speciation process by providing evidence for the combined effects of ecological divergence and ancient divergence in allopatry.

  13. A mid-infrared look at the dusty nuclear environments of local active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso Herrero, Almudena

    2016-08-01

    Active galactic nuclei are largely explained in the context of a unified theory, by which a geometrically and optically thick torus of gas and dust obscures the AGN central engine. The torus intercepts a substantial amount of flux from the central engine and and reradiates it in the infrared. There are still many open questions about the nature of the torus material and the role of nuclear (< 100 pc) starbursts in feeding and/or obscuring AGNs. Ground-based mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy on 8-10m class telescopes allow us to study the dusty environments of nearby active galactic nuclei on physical scales of less than 100pc. In this talk I will present results from a mid-infrared sub-arcsecond resolution imaging and spectroscopy survey of a sample of local AGN. The observations were mostly taken with CanariCam on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) through an ESO/GTC large programme and the CanariCam AGN guaranteed time program. I will discuss results on the torus properties of different types of AGN from the modelling of the unresolved infrared emission with the CLUMPY torus models. I will also show that the molecules responsible for the 11.3micron PAH feature survive in the vicinity of the active nucleus and thus this PAH feature can be used to study the nuclear star formation activity in AGN.

  14. Beyond 31 mag arcsec-2: The Frontier of Low Surface Brightness Imaging with the Largest Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Fliri, Jüergen

    2016-06-01

    The detection of structures in the sky with optical surface brightnesses fainter than 30 mag arcsec-2 (3σ in 10 × 10 arcsec boxes; r-band) has remained elusive in current photometric deep surveys. Here we show how present-day telescopes of 10 m class can provide broadband imaging 1.5-2 mag deeper than most previous results within a reasonable amount of time (i.e., <10 hr on-source integration). In particular, we illustrate the ability of the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias telescope to produce imaging with a limiting surface brightness of 31.5 mag arcsec-2 (3σ in 10 × 10 arcsec boxes; r-band) using 8.1 hr on source. We apply this power to explore the stellar halo of the galaxy UGC 00180, a galaxy analogous to M31 located at ˜150 Mpc, by obtaining a radial profile of surface brightness down to μ r ˜ 33 mag arcsec-2. This depth is similar to that obtained using the star-counts techniques for Local Group galaxies, but is achieved at a distance where this technique is unfeasible. We find that the mass of the stellar halo of this galaxy is ˜4 × 109 M ⊙, i.e., (3 ± 1)% of the total stellar mass of the whole system. This amount of mass in the stellar halo is in agreement with current theoretical expectations for galaxies of this kind.

  15. FRIDA diffraction limited NIR instrument: the challenges of its verification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Be.; Keiman, C.; Espejo, C.; Cuevas, S.; Álvarez, L. C.; Chapa, O.; Flores-Meza, R.; Fuentes, J.; Garcés, L.; Lara, G.; López, J. A.; Rodríguez, R.; Watson, A.; Bringas, V.; Corrales, A.; Lucero, D.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, B.; Torres, D.; Uribe, J.

    2014-08-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC)) is designed as a diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy capabilities with low, intermediate and high (R ~ 30,000) spectral resolutions, to operate in the wavelength range 0.9 - 2.5 μm. The integral field unit is based on a monolithic image slicer and the imaging and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. FRIDA will be based on a Nasmyth B of GTC, behind the adaptive optics (AO) system. The key scientific objectives of the instrument include studies of solar system bodies, low mass objects, circumstellar outflow phenomena in advanced stages of stellar evolution, active galactic nuclei high redshift galaxies, including resolved stellar populations, semidetached binary systems, young stellar objects and star forming environments. FRIDA subsystems are presently being manufactured and tested. In this paper we present the challenges to perform the verification of some critical specifications of a cryogenic and diffraction limited NIR instrument as FRIDA. FRIDA is a collaborative project between the main GTC partners, namely, Spain, México and Florida.

  16. An evolving model for the lodging-service network in a tourism destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan M.; González-Martel, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Tourism is a complex dynamic system including multiple actors which are related each other composing an evolving social network. This paper presents a growing model that explains how part of the supply components in a tourism system forms a social network. Specifically, the lodgings and services in a destination are the network nodes and a link between them appears if a representative tourist hosted in the lodging visits/consumes the service during his/her stay. The specific link between both categories are determined by a random and preferential attachment rule. The analytic results show that the long-term degree distribution of services follows a shifted power-law distribution. The numerical simulations show slight disagreements with the theoretical results in the case of the one-mode degree distribution of services, due to the low order of convergence to zero of X-motifs. The model predictions are compared with real data coming from a popular tourist destination in Gran Canaria, Spain, showing a good agreement between analytical and empirical data for the degree distribution of services. The theoretical model was validated assuming four type of perturbations in the real data.

  17. Fatty Acid Profile of Neutral and Polar Lipid Fraction of Wild Eggs and Hatchlings from Wild and Captive Reared Broodstock of Octopus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Estefanell, Juan; Mesa-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ramírez, Besay; La Barbera, Antonio; Socorro, Juan; Hernandez-Cruz, Carmen María; Izquierdo, María Soledad

    2017-01-01

    The culture of Octopus vulgaris is constrained by unsolved problems in paralarvae rearing, mainly associated to the unknown nutritional requirements of this species in early stages. In this article we studied the fatty acid profile (total, neutral, and polar lipid fractions) in wild eggs and wild hatchlings, collected in Gran Canaria (SW) (Spain) with artificial dens, in comparison to hatchlings obtained in captivity from broodstock fed on trash fish species. Total lipids were 11.5–13.5% dw, with the polar fraction representing a 70.6–75.5% of total lipid, with lower values in wild hatchling in comparison with captive ones. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the main component in neutral and polar fatty acid profile in all samples, underlying its importance in this species. Decreasing levels of saturates and arachidonic acid (ARA) from wild eggs to hatchlings, mainly associated to the polar fraction, suggest their use during embryonic development. In hatchlings, increasing levels of oleic acid in the neutral fraction and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the polar fraction, suggests their importance in hatchlings quality. Wild hatchlings showed in the polar fraction higher oleic acid and ARA, and lower DHA/ARA and EPA/ARA ratios in comparison with captive hatchlings, suggesting a difference in paralarvae nutritional status. These results suggest the importance of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), oleic acid, and ARA, presented in the adequate lipid fraction, in the diet of broodstock and paralarvae of O. vulgaris. PMID:28790921

  18. High excitation emission line nebula associated with an ultra-luminous X-ray source at z = 0.027 in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Tello, J.; Miyaji, T.; Ishigaki, T.; Krumpe, M.; Ueda, Y.; Brunner, H.; Goto, T.; Hanami, H.; Toba, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We report our finding of a high excitation emission line nebula associated with an ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) at z= 0.027, which we found in our Chandra observation of the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Field. Methods: We present a Chandra X-ray and Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) optical spectral analysis of the ULX blob. We investigated the nature of the emission line nebula using line ratio diagnostic diagrams and estimated the physical properties of the nebula with spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. Results: The optical spectrum of this ULX blob shows emission line ratios that are located on the borderlines between star formation and Seyfert regimes in [OIII]/Hβ-[OI]/Hα, [OIII]/Hβ-[SII]/Hα, and [OIII]/Hβ-[OIII]/[OII] diagnostic diagrams. These are in contrast with those of a nearby blob observed with the same slit, which occupies the HII regimes. Conclusions: This result suggests that the energy input from the accretion power of the ULX, in addition to the star formation activity in the blob, significantly contribute to the ionization of the emission line nebula associated with the ULX, suggesting the existence of an accretion disk in the ULX emitting UV radiation or exerting shock waves.

  19. Impact of heavy soiling on the power output of PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, Christian; Brachmann, Stefan; Heck, Markus; Weiss, Karl-Anders; Koehl, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Fraunhofer ISE is running a PV-module outdoor testing set-up on the Gran Canaria island, one of the Canary Island located west of Morroco in the Atlantic Ocean. The performance of the modules is assessed by IV-curve monitoring every 10 minutes. The electronic set-up of the monitoring system - consisting of individual electronic loads for each module which go into an MPP-tracking mode between the IV-measurements - will be described in detail. Soiling of the exposed modules happened because of building constructions nearby. We decided not to clean the modules, but the radiation sensors and recorded the decrease of the power output and the efficiency over time. The efficiency dropped to 20 % within 5 months before a heavy rain and subsequently the service personnel on site cleaned the modules. A smaller rain-fall in between washed the dust partly away and accumulated it at the lower part of the module, what could be concluded from the shape of the IV-curves, which were similar to partial shading by hot-spot-tests and by partial snow cover.

  20. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). I. Discovery of 15 Quasars and Bright Galaxies at 5.7 < z < 6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Onoue, Masafusa; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Strauss, Michael A.; Nagao, Tohru; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niida, Mana; Toba, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Asami, Naoko; Bosch, James; Foucaud, Sébastien; Furusawa, Hisanori; Goto, Tomotsugu; Gunn, James E.; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kikuta, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H.; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A.; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Silverman, John D.; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tait, Philip J.; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tang, Ji-Jia; Utsumi, Yousuke

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at 5.7 < z < 6.9. This is the initial result from the Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars project, which exploits the exquisite multiband imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Strategic Program survey. The candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm to reject stars and dwarfs. The spectroscopic identification was carried out with the Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Subaru Telescope for the first 80 deg2 of the survey footprint. The success rate of our photometric selection is quite high, approaching 100% at the brighter magnitudes (z AB < 23.5 mag). Our selection also recovered all the known high-z quasars on the HSC images. Among the 15 discovered objects, six are likely quasars, while the other six with interstellar absorption lines and in some cases narrow emission lines are likely bright Lyman-break galaxies. The remaining three objects have weak continua and very strong and narrow Lyα lines, which may be excited by ultraviolet light from both young stars and quasars. These results indicate that we are starting to see the steep rise of the luminosity function of z ≥ 6 galaxies, compared with that of quasars, at magnitudes fainter than M 1450 ˜ -22 mag or z AB ˜ 24 mag. Follow-up studies of the discovered objects as well as further survey observations are ongoing.

  1. SmartPort: A Platform for Sensor Data Monitoring in a Seaport Based on FIWARE

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Pablo; Santana, José Miguel; Ortega, Sebastián; Trujillo, Agustín; Suárez, José Pablo; Domínguez, Conrado; Santana, Jaisiel; Sánchez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Seaport monitoring and management is a significant research area, in which infrastructure automatically collects big data sets that lead the organization in its multiple activities. Thus, this problem is heavily related to the fields of data acquisition, transfer, storage, big data analysis and information visualization. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria port is a good example of how a seaport generates big data volumes through a network of sensors. They are placed on meteorological stations and maritime buoys, registering environmental parameters. Likewise, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) registers several dynamic parameters about the tracked vessels. However, such an amount of data is useless without a system that enables a meaningful visualization and helps make decisions. In this work, we present SmartPort, a platform that offers a distributed architecture for the collection of the port sensors’ data and a rich Internet application that allows the user to explore the geolocated data. The presented SmartPort tool is a representative, promising and inspiring approach to manage and develop a smart system. It covers a demanding need for big data analysis and visualization utilities for managing complex infrastructures, such as a seaport. PMID:27011192

  2. Exoplanet observations with GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallé, Enric

    2015-12-01

    Our group is presently conducting an observational campaign, using the 10-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), to obtain the transmission spectrum of several exoplanets during a transit event. The GTC instrument OSIRIS is used in its long-slit spectroscopic mode, covering the spectral range of 520-1040 nm, and observations are taken using a set of custom-built slits of various, broad, widths. We integrate the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves and fit transit models in order to obtain the star-to-planet radius ratio Rp/Rs across wavelength. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian approach is used for the transit fitting. We will show that with our instrumental setup, OSIRIS has been able to reach precisions down to 250 ppm (WASP-48b, V=11.06 mag) for each color light curve 10 nm wide, in a single transit. And accuracies of the order of 500ppm can be obtained for objects with V=16. Central transit timing accuracies have been measured down to 6 seconds.Here, we will present refined planet parameters, the detection of planet color signatures, and the transmission spectra of a set of know and unpublished transiting exoplanets. We will also discuss the capabilities and limitations of GTC with current and future instrumentation, and the role of GTC as tool for the follow up of faint exoplanet targets.

  3. A mitochondrial analysis reveals distinct founder effect signatures in Canarian and Balearic goats.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, A; Manunza, A; Jordana, J; Capote, J; Pons, A; Pais, J; Delgado, T; Atoche, P; Cabrera, B; Martínez, A; Landi, V; Delgado, J V; Argüello, A; Vidal, O; Lalueza-Fox, C; Ramírez, O; Amills, M

    2015-08-01

    In the course of human migrations, domestic animals often have been translocated to islands with the aim of assuring food availability. These founder events are expected to leave a genetic footprint that may be recognised nowadays. Herewith, we have examined the mitochondrial diversity of goat populations living in the Canarian and Balearic archipelagos. Median-joining network analysis produced very distinct network topologies for these two populations. Indeed, a majority of Canarian goats shared a single ancestral haplotype that segregated in all sampled islands, suggesting a single founder effect followed by a stepping-stone pattern of diffusion. This haplotype also was present in samples collected from archaeological assemblies at Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, making evident its widespread distribution in ancient times. In stark contrast, goats from Majorca and Ibiza did not share any mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating the occurrence of two independent founder events. Furthermore, in Majorcan goats, we detected the segregation of the mitochondrial G haplogroup that has only been identified in goats from Egypt, Iran and Turkey. This finding suggests the translocation of Asian and/or African goats to Majorca, possibly as a consequence of the Phoenician and Carthaginian colonisations of this island.

  4. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR = 1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p = 0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

  5. Tyrosinemia type II: Mutation update, 11 novel mutations and description of 5 independent subjects with a novel founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Peña-Quintana, L; Scherer, G; Curbelo-Estévez, M L; Jiménez-Acosta, F; Hartmann, B; La Roche, F; Meavilla-Olivas, S; Pérez-Cerdá, C; García-Segarra, N; Giguère, Y; Huppke, P; Mitchell, G A; Mönch, E; Trump, D; Vianey-Saban, C; Trimble, E R; Vitoria-Miñana, I; Reyes-Suárez, D; Ramírez-Lorenzo, T; Tugores, A

    2017-09-01

    Tyrosinemia type II, also known as Richner-Hanhart Syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the gene encoding hepatic cytosolic tyrosine aminotransferase, leading to the accumulation of tyrosine and its metabolites which cause ocular and skin lesions, that may be accompanied by neurological manifestations, mostly intellectual disability. To update disease-causing mutations and current clinical knowledge of the disease. Genetic and clinical information were obtained from a collection of both unreported and previously reported cases. We report 106 families, represented by 143 individuals, carrying a total of 36 genetic variants, 11 of them not previously known to be associated with the disease. Variants include 3 large deletions, 21 non-synonymous and 5 nonsense amino-acid changes, 5 frameshifts and 2 splice variants. We also report 5 patients from Gran Canaria, representing the largest known group of unrelated families sharing the same P406L mutation. Data analysis did not reveal a genotype-phenotype correlation, but stressed the need of early diagnosis: All patients improved the oculocutaneous lesions after dietary treatment but neurological symptoms prevailed. The discovery of founder mutations in isolated populations, and the benefits of early intervention, should increase diagnostic awareness in newborns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MEGARA: the future optical IFU and multi-object spectrograph for the 10.4m GTC telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil de Paz, A.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Sánchez, F. M.; Vílchez Medina, J. M.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Arrillaga, X.; Carrera, M. A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Cedazo, R.; Eliche-Moral, C.; Ferrusca, D.; González-Guardia, E.; Maldonado, M.; Marino, R. A.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Morales Durán, I.; Mújica, E.; Pascual, S.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Sánchez-Penim, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Serena, F.; Tulloch, S.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Barrado y Naváscues, D.; Bertone, E.; Cardiel, N.; Cava, A.; Cenarro, J.; Chávez, M.; García, M.; Guichard, J.; Gúzman, R.; Herrero, A.; Huélamo, N.; Hughes, D.; Iglesias, J.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Aguerri, A. L.; Mayya, D.; Méndez-Abreu, J. M.; Mollá, M.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Peimbert, S.; Peimbert, M.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pérez Montero, E.; Rodríguez, M.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Rosa, D.; Sánchez-Almeida, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Sánchez, S.; Sarajedini, A.; Silich, S.; Simón, S.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Trujillo, I.; Tsamis, Y.; Vega, O.

    2012-09-01

    In these proceedings we give a summary of the characteristics and current status of the MEGARA instrument, the future optical IFU and MOS for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). MEGARA is being built by a Consortium of public research institutions led by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM, Spain) that also includes INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and UPM (Spain). The MEGARA IFU includes two different fiber bundles, one called LCB (Large Compact Bundle) with a field-of-view of 12.5×11.3 arcsec2 and a spaxel size of 0.62 arcsec yielding spectral resolutions between R=6,800-17,000 and another one called SCB (Small Compact Bundle) covering 8.5×6.7 arcsec2 with hexagonally-shaped and packed 0.42-arcsec spaxels and resolutions R=8,000-20,000. The MOS component allows observing up to 100 targets in 3.5×3.5 arcmin2. Both the IFU bundles and the set of 100 robotic positioners of the MOS will be placed at one of the GTC Folded-Cass foci while the spectrographs (one in the case of the MEGARA-Basic concept) will be placed at the Nasmyth platform. On March 2012 MEGAR